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Sample records for acid-reactive substance levels

  1. A rapid method for estimating the levels of urinary thiobarbituric Acid reactive substances for environmental epidemiologic survey.

    PubMed

    Kil, Han-Na; Eom, Sang-Yong; Park, Jung-Duck; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Kim, Yong-Dae; Kim, Heon

    2014-03-01

    Malondialdehyde (MDA), used as an oxidative stress marker, is commonly assayed by measuring the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) using HPLC, as an indicator of the MDA concentration. Since the HPLC method, though highly specific, is time-consuming and expensive, usually it is not suitable for the rapid test in large-scale environmental epidemiologic surveys. The purpose of this study is to develop a simple and rapid method for estimating TBARS levels by using a multiple regression equation that includes TBARS levels measured with a microplate reader as an independent variable. Twelve hour urine samples were obtained from 715 subjects. The concentration of TBARS was measured at three different wavelengths (fluorescence: λ-ex 530 nm and λ-ex 550 nm; λ-ex 515 nm and λ-ex 553 nm; and absorbance: 532 nm) using microplate reader as well as HPLC. 500 samples were used to develop a regression equation, and the remaining 215 samples were used to evaluate the validity of the regression analysis. The induced multiple regression equation is as follows: TBARS level (μM) = -0.282 + 1.830 × (TBARS level measured with a microplate reader at the fluorescence wavelengths λ-ex 530 nm and λ-em 550 nm, μM) -0.685 × (TBARS level measured with a microplate reader at the fluorescence wavelengths λ-ex 515 nm and λ-em 553 nm, μM) + 0.035 × (TBARS level measured with a microplate reader at the absorbance wavelength 532 nm, μM). The estimated TBARS levels showed a better correlation with, and are closer to, the corresponding TBARS levels measured by HPLC compared to the values obtained by the microplate method. The TBARS estimation method reported here is simple and rapid, and that is generally in concordance with HPLC measurements. This method might be a useful tool for monitoring of urinary TBARS level in environmental epidemiologic surveys with large sample sizes.

  2. A Simple Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances in Fried Fast Foods.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Alam; Ullah, Fareed

    2016-01-01

    A simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as a marker for lipid peroxidation in fried fast foods. The method uses the reaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and TBA in the glacial acetic acid medium. The method was precise, sensitive, and highly reproducible for quantitative determination of TBARS. The precision of extractions and analytical procedure was very high as compared to the reported methods. The method was used to determine the TBARS contents in the fried fast foods such as Shami kebab, samosa, fried bread, and potato chips. Shami kebab, samosa, and potato chips have higher amount of TBARS in glacial acetic acid-water extraction system than their corresponding pure glacial acetic acid and vice versa in fried bread samples. The method can successfully be used for the determination of TBARS in other food matrices, especially in quality control of food industries.

  3. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) investigation of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) reaction.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Daniel; Antolovich, Michael; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2002-03-13

    The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay is a commonly used method for the detection of lipid peroxidation. Malondialdehyde is formed as a result of lipid peroxidation and reacts with thiobarbituric acid to form a pink pigment that has an absorption maximum at 532 nm. Other compounds also react with thiobarbituric acid to form colored species that can interfere with this assay, but little is known about these interfering species. This is the first investigation using LC-MS and MS-MS to study the structures of the pink adduct as well as a common unstable yellow interference compound, which absorbs at 455 nm. Also, the presence of barbituric acid impurities in the thiobarbituric acid reagent was found to produce 1:1:1 thiobarbituric acid/malondialdehyde/barbituric acid and 2:1 barbituric acid/malondialdehyde adducts that absorbed at 513 and 490 nm, respectively, indicating that thiobarbituric acid should be purified before use.

  4. Determination of carnosine, anserine, homocarnosine, pentosidine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances contents in meat from different animal species.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Medana, Claudio; Visentin, Sonja; Giancotti, Valeria; Zunino, Valentina; Meineri, Giorgia

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this research was to determine the content of the histidinic antioxidants, advanced glycation end products (pentosidine) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in the meat from different animal species. Carnosine, anserine, homocarnosine and pentosidine were quantified by HPLC/MS, while TBARS was determined by photometric measurements. The total CRCs (carnosine+anserine+homocarnosine) content was in the increasing order: beef

  5. Malondialdehyde measurement in oxidized foods: evaluation of the spectrophotometric thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test in various foods.

    PubMed

    Papastergiadis, Antonios; Mubiru, Edward; Van Langenhove, Herman; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2012-09-26

    The ability of the spectrophotometric thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) in various food matrices was evaluated. MDA was extracted from the foods; the extract reacted with thiobarbituric acid (TBA); and the formed TBA-MDA adduct was measured spectrophotometricaly at 532 nm. In parallel, the TBA-MDA adduct was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence detection. Oils and unprocessed and uncooked meat and fish products did not exhibit any significant difference in the amount of MDA measured by the two methods, indicating that the major substance reacting with TBA and forming an adduct that absorbs at 532 nm was MDA. However, in products such as dry nuts, pork sausages, cooked fish, and gouda cheese, an overestimation of MDA was observed, indicating that TBARS test was unsuitable for accurate determination of MDA. Furthermore, the results in the present work suggest that the overestimation of MDA by the TBARS test as it was applied is related to the interference of other than secondary lipid oxidation products.

  6. Effect of dietary Satureja khuzistanica powder on semen characteristics and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration in testicular tissue of Iranian native breeder rooster

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, M. J.; Mohammadzadeh, S.; Kheradmand, A.; Alirezaei, M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of a paucity of information on the effect of Satureja khuzistanica in male chickens, this study was undertaken to determine the influence of dietary S. khuzistanica powder (SKP) on seminal characteristics and testes thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content in Iranian native breeder rooster. Thirty-six 40-week-old roosters were randomly allotted to 3 equal groups and received either a basal diet without SKP (T1 or control), or a diet containing 20 g/kg (T2) and 40 g/kg (T3) of SKP for 8-week-long experimental period. Semen samples were obtained weekly by abdominal massage to evaluate the seminal characteristics. At the end of the eighth week 18 birds (6 birds per each group) were randomly slaughtered, and sample was taken from right testes for TBARS evaluation. Administration of SKP improved all semen traits, except for sperm concentration. Likewise, TBARS content in SKP treatments did not significantly differ from the control (P>0.05). Seminal volume, live sperm percentage and plasma membrane integrity percentage in SKP-treated groups were higher than the control. Conversely, abnormal sperm percentages reduced in SKP-treated groups (P<0.05). Plasma membrane integrity in experimental treatments was significantly higher than the control in 2nd, 3rd and 7th weeks. However, at 6th and 8th weeks only T3 treatment was significantly different from the control. Notably, there was an increase in total sperm concentration in SKP-treated groups in compared to the control birds. In conclusion, this study indicated that addition of SKP in rooster diet improves sperm quality and also reduces their sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, which may lead to higher fertilization rate. PMID:27175185

  7. Effect of cooking method on carnosine and its homologues, pentosidine and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance contents in beef and turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Medana, Claudio; Visentin, Sonja; Dal Bello, Federica; Meineri, Giorgia

    2012-05-01

    Commercial samples of beef and turkey meat were prepared by commonly used cooking methods with standard cooking times: (1) broiled at 200°C for 10min, (2) broiled at a medium temperature (140°C) for 10min, (3) cooked by microwave (MW) for 3min and then grilled (MW/grill) for 7min, (4) cooked in a domestic microwave oven for 10min, and (5) boiled in water for 10min. The raw and cooked meats were then analysed to determine the carnosine, anserine, homocarnosine, pentosidine, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) contents. It was observed that boiling beef caused a loss of approximately 50% of the carnosine, probably because of the high water solubility of carnosine and its homologues; cooking by microwave caused a medium loss of the anti-oxidants of approximately 20%; cooking by MW/grill led to a reduction in carnosine of approximately 10%. As far as the anserine and homocarnosine contents were concerned, a greater loss was observed for the boiling method (approximately 70%) while, for the other cooking methods, the value ranged from 30% to 70%. The data oscillate more for the turkey meat: the minimum carnosine decrease was observed in the cases of MW/grill and broiling at high temperature (25%). Analogously, the anserine and homocarnosine contents decreased slightly in the case of MW/grill and broiling at a high temperature (2-7%) and by 10-30% in the other cases. No analysed meat sample showed any traces of pentosidine above the instrumental determination limits. The cooked beef showed an increased TBARS value compared to the raw meat, and the highest values were found when the beef was broiled at a high temperature, cooked by microwave or boiled in water. The TBARS value of the turkey meat decreased for all the cooking methods in comparison to the TBARS value of the fresh meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of dietary Satureja khuzistanica powder on semen characteristics and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration in testicular tissue of Iranian native breeder rooster.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Because of a paucity of information on the effect of Satureja khuzistanica in male chickens, this study was undertaken to determine the influence of dietary S. khuzistanica powder (SKP) on seminal characteristics and testes thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content in Iranian native breeder rooster. Thirty-six 40-week-old roosters were randomly allotted to 3 equal groups and received either a basal diet without SKP (T1 or control), or a diet containing 20 g/kg (T2) and 40 g/kg (T3) of SKP for 8-week-long experimental period. Semen samples were obtained weekly by abdominal massage to evaluate the seminal characteristics. At the end of the eighth week 18 birds (6 birds per each group) were randomly slaughtered, and sample was taken from right testes for TBARS evaluation. Administration of SKP improved all semen traits, except for sperm concentration. Likewise, TBARS content in SKP treatments did not significantly differ from the control (P>0.05). Seminal volume, live sperm percentage and plasma membrane integrity percentage in SKP-treated groups were higher than the control. Conversely, abnormal sperm percentages reduced in SKP-treated groups (P<0.05). Plasma membrane integrity in experimental treatments was significantly higher than the control in 2nd, 3rd and 7th weeks. However, at 6th and 8th weeks only T3 treatment was significantly different from the control. Notably, there was an increase in total sperm concentration in SKP-treated groups in compared to the control birds. In conclusion, this study indicated that addition of SKP in rooster diet improves sperm quality and also reduces their sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, which may lead to higher fertilization rate.

  9. Effect of the gamma radiation dose rate on psychrotrophic bacteria, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and sensory characteristics of mechanically deboned chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Brito, Poliana P; Azevedo, Heliana; Cipolli, Kátia M V A B; Fukuma, Henrique T; Mourão, Gerson B; Roque, Cláudio V; Miya, Norma T; Pereira, José L

    2011-03-01

    Frozen samples of mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) with skin were irradiated with gamma radiation doses of 0.0 kGy (control) and 3 kGy at 2 different radiation dose rates: 0.32 kGy/h (3 kGy) and 4.04 kGy/h (3 kGy). Batches of irradiated and control samples were evaluated during 11 d of refrigerated (2 ± 1 °C) storage for the following parameters: total psychrotrophic bacteria count, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), evaluation of objective color (L*, a*, and b*) and a sensory evaluation (irradiated odor, oxidized odor, pink and brown colors). No statistical difference (P > 0.05) was found amongst the TBARS values obtained for the MDCM samples irradiated with dose rates of 0.32 and 4.04 kGy/h. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the psychrotrophic bacterial count as from the 7th day of refrigerated storage, for the MDCM samples irradiated at the dose rate of 4.04 kGy/h. With respect to the attribute of oxidized odor, the samples irradiated with a dose rate of 0.32 kGy/h showed a stronger intensity and were significantly different (P < 0.05) from the sample irradiated with a dose rate of 4.04 kGy/h on days 0 and 2 of refrigerated storage. Irradiation with a dose rate of 4.04 kGy/h (3 kGy) was shown to be the best condition for the processing of MDCM according to the evaluation of all the variables, under the conditions of this study. Practical Application:  The results obtained for the application of different dose rates of ionizing radiation to mechanically deboned chicken meat will provide the food industry with information concerning the definition of the best processing conditions to maximize the sensory and food quality.

  10. Early developmental exposure to benzodiazepine ligands alters brain levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive products in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Miranda, R C; Wagner, J P; Kellogg, C K

    1989-11-01

    Levels of thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive material were measured in brain regions of 3-4 month-old rats following prenatal exposure to several benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor ligands over gestational days 14-20. Prenatal exposure to diazepam (DZ) at 1.0 mg/kg/day markedly elevated levels of brain TBA-reactive material while exposure to a higher dose (2.5 mg/kg) induced a significant increase only in the hippocampus. Early exposure to the central-type BDZ agonist clonazepam as well as to the central-type antagonist Ro 15-1788 also increased brain levels of TBA-reactive material. Concurrent exposure to the higher dose of DZ partially attenuated the effect of Ro 15-1788. Prenatal exposure to the peripheral-type BDZ ligand PK11195 produced a profound increase in TBA-reactive products in all regions, and concurrent DZ exposure did not attenuate this effect, except in the basal ganglia. Measurement of TBA-reactive material from birth to 3 months indicated that the effect of prenatal exposure to DZ was not apparent until after 8 weeks of age. Acute in vitro exposure of adult and fetal tissue to DZ had no effect on TBA-reactive material. The results suggest an interference in the organization of cellular metabolism in the brain by developmental exposure to BDZ ligands.

  11. Plasma substance P levels in fibrositis.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W J; Chiu, B; Inman, R D

    1988-12-01

    The mechanism of pain in the fibrositis syndrome is unknown. We measured plasma levels of substance P in 32 patients with fibrositis and 26 sex and age matched controls using a radioimmunoassay. The mean plasma level of substance P in the patients with fibrositis was 371 +/- 91 pg/ml and in controls 397 +/- 84 pg/ml (p = NS). We conclude that determination of plasma levels of substance P in fibrositis is of no diagnostic value. This does not exclude the possible role of substance P as a neurotransmitter in the fibrositis syndrome.

  12. Effects of School-Level Norms on Student Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Revathy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationship between school norms of substance use disapproval and students' use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Analysis indicated that in general, school-level disapproval lowered the probability of students' use of these substances. A school environment of disapproval was also found to create a protective environment for…

  13. Solution-Focused Group Therapy for Level 1 Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smock, Sara A.; Trepper, Terry S.; Wetchler, Joseph L.; McCollum, Eric E.; Ray, Rose; Pierce, Kent

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared solution-focused group therapy (SFGT) with a traditional problem-focused treatment for level 1 substance abusers. Outcome research on the effectiveness of solution-focused group therapy is minimal, especially in treating substance abusers. In the present study, clients were measured before and after treatment to…

  14. Solution-Focused Group Therapy for Level 1 Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smock, Sara A.; Trepper, Terry S.; Wetchler, Joseph L.; McCollum, Eric E.; Ray, Rose; Pierce, Kent

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared solution-focused group therapy (SFGT) with a traditional problem-focused treatment for level 1 substance abusers. Outcome research on the effectiveness of solution-focused group therapy is minimal, especially in treating substance abusers. In the present study, clients were measured before and after treatment to…

  15. Solution-focused group therapy for level 1 substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Smock, Sara A; Trepper, Terry S; Wetchler, Joseph L; McCollum, Eric E; Ray, Rose; Pierce, Kent

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared solution-focused group therapy (SFGT) with a traditional problem-focused treatment for level 1 substance abusers. Outcome research on the effectiveness of solution-focused group therapy is minimal, especially in treating substance abusers. In the present study, clients were measured before and after treatment to determine therapeutic effectiveness. Clients in the solution-focused group significantly improved on both the Beck Depression Inventory and the Outcome Questionnaire. The clients in the comparison group did not improve significantly on either measure. Therapist skill level and adherence to theoretical models were measured in each group to reduce confounding variables.

  16. Cultural-level influences on substance use & misuse.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy P

    2007-01-01

    This presentation discusses potential associations between dimensions of culture and patterns of substance use. Several well-known frameworks for organizing cultural values and orientations are presented. As an illustration, one framework (Hofstede, 2001) is examined for its relevance in understanding national-level variations in patterns of alcohol and illicit drug use. Two of four cultural dimensions examined, individualism-collectivism and uncertainty avoidance, are found to be independently associated with one or more substance use measures in a diverse sample of 64 nations. Future multi-level analyses that integrate cultural values and orientations into empirical studies will enable more systematic assessments of the role of socio-cultural contexts in substance use epidemiology.

  17. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William

    2010-01-01

    Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…

  18. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William

    2010-01-01

    Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…

  19. Elevated substance P levels in HIV-infected women in comparison to HIV-negative women.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Steven D; Cnaan, Avital; Lynch, Kevin G; Benton, Tami; Zhao, Huaqing; Gettes, David R; Evans, Dwight L

    2008-03-01

    Substance P and its receptor (neurokinin-1R) are potent modulators of neuroimmunoregulation and HIV/AIDS infection. We previously demonstrated that HIV-seropositive men had significantly higher substance P levels compared to uninfected controls. We now demonstrate that substance P plasma levels are significantly higher in HIV-infected women in comparison to uninfected control women.

  20. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  1. Neurotensin and substance P: differential effects on plasma cholesterol levels in conscious ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Raju, K; Vijayan, E

    1981-08-01

    Circulating plasma cholesterol levels were measured in conscious ovariectomized rats, bearing an indwelling silastic catheter in the external jugular vein, after intravenous (i.v.) pulse injection of 100 microliter 0.9% NaCl containing varying doses of neurotensin and/or substance P. Control injections of saline or decapeptide LH-RH or phosphate buffer did not modify plasma cholesterol levels. 10 or 20 micrograms doses of neurotensin produced a significant and dose-related increase in plasma cholesterol levels while similar doses of substance P had an opposite effect and induced a significant decline in plasma cholesterol levels in ovariectomized rats. 4-APP, a drug which selectively inhibits hepatic secretion of lipoproteins, significantly lowers plasma cholesterol to levels comparable to those produced by substance P. 4-APP and substance P induced hypocholesterolemia was readily reversed by a single dose of neurotensin. These findings indicate that neurotensin acts to increase circulating cholesterol levels and substance P antagonizes this hypercholesterolemic effect of neurotensin presumably by acting at some step in cholesterol transport. Reversal of the inhibitory effects of 4-APP and substance P on blood cholesterol by neurotensin may be through its action on hepatic secretion of lipoproteins, since 4-APP is known to lower circulating cholesterol by its specific action on hepatic secretion of lipoproteins.

  2. Urinary levels of substance P and its metabolites are not increased in interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D J; Tenis, N; Rosamilia, A; Clements, J A; Dwyer, P L

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether interstitial cystitis is associated with the increased release of substance P from the bladder wall into urine, by measuring urinary excretion rates of substance P and its metabolites in women with interstitial cystitis and in a control group of women with stress incontinence and normal bladder function. Catheter urine was collected from 13 patients and 10 controls during a water diuresis ( approximately 10 mL/min) before and after instilling the bladder with 100 mL of water. The contribution of the bladder wall to urinary substance P peptides was assessed by measuring the change in substance P peptide levels after 2 min of bladder stasis before and after instillation. Absolute substance P excretion rates were similar in patients with interstitial cystitis and controls; 2 min of bladder stasis reduced the substance P excretion rate (P = 0.03) and increased the excretion rate of substance P metabolites (P = 0.01). The release of substance P from the bladder wall was not increased in patients with interstitial cystitis.

  3. Implementation of E.U. Water Framework Directive: source assessment of metallic substances at catchment levels.

    PubMed

    Chon, Ho-Sik; Ohandja, Dieudonne-Guy; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-01-01

    The E.U. Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to prevent deterioration of water quality and to phase out or reduce the concentrations of priority substances at catchment levels. It requires changes in water management from a local scale to a river basin scale, and establishes Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) as a guideline for the chemical status of receiving waters. According to the Directive, the standard and the scope of the investigation for water management are more stringent and expanded than in the past, and this change also needs to be applied to restoring the level of metals in water bodies. The aim of this study was to identify anthropogenic emission sources of metallic substances at catchment levels. Potential sources providing substantial amounts of such substances in receiving waters included stormwater, industrial effluents, treated effluents, agricultural drainage, sediments, mining drainage and landfill leachates. Metallic substances have more emission sources than other dangerous substances at catchment levels. Therefore, source assessment for these substances is required to be considered more significantly to restore their chemical status in the context of the WFD. To improve source assessment quality, research on the role of societal and environmental parameters and contribution of each source to the chemical distribution in receiving waters need to be carried out.

  4. Verruculogen: a new substance for decreasing of GABA levels in CNS.

    PubMed

    Hotujac, L; Muftić, R H; Filipović, N

    1976-01-01

    In our previous work we examined the mechanism of action of the new tremorogenic substance verruculogen isolated by Cole and coworkers. Examining the effect of various substances with known mechanisms of action on verruculogen-induced tremor, we concluded that this tremor was probably related to decrease of GABA levels in CNS. In order to further define the mechanisms of action of verruculogen, we determined brain GABA levels in animals in which tremor was produced by verruculogen administration. Verruculogen administration produced a decrease in GABA levels in mouse CNS. This finding substantiates our earlier suggestion that verruculogen-induced tremor is mediated by a loss of inhibitory GABA function.

  5. Circulating levels of hydrogen sulfide and substance P in patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Gaddam, Ravinder Reddy; Chambers, Stephen; Murdoch, David; Shaw, Geoffrey; Bhatia, Madhav

    2017-10-01

    To determine alterations of circulating levels of hydrogen sulfide and substance P in patients with sepsis compared to non-sepsis patients with similar disease severity and organ dysfunction. This study included 23 septic and 14 non-septic patients during 2015-16 study period at the Christchurch Hospital Intensive Care Unit, Christchurch, New Zealand. Blood samples were collected from the time of admission to 96 h, with collection at different time points (0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h) and subjected to measurement of hydrogen sulfide, substance P, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and lactate levels. Patients with sepsis showed higher circulating hydrogen sulfide and substance P levels compared to patients without sepsis. Hydrogen sulfide levels were significantly higher at 12 h (1.45 vs 0.75 μM; p < 0.05) and 24 h (1.11 vs 0.72 μM; p < 0.01), whereas substance P levels were higher at 48 h (0.55 vs 0.31 ng/mL; p < 0.05). Increased hydrogen sulfide and substance P levels in septic patients were associated with increased levels of inflammatory mediators - procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. These results provide evidence that higher circulating levels of hydrogen sulfide and substance P are associated with increased inflammatory response in patients with sepsis. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of estimated daily intakes of flavouring substances with no-observed-effect levels.

    PubMed

    Munro, I C; Danielewska-Nikiel, B

    2006-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the margins of safety between no-observed-effect levels (NOELs) and estimates of daily intake for 809 flavouring substances evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) between 2000 and 2004. Estimates of daily intake were calculated using two methods, the maximized survey-derived daily intake (MSDI) and the possible average daily intake (PADI). The MSDI estimates were based on the production volume of flavouring agents as reported by industry, whereas the higher more conservative PADI estimates were derived by multiplying the anticipated average use level of a flavouring substance in each of 33 food categories by the average amount of food consumed daily from that food category and summing the intake over all 33 food categories. These intake estimates were used to calculate the margins of safety for the flavouring agents to determine whether adequate margins of safety would still exist in the event that the MSDIs used by JECFA to evaluate the safety of flavouring substances underestimated daily intakes. Based on the calculation of the margins of safety using the MSDI values, 99.9% of the 809 flavouring substances evaluated by JECFA have margins of safety of greater than 100. In comparison, 98% of flavouring substances have margins of safety of greater than 100 when the margins of safety were calculated from PADI values. The results indicate that if the MSDI estimates used by JECFA for the evaluation of the safety of flavouring substances were underestimated, a wide margin of safety exists for all but a few of the flavouring substances even when intakes were estimated from PADI values.

  7. Students' self-reported substance use by grade level and gender.

    PubMed

    Nagel, L; McDougall, D; Granby, C

    1996-01-01

    Over 900 students in the rural northwest at the fourth, sixth, eighth, and tenth grade levels were surveyed for alcohol and drug use. The survey instrument measured self-reported usage of seventeen substances. The descriptive statistical results are reported by gender as well as grade-level usage rates. Discussion includes targeting drug prevention programs for specific grade and gender levels based upon the results.

  8. Performance analysis of quantum Diesel heat engines with a two-level atom as working substance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. L.; Shang, Y. F.; Guo, D. Y.; Yu, Qian; Sun, Qi

    2017-07-01

    A quantum Diesel cycle, which consists of one quantum isobaric process, one quantum isochoric process and two quantum adiabatic processes, is established with a two-level atom as working substance. The parameter R in this model is defined as the ratio of the time in quantum isochoric process to the timescale for the potential width movement. The positive work condition, power output and efficiency are obtained, and the optimal performance is analyzed with different R. The effects of dissipation, the mixed state in the cycle and the results of other working substances are also discussed at the end of this analysis.

  9. Improved sensitivity for determining thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in ground beef.

    PubMed

    Kerth, C R; Rowe, C W

    2016-07-01

    To create expected differences in oxidation ground beef samples from grass-fed and grain-fed animals were utilized in six differing percentages with 4 different packaging types. Percentages of grass-fed and grain-fed ground beef (GB) consisted of 100% grain fed GB; 80% grain-fed: 20% grass-fed GB; 60% grain-fed: 40% grass-fed GB; 40% grain-fed: 60% grass-fed GB; 20% grain-fed: 80% grass-fed GB; and 100% grass-fed GB. Packaging treatments included: high oxygen (HO; 80% O2: 20% CO2), low oxygen (LO; 65% N2: 35% CO2), carbon monoxide (CO; 65% N2: 34.6% CO2: 0.4% CO), and overwrap (OV; polyvinyl chloride film wrapped over a styrofoam tray). The modified TBARS method showed greater sensitivity and increased differences between treatments with less variability. The original extraction method showed fewer differences between treatments with greater variability. Data suggest that the modified method of TBARS determination could provide researchers with a better assay to find differences while decreasing the amount of labor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Differences between men and women in substance use: the role of educational level and employment status.

    PubMed

    Teixidó-Compañó, Ester; Espelt, Albert; Sordo, Luis; Bravo, María J; Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Indave, B Iciar; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Brugal, M Teresa

    2017-03-15

    To determine differences between men and women in hazardous drinking, heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative use according to educational level and employment status in the economically active population in Spain. Cross-sectional study with data from 2013 Spanish Household Survey on Alcohol and Drugs on individuals aged 25-64 [n=14,113 (women=6,171; men=7,942)]. Dependent variables were hazardous drinking, heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative consumption; the main independent variables were educational level and employment situation. Associations between dependent and independent variables were calculated with Poisson regression models with robust variance. All analyses were stratified by sex. Hazardous drinking and heavy cannabis use were higher in men, while women consumed more hypnosedatives. The lower the educational level, the greater the gender differences in the prevalence of this substances owing to different consumption patterns in men and women. While men with a lower educational level were higher hazardous drinkers [RII=2.57 (95%CI: 1.75-3.78)] and heavy cannabis users [RII=3.03 (95%CI: 1.88-4.89)] compared to higher educational level, in women the prevalence was the same. Women with a lower education level and men with a higher education level had higher hypnosedative consumption. Unemployment was associated with increased heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative use in both women and men and with lower hazardous drinking only in women. There are differences between men and women in the use of psychoactive substances that can be explained by the unequal distribution of substance use in them according to educational level. Unemployment was associated with substance use in both men and women. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Complex mixtures: relevance of combined exposure to substances at low dose levels.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Winfried R; Krul, Lisette; Houben, Geert F

    2013-08-01

    Upon analysis of chemically complex food matrices a forest of peaks is likely to be found. Identification of these peaks and concurrent determination of the toxicological relevance upon exposure is very time consuming, expensive and often requires animal studies. Recently, a safety assessment framework based on the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) was published to assess the safety of chemically complex matrices more efficiently. In this safety assessment framework, the toxicological relevance of exposure to unidentified substances in chemically complex food matrices can be related to the Cramer class III TTC threshold, currently set at 90 μg/day. However, possible additive or synergistic effects of combined exposure is not covered. The current evaluation describes the relevance of combined low dose exposure to unidentified substances in chemically complex food matrices. It is concluded that to some extent cumulative effects at exposure levels for each substance at or below the Cramer class III TTC threshold, being present in a complex mixture including food, might occur. However the health relevance of possible cumulative effects at this dose level is considered to be that low that a need for a correction factor to cover possible cumulative effects is very low to absent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Relationship Between Depressive Symptom Levels and Subsequent Increases in Substance Use Among Youth With Severe Emotional Disturbance*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Liu, Xinhua; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Fan, Bin; Musa, George; Wicks, Judith; Mandell, Donald; Cook, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study examined the relationship between levels of depressive symptoms and subsequent increases in substance use among 784 youth with severe emotional disturbance enrolled in Medicaid-funded behavioral health care plans. Method Youth at five sites nationwide were interviewed about their emotional and behavior problems, as well as their use of cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs—at both baseline and follow-up. Results (1) Levels of depressive symptoms were significantly associated with concurrent substance use at baseline. (2) Baseline levels of depressive symptoms predicted subsequent changes in substance use, especially use of illicit drugs and multiple drugs. (3) These findings remained significant, even after controlling for sociodemographic, family, and individual characteristics. Conclusions These results indicate that depressive symptoms early in life may signal a risk for increasing involvement in substance use among severe emotional disturbed youth. This finding has important clinical implications for the prevention of substance misuse in this population. PMID:18612567

  13. Organizational- and individual-level correlates of posttreatment substance use: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Toorjo

    2008-03-01

    In addressing the need to study the effects of organizational factors on individual-level treatment outcomes, this study used hierarchical models to examine the organizational- and individual-level correlates of posttreatment substance use. Risk for posttreatment use varied significantly across organizations. Factors in the external institutional environment of facilities significantly influenced risk for use: managed care regulation increased the risk, whereas Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations accreditation decreased it (p < .01 for both). On the individual level, longer treatment episodes and treatment completion reduced the risk (p < .01 for both) after controlling for client characteristics. The benefits of length of stay in treatment were modified by elements of the external institutional environment and organizational treatment technology. The ameliorative effects of prolonged treatment were reduced by higher levels of managed care regulation, organizational monitoring, caseload size (p < .01 for all), and proportion of degreed staff (p < .05). The results highlight the influence of organizational factors on posttreatment use.

  14. Tissue Levels of Substance P Associated with Experimental Snake Venom Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Tiru-Chelvam, R.

    1973-01-01

    This investigation was suggested by gross similarities between the pathophysiological features of Substance P (SP) administration and snake venom poisoning in mammals. Using standard procedures for the extraction, purification and bioassay of SP, levels of SP were measured both in vivo and in vitro before and after treatment of the preparations with venom. There was a consistent depletion of SP in the tissues studied following snake envenomation. The significance of this finding is discussed in the context of the mechanisms of action of snake venom. PMID:4758382

  15. Development of acute exposure guideline levels for airborne exposures to hazardous substances.

    PubMed

    Krewski, Daniel; Bakshi, Kulbir; Garrett, Roger; Falke, Ernest; Rusch, George; Gaylor, David

    2004-04-01

    Hazardous substances can be released into the atmosphere due to industrial and transportation accidents, fires, tornadoes, earthquakes, and terrorists, thereby exposing workers and the nearby public to potential adverse health effects. Various enforceable guidelines have been set by regulatory agencies for worker and ambient air quality. However, these exposure levels generally are not applicable to rare lifetime acute exposures, which possibly could occur at high concentrations. Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) provide estimates of concentrations for airborne exposures for an array of short durations that possibly could cause mild (AEGL-1), severe, irreversible, potentially disabling adverse health effects (AEGL-2), or life threatening effects (AEGL-3). These levels can be useful for emergency responders and planners in reducing or eliminating potential risks to the public. Procedures and methodologies for deriving AEGLs are reviewed in this paper that have been developed in the United States, with direct input from international representatives of OECD member-countries, by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guidelines for Hazardous Substances and reviewed by the National Research Council. Techniques are discussed for the extrapolation of effects across different exposure durations. AEGLs provide a viable approach for assisting in the prevention, planning, and response to acute airborne exposures to toxic agents.

  16. Maternal and Neonatal Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Relation to Gestational Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Fisher, Mandy; Bouchard, Maryse F; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Taback, Shayne; Fraser, William

    2016-01-20

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous, persistent pollutants widely used in the production of common household and consumer goods. There is a limited body of literature suggesting that these chemicals may alter metabolic pathways and growth trajectories. The relationship between prenatal exposures to these chemicals and gestational weight gain (GWG) has received limited attention. One objective was to analyze the associations among maternal plasma levels of three common perfluoroalkyl substances (perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfanoate (PFHxS)) and GWG. Additionally, we explored whether GWG was associated with cord blood PFAS levels. This study utilized data collected in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada cohort study of 2001 pregnant women. Our analysis quantified associations between (1) maternal PFAS concentrations and GWG and (2) GWG and cord blood PFAS concentrations. Maternal PFOS concentrations were positively associated with GWG (β = 0.39 95% CI: 0.02, 0.75). Interquartile increases in GWG were significantly associated with elevated cord blood PFOA (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56) and PFOS (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.40) concentrations. No statistically significant associations were observed between GWG and either measure of PFHxS. These findings warrant elucidation of the potential underlying mechanisms.

  17. Maternal and Neonatal Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Relation to Gestational Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Fisher, Mandy; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Taback, Shayne; Fraser, William

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous, persistent pollutants widely used in the production of common household and consumer goods. There is a limited body of literature suggesting that these chemicals may alter metabolic pathways and growth trajectories. The relationship between prenatal exposures to these chemicals and gestational weight gain (GWG) has received limited attention. One objective was to analyze the associations among maternal plasma levels of three common perfluoroalkyl substances (perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfanoate (PFHxS)) and GWG. Additionally, we explored whether GWG was associated with cord blood PFAS levels. This study utilized data collected in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada cohort study of 2001 pregnant women. Our analysis quantified associations between (1) maternal PFAS concentrations and GWG and (2) GWG and cord blood PFAS concentrations. Maternal PFOS concentrations were positively associated with GWG (β = 0.39 95% CI: 0.02, 0.75). Interquartile increases in GWG were significantly associated with elevated cord blood PFOA (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56) and PFOS (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.40) concentrations. No statistically significant associations were observed between GWG and either measure of PFHxS. These findings warrant elucidation of the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:26805861

  18. Determination of genotoxic epoxide at trace level in drug substance by direct injection GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liqin; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Steven

    2017-08-24

    A novel direct injection gas chromatography method coupled with selective ion monitoring mass spectrometry (GC/SIM-MS) was developed for quantitation of trace levels of high boiling point (HBP) epoxide genotoxic impurity (GTI) in drug substance. The injector temperature was optimized with the aims to minimize matrix effects and enhance SIM signal response. The final injector temperature 160°C was selected after balancing between these two factors. The column screening was conducted as well and MN OPTIMA delta-3 silica capillary column was selected since it showed good peak symmetry without column bleeding. The good linearity was established for the concentration in the range from 0.0045μg/mL to 0.5μg/mL with a R(2)=0.9999. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.0014μg/mL and 0.0045μg/mL, respectively. The recovery which ranged from 95.0% to 112.5% could meet the ICH acceptance criteria. The validation results demonstrated the good linearity, precision and accuracy of the method which can be further adopted as an adequate quality control tool for quantitation of epoxide impurity at trace levels in drug substance and drug product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustained Low Serum Substance P Levels in Non-Surviving Septic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M.; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Ferreres, José; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Labarta, Lorenzo; Díaz, César; Jiménez, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Previously, researchers found higher serum substance P (SP) concentrations in survivors of severe sepsis than in non-survivors at the time of severe sepsis diagnosis. The objectives of our current study were to determine whether there is an association between serum SP levels during the first week and sepsis mortality, sepsis severity, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-10, and whether serum SP levels during the first week could be used as a biomarker of sepsis mortality. We determined serum concentration of SP, TNF-α, and IL-10 at days 1, 4, and 8. The end-point of the study was mortality at 30 days. We found that non-survivor (n = 104) compared to survivor patients (n = 206) showed lower serum SP levels at days 1, 4, and 8 (p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed an association between 30-day mortality and serum SP levels at days 1, 4, and 8 (p < 0.001) controlling for SOFA score, diabetes mellitus, age, and lactic acid levels. The most interesting findings of our study were that there is an association between serum SP levels during the first week and sepsis mortality, and that serum SP levels during the first week could be used as a biomarker of sepsis mortality. PMID:28714876

  20. Social network and census tract-level influences on substance use among emerging adult males: An activity spaces approach

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Crystal; Perley, Lauren; Bailey, Jonathan; Barbour, Russell; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-01-01

    Social network and area level characteristics have been linked to substance use. We used snowball sampling to recruit 90 predominantly African American emerging adult men who provided typical locations visited (n=510). We used generalized estimating equations to examine social network and area level predictors of substance use. Lower social network quality was associated with days of marijuana use (B=-0.0037, p<0.0001) and problem alcohol use (B=-0.0050, p=0.0181). The influence of area characteristics on substance use differed between risky and non-risky spaces. Peer and area influences are important for substance use among men, and may differ for high and low risk places. PMID:26176810

  1. Social network and census tract-level influences on substance use among emerging adult males: An activity spaces approach.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Crystal; Perley, Lauren; Bailey, Jonathan; Barbour, Russell; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-09-01

    Social network and area level characteristics have been linked to substance use. We used snowball sampling to recruit 90 predominantly African American emerging adult men who provided typical locations visited (n=510). We used generalized estimating equations to examine social network and area level predictors of substance use. Lower social network quality was associated with days of marijuana use (B=-0.0037, p<0.0001) and problem alcohol use (B=-0.0050, p=0.0181). The influence of area characteristics on substance use differed between risky and non-risky spaces. Peer and area influences are important for substance use among men, and may differ for high and low risk places. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased levels of dioxin-like substances in adipose tissue in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zamora, M A; Mattioli, L; Parera, J; Abad, E; Coloma, J L; van Babel, B; Galceran, M T; Balasch, J; Carmona, F

    2015-05-01

    Are the levels of biologically active and the most toxic dioxin-like substances in adipose tissue of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) higher than in a control group without endometriosis? DIE patients have higher levels of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adipose tissue compared with controls without endometriosis. Some studies have investigated the levels of dioxin-like substances, in serum samples, in patients with endometriosis, with inconsistent results. Case-control study including two groups of patients. The study group (DIE group) consisted of 30 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery because of DIE. In all patients, an extensive preoperative work-up was performed including clinical exploration, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transvaginal sonography. All patients with DIE underwent a confirmatory histological study for DIE after surgery. The non-endometriosis control group (control group), included the next consecutive patient undergoing laparoscopic surgery in our center due to adnexal benign gynecological disease (ovarian or tubal procedures other than endometriosis) after each DIE patient, and who did not present any type of endometriosis. During the surgical procedure 1-2 g of adipose tissue from the omentum were obtained. Dioxin-like substances were analyzed in adipose tissue in DIE patients and controls without endometriosis. The total toxic equivalence and concentrations of both dioxins and PCBs were significantly higher in patients with DIE in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05), mainly due to the significantly higher values of the two most toxic dioxins (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [2,3,7,8-TCDD] and 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD]) (P < 0.01 for each compound). The levels of furan 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF were statistically higher in the DIE group compared with controls. Only four congeners of PCBs had toxic equivalence values and concentrations that were statistically higher

  3. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl substances in estuarine sediments of Charleston, SC.

    PubMed

    White, Natasha D; Balthis, Len; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; De Silva, Amila O; Wu, Qian; French, Katherine M; Daugomah, James; Spencer, Christine; Fair, Patricia A

    2015-07-15

    Urban areas are sources of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the environment, although little is known about specific point sources and distribution of PFASs. Sentinel species, like bottlenose dolphins, are important indicators of environmental perturbations. The high PFAS levels found in dolphins inhabiting Charleston, South Carolina prompted investigation of these chemicals in this area. This study provides further evidence on the extent of contamination and potential sources of PFASs. In this study, concentrations of 11 PFASs measured in estuarine sediments collected in 2012 from the Charleston Harbor and the Ashley and Cooper Rivers (n=36) in South Carolina revealed higher levels than those reported in any other U.S. urban areas. Detectable levels were found in all sample locations with mean total PFAS concentrations of 3.79ngg(-1) (range 0.22 to 19.2ngg(-1) d.w.). Dominant compounds were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (mean 1.52ngg(-1); range 0.09-7.37ngg(-1) d.w.), followed by perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) (mean 0.83ngg(-1); range 0.06-4.76ngg(-1) d.w.) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (mean 0.42ngg(-1); range 0.02-2.52ngg(-1) d.w.). PFOS levels in sediments at 19 of 36 sites (representing 52% of the study area) exceeded the published global median PFOS sediment concentration of 0.54ngg(-1).

  4. Gibberellic acid, a plant growth regulator, increases mast cell recruitment and alters Substance P levels.

    PubMed

    Erin, Nuray; Afacan, Berna; Ersoy, Yasemin; Ercan, Feriha; Balci, Mustafa Kemal

    2008-12-05

    Gibberellic acid (GA3), a plant growth regulator, is used commonly in agriculture. Its potential hazardous effects on human health, however, were relatively unexplored. Several studies demonstrated that in animals chronic GA3 consumption increased tumor formation and oxidative stress. Mast cells and Substance P (SP) play an important role in inflammation. Because chronic inflammation triggers serious conditions, including tumor formation, we examined changes in mast cell recruitment and activation as well as SP levels in skin and urinary bladder. Wistar Albino rats were treated with either a single GA3 dose or multiple GA3 doses for 30 days. Sub-chronic exposure to GA3 markedly increased mast cell recruitment and activation in both tissues. Treatment with 2mg/kg GA3 dose for 30 days decreased SP levels in skin and bladder. SP levels returned to control values in bladder and further increased in skin following 30-day treatment with the 20mg/kg GA3 dose. There was marked urothelial loss and inflammatory cell infiltration in bladder of 30-day GA3 treated groups. In skin, single GA3 doses also decreased SP levels and enhanced mast cell activation and recruitment. Since both SP and mast cell activation elicit inflammatory responses, these results demonstrate that exposure to plant growth regulators may increase inflammatory skin and bladder disease and that use of GA3 should be clearly monitored.

  5. Serum Levels of Substance P and Mortality in Patients with a Severe Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M.; Almeida, Teresa; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Ramos, Luis; Argueso, Mónica; Riaño-Ruiz, Marta; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Hernández, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Substance P (SP), a member of tachykinin family, is involved in the inflammation of the central nervous system and in the appearance of cerebral edema. Higher serum levels of SP have been found in 18 patients with cerebral ischemia compared with healthy controls. The aim of our multi-center study was to analyze the possible association between serum levels of SP and mortality in ischemic stroke patients. We included patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) lower than 9. Non-surviving patients at 30 days (n = 31) had higher serum concentrations of SP levels at diagnosis of severe MMCAI than survivors (n = 30) (p < 0.001). We found in multiple regression an association between serum concentrations of SP higher than 362 pg/mL and mortality at 30 days (Odds Ratio = 5.33; 95% confidence interval = 1.541–18.470; p = 0.008) after controlling for age and GCS. Thus, the major novel finding of our study was the association between serum levels of SP and mortality in patients suffering from severe acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27338372

  6. An Electronic Screen for Triaging Adolescent Substance Use by Risk Levels

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Sharon; Weiss, Roger; Sherritt, Lon; Ziemnik, Rosemary; Spalding, Allegra; Van Hook, Shari; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Screening adolescents for substance use and intervening immediately can reduce the burden of addiction and substance-related morbidity. Several screening tools have been developed to identify problem substance use for adolescents, but none have been calibrated to triage adolescents into clinically relevant risk categories to guide interventions. OBJECTIVE To describe the psychometric properties of an electronic screen and brief assessment tool that triages adolescents into 4 actionable categories regarding their experience with nontobacco substance use. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Adolescent patients (age range, 12–17 years) arriving for routine medical care at 2 outpatient primary care centers and 1 outpatient center for substance use treatment at a pediatric hospital completed an electronic screening tool from June 1, 2012, through March 31, 2013, that consisted of a question on the frequency of using 8 types of drugs in the past year (Screening to Brief Intervention). Additional questions assessed severity of any past-year substance use. Patients completed a structured diagnostic interview (Composite International Diagnostic Interview–Substance Abuse Module), yielding Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) substance use diagnoses. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES For the entire screen and the Screening to Brief Intervention, sensitivity and specificity for identifying nontobacco substance use, substance use disorders, severe substance use disorders, and tobacco dependence were calculated using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview–Substance Abuse Module as the criterion standard. RESULTS Of 340 patients invited to participate, 216 (63.5%) enrolled in the study. Sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 84%(95%CI, 76%–89%) for identifying nontobacco substance use, 90% (95%CI, 77%–96%) and 94%(95%CI, 89%–96%) for substance use disorders, 100% and 94%(95%CI, 90%–96%) for severe substance use

  7. Does Bachelor's-Level Social Work Education Impact Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Substance-Abusing Clients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senreich, Evan; Straussner, Shulamith Lala A.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared 248 graduating seniors with 301 beginning juniors at 10 bachelor's-level social work programs in the Northeast concerning their knowledge and attitudes regarding working with substance-abusing clients. Graduating seniors demonstrated modestly higher levels of knowledge and only slightly more positive attitudes toward working…

  8. Does Bachelor's-Level Social Work Education Impact Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Substance-Abusing Clients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senreich, Evan; Straussner, Shulamith Lala A.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared 248 graduating seniors with 301 beginning juniors at 10 bachelor's-level social work programs in the Northeast concerning their knowledge and attitudes regarding working with substance-abusing clients. Graduating seniors demonstrated modestly higher levels of knowledge and only slightly more positive attitudes toward working…

  9. Levels of Contamination by Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Honey from Selected European Countries.

    PubMed

    Surma, Magdalena; Zieliński, Henryk; Piskuła, Mariusz

    2016-07-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are man-made chemicals manufactured for numerous applications. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of 10 PFASs in selected types of honey samples from selected eastern, northern and southern European countries. A total of 26 samples of honey were analyzed. PFCAs (perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids) were detected in almost all (92 %) analyzed samples in the range of 0.124-0.798 ng g(-1) ww (wet weight). The average concentrations of particular PFCAs (ng g(-1) ww) in honey samples increased in the following order: perfluorononanoic acid (0.164) < perfluorooctanoic acid (0.189) < perfluoroheptanoic acid (0.271) < perfluorodecanoic acid (0.278). Amongst perfluoroalkane sulfonates, only perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) was identified in four of 26 analyzed samples, and its concentrations ranged from 0.080 to 0.191 ng g(-1) ww. Italian eucalyptus honey contained the highest total content of PFASs (0.878 ng g(-1) ww). Samples originating from an industrial region of Poland showed 20 % higher concentrations of PFCAs compared to those from non-industrial regions.

  10. Activation of vagus nerve by semapimod alters substance P levels and decreases breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Erin, Nuray; Duymuş, Ozlem; Oztürk, Saffet; Demir, Necdet

    2012-11-10

    Chronic inflammation is involved in initiation as well as in progression of cancer. Semapimod, a tetravalent guanylhydrazon and formerly known as CNI-1493, inhibits the release of inflammatory cytokines from activated macrophages and this effect is partly mediated by the vagus nerve. Our previous findings demonstrated that inactivation of vagus nerve activity as well sensory neurons enhanced visceral metastasis of 4THM breast carcinoma. Hence semapimod by activating vagus nerve may inhibit breast cancer metastasis. Here, effects of semapimod on breast cancer metastasis, the role of vagal sensory neurons on this effect and changes in mediators of the neuroimmune connection, such as substance P (SP) as well as neprilysin-like activity, were examined. Vagotomy was performed on half of the control animals that were treated with semapimod following orthotopic injection of 4THM breast carcinoma cells. Semapimod decreased lung and liver metastases in control but not in vagotomized animals with an associated increased SP levels in sensory nerve endings. Semapimod also increased neprilysin-like activity in lung tissue of control animals but not in tumor-bearing animals. This is the first report demonstrating that semapimod enhances vagal sensory nerve activity and may have anti-tumoral effects under in-vivo conditions. Further studies, however, are required to elucidate the conditions and the mechanisms involved in anti-tumoral effects of semapimod.

  11. Hazardous substance releases at the community level: a practical approach to analyzing potential health threats.

    PubMed

    Neufer, L; Narkunas, D

    1994-07-01

    1. When a hazardous substance release occurs in a community, public health nurses must consider whether community members have been exposed, and whether that exposure is sufficient to impact public health. 2. An exposure pathway is the process by which an individual is exposed to contaminants that originate from some source of contamination. The exposure pathway method is effective in determining whether community members are exposed to hazardous substances in their community. 3. After determining a completed exposure pathway, a toxicological analysis estimates the dose of hazardous substances community members may have received and whether that dose may increase risks for an adverse health effect. 4. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) provides information to health care professionals that can assist them in conducting exposure and toxicological analyses.

  12. Ozone at high-pollution urban levels causes airway hyperresponsiveness to substance P but not to other agonists.

    PubMed

    Segura, P; Montaño, L M; Bazán-Perkins, B; Gustin, P; Vargas, M H

    1997-06-06

    Ozone (O(3)) causes airway hyperresponsiveness, but few studies have evaluated this effect at urban concentrations. In this work dose-response curves to intravenous acetylcholine, histamine or substance P were performed in guinea pigs with or without previous exposure to O(3) (0.15, 0.3, 0.6 or 1.2 ppm for 4 h, 16-18 h before the studies). We found airway hyperresponsiveness to histamine, but not to acetylcholine, only after 1.2 ppm O(3). By contrast, airway hyperresponsiveness to substance P was developed at O(3) levels encountered in highly-polluted cities (0.3 ppm). These results suggest that excitatory non-adrenergic non-cholinergic responses could be affected by air pollution, and that substance P is a useful pharmacological tool for evaluating the airway hyperresponsiveness induced by low O(3) concentrations.

  13. [Classification of substances to predict the order of magnitude of their safe water levels in terms of carcinogenic effect].

    PubMed

    Zholdakova, Z I; Kharchevnikova, N V

    2011-01-01

    A classification has been developed to predict the safe water levels of chemical compounds in terms of their carcinogenic effect, by using as the base the LTD@10 value that is a lower 95% confidence limits for the lowest dose that statistically significantly causes a 10% increase in the incidence of cancer in laboratory animals continuously receiving a daily dose of the compound throughout their life, which is given in the CPDB internet resource, and the carcinogenicity classification adopted by the International Agency or Research on Cancer Based on an analysis ofthe maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of the standardized water substances in terms of their carcinogenic effect, the authors determined MA4 C ranges corresponding to different classes in accordance with the proposed classification. They predicted the orders of magnitude of MAC of the standardized water substances without taking into account their carcinogenic effect and those of four substances unstandardized in Russia.

  14. Parental Knowledge and Substance Use among African American Adolescents: Influence of Gender and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Cook, Emily C.; Vanderploeg, Jeffrey J.; Feinn, Richard; Chinman, Matthew J.; Shepard, Jane K.; Brabham, Tamika; Connell, Christian M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental knowledge is defined as parental awareness and information about a child's activities, whereabouts, and associations that is obtained through parental monitoring, parental solicitation, or self-disclosure. Increased parental knowledge is generally associated with lower adolescent substance use; however, the influence of various contextual…

  15. Substance Use and Community Violence: A Test of the Relation at the Daily Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Edward P.; Odgers, Candice; Skeem, Jennifer; Gardner, William; Schubert, Carol; Lidz, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Prior research has consistently demonstrated an association between substance use and involvement in violence among individuals with mental illness. Yet little is known about the temporal quality of this relationship, largely because longitudinal data required to address this issue are not readily available. This study examined the relationship…

  16. Parental Knowledge and Substance Use among African American Adolescents: Influence of Gender and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Cook, Emily C.; Vanderploeg, Jeffrey J.; Feinn, Richard; Chinman, Matthew J.; Shepard, Jane K.; Brabham, Tamika; Connell, Christian M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental knowledge is defined as parental awareness and information about a child's activities, whereabouts, and associations that is obtained through parental monitoring, parental solicitation, or self-disclosure. Increased parental knowledge is generally associated with lower adolescent substance use; however, the influence of various contextual…

  17. Systems and methods for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, Michael V.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Lindquist, Alan; Gallardo, Vincente

    2016-03-15

    A method and device for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid comprising using a concentrator system to produce a retentate and analyzing the retentate for the presence of at least one harmful substance. The concentrator system performs a method comprising pumping at least 10 liters of fluid from a sample source through a filter. While pumping, the concentrator system diverts retentate from the filter into a container. The concentrator system also recirculates at least part of the retentate in the container again through the filter. The concentrator system controls the speed of the pump with a control system thereby maintaining a fluid pressure less than 25 psi during the pumping of the fluid; monitors the quantity of retentate within the container with a control system, and maintains a reduced volume level of retentate and a target volume of retentate.

  18. Growth of Bacteria in Inorganic Medium at Different Levels of Airborne Organic Substances

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Annette

    1983-01-01

    Invasion rates of airborne organic substances into sterile mineral medium were compared by using flasks closed with cotton stoppers, silicone stoppers, and screw caps with Teflon gaskets. The resulting increases of dissolved organic carbon were 0.5, 0.2, and 0 mg/liter per week, respectively. The compounds supported the growth of lake water bacteria and a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Growth rates were correlated to the permeability of the stoppers used. The measured input of organic carbon in the sterile mineral medium is considered to be a minimum value for the actual contribution of organic compounds by the air. Multiplication rates of the bacteria suggest that the organisms prevent the escape of volatile organic substances from the medium by rapid utilization. The steady nutrient supply through the air should be considered in growth experiments with bacteria at low concentrations of nutrients. PMID:16346438

  19. Food Insecurity, Substance Use, and Sexual Transmission Risk Behavior Among People Living with HIV: A Daily Level Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pellowski, Jennifer A; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Kalichman, Seth C

    2017-04-20

    People living with HIV in poverty have limited tangible and mental resources coupled with competing demands for these resources. Competing demands require individuals to make choices that may be beneficial to them in the short term but not in the long term. Past research has shown that food insecurity is related to sexual risk behaviors among people living with HIV. Individuals who are food insecure may sell sex in order to obtain food or lack of food may lead to a depletion of mental resources to negotiate safe sex. Substance use may also create additional constraints on these already limited resources. The current study tested the relation between food insecurity and day-level sexual risk behavior and the possible mediating role that alcohol/substance use may play. Men and women living with HIV were enrolled in a 28-day prospective study between October 2012 and April 2014 in which they completed daily text message surveys regarding their sex behaviors and substance/alcohol use in the context of sex. A total of 796 participants reported sex on 3894 days. On days in which sex occurred, baseline food insecurity was negatively associated with daily condom use. There was also a significant effect of substance use in the context of sex on the rates of change in condom use over time, and this interaction between substance use and time was a partial mediator of the relation between food insecurity and condom use. Gender did not moderate this mediation. Situation-specific alcohol and drug use should be integrated into interventions that target food insecurity and HIV prevention.

  20. Organizational-Level Predictors of Adoption Across Time: Naltrexone in Private Substance-Use Disorders Treatment Centers*

    PubMed Central

    Oser, Carrie B.; Roman, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Prominent on the nation's research agenda on substance-use disorders treatment is the dissemination of effective pharmacotherapies. Thus, the purpose of this article is to use a “diffusion of innovations” theoretical framework to examine the organizational-level predictors of the adoption of a pharmacotherapy, naltrexone (Revia), in private substance use-disorders treatment centers (N = 165). Method Data for these analyses were derived from the National Treatment Center Study, which contains four waves of data collected between 1994 and 2003. An event history model examined the impact of culture, leadership characteristics, internal structure, and external characteristics on the likelihood of adopting naltrexone between 1994 and 2003. Results The results suggest that organizations embracing a 12-step model and those employing more experienced administrators were significantly less likely to adopt naltrexone. Moreover, treatment centers that used prescription drugs, possessed an employee handbook, were accredited, and operated on a for-profit basis were significantly more likely to adopt naltrexone over time. Conclusions Structural characteristics do affect the innovation adoption behaviors of private substance-use disorders treatment centers. Organizational-level “research to practice” implications to further the adoption of innovative evidence-based treatments are discussed. PMID:17960303

  1. Levels and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in beached plastic pellets and sediments collected from Greece.

    PubMed

    Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Barceló, Damià

    2014-10-15

    Plastic debris damages marine wildlife and ecosystems becoming an important source of marine pollution. In addition, they can sorb, concentrate and stabilise contaminants acting as toxic carriers to the marine food web. In this context, the presence of 18 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in plastic pellets (n=5) and beach sediment (n=9) samples widely distributed around Greek coastal areas was assessed. The results, mainly, showed the sorption of PFASs onto pellet surface from surrounding water with concentrations from method limit of quantification to 115 ng/kg for C5, C7, C8 and C10 carboxylic acids and C8 sulfonate acid. A similar pattern was found by comparing plastic pellets and sediment for the same sampling locations that could indicate a common origin of contamination in both types of samples. However, since the number of analysed samples is limited, a more comprehensive study with a higher number of samples should be performed in future research.

  2. Hemodynamics and vasoactive substance levels during renal congestion that occurs in the anhepatic phase of liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhong-Xin; Wang, Man-Cai; Zhang, You-Cheng; Mao, Jie; Chen, Mo; Ni, Rui; Wei, Feng-Xian; Wang, Gen-Nian; Zhang, Ling-Yi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore hemodynamics and vasoactive substance levels during renal vein congestion that occurs in the anhepatic phase of liver transplantation. METHODS: New Zealand rabbits received ligation of the hepatic pedicle, supra-hepatic vena cava and infra-hepatic vena cava [anhepatic phase group (APH); n = 8], the renal veins (RVL; n = 8), renal veins and hepatic pedicle [with the inferior vena cava left open) (RVHP; n = 8)], or a sham operation (SOP; n = 8). Hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures) and the levels of serum bradykinin (BK) and angiotensin II (ANGII) were measured at baseline (0 min), and 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, and 45 min after the surgery. Correlation analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between hemodynamic parameters and levels of vasoactive substances. RESULTS: All experimental groups (APH, RVL, and RVHP) showed significant decreases in hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures) compared to baseline levels, as well as compared to the SOP controls (P < 0.05 for all). In contrast, BK levels were significantly increased compared to baseline in the APH, RVL, and RVHP groups at all time points measured (P < 0.05 for all), whereas no change was observed in the SOP controls. There were no significant differences among the experimental groups for any measure at any time point. Further analyses revealed that systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures were all negatively correlated with BK levels, and positively correlated with ANGII levels in the APH, RVL, and RVHP groups (P < 0.05 for all). CONCLUSION: In the anhepatic phase of orthotopic liver transplantation, renal vein congestion significantly impacts hemodynamic parameters, which correlate with serum BK and ANGII levels. PMID:25987770

  3. EVALUATION OF PLASMA SUBSTANCE P AND BETA‐ENDORPHIN LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH PRADER‐WILLI SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Butler, M.G.; Nelson, T. A.; Driscoll, D.J.; Manzardo, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare obesity-related genetic disorder often caused by a deletion of the chromosome 15q11–q13 region inherited from the father or by maternal disomy 15. Growth hormone deficiency with short stature, hypogonadism, cognitive and behavioral problems, analgesia, decreased gastric motility and decreased ability to vomit with hyperphagia are common in PWS leading to severe obesity in early childhood, if not controlled. Substance P (SP) and beta-endorphin (BE) are neuropeptides involved with centrally and peripherally mediated pain perception, emotional regulation, and gastric motility impacting nausea, emesis and feeding patterns. Objective The goal of this study was to investigate potential mechanisms for PWS symptom development for pain, emotion and gastric motility and plasma levels of substance P and beta-endorphin between PWS and unrelated unaffected children. Methodology Plasma samples were collected from 23 Caucasian children with PWS and 18 unrelated, unaffected siblings with an average age of 8.2 ±2.0 years and age range of 5 to 11 years following an overnight fast and neuropeptide substance p and beta-endorphin levels were assessed using Multiplex sandwich immunoassays using the Luminex magnetic-bead based platform. Linear regression analysis was carried out on log-transformed values adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Results The mean plasma SP (57 ± 23 pg/ml) and BE (592 ± 200 pg/ml) levels in PWS were significantly higher than SP (35 ± 20 pg/ml, F=10.5, P<0.01) and BE (402 ± 162 pg/ml, F=10.8, P<0.01) levels found in unrelated, unaffected siblings suggesting a previously uncharacterized neuroendocrine pathophysiology in PWS. Conclusions The increased BE and SP plasma levels relative to unrelated, unaffected siblings may contribute to hyperphagia, abnormal pain sensation and adrenal insufficiency seen in PWS. Increases in SP levels may be modulated by central and/or peripheral actions of BE on

  4. A multi-level analysis of the impact of neighborhood structural and social factors on adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Abigail A; Wright, Emily M; Pinchevsky, Gillian M

    2015-08-01

    This paper examined the effects of neighborhood structural (i.e., economic disadvantage, immigrant concentration, residential stability) and social (e.g., collective efficacy, social network interactions, intolerance of drug use, legal cynicism) factors on the likelihood of any adolescent tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Analyses drew upon information from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Data were obtained from a survey of adult residents of 79 Chicago neighborhoods, two waves of interviews with 1657 to 1664 care-givers and youth aged 8 to 16 years, and information from the 1990 U.S. Census Bureau. Hierarchical Bernoulli regression models estimated the impact of neighborhood factors on substance use controlling for individual-level demographic characteristics and psycho-social risk factors. Few neighborhood factors had statistically significant direct effects on adolescent tobacco, alcohol or marijuana use, although youth living in neighborhoods with greater levels of immigrant concentration were less likely to report any drinking. Additional theorizing and more empirical research are needed to better understand the ways in which contextual influences affect adolescent substance use and delinquency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Carbon nanotubes - Characteristic of the substance, biological effects and occupational exposure levels].

    PubMed

    Świdwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2017-03-24

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a diverse group of nano-objects in terms of structure, size (length, diameter), shape and characteristics. The growing interest in these structures is due to the increasing number of people working in exposure to CNTs. Occupational exposure to carbon nanotubes may occur in research laboratories, as well as in plants producing CNTs and their nanocomposites. Carbon nanotubes concentration at the emission source may reach 107 particles/cm3. These values, however, are considerably reduced after the application of adequate ventilation. Animal studies suggest that the main route of exposure is inhalation. Carbon nanotubes administered orally are largely excreted in the feces. In animals exposed by inhalation, CNTs caused mainly inflammation, as a result of oxidative stress, leading above all to changes in the lungs. The main effect of animal dermal exposure is oxidative stress causing local inflammation. In animals exposed by ingestion the mild or no toxicity was observed. Carbon nanotubes did not induce mutations in the bacterial tests, but they were genotoxic in a series of tests on cells in vitro, as well as in exposed mice in vivo. Embryotoxicity of nanotubes depends mainly on their modifications and carcinogenicity - primarily on the CNT size and its rigidity. Occupational exposure limits for CNTs proposed by world experts fall within the range of 1-80 μg/m3. The different effects of various kinds of CNT, leads to the conclusion that each type of nanotube should be treated as a separate substance with individual estimation of hygienic normative. Med Pr 2017;68(2):259-276. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  6. Sex Differences in Cortisol Level and Neurobehavioral Disinhibition in Children of Substance Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Gardner, William; Kirillova, Galina P.; Vanyukov, Michael M.

    2001-01-01

    Determines the extent to which cortisol level covaries with psychological dysregulation. Results indicated that dysregulation was higher and cortisol level lower in boys compared to girls. Concludes that boys and girls differ with respect to biochemical indicators of stress reactivity underlying psychological dysregulation, a putative phenotype…

  7. Automatic cryogenic liquid level controller is safe for use near combustible substances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, M.

    1966-01-01

    Automatic mechanical liquid level controller that is independent of any external power sources is used with safety in the presence of combustibles. A gas filled capillary tube which leads from a pressurized chamber, is inserted into the cryogenic liquid reservoir and becomes a liquid level sensing element or probe.

  8. Differential changes in Substance P, VIP as well as neprilysin levels in patients with gastritis or ulcer.

    PubMed

    Erin, Nuray; Türker, Sema; Elpek, Ozlem; Yıldırım, Bülent

    2012-06-01

    The protective effect of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerve (CSSN) activation was recently demonstrated in human gastric mucosa. We here examined changes in neuropeptides, specifically Substance P (SP), calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in patients with chronic gastritis or ulcer. Furthermore changes in neprilysin levels, which hydrolyse these neuropeptides, were determined. Gastric biopsies were obtained from both lesion- and normal-appearing mucosa of 57 patients. The presence of H. pylori infection was verified with rapid urease assay. Neuronal and non-neuronal levels of SP, VIP, CGRP and neprilysin activity were determined in freshly frozen biopsies. Immunohistochemical localization of neprilysin was performed in 30 paraffin embedded specimens. We here found that neuronal SP levels decreased significantly in normally appearing mucosa of patients with gastritis while levels of non-neuronal SP increased in diseased areas of gastritis and ulcer. The presence of H. pylori led to further decreases of SP levels. The content of VIP in both disease-involved and uninvolved mucosa, and expression of neprilysin, markedly decreased in patients with gastritis or ulcer. Since VIP, as well as SP fragments, formed following hydrolysis with neprilysin is recognized to have gastroprotective effects, decreased levels of VIP, SP and neprilysin may predispose to cellular damage.

  9. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol and caffeine and a combination of these substances on kidney glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, G; Homma, D

    1996-05-01

    Following preliminary tests in which rats proved to be fairly insensitive to the depletory effect of paracetamol (CAS 103-90-2) on kidney glutathione levels, old male mice from a strain exhibiting particular susceptibility to paracetamol were investigated in respect of the comparative effects of paracetamol, acetylsalicylic acid (CAS 50-78-2, ASA) and caffeine (CAS 58-08-2), and a combination of these substances, on kidney glutathione levels. Additionally, the effects of paracetamol and ASA on hepatic glutathione in mice were also measured. When administered separately at oral doses of 150-600 mg/kg both paracetamol and ASA produced dose- and time-dependent depletion of kidney glutathione concentrations in the mice. The effect of ASA at a given dose was weaker than that of paracetamol. Caffeine showed only a very weak and transient depletory effect up to an oral dose of 60 mg/kg. The effects of the combined administration of paracetamol and ASA on kidney glutathione levels were only additive in nature. The administration of caffeine did not increase the reduction in kidney glutathione levels produced by the combination of paracetamol and ASA. The reduction in hepatic glutathione induced in the mice by paracetamol was considerably more pronounced than that observed in the kidneys. ASA, on the other hand, did not affect glutathione in the mouse liver at those doses which had led to a reduction in kidney glutathione levels.

  10. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Operations, Level III

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations.

  11. Counselor attitudes toward the use of naltrexone in substance abuse treatment: a multi-level modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Amanda J; Rieckmann, Traci; McNulty, Thomas; Kovas, Anne E; Roman, Paul M

    2011-06-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) continue to be one of the most pervasive and costly of the substance use disorders (SUDs). Despite evidence of clinical effectiveness, adoption of medications for the treatment of AUDs is suboptimal. Low rates of AUD medication adoption have been explained by characteristics of both treatment organizations and individual counselor's attitudes and behaviors. However, few studies have simultaneously examined the impact of organizational-level and counselor-level characteristics on counselor perceptions of EBPs. To address this gap in the literature, we use data from a national sample of 1178 counselors employed in 209 privately funded treatment organizations to examine the effects of organizational and individual counselor characteristics on counselor attitudes toward tablet and injectable naltrexone. Results of hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) show that organizational characteristics (use of tablet/injectable naltrexone in the program, 12-step orientation) were associated with counselor perceptions of naltrexone. Net of organizational characteristics, several counselor level characteristics were associated with attitudes toward tablet and injectable naltrexone including gender, tenure in the field, recovery status, percentage of AUD patients, and receipt of medication-specific training. These findings reveal that counselor receptiveness toward naltrexone is shaped in part by the organizational context in which counselors are embedded. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Competitive sports participation in high school and subsequent substance use in young adulthood: Assessing differences based on level of contact

    PubMed Central

    Veliz, Philip; Schulenberg, John; Patrick, Megan; Kloska, Deb; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Zarrett, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to examine how participation in different types of competitive sports (based on level of contact) during high school is associated with substance use 1 to 4 years after the 12th grade. The analysis uses nationally representative samples of 12th graders from the Monitoring the Future Study who were followed 1 to 4 years after the 12th grade. The longitudinal sample consisted of 970 12th graders from six recent cohorts (2006–2011). The analyses found that respondents who participated in at least one competitive sport during the 12th grade had greater odds of binge drinking during the past two weeks (AOR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.43, 2.90) 1 to 4 years after the 12th grade, when compared to their peers who did not participate in sports during their 12th grade year. Moreover, respondents who participated in high-contact sports (i.e., football, ice hockey, lacrosse, and wrestling) had greater odds of binge drinking (AOR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.18, 2.72) and engaging in marijuana use during the past 30 days (AOR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.12, 2.93) 1 to 4 years after the 12th grade when compared to their peers who did not participate in these types of sports during their 12th grade year. Accordingly, the findings indicate important distinctions in sport participation experiences on long-term substance use risk that can help inform potential interventions among young athletes. PMID:28344426

  13. Competitive sports participation in high school and subsequent substance use in young adulthood: Assessing differences based on level of contact.

    PubMed

    Veliz, Philip; Schulenberg, John; Patrick, Megan; Kloska, Deb; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Zarrett, Nicole

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this analysis is to examine how participation in different types of competitive sports (based on level of contact) during high school is associated with substance use 1 to 4 years after the 12(th) grade. The analysis uses nationally representative samples of 12(th) graders from the Monitoring the Future Study who were followed 1 to 4 years after the 12(th) grade. The longitudinal sample consisted of 970 12(th) graders from six recent cohorts (2006-2011). The analyses found that respondents who participated in at least one competitive sport during the 12(th) grade had greater odds of binge drinking during the past two weeks (AOR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.43, 2.90) 1 to 4 years after the 12(th) grade, when compared to their peers who did not participate in sports during their 12(th) grade year. Moreover, respondents who participated in high-contact sports (i.e., football, ice hockey, lacrosse, and wrestling) had greater odds of binge drinking (AOR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.18, 2.72) and engaging in marijuana use during the past 30 days (AOR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.12, 2.93) 1 to 4 years after the 12(th) grade when compared to their peers who did not participate in these types of sports during their 12(th) grade year. Accordingly, the findings indicate important distinctions in sport participation experiences on long-term substance use risk that can help inform potential interventions among young athletes.

  14. State-level education standards for substance use prevention programs in schools: a systematic content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bruckner, Tim A.; Domina, Thurston; Hwang, Jin Kyoung; Gerlinger, Julie; Carpenter, Christopher; Wakefield, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Three-fourths of public schools in the U.S. maintain instructional programs to discourage alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use. State-sanctioned instructional standards attempt to direct this ATOD preventive education. No existing research, however, systematically codes these standards across all grades and states. We performed such an analysis. Methods We retrieved ATOD standards information from all 50 states and the District of Columbia from multiple sources, including the National Association of State Boards of Education's State School Health Policy website. Three independent researchers classified and cross-validated ATOD standards (inter-rater agreement = 98%) based on recommended content domains and pedagogic delivery methods. Results We find substantial grade-level variation in standards. Elementary schools emphasize generic social skills and affective skills, whereas middle and high school standards focus on knowledge about biological and behavioral consequences of ATOD use. States also vary widely in their content and coverage of standards. Two-thirds of states do not include standards in all content areas considered “evidence-based.” Conclusions The ATOD curricular agenda for the majority of states falls well below recommended content and delivery benchmarks. We intend for our harmonized dataset—the first of its kind—to promote research that examines the relation among state ATOD standards, actual classroom instruction, and adolescent ATOD use. PMID:24016749

  15. [Fullerenes: Characteristics of the substance, biological effects and occupational exposure levels].

    PubMed

    Świdwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    Fullerenes are molecules composed of an even number of carbon atoms of a spherical or an ellipsoidal, closed spatial structure. The most common fullerene is the C60 molecule with a spherical structure - a truncated icosahedron, compared to a football. Fullerenes are widely used in the diagnostics and medicine, but also in the electronics and energy industry. Occupational exposure to fullerene may occur during its production. The occupational concentrations of fullerenes reached 0.12-1.2 μ/m3 for nanoparticles fraction (< 100 nm), which may evidence low exposure levels. However, fullerene mostly agglomerates into larger particles. Absorption of fullerene by oral and respiratory routes is low, and it is not absorbed by skin. After intravenous administration, fullerene accumulates mainly in the liver but also in the spleen and the kidneys. In animal experiments there was no irritation or skin sensitization caused by fullerene, and only mild irritation to the eyes. Fullerene induced transient inflammation in the lungs in inhalation studies in rodents. Oral exposure does not lead to major adverse effects. Fullerene was not mutagenic, genotoxic or carcinogenic in experimental research. However, fullerene may cause harmful effects on the mice fetus when administered intraperitoneally or intravenously. Pristine C60 fullerene is characterized by poor absorption and low toxicity, and it does not pose a risk in the occupational environment. The authors of this study are of the opinion that there is no ground for estimating the maximum allowable concentration (NDS) of pristine fullerene C60. Fullerene derivatives, due to different characteristics, require separate analysis in terms of occupational risk assessment. Med Pr 2016;67(3):397-410.

  16. Increasing substance P levels in serum and synovial tissues from patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zheng, Xin-Feng; Zhang, Xiang; Li, Zheng; Shen, Chao; Zhu, Jun-Feng; Cui, Yi-Min; Chen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-03-19

    The tachykininergic neurotransmitters have been proved to be involved in the inflammatory progress and chronic pain in series of disease. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the levels of substance P (SP) and its receptors NK-1 receptor (NK-1R) in both serum and synovial tissues of hip joint from patients with different stages of DDH, and to detect the possible correlation of serum SP levels with pain sensation and dysfunction of the hip joint. SP levels in serum and synovial tissues from patients with DDH and DDH combined with osteoarthritis (DDH&OA) group were compared through immunohistochemistry (IHC), ELISA, and 2-step acetic acid extraction method respectively. Expression of NK-1R in synovial tissues was compared through IHC, quantitive Real-Time PCR (QRT-PCR) and Western-Blot. The severities of pain sensation and the functional activities of hip joint were assessed by Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Harris hip score (HHS). Correlations of serum SP levels with VAS, HHS and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were evaluated respectively in these groups. Significantly elevated serum SP levels were detected in group of DDH and DDH&OA compared to that in normal group. IHC, QRT-PCR as well as tissue Elisa showed that SP levels in synovial tissue of DDH&OA group is stronger than that in DDH group. Serum SP levels in each group have no gender differences. The enhanced SP levels in synovial tissue mainly came from the segregation of peripheral nerve endings. Serum SP correlated with VAS and HHS in patients with DDH&OA (Male + Female). Serum SP correlated with HHS in patients with DDH (Male). Serum SP levels also correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in patients with DDH&OA (Male + Female). Up-regulated expression of NK-1R was also observed in synovial tissue of patients with DDH&OA compared to patients with DDH, through western-blot, IHC, and QRT-PCR. These findings indicated that the increasing SP levels in serum and synovial tissues

  17. Increasing substance P levels in serum and synovial tissues from patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The tachykininergic neurotransmitters have been proved to be involved in the inflammatory progress and chronic pain in series of disease. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the levels of substance P (SP) and its receptors NK-1 receptor (NK-1R) in both serum and synovial tissues of hip joint from patients with different stages of DDH, and to detect the possible correlation of serum SP levels with pain sensation and dysfunction of the hip joint. Methods SP levels in serum and synovial tissues from patients with DDH and DDH combined with osteoarthritis (DDH&OA) group were compared through immunohistochemistry (IHC), ELISA, and 2-step acetic acid extraction method respectively. Expression of NK-1R in synovial tissues was compared through IHC, quantitive Real-Time PCR (QRT-PCR) and Western-Blot. The severities of pain sensation and the functional activities of hip joint were assessed by Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Harris hip score (HHS). Correlations of serum SP levels with VAS, HHS and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were evaluated respectively in these groups. Results Significantly elevated serum SP levels were detected in group of DDH and DDH&OA compared to that in normal group. IHC, QRT-PCR as well as tissue Elisa showed that SP levels in synovial tissue of DDH&OA group is stronger than that in DDH group. Serum SP levels in each group have no gender differences. The enhanced SP levels in synovial tissue mainly came from the segregation of peripheral nerve endings. Serum SP correlated with VAS and HHS in patients with DDH&OA (Male + Female). Serum SP correlated with HHS in patients with DDH (Male). Serum SP levels also correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in patients with DDH&OA (Male + Female). Up-regulated expression of NK-1R was also observed in synovial tissue of patients with DDH&OA compared to patients with DDH, through western-blot, IHC, and QRT-PCR. Conclusions These findings indicated that the increasing SP

  18. ASAM Patient Placement Criteria treatment levels: do they correspond to care actually received by homeless substance abusing adults?

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Thomas P; Freyder, Paul J; Gibbon, Jeanette L; Hanusa, Barbara J; Seltzer, Debora; Fine, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    We report findings from a community-based two-city survey of homeless adults comparing the level of substance abuse treatment assigned to them using the ASAM Patient Placement Criteria with care actually received during the previous 12 months. Overall 531 adults were surveyed with 382 meeting DSM-IIIR criteria of being in need of treatment or having a demand for treatment. Of those with a treatment need, 1.5% met criteria for outpatient care, 40.3% intensive outpatient/partial hospitalization care, 29.8% medically monitored care and 28.8% managed care levels. In contrast, of those receiving treatment (50.5%, 162 persons), almost all care received by this cohort was either inpatient or residential based (83.6%). Unsheltered homeless persons and those without insurance were significantly more likely to report not receiving needed treatment. Lack of treatment availability or capacity, expense, and changing one's mind while on a wait list were the most commonly cited reasons for no treatment.

  19. Perfluoroalkyl substance exposure and urine CC16 levels among asthmatics: A case-control study of children.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Bao, Wen-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Dee Geiger, Sarah; Parrish, Katelyn L; Yang, Bo-Yi; Lee, Yungling Leo; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-08-09

    Studies have reported an association between serum perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and asthma. However, few studies have examined the possible associations between PFASs and the 16-kDa club cell secretory protein (Clara) (CC16) level, a prominent biomarker of asthma, among adolescents. We recruited a total of 231 asthmatic children and 225 non-asthmatic controls in the Genetic and Biomarkers study for Childhood Asthma (GBCA) in northern Taiwan from 2009 to 2010. Structured questionnaires were administered by face-to-face interview. Urine CC16 was determined by an enzyme-link immunoassay kit. Multiple general linear models were employed to examine the associations between PFASs and urinary CC16 levels. Asthmatic participants had significantly higher serum PFAS concentrations overall than the healthy controls. After adjusting for confounding factors, urinary CC16 was significantly, negatively associated with PFASs, especially PFOS, PFOA, PFDA and PFNA, and especially among males, as follows: PFOS (β = -0.003, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.004, -0.002), PFOA (β = -0.045, 95% CI: -0.086, -0.004), and PFHxA (β = -0.310, 95% CI: -0.455, -0.165) among asthmatic boys, and PFDA (β = -0.126, 95%CI: -0.241, -0.012) and PFNA (β = -0.329, 95% CI: -0.526, -0.132) among non-asthmatic boys. Among girls, PFDA (β = -0.088, 95% CI: -0.172, -0.004), was the only PFAS significantly associated with CC16. Significant interaction effects (p < 0.15) on CC16 levels were found between asthma and PFOS, PFOA, PFBS and PFHxA in all participants. Our overall results showed that serum PFASs were significantly, inversely associated with CC16 levels. Associations were stronger among males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Perfluoroalkyl substances in polar bear mother-cub pairs: a comparative study based on plasma levels from 1998 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Bytingsvik, Jenny; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Hamers, Timo; Swart, Kees; Aars, Jon; Lie, Elisabeth; Nilsen, Else Mari Espseth; Wiig, Oystein; Derocher, Andrew E; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2012-11-15

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are protein-binding blood-accumulating contaminants that may have detrimental toxicological effects on the early phases of mammalian development. To enable an evaluation of the potential health risks of PFAS exposure for polar bears (Ursus maritimus), an exposure assessment was made by examining plasma levels of PFASs in polar bear mothers in relation to their suckling cubs-of-the-year (~4 months old). Samples were collected at Svalbard in 1998 and 2008, and we investigated the between-year differences in levels of PFASs. Seven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑₇PFCAs: PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, and PFTrDA) and two perfluorinated sulfonic acids (∑₂PFSAs: PFHxS and PFOS) were detected in the majority of the mothers and cubs from both years. In mothers and cubs, most PFCAs were detected in higher concentrations in 2008 than in 1998. On the contrary, levels of PFOS were lower in 2008 than in 1998, while levels of PFHxS did not differ between the two sampling years. PFOS was the dominating compound in mothers and cubs both in 1998 and in 2008. Concentration of PFHpA did not differ between mothers and cubs, while concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTrDA, PFHxS, and PFOS were higher in mothers than in their cubs. Except from PFHpA, all compounds correlated significantly between mothers and their cubs. The mean cub to mother ratios ranged from 0.15 for PFNA to 1.69 for PFHpA. On average (mean±standard error of mean), the levels of ∑₇PFCAs and ∑₂PFSAs in cubs were 0.24±0.01 and 0.22±0.01 times the levels in their mothers, respectively. Although maternal transfer appears to be a substantial source of exposure for the cubs, the low cub to mother ratios indicate that maternal transfer of PFASs in polar bears is relatively low in comparison with hydrophobic contaminants (e.g. PCBs). Because the level of several PFASs in mothers and cubs from both sampling years exceeded the levels associated

  1. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruderman, Michael A.; Wilson, Deirdra F.; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Background Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Methods Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Results Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05–4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00–2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73–2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45–2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37–2.53). Conclusions Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted. PMID:26492490

  2. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ruderman, Michael A; Wilson, Deirdra F; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53). Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  3. Aggregate and event-level associations of substance use and sexual behavior among gay and bisexual men: Comparing retrospective and prospective data

    PubMed Central

    Rendina, H. Jonathon; Moody, Raymond L.; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite limited research, some evidence suggests that examining substance use at multiple levels may be of greater utility in predicting sexual behavior than utilizing one level of measurement, particularly when investigating different substances simultaneously. We aimed to examine aggregated and event-level associations between three forms of substance use—alcohol, marijuana, and club drugs—and two sexual behavior outcomes—sexual engagement and condomless anal sex (CAS). Method Analyses focused on both 6-week timeline follow-back (TLFB; retrospective) and 30-day daily diary (prospective) data among a demographically diverse sample of 371 highly sexually active HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Results Models from both TLFB and diary showed that event-level use of alcohol, marijuana, and club drugs was associated with increased sexual engagement, while higher aggregated frequency marijuana and any frequency club drug use were associated with decreased sexual engagement. Event-level use of club drugs was consistently associated with increased odds of CAS across both TLFB and diary models while higher frequency marijuana use was most consistently associated with a lower odds of CAS. Conclusions Findings indicated that results are largely consistent between retrospective and prospective data, but that retrospective results for substance use and sexual engagement were generally greater in magnitude. These results suggest that substance use primarily acts to increase sexual risk at the event-level and less so through individual-level frequency of use; moreover, it primarily does so by increasing the likelihood of sex on a given day with fewer significant associations with the odds of CAS on sex days. PMID:26190557

  4. Aggregate and event-level associations between substance use and sexual behavior among gay and bisexual men: Comparing retrospective and prospective data.

    PubMed

    Rendina, H Jonathon; Moody, Raymond L; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-09-01

    Despite limited research, some evidence suggests that examining substance use at multiple levels may be of greater utility in predicting sexual behavior than utilizing one level of measurement, particularly when investigating different substances simultaneously. We aimed to examine aggregate and event-level associations between three forms of substance use - alcohol, marijuana, and club drugs - and two sexual behavior outcomes - sexual engagement and condomless anal sex (CAS). Analyses focused on both 6-week timeline follow-back (TLFB; retrospective) and 30-day daily diary (prospective) data among a demographically diverse sample of 371 highly sexually active HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Models from both TLFB and diary showed that event-level use of alcohol, marijuana, and club drugs was associated with increased sexual engagement, while higher aggregated frequency marijuana and any frequency club drug use were associated with decreased sexual engagement. Event-level use of club drugs was consistently associated with increased odds of CAS across both TLFB and diary models while higher frequency marijuana use was most consistently associated with a lower odds of CAS. Findings indicated that results are largely consistent between retrospective and prospective data, but that retrospective results for substance use and sexual engagement were generally greater in magnitude. These results suggest that substance use primarily acts to increase sexual risk at the event-level and less so through individual-level frequency of use; moreover, it primarily does so by increasing the likelihood of sex on a given day with fewer significant associations with the odds of CAS on sex days. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Humic substances alleviate the aquatic toxicity of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles to organisms of different trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuang; Quik, Joris T K; Song, Lan; Van Den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; Wouterse, Marja; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated how humic substances (HS) modify the aquatic toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as these particles agglomerate in water and interact with HS. An alga species (Raphidocelis subcapitata), a cladoceran species (Chydorus sphaericus), and a freshwater fish larva (Danio rerio), representing organisms of different trophic levels, were exposed to colloids of the polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs in the presence and absence of HS. Results show that the presence of HS alleviated the aquatic toxicity of the AgNP colloids to all the organisms in a dose-dependent manner. The particle size distribution of the AgNPs' colloidal particles shifted to lower values due to the presence of HS, implying that the decrease in the toxicity of the AgNP colloids cannot be explained by the variation of agglomeration size. The surface charge of the AgNPs was found to be more negative in the presence of high concentrations of HS, suggesting an electrostatic barrier by which HS might limit interactions between particles and algae cells; indeed, this effect reduced the algae toxicity. Observations on silver ions (Ag(+)) release show that HS inhibit AgNP dissolution, depending on the concentrations of HS. When toxic effects were expressed as a function of each Ag-species, toxicity of the free Ag(+) was found to be much higher than that of the agglomerated particles. © 2015 SETAC.

  6. Are levels of perfluoroalkyl substances in soil related to urbanization in rapidly developing coastal areas in North China?

    PubMed

    Meng, Jing; Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Yueqing; Li, Qifeng; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were quantified in 79 surface soil samples from 17 coastal cities in three provinces and one municipality along the Bohai and Yellow Seas. The ∑PFASs concentrations ranged from less than limitation of quantification (LOQ) to 13.97 ng/g dry weight (dw), with a mean of 0.98 ng/g dw. The highest concentration was observed along the Xiaoqing River from Shandong province, followed by that from the Haihe River in Tianjin (10.62 ng/g dw). Among four regions, ∑PFASs concentrations decreased in the order of Tianjin, Shandong, Liaoning and Hebei, which was consistent with levels of urbanization. Fluorine chemical industries allocated in Shandong and Liaoning played important roles in terms of point emission and contamination of PFASs, dominated by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Intensive anthropogenic activities involved in urbanization possibly resulted in increasing releases of PFASs from industrial and domestic sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Trace Level Determination of Mesityl Oxide and Diacetone Alcohol in Atazanavir Sulfate Drug Substance by a Gas Chromatography Method.

    PubMed

    Raju, K V S N; Pavan Kumar, K S R; Siva Krishna, N; Madhava Reddy, P; Sreenivas, N; Kumar Sharma, Hemant; Himabindu, G; Annapurna, N

    2016-01-01

    A capillary gas chromatography method with a short run time, using a flame ionization detector, has been developed for the quantitative determination of trace level analysis of mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol in the atazanavir sulfate drug substance. The chromatographic method was achieved on a fused silica capillary column coated with 5% diphenyl and 95% dimethyl polysiloxane stationary phase (Rtx-5, 30 m x 0.53 mm x 5.0 µm). The run time was 20 min employing programmed temperature with a split mode (1:5) and was validated for specificity, sensitivity, precision, linearity, and accuracy. The detection and quantitation limits obtained for mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol were 5 µg/g and 10 µg/g, respectively, for both of the analytes. The method was found to be linear in the range between 10 µg/g and 150 µg/g with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.999, and the average recoveries obtained in atazanavir sulfate were between 102.0% and 103.7%, respectively, for mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol. The developed method was found to be robust and rugged. The detailed experimental results are discussed in this research paper.

  8. Trace Level Determination of Mesityl Oxide and Diacetone Alcohol in Atazanavir Sulfate Drug Substance by a Gas Chromatography Method

    PubMed Central

    Raju, K. V. S. N.; Pavan Kumar, K. S. R.; Siva Krishna, N.; Madhava Reddy, P.; Sreenivas, N.; Kumar Sharma, Hemant; Himabindu, G.; Annapurna, N.

    2016-01-01

    A capillary gas chromatography method with a short run time, using a flame ionization detector, has been developed for the quantitative determination of trace level analysis of mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol in the atazanavir sulfate drug substance. The chromatographic method was achieved on a fused silica capillary column coated with 5% diphenyl and 95% dimethyl polysiloxane stationary phase (Rtx-5, 30 m x 0.53 mm x 5.0 µm). The run time was 20 min employing programmed temperature with a split mode (1:5) and was validated for specificity, sensitivity, precision, linearity, and accuracy. The detection and quantitation limits obtained for mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol were 5 µg/g and 10 µg/g, respectively, for both of the analytes. The method was found to be linear in the range between 10 µg/g and 150 µg/g with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.999, and the average recoveries obtained in atazanavir sulfate were between 102.0% and 103.7%, respectively, for mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol. The developed method was found to be robust and rugged. The detailed experimental results are discussed in this research paper. PMID:27222607

  9. Maternal serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances and organochlorines and indices of fetal growth: a Scandinavian case–cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, Hilde B.; Larose, Tricia L.; Øien, Torbjørn; Sandanger, Torkjel M.; Odland, Jon Ø.; van de Bor, Margot; Jacobsen, Geir W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The associations between prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) and fetal growth are inconsistent, and few studies have considered small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth as an outcome. Our current study of Scandinavian parous women aimed to address these inconsistencies and gaps in the literature. Methods: This case–cohort study included 424 mother–child pairs who participated in a prospective, multi-center study of parous women in Norway (Trondheim and Bergen) and Sweden (Uppsala). We used linear and logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to analyze the associations between two perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and five organochlorines (OCs) from early second trimester and indices of fetal growth. Results: Among Swedish women, prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153 and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were associated with higher odds for SGA birth. We found stronger associations among Swedish male offspring. In the Norwegian cohort, we found no significant associations between EDC exposure and indices of fetal growth. Conclusions: Some populations may be more vulnerable to EDCs, possibly due to differences in exposure levels, exposure sources and/or modifiable lifestyle factors. Male offspring may be more vulnerable to endocrine disruption. PMID:27656770

  10. Structure-based thresholds of toxicological concern-guidance for application to substances present at low levels in the diet

    SciTech Connect

    Renwick, A.G. . E-mail: A.G.Renwick@soton.ac.uk

    2005-09-01

    Health-based guidance values, such as the ADI, use chemical-specific data to determine the highest intake that would be without significant adverse health effects. A threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) is a level of intake predicted to be without adverse effects based on the toxicity of structurally related compounds. The main advantage of the use of TTCs is that the risk of low exposures can be evaluated without the need for chemical-specific animal toxicity data. TTCs have been used for many years for screening the safety of packaging migrants by the FDA in the USA, and of flavoring substances, by the JECFA. A recent reassessment of the use of TTCs, organized by ILSI Europe, has developed a decision tree which allows a systematic approach to the evaluation of low levels of diverse chemicals in food. The decision tree incorporates a series of increasing TTC values into a step-wise approach. Potentially genotoxic carcinogens are considered first, based on the presence of known structural alerts. Aflatoxin-like, azoxy- and nitroso-compounds are removed from consideration because they are the most potent, and a practical TTC could not be established. Other compounds with structural alerts for genotoxicity are allocated a TTC of 0.15 {mu}g/person per day. Compounds without structural alerts for genotoxicity are evaluated based on chemical structure and intake using a series of TTC values derived by the application of a 100-fold uncertainty factor to the 5th percentile of the distribution of NOAELs from chronic studies on compounds sharing similar structural characteristics.

  11. Structure-based thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC): guidance for application to substances present at low levels in the diet.

    PubMed

    Kroes, R; Renwick, A G; Cheeseman, M; Kleiner, J; Mangelsdorf, I; Piersma, A; Schilter, B; Schlatter, J; van Schothorst, F; Vos, J G; Würtzen, G

    2004-01-01

    The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) is a pragmatic risk assessment tool that is based on the principle of establishing a human exposure threshold value for all chemicals, below which there is a very low probability of an appreciable risk to human health. The concept that there are levels of exposure that do not cause adverse effects is inherent in setting acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) for chemicals with known toxicological profiles. The TTC principle extends this concept by proposing that a de minimis value can be identified for many chemicals, in the absence of a full toxicity database, based on their chemical structures and the known toxicity of chemicals which share similar structural characteristics. The establishment and application of widely accepted TTC values would benefit consumers, industry and regulators. By avoiding unnecessary toxicity testing and safety evaluations when human intakes are below such a threshold, application of the TTC approach would focus limited resources of time, cost, animal use and expertise on the testing and evaluation of substances with the greatest potential to pose risks to human health and thereby contribute to a reduction in the use of animals. An Expert Group of the European branch of the International Life Sciences Institute-ILSI Europe-has examined the TTC principle for its wider applicability in food safety evaluation. The Expert Group examined metabolism and accumulation, structural alerts, endocrine disrupting chemicals and specific endpoints, such as neurotoxicity, teratogenicity, developmental toxicity, allergenicity and immunotoxicity, and determined whether such properties or endpoints had to be taken into consideration specifically in a step-wise approach. The Expert Group concluded that the TTC principle can be applied for low concentrations in food of chemicals that lack toxicity data, provided that there is a sound intake estimate. The use of a decision tree to apply the TTC principle is proposed

  12. Risks go beyond the violence: Association between intimate partner violence, mental illness, and substance abuse among females admitted to a rural Level I trauma center.

    PubMed

    Hink, Ashley B; Toschlog, Eric; Waibel, Brett; Bard, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant cause of intentional injury among women but remains underrecognized, and its relationship to other risk factors for all-cause injury remains poorly defined. This study aimed to assess IPV and its association with alcohol abuse, illicit substance use, selected mental illnesses, and other risk factors for injury. This is a cross-sectional study of prospectively collected data among adult females admitted to a rural, Level I trauma center. Well-validated instruments assessed IPV, substance abuse, and mental illness. Bivariate relationships were assessed with χ, odds ratios, and t test analyses. Eighty-one women were enrolled; 51% reported lifetime IPV, and 31% reported past-year IPV. Both groups were significantly more likely to have a mental illness than those without a history of IPV. Those reporting lifetime IPV exposure were significantly more likely to report illicit substance use, and past-year IPV was associated with alcohol abuse (28% vs. 7.1%, p = 0.01). Participants reporting past-year IPV were significantly more likely to have a partner possessing a firearm (40% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.005). The experience of lifetime and past-year IPV among women at a Level I, rural trauma center was high, and it was significantly associated with mental illness, substance abuse, and high-risk scenarios for intentional injury including firearm ownership by a significant other. These findings inform the potential value of IPV screening and intervention and suggest that IPV, mental illness, and substance abuse should be considered associated entities in prevention and recidivism reduction efforts in the female trauma population. Prognostic study, level II; therapeutic study, level III.

  13. Association of cerebrospinal fluid levels of lateral olfactory tract usher substance (LOTUS) with disease activity in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Keita; Kurihara, Yuji; Suzuki, Yume; Goshima, Yoshio; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Takei, Kohtaro

    2015-02-01

    Although multiple sclerosis (MS) is generally considered an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, axonal degeneration through Nogo receptor-1 signaling was recently recognized as an important pathological feature. Our previous identification of lateral olfactory tract usher substance (LOTUS), an endogenous Nogo receptor-1 antagonist, prompted us to analyze the relationship between LOTUS levels of cerebrospinal fluid and the clinical course of MS to evaluate whether LOTUS could be a useful biomarker for MS. To examine variations in LOTUS concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with MS in accordance with their clinical course. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained retrospectively from normal controls (NCs; n = 27) and patients with MS (n = 40), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (n = 22), and multiple system atrophy (n = 10) between January 1, 2008, and January 1, 2014. Patients with MS were divided into relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS; n = 30) and secondary progressive MS (n = 10). Patients with RRMS were further divided into relapse and remission groups. The LOTUS concentration in cerebropsinal fluid was quantitatively detected by immunoblotting using a specific LOTUS antibody and the concentrations compared in accordance with the patients' clinical course, such as remission and relapse groups in RRMS and secondary progressive MS. The mean (SD) cerebrospinal fluid LOTUS concentration in the relapse group of RRMS (9.3 [3.6] µg/dL) was lower than that of NCs (19.2 [4.7] µg/dL; P < .001) whereas the level in the remission group of RRMS (19.6 [5.8] µg/dL) was similar to that of NCs. The LOTUS concentration in SPMS (6.7 [1.4] µg/dL; P < .001) was lower than that of NCs and the remission group of RRMS. The LOTUS levels in other neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple system atrophy, were normal. Variations in LOTUS concentrations were correlated with disease

  14. Strategies for eliminating and reducing persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances: common approaches, emerging trends, and level of success.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kate

    2006-12-01

    This paper reviews nine of the best-known strategies for eliminatine and reducing substances in the category known as "persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances" (PBTSs). The nine strategies are as follows: 1) Ontario's Candidate Substances List for Bans and Phase-outs (1992), 2) Canada's ARET Program (1994), 3) Canada's Toxic Substances Management Policy (1995), 4) the Commission for Environmental Cooperation's Sound Management of Chemicals Initiative (1995), 5) the Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy (1997), 6) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) draft National PBT Strategy (1998), 7) U.S. EPA's Waste Minimization Program (1998), 8) the U.N. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (2001), and 9) Washington State's Rule on Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxins (2006). The review describes the commonalities among the strategies, including their goals and principles, design approaches, and other common elements. It also discusses several emerging trends, such as the increasing importance of economic considerations, human health information, and nonregulatory management approaches. The paper concludes with a discussion of how effective the strategies have been at achieving their goals of elimination and reduction of persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances.

  15. [Effect of lysis of acupotomology on plasma vasoactive substance levels in rats with third lumbar vertebra transverse process syndrome].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang-Qing; Liu, Nai-Gang; Li, Xiao-Hong; Sun, Hong-Mei; Lu, Jing; Ma, Hui-Fang; Chen, Zhan-Lu; Hu, Bo; Liu, Lin; Zhu, Han-Zhang

    2007-10-01

    To observe the effect of small needle-knife lysis on plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), endothelin (ET), 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha (6-keto-PGF1alpha), thromboxane A2 (TXA2) contents in rats with experimental third lumbar vertebra transverse process syndrome (TLVTPS) so as to explore its underlying mechanism in clinical treatment. Forty SD rats were randomly divided into normal control, model, lysis and EA groups. TLVTPS model was established by embedding a piece of gelatin sponge (0.5 cm x 0.5 cm) to the transverse process of the 3rd lumbar vertebra under anesthesia. EA (2/100 Hz, 1-2 mA) was applied to left "Shenshu" (BL23) -"Yaoyangguan" (GV3) for 20 min, once every other day, 6 times altogether. For animals of lysis group, the lysis was performed by using a small needle-knife in the induration spot or cord-like region near the incision, once a week and twice altogether. Four weeks later after modeling, plasma CGRP, ET, 6-keto-PGF1alpha and TXA2 contents were detected by using radioimmunoassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with normal control group, plasma CGRP, ET, TXA2 and 6-keto-PGF1alpha increased significantly in model group (P<0.01); in comparison with model group, plasma CGRP, TXA2 and 6-keto-PGF1alpha in both EA and lysis groups decreased considerably (P<0.05, 0.01). No significant differences were found between EA and lysis groups in plasma CGRP, ET and 6-keto-PGF1alpha levels (P>0.05). Both EA and lysis of acupotomology have an adjusting effect on vasoactive substances (CGRP, TXA2 and 6-keto-PGF1alpha) levels in TLVTPS rats, which may contribute to their effects in improving local blood circulation and relieving soft tissue injury in the treatment of third lumbar vertebra transverse process syndrome.

  16. Brief Family Intervention Effects on Adolescent Substance Initiation: School-Level Growth Curve Analyses 6 Years Following Baseline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol; Azevedo,Kari

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the effects of 2 brief family-focused interventions on the trajectories of substance initiation over a period of 6 years following a baseline assessment. The 2 interventions, designed for general-population families of adolescents, were the 7-session Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP) (Molgaard & Spoth, 2001) and the…

  17. Organizational-Level Correlates of the Provision of Detoxification Services and Medication-Based Treatments for Substance Abuse in Correctional Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Hannah K.; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Taxman, Faye; Leukefeld, Carl

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased examination of organizational-level innovation adoption in substance abuse treatment organizations. However, the majority of these studies have focused on community-based treatment centers. One understudied area of the substance abuse treatment system is correctional institutions. This study uses the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) cooperative’s National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey (NCJTP) to examine the adoption of detoxification services and pharmacotherapies for the treatment of substance abuse across a nationally representative sample of correctional institutions (n=198). There were significant differences between jails and prisons in the percentage of organizations offering detoxification services and medications. Specifically, detoxification services were offered by 5% of prisons and 34% of jails; and, medications were offered by 6% of prisons and 32% of jails. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between these services and organizational characteristics, including context, resources, previously introduced practices, culture, and systems integration. Variables measuring organizational context and previously introduced practices were significant correlates of the provision of both detoxification services and medications. Multivariate results indicated that the differences between jails and prisons remained significant after controlling for other organizational factors. Although the adoption of detoxification services and pharmacotherapies may be a controversial topic for correctional institutions, these services have the potential to improve offender well-being and reduce public health risks associated with substance abuse. PMID:19108957

  18. Effects of low-level dams on the distribution of sediment, trace metals, and organic substances in the lower Schuylkill River basin, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yorke, Thomas H.; Stamer, John K.; Pederson, Gary L.

    1985-01-01

    Heavy use of the Schuylkill River for municipal water supplies and a history of accidental spills and discharges of trace metals and organic substances have been a concern of State and local officials for many years. The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of their River Quality Assessment Program, developed a study to assess the occurrence and distribution of trace substances that pose a threat to human health and aquatic life. This report presents the results of the part of the study that evaluates the effects of low-level dams in the lower basin on the distribution and transport of sediment and trace substances. A combination of historical and current data were used in the assessment. Suspended-sediment data collected at several mainstem and tributary sites from 1954 to 1979 and sedimentation surveys of the six pools in the lower basin were used to define the sediment-transport characteristics of the river. These data provided a base for assessing the transport of trace substances, which are associated closely with riverbed sediments and suspended particles. Water and riverbed samples were collected for analyses of trace substances at numerous sites in the lower basin from 1978 to 1980. The six dams on the river between Pottstown and Philadelphia have had a significant effect on the transport of sediment and trace substances. Between 1954 and 1970, more than 4.7 million cubic yards of sediment accumulated in the pools formed by the dams. The quantity of sediment deposited in the pools ranged from 150,000 cubic yards in Plymouth Pool to 1.6 million cubic yards in Fairmount Pool. The rate of accumulation in the pools was a function of pool size and geometry and the frequency of storms. About 35 percent of the total sediment discharged by the river was stored in the six pools from 1954 to 1970. Since 1970, the net change in sediment accumulation has been minimal. More than 24 percent of the sediment in Fairmount Pool in 1970 was scoured from the pool during Hurricane

  19. Prenatal exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A and perfluoroalkyl substances and cord blood levels of IgE, TSLP and IL-33.

    PubMed

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Levy, Adrian R; Platt, Robert W; Marshall, Jean S; Arbuckle, Tye E

    2015-07-01

    The fetal time period is a critical window of immune system development and resulting heightened susceptibility to the adverse effects of environmental exposures. Epidemiologists and toxicologists have hypothesized that phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA) and perfluoroalkyl substance have immunotoxic properties. Immunotoxic effects of chemicals may manifest in an altered immune system profile at birth. Immunoglobulin E, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and interleukin-33 (IL-33) are integral in the etiology of childhood allergy and detectable at birth. The objective of this study was to determine the association between maternal levels of phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and perfluoroalkyl substances and elevated umbilical cord blood levels of IgE, TSLP, and IL-33. This study utilized data collected in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada cohort study of 2001 pregnant women. Of these women, 1258 had a singleton, term birth and cord blood sample. A Bayesian hierarchical model was employed to determine associations between log-transformed continuous variables and immune system biomarkers while adjusting for potential confounding from correlated environmental contaminants. Inverse, nonlinear associations were observed between maternal urinary MCPP levels and elevated levels of both IL-33/TSLP and IgE and between maternal urinary BPA levels and elevated levels of IL-33/TSLP. In this primarily urban Canadian population of pregnant women and their newborns, maternal urinary and plasma concentrations of phthalate metabolites, BPA, and perfluoroalkyl substances were not associated with immunotoxic effects that manifest as increased odds of elevated levels of IgE, TSLP or IL-33. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reaction conditions affecting the relationship between thiobarbituric acid reactivity and lipid peroxides in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, D; Ciofani, G; Pierdomenico, S D; Giamberardino, M A; Cuccurullo, F

    2001-08-01

    The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactivity of human plasma was studied to evaluate its adequacy in quantifying lipid peroxidation as an index of systemic oxidative stress. Two spectrophotometric TBA tests based on the use of either phosphoric acid (pH 2.0, method A) or trichloroacetic plus hydrochloric acid (pH 0.9, method B) were employed with and without sodium sulfate (SS) to inhibit sialic acid (SA) reactivity with TBA. To correct for background absorption, the absorbance values at 572 nm were subtracted from those at 532 nm, which represent the absorption maximum of the TBA:MDA adduct. Method B gave values of TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) 2-fold higher than those detected with method A. SS lowered TBARS by about 50% with both methods, indicating a significant involvement of SA in plasma TBA reactivity. Standard SA, at a physiologically relevant concentration of 1.5 mM, reacted with TBA, creating interference problems, which were substantially eliminated by SS plus correction for background absorbance. When method B was carried out in the lipid and protein fraction of plasma, SS inhibited by 65% TBARS formation only in the latter. Protein TBARS may be largely ascribed to SA-containing glycoproteins and, to a minor extent, protein-bound MDA. Indeed, EDTA did not affect protein TBARS assessed in the presence of SS. TBA reactivity of whole plasma and of its lipid fraction was instead inhibited by EDTA, suggesting that lipoperoxides (and possibly monofunctional lipoperoxidation aldehydes) are involved as MDA precursors in the TBA test. Pretreatment of plasma with KI, a specific reductant of hydroperoxides, decreased TBARS by about 27%. Moreover, aspirin administration to humans to inhibit prostaglandin endoperoxide generation reduced plasma TBARS by 40%. In conclusion, reaction conditions affect the relationship between TBA reactivity and lipid peroxidation in human plasma. After correction for the interfering effects of SA in the TBA test, 40% of plasma TBARS

  1. Current levels and trends of selected EU Water Framework Directive priority substances in freshwater fish from the German environmental specimen bank.

    PubMed

    Fliedner, Annette; Lohmann, Nina; Rüdel, Heinz; Teubner, Diana; Wellmitz, Jörg; Koschorreck, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Under the German environmental specimen bank programme bream (Abramis brama) were sampled in six German rivers and analysed for the priority hazardous substances dicofol, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD), heptachlor + heptachlor epoxide (HC + HCE), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCDD/Fs + dl-PCBs), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). The aim was to assess compliance with the EU Water Framework Directive environmental quality standards for biota (EQSBiota) for the year 2013, and to analyse temporal trends for those substances that are of special concern. General compliance was observed for dicofol, HBCDD and HCBD whereas PBDEs exceeded the EQSBiota at all sites. For all other substances compliance in 2013 varied between locations. No assessment was possible for HC + HCE at some sites where the analytical sensitivity was not sufficient to cover the EQSBiota. Trend analysis showed decreasing linear trends for HCB and PFOS at most sampling sites between 1995 and 2014 indicating that the emission reduction measures are effective. Mostly decreasing trends or constant levels were also observed for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. In contrast, increasing trends were detected for PBDEs and HBCDD which were especially pronounced at one Saar site located downstream of the industries and conurbation of Saarbrücken and Völklingen. This finding points to new sources of emissions which should be followed in the coming years.

  2. Assessment of the levels of potentially toxic substances around a transect of anthrosols in Aqaba shoreline, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahsha, Mohammad; Al-Rousan, Saber; Al-Jawasreh, Raid

    2016-04-01

    Soils are the major sink for potentially toxic substances (PTSs) such as heavy metals released into the environment by emissions from the quickly increasing of human impact including industrial mine tailings, disposal of high metal wastes, land misuse, wastewater irrigation, spillage of petrochemicals, and atmospheric deposition. The present study concerns the properties variability and soil biological health status in abandoned salt transportation port site in the Jordanian coast of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Seven sites were selected according to different morphological and pedological conditions, anthropogenic impact and the same climate conditions. Successively, all locations were sampled for topsoil in the period between spring-summer 2014. Field observations as well as laboratory analysis including heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn); soil chemo-physical parameters (pH, soil dry mass, carbonate, water holding, organic carbon content, soil particle size distribution), and quality of soil's biological community were determined. The anthropogenic influence related to former port activity on soils of the studied area is evident. Soils in the studied area site are highly contaminated by PTSs, mainly Cu and Zn, by 648, 298.6 mgKg-1respectively. Former activities proved to affect the microarthropods community altering both quantity and quality of soil and the chemo-physical structure of the microhabitats. The evaluation of soil biological quality index (QBS-ar) of the surface horizons from the study area is demonstrated that the area is "sufferings" since it is affected by PTSs contamination resulting in a failure in the ecological success of secondary recolonization after abandonment. However, there is an increasing need for further research in the soils of Aqaba focusing on soil health management , combining QBS-ar index with soil chemo-physical properties. Key words: Potentially Toxic Substances, Heavy Metals, Soil Quality.

  3. Hospitalizations for Substance Abuse Disorders Before and After Hurricane Katrina: Spatial Clustering and Area-Level Predictors, New Orleans, 2004 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Marilyn O.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Identifying at-risk groups is a challenge in post-disaster psychosocial response. Geospatial techniques can support the design and deployment of targeted and tailored interventions. This study compared spatial patterns in the distribution of hospitalizations for substance abuse disorders and associated area-level predictors before and after Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, Louisiana. Methods We used hospital data from the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals for 2004 (pre-Katrina) and 2008 (post-Katrina). Data were assessed by using descriptive statistics, multivariable Poisson regression, and geospatial analysis. We assessed hospitalizations by US Census block group in relation to the presence of blighted properties (ie, buildings declared an imminent health threat, in danger of collapse, or a public nuisance), race of residents (white or nonwhite), presence of nondisplaced residents (measured by the number of households receiving mail in 2008), and depth of water levels. Results The hospitalization rate for substance abuse disorders was 7.13 per 1,000 population for 2004 and 9.65 per 1,000 for 2008. The concentration of hospitalizations shifted geographically from block groups exposed to floods (levee breaches) in 2004 to the center of the city in 2008. Post Katrina, predictors for hospitalizations were presence of blighted properties, nonwhite populations, and presence of nondisplaced residents. Distance from flooded areas (high water depth) and levee breaches was negatively associated with hospitalizations. Men were more likely than women to be hospitalized during both periods (78%, 2004; 63%, 2008), and the percentage of the hospitalized white population increased from 2004 (28.8%) to 2008 (44.9%). Conclusion Geographic patterns of hospitalizations for substance abuse disorders shifted in post-Katrina New Orleans from flood-exposed areas to less exposed areas in the center of the city; however, poverty was a main predictor for

  4. Hospitalizations for Substance Abuse Disorders Before and After Hurricane Katrina: Spatial Clustering and Area-Level Predictors, New Orleans, 2004 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Moise, Imelda K; Ruiz, Marilyn O

    2016-10-13

    Identifying at-risk groups is a challenge in post-disaster psychosocial response. Geospatial techniques can support the design and deployment of targeted and tailored interventions. This study compared spatial patterns in the distribution of hospitalizations for substance abuse disorders and associated area-level predictors before and after Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, Louisiana. We used hospital data from the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals for 2004 (pre-Katrina) and 2008 (post-Katrina). Data were assessed by using descriptive statistics, multivariable Poisson regression, and geospatial analysis. We assessed hospitalizations by US Census block group in relation to the presence of blighted properties (ie, buildings declared an imminent health threat, in danger of collapse, or a public nuisance), race of residents (white or nonwhite), presence of nondisplaced residents (measured by the number of households receiving mail in 2008), and depth of water levels. The hospitalization rate for substance abuse disorders was 7.13 per 1,000 population for 2004 and 9.65 per 1,000 for 2008. The concentration of hospitalizations shifted geographically from block groups exposed to floods (levee breaches) in 2004 to the center of the city in 2008. Post Katrina, predictors for hospitalizations were presence of blighted properties, nonwhite populations, and presence of nondisplaced residents. Distance from flooded areas (high water depth) and levee breaches was negatively associated with hospitalizations. Men were more likely than women to be hospitalized during both periods (78%, 2004; 63%, 2008), and the percentage of the hospitalized white population increased from 2004 (28.8%) to 2008 (44.9%). Geographic patterns of hospitalizations for substance abuse disorders shifted in post-Katrina New Orleans from flood-exposed areas to less exposed areas in the center of the city; however, poverty was a main predictor for hospitalizations during both periods. Approaches

  5. Nucleic acid reactivity : challenges for next-generation semiempirical quantum models

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ming; Giese, Timothy J.; York, Darrin M.

    2016-01-01

    Semiempirical quantum models are routinely used to study mechanisms of RNA catalysis and phosphoryl transfer reactions using combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical methods. Herein, we provide a broad assessment of the performance of existing semiempirical quantum models to describe nucleic acid structure and reactivity in order to quantify their limitations and guide the development of next-generation quantum models with improved accuracy. Neglect of diatomic diffierential overlap (NDDO) and self-consistent density-functional tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) semiempirical models are evaluated against high-level quantum mechanical benchmark calculations for seven biologically important data sets. The data sets include: proton affinities, polarizabilities, nucleobase dimer interactions, dimethyl phosphate anion, nucleoside sugar and glycosidic torsion conformations, and RNA phosphoryl transfer model reactions. As an additional baseline, comparisons are made with several commonly used density-functional models, including M062X and B3LYP (in some cases with dispersion corrections). The results show that, among the semiempirical models examined, the AM1/d-PhoT model is the most robust at predicting proton affinities. AM1/d-PhoT and DFTB3-3ob/OPhyd reproduce the MP2 potential energy surfaces of 6 associative RNA phosphoryl transfer model reactions reasonably well. Further, a recently developed linear-scaling “modified divide-and-conquer” model exhibits the most accurate results for binding energies of both hydrogen bonded and stacked nucleobase dimers. The semiempirical models considered here are shown to underestimate the isotropic polarizabilities of neutral molecules by approximately 30%. The semiempirical models also fail to adequately describe torsion profiles within the dimethyl phosphate anion, the nucleoside sugar ring puckers, and the rotations about the nucleoside glycosidic bond. The modeling of pentavalent phosphorus, particularly with thio

  6. Levels and spatial distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances in China Liaodong Bay basin with concentrated fluorine industry parks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Can; Han, Jianbo; Sun, Ruijun; Kong, Xiangyun; Wang, Xiaomeng; He, Xin

    2015-12-30

    Eighteen different perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in 35 river water samples and 34 sediment samples collected from rivers in the Liaodong Bay basin containing two fluorine industry parks. Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were the predominant PFASs in freshwater, with median concentrations of 26.5 ng/L and 1.87 ng/L, respectively. However, perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) had the highest maximum concentration (up to 124.1 ng/L, approximately two orders of magnitude higher) in water at a site which is the nearest to the industrial source of PFASs. Total PFASs in water at this site were also the highest. In contrast, PFOA and perfluorooctadecanoate (PFOcDA) were the most abundant PFASs in sediment, with median concentrations of 1.19 ng/g and 0.35 ng/g, respectively. Total PFAS concentrations in sediment from the site near to the industrial park were significantly higher than the other rivers. Mass loading of total PFASs from the rivers flowing into Liaodong Bay was estimated to be 506 kg/year.

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and perfluoroalkyl substances in serum of pregnant women: levels, correlations, and potential health implications.

    PubMed

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Nielsen, Flemming; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Husby, Steffen; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Barington, Torben; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2014-07-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a group of flame retardants, and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were analysed in serum samples of pregnant women from Denmark to provide information about their exposure and to study indications of common exposure pathways. The main BDE congener was the fully brominated BDE-209 with a median value of 7.5 ng/g lipid (46 pg/mL; 9.8 pmol/g lipid). Other BDE congeners decreased in the order BDE-47 > BDE-99 > BDE-153. The summed concentration of tri- to hepta-BDEs was 7.7 ng/g lipid, i.e. in the higher end of previously reported concentrations from Europe, including plasma samples of pregnant Danish women. Total lipid contents were relatively low, on average 5.9 g/L (9.0 mmol/L). The main PFAS compound was perfluorooctane sulfonate with a median concentration of 8.4 ng/mL. Other PFASs decreased in the order perfluorooctanoic acid > perfluorononanoic acid > perfluorodecanoic acid > perfluorohexane sulfonate and resulted in a ΣPFAS of 12 ng/mL. Within each group, compounds were highly intercorrelated with the exception of BDE-209, which was not correlated with any of the other compounds. No correlations were found either between PFASs and PBDEs suggesting different sources of exposure and/or pharmacokinetic and metabolisation processes. PBDE and PFAS concentrations were in the range associated with adverse effects in some epidemiological studies.

  8. Quality survey of natural mineral water and spring water sold in France: Monitoring of hormones, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, perfluoroalkyl substances, phthalates, and alkylphenols at the ultra-trace level.

    PubMed

    Le Coadou, Laurine; Le Ménach, Karyn; Labadie, Pierre; Dévier, Marie-Hélène; Pardon, Patrick; Augagneur, Sylvie; Budzinski, Hélène

    2017-12-15

    The aim of the present study, one of the most complete ever performed in France, was to carry out an extensive survey on the potential presence of a large amount of emerging contaminants in 40 French bottled waters, including parent compounds and metabolites. The studied samples represented 70% of the French bottled water market in volume. Six classes of compounds were investigated, most of them being unregulated in bottled waters: pesticides and their transformation products (118), pharmaceutical substances (172), hormones (11), alkylphenols (APs) (8), phthalates (11) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) (10). One of the objectives of this work was to achieve low and reliable limits of quantification (LOQs) (87% of the LOQs were below 10ng/L) using advanced analytical technologies and reliable sample preparation methodologies, including stringent quality controls. Among the 14,000 analyses performed, 99.7% of the results were below the LOQs. None of the hormones, pharmaceutical substances and phthalates were quantified. Nineteen compounds out of the 330 investigated were quantified in 11 samples. Eleven were pesticides including 7 metabolites, 6 were PFAS and 2 were APs. As regards pesticides, their sum was at least twice lower than the quality standards applicable for bottled waters in France. The presence of a majority of pesticide metabolites suggested a former use in the recharge areas of the exploited aquifers. The quantification of a few unregulated emerging compounds at the nano-trace level, such as PFAS, raised the issue of their potential sources, including long-range atmospheric transport and deposition. This study confirmed that the groundwater aquifers exploited for bottling were well-preserved from chemicals, as compared to less geologically protected groundwaters, and also underlined the need to pursue the protection policies implemented in recharge areas in order to limit the anthropogenic pressure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. [The forecast of illicit drug use in adolescents with addictive behavior: personality traits and the level of genetic risk of substance dependence.

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, A N; Brodyansky, V M; Schurina, A V; Romashkin, R A; Kibitov, A O

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the psychological mechanism underlying the genetic risk of substance addiction at the first stage of drug use by adolescents. Genetic risk was evaluated by genotyping of 5 polymorphisms of the dopaminergic system genes (dopamine receptor D2 and D4 genes and tyrosine hydroxylase gene). Psychological testing was performed using the Russian version of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-125). Seventy-five adolescents, aged 14-17 years, (girls 32%), who misused alcohol, including 22 adolescents using drugs, were examined. The level of genetic risk was directly correlated with the probability of drug use by boys, for girls the correlation was not confirmed. The increase of the level of genetic risk for boys was correlated with the increase on the scale «Self-directedness» of TCI-125 that may reflect a probable tendency to replacement of negative information, feeling of illusory wellbeing. The findings clarify the direction of measures for the prevention of drug use.

  10. Severity scores, itch scores and plasma substance P levels in atopic dermatitis treated with standard topical therapy with oral olopatadine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Chisato; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Furue, Masutaka

    2009-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. Recently, substance P (SP) has been demonstrated to be one of the important neuropeptides for mediating itch-scratch and stress-scratch cycles. In this study, we examined the severity scores, itch scores and plasma SP levels in 19 patients with AD treated with standard topical therapy with or without an oral antihistamine, olopatadine hydrochloride, for 4 weeks. The standard therapy decreased SCORAD scores, itch behavioral rating scores and plasma SP levels at post-treatment in the mass, but the topical therapy with olopatadine was more effective than the topical therapy alone, suggesting a potential additive effect.

  11. Persistent toxic substances in remote lake and coastal sediments from Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic: levels, sources and fluxes.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Liping; Zheng, Gene J; Minh, Tu Binh; Richardson, Bruce; Chen, Liqi; Zhang, Yuanhui; Yeung, Leo W; Lam, James C W; Yang, Xulin; Lam, Paul K S; Wong, Ming H

    2009-04-01

    Surface sediments from remote lakes and coastal areas from Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Relatively high levels of PAHs were encountered from several lakes from Ny-Alesund, which were within the range of levels reported for European high mountain lakes and some urban/industrialized areas in the world, pointing to the role of remote Arctic lakes as potential reservoir of semi-volatile organic compounds. Specific patterns of PBDEs were observed, showing higher concentrations of lower brominated compounds such as BDE-7, 17 and 28. Estimated surface sediment fluxes of PAHs in Ny-Alesund remote lakes were similar to those observed for some European high mountain lakes. The current PAH levels in sediments from three lakes exceeded Canadian sediment quality guidelines, suggesting the presence of possible risks for aquatic organisms and the need for further studies.

  12. How community-level social and economic developments have changed the patterns of substance use in a transition economy?

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaozhao Y

    2017-07-01

    Most social changes take place at the community level before indirectly affecting individuals. Although the contextual effect is far-reaching, few studies have investigated the important questions of: how do community-level developments affect drinking and smoking, and how do they change the existing gender and income patterns of drinking and smoking, particularly in transition economies? In this study, I used a Chinese panel dataset between 1991 and 2011 to reveal the moderating effects of community developments. Through multilevel growth curve modeling that controls for age, period, and cohort effects, as well as individual- and community-level covariates, I found that community-level economic development and social development are negatively associated with drinking and smoking. Moreover, economic and social developments also moderate the important influences of income and gender: women start to drink more in communities with higher economic development; the traditionally positive association between income and smoking/drinking is also reversed, i.e. the rich start to smoke and drink less in communities with higher social development. This study concludes that the rapid changes in communal social and economic structures have created new health disparities based on the gender and socioeconomic hierarchy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Levels of explanation in psychiatric and substance use disorders: implications for the development of an etiologically based nosology

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, KS

    2011-01-01

    The soft medical model for psychiatric illness, which was operationalized in DSM-III, defines psychiatric disorders as syndromes with shared symptoms, signs, course of illness and response to treatment. Many in our field want to move to a hard medical model based on etiological mechanisms. This essay explores the feasibility of this move and asks whether psychiatric disorders have the needed single clear level of explanation for an etiologically based nosology. I propose seven criteria for a good explanation: (i) strength, (ii) causal confidence, (iii) generalizability, (iv) specificity, (v) manipulability, (vi) proximity and (vii) generativity. Applying them to cystic fibrosis, a gene-level approach to etiology performs well across the board. By contrast, a detailed review of alcohol dependence and a briefer review of major depression suggests that psychiatric disorders have multiple explanatory perspectives no one of which can be privileged over others using scientific data alone. Therefore, a move toward an etiologically based diagnostic system cannot assume that one level of explanation will stand out as the obvious candidate on which to base the nosology. This leaves two options. Either a hard medical model will be implemented that will require a consensus about a preferred level of explanation which must reflect value judgments as well as science. To take this approach, we need to agree on what we most want from our explanations. Alternatively, we will need to move away from the traditional hard medical model that requires that we ground our diagnoses in single biological essences, and focus instead on fuzzy, cross-level mechanisms, which may more realistically capture the true nature of psychiatric disorders. PMID:21670729

  14. Intra-articular (IA) ropivacaine microparticle suspensions reduce pain, inflammation, cytokine, and substance p levels significantly more than oral or IA celecoxib in a rat model of arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rabinow, Barrett; Werling, Jane; Bendele, Alison; Gass, Jerome; Bogseth, Roy; Balla, Kelly; Valaitis, Paul; Hutchcraft, Audrey; Graham, Sabine

    2015-02-01

    Current therapeutic treatment options for osteoarthritis entail significant safety concerns. A novel ropivacaine crystalline microsuspension for bolus intra-articular (IA) delivery was thus developed and studied in a peptidoglycan polysaccharide (PGPS)-induced ankle swelling rat model. Compared with celecoxib controls, both oral and IA, ropivacaine IA treatment resulted in a significant reduction of pain upon successive PGPS reactivation, as demonstrated in two different pain models, gait analysis and incapacitance testing. The reduction in pain was attended by a significant reduction in histological inflammation, which in turn was accompanied by significant reductions in the cytokines IL-18 and IL-1β. This may have been due to inhibition of substance P, which was also significantly reduced. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that the analgesic effects outlasted measurable ropivacaine levels in either blood or tissue. The results are discussed in the context of pharmacologic mechanisms both of local anesthetics as well as inflammatory arthritis.

  15. Sperm motility-initiating substance in newt egg-jelly induces differential initiation of sperm motility based on sperm intracellular calcium levels.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akihiko; Takayama-Watanabe, Eriko; Vines, Carol A; Cherr, Gary N

    2011-01-01

    Sperm motility-initiating substance (SMIS), a novel motility inducer from newt egg-jelly, is activated by the release from associated jelly substances at the beginning of internal fertilization and affects female-stored sperm. We examined motility initiation kinetics of newt sperm in response to SMIS by monitoring the changes of sperm intracellular calcium ([Ca²(+)](i)). In quiescent non-motile sperm loaded with the Ca²(+) indicator Fluo-4, intracellular free Ca²(+) was observed around mitochondria using confocal scanning laser microscopy. A slight increase in [Ca²(+)](i) occurred simultaneously and transiently at motility initiation in sperm treated with either heated jelly extract (hJE) containing activated SMIS, or a low osmotic solution, which naturally initiates motility in externally-fertilizing amphibians and can initiate motility in urodele sperm. When the increase of [Ca²(+)](i) at motility-initiation was monitored using spectrofluorometry, large increases in [Ca²(+)](i) occurred immediately in the low osmotic solution and within 1.5 min in the hJE. In the intact jelly extract (no heating), small increases of [Ca²(+)](i) irregularly occurred from around 1 min and for about 4 min, during which motility was differentially initiated among sperm. These results indicate that the SMIS induces differential initiation of sperm motility depending on the activational states of the SMIS and its overall activity. The motility initiation in the jelly extract was delayed in sperm whose intracellular Ca²(+) had been chelated with BAPTA-AM. The relative levels of [Ca²(+)](i) were variable with a mean of 414 ± 256 nmol/L among resting sperm, suggesting that the level of [Ca²(+)](i) in the resting sperm modulates the responsiveness to the SMIS.

  16. Long-Term Impact of Maternal Substance Use during Pregnancy and Extrauterine Environmental Adversity: Stress Hormone Levels of Preadolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Charles R.; Lambert, Brittany L.; Bann, Carla M.; Lester, Barry M.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Whitaker, Toni M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with blunted stress responsivity within the extrauterine environment. This study investigated the association between PCE and diurnal salivary cortisol levels in preadolescent children characterized by high biological and/or social risk (N = 725). Saliva samples were collected at their home. Analyses revealed no group differences in basal evening or morning cortisol levels; however, children with higher degrees of PCE exhibited blunted overnight increases in cortisol, controlling for additional risk factors. Race and caregiver depression were also associated with diurnal cortisol patterns. While repeated PCE may contribute to alterations in the normal or expected stress response later in life, sociodemographic and environmental factors are likewise important in understanding hormone physiology, especially as more time elapses from the PCE. Anticipating the potential long-term medical, developmental, or behavioral effects of an altered ability to mount a normal protective cortisol stress response is essential in optimizing the outcomes of children with PCE. PMID:21546861

  17. Reducing substance use and risky sexual behaviour among drug users in Durban, South Africa: Assessing the impact of community-level risk-reduction interventions.

    PubMed

    Parry, C D H; Carney, T; Petersen Williams, P

    2017-12-01

    Alcohol and other drug (AOD) use is increasingly recognised as having a direct and indirect effect on the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, there is evidence to suggest that drug- and sex-related HIV risk-reduction interventions targeted at drug users within drug treatment centres or via community outreach efforts can lead to positive health outcomes. This study aimed to test whether a community-level intervention aimed at AOD users has an impact on risky AOD use and sexual risk behaviour. In 2007, in collaboration with a local non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Durban, an initiative was begun to implement a number of harm reduction strategies for injection and non-injection drug users. The NGO recruited peer outreach workers who received intensive initial training, which was followed by six-monthly monitoring and evaluation of their performance. Participants had to be 16 years of age or older, and self-reported alcohol and/or drug users. Peer outreach workers completed a face-to-face baseline questionnaire with participants which recorded risk behaviours and a risk-reduction plan was developed with participants which consisted of reducing injection (if applicable) and non-injection drug use and sex-related risks. Other components of the intervention included distribution of condoms, risk-reduction counselling, expanded access to HIV Testing Services, HIV/sexually transmitted infection care and treatment, and referrals to substance abuse treatment and social services. At follow-up, the baseline questionnaire was completed again and participants were also asked the frequency of reducing identified risk behaviours. Baseline information was collected from 138 drug users recruited into the study through community-based outreach, and who were subsequently followed up between 2010 and 2012. No injection drug users were reached. The data presented here are for first contact (baseline) and the final follow-up contact with the participants

  18. Factors Associated with Maternal Serum Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Organochlorines: A Descriptive Study of Parous Women in Norway and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, Hilde B.; Larose, Tricia L.; Øien, Torbjørn; Odland, Jon Ø.; van de Bor, Margot; Jacobsen, Geir W.; Sandanger, Torkjel M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and organochlorines (OCs) are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment and proposed endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). They can be transferred across the placenta during pregnancy, and studies suggest that the prenatal period may be particularly sensitive for influences on fetal growth and development. Several studies have investigated socio-demographic and pregnancy related factors associated with maternal serum PFAS and OC levels, but few studies have been conducted in time periods with increasing emissions of PFASs and recent emissions of OCs. Methods Serum from 424 pregnant women participating in the NICHD Scandinavian Successive Small-for-gestational Age (SGA) births study was collected in 1986–1988, and analyses of two PFASs and six OCs were conducted. Associations between EDCs and geographic, time dependent, socio-demographic and pregnancy related variables were evaluated by using multivariable linear regression models. Results Previous breastfeeding duration, time since last breastfeeding period, sampling date and country of residence were important factors associated with serum levels of PFOS and PFOA. Smoking status and pre-pregnancy BMI were negatively associated with PFOS, and maternal height was borderline negatively associated with PFOS and PFOA. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was negatively associated with PFOS in a sub-sample. Maternal serum levels of OCs were positively associated with maternal age, and negatively associated with previous breastfeeding duration and sampling date. Smoking had a consistently negative association with PCB 118 in a dose-dependent manner. Education level, pre-pregnancy BMI and alcohol consumption varied in importance according to the compound under study. Conclusions Several maternal factors, including potentially modifiable factors, markers of pregnancy physiology and factors also related to perinatal outcomes were associated with EDC levels. Results from this

  19. Horticultural therapy: a pilot study on modulating cortisol levels and indices of substance craving, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and quality of life in veterans.

    PubMed

    Detweiler, Mark B; Self, Jennifer A; Lane, Sandra; Spencer, Luise; Lutgens, Brian; Kim, Dong-Yun; Halling, Mary H; Rudder, Tammie C; Lehmann, Lauren P

    2015-01-01

    Horticultural therapy (HT) is a subgroup of occupational therapy (OT). Both HT and OT have been successful as adjunctive treatment modalities in substance abuse treatment. Studies have indicated that gardening promotes neuroendocrine and affective restoration from stress. The study intended to assess the effect of HT versus nonhorticultural OT on cortisol levels, depression, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol cravings, and quality of life. The research team designed a randomized pilot study. The study was open for participation from July 2012-October 2012. It took place during multiple occurrences of a 28-d treatment programs for substance use disorder at a Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants • Participants were 49 veterans, averaging 46.4 y old (SD = 11.9); the dropout rate was 37%. Participants were randomly assigned to the HT or the OT group. They attended supervised HT and OT groups 5 h/d for 3 wk. Outcome Measures • Pre- and posttreatment, participants completed the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF), the Alcohol Craving Questionnaire (ACQ-NOW), the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Civilian Version (PCLC), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Salivary cortisol samples were taken at wk 1, 2, and 3. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) (F2,20 = 0.878) revealed that the HT performed was associated with a 12% reduction in salivary cortisol levels from wk 1 to wk 3, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = .43). Separate 1-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) revealed no statistically significant differences in the self-administered tests, although both the Q-LES-Q-SF and CES-D showed a trend toward improving quality of life and depressive symptoms in the HT group compared with the OT group. Additional analysis of the nonbiologic tests suggests that most participants in the HT and OT had some benefit from the

  20. Phthalates and perfluorinated alkylated substances in Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) specimens from Mediterranean Sea (Sardinia, Italy): Levels and risks for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Guerranti, Cristiana; Cau, Alessandro; Renzi, Monia; Badini, Simone; Grazioli, Eleonora; Perra, Guido; Focardi, Silvano Ettore

    2016-10-02

    Atlantic blue fin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) is a species of great importance for Mediterranean Sea area, from both ecological and commercial points of view. The scientific literature reports few data on the contamination of this fish by emerging organic compounds such as perfluorinated alkylated substances(PFASs) and phthalates, being the latter never been studied in tuna. This study therefore investigated the presence of the PFASs perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) and perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA) and the phthalate di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), also monitored by its metabolite mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate(MEHP), to assess both the state of contamination of Atlantic bluefin tuna specimen and the risk due to the toxicity of these compounds for human consumption. While PFOA was never found, detectable levels of PFOS (0.4-1.88 ng/g), DEHP (9-14.62 ng/g) and MEHP (1.5-6.30 ng/g) were found. The results were elaborated relating the accumulation to the size and age of the individuals and showed a correlation between the levels of different pollutants investigated.

  1. Low Plasma Eicosapentaenoic Acid Levels are Associated with Elevated Trait Aggression and Impulsivity in Major Depressive Disorder with a History of Comorbid Substance Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Anne Mette; Lauritzen, Lotte; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Cooper, Thomas B.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Grunebaum, Michael F.; Mann, J. John; Sublette, M. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with low levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), holding promise for new perspectives on disease etiology and treatment targets. As aggressive and impulsive behaviors are associated with low omega-3 PUFA levels in some clinical contexts, we investigated plasma PUFA relationships with trait aggression and impulsivity in patients with MDD. Medication-free MDD patients (n=48) and healthy volunteers (HV, n=35) were assessed with the Brown-Goodwin Aggression Inventory. A subset (MDD, n=39; HV, n=33) completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Plasma PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) were quantified and ln-transformed to mitigate distributional skew. Ln-transformed PUFA (lnPUFA) levels were predictors in regression models, with aggression or impulsivity scores as outcomes, and cofactors of sex and diagnostic status (MDD with or without a history of substance use disorder [SUD], or HV). Interactions were tested between relevant PUFAs and diagnostic status. Additional analyses explored possible confounds of depression severity, self-reported childhood abuse history, and, in MDD patients, suicide attempt history. Among PUFA, lnEPA but not lnDHA predicted aggression (F1,76=12.493, p=0.001), and impulsivity (F1,65=5.598, p=0.021), with interactions between lnEPA and history of SUD for both aggression (F1,76=7.941, p=0.001) and impulsivity (F1,65=3.485, p=0.037). Results remained significant when adjusted for childhood abuse, depression severity, or history of suicide attempt. In conclusion, low EPA levels were associated with aggression and impulsivity only in patients with MDD and comorbid SUD, even though in most cases SUD was in full sustained remission. PMID:25017608

  2. Mapping violence and policing as an environmental-structural barrier to health service and syringe availability among substance-using women in street-level sex work.

    PubMed

    Shannon, K; Rusch, M; Shoveller, J; Alexson, D; Gibson, K; Tyndall, M W

    2008-04-01

    Within street-based sex work and substance-using populations, there is growing evidence to support the role of place, both physical setting and social meanings attached to place, in mediating the effectiveness and reach of health and harm reduction services. Social mapping was used to explore how health service and syringe availability may be impacted at the geographic level by avoidance of physical settings due to violence and policing among women in street-level sex work. Through a community-based research partnership and extensive peer-led outreach over a 6-month period, women were invited to participate in interview-questionnaires and mapping of their community, working conditions, and access to resources. Results were compiled used ArcGIS software and GIS street maps. In secondary analysis, logistic regression was used to model the geographic association (using likelihood ratio and significance at p<0.05) and stratified models were run to assess differential patterns of avoidance based on age, ethnicity and drug use. The findings reveal a significant geographic relationship between a heavily concentrated core area of health and syringe availability and avoidance of physical settings due to violence and policing by 198 women in street-level sex work in Vancouver, Canada. Of particular concern, this correlation is significantly elevated among younger and Aboriginal women, active injection drug users, and daily crack cocaine smokers, suggesting significant environmental-structural barriers to interventions among these vulnerable populations. The resultant displacement of sex work to primarily industrial settings and side streets pushes women further from health and social supports and reduces access to safer injection and drug use paraphernalia. This study offers important evidence for environmental-structural level prevention and safer environment interventions, supported by legal reforms, that facilitate safer sex work environments, including spatial

  3. The antioxidative substances in cacao liquor.

    PubMed

    Osakabe, N; Yamagishi, M; Sanbongi, C; Natsume, M; Takizawa, T; Osawa, T

    1998-04-01

    The antioxidative substances contained in cacao liquor, which is one of the major ingredients of chocolate, were separated by column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Three major compounds were purified and two of them were identified by 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectra as (-)-epicatechin (EC) and (+)-catechin (CA). Their antioxidative activity was measured by monitoring the peroxide value of linoleic acid and the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values of erythrocyte ghost membranes and microsomes. EC and CA had strong antioxidative effects in all three methods, but one unidentified peak was found to be less effective. Additionally, we analyzed the polyphenol concentration of cacao liquor extractions produced in several countries. The total polyphenol concentration was 7.0 to 13.0%, catechin concentration was 0.31 to 0.49%, and epicatechin concentration was 0.35 to 1.68% in the extractions. It is believed that chocolate is stable against oxidative deterioration on account of the presence of these polyphenolic compounds, and it is also expected to have a protective role against lipid peroxidation in living systems.

  4. The effect of drinking water contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances on a 10-year longitudinal trend of plasma levels in an elderly Uppsala cohort.

    PubMed

    Stubleski, Jordan; Salihovic, Samira; Lind, P Monica; Lind, Lars; Dunder, Linda; McCleaf, Philip; Eurén, Karin; Ahrens, Lutz; Svartengren, Magnus; van Bavel, Bert; Kärrman, Anna

    2017-11-01

    In 2012, drinking water contaminated with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), foremost perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) at levels over 20ng/L and 40ng/L, respectively, was confirmed in Uppsala, Sweden. We assessed how a longitudinally sampled cohort's temporal trend in PFAS plasma concentration was influenced by their residential location and determined the plausible association or disparity between the PFASs detected in the drinking water and the trend in the study cohort. The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort provided plasma samples three times from 2001 to 2014. Individuals maintaining the same zip code throughout the study (n = 399) were divided into a reference (no known PFAS exposure), low, intermediate and high exposure area depending on the proportion of contaminated drinking water received. Eight PFASs detected in the majority (75%) of the cohort's plasma samples were evaluated for significant changes in temporal PFAS concentrations using a random effects (mixed) model. PFHxS plasma concentrations continued to significantly increase in individuals living in areas receiving the largest percentage of contaminated drinking water (p < 0.0001), while PFOS showed an overall decrease. The temporal trend of other PFAS plasma concentrations did not show an association to the quality of drinking water received. The distribution of contaminated drinking water had a direct effect on the trend in PFHxS plasma levels among the different exposure groups, resulting in increased concentrations over time, especially in the intermediate and high exposure areas. PFOS and the remaining PFASs did not show the same relationship, suggesting other sources of exposure influenced these PFAS plasma trends. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Low plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels are associated with elevated trait aggression and impulsivity in major depressive disorder with a history of comorbid substance use disorder.

    PubMed

    Beier, Anne Mette; Lauritzen, Lotte; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Cooper, Thomas B; Oquendo, Maria A; Grunebaum, Michael F; Mann, J John; Sublette, M Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with low levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), holding promise for new perspectives on disease etiology and treatment targets. As aggressive and impulsive behaviors are associated with low omega-3 PUFA levels in some clinical contexts, we investigated plasma PUFA relationships with trait aggression and impulsivity in patients with MDD. Medication-free MDD patients (n = 48) and healthy volunteers (HV, n = 35) were assessed with the Brown-Goodwin Aggression Inventory. A subset (MDD, n = 39; HV, n = 33) completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Plasma PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) were quantified and ln-transformed to mitigate distributional skew. Ln-transformed PUFA (lnPUFA) levels were predictors in regression models, with aggression or impulsivity scores as outcomes, and cofactors of sex and diagnostic status (MDD with or without a history of substance use disorder [SUD], or HV). Interactions were tested between relevant PUFAs and diagnostic status. Additional analyses explored possible confounds of depression severity, self-reported childhood abuse history, and, in MDD patients, suicide attempt history. Among PUFA, lnEPA but not lnDHA predicted aggression (F1,76 = 12.493, p = 0.001), and impulsivity (F1,65 = 5.598, p = 0.021), with interactions between lnEPA and history of SUD for both aggression (F1,76 = 7.941, p = 0.001) and impulsivity (F1,65 = 3.485, p = 0.037). Results remained significant when adjusted for childhood abuse, depression severity, or history of suicide attempt. In conclusion, low EPA levels were associated with aggression and impulsivity only in patients with MDD and comorbid SUD, even though in most cases SUD was in full sustained remission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Effects of Electroacupuncture Stimulation of "Neiguan" (PC 6) at Different Frequencies on Plasma Vasoactive Substance Levels in Myocardial Ischemic Reperfusion Rats].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang-kun; Lu, Chen; Wang, You-jing

    2015-10-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Neiguan" (PC 6) at different frequencies on plasma vasoactive substance levels in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIR) injury rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improvement of acute myocardial ischemia. A total of 40 Wistar rats were randomized into control, model, high frequency (HF, 120 Hz) and low frequency (LF, 20 Hz) groups (n = 10 in each group). The MIR model was established by occlusion of the anterior descending branch (ADB) of the left coronary artery for 30 min, followed by reperfusion for 40 min. EA (3 V, 120 Hz or 20 Hz) was applied to bilateral "Neiguan" (PC 6) for 50 min immediately after occlusion of ADB. Subsequently, the contents of plasma endothelin (ET), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), thromboxane B 2 (TXB2) and 6-Keto-PGF1, were assayed by radioimmunoassay, and the content of serum nitric oxide (NO) was detected by nitrate reductase method. Compared with the control group, the contents of plasma ET, ANP and TXB2 in the model group were significantly increased (P < 0.05), and that of plasma 6-Keto-PGF1α in the model group was notably decreased (P < 0.05), but no significant change was found in serum NO level (P > 0.05). Compared with the model group, the contents of plasma ET, ANP and TXB2 were considerably decreased, and plasma 6-Keto-PGF1α and serum NO contents were obviously increased in both HF and LF groups (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the HF and LF groups in plasma ET , ANP, TXB2 and 6-Keto-PGF1α contents (P > 0.05), but the HF EA was markedly superior to the LF EA in up-regulating the content of serum NO (P < 0.05). EA stimulation of "Neiguan" (PC 6) can down-regulate the contents of plasma ET, ANP and TXB2 and up-regulate contents of plasma 6-Keto-PGF1α and serum NO in MIR rats, which may contribute to its effect in relieving acute ischemic myocardial injury. The effect of HF EA is better than LF EA in raising blood NO level.

  7. Changes in serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances during a 10-year follow-up period in a large population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Stubleski, Jordan; Salihovic, Samira; Lind, Lars; Lind, P Monica; van Bavel, Bert; Kärrman, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of man-made fluorinated chemicals which have, at background levels, been associated with negative health effects in humans. Thus far, most human biomonitoring studies have evaluated the general change in PFAS concentration over time by continuously testing various individuals. This is one of the few studies to report the longitudinal trend of a range of PFAS concentrations in humans. In addition, this is the first known longitudinal study to include a large background level exposed cohort of both men and women with the same age and location who were repeatedly sampled from 2001 to 2014. The longitudinal change in concentration of eight PFASs detected in serum collected from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort were determined and compared to results from general population studies. The sex-dependent changes in PFAS concentrations over time were also assessed. Serum was sampled from the same individuals at ages 70 (collection period 2001-2004), 75 (2006-2009) and 80 (2011-2014,). Eight (C6-11) of fourteen (C4-13) analyzed PFASs were usually detected in over 75% of individuals and assessed using a random effects (mixed) model. In the 579 individuals attending all three examinations, PFOSA and PFOS concentrations significantly decreased, while the remaining six PFASs significantly increased between ages 70 and 75. However, between ages 75 and 80 all PFAS concentrations significantly decreased. Overall from age 70 to 80, concentrations of PFHxS, PFUnDA, PFNA, and PFDA showed a significant increase (7% to 34%), whereas concentrations of PFOSA, PFHpA, PFOS, and PFOA (-75% to -27%) significantly decreased. Over time PFHxS concentrations increased more among women, while PFHpA concentrations showed a greater decrease among men. From age 70 to age 80, spanning from 2001-2004 to 2011-2014, the PIVUS cohort showed decreases in circulating levels of some PFASs phased out of

  8. Substance use and sexual risk behavior in HIV-positive men who have sex with men: an episode-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Boone, Melissa R; Cook, Stephanie H; Wilson, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) make up nearly half of all people living with HIV in the United States. The prevalence of the epidemic in this population makes it vitally important to understand the transmission of the infection and to develop methods to prevent its spread. The current study uses longitudinal diary methods to examine relationships between substance use and unprotected anal intercourse in a sample of 158 HIV-positive, mostly ethnic minority MSM. Results indicate that both general substance use and use of specific drugs (i.e., inhalants, cocaine, crack, and club drugs) have a substantial impact on the sexual risk behavior of this population.

  9. Substance Dependency's Effect on Reading Decoding and Comprehension: Reading Decoding and Comprehension Levels as Indicators of Brain Dysfunctioning with Ramifications for Traditional Rehabilitation Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schadler, Debbie E.

    This paper discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the effects of substance dependency on the reading decoding and comprehension of 497 adolescents (ages 12-18) involved in an inpatient drug and alcohol rehabilitation program. The first part of the study involved the formal assessment of reading decoding and reading comprehension…

  10. Substance Abuse/Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Substance Abuse/Use Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Substance Abuse/Use How Are Alcohol and Drug Use Related ... or transmitting HIV is to stop using drugs . Substance abuse treatment programs can help you do this. Many ...

  11. Substance exposure and helmet use in all-terrain vehicle accidents: Nine years of experience at a level 1 trauma center.

    PubMed

    Bethea, Audis; Samanta, Damayanti; Willis, John A; Lucente, Franck C; Chumbe, Julton Tomanguillo

    2016-12-01

    The surging popularity of all-terrain vehicles (ATV) in the United States has caused an "epidemic of injuries and mortality." The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission reported 99,600 injuries and 426 fatalities from ATV accidents in 2013. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between helmet use and positive toxicology screenings on outcomes in ATV accident victims. This is a retrospective study of patients admitted to a Level 1 Trauma Center in southwestern West Virginia following an ATV accident between 2005 and 2013. Data were obtained from the institution's Trauma Registry. A total of 1,857 patients were admitted during the study period with 39 (1.9%) reported deaths. Positive serum alcohol and/or urine drug screens were obtained in 66.4% of the patients tested (n=1,293). Those with positive screenings were 9.5% less likely to utilize a helmet (13.2% vs. 22.7%, p<0.001); and the lack of helmet use was associated with an increase in traumatic brain injury (57.1% vs. 41.7%, p<0.001). Positivity for substances or the lack of helmet use was significantly associated with higher morbidity. Lack of helmet use resulted in a 3.94-fold increase in the risk of discharge in a vegetative state or death. Drugs and alcohol use may predispose riders to be less likely to wear helmets and significantly increase the risk of a poor clinical outcome following an ATV accident. Rigorous efforts should be made to enhance safety measures through educational endeavors and amendment of current regulations to promote safe and responsible use of ATVs. Modification of regulatory requirements should be considered in order to mandate the wearing of helmets during ATV operation. In addition, expansion of safety programs should be considered in an effort to improve availability, affordability and awareness of safe ATV practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  12. [The level of alcohol and titre of A and B group substances of the ABO system in blood samples infected by some strains of Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Kurzejamska-Parafiniuk, M

    1996-01-01

    pieces being covered with 72-hour cultures of E.coli on broth and human blood of group 0. The study for the presence of the group substances A and B of AB0 system was performed by absorption method according to Holzer, and by absorption and elution method. In consequence of the studies it has been ascertained that sodium fluoride added as a bacteriostatic agent does not entirely inhibit the growth of bacteria, and especially bacteria Gram-negative appeared to be least sensitive to its action (Tab. 1). Selected strains of E.coli have differed with regard to the efficiency of ethanol production (Tab. 2). The level of produced ethanol depended on glucose concentration in the medium, temperature and the incubation time (Tab. 2, 3, 4 and Fig. 1). Under almost similar conditions the same strains produce more alcohol than on blood, which may give rise to supposition that the blood modifies the metabolism of bacteria (Tab. 4 and 5). The cultures of selected strains studied failed to reveal the presence of heteroantigens with properties of antigen A and B of AB0 system.

  13. Implementing a gero-infused curriculum in advanced-level MSW courses in health, mental health and substance abuse: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fenster, Judy; Zodikoff, Bradley D; Rozario, Philip A; Joyce, Patricia

    2010-10-01

    This article presents evaluation results from a curricular innovation aimed at increasing the capacity of social work graduates to serve older adults in health, mental health, and substance abuse settings. Working as a team, faculty developed, incorporated, and evaluated gerontology-infused syllabi and teaching modules in multiple sections of the 3 courses, with 2 sections serving as a comparison group. Results indicated that students exposed to the gero-infused curriculum increased their age-related knowledge and self-competence from pre- to posttest, and achieved a greater increase in knowledge than did the comparison group. Implications of the findings to social work education are discussed.

  14. Application of Box-Behnken design to optimize multi-sorbent solid phase extraction for trace neonicotinoids in water containing high level of matrix substances.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjie; Wei, Yanli; Li, Huizhen; Zeng, Eddy Y; You, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Extensive use of neonicotinoid insecticides has raised great concerns about their ecological risk. A reliable method to measure trace neonicotinoids in complicated aquatic environment is a premise for assessing their aquatic risk. To effectively remove matrix interfering substances from field water samples before instrumental analysis with HPLC/MS/MS, a multi-sorbent solid phase extraction method was developed using Box-Behnken design. The optimized method employed 200mg HLB/GCB (w/w, 8/2) as the sorbents and 6mL of 20% acetone in acetonitrile as the elution solution. The method was applied for measuring neonicotinoids in water at a wide range of concentrations (0.03-100μg/L) containing various amounts of matrix components. The recoveries of acetamiprid, imidacloprid, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam from the spiked samples ranged from 76.3% to 107% while clothianidin and dinotefuran had relatively lower recoveries. The recoveries of neonicotinoids in water with various amounts of matrix interfering substances were comparable and the matrix removal rates were approximately 50%. The method was sensitive with method detection limits in the range of 1.8-6.8ng/L for all target neonicotinoids. Finally, the developed method was validated by measurement of trace neonicotinoids in natural water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  16. Interactions of astringent substances.

    PubMed

    Lawless, H T; Corrigan, C J; Lee, C B

    1994-04-01

    Two-component mixtures of astringent materials were rated for perceived intensity of astringent and taste attributes over time. Components included alum (a complex salt), gallic acid (the monomeric component of hydrolyzable tannins), catechin (the monomeric component of condensed tannins) and citric acid. Mixtures of alum and gallic acid showed mixture suppression, in that the 50/50 mixture was less intense than either component in astringency, drying, roughing and puckery/drawing sensations. Suppression was seen at concentration levels producing moderate to strong astringency but was absent or less pronounced at lower concentration levels. A similar pattern held for citric acid, although the suppressive effects were less pronounced. Catechin and gallic acid mixtures were additive. Sensory interactions between astringent materials appears to depend on the substances involved and their concentrations (or intensity levels).

  17. Substance use in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Suzanne; Ordean, Alice; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-04-01

    To improve awareness and knowledge of problematic substance use in pregnancy and to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of this challenging clinical issue for all health care providers. This guideline reviews the use of screening tools, general approach to care, and recommendations for clinical management of problematic substance use in pregnancy. Evidence-based recommendations for screening and management of problematic substance use during pregnancy and lactation. Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library were searched for articles published from 1950 using the following key words: substance-related disorders, mass screening, pregnancy complications, pregnancy, prenatal care, cocaine, cannabis, methadone, opioid, tobacco, nicotine, solvents, hallucinogens, and amphetamines. Results were initially restricted to systematic reviews and randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials. A subsequent search for observational studies was also conducted because there are few RCTs in this field of study. Articles were restricted to human studies published in English. Additional articles were located by hand searching through article reference lists. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline up to December 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was also identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on the Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report (Table 1). This guideline is intended to increase the knowledge and comfort level of health care providers caring for pregnant women who have substance use disorders. Improved access to

  18. Inhibition of vancomycin and high-level aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci strains and Listeria monocytogenes by bacteriocin-like substance produced by Enterococcus faecium E86.

    PubMed

    Lemos Miguel, Marco Antônio; Dias de Castro, Angela Cristina; Ferreira Gomes Leite, Selma

    2008-11-01

    Three hundred and thirty nine lactic bacteria strains isolated from food samples were screened for antimicrobial activity. Only one strain isolated from meat pie and identified as Enterococcus faecium produced a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) showing activity against Enterococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, Listeria, Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus aureus. The BLIS produced was resistant to acid and alkali treatment and 121 masculineC for 15 min. The addition of BLIS in BHI contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes decreased the contamination in 4.8 log cycles in 24 h. The inhibition of listeria was also obtained in milk. Forty multiresistant enterococci strains were inhibited in the well-diffusion test. Two vancomycin resistant strains tested in liquid with BLIS were also inhibited. The BLIS producer showed no pathogenicity marker.

  19. Substance use and multiculturalism.

    PubMed

    Adrian, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews intercultural variability of substance use behaviors, including availability of international statistics on consumption of alcohol and other drugs, as well as the use of drugs available locally only. Within a conceptual framework of intercultural relations, it considers the history of transcultural spread of substance use behaviors and possible reactions to the introduction of new drugs within a culture or jurisdiction, including illustrations of the "law of alien poisons." Although intercultural views of substance use have generally concentrated on majority groups' views of substance use in minority groups, minority and non-Western views of substance use need to be considered in the context of increasing international and intercultural communications that increase the rate at which substance use behaviors spread. Both Western and non-Western experiences with substance use and misuse must be taken into account so that better interventions can be developed to deal with addictions and other substance-related problems.

  20. TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Section 8 (b) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires EPA to compile, keep current, and publish a list of each chemical substance that is manufactured or processed in the United States for TSCA uses.

  1. Parental substance use as a modifier of adolescent substance use risk.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaoyang; Pentz, Mary Ann; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2002-12-01

    A major question in national substance use prevention efforts is how much influence parents have on their children's substance use, answers to which could determine whether current school-based prevention programs that address peer pressure are sufficient or whether parents need to be involved. The present study examines whether parents act as gatekeepers by testing the moderator effects of parents' substance use on the relationships of friends' substance use to adolescent substance use (cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana). A longitudinal school-based trial for prevention of substance use in adolescents. Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. As part of a large substance use prevention trial, entering middle school students were surveyed prospectively at baseline, 6 months and 18 months (n = 1807 from 57 schools). A self-reported survey was used to measure behaviors, attitudes and social influences related to adolescent substance use. Results of logistic regression analyses and multiple group structural equation modeling showed that increasing numbers of parents and friends using substances were associated with greater risk of adolescent substance use, as were more substance offers and lower levels of refusal self-efficacy. Additionally, refusal self-efficacy mediated the effects of baseline use and substance offers on subsequent use. However, non-using parents had a buffering effect on friends' influences to use substances, such that friends' use did not affect adolescent use when parents were non-users, and the effects of substance offers on refusal self-efficacy were weaker. The findings suggest that parent substance use should be addressed in adolescent substance use prevention programs, and that continuing non-use by parents should be reinforced.

  2. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD.

  3. Strategy for the management of substance use disorders in the State of Punjab: Developing a structural model of state-level de-addiction services in the health sector (the “Punjab model”)

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Debasish; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Substance use disorders are believed to have become rampant in the State of Punjab, causing substantive loss to the person, the family, the society, and the state. The situation is likely to worsen further if a structured, government-level, state-wide de-addiction service is not put into place. Aims: The aim was to describe a comprehensive structural model of de-addiction service in the State of Punjab (the “Pyramid model” or “Punjab model”), which is primarily concerned with demand reduction, particularly that part which is concerned with identification, treatment, and aftercare of substance users. Materials and Methods: At the behest of the Punjab Government, this model was developed by the authors after a detailed study of the current scenario, critical and exhaustive look at the existing guidelines, policies, books, web resources, government documents, and the like in this area, a check of the ground reality in terms of existing infrastructural and manpower resources, and keeping pragmatism and practicability in mind. Several rounds of meetings with the government officials and other important stakeholders helped to refine the model further. Results: Our model envisages structural innovation and renovations within the existing state healthcare infrastructure. We formulated a “Pyramid model,” later renamed as “Punjab model,” where there is a broad community base for early identification and outpatient level treatment at the primary care level, both outpatient and inpatient care at the secondary care level, and comprehensive management for more difficult cases at the tertiary care level. A separate de-addiction system for the prisons was also developed. Each of these structural elements was described and refined in details, with the aim of uniform, standardized, and easily accessible care across the state. Conclusions: If the “Punjab model” succeeds, it can provide useful models for other states or even at the national level. PMID

  4. Strategy for the management of substance use disorders in the State of Punjab: Developing a structural model of state-level de-addiction services in the health sector (the "Punjab model").

    PubMed

    Basu, Debasish; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Substance use disorders are believed to have become rampant in the State of Punjab, causing substantive loss to the person, the family, the society, and the state. The situation is likely to worsen further if a structured, government-level, state-wide de-addiction service is not put into place. The aim was to describe a comprehensive structural model of de-addiction service in the State of Punjab (the "Pyramid model" or "Punjab model"), which is primarily concerned with demand reduction, particularly that part which is concerned with identification, treatment, and aftercare of substance users. At the behest of the Punjab Government, this model was developed by the authors after a detailed study of the current scenario, critical and exhaustive look at the existing guidelines, policies, books, web resources, government documents, and the like in this area, a check of the ground reality in terms of existing infrastructural and manpower resources, and keeping pragmatism and practicability in mind. Several rounds of meetings with the government officials and other important stakeholders helped to refine the model further. Our model envisages structural innovation and renovations within the existing state healthcare infrastructure. We formulated a "Pyramid model," later renamed as "Punjab model," where there is a broad community base for early identification and outpatient level treatment at the primary care level, both outpatient and inpatient care at the secondary care level, and comprehensive management for more difficult cases at the tertiary care level. A separate de-addiction system for the prisons was also developed. Each of these structural elements was described and refined in details, with the aim of uniform, standardized, and easily accessible care across the state. If the "Punjab model" succeeds, it can provide useful models for other states or even at the national level.

  5. Association Between Seminal Plasma Copper and Magnesium Levels with Oxidative Stress in Iraqi Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Rasheed, Omar F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between copper, magnesium and malondialdehyde levels in seminal plasma of oligozoospermic, azoospermic in relation to normozoospermic men. Methods The present study was conducted at the Chemistry and Biochemistry department, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad-Iraq during September 2007 to February 2008 after obtaining approval from the research and ethics committee and obtaining written consent, 78 infertile men (age range 33.01±4.20 years) were recruited at the institute of embryo research and infertility treatment, Al-Kadhimiya teaching hospital, Iraq and were categorized according to their seminal fluid parameters to oligozoospermia (n=43) and azoospermia (n=35). 41 fertile men (age range 30.29±2.30 years) were selected as controls. Seminal plasma copper and magnesium were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde was measured calorimetrically using thiobarbituric acid assay which detects thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results Seminal plasma copper level was decreased significantly (p=0.000) in the azoospermic group compared to the control group. Whereas, the level decreased non-significantly in the oligozoospermic group. Seminal plasma magnesium levels were decreased significantly (p=0.000) in all the infertility groups studied. On the other hand, malondialdehyde levels which is an end product of lipid peroxidation were significantly elevated (p=0.000) in all the infertility groups studied. Conclusion Copper and magnesium work in different ways in order to maintain normal environment for spermatozoa for normal fertilization to occur. PMID:22043332

  6. BRIEF INTERVENTIONS IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Suresh; Malhotra, Anil

    2000-01-01

    Brief interventions in substance abuse refer to a group of cost-effective and time efficient strategies that aim at reduction of substance use and/or harm related to substance use. They are grounded in the scientific principles of harm reduction stage of change, motivational interviewing and feasibility of community-level delivery. This review discusses the characteristics, elements, and techniques of brief interventions for abuse of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The available evidence for effectiveness of these strategies vis-a-vis no treatment or extended treatment is also reviewed, which clearly supports these interventions to be effective, especially for alcohol abuse but also for others It is argued that India presents a fertile ground for application of these strategies and that Indian research in this area should be a top priority. PMID:21407932

  7. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Substance Abuse in Rural Areas Substance abuse has long been ... are some options to reduce it? What is substance abuse and what are the signs of substance abuse? ...

  8. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified as the most frequently cited ... victim and/or the perpetrator who has the substance abuse problem. Substance abuse is believed to be a ...

  9. Substance Identification Information from EPA's Substance Registry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the authoritative resource for basic information about substances of interest to the U.S. EPA and its state and tribal partners. Substances, particularly chemicals, can have many valid synonyms. For example, toluene, methyl benzene, and phenyl methane, are commonly used names for the same chemical. EPA programs collect environmental data for this chemical using each of these names, plus others. This diversity leads to problems when a user is looking for programmatic data for toluene but is unaware that the data is stored under the synonym methyl benzene. For each substance, the SRS identifies the statutes, EPA programs, as well as organization external to EPA, that track or regulate that substance and the synonym used by that statute, EPA program or external organization. Besides standardized information for each chemical, such as the Chemical Abstracts Services name and the Chemical Abstracts Number and the EPA Registry Name (the EPA standard name), the SRS also includes additional information, such as molecular weight and molecular formula. Additionally, an SRS Internal Tracking Number uniquely identifies each substance, enabling cross-walking between synonyms. EPA is providing a large .ZIP file providing the SRS data in CSV format, and a separate small metadata file in XML containing the field names and definitions.

  10. Effects of dietary riboflavin levels on antioxidant defense of the juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junwa; Tian, Lixia; Wu, Xiangyun; Yang, Huijun; Liu, Yongjian

    2010-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary riboflavin on antioxidant defense in the juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides. Graded levels of riboflavin (0.9, 1.6, 4.4, 6.7, 12.9 and 19.4 mg kg(-1) dry diet) were fed to grouper juveniles (mean weight: 14.90 +/- 0.46 g) for 12 weeks. Higher levels of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content were observed in grouper fed low doses (0.9 and 1.6 mg kg(-1) diet) of riboflavin. Both liver glutathione reductase (GR) activity and its activation coefficient (GR-AC) poorly responded to riboflavin deficiency. In addition, other indices of the glutathione-dependent defense system, including the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and the content of glutathione (GSH), were also non-significantly affected by dietary riboflavin levels. However, the activities of liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly lower in fish fed 0.9 mg kg(-1) diet, with a positive correlation between the different groups. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the juvenile grouper fed the riboflavin-unsupplemented diet was susceptible to lipid peroxidation (LPO), with lower SOD and CAT activities in the liver. However, the glutathione-dependent defense system of grouper was not affected by dietary riboflavin levels.

  11. Relationship between tissue hydroxyl radical and oxidatively modified macromolecule levels.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Toru; Mogi, Sho-Ichi; Kaneko, Takao; Kojima, Haruka; Katoh, Shinsuke; Sano, Akira; Kojima, Shuji

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between hydroxyl radical (·OH) and oxidatively modified macromolecule formations was examined in tissues from young and aged mice. To determine the ·OH generation in tissues in vivo using the hydroxylation trapping reaction of ·OH into salicylic acid (SA), analytical conditions for dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and SA determination, and optimum dosages of SA for administration and time-points of tissue sampling were determined. 2, 3-DHBA levels in tissues from young mice and age-related changes were determined with the oxidatively modified macromolecules. 2, 3-DHBA, a hydroxylation compound of SA, is considered to be suitable for determination of ·OH levels in tissues. Tissue levels of 2, 3-DHBA expressed as a molar ratio to SA, was comparable among tissues, and was in accordance with 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and carbonylated proteins. In the aging process, 2, 3-DHBA levels in the brain and heart increased in the biphasic pattern in accordance with the 8-oxodG and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, whereas levels of carbonylated proteins were not changed with age. An in vivo method for ·OH measurement using hydroxylation of SA was optimized. However, as a limitation, 2, 3-DHBA, as well as other oxidative stress markers, could be affected by various in vivo factors. The accordance was seen among 2, 3-DHBA, 8-oxodG and carbonylated protein levels in tissues from young mice. The tissue levels of 2, 3-DHBA increased in accordance with the 8-oxodG and TBARS during the aging process. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased DNA oxidation (8-OHdG) and protein oxidation (AOPP) by low level electromagnetic field (2.45 GHz) in rat brain and protective effect of garlic.

    PubMed

    Gürler, Hatice Ş; Bilgici, Birşen; Akar, Ayşegül K; Tomak, Leman; Bedir, Abdülkerim

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the oxidative damage and protective effect of garlic on rats exposed to low level of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at 2.45 GHz Microwave radiation (MWR). Thirty-six Wistar rats were divided into three groups. Group I was the control group and not exposed to EMF. Group II and III were exposed to low level EMF (3.68 ± 0.36 V/m) at 2.45 GHz MWR for 1 hour/day for 30 consecutive days. Daily 500 mg/kg garlic was given to Group III during the study period. At the end of the study, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were investigated in brain tissue and blood samples. Exposure to low level of EMF increased 8-OHdG level in both plasma and brain tissue whereas it increased AOPP level only in plasma. Garlic prevented the increase of 8-OHdG level in brain tissue and plasma AOPP levels. It may be concluded that low level EMF at 2.45 GHz MWR increases the DNA damage in both brain tissues and plasma of the rats whereas it increases protein oxidation only in plasma. It may also be argued that the use of garlic decreases these effects.

  14. PTSD and Substance Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-2-0074 TITLE: PTSD and Substance Abuse PRINCIPAL...PTSD and Substance Abuse 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-2-0074 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Lisa M...Board, Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation 2011-pres. Editorial Board, Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 2014-pres

  15. PTSD and Substance Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    W81XWH1020074 TITLE: PTSD and Substance Abuse PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lisa Najavits, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...1 August 2011 – 31 July 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PTSD and Substance Abuse 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10...months as we then dropped Fort Jackson as a site due 6 to a change in our site PI’s role there (no longer having oversight of the substance abuse

  16. Ground-water levels, water quality, and potential effects of toxic-substance spills or cessation of quarry dewatering near a municipal ground-water supply, southeastern Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedam, A.C.; Eberts, S.M.; Bair, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    A newly completed municipal ground-water supply that produces from a sand and gravel aquifer in southern Franklin County, Ohio, may be susceptible to potential sources of pollution. Among these are spills of toxic substances that could enter recharge areas of the aquifer or be carried by surface drainage and subsequently enter the aquifer by induced infiltration. Ground water of degraded quality also is present in the vicinity of several landfills located upstream from the municipal supply. Local dewatering by quarrying operations has created a ground-water divide which, at present, prevents direct movement of the degraded ground water to the municipal supply. In addition, the dewatering has held water levels at the largest landfills below the base of the landfill. Should the dewatering cease, concern would be raised regarding the rise of water levels at this landfills and transport of contaminants through the aquifer to the Scioto River and subsequently by the river to the well field. From June 1984 through July 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Columbus, Ohio, investigated the relations among the ground-water supply and potential sources of contamination by means of an observation-well network and a program of measuring water levels and sampling for water quality. Sample collections included those made to determine the baseline levels of organic chemicals and metals, as well as periodic sampling and analysis for common constituents to evaluate any changes taking place in the system. Finally, a steady-state, three-dimensional numerical model was used to determine ground-water flow directions and average ground-water velocities to asses potential effects of toxic-substance spills. The model also was used to simulate changes in the ground-water flow system that could result if part or all of the quarry dewatering ceased. Few of the organic-chemical and metal constituents analyzed for were present at detectable levels. With respect to

  17. Substance use - amphetamines

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - amphetamines; Drug abuse - amphetamines; Drug use - amphetamines ... PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 50. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Methamphetamines. www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/methamphetamine/ ...

  18. Substance use - phencyclidine (PCP)

    MedlinePlus

    PCP; Substance abuse - phencyclidine; Drug abuse - phencyclidine; Drug use - phencyclidine ... PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 50. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Research report series: Hallucinogens and dissociative drugs. Updated ...

  19. Substance Abuse Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the following substances have you ever used? (NON-MEDICAL USE ONLY) Tobacco products, alcoholic beverages, cannabis, cocaine, stimulants, inhalants, sedatives/hypnotics, hallucinogens, opioids, and ¿ ...

  20. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - inhalants; Drug abuse - inhalants; Drug use - inhalants; Glue - inhalants ... symptoms and may include: Strong cravings for the drug Having mood swings from feeling depressed to agitated ...

  1. Depression and Substance Use in Minority Middle-School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelder, Steven H.; Murray, Nancy G.; Orpinas, Pamela; Prokhorov, Alexander; McReynolds, Larkin; Zhang, Qing; Roberts, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the association between depression and substance use among minority (predominantly Hispanic American) middle school students. Student surveys indicated that depressive symptoms were strongly and positively related to self-reported substance use. Risk of substance use increased in a dose-response fashion with each higher level of…

  2. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  3. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  4. Separation of Substances: A Teacher's Manual for General Level Program Development, Grade 9. Science and Society Teaching Units. Informal Series/26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Douglas A.; And Others

    Recognizing the problems and challenges associated with teaching general level or non-academic science courses in junior high school, a series of manuals was written to assist teachers in developing programs which focus on issues related to science and society. In the first in the series, how to make water fit to drink is investigated. Eight…

  5. Effect of supranutritional level of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate and selenium on rabbit semen.

    PubMed

    Castellini, Cesare; Lattaioli, Paolo; Bosco, Alessandro Dal; Beghelli, Daniela

    2002-12-01

    This research examined the effects of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate (50 or 200 mg/kg diet) and selenium (Se, 0 or 0.5 ppm) supplementation on motion characteristics, oxidative stability and fertilizing ability of rabbit spermatozoa, fresh and stored for 24 h at 5 degrees C. The higher amount of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate increased the level of Vitamin E in the fresh semen (1.75 mmol/l versus 0.95 mmol/l) and its oxidative stability (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS 12.44 nmol malondialdehyde/10(8) sperm versus 21.4 nmol malondialdehyde/10(8) sperm). Dietary Se increased gluthatione peroxidase activity (GPx) in erythrocytes (285 U/g Hb versus 207 U/g Hb), seminal plasma (270 U/l versus 190 U/l) and spermatozoa (1338 mU/10(9) sperm versus 1103 mU/10(9) sperm), whereas it did not show any effect on alpha-tocopherol level and TBARS. No synergy between Vitamin E and Se was shown. Storage for 24 h at 5 degrees C increased the TBARS level in all the experimental groups. Neither live and acrosome reacted spermatozoa, nor kinetic parameters, nor fertility rate were modified by dietary supplementation.

  6. Anti-inflammatory Montelukast prevents toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin: Oxidative stress, histological alterations in liver, and serum cytokine levels.

    PubMed

    Bentli, Recep; Ciftci, Osman; Cetin, Asli; Otlu, Ali

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential beneficial effects of the montelukast (ML) on oxidative stress and histological alterations in liver tissues and cytokine levels in rats intoxicated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Rats were divided randomly into four equal groups (control, TCDD, ML, TCDD + ML). TCDD were administered by gavages dissolved in corn oil at the doses of 2 µg/kg/week, and ML was given intraperitoneally at the dose of 10 mg/kg/day. Oxidative status, histological alterations, and cytokine levels were analyzed on day 60. The results showed that although TCDD induced oxidative stress via significant increase in formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, it caused a significant decline in glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in liver. Besides, TCDD led to significant histopathological damage in liver and serum cytokine levels alterations (increase in tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β levels). In contrast, ML treatment reversed oxidative effects of TCDD by increasing the levels of GSH, CAT, and SOD and decreasing the formation of TBARS. Also, it can normalize the levels of histological and cytokine alterations induced by TCDD. In conclusion, it was determined that TCDD exposure caused adverse effects on cytokine levels, histological alterations, and oxidative stress in rats. However, ML treatment partially eliminated toxic effects of TCDD. Thus, it was judged that coadministration of ML with TCDD may be useful to attenuate the negative effects of TCDD. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Interrelationships among Parental Family History of Substance Misuse, Delay Discounting, and Personal Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    VanderBroek, Lauren; Acker, John; Palmer, Abraham A.; de Wit, Harriet; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Despite consistent evidence of the familiality of substance misuse, the mechanisms by which family history (FH) increases the risk of addiction are not well understood. One behavioral trait that may mediate the risk for substance use and addiction is delay discounting (DD), which characterizes an individual’s preferences for smaller immediate rewards compared to larger future rewards. Objectives To examine the interrelationships among FH, DD, and diverse aspects of personal substance use, and test DD as a mediator of the relationship between FH and personal substance use. Methods The study used crowdsourcing to recruit a community sample of adults (N = 732). Family history was assessed using a brief assessment of perceived parental substance use problems, personal substance use was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and a measure of frequency of use, and delay discounting was assessed using a latent index of discounting preferences across six reward magnitudes. Results Steeper discounting was significantly associated with personal alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use, and level of substance experimentation. Steeper DD was also associated with a denser parental FH of alcohol, tobacco, and overall substance misuse. Parental FH density was significantly associated with several aspects of personal substance use, and these relationships were partially mediated by DD. Conclusions The current study suggests that impulsivity, as measured by DD, is one proximal mechanism by which parental FH increases substance use later in life. The causal role of DD in this relationship will need to be established in future longitudinal studies. PMID:26395990

  8. Substance Abuse and Dependency Risk: The Role of Peer Perceptions, Marijuana Involvement, and Attitudes toward Substance Use among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Mobley, A. Keith

    2010-01-01

    Many college students are using substances at levels consistent with Substance Abuse or Dependence, yet little explanation for this phenomenon exits. The aim of this study was to explore a risk factor profile that best separates those with low and high potential for having a Substance Use Disorder (SUD). A discriminant function analysis revealed…

  9. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  10. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  11. Substance Abuse Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzolino, Robert

    This brochure outlines the substance abuse policy for students at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM/Pennsylvania). Noted are the dangers of substance abuse during the stressful time of medical training and later for the doctor and clients during professional practice. The policy's five goals are briefly stated. Described next…

  12. Substance Abuse and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    A review of the literature provides the conclusion that individuals with a disability versus those without a disability are more likely to have a substance abuse problem and less likely to get effective treatment. Data suggest 10-40% of all individuals in treatment for substance abuse have a coexisting physical or mental disability. Alcohol rates…

  13. TBARS and BDNF levels in newborns exposed to crack/cocaine during pregnancy: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mardini, Victor; Rohde, Luis A; Ceresér, Keila M; Gubert, Carolina M; Silva, Emily G da; Xavier, Fernando; Parcianello, Rodrigo; Röhsig, Liane M; Pechansky, Flávio; Szobot, Claudia M

    2017-01-01

    To compare levels of a marker of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in umbilical cord blood (UCB) between newborns exposed to crack/cocaine in utero (exposed newborns [EN], n=57) and non-exposed newborns (NEN, n=99), as well as in maternal peripheral blood at delivery. This was a cross-sectional study. Potential confounders, including perinatal parameters, psychopathology, and use of other substances, were assessed. After adjusting for potential confounders, adjusted mean BDNF was significantly higher in EN (3.86 ng/mL, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 2.29-5.43) than in NEN (0.85 ng/mL, 95%CI 0.47-1.23; p < 0.001; Cohen effect size: 1.12), and significantly lower in crack/cocaine mothers than in control mothers (4.03 ng/mL, 95%CI 2.87-5.18 vs. 6.67 ng/mL, 95%CI 5.60-7.74; p = 0.006). The adjusted mean TBARS level was significantly lower in EN (63.97 µM MDA, 95%CI 39.43-88.50) than NEN (177.04 µM MDA, 95%CI 140.93-213.14; p < 0.001; effect size = 0.84), with no difference between mother groups (p = 0.86). The changes in TBARS levels observed in EN suggest that fetuses exposed to cocaine mobilize endogenous antioxidant routes since very early stages of development. The increase in BDNF levels in EN might indicate changes in fetal development, whereas the changes in BDNF levels in mothers provide evidence of the complex metabolic processes involved in drug use during pregnancy.

  14. Comorbidity and Pattern of Substance Use in Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sepehrmanesh, Zahra; Ahmadvand, Afshin; Moraveji, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Substance use in patients with psychiatric disorder is an every-day seen. Detection of this comorbidity can significantly affect the treatment of these disorders, as well as substance use. Objectives: This study has been conducted to determine the prevalence and pattern of substance use in hospitalized psychiatric patients. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 210 hospitalized psychiatric patients were selected by simple randomization from all records of hospitalized patients. The instrument of gathering data was a demographic checklist including age, gender, marital status, education, type of disorder and substance abuse and duration of psychiatric disorder. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 using Fisher exact and Chi square tests. Results: The mean age of patients was 37.9 years. Most of the patients were male, married and unemployed. The Prevalence of substance use was 36.7%. The most prevalent pattern of substance use was opium, opioid, methamphetamines and other substances (poly substance). The prevalence of substance use in patients with mood disorders was more than the other disorders and the most prevalent substance use in these patients was opium and opioid. Poly substance use was the most prevalent pattern of use (80 %) in psychotic and mood disorders due to substance. Significant difference was seen between genders, marital status, occupation, duration of illness and frequency of substance use (P < 0.05 ), however no significant difference was seen between educational levels, age and substance use. Conclusions: The patients with mood disorders had the highest comorbidity with substance use and concurrent use of poly substance was the most prevalent pattern of use in these patients. Therefore, successful treatment of psychiatric disorders and substance use needs multimodal and more serious interventions. Regarding to the pattern of poly substance use in these patients, careful screening should be performed at admission

  15. Proximate composition and lipid stability of dourado (Salminus brasilensis, Cuvier, 1817) fillets exposed to different levels of ammonia and oxygen in vivo.

    PubMed

    Veeck, Ana Paula L; Garcia, Luciano O; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Zaniboni Filho, Evoy; Emanuelli, Tatiana

    2013-08-15

    The ammonia and oxygen levels of water are physicochemical parameters that affect fish physiology. Thus, we hypothesized that in vivo exposure to stressful ammonia and oxygen levels will affect the post-mortem quality of the fish. Therefore, in this study, the effects of in vivo exposure to stressful ammonia and oxygen levels on the composition and content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in fillets from dourado (Salminus brasiliensis) and on the lipid oxidation of these fillets during frozen storage were evaluated. Short-term exposure (12 h) to stressful environmental conditions (low oxygen and high ammonia levels) did not change the composition of the flesh. However, longer exposure (15 days) to these stressful conditions caused significant changes in the composition of the flesh. Exposure to a stressful ammonia level before slaughtering increased the susceptibility of the fish fillets to lipid oxidation during frozen storage. In contrast, exposure to low oxygen levels did not increase the lipid oxidation rate of the fillets. These results indicate that the in vivo exposure to high ammonia levels may reduce the quality and stability of dourado fillets. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Vitis vinifera (Muscat Variety) Seed Ethanolic Extract Preserves Activity Levels of Enzymes and Histology of the Liver in Adult Male Rats with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Eswar Kumar, Kilari; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2015-01-01

    The effect of V. vinifera seeds on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and other enzymes of the liver in diabetes is currently unknown. We therefore investigated changes in the activity levels of these enzymes following V. vinifera seed extract administration to diabetic rats. Methods. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) or glibenclamide (600 μg/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of treatment, liver was harvested and activity levels of various liver enzymes were determined. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in liver homogenates and liver histopathological changes were observed. Results. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract was able to prevent the decrease in ICDH, SDH, MDH, and G-6-PDH and the increase in LDH activity levels in liver homogenates. The seed extract also caused serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, ACP, GGT, and total bilirubin to decrease while causing total proteins to increase. Additionally, the levels of ALT, AST, and TBARS in liver homogenates were decreased. Histopathological changes in the liver were reduced. Conclusion. Near normal activity levels of various enzymes and histology of the liver following V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract administration may be due to decrease in liver oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:25852767

  17. Modulation of selenium tissue distribution and selenoprotein expression in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed diets with graded levels of plant ingredients.

    PubMed

    Betancor, Monica B; Dam, Thi M C; Walton, James; Morken, Thea; Campbell, Patrick J; Tocher, Douglas R

    2016-04-01

    Increased substitution of marine ingredients by terrestrial plant products in aquafeeds has been proven to be suitable for Atlantic salmon farming. However, a reduction in n-3 long-chain PUFA is a consequence of this substitution. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the effects of fishmeal and oil substitution on levels of micronutrients such as Se, considering fish are major sources of this mineral for human consumers. To evaluate the effects of dietary marine ingredient substitution on tissue Se distribution and the expression of Se metabolism and antioxidant enzyme genes, Atlantic salmons were fed three feeds based on commercial formulations with increasing levels of plant proteins (PP) and vegetable oil. Lipid content in flesh did not vary at any sampling point, but it was higher in the liver of 1 kg of fish fed higher PP. Fatty acid content reflected dietary input and was related to oxidation levels (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances). Liver had the highest Se levels, followed by head kidney, whereas the lowest contents were found in brain and gill. The Se concentration of flesh decreased considerably with high levels of substitution, reducing the added value of fish consumption. Only the brain showed significant differences in glutathione peroxidase, transfer RNA selenocysteine 1-associated protein 1b and superoxide dismutase expression, whereas no significant regulation of Se-related genes was found in liver. Although Se levels in the diets satisfied the essential requirements of salmon, high PP levels led to a reduction in the supply of this essential micronutrient.

  18. Emerging endocrine disrupters: perfluoroalkylated substances.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Allan Astrup; Leffers, Henrik

    2008-04-01

    In recent years, polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have increasingly been used as surfactants in various industry- and consumer products, because of their unique properties as repellents of dirt, water and oils. The most well-known PFCs are perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and their derivatives belonging to the group of perfluoroalkylated substances. The PFCs are very persistent in the environment, and some of them have been discovered as global pollutants of air, water, soil and wildlife and even found in remote polar areas. Bioaccumulation occurs also in humans, and everybody in our society has traces of these PFCs in their blood and internal organs such as the liver, kidneys, spleen, gall bladder and testes. In the blood, PFOS and PFOA are bound to serum proteins. The acute toxicity of the polyfluorinated substances is moderate but some substances can induce peroxisome proliferation in rat livers and may change the fluidity of cell membranes. Some of these PFCs, such as PFOS and PFOA, are potential developmental toxicants and are suspected endocrine disruptors with effects on sex hormone levels resulting in lower testosterone levels and higher oestradiol level. Other PFCs have oestrogenic effects in cell cultures. The industrial production of PFOS and its derivatives stopped in 2000, and the European Union has banned most uses from the summer of 2008. However, hundreds of related chemicals: homologues with shorter or longer alkyl chain, PFOA and telomers, which potentially may degrade to perfluoroalkanoic (carboxylic) acids, are not regulated.

  19. Atomic layer deposition in nanometer-level replication of cellulosic substances and preparation of photocatalytic TiO2/cellulose composites.

    PubMed

    Kemell, Marianna; Pore, Viljami; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku; Lindén, Mika

    2005-10-19

    TiO2 replicas of filter paper with nanometer-level accuracy were prepared by atomic layer deposition of thin conformal TiO2 coating, followed by a removal of the paper by air-anneal at 450 degrees C. Photocatalytic anatase TiO2/cellulose composites were also made by leaving the paper intact. The TiO2 films were deposited from Ti(OMe)4 and H2O at 150-250 degrees C. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2/cellulose composite was verified by photocatalytic reduction of Ag(I) from an aqueous solution to Ag nanoparticles on the TiO2 surface. The TiO2/cellulose composites are mechanically more stable than the free-standing TiO2 replicas and are therefore potentially suitable as lightweight, high surface area photocatalysts.

  20. Effect of biologically active substances present in water extracts of white mustard and coriander on antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation of mouse C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Zielniok, K; Szkoda, K; Gajewska, M; Wilczak, J

    2016-10-01

    Coriander and white mustard, an annual plants originated in the Mediterranean region, have been cultivated and used as spices for a long time. Recent studies have shown that they may constitute a potential source of phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of polyphenols in coriander and white mustard water extracts and to investigate their antioxidant activity in C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells, which serve as a good model of cells with intensive metabolism. HPLC analysis showed that polyphenols were able to permeate from the water extracts of studied plants into the undifferentiated myoblasts as well as myocytes undergoing differentiation, increasing the concentration of reduced glutathione and upregulating glutathione reductase and peroxidase activity. White mustard and coriander extracts also decreased the levels of oxysterols and sum of tiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in both: myoblasts and differentiating myocytes, demonstrating protective effect on cell membranes. The obtained results indicate that polyphenols synthesized by both herbs may have beneficial effects on muscle tissue. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Radioprotective effect of sesamol on gamma-radiation induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants levels in cultured human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Prasad, N Rajendra; Menon, Venugopal P; Vasudev, V; Pugalendi, K V

    2005-05-05

    Sesamol pretreated (1, 5 and 10 microg/ml) lymphocytes were exposed to different doses of gamma-radiation, i.e., 1, 2 and 4 Gray (Gy) and the cellular changes were estimated by using cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay (MN), dicentric aberration (DC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Radiation significantly increased MN, DC frequencies, TBARS levels and decreased GSH and antioxidant enzyme levels in a dose dependent manner. The highest damage to lymphocytes was observed at 4 Gy irradiation. On the other hand, sesamol pretreatment significantly decreased MN, DC frequencies, TBARS levels and increased GSH levels and SOD, CAT and GPx activities in a concentration dependent manner. At 1 Gy irradiation all concentrations of sesamol (1, 5 and 10 microg/ml) significantly protects the lymphocytes from radiation damage. At 2 Gy irradiation 5 and 10 microg/ml of sesamol shows significant radioprotection. Since the highest damage was observed at 4 Gy irradiation both 1 and 5 microg/ml of sesamol pretreatment were not sufficient to protect the lymphocytes from radiation damage but 10 microg/ml of sesamol significantly (p<0.05) protects the lymphocytes from radiation effect. Thus, sesamol pretreatment gives significant protection to cultured human lymphocytes against gamma-radiation induced cellular damage. The possible mechanism involved in the radioprotective influence of sesamol is discussed.

  2. Preventive antioxidant responses to extreme oxygen level fluctuation in a subterranean crustacean.

    PubMed

    Lawniczak, M; Romestaing, C; Roussel, D; Maazouzi, C; Renault, D; Hervant, F

    2013-06-01

    The principal aim of this work was to explore the responses of the groundwater crustacean Niphargus rhenorhodanensis to oxidative stress caused by short- and long-term drastic variations in oxygen level. To this end, we investigated thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and anti-oxidative enzyme (SOD and GPx) activities during 24 h anoxia and post-anoxia recovery, and during 10 days of severe hypoxia and post-hypoxia recovery. We observed a decrease in TBARS amounts during recovery from severe hypoxia. Parallel to these results, we observed an overactivation of SOD activity after a 24 h anoxic stress. GPx activity measured at the end of anoxia or severe hypoxia and in the early hours of post-stress recovery also showed an overactivation compared to the control group. We can hypothesize that this overproduction of GPx corresponded to an anticipatory mechanism coping with the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the recovery phase in subterranean animals. This response could be considered as a major asset for life in alternately normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and therefore in extreme biotopes such as groundwaters.

  3. Natural zeolites chabazite/phillipsite/analcime increase blood levels of antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Dogliotti, Giada; Malavazos, Alexis E.; Giacometti, Sonia; Solimene, Umberto; Fanelli, Mauro; Corsi, Massimiliano M.; Dozio, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Imbalance between reactive oxygen species generation and antioxidant capacity induces a condition known as oxidative stress which is implicated in numerous pathological processes. In this study we evaluated whether natural zeolites chabazite/phillipsite/analcime may affect the levels of different antioxidant enzymes (gluthatione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, gluthatione reductase), total antioxidant status and oxidative stress in 25 clinically healthy men, both non-smokers and smokers. Measurements were performed on whole blood or on plasma samples before (T0) and after 4-weeks zeolites intake (T1). At T1, gluthatione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and gluthatione reductase increased compared to T0 levels, both considering all subjects as joint and after subdivision in non-smokers and smokers. Differently, a reduction in total antioxidant status was observed at T1. Anyway, total antioxidant status resulted higher than the reference values in both groups at each time point. A decrease in lipid peroxidation, a major indicator of oxidative stress assessed by monitoring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was also observed in all subjects at T1. Our results suggested that chabazite/phillipsite/analcime may help to counteract oxidative stress in apparently healthy subjects exposed to different oxidative stress risk factors, such as smoking, thus representing a particular kind of food with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:22573920

  4. Natural zeolites chabazite/phillipsite/analcime increase blood levels of antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Dogliotti, Giada; Malavazos, Alexis E; Giacometti, Sonia; Solimene, Umberto; Fanelli, Mauro; Corsi, Massimiliano M; Dozio, Elena

    2012-05-01

    Imbalance between reactive oxygen species generation and antioxidant capacity induces a condition known as oxidative stress which is implicated in numerous pathological processes. In this study we evaluated whether natural zeolites chabazite/phillipsite/analcime may affect the levels of different antioxidant enzymes (gluthatione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, gluthatione reductase), total antioxidant status and oxidative stress in 25 clinically healthy men, both non-smokers and smokers. Measurements were performed on whole blood or on plasma samples before (T0) and after 4-weeks zeolites intake (T1). At T1, gluthatione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and gluthatione reductase increased compared to T0 levels, both considering all subjects as joint and after subdivision in non-smokers and smokers. Differently, a reduction in total antioxidant status was observed at T1. Anyway, total antioxidant status resulted higher than the reference values in both groups at each time point. A decrease in lipid peroxidation, a major indicator of oxidative stress assessed by monitoring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was also observed in all subjects at T1. Our results suggested that chabazite/phillipsite/analcime may help to counteract oxidative stress in apparently healthy subjects exposed to different oxidative stress risk factors, such as smoking, thus representing a particular kind of food with potential antioxidant properties.

  5. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  6. Prevention of substance abuse: a brief overview

    PubMed Central

    MEDINA-MORA, MARÍA ELENA

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in psychosocial research and neurosciences have provided new avenues for prevention of substance abuse at the individual and community level. A series of risk and protective factors affecting the likelihood of using and abusing substances have been identified. The scope of prevention has been broadened, allowing the prescription of different interventions for individuals according to their varying degrees of vulnerability to substance experimentation, continuous use and dependence. An increased awareness of comorbidity between mental and substance use disorders provides an arena for prevention within psychiatry and related disciplines. Emphasis on program evaluation has helped identify cost effective programs and policies. The integration of prevention within healthy life style policies and programs, including interventions at the school, family and community levels, is more likely to produce the desired outcomes. PMID:16633497

  7. Remote Dose-Dependent Effects of Dry Needling at Distant Myofascial Trigger Spots of Rabbit Skeletal Muscles on Reduction of Substance P Levels of Proximal Muscle and Spinal Cords

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yueh-Ling; Liu, Szu-Yu; Hong, Chang-Zern

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dry needling at distant myofascial trigger points is an effective pain management in patients with myofascial pain. However, the biochemical effects of remote dry needling are not well understood. This study evaluates the remote effects of dry needling with different dosages on the expressions of substance P (SP) in the proximal muscle, spinal dorsal horns of rabbits. Methods. Male New Zealand rabbits (2.5–3.0 kg) received dry needling at myofascial trigger spots of a gastrocnemius (distant muscle) in one (1D) or five sessions (5D). Bilateral biceps femoris (proximal muscles) and superficial laminaes of L5-S2, T2-T5, and C2-C5 were sampled immediately and 5 days after dry needling to determine the levels of SP using immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results. Immediately after dry needling for 1D and 5D, the expressions of SP were significantly decreased in ipsilateral biceps femoris and bilateral spinal superficial laminaes (P < .05). Five days after dry needling, these reduced immunoactivities of SP were found only in animals receiving 5D dry needling (P < .05). Conclusions. This remote effect of dry needling involves the reduction of SP levels in proximal muscle and spinal superficial laminaes, which may be closely associated with the control of myofascial pain. PMID:25276839

  8. Remote dose-dependent effects of dry needling at distant myofascial trigger spots of rabbit skeletal muscles on reduction of substance P levels of proximal muscle and spinal cords.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yueh-Ling; Yang, Chen-Chia; Liu, Szu-Yu; Chou, Li-Wei; Hong, Chang-Zern

    2014-01-01

    Dry needling at distant myofascial trigger points is an effective pain management in patients with myofascial pain. However, the biochemical effects of remote dry needling are not well understood. This study evaluates the remote effects of dry needling with different dosages on the expressions of substance P (SP) in the proximal muscle, spinal dorsal horns of rabbits. Male New Zealand rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg) received dry needling at myofascial trigger spots of a gastrocnemius (distant muscle) in one (1D) or five sessions (5D). Bilateral biceps femoris (proximal muscles) and superficial laminaes of L5-S2, T2-T5, and C2-C5 were sampled immediately and 5 days after dry needling to determine the levels of SP using immunohistochemistry and western blot. Immediately after dry needling for 1D and 5D, the expressions of SP were significantly decreased in ipsilateral biceps femoris and bilateral spinal superficial laminaes (P < .05). Five days after dry needling, these reduced immunoactivities of SP were found only in animals receiving 5D dry needling (P < .05). This remote effect of dry needling involves the reduction of SP levels in proximal muscle and spinal superficial laminaes, which may be closely associated with the control of myofascial pain.

  9. Substance use during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Forray, Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal substance use is a critical public health concern that is linked with several harmful maternal and fetal consequences. The most frequently used substance in pregnancy is tobacco, followed by alcohol, cannabis and other illicit substances. Unfortunately, polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, as well as psychiatric comorbidity, environmental stressors, and limited and disrupted parental care, all of which can compound deleterious maternal and fetal outcomes. There are few existing treatments for prenatal substance use and these mainly comprise behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Contingency management has been shown to be the most efficacious of these. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the prenatal use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids, including the effects of these on maternal and fetal health and the current therapeutic options. PMID:27239283

  10. Substance use - LSD

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - LSD; Drug abuse - LSD; Drug use - LSD; Lysergic acid diethylamide; Hallucinogen - LSD ... PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 50. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Research report series: Hallucinogens and dissociative drugs. Updated ...

  11. Toxic substances alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  12. Toxic substances handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  13. Substance use during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Forray, Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal substance use is a critical public health concern that is linked with several harmful maternal and fetal consequences. The most frequently used substance in pregnancy is tobacco, followed by alcohol, cannabis and other illicit substances. Unfortunately, polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, as well as psychiatric comorbidity, environmental stressors, and limited and disrupted parental care, all of which can compound deleterious maternal and fetal outcomes. There are few existing treatments for prenatal substance use and these mainly comprise behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Contingency management has been shown to be the most efficacious of these. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the prenatal use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids, including the effects of these on maternal and fetal health and the current therapeutic options.

  14. Toxic substances handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  15. Supervision: Substance and Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  16. Substance use - marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - marijuana; Drug abuse - marijuana; Drug use - marijuana; Cannabis; Grass; Hashish; Mary Jane; Pot; Weed ... several minutes. If you eat foods containing the drug as an ingredient, such as brownies, you may ...

  17. Schizophrenia and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Smith, J; Hucker, S

    1994-07-01

    Recent research from North America has demonstrated higher than expected rates of drug and alcohol abuse among the seriously mentally ill. Schizophrenics appear to be particularly susceptible to the negative effects of substance abuse. These include psychiatric and social complications, with antisocial behaviour, particularly violence emerging as one of the most worrying features. This review examines the strength of the association and explores the possible explanations for the apparent link between schizophrenia, substance abuse and violence. The literature was searched using Medline, supplemented with a manual literature search. Very few articles specifically approached the problem of violence among substance abusing schizophrenics, but over 80 papers were identified which were helpful in exploring the link between dangerous behaviour and substance abuse by schizophrenics. While there is circumstantial evidence to support the hypothesis that schizophrenics who abuse drugs or alcohol are at an increased risk of behaving violently, longitudinal studies are required to facilitate a better understanding of the mediating mechanisms.

  18. Organic substances in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeson, Phillip E.

    1981-01-01

    This is the third of several compilations of briefing papers on water quality by the U.S. Geological Survey. Each briefing paper is prepared in a simple, nontechnical, easy-to-understand manner. This U.S. Geological Survey Circular contains papers on selected organic substances in water. Briefing papers are included on ' Why study organic substances in water. ', ' Taste and odor in water ', and ' Classification and fractionation of organic solutes in natural waters'. (USGS)

  19. Substance Abuse Treatment for Adolescents in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Van Gerpen, Shawn; Vik, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    In the state of South Dakota, there are 39 accredited substance abuse providers who service over 11,000 individuals each year. Knowledge of which substance abuse providers are accredited is important for families looking to find financially affordable substance abuse treatment/care for their loved ones. In order to begin the process of entry into a substance abuse treatment program, an adolescent must first complete a needs assessment with one of the accredited providers. The needs assessment will help to identify the severity of the substance use disorder as well as identify the appropriate level of treatment/care for the individual. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  20. Effects of coffee consumption on oxidative susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins and serum lipid levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, G S; Mune, M; Otani, H; Tone, Y; Liang, X-M; Iwahashi, H; Sakamoto, W

    2004-01-01

    Since little is known about how coffee intake affects low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidative susceptibility and serum lipid levels, we conducted an in vivo study in 11 healthy male students of Wakayama Medical University aged between 20 and 31 years fed an average Japanese diet. On days 1-7 of the study, the subjects drank mineral water. On day 7, the subjects began drinking coffee, 24 g total per day, for one week. This was followed by a one week "washout period" during which mineral water was consumed. Fasting peripheral venous blood samples were taken at the end of each one-week period. LDL oxidation lag time was approximately 8% greater (p < 0.01) after the coffee drinking period than the other periods. Serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly decreased after the coffee drinking period. Finally, regular coffee ingestion may favorably affect cardiovascular risk status by modestly reducing LDL oxidation susceptibility and decreasing LDL-cholesterol and MDA levels.

  1. Effect of summer heat environment on body temperature, estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cow.

    PubMed

    Sakatani, Miki; Balboula, Ahmed Z; Yamanaka, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masashi

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of summer heat environment on estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cows. A total of 13 non-lactating Japanese Black cows (summer: 9, winter: 4) were examined. Body temperature was measured rectally and intravaginally using a thermometer and data logger, respectively. Estrous behavior was monitored using a radiotelemetric pedometer that recorded walking activity. Rectal temperatures were higher during summer than winter (P<0.001). There was an acute increase in vaginal temperature at the onset of estrus during winter but such an increase was not observed during summer. Walking activity during estrus decreased dramatically in the summer compared to the winter. Duration of estrous cycle was longer in summer (23.4 days, P<0.05) than winter (21.5 days), and the subsequent rise in progesterone concentrations following estrus tended to be delayed in summer. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in peripheral blood cells was higher during summer (P<0.05), while the levels of superoixde dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione were lower (P<0.05). These results indicate that high ambient temperature during summer increases both body temperature and oxidative stress, and also reduces signs of estrus in Japanese Black cows. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Evaluation of uranium removal by Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle from low level nuclear waste under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Bhainsa, K C

    2016-02-01

    The present study evaluated uranium (U) removal ability and tolerance to low level nuclear waste (LLNW) of an aquatic weed Hydrilla verticillata. Plants were screened for growth in 10%-50% waste treatments up to 3 d. Treatments of 20% and 50% waste imposed increasing toxicity with duration assessed in terms of change in fresh weight and in the levels of photosynthetic pigments and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. U concentration, however, did not show a progressive increase and was about 42 μg g(-1) dw from 20% to 50% waste at 3 d. This suggested that a saturation stage was reached with respect to U removal due to increasing toxicity. However, in another experiment with 10% waste and 10% waste+10 ppm U treatments, plants showed an increase in U concentration with the maximum level approaching 426 μg g(-1) dw at 3 d without showing any toxicity as compared to that at 20% and 50% waste treatments. Hence, plants possessed significant potential to take up U and toxicity of LLNW limited their U removal ability. This implies that the use of Hydrilla plants for U removal from LLNW is feasible at low concentrations and would require repeated harvesting at short intervals.

  3. Effect of curcumin and curcumin copper complex (1:1) on radiation-induced changes of anti-oxidant enzymes levels in the livers of Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Koiram, Prabhakar R; Veerapur, Veeresh P; Kunwar, Amit; Mishra, Beena; Barik, Atanu; Priyadarsini, Indira K; Mazhuvancherry, Unnikrishnan K

    2007-05-01

    The effect of mononuclear copper (II) complex of curcumin in 1:1 stoichiometry (hereafter referred to as complex) administered 30 min before gamma-irradiation (4.5 Gy) on alterations in antioxidant and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in livers was studied in comparison to curcumin at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The different antioxidants like GSH, GST, catalase, SOD, TBARS and total thiols were estimated in the liver homogenates excised at different time intervals (1, 2 and 4 h) post irradiation using colorimetric methods. There was a radiation-induced decrease in the levels of all the studied enzymes at 1 h post irradiation, while an increase was observed at later time points. Both curcumin and complex treatment in sham-irradiated mice decreased the levels of GSH and total thiols, whereas there was an increase in the levels of catalase, GST and SOD compared to normal control. Under the influence of irradiation, both curcumin and complex treatment protected the decline in the levels of GSH, GST, SOD, catalase and total thiols, and inhibited radiation-induced lipid peroxidation. Further, the complex was found to be more effective in protecting the enzymes at 1 h post irradiation compared to curcumin treated group. This may be due to the higher rate constants of the complex compared to curcumin for their reactions with various free radicals.

  4. Recovery resources and psychiatric severity among persons with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Majer, John M; Payne, Jason C; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-05-01

    A comparative analysis of recovery resources (abstinence social support, abstinence self-efficacy) was conducted among two groups exiting inpatient treatment for substance use disorders: persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders and persons with substance use disorders. Both groups reported comparable levels of abstinence social support, but this resource was not significantly related to substance use among persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders. Although abstinence self-efficacy was significantly related to substance use, persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders reported significantly lower levels of abstinence self-efficacy than persons with substance use disorders. Findings suggest that persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders exit alcohol/drug treatment with lower levels of abstinence self-efficacy compared to their substance use disorder peers.

  5. Trace Level Quantification of the (-)2-(2-amino-5-chlorophenyl)-4-cyclopropyl-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-butyn-2-ol Genotoxic Impurity in Efavirenz Drug Substance and Drug Product Using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Jaishetty, Nagadeep; Palanisamy, Kamaraj; Maruthapillai, Arthanareeswari; Jaishetty, Rajamanohar

    2015-10-18

    Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV). (2S)-(2-Amino-5-chlorophenyl)-4-cyclopropyl-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-butyn-2-ol (AMCOL), used as an intermediate in the synthesis of efavirenz and a degradation impurity, has an aminoaryl derivative which is a well-known alerting function for genotoxic activity. Upon request from a regulatory agency, a selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for trace level quantitative determination of AMCOL related compound of efavirenz, for a risk assessment and comparison of impurity levels with the commercially available innovator product (brand name: Sustiva). The method provided excellent sensitivity at a typical target analyte level of <2.5 ppm, an established threshold of toxicological concern (TTC), when the drug substance and drug product samples were prepared at 15.0 mg/mL. The AMCOL sample was analyzed on a Luna C18 (2) (100 mm × 4.6 mm, 3 µm) column interfaced with a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer operated in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Positive electrospray ionization (ESI) was employed as the ionization source and the mobile phase used was 5.0 mM ammonium acetate-methanol (35:65, v/v). The calibration curve showed good linearity over the concentration range of 0.2-5.0 ppm with a correlation coefficient of >0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 0.07 and 0.2 ppm, respectively. The developed method was validated as per international council on harmonization (ICH) guidelines in terms of LOD, LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, and robustness.

  6. Trace Level Quantification of the (−)2-(2-amino-5-chlorophenyl)-4-cyclopropyl-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-butyn-2-ol Genotoxic Impurity in Efavirenz Drug Substance and Drug Product Using LC–MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Jaishetty, Nagadeep; Palanisamy, Kamaraj; Maruthapillai, Arthanareeswari; Jaishetty, Rajamanohar

    2015-01-01

    Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV). (2S)-(2-Amino-5-chlorophenyl)-4-cyclopropyl-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-butyn-2-ol (AMCOL), used as an intermediate in the synthesis of efavirenz and a degradation impurity, has an aminoaryl derivative which is a well-known alerting function for genotoxic activity. Upon request from a regulatory agency, a selective and sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method was developed for trace level quantitative determination of AMCOL related compound of efavirenz, for a risk assessment and comparison of impurity levels with the commercially available innovator product (brand name: Sustiva). The method provided excellent sensitivity at a typical target analyte level of <2.5 ppm, an established threshold of toxicological concern (TTC), when the drug substance and drug product samples were prepared at 15.0 mg/mL. The AMCOL sample was analyzed on a Luna C18 (2) (100 mm × 4.6 mm, 3 µm) column interfaced with a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer operated in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Positive electrospray ionization (ESI) was employed as the ionization source and the mobile phase used was 5.0 mM ammonium acetate-methanol (35:65, v/v). The calibration curve showed good linearity over the concentration range of 0.2–5.0 ppm with a correlation coefficient of >0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 0.07 and 0.2 ppm, respectively. The developed method was validated as per international council on harmonization (ICH) guidelines in terms of LOD, LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, and robustness. PMID:28117312

  7. Spending on substance abuse treatment: how much is enough?

    PubMed Central

    Meara, Ellen; Frank, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    Aim To describe a framework that can be used to determine optimal spending on substance abuse treatment in the United States. Methods Selective review of the literature on spending for substance abuse treatment combined with an economic analysis of how to determine when spending is optimal, defining optimal spending as that which minimizes the social costs of substance use disorders. Results In 1997, only $11.9 billion of the $294 billion estimated social costs of substance abuse was spent on treatment. The discrepancy between the high indirect costs of illness relative to the level of spending on treatment of addictive disorders leads many to believe that the United States spends too little on treatment. In this paper, we argue that information on the social costs of substance abuse disorders and the level of spending on treatment is insufficient to determine whether current spending is optimal. We develop a framework that could be used to determine optimal spending on substance abuse treatment in the United States. We develop this framework in four steps. First, we provide background on the unique financial and delivery features of substance abuse treatment. Secondly, we outline the points raised by advocates of expanded substance abuse treatment: substance abuse has high social costs, yet few people receive the many effective treatments available partly because of financial barriers to treatment. Thirdly, we provide a framework that can be used to judge the additional benefits of alternative levels and types of spending on substance abuse treatment. Finally, we discuss the distinction between the potential impact of spending on substance abuse treatment and its actual impact, using productivity as an example of one significant portion of the costs of substance abuse. Conclusion To determine optimal spending on substance abuse treatment, research should describe who receives treatment, the quality of treatment received, and how treatments relate to outcomes that

  8. Substance abuse among oral healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Marnewick, J C; van Zyl, A W

    2014-05-01

    The abuse of both licit and illicit substances by the general population affects at least one in ten people. Research shows that the oral healthcare worker has at least the same prevalence of substance abuse, perhaps even higher. The emergence of prescription drug abuse is one of the most worrying and dangerous aspects for the healthcare worker, due to ease of access to such drugs. According to the United Nations, prescription drug abuse is amongst the top three practices of substance abuse. We have an obligation to incorporate the evidence of substance abuse among oral healthcare professionals in our undergraduate dental curricula in order to combat this phenomenon. As the stress of daily survival in single practitioner practices increase, so will the danger of substance abuse. This may lead to impairment of the healthcare worker and ultimately loss of registration. It will take a combined effort from organised dentistry and academic institutions to establish a national strategy to ensure we address this important issue at undergraduate level and provide support at practitioner level. This paper will deal with substance abuse and the implications of impairment it holds for the oral healthcare worker.

  9. Effect of some medicinal plants on plasma antioxidant system and lipid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Mi; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2005-05-01

    Several inflammatory diseases are thought to be related to oxidative injury and free oxygen radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of heart disease and aging. To investigate the effects of daily intake of medicinal plants on antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and lipid profiles in rat, 28 rats were randomly divided into four groups and administered with three plant extracts (0.2 g/kg body weight): Piper cubeba (fruit), Physalis angulata (flower), Rosa hybrida (flower) and with saline as a control. After 3 weeks, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels in plasma were measured. The SOD activity of the Piper cubeba group and the catalase activity of the Piper cubeba and Rosa hybrida groups were significantly increased compared with the control group, while the SOD and catalase activities of the Physalis angulata group were not significantly changed (p<0.05). TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was significantly lower in all experimental groups compeered with the control group. No significant changes occurred in the TG, total- and LDL-cholesterol of all groups, but the HDL-cholesterol of the Physalis angulata group was significantly increased. This study showed that the intake of medicinal plants in rats results in an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and HDL-cholesterol, and a decrease in malondialdehyde, which may reduce the risk of inflammatory and heart disease.

  10. Effect of fluoride intoxication on the levels of intestinal antioxidants studied in rats.

    PubMed

    Shanthakumari, D; Srinivasalu, S; Subramanian, S

    2007-03-01

    High concentration of fluorine is noxious to the health of humans and animals. Analysis of fluoride in water samples meant for human consumption in the Vellore District of Tamil Nadu, India, revealed its presence above the permissible limit (4.56 ppm). The present study was aimed to investigate the toxic effects of oral administration of the water sample that contains the highest fluoride content on the status of pathophysiological parameters and lipid peroxidation in experimental rats. A positive control group orally treated with 4.5 ppm of fluoride was also included in the study. The assay of pathophysiological enzymes and histological observations made on the stomach and intestinal tissue have revealed the toxic effects of fluoride intoxication. The observed increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) both in plasma and in intestinal epithelium, with a concomitant decrease in both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in the plasma of experimental rats, revealed that the altered antioxidant status during fluoride intoxication may be due to increased free radical generation.

  11. Substance use capital: Social resources enhancing youth substance use.

    PubMed

    Baggio, S; Mohler-Kuo, M; Dupuis, M; Henchoz, Y; Studer, J; N'Goran, A A; Gmel, G

    2016-09-01

    Social capital is described as a protective factor against youth substance use, but it may also be associated with behaviours that do not enhance health. The present study hypothesized that 'substance use capital', i.e. resources favourable to substance use, is a risk factor for substance use and misuse. We used baseline data from the ongoing Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF) that included a representative sample of young Swiss men (n=5623). Substance use (alcohol, cannabis, 15 illicit drugs, lifetime use, hazardous use and dependence), substance use capital (parental and peer attitudes towards substance use, parental and peer drug use, perceived norms of substance use) and aspects of social capital (relationships with parents and peers) were assessed. Logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between substance-related resources and social resources, and substance use. Results showed that substance-related resources were associated with an increased risk of substance use (OR between 1.25 and 4.67), whereas social resources' associations with substance use were commonly protective but weaker than substance-related resources. Thus, a drug-friendly environment facilitated substance use and misuse. Moreover, the results showed that peer environments were more drug-friendly than familial environments. In conclusion, this study highlighted a concept of 'substance use capital', which may be useful for advancing both theoretical and applied knowledge of substance use. Indeed, substance use is not only associated with a lack of social resources, but also with specific drug-friendly social resources coming from environment and background. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum Oxidized LDL Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Retinopathy in Mthatha Region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a powerful natural prooxidant derived from native LDL by cell-mediated oxidation. Such oxidation occurs more easily in glycated LDL as observed in diabetes mellitus. We evaluated and compared selected biomarkers of oxidative stress and total antioxidant (TAO) levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with and without retinopathy in the Mthatha region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The participants totaled to 140 and this number comprised 98 diabetic patients on treatment, stratified by diabetes (54) and diabetes with retinopathy (44). Forty-two nondiabetic healthy controls made up the 140. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, serum ox-LDL, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and TAO levels were measured. A statistically significant increase in FPG, HbA1c, TBARS, and ox-LDL and a significant decrease in TAO levels were seen in T2DM patients with retinopathy as compared to controls. A significant negative correlation was observed between TAO and ox-LDL levels in the diabetic group. In multiple linear regression analyses, duration of diabetes, triglyceride, TAO, and LDL cholesterol were found to be significantly associated with ox-LDL. In multiple logistic regression analyses, ox-LDL [OR 1.02 (1.01–1.03), P = 0.005] was the only risk factor and was significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy. PMID:27433285

  13. Relationships between hair melanization, glutathione levels, and senescence in wild boars.

    PubMed

    Galván, Ismael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Negro, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of melanins, which are the most common animal pigments, is influenced by glutathione (GSH), a key intracellular antioxidant. At high GSH levels, pheomelanin (the lightest melanin form) is produced, whereas production of eumelanin (the darkest melanin form) does not require GSH. Oxidative damage typically increases with age, and age-related decreases in GSH have accordingly been found in diverse organisms. Therefore, there should be positive associations between the capacity to produce eumelanic traits, GSH levels, and senescence, whereas there should be negative associations between the capacity to produce pheomelanic traits, GSH levels, and senescence. We explored this hypothesis in a free-ranging population of wild boars Sus scrofa of different ages. As expected from the fact that pheomelanogenesis consumes GSH, levels of this antioxidant in muscle tended to be negatively related to pheomelanization and positively related to eumelanization in pelage, and the degree of pelage pheomelanization was positively related to oxidative damage as reflected by levels of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARS), which is consistent with the hypothesis that pheomelanin synthesis has physiological costs. In our cross-sectional sample, GSH levels did not show senescence effects, and we did not detect senescence effects in pelage melanization. Prime body condition and low TBARS levels were also associated with hair graying, which is attributable to a loss of melanin produced by oxidative stress, thus raising the possibility that hair graying constitutes a signal of resistance to oxidative stress in wild boars. Our results suggest that the degree of melanization is linked to GSH levels in wild boars and that their antioxidant damage shows senescence effects.

  14. Oxidative stress levels are reduced in postmenopausal women with exercise training regardless of hormone replacement therapy status.

    PubMed

    Attipoe, Selasi; Park, Joon-Young; Fenty, Nicola; Phares, Dana; Brown, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether postmenopausal women on HRT would experience a greater reduction in oxidative stress after 24 weeks of aerobic exercise training compared to postmenopausal women not on HRT. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), an indicator of oxidative stress, was measured in 48 previously sedentary postmenopausal women on HRT (n = 21) and not on HRT (n = 27) before and after 24 weeks of aerobic exercise training. Baseline levels of TBARS differed significantly between groups after controlling for age, BMI, and fasting blood glucose (P = 0.03). There was a significant reduction in TBARS after 24 weeks of training in the overall group. When analyzed separately, both postmenopausal women on HRT and those not on HRT had a significant reduction in TBARS; however, there was no significant difference between groups (-0.71 +/- 0.14 nmol/ml in non-HRT users vs. -0.50 +/- 0.16 nmol/ml in HRT users; P = 0.33) even after controlling for age, BMI, and baseline levels of TBARS. Our results showed that aerobic exercise training significantly decreased oxidative stress in postmenopausal women; however, both HRT users and non-HRT users benefited equally.

  15. Approaching Suspicious Substances Safely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A mineral identification tool that was developed for NASA's Mars Rover Technology Development program is now serving as a powerful tool for U.S. law enforcement agencies and military personnel to identify suspicious liquid and solid substances. The tool can measure unknown substances through glass and plastic packaging materials with the RamanProbe(TradeMark) focused fiber-optic probe. The probe length can be extended up to 200 meters to enable users to analyze potentially dangerous substances at a safe distance. In many cases, the spectrometer and personnel are kept in a safe zone while the probe is positioned next to the sample being analyzed. Being able to identify chemicals in remote locations also saves users time and labor, since otherwise the samples would need to be collected, transported, and prepared prior to measurement in the laboratory.

  16. Associations Between Substance Use in Commission of Sexual Crimes and Offense Characteristics Among Youth: Mitigating Effects of Substance Use Treatment.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jamie; Caserta, Deborah A

    2016-06-01

    The small extant research base on substance use and youth sexual offending has very few descriptive details. Furthermore, research has yet to test associations between the use of substances in the commission of sexual crimes and offense-related characteristics and how substance use treatment can mitigate these effects. In a sample of residentially housed youth adjudicated of a sexual crime (N = 332), prevalence patterns are broken down by type of substance use behavior. Sequential regression models are run to test the associations between substance use prior to a sexual crime and number of victims, sexual deviance, and non-sexual criminality. Substance use treatment is tested as a mitigating factor in these relationships. Results reveal high levels of family substance use, and high rates of alcohol, marijuana, and other substance use. There were associations between substance use prior to sexual criminality and sexual deviance and non-sexual criminality. Substance use treatment reduced the effects of substance use on non-sexual criminality. Research and treatment implications are offered. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Risks and Chemical Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Avrom A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines exposure to chemicals within the home and three important ways in which hazardous substances can be identified and evaluated. Suggests a rational picture of human health risks and contains an introductory discussion of reasons for exposure, epidemiology, cancer causes and patterns, animal testing, toxins, and risk. (LZ)

  18. Substance Use Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Judy

    This report outlines the Hillsborough County, Florida, Head Start Program's project to field test with young children and their families curricula that were designed to prevent alcohol and other drug problems. A national search conducted by means of computers, individual contacts, and other methods yielded information on 22 substance abuse…

  19. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  20. Substance abuse in women.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Shelly F; Back, Sudie E; Lawson, Katie; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-06-01

    Gender differences in substance use disorders (SUDs) and treatment outcomes for women with SUDs have been a focus of research in the last 15 years. This article reviews gender differences in the epidemiology of SUDs, highlighting the convergence of male/female prevalence ratios of SUDs in the last 20 years. The telescoping course of SUDs, recent research on the role of neuroactive gonadal steroid hormones in craving and relapse, and sex differences in stress reactivity and relapse to substance abuse are described. The role of co-occurring mood and anxiety, eating, and posttraumatic stress disorders is considered in the epidemiology, natural history, and treatment of women with SUDs. Women's use of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, cannabis, and nicotine are examined in terms of recent epidemiology, biologic and psychosocial effects, and treatment. Although women may be less likely to enter substance abuse treatment than men over the course of the lifetime, once they enter treatment, gender itself is not a predictor of treatment retention, completion, or outcome. Research on gender-specific treatments for women with SUDs and behavioral couples treatment has yielded promising results for substance abuse treatment outcomes in women. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  2. Risks and Chemical Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Avrom A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines exposure to chemicals within the home and three important ways in which hazardous substances can be identified and evaluated. Suggests a rational picture of human health risks and contains an introductory discussion of reasons for exposure, epidemiology, cancer causes and patterns, animal testing, toxins, and risk. (LZ)

  3. Substance Abuse and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos, Ed.

    This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…

  4. Effects of squalene/squalane on dopamine levels, antioxidant enzyme activity, and fatty acid composition in the striatum of Parkinson's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kabuto, Hideaki; Yamanushi, Tomoko T; Janjua, Najma; Takayama, Fusako; Mankura, Mitsumasa

    2013-01-01

    Active oxygen has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD); therefore, antioxidants have attracted attention as a potential way to prevent this disease. Squalene, a natural triterpene and an intermediate in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, is known to have active oxygen scavenging activities. Squalane, synthesized by complete hydrogenation of squalene, does not have active oxygen scavenging activities. We examined the effects of oral administration of squalene or squalane on a PD mouse model, which was developed by intracerebroventricular injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Squalene administration 7 days before and 7 days after one 6-OHDA injection prevented a reduction in striatal dopamine (DA) levels, while the same administration of squalane enhanced the levels. Neither squalene nor squalane administration for 7 days changed the levels of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, or superoxide dismutase activities in the striatum. Squalane increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, a marker of lipid peroxidation, in the striatum. Both squalane and squalene increased the ratio of linoleic acid/linolenic acid in the striatum. These results suggest that the administration of squalene or squalane induces similar changes in the composition of fatty acids and has no effect on the activities of active oxygen scavenging enzymes in the striatum. However, squalane increases oxidative damage in the striatum and exacerbates the toxicity of 6-OHDA, while squalene prevents it. The effects of squalene or squalane treatment in this model suggest their possible uses and risks in the treatment of PD.

  5. Development of RP UPLC-TOF/MS, stability indicating method for omeprazole and its related substances by applying two level factorial design; and identification and synthesis of non-pharmacopoeial impurities.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Sushant Bhimrao; Kumar, C Kiran; Bandichhor, Rakeshwar; Bhosale, P N

    2016-01-25

    A new UPLC-TOF/MS compatible, reverse phase-stability indicating method was developed for determination of Omeprazole (OMP) and its related substances in pharmaceutical dosage forms by implementing Design of Experiment (DoE) i.e. two level full factorial Design (2(3)+3 center points=11 experiments) to understand the Critical Method Parameters (CMP) and its relation with Critical Method Attribute (CMA); to ensure robustness of the method. The separation of eleven specified impurities including conversion product of OMP related compound F (13) and G (14) i.e. Impurity-I (1), OMP related compound-I (11) and OMP 4-chloro analog (12) was achieved in a single method on Acquity BEH shield RP18 100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm column, with inlet filter (0.2 μm) using gradient elution and detector wavelength at 305 nm and validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and found to be accurate, precise, reproducible, robust and specific. The drug was found to degrade extensively in heat, humidity and acidic conditions and forms unknown degradation products during stability studies. The same method was used for LC-MS analysis to identify m/z and fragmentation of maximum unknown impurities (Non-Pharmacopoeial) i.e. Impurity-I (1), Impurity-III (3), Impurity-V (5) and Impurity-VIII (9) formed during stability studies. Based on the results, degradation pathway for the drug has been proposed and synthesis of identified impurities i.e. impurities (Impurity-I (1), Impurity-III (3), Impurity-V (5) and Impurity-VIII (9)) are discussed in detail to ensure in-depth understanding of OMP and its related impurities and optimum performance during lifetime of the product.

  6. Glycoprotein (90 kDa) isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten MAKINO lowers plasma lipid level through scavenging of intracellular radicals in Triton WR-1339-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Oh, Phil-Sun; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2006-07-01

    The Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten MAKINO (OFI) has been traditionally used as health food and herbal agent in folk medicine in Korea. In this study, we investigated whether the OFI glycoprotein has antioxidative activity and hypolipidemic effect on Triton WR-1339-induced A/J mice. The OFI glycoprotein inhibits the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by glucose/glucose oxidase (G/GO) in BNL CL.2 cells. With its antioxidative property, the mice were orally administered in the OFI glycoprotein [50 mg/kg body weight (BW)] for two weeks. Our finding resulted in a significant decrease of plasma lipid levels in Triton WR-1339-treated mice such as total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Indeed, mice which induced by Triton WR-1339 were significantly increased the levels of TC, TG and LDL, whereas the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level obviously decreased. However, the values were reversed at pretreatment with OFI glycoprotein in Triton WR-1339-treated mice. The data also showed that pretreatment with OFI glycoprotein resulted in decrease of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level and in increase of nitric oxide (NO) amount in presence of Triton WR-1339-treated mice, while the activities of antioxidant enzyme [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] were augmented. Therefore, we speculate that the OFI glycoprotein would be effective in lowering of plasma lipid levels.

  7. Differences in Substance Use and Substance Use Risk Factors by Asian Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Regina A.; Tucker, Joan S.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Ewing, Brett A.; Pedersen, Eric R.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined differences in lifetime use and initiation of substance use and associated risk factors for alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana among seven subgroups of Asian American (AA) adolescents: Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Mixed heritage Asian. Sixth and 7th grade AA adolescents in Southern California were surveyed five times over three academic years. We examined subgroup differences in (1) lifetime alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use assessed at baseline, (2) initiation of each substance over three years, and (3) baseline individual (positive and negative expectancies about substances, resistance self-efficacy, and intentions to use), family (closest adult and older sibling substance use), and school factors (perceived peer use). Although there was considerable heterogeneity in lifetime substance use and initiation rates, subgroup differences were not statistically significant (ps > .20). Significant subgroup differences existed for negative expectancies about use, perceived peer use, and close adult alcohol and cigarette use (ps < .05). Specifically, Vietnamese and Japanese adolescents had the lowest negative expectancies about cigarettes and marijuana, respectively. Vietnamese adolescents reported the highest levels of perceived peer cigarette use. Mixed-heritage adolescents reported the highest frequency of alcohol and cigarette use by their closest adult. Although no differences in substance use rates were observed, these findings are an important first step in understanding heterogeneity in AA adolescents’ risk for substance use and initiation. PMID:26388971

  8. The relationship between substance abuse treatment completion, sociodemographics, substance use characteristics, and criminal history.

    PubMed

    Turan, Reyhan; Yargic, Ilhan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if a significant relationship exists between the sociodemographics, substance use characteristics, criminal history, and completion of substance abuse treatment. In this study, 115 individuals being monitored for substance abuse treatment on probation at the Probation and Help Center under the Republic of Turkey's Ministry of Justice's Chief Public Prosecutor's Office of Istanbul were included successively between the dates of April 2008 and April 2009. During a 24-week follow-up, individuals whose urine analyses were clean 6 times consecutively were considered to have completed the treatment successfully. To determine the effect of sociodemographic factors and substance use characteristics on treatment completion, a semistructured sociodemographic data survey was used. Also, the participants' criminal records were examined. A total of 115 people participated in the study. One hundred ten (95.7%) of them were male. Sixty-eight (59.1%) of the participants had completed treatment. Age group, education level, age of onset for substance use, number of substances used, employment status, and criminal records showed a significant difference between treatment completers and noncompleters. When a logistic regression analysis was done, only number of substances used and criminal record (other than drug possession) were significantly different for the 2 groups. The current treatment program for polysubstance users and individuals with a criminal record is insufficient. It is necessary that treatment systems be developed so they can be beneficial for these types of patients.

  9. Antinociceptive effects of dexmedetomidine via spinal substance P and CGRP.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruiqin; Qi, Feng; Zhang, Junlong; Ji, Yong; Zhang, Dengxin; Shen, Zhiyun; Lei, Weifu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role played by substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in engagement of antinociception evoked by dexmedetomidine (DEX). Paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) to mechanical stimulation was determined after chronic intrathecal infusion of DEX and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to examine the levels of spinal substance P and CGRP. Our results show that PWT was significantly increased by intrathecal administration of DEX in rats (P < 0.05 vs. vehicle control, n = 20 in each group). Also, intrathecal infusion of DEX significantly decreased the concentrations of substance P and CGRP as compared with vehicle control (P < 0.05 DEX vs. vehicle control, n = 20 in each group). Blocking α2-adrenoreceptors (α2-AR) blunted the decreases of substance P and CGRP levels and the enhancement of PWT evoked by DEX. Additionally, a linear relationship was observed between PWT and the levels of spinal substance P (r = 0.87; P < 0.005) and CGRP (r = 0.85; P < 0.005). Moreover, blocking individual substance P and CGRP receptors amplified PWT without altering substance P and CGRP levels. Thus, DEX plays a role in stimulating α2-AR receptors, which thereby decreases substance P and CGRP levels within the dorsal horn. This contributes to DEX-evoked antinociception.

  10. Valproic acid I: time course of lipid peroxidation biomarkers, liver toxicity, and valproic acid metabolite levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Tong, Vincent; Teng, Xiao Wei; Chang, Thomas K H; Abbott, Frank S

    2005-08-01

    A single dose of valproic acid (VPA), which is a widely used antiepileptic drug, is associated with oxidative stress in rats, as recently demonstrated by elevated levels of 15-F(2t)-isoprostane (15-F(2t)-IsoP). To determine whether there was a temporal relationship between VPA-associated oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated ip with VPA (500 mg/kg) or 0.9% saline (vehicle) once daily for 2, 4, 7, 10, or 14 days. Oxidative stress was assessed by determining plasma and liver levels of 15-F(2t)-IsoP, lipid hydroperoxides (LPO), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs). Plasma and liver 15-F(2t)-IsoP were elevated and reached a plateau after day 2 of VPA treatment compared to control. Liver LPO levels were not elevated until day 7 of treatment (1.8-fold versus control, p < 0.05). Liver and plasma TBARs were not increased until 14 days (2-fold vs. control, p < 0.05). Liver toxicity was evaluated based on serum levels of alpha-glutathione S-transferase (alpha-GST) and by histology. Serum alpha-GST levels were significantly elevated by day 4, which corresponded to hepatotoxicity as shown by the increasing incidence of inflammation of the liver capsule, necrosis, and steatosis throughout the study. The liver levels of beta-oxidation metabolites of VPA were decreased by day 14, while the levels of 4-ene-VPA and (E)-2,4-diene-VPA were not elevated throughout the study. Overall, these findings indicate that VPA treatment results in oxidative stress, as measured by levels of 15-F(2t)-IsoP, which precedes the onset of necrosis, steatosis, and elevated levels of serum alpha-GST.

  11. Substance Use and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... that addiction to drugs or alcohol is a mental illness? Substance use disorder changes normal desires and priorities. ... had both a substance use disorder and another mental illness. More than half of the people with both ...

  12. Substance use in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Slater, Louise

    2015-01-01

    The increase in substance use which occurred in the 1980s was disproportionately large among women of reproductive age, so both the numbers of women who use drugs and the duration of drug use have increased (Hepburn 2004). While drug use occurs throughout society, the type and pattern of drug use that is associated with medical and social problems is closely associated with socio-economic deprivation. Socio-economic deprivation is in turn associated with unhealthy lifestyles and behaviours such as smoking and poor diet. Deprivation, associated lifestyles and substance use adversely affect the health of mother and baby, so the effects are cumulative. Consequently women with problem drug and/or alcohol use have potentially complex pregnancies (Hepburn 2004).

  13. Toxic Substances in the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of toxic substances, examining pesticides and herbicides, heavy metals, industrial chemicals, and household substances. Includes a list of major toxic substances (indicating what they are, where they are found, and health concerns) and a student activity on how pesticides enter the food chain. (JN)

  14. Toxic Substances in the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of toxic substances, examining pesticides and herbicides, heavy metals, industrial chemicals, and household substances. Includes a list of major toxic substances (indicating what they are, where they are found, and health concerns) and a student activity on how pesticides enter the food chain. (JN)

  15. Photoprotective substance occurs primarily in outer layers of fish skin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabacher, D.L.; Little, E.E.

    1998-01-01

    Methanol extracts of dorsal skin layers, eyes, gills, and livers from ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation-sensitive and UVB-tolerant species of freshwater fish were examined for a substance that appears to be photoprotective. Significantly larger amounts of this substance were found in extracts of outer dorsal skin layers from both UVB-sensitive and UVB-tolerant fish when compared with extracts of inner dorsal skin layers. This substance occurred in minor amounts or was not detected in eye, gill, and liver extracts. The apparent primary function of this substance in fish is to protect the cells in outer dorsal skin layers from harmful levels of UVB radiation.

  16. Toxic Substances Control Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  17. Variations in Oxidative Stress Levels in 3 Days Follow-up in Ultramarathon Mountain Race Athletes.

    PubMed

    Spanidis, Ypatios; Stagos, Dimitrios; Orfanou, Marina; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Bar-Or, David; Spandidos, Demetrios; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2017-03-01

    Spanidis, Y, Stagos, D, Orfanou, M, Goutzourelas, N, Bar-or, D, Spandidos, D, and Kouretas, D. Variations in oxidative stress levels in 3 days follow-up in ultramarathon mountain race athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 582-594, 2017-The aim of the present study was the monitoring of the redox status of runners participating in a mountain ultramarathon race of 103 km. Blood samples from 12 runners were collected prerace and 24, 48, and 72 hours postrace. The samples were analyzed by using conventional oxidative stress markers, such as protein carbonyls (CARB), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma, as well as glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT) activity in erythrocytes. In addition, 2 novel markers, the static oxidation-reduction potential marker (sORP) and the capacity oxidation-reduction potential (cORP), were measured in plasma. The results showed significant increase in sORP levels and significant decrease in cORP and GSH levels postrace compared with prerace. The other markers did not exhibit significant changes postrace compared with prerace. Furthermore, an interindividual analysis showed that in all athletes but one sORP was increased, whereas cORP was decreased. Moreover, GSH levels were decreased in all athletes at least at 2 time points postrace compared with prerace. The other markers exhibited great variations between different athletes. In conclusion, ORP and GSH markers suggested that oxidative stress has existed even 3 days post ultramarathon race. The practical applications from these results would be that the most effective markers for short-term monitoring of ultramarathon mountain race-induced oxidative stress were sORP, cORP, and GSH. Also, administration of supplements enhancing especially GSH is recommended during ultramarathon mountain races to prevent manifestation of pathological conditions.

  18. Rural drug users: factors associated with substance abuse treatment utilization.

    PubMed

    Oser, Carrie B; Leukefeld, Carl G; Tindall, Michele Staton; Garrity, Thomas F; Carlson, Robert G; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a modified version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to identify the correlates of the number of substance abuse treatment episodes received by rural drug users. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews with 711 drug users in rural areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. Descriptive analyses examine rural drug users' substance use histories and retrospective substance abuse treatment service utilization patterns. A negative binomial regression model indicated that selected predisposing, historical health, and enabling factors were significantly associated with the utilization of substance abuse treatment among rural drug users. Despite high levels of recent and lifetime self-reported substance use among these rural drug users, treatment services were underutilized. Future studies are needed to examine the impact of the health care system and characteristics of the external environment associated with rural substance abuse treatment in order to increase utilization among drug users.

  19. Exposure to Violence, Substance Use, and Neighborhood Context

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Emily M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to violence and substance use are both public health problems, but how neighborhood context contributes to these outcomes is unclear. This study uses prospective data from 1,416 adolescents to examine the direct and interacting influences of victimization and neighborhood factors on adolescent substance use. Based on hierarchical Bernoulli regression models that controlled for prior substance use and multiple individual-level factors, exposure to violence significantly increased the likelihood of marijuana use but not alcohol use or binge drinking. There was little evidence that community norms regarding adolescent substance use influenced rates of substance use or moderated the impact of victimization. Community disadvantage did not directly impact substance use, but the relationship between victimization and marijuana use was stronger for those in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage. The results suggest that victimization is particularly likely to affect adolescents’ marijuana use, and that this relationship may be contingent upon neighborhood economic conditions. PMID:25432621

  20. Exposure to violence, substance use, and neighborhood context.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Abigail A; Wright, Emily M; Pinchevsky, Gillian M

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to violence and substance use are both public health problems, but how neighborhood context contributes to these outcomes is unclear. This study uses prospective data from 1416 adolescents to examine the direct and interacting influences of victimization and neighborhood factors on adolescent substance use. Based on hierarchical Bernoulli regression models that controlled for prior substance use and multiple individual-level factors, exposure to violence significantly increased the likelihood of marijuana use but not alcohol use or binge drinking. There was little evidence that community norms regarding adolescent substance use influenced rates of substance use or moderated the impact of victimization. Community disadvantage did not directly impact substance use, but the relationship between victimization and marijuana use was stronger for those in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage. The results suggest that victimization is particularly likely to affect adolescents' marijuana use, and that this relationship may be contingent upon neighborhood economic conditions.

  1. Heightened Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress at Simulated Moderate Level Altitude vs. Sea Level in Trained Cyclists.

    PubMed

    J Wadley, Alex; S Svendsen, Ida; Gleeson, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Altitude exposure can exaggerate the transient increase in markers of oxidative stress observed following acute exercise. However, these responses have not been monitored in endurance-trained cyclists at altitudes typically experienced while training. Endurance trained males (n = 12; mean (± SD) age: 28 ± 4 years, V̇O2max 63.7 ± 5.3 ml/kg/min) undertook two 75-min exercise trials at 70% relative V̇O2max; once in normoxia and once in hypobaric hypoxia, equivalent to 2000m above sea level (hypoxia). Blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 2 h postexercise to assess plasma parameters of oxidative stress (protein carbonylation (PC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and catalase activity (CAT)). Participants cycled at 10.5% lower power output in hypoxia vs. normoxia, with no differences in heart rate, blood lactate or rating of perceived exertion observed. PC increased and decreased immediately after exercise in hypoxia and normoxia respectively (nmol/mg/protein: Normoxia-0.3 ± 0.1, Hypoxia + 0.4 ± 0.1; both p < .05). CAT increased immediately postexercise in both trials, with the magnitude of change greater in hypoxia (nmol/min/ml: Normoxia + 12.0 ± 5.0, Hypoxia + 27.7 ± 4.8; both p < .05). CAT was elevated above baseline values at 2 h postexercise in Hypoxia only (Normoxia + 0.2 ± 2.4, Hypoxia + 18.4 ± 5.2; p < .05). No differences were observed in the changes in TBARS and TAC between hypoxia and normoxia. Trained male cyclists demonstrated a differential pattern/ timecourse of changes in markers of oxidative stress following submaximal exercise under hypoxic vs. normoxic conditions.

  2. Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, Charles L.; Thilly, William G.

    1985-01-01

    A line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity) is disclosed. Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. Mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics, are also disclosed.

  3. Young People's Involvement in a Substance Misuse Communications Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mathew; Salmon, Debra; Orme, Judy

    2004-01-01

    There is growing emphasis in public policy on involving young people in the development of health promotion campaigns and information resources on substance misuse. To date there has been little literature that explores the level and nature young people's involvement in such initiatives. This paper reports on an evaluation of a substance misuse…

  4. Substance Use among Women at Risk for HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambach, K. G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 620 nonpregnant, culturally diverse women at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection concerning alcohol, marijuana, powder cocaine, crack cocaine, and intravenous drug use. Found consumption levels which exceeded expectations based on general estimates of female substance use. Substance use was associated with specific…

  5. Effects of Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil on Serum Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Homocysteine Levels in a Post-Menopausal Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Siti Khadijah; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Umar, Nor Aini; Mokhtar, Norhayati; Mohamed, Norazlina; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2008-01-01

    Oxidized unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we examined the effects of heated palm oil mixed with 2% cholesterol diet on serum lipid profile, homocysteine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in estrogen-deficient rats. Twenty-four female Sprague Dawley rats were ovariectomized and then were divided equally into four groups. The control group was given 2% cholesterol diet only throughout the study period. The three treatment groups received 2% cholesterol diet fortified with fresh, once-heated or five-times-heated palm oil, respectively. Serum TBARS, lipid profile and homocysteine levels were measured prior to ovariectomy and at the end of four months of the study. Five-times-heated palm oil caused a significant increase in TBARS and total cholesterol (TC) compared to control (F = 22.529, p < 0.05). There was a significant increase in serum homocysteine in the control as well as five-times heated palm oil group compared to fresh and once-heated palm oil groups (F = 4.432, p < 0.05). The findings suggest that repeatedly heated palm oil increase lipid peroxidation and TC. Ovariectomy increases the development of atherosclerosis as seen in this study. Feeding with fresh and once-heated palm oil does not cause any deleterious effect but repeatedly heated oil may be harmful because it causes oxidative damage thereby predisposing to atherosclerosis. PMID:19148313

  6. Changes in the Physico-chemical and Microbial Quality during the Production of Pastırma Cured with Different Levels of Sodium Nitrite

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Pastırma, a dry-cured meat product, is produced from the whole muscle and/or muscles obtained from certain parts of beef and water buffalo carcasses. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of sodium nitrite on changes in the physicochemical and microbial quality during the production of pastırma. The changes in residual nitrite, salt, pH, moisture, thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances (TBARS), colour (L*, a*, b*), total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Micrococcus/Staphylococcus (M/S), mould-yeast (M-Y), and Enterobacteriaceae counts of pastırma with 0, 50, 100 and 150 ppm sodium nitrite were determined during the production. The nitrite levels and the production stages had significant effects (p<0.01) on residual nitrite, TBARS, pH, salt, and colour values. The TBARS values of the pastırma with nitrite were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the control. The final TAMB, LAB, M/S, and M-Y counts of pastırma with 150 ppm nitrite were significantly (p<0.05) lower than the control. Also, the a* (relative redness) values of control pastırma were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the pastırma with nitrite. The production stages had a significant effect (p<0.01) on the moisture. PMID:27857537

  7. Oxidative stress parameters in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) juveniles infected with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and maintained at different levels of water pH.

    PubMed

    Garcia, L O; Becker, A G; Bertuzzi, T; Cunha, M A; Kochhann, D; Finamor, I A; Riffel, A P K; Llesuy, S; Pavanato, M A; Baldisserotto, B

    2011-05-31

    The aim of this study was to determine oxidative stress parameters in the liver, gill and muscle of silver catfish juveniles infected with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and maintained at pH 5.0 or 7.0 for three days. Juveniles were infected by adding one I. multifiliis-infected juvenile and water containing theronts to tanks. After the appearance of white spots on the skin, infected juveniles exposed to pH 5.0 and 7.0 showed significantly higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in the liver and gills compared to uninfected juveniles. Liver of infected juveniles exposed to pH 7.0 showed higher catalase (CAT) and lower glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, but those maintained at pH 5.0 showed significantly higher GST activity than uninfected juveniles. The gills of infected juveniles showed significantly higher CAT (day two) and GST activity at both pH 5.0 and 7.0 compared to uninfected juveniles. Muscle of infected juveniles showed significantly lower CAT and GST activity and TBARS levels (at day three) when maintained at both pH 5.0 and 7.0 compared to uninfected juveniles. In conclusion, I. multifiliis infection induces liver and gill damage via lipid peroxidation products in silver catfish, but higher antioxidant enzyme activity could indicate a greater degree of protection against this parasite.

  8. Changes in the Physico-chemical and Microbial Quality during the Production of Pastırma Cured with Different Levels of Sodium Nitrite.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Muhammet Irfan; Erdemir, Ebru; Çakıcı, Neslihan

    2016-10-31

    Pastırma, a dry-cured meat product, is produced from the whole muscle and/or muscles obtained from certain parts of beef and water buffalo carcasses. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of sodium nitrite on changes in the physicochemical and microbial quality during the production of pastırma. The changes in residual nitrite, salt, pH, moisture, thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances (TBARS), colour (L*, a*, b*), total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Micrococcus/Staphylococcus (M/S), mould-yeast (M-Y), and Enterobacteriaceae counts of pastırma with 0, 50, 100 and 150 ppm sodium nitrite were determined during the production. The nitrite levels and the production stages had significant effects (p<0.01) on residual nitrite, TBARS, pH, salt, and colour values. The TBARS values of the pastırma with nitrite were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the control. The final TAMB, LAB, M/S, and M-Y counts of pastırma with 150 ppm nitrite were significantly (p<0.05) lower than the control. Also, the a* (relative redness) values of control pastırma were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the pastırma with nitrite. The production stages had a significant effect (p<0.01) on the moisture.

  9. Non-destructive prediction of thiobarbituricacid reactive substances (TBARS) value for freshness evaluation of chicken meat using hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhenjie; Sun, Da-Wen; Pu, Hongbin; Xie, Anguo; Han, Zhong; Luo, Man

    2015-07-15

    This study examined the potential of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for rapid prediction of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content in chicken meat during refrigerated storage. Using the spectral data and the reference values of TBARS, a partial least square regression (PLSR) model was established and yielded acceptable results with regression coefficients in prediction (Rp) of 0.944 and root mean squared errors estimated by prediction (RMSEP) of 0.081. To simplify the calibration model, ten optimal wavelengths were selected by successive projections algorithm (SPA). Then, a new SPA-PLSR model based on the selected wavelengths was built and showed good results with Rp of 0.801 and RMSEP of 0.157. Finally, an image algorithm was developed to achieve image visualization of TBARS values in some representative samples. The encouraging results of this study demonstrated that HSI is suitable for determination of TBARS values for freshness evaluation in chicken meat.

  10. The Effects of Mexican origin family structure on parental monitoring and pre-adolescent substance use expectancies and substance use

    PubMed Central

    WARREN, JENNIFER R.; WAGSTAFF, DAVID A.; HECHT, MICHAEL L.; ELEK, ELVIRA

    2010-01-01

    Substance use among Mexican origin, low-income youths is a serious, but under-studied problem. This study examines the relationship between the structure of Mexican origin families (i.e. nuclear, single-parent, blended or extended), and the parental monitoring, substance use expectancies, and substance use reported by pre-adolescents. Family structure did not differentiate the substance use prevalence, expectancies or parental monitoring among the 1224 low-income, Mexican-origin fifth grade participants. Parents from all family types demonstrated similar levels of parental monitoring. More importantly, family composition was not related to pre-adolescents’ substance use. Other analyses showed that the relationship between substance use and certain demographic variables (e.g. gender, country of birth, language use) did not differ across family structures. The report concludes by discussing possible developmental and resiliency factors in Mexican origin families that would account for these findings. PMID:20703368

  11. Adolescents' Exposure to Disasters and Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Fang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews the impact of exposure to man-made or natural disasters on adolescent substance use. It covers empirical studies published from 2005 to 2015 concerning (a) the scope of the problem, (b) vulnerable groups and risk and protective factors, and (c) evidence-based interventions. The review suggests a strong link between adolescent substance use and exposure to either man-made or natural disaster. Vulnerable groups include adolescents with previous exposure to traumatic events, living in areas that are continually exposed to disasters, and ethnic minorities. Risk and protective factors at the individual, familial, community, and societal levels are described based on the bioecological model of mass trauma. Given that mass trauma is unfortunately a global problem, it is important to establish international interdisciplinary working teams to set gold standards for comparative studies on the etiology for adolescent substance use in the context of disasters.

  12. BACTERICIDAL SUBSTANCE FROM STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    PubMed Central

    Dajani, Adnan S.; Gray, Ernest D.; Wannamaker, Lewis W.

    1970-01-01

    A bactericidal substance previously isolated from phage type 71 Slaphylococcus aureus has been further identified and characterized. Staphylococci belonging to phage type 71 produce the substance in higher titers than staphylococci lysed by other phages in group II in addition to phage 71. Other staphylococci do not produce the bactericidal substance. The bactericidal substance shares several of the properties of bacteriocins but differs from this group of antibiotic substances in some respects. A combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column resulted in considerable degree of purification of the bactericidal substance. The substance is a previously unrecognized product of S. aureus and is distinct from other extracellular products of this organism. PMID:5443199

  13. Hazardous substance liability insurance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The study was carried out to meet requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980. It considers the adequacy and feasibility of private insurance to protect owners and operators of ships covered by the Act and for post-closure financial responsibility for hazardous waste disposal facilities. The report is in three parts: Pt. 1 is an introduction to the hazardous substance insurance problem; Pt. 2 considers the adequacy of private insurance for owners and operators of vessels and facilities; Pt. 3 focuses on the problem of a private insurance alternative to the Post-Closure Liability Fund for 'inactive' hazardous waste disposal facilities.

  14. Reward processing in obesity, substance addiction and non-substance addiction.

    PubMed

    García-García, I; Horstmann, A; Jurado, M A; Garolera, M; Chaudhry, S J; Margulies, D S; Villringer, A; Neumann, J

    2014-11-01

    Similarities and differences between obesity and addiction are a prominent topic of ongoing research. We conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis on 87 studies in order to map the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to reward in participants with obesity, substance addiction and non-substance (or behavioural) addiction, and to identify commonalities and differences between them. Our study confirms the existence of alterations during reward processing in obesity, non-substance addiction and substance addiction. Specifically, participants with obesity or with addictions differed from controls in several brain regions including prefrontal areas, subcortical structures and sensory areas. Additionally, participants with obesity and substance addictions exhibited similar blood-oxygen-level-dependent fMRI hyperactivity in the amygdala and striatum when processing either general rewarding stimuli or the problematic stimuli (food and drug-related stimuli, respectively). We propose that these similarities may be associated with an enhanced focus on reward--especially with regard to food or drug-related stimuli--in obesity and substance addiction. Ultimately, this enhancement of reward processes may facilitate the presence of compulsive-like behaviour in some individuals or under some specific circumstances. We hope that increasing knowledge about the neurobehavioural correlates of obesity and addictions will lead to practical strategies that target the high prevalence of these central public health challenges. © 2014 World Obesity.

  15. Parental Substance Use Impairment, Parenting and Substance Use Disorder Risk

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Mericle, Amy A.; Meyers, Kathleen; Winters, Ken C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a nationally representative sample, this study investigated substance use disorder (SUD) among respondents ages 15-54 as a function of their parents’ substance-related impairment and parents’ treatment history. Additionally, associations among maternal and paternal substance-related impairment, specific parenting behaviors, and the risk for SUD in the proband were examined. As expected, parental substance-related impairment was associated with SUD. Paternal treatment history was associated with a decreased risk for SUD in the proband, but did not appear to be associated with positive parenting practices. Results of post-hoc analyses suggested that parenting behaviors might operate differently to influence SUD risk in children where parents are affected by substance use problems compared to non-affected families. Future research is warranted to better understand the complex relationships among parental substance use, treatment, parenting behaviors, and SUD risk in offspring. Opportunities might exist within treatment settings to improve parenting skills. PMID:22112506

  16. Depressive symptoms, negative urgency and substance use initiation in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Raina D.; Farrahi, Layla; Glazier, Shannon; Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies show depressive symptoms are associated with substance use in adolescents, but the mechanism underlying this association is still unclear. This study investigated negative urgency – the disposition to rash action during emotional states – as a factor explaining relations between depressive symptoms and use of several substances. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 476 adolescents (mean age 14.5 years) completed self-report surveys. Regression models and products of coefficient analyses examined the overall relation of depressive symptoms to substance use and negative urgency as a statistical mediator of this association Results Depression levels associated with increased likelihood of lifetime use of cigarettes, other forms of tobacco, marijuana, alcohol, inhalants, prescription painkillers, and any substance. Relations between depression levels and lifetime use of alcohol, inhalants, and any substance were accounted for (i.e., statistically mediated) by negative urgency. In adolescents endorsing lifetime use, depression levels associated with younger age of first use of other forms of tobacco and alcohol as well as use frequency of cigarette, alcohol, and composite frequency. Negative urgency accounted for the covariance between depression level and age of first use of alcohol, but did not for other forms of tobacco or frequency of use of any substances. Conclusions Depression levels are associated with lifetime use of a variety of substances in early adolescence and targeting this risk factor with preventive efforts may be useful in reducing risk. Negative urgency may be an important target for interventions aimed at alcohol and inhalant use. PMID:25280962

  17. Relations between heavy drinking, gender, and substance-free reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G

    2010-04-01

    Behavioral economic theory and laboratory research have suggested that substance abuse may be associated with diminished engagement in enjoyable substance-free activities (substance-free reinforcement). However, college students, in particular men, have reported numerous social benefits from drinking that might mitigate the expected inverse relation between drinking and substance-free reinforcement. In this study, we examined the relations between college student heavy drinking, gender, and several categories of substance-free reinforcement (peer, dating, sexual, school, and family activities). Participants were 246 undergraduate students who were classified as a function of their reported frequency of heavy drinking during a typical week in the past month (120 heavy drinkers, 126 light drinkers). Heavy drinking was associated with significantly higher substance-free peer and sexual reinforcement. This association was gender invariant and remained significant in multiple regression models that controlled for gender, ethnicity, and fraternity or sorority membership. Substance-free reinforcement did not predict frequency of heavy drinking in models that included levels of substance-related reinforcement. The results indicate that college student heavy drinking is not associated with global deficits in substance-free reinforcement and is instead associated with increased peer and sexual activity that occurs outside the context of drinking or drug use. Prevention programs should help students to compensate for the potential loss of social reinforcement associated with reductions in drinking.

  18. An effective method for substance detection using the broad spectrum THz signal with a "terahertz nose".

    PubMed

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A; Varentsova, Svetlana A

    2015-05-25

    We propose an effective method for the detection and identification of dangerous substances by using the broadband THz pulse. This pulse excites, for example, many vibrational or rotational energy levels of molecules simultaneously. By analyzing the time-dependent spectrum of the THz pulse transmitted through or reflected from a substance, we follow the average response spectrum dynamics. Comparing the absorption and emission spectrum dynamics of a substance under analysis with the corresponding data for a standard substance, one can detect and identify the substance under real conditions taking into account the influence of packing material, water vapor and substance surface. For quality assessment of the standard substance detection in the signal under analysis, we propose time-dependent integral correlation criteria. Restrictions of usually used detection and identification methods, based on a comparison between the absorption frequencies of a substance under analysis and a standard substance, are demonstrated using a physical experiment with paper napkins.

  19. Substance Use and Physical Dating Violence

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Tharp, Andra T.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Theoretic models suggest that associations between substance use and dating violence perpetration may vary in different social contexts, but few studies have examined this proposition. The current study examined whether social control and violence in the neighborhood, peer, and family contexts moderate the associations between substance use (heavy alcohol use, marijuana, and hard drug use) and adolescent physical dating violence perpetration. Methods Adolescents in the eighth, ninth, and tenth grades completed questionnaires in 2004 and again four more times until 2007 when they were in the tenth, 11th and 12th grades. Multilevel analysis was used to examine interactions between each substance and measures of neighborhood, peer, and family social control and violence as within-person (time-varying) predictors of physical dating violence perpetration across eighth through 12th grade (N=2,455). Analyses were conducted in 2014. Results Physical dating violence perpetration increased at time points when heavy alcohol and hard drug use were elevated; these associations were weaker when neighborhood social control was higher and stronger when family violence was higher. Also, the association between heavy alcohol use and physical dating violence perpetration was weaker when teens had more-prosocial peer networks and stronger when teens’ peers reported more physical dating violence. Conclusions Linkages between substance use and physical dating violence perpetration depend on substance use type and levels of contextual violence and social control. Prevention programs that address substance use–related dating violence should consider the role of social contextual variables that may condition risk by influencing adolescents’ aggression propensity. PMID:26296445

  20. The behavioral economics of young adult substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol and drug use peaks during young adulthood and can interfere with critical developmental tasks and set the stage for chronic substance misuse and associated social, educational, and health-related outcomes. There is a need for novel, theory-based approaches to guide substance abuse prevention efforts during this critical developmental period. This paper discusses the particular relevance of behavioral economic theory to young adult alcohol and drug misuse, and reviews of available literature on prevention and intervention strategies that are consistent with behavioral economic theory. Behavioral economic theory predicts that decisions to use drugs and alcohol are related to the relative availability and price of both alcohol and substance-free alternative activities, and the extent to which reinforcement from delayed substance-free outcomes is devalued relative to the immediate reinforcement associated with drugs. Behavioral economic measures of motivation for substance use are based on relative levels of behavioral and economic resource allocation towards drug versus alternatives, and have been shown to predict change in substance use over time. Policy and individual level prevention approaches that are consistent with behavioral economic theory are discussed, including brief interventions that increase future orientation and engagement in rewarding alternatives to substance use. Prevention approaches that increase engagement in constructive future-oriented activities among young adults (e.g., educational/vocational success) have the potential to reduce future health disparities associated with both substance abuse and poor educational/vocational outcomes.

  1. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  2. Chronic fatigue syndrome: acute infection and history of physical activity affect resting levels and response to exercise of plasma oxidant/antioxidant status and heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Jammes, Y; Steinberg, J G; Delliaux, S

    2012-07-01

    A history of high-level physical activity and/or acute infection might constitute stress factors affecting the plasma oxidant-antioxidant status and levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). This case-control study compared data from 43 CFS patients to results from a matched control group of 23 healthy sedentary subjects. Five patients had no relevant previous history (group I). Eighteen had practised high-level sport (group II), and severe acute infection had been diagnosed in nine patients (group III). A combination of sport practice and infection was noted in 11 patients (group IV). After examination at rest, all subjects performed a maximal cycling exercise test. Plasma levels of two markers of oxidative stress [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced ascorbic acid (RAA)] and both HSP27 and HSP70 were measured. At rest, compared with the control group, the TBARS level was higher in groups II, III and IV patients, and the RAA level was lower in groups III and IV. In addition, HSP70 levels were significantly lower in all CFS groups, compared with controls, but negative correlations were found between resting HSP27 and HSP70 levels and the history of physical activity. After exercise, the peak level of TBARS significantly increased in groups II, III and IV, and the variations in HSP27 and HSP70 were attenuated or suppressed, with the greatest effects in groups III and IV. The presence of stress factors in the history of CFS patients is associated with severe oxidative stress and the suppression of protective HSP27 and HSP70 responses to exercise. © 2011 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  3. The Effect of Race/Ethnicity on the Relation between Substance Use Disorder Diagnosis and Substance Use Treatment Receipt among Male Serious Adolescent Offenders.

    PubMed

    Mansion, Andre D; Chassin, Laurie

    2016-02-01

    The high rates of substance disorders in the juvenile justice system, as well as the relation between substance use and reoffending, suggest the importance of substance use treatment service and understanding the factors that influence treatment provision. The current study tested whether race/ethnicity affects the relation between substance use disorder diagnosis and the receipt of substance use treatment services among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (N=638). Findings showed that among adolescents with a substance use disorder diagnosis, there were no race/ethnicity differences in substance use treatment receipt. However, among adolescents without a substance use disorder diagnosis, non-Hispanic Caucasians were more likely to receive substance use treatment than were Hispanics or African-Americans. Additionally, findings showed that there were race/ethnicity differences in service receipt at moderate levels of substance use problems, such that non-Hispanic Caucasians were more likely to receive substance use treatment than Hispanics or African-Americans. There were no race/ethnicity differences in treatment receipt when substance use problems were either very severe or very low. Results suggest that race/ethnicity may play a role in service provision in the juvenile justice system when levels of need are less clear.

  4. The Effect of Race/Ethnicity on the Relation between Substance Use Disorder Diagnosis and Substance Use Treatment Receipt among Male Serious Adolescent Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Mansion, Andre D.; Chassin, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    The high rates of substance disorders in the juvenile justice system, as well as the relation between substance use and reoffending, suggest the importance of substance use treatment service and understanding the factors that influence treatment provision. The current study tested whether race/ethnicity affects the relation between substance use disorder diagnosis and the receipt of substance use treatment services among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (N=638). Findings showed that among adolescents with a substance use disorder diagnosis, there were no race/ethnicity differences in substance use treatment receipt. However, among adolescents without a substance use disorder diagnosis, non-Hispanic Caucasians were more likely to receive substance use treatment than were Hispanics or African-Americans. Additionally, findings showed that there were race/ethnicity differences in service receipt at moderate levels of substance use problems, such that non-Hispanic Caucasians were more likely to receive substance use treatment than Hispanics or African-Americans. There were no race/ethnicity differences in treatment receipt when substance use problems were either very severe or very low. Results suggest that race/ethnicity may play a role in service provision in the juvenile justice system when levels of need are less clear. PMID:26806995

  5. Physical Exercise Combined with Whole-Body Cryotherapy in Evaluating the Level of Lipid Peroxidation Products and Other Oxidant Stress Indicators in Kayakers

    PubMed Central

    Sutkowy, Paweł; Augustyńska, Beata; Woźniak, Alina; Rakowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The influence of exercise combined with whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on the oxidant/antioxidant balance in healthy men was assessed. The study included 16 kayakers of the Polish National Team, aged 22.7 ± 2.6, subjected to WBC (−120°C–−145°C; 3 min) twice a day for the first 10 days of a 19-day physical training cycle: pre exercise morning stimulation and post exercise afternoon recovery. Blood samples were taken on Day 0 (baseline) and on Days 5, 11 and 19. The serum concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls, vitamin E, urea, cortisol, and testosterone were determined, along with the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and morphological blood parameters. On 5th day of exercise/WBC, the baseline GPx activity decreased by 15.1% (P < 0.05), while on 19th day, it increased by 19.7% (P < 0.05) versus Day 5. On Day 19 TBARS concentration decreased versus baseline and Day 5 (by 15.9% and 17.4%, resp.; P < 0.01). On 19 Day urea concentration also decreased versus 11 Day; however, on 5th and 11th days the level was higher versus baseline. Combining exercise during longer training cycles with WBC may be advantageous. PMID:24864189

  6. Physical exercise combined with whole-body cryotherapy in evaluating the level of lipid peroxidation products and other oxidant stress indicators in kayakers.

    PubMed

    Sutkowy, Paweł; Augustyńska, Beata; Woźniak, Alina; Rakowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The influence of exercise combined with whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on the oxidant/antioxidant balance in healthy men was assessed. The study included 16 kayakers of the Polish National Team, aged 22.7 ± 2.6, subjected to WBC (-120°C--145°C; 3 min) twice a day for the first 10 days of a 19-day physical training cycle: pre exercise morning stimulation and post exercise afternoon recovery. Blood samples were taken on Day 0 (baseline) and on Days 5, 11 and 19. The serum concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls, vitamin E, urea, cortisol, and testosterone were determined, along with the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and morphological blood parameters. On 5th day of exercise/WBC, the baseline GPx activity decreased by 15.1% (P < 0.05), while on 19th day, it increased by 19.7% (P < 0.05) versus Day 5. On Day 19 TBARS concentration decreased versus baseline and Day 5 (by 15.9% and 17.4%, resp.; P < 0.01). On 19 Day urea concentration also decreased versus 11 Day; however, on 5th and 11th days the level was higher versus baseline. Combining exercise during longer training cycles with WBC may be advantageous.

  7. Leptin Administration Downregulates the Increased Expression Levels of Genes Related to Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in the Skeletal Muscle of ob/ob Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sáinz, Neira; Rodríguez, Amaia; Catalán, Victoria; Becerril, Sara; Ramírez, Beatriz; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2010-01-01

    Obese leptin-deficient ob/ob mice exhibit a low-grade chronic inflammation together with a low muscle mass. Our aim was to analyze the changes in muscle expression levels of genes related to oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in leptin deficiency and to identify the effect of in vivo leptin administration. Ob/ob mice were divided in three groups as follows: control ob/ob, leptin-treated ob/ob (1 mg/kg/d) and leptin pair-fed ob/ob mice. Gastrocnemius weight was lower in control ob/ob than in wild type mice (P < .01) exhibiting an increase after leptin treatment compared to control and pair-fed (P < .01) ob/ob animals. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, markers of oxidative stress, were higher in serum (P < .01) and gastrocnemius (P = .05) of control ob/ob than in wild type mice and were significantly decreased (P < .01) by leptin treatment. Leptin deficiency altered the expression of 1,546 genes, while leptin treatment modified the regulation of 1,127 genes with 86 of them being involved in oxidative stress, immune defense and inflammatory response. Leptin administration decreased the high expression of Crybb1, Hspb3, Hspb7, Mt4, Cat, Rbm9, Serpinc1 and Serpinb1a observed in control ob/ob mice, indicating that it improves inflammation and muscle loss. PMID:20671928

  8. S. 2637: A Bill to amend the Toxic Substances Control Act to reduce the levels of lead in the environment, and for other purposes. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, May 16, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the Senate of the United States on May 16, 1990 to amend the Toxic Substances Control Act to reduce the levels of lead in the environment. Provisions are provided on the following: restrictions on continuing uses of certain lead-containing products; inventory of lead-containing products; product labeling; recycling of lead-acid batteries; prohibited acts; lead abatement and measurement; establishment of national centers for the prevention of lead poisoning; reporting of blood-lead levels and blood-lead laboratory reference project; update to 1988 report to Congress on childhood lead poisoning; conforming amendments; and authorization of appropriations.

  9. Effectiveness of Emotional Intelligence Group Training on Anger in Adolescents with Substance-Abusing Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Namadian, Gholamreza; Hatami, Seyed Esmaeil; Norozi Khalili, Mina

    2017-01-01

    Parental substance abuse is associated with impaired skills and ability to take care of children. Children of substance-abusing parents display higher levels of emotional difficulties. This article shows the effectiveness of emotional intelligence group training on anger in adolescents with substance-abusing fathers. The sample consisted of 60…

  10. Using Social Disorganization Theory to Guide Substance Abuse Prevention among Adolescents: Implications for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaynes, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and abuse are problematic in the lives of adolescents, including interpersonal problems and scholastic problems. Risk for substance use has commonly been assessed at the individual level. This paper examines risk of adolescent substance abuse as a variable impacted by environmental or contextual factors surrounding the individual.…

  11. Effectiveness of Emotional Intelligence Group Training on Anger in Adolescents with Substance-Abusing Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Namadian, Gholamreza; Hatami, Seyed Esmaeil; Norozi Khalili, Mina

    2017-01-01

    Parental substance abuse is associated with impaired skills and ability to take care of children. Children of substance-abusing parents display higher levels of emotional difficulties. This article shows the effectiveness of emotional intelligence group training on anger in adolescents with substance-abusing fathers. The sample consisted of 60…

  12. Effects of toxic substances on zooplankton populations: a Great Lakes perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.S.; McNaught, D.

    1988-01-01

    The chapter discusses how toxic substances can affect zooplankton, both at the species and community level, modifying factors affecting toxicity, the effects of various environmental pertubations, including toxic substances, on Great Lakes zooplankton, and the role of zooplankton in the transport, persistence, and biomagnification of toxic substances.

  13. Soldiering with Substance: Substance and Steroid Use among Military Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The military provides a unique social environment given the organization and culture of the institution. Understanding substance use by those inside this institution provides insight into both the population as well as substance use in general. Using data collected from in-depth interviews, this article explores the nature and extent of substance…

  14. Soldiering with Substance: Substance and Steroid Use among Military Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The military provides a unique social environment given the organization and culture of the institution. Understanding substance use by those inside this institution provides insight into both the population as well as substance use in general. Using data collected from in-depth interviews, this article explores the nature and extent of substance…

  15. Substance abuse in victims of fire.

    PubMed

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R

    1996-01-01

    Ethanol or drug use may increase the risk of fire-related injury or death. This study was performed to quantify the role of substance abuse in fatal fires occurring in New Jersey over a 7-year period. Records of all the fatalities of fire reported to the State Medical Examiners Office between 1985 and 1991 were retrospectively examined. Blood assay results for ethanol were positive in 215 of the 727 (29.5%) fatalities of fire tested. For this group, the mean blood-ethanol level was 193.9 mg/dl. Blood or urine assay results for substances of abuse were positive in 78 of the 534 (14.6%) fatalities tested. The most commonly detected illicit substances were cocaine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and cannabinoids. The test results were positive for both ethanol and drug use in 36 victims. Forty percent of all the fatalities of fire were aged younger than 11 or older than 70. In contradistinction, 75% of drug-positive fatalities of fire and 58% of ethanol-positive fatalities of fire were between the ages of 21 and 50, suggesting that inebriation may impair the ability to escape from fire. Substance abusers in middle life are a previously unrecognized group at higher risk of injury or death in a fire.

  16. 75 FR 51734 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemical Substances; Third Group of Chemical Substances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Chemicals.'' The proposed rule, when finalized, would require manufacturers, importers, and processors of certain high production volume (HPV) chemical substances to conduct testing to obtain screening level data...., chemical manufacturing and petroleum refineries. Processors of one or more of the 29 subject...

  17. Supervisory Turnover in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Danica K.; Broome, Kirk M.; Edwards, Jennifer R.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Staff turnover is a significant issue within substance abuse treatment, with implications for service delivery and organizational health. This study examined factors associated with turnover among supervisors in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Turnover was conceptualized as being an individual response to organizational-level influences, and predictors represent aggregate program measures. Participants included 532 staff (including 467 counselors and 65 clinical/program directors) from 90 programs in four regions of the USA. Using logistic regression, analyses of structural factors indicated that programs affiliated with a parent organization and those providing more counseling hours to clients had higher turnover rates. When measures of job attitudes were included, only parent affiliation and collective appraisal of satisfaction were related to turnover. Subsequent analyses identified a trend toward increased supervisory turnover when satisfaction was low following the departure of a previous supervisor. These findings suggest that organizational-level factors can be influential in supervisory turnover. PMID:19949883

  18. Supervisory turnover in outpatient substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Knight, Danica K; Broome, Kirk M; Edwards, Jennifer R; Flynn, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    Staff turnover is a significant issue within substance abuse treatment, with implications for service delivery and organizational health. This study examined factors associated with turnover among supervisors in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Turnover was conceptualized as being an individual response to organizational-level influences, and predictors represent aggregate program measures. Participants included 532 staff (including 467 counselors and 65 clinical/program directors) from 90 programs in four regions of the USA. Using logistic regression, analyses of structural factors indicated that programs affiliated with a parent organization and those providing more counseling hours to clients had higher turnover rates. When measures of job attitudes were included, only parent affiliation and collective appraisal of satisfaction were related to turnover. Subsequent analyses identified a trend toward increased supervisory turnover when satisfaction was low following the departure of a previous supervisor. These findings suggest that organizational-level factors can be influential in supervisory turnover.

  19. Emotional awareness in substance-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Carton, Solange; Bayard, Sophie; Paget, Virginie; Jouanne, Céline; Varescon, Isabelle; Edel, Yves; Detilleux, Michel

    2010-06-01

    We explored emotional awareness in substance-dependent patients and its relationships to self-reported alexithymia. Sixty-four outpatients with drug dependence or alcohol dependence were evaluated before the beginning of treatment with the Hamilton Depressive Scale and the Covi Anxiety Scale, and they completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS). Subjects exhibited low levels of emotional awareness and TAS-20 scores were high. Both measures were not related to depressive and anxious symptomatology. This research is the first to provide LEAS results with substance-dependent patients and highlights their deficits in emotions' differentiation and complexity. The lack of a relationship between LEAS and TAS-20 is discussed from the methodological and theoretical points of view. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Substances and Heart Rhythm Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... in others. These rhythm problems are rarely serious. Substance Abuse: Drugs and Inhalants Abusing legal or illegal drugs ... people, alcohol can cause heart rhythm disturbances. Alcohol abuse is a major risk factor for High ... herbs and other substances used in over-the-counter remedies are believed ...

  1. Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Phone number Apply Clear Cancel Show per page Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Emergency Mental Health Services All / ... Reverse   Persons with co-occurring mental and substance abuse disorders   Lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) ...

  2. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…

  3. Toxic Substances List. 1972 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Herbert E., Ed.; And Others

    The second edition of the Toxic Substances List, containing some 13,000 entries, is prepared annually by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. The purpose of the List is to identify all known toxic substances but not to quantitate the hazard. The List…

  4. Michigan Household Hazardous Substance Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Janet; Stone Nancy

    Common household hazardous substances include cleansers, drain cleaners, automotive products, paints, solvents, and pesticides. This handbook was designed to serve as a resource for people frequently contacted by the public for information on household hazardous substances and wastes. Included in the handbook are: (1) an introduction to Michigan's…

  5. Toxic Substances List. 1972 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Herbert E., Ed.; And Others

    The second edition of the Toxic Substances List, containing some 13,000 entries, is prepared annually by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. The purpose of the List is to identify all known toxic substances but not to quantitate the hazard. The List…

  6. Patterns of substance use in early through late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Zapert, Kinga; Snow, David L; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2002-12-01

    This study examined patterns of substance use throughout adolescence. A cluster analytic approach was used to identify subgroups of adolescents on the basis of their levels of substance use from early through late adolescence (Grades 6 through 11). Six distinct clusters of substance users emerged-2 groups representing relatively stable patterns of substance use from early through late adolescence (ie., nonusers and alcohol experimenters), and 4 groups of users showing escalating patterns of substance use (i.e., low escalators, early starters, late starters, and high escalators). The study provides a comprehensive view of adolescent substance use by examining the progression of use from early to late adolescence, demonstrates the usefulness of studying patterns of use across multiple substances, and underscores the importance of building classification schemes based on repeated measurements of substance use to reflect changes over time. Implications of the findings for future research and for identifying high-risk subgroups of adolescents for purposes of intervention based on timing and pattern of escalation are discussed.

  7. Substance use stigma: Reliability and validity of a theory-based scale for substance-using populations.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laramie R; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Copenhaver, Michael M; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2016-05-01

    Substance use disorders consistently rank among the most stigmatized conditions worldwide. Thus, substance use stigma fosters health inequities among persons with substance use disorders and remains a key barrier to successful screening and treatment efforts. Current efforts to measure substance use stigma are limited. This study aims to advance measurement efforts by drawing on stigma theory to develop and evaluate the Substance Use Stigma Mechanisms Scale (SU-SMS). The SU-SMS was designed to capture enacted, anticipated, and internalized Substance Use Stigma Mechanisms among persons with current and past substance use disorders, and distinguish between key stigma sources most likely to impact this target population. This study was a cross-sectional evaluation of the validity, reliability, and generalizability of the SU-SMS across two independent samples with diverse substance use and treatment histories. Findings support the structural and construct validity of the SU-SMS, suggesting the scale was able to capture enacted, anticipated, and internalized stigma as distinct stigma experiences. It also further differentiated between two distinct stigma sources (family and healthcare providers). Analysis of these mechanisms and psychosocial metrics suggests that the scale is also associated with other health-related outcomes. Furthermore, the SU-SMS demonstrated high levels of internal reliability and generalizability across two independent samples of persons with diverse substance use disorders and treatment histories. The SU-SMS may serve as a valuable tool for better understanding the processes through which substance use stigma serves to undermine key health behaviors and outcomes among persons with substance use disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Substance Use Stigma: Reliability and validity of a theory-based scale for substance-using populations*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Laramie R.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Copenhaver, Michael M.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders consistently rank among the most stigmatized conditions worldwide. Thus, substance use stigma fosters health inequities among persons with substance use disorders and remains a key barrier to successful screening and treatment efforts. Current efforts to measure substance use stigma are limited. This study aims to advance measurement efforts by drawing on stigma theory to develop and evaluate the Substance Use Stigma Mechanisms Scale (SU-SMS). The SU-SMS was designed to capture enacted, anticipated, and internalized substance use stigma mechanisms among persons with current and past substance use disorders, and distinguish between key stigma sources most likely to impact this target population. Methods This study was a cross-sectional evaluation of the validity, reliability, and generalizability of the SU-SMS across two independent samples with diverse substance use and treatment histories. Results Findings support the structural and construct validity of the SU-SMS, suggesting the scale was able to capture enacted, anticipated, and internalized stigma as distinct stigma experiences. It also further differentiated between two distinct stigma sources (family and healthcare providers). Analysis of these mechanisms and psychosocial metrics suggests that the scale is also associated with other health-related outcomes. Furthermore, the SU-SMS demonstrated high levels of internal reliability and generalizability across two independent samples of persons with diverse substance use disorders and treatment histories. Conclusion The SU-SMS may serve as a valuable tool for better understanding the processes through which substance use stigma serves to undermine key health behaviors and outcomes among persons with substance use disorders. PMID:26972790

  9. Examining the effect of the Life Enhancement Treatment for Substance Use (LETS ACT) on residential substance abuse treatment retention.

    PubMed

    Magidson, Jessica F; Gorka, Stephanie M; MacPherson, Laura; Hopko, Derek R; Blanco, Carlos; Lejuez, C W; Daughters, Stacey B

    2011-06-01

    Effective, parsimonious behavioral interventions that target reinforcement are needed for substance users with depression to improve mood as well as treatment retention. The Life Enhancement Treatment for Substance Use (LETS ACT; Daughters et al., 2008) is a behavioral activation-based approach tailored to increase levels of positive reinforcement among depressed substance users while in substance abuse treatment. The current study tested the efficacy of LETS ACT compared to a contact-time matched control condition, supportive counseling (SC), examining effects on depressed mood, substance abuse treatment retention, and behavioral activation outcomes. Fifty-eight adult substance users in residential substance abuse treatment presenting with depressive symptoms (BDI≥12) were randomly assigned to LETS ACT or SC. Assessments were administered at pre- and post-treatment and included assessment of DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses, depression severity, treatment motivation, overall activation, environmental reward, and substance abuse treatment retention. Patients in LETS ACT had significantly higher rates of substance abuse treatment retention and significantly greater increases in activation on the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) compared to those in SC. Both groups had decreased depression severity at post-treatment, although the group by time interaction was not significant. This study was the first to compare LETS ACT to a contact-time matched control treatment to evaluate effects on substance abuse treatment retention and two distinct measures of behavioral activation: overall activation and environmental reward. Findings suggest preliminary support for the feasibility, tolerability, and efficacy of a brief behavioral activation-based protocol that may be particularly useful to improve substance abuse treatment retention.

  10. Protection of low density lipoprotein oxidation at chemical and cellular level by the antioxidant drug dipyridamole.

    PubMed Central

    Iuliano, L.; Colavita, A. R.; Camastra, C.; Bello, V.; Quintarelli, C.; Alessandroni, M.; Piovella, F.; Violi, F.

    1996-01-01

    1. The oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to be an important factor in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. Natural and synthetic antioxidants have been shown to protect LDL from oxidation and to inhibit atherosclerosis development in animals. Synthetic antioxidants are currently being tested, by they are not necessarily safe for human use. 2. We have previously reported that dipyridamole, currently used in clinical practice, is a potent scavenger of free radicals. Thus, we tested whether dipyridamole could affect LDL oxidation at chemical and cellular level. 3. Chemically induced LDL oxidation was made by Cu(II), Cu(II) plus hydrogen peroxide or peroxyl radicals generated by thermolysis of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidino propane). Dipyridamole, (1-10 microM), inhibited LDL oxidation as monitored by diene formation, evolution of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, apoprotein modification and by the fluorescence of cis-parinaric acid. 4. The physiological relevance of the antioxidant activity was validated by experiments at the cellular level where dipyridamole inhibited endothelial cell-mediated LDL oxidation, their degradation by monocytes, and cytotoxicity. 5. In comparison with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and probucol, dipyridamole was the more efficient antioxidant with the following order of activity: dipyridamole > probucol > ascorbic acid > alpha-tocopherol. The present study shows that dipyridamole inhibits oxidation of LDL at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The inhibition of LDL oxidation is unequivocally confirmed by use of three different methods of chemical oxidation, by several methods of oxidation monitoring, and the pharmacological relevance is demonstrated by the superiority of dipyridamole over the naturally occurring antioxidants, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol and the synthetic antioxidant probucol. Images Figure 6 PMID:8968553

  11. Genetic and perinatal effects of abused substances

    SciTech Connect

    Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.

  12. Effects of low-level laser therapy (GaAs) in an animal model of muscular damage induced by trauma.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock; da Silva, Luciano Acordi; Pinho, Cleber Aurino; De Souza, Priscila Soares; Ronsani, Merieli Medeiros; Scheffer, Debora da Luz; Pinho, Ricardo Aurino

    2013-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and oxidative damage markers are increased after muscle damage. Recent studies have demonstrated that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) modulates many biochemical processes mainly those related to reduction of muscular injures, increment of mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis, as well as acceleration of the healing process. The objective of the present investigation was to verify the influence of LLLT in some parameters of muscular injury, oxidative damage, antioxidant activity, and synthesis of collagen after traumatic muscular injury. Adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 6), namely, sham (uninjured muscle), muscle injury without treatment, and muscle injury with LLLT (GaAs, 904 nm). Each treated point received 5 J/cm(2) or 0.5 J of energy density (12.5 s) and 2.5 J per treatment (five regions). LLLT was administered 2, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after muscle trauma. The serum creatine kinase activity was used as an index of skeletal muscle injury. Superoxide anion, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) measurement, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were used as indicators of oxidative stress. In order to assess the synthesis of collagen, levels of hydroxyproline were measured. Our results have shown that the model of traumatic injury induces a significant increase in serum creatine kinase activity, hydroxyproline content, superoxide anion production, TBARS level, and activity of SOD compared to control. LLLT accelerated the muscular healing by significantly decreasing superoxide anion production, TBARS levels, the activity of SOD, and hydroxyproline content. The data strongly indicate that increased ROS production and augmented collagen synthesis are elicited by traumatic muscular injury, effects that were significantly decreased by LLLT.

  13. Diphenyl diselenide decreases serum levels of total cholesterol and tissue oxidative stress in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    de Bem, Andreza Fabro; Portella, Rafael de Lima; Colpo, Elisângela; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Frediane, Andressa; Taube, Paulo Sergio; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Farina, Marcelo; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Teixeira Rocha, João Batista

    2009-07-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia and oxidative stress are well-known risk factors in coronary artery diseases. Diphenyl diselenide is a synthetic organoselenium compound that has been shown to have in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated whether diphenyl diselenide could reduce the hypercholesterolaemia and diminish the tissue oxidative stress in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Twenty-four New Zealand white male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. Each group was fed a different diet as follows: Control group--regular chow; Cholesterol group--1% cholesterol-enriched diet; diphenyl diselenide group--regular diet supplemented with 10 ppm diphenyl diselenide; and Chol/diphenyl diselenide group--the same cholesterol-rich supplemented with 10 ppm diphenyl diselenide. After 45 days of treatment, the rabbits were killed and the blood, liver, and brain were used for laboratory analysis. The results showed that the serum levels of total cholesterol were markedly increased in cholesterol-fed rabbits and the consumption of diphenyl diselenide decreased these levels approximately twofold in Chol/diphenyl diselenide rabbits (P < 0.05). The intake of diphenyl diselenide by hypercholesterolaemic rabbits diminished the serum and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels as well as the production of reactive oxygen species in the blood and brain (P < 0.05) when compared to the cholesterol group. In addition, diphenyl diselenide supplementation increased hepatic and cerebral delta-aminolevulinic dehydratase activity and hepatic non-protein thiol groups levels despite hypercholesterolaemia (P < 0.05). In summary, the results showed that diphenyl diselenide reduced the hypercholesterolaemia and the oxidative stress in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

  14. 34 CFR 84.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Controlled substance. 84.610 Section 84.610 Education... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further...

  15. 36 CFR 1212.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Controlled substance. 1212.610... Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11...

  16. 43 CFR 43.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controlled substance. 43.610 Section 43... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 43.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21...

  17. 49 CFR 32.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Controlled substance. 32.610 Section 32.610... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further...

  18. 28 CFR 83.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Controlled substance. 83.610 Section 83...-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and...

  19. Smoking Status and Substance Use Treatment Outcomes Among Spanish Speakers Enrolled in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    PubMed

    de Dios, Marcel A; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Childress, Sarah; Vaughan, Ellen; Cerna, Yohanna; Niaura, Raymond

    2016-10-01

    Smoking is highly prevalent among individuals with drug and alcohol disorders. Concurrent tobacco dependence treatment during substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is supported, yet the association between SUD treatment outcomes and smoking status has been understudied in minorities, including Latinos. Participants were 322 Spanish-speaking Latinos enrolled in a SUD treatment study in 5 U.S. cities. Logistic regression examined associations between baseline smoking status and treatment outcomes for nontobacco substance use at follow-up. Covariates included age, gender, level of education, marital status, treatment group, and mandated treatment status. Results indicated smokers had a reduced likelihood of abstinence for all nontobacco substances (p = .001) and their primary drug of use (p = .007). Findings contribute to the growing literature indicating a possible beneficial effect of smoking cessation services on SUD treatment, specifically among Latinos. Further research is needed to identify ideal smoking cessation treatments for Latinos. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Personality and Substance Use in Midlife: Conscientiousness as a Moderator and the Effects of Trait Change

    PubMed Central

    Turiano, Nicholas A.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Roberts, Brent W.; Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    Personality traits predict substance use in adolescence, but less is known about prospective substance use in middle age and beyond. Moreover, there is growing interest in how personality change and the multiplicative effects among personality traits relate to substance use. Participants included approximately 4,000 adults aged 25–74 who participated in two waves of the Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS) study. Higher levels of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, and lower levels of conscientiousness and agreeableness predicted longitudinal substance use. Increases in neuroticism and openness predicted increased substance use while increases in conscientiousness and agreeableness predicted decreased substance use. Higher levels of conscientiousness moderated two of the other trait main effects. Personality, trait change, and interactions among traits reliably forecasted 10-year substance-use behaviors. PMID:22773867

  1. Personality and Substance Use in Midlife: Conscientiousness as a Moderator and the Effects of Trait Change.

    PubMed

    Turiano, Nicholas A; Whiteman, Shawn D; Hampson, Sarah E; Roberts, Brent W; Mroczek, Daniel K

    2012-06-01

    Personality traits predict substance use in adolescence, but less is known about prospective substance use in middle age and beyond. Moreover, there is growing interest in how personality change and the multiplicative effects among personality traits relate to substance use. Participants included approximately 4,000 adults aged 25-74 who participated in two waves of the Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS) study. Higher levels of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, and lower levels of conscientiousness and agreeableness predicted longitudinal substance use. Increases in neuroticism and openness predicted increased substance use while increases in conscientiousness and agreeableness predicted decreased substance use. Higher levels of conscientiousness moderated two of the other trait main effects. Personality, trait change, and interactions among traits reliably forecasted 10-year substance-use behaviors.

  2. Promoting Reduced and Discontinued Substance Use among Adolescent Substance Users: Effectiveness of a Universal Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Nieri, Tanya; Yabiku, Scott; Stromwall, Layne K.; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to address youth substance use have focused on prevention among non-users and treatment among severe users with less attention given to youth occupying the middle ground who have used substances but not yet progressed to serious abuse or addiction. Using a sample from 35 middle schools of 1,364 youth who reported using substances, this study examined the effectiveness of a universal youth substance use prevention program, the SAMHSA Model Program keepin’ it REAL, in promoting reduced or recently discontinued alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Discrete-time event history methods modeled the rates of reduced and recently discontinued use across four waves of data. Each substance (alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana) was modeled separately. Beginning at the second wave, participants who reported use at wave 1 were considered at risk of reducing or discontinuing use. Since the data sampled students in schools, multi-level models accounted for the nesting of data at the school level. Results indicated that prevention program participation influenced the rates of reduced and recently discontinued use only for alcohol, controlling for baseline use severity, age, grades, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and gender. Among youth who reported use of alcohol in wave 1 (N= 1,028), the rate of reducing use for program participants was 72% higher than the rate for control students. The rate of discontinuing use was 66% higher than the rate for control students. Among youth who reported use of one or more of the three substances in wave 1 (N = 1,364), the rate of discontinuing all use was 61% higher for program participants than for control students. Limitations and implications of these findings and plans for further research are discussed. PMID:17096196

  3. [Alcohol and substance dependence].

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Hideto; Nishimura, Isao; Fukui, Kenji

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we have outlined the neurobiological basis of alcohol and drug dependence. The prevalence of drug dependence is a serious social problem in many countries, including Japan. This problem involves many background factors, including those pertaining to medical sciences, socio economics, and politics. First, we briefly describe the findings pertaining to psychotomimetic drugs as a model of schizophrenia. The biological pathogenesis of schizophrenic disorders is still unknown. The symptoms of methamphetamine (MAP) and phencyclidine (PCP) psychoses are very similar to those of schizophrenic disorders involving hallucination or delusion. PCP causes not only positive symptoms but also negative symptoms. Therefore, it has been considered as a more comprehensive model of schizophrenia than other drugs. Furthermore, amotivational syndrome, which is observed in patients with chronic cannabis and organic solvent dependence, is similar to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Understanding the neurobiological basis of drug dependence by using the molecular biological approach will provide an important clue for elucidating the mechanisms underlying schizophrenia and endogenous psychiatric disorders. Next, we discuss account for the neurobiological mechanisms underlying drug dependence. The reward system in the brain, which is common for all dependent drugs, has been explained, and the stages of addiction corresponding to the development of drug dependence have been discussed followed. In addition, we have discussed the epigenetics aspects of substance dependence, which is one of the hottest topics in psychiatric genetics. We expect that further studies of the mechanisms underlying drug dependence will aid in elucidating of the pathophysiology of various psychiatric diseases.

  4. Journalists and substance use: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Jasmine B; Saliba, Anthony J; Hodgins, Gene

    2016-01-01

    Journalists' exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), high levels of job stress, and anecdotal reports within the industry seem to suggest that journalists are at greater risk than the general population to experience substance use disorders. The present systematic literature review (SLR) aims to provide a concise, comprehensive, and systematic review of the quantitative literature relating to journalists' experience of substance use. The systematic review method adopted within the present study was based on that prescribed by Fink in the 2010 book, Conducting systematic literature reviews: From the internet to paper, 3rd ed., which contains three main elements: sampling the literature, screening the literature, and extracting data. Alcohol consumption is the most widely studied substance in journalist samples and is discussed in relation to quantity, level of risk, and potential alcoholism. The review also considers journalists' use of substances, including cigarettes, cannabis, and other illicit substances. In particular, comparisons are made between journalistic roles and gender. The research is piecemeal in nature, in that more recent research does not build upon the research that has come before it. Much of what has been reported does not reflect the progress that has taken place in recent years within the alcohol consumption and substance use field in terms of theory, assessment, scale development, practice, and interventions with those who use or are addicted to various substances. This SLR raises a number of methodological and theoretical issues to be explored and addressed in future research.

  5. Impact of on-site, small and large scale wastewater treatment facilities on levels and fate of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, artificial sweeteners, pesticides, and perfluoroalkyl substances in recipient waters.

    PubMed

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Gros, Meritxell; Ahrens, Lutz; Wiberg, Karin

    2017-12-01

    One of the main risks associated with effluents from both wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and on-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs) is the release of micropollutants (MPs) in receiving water bodies. However, the impact of MPs present in the effluents of OSSFs in the aquatic environment has not been studied so far. The current study evaluates the impact of the effluents of OSSFs and small-to-large scale WWTPs on natural waters. The discharge of 74 MPs was assessed including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides, artificial sweeteners and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The sampling was carried out within a Swedish catchment and included three sites that are exclusively affected by OSSFs and other sites that are mainly affected by WWTPs or a mixture of sources (7 sites, 28 samples). Results show that although OSSFs serve a much smaller total number of people, the MPs emitted from OSSFs reached the aquatic environment in significant quantities (concentrations of >150ngL(-1) of ∑MPs). The composition profiles for sites affected by WWTPs were similar and were dominated by sucralose (27% of the ∑MPs), caffeine (27% of the ∑MPs), lamotrigine (10% of the ∑MPs), desvenlafaxine (5% of the ∑MPs), and diclofenac (4% of the ∑MPs). In contrast, the sites affected by OSSFs showed high variability, exhibiting a different profile from those affected by WWTPs and also from each other, demonstrating that OSSFs are not homogeneous sources of MPs. Some specific compounds, such as diethyltoluamide (DEET) and caffeine, were proportionally much more important at sites affected by OSSFs than at sites affected by WWTPs (representing a much higher percentage of the ∑MPs in the OSSFs). In contrast, PFASs did not show high concentration variation among the different sampling sites and the composition profiles were relatively similar, indicating that these substances follow different routes of entry into the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017

  6. Prevalence of Substance Use in Patients Diagnosed with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    TEKİN ULUDAĞ, Yasemin; GÜLEÇ, Gülcan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Substance abuse among schizophrenic patients is a growing clinical concern. Substance use disorders and their effects on the course of schizophrenia have made the identification and treatment of schizophrenic patients a high priority. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of substance use, preferred types of substances, sociodemographic characteristics and clinical features of schizophrenia, and substance use impact in schizophrenic patients. Methods Hundred patients who were consecutively admitted to the psychiatry clinic and were diagnosed with schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV criteria were enrolled in this study. Individual interviews were conducted during the patients. In order to evaluate substance abuse disorder (SAD) as per DSM-IV criteria, the substance use disorder section of the structured clinical interview for DSM disorders-II (SCID-II) form was used. In addition, the following were applied to schizophren-ic patients: sociodemographic data form, medical history form, Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ), UKU Side Effect Rating Scale (UKUSERS), Insight Rating Scale (IRS), Alcohol Use Dis-orders Identification Test (AUDIT), Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test (FNDT), Global As-sessment of Functioning Scale (GAF), Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), and Calgary Depression Scale (CDS). Results Schizophrenia and alcohol and drug use were more common in males, and younger age was found to have no association with substance use. Unemployment, low education levels, rural survival rates, age at disease onset, the doctor first age of the applicant, the first inpatient years, legal issues, harm caused by others and suicidal behavior, SAPS, SANS, CDS received from their scores significant difference was detected. Schizophrenic patients with substance use had higher side effects of drugs, disability, and psychopathology scores than schizophrenic patients without

  7. Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Birolim, Marcela Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarise the scientific evidence on the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and on the factors associated with their intake among truck drivers. A systematic review was performed in the databases PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, and Cochrane and 36 cross-sectional studies were identified with quantitative results about the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers. Out of these, 28 were carried out in countries with large land areas and 23 obtained their information through self-reporting. The most frequently studied substances were alcohol (n=25), amphetamines (n=17), marijuana (n=16) and cocaine (n=13). The prevalence of the use of these substances greatly varied: alcohol (0.1-91.0%); amphetamines (0.2-82.5%), marijuana (0.2-29.9%), cocaine (0.1-8.3%). The frequency of substance use was lower in studies that investigated the presence of these substances in biological samples than in those based on self-reported use. In 12 studies that evaluated factors associated with the intake of psychoactive substances, the following stood out: younger age, higher income, longer trips, alcohol consumption, driving in the night shift, travelling interstate routes, long or short sleep, fewer hours of rest, little experience of the driver, connection with small and medium sized companies, income below levels determined by labour agreements, productivity-based earnings and prior involvement in accidents. The frequency of psychoactive substance use by truck drivers seems to be high, although that greatly varies according to the type of substance and the method of collecting the information. The use of these substances was mainly associated with indicators of poor working conditions.

  8. Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Birolim, Marcela Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarise the scientific evidence on the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and on the factors associated with their intake among truck drivers. A systematic review was performed in the databases PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, and Cochrane and 36 cross-sectional studies were identified with quantitative results about the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers. Out of these, 28 were carried out in countries with large land areas and 23 obtained their information through self-reporting. The most frequently studied substances were alcohol (n=25), amphetamines (n=17), marijuana (n=16) and cocaine (n=13). The prevalence of the use of these substances greatly varied: alcohol (0.1–91.0%); amphetamines (0.2–82.5%), marijuana (0.2–29.9%), cocaine (0.1–8.3%). The frequency of substance use was lower in studies that investigated the presence of these substances in biological samples than in those based on self-reported use. In 12 studies that evaluated factors associated with the intake of psychoactive substances, the following stood out: younger age, higher income, longer trips, alcohol consumption, driving in the night shift, travelling interstate routes, long or short sleep, fewer hours of rest, little experience of the driver, connection with small and medium sized companies, income below levels determined by labour agreements, productivity-based earnings and prior involvement in accidents. The frequency of psychoactive substance use by truck drivers seems to be high, although that greatly varies according to the type of substance and the method of collecting the information. The use of these substances was mainly associated with indicators of poor working conditions. PMID:24145953

  9. Trends in volatile substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Henry; Lorenz, Douglas J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate whether social, geographic, and demographic factors have a relationship to trends in volatile substance abuse. Two datasets were obtained. Dataset 1 was all patients reported to U.S. poison centers with inhalation abuse of a non-pharmaceutical substance between 2000 and 2005. Dataset 2 was annual data from the U.S. Dept of Labor and U.S. Census Bureau for each of the 50 states for the years 2000 through 2005 for unemployment rate, population density, poverty rate, high school graduation rate and percentage of population with bachelor degree. The two datasets were compared for geographic (by state) and temporal (by year) relationships using U.S. government demographic categories. The U.S. poison centers state that 12,428 patients with volatile substance abuse have been reported over the 6 year period of 2000-2005, with a mean of 2,071 patients annually. A strong negative trend was found between volatile substance abuse and population density, with volatile substance abuse increasing as population density decreased. This trend remained consistent over the 6 years of evaluation. A negative trend was found with percentage of population with a bachelor's degree and volatile substance abuse. No trend was found when comparing volatile substance abuse and poverty rate, unemployment rate, or high school graduation rate. Volatile substance abuse appears to increase as population density decreases, following a previously suggested relationship with a rural setting. Volatile substance abuse appears to increase as percentage of population with a bachelor's degree decreases.

  10. Altered Diurnal Pattern of Salivary Substance P in Adults with Developmental Disabilities and Chronic Self-Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Frank J.; Sutton, Kelly A.; Walker, Cheryl; Bodfish, James W.

    2003-01-01

    Morning and afternoon salivary substance P and cortisol levels were measured in 26 adults with chronic self-injurious behavior (SIB) and severe developmental disabilities and compared with controls without SIB. Chronic SIB was associated with an altered diurnal pattern of salivary substance P, characterized by lower levels of morning substance P.…

  11. A cross-sectional examination of medicinal substance abuse and use of nonmedicinal substances among Canadian youth: findings from the 2012-2013 Youth Smoking Survey

    PubMed Central

    Leos-Toro, Cesar; Hammond, David; Manske, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal substance abuse is prevalent in Canada; however, little is known about patterns of abuse among young people. In this study, we sought to characterize the abuse of medicinal substances, such as prescription medications and selected over-the-counter substances, as well as that of licit and illicit nonmedicinal substances, using a nationally representative sample of young people. Methods: Cross-sectional, nationally representative data for children in grades 7-12 were obtained from Health Canada's 2012-2013 Youth Smoking Survey (n = 38 667). Multinomial regression analyses were conducted to examine subgroup differences in medicinal substance abuse and comorbid abuse of both medicinal and nonmedicinal substances. Results: About 5% of youth reported abusing medicinal substances in the previous year. Dextromethorphan, a substance found in many cough and cold syrups, was the most widely abused (2.9%), followed by pain medications (2.6%), sleeping medications (1.8%), stimulants (1.7%) and sedatives (1.0%). Abuse of nonmedicinal substances aside from tobacco and alcohol was reported by 21.3% of the population, and abuse of any substances was detected in 23.0% of the surveyed population. Girls at each grade level reported higher rates of abuse of medicinal substances than boys. Regional differences were seen with regard to the types of substances abused across Canada. Interpretation: A substantial minority of Canadian youth report abusing medicinal substances, including over-the-counter medications (e.g., cough syrup) and prescriptions medications (e.g., pain medication). In contrast to nonmedicinal substances, girls were more likely than boys to report abuse of medicinal substances. PMID:27570758

  12. Lipodystrophy, lipid profile changes, and low serum retinol and carotenoid levels in children and adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Battistini, Tânia Regina Beraldo; Sarni, Roseli Oselka Saccardo; de Souza, Fabíola Isabel Suano; Pitta, Tassiana Sacchi; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Hix, Sonia; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Tardini, Priscila Chemiotti; dos Santos, Valter Pinho; Lopez, Fábio Ancona

    2010-06-01

    To assess serum retinol and levels of carotenoids in children and adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and to correlate low serum retinol and carotenoid levels with the presence of lipodystrophy, lipid profile changes, lipid peroxidation, and insulin resistance. A cross-sectional, controlled observational study was carried out with 30 children and adolescents with AIDS (mean age 9.1 y) receiving antiretroviral therapy (median length of treatment 28.4 mo), including 30 uninfected healthy controls matched for age and gender. Clinical and laboratory assessments were performed to determine nutritional status, presence of lipodystrophy, serum concentrations of retinol, beta-carotene, lycopene, lipid profile (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), glycemia, and serum insulin (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, cutoff point >3). Statistical analysis was done with chi-square test and Student's t test. Lipodystrophy was observed in 53.3% of patients with AIDS, and dyslipidemia was detected in 60% and 23% of subjects with human immunodeficiency virus and control subjects, respectively (P = 0.004). A higher prevalence of retinol deficiency (60% versus 26.7%, P = 0.009) and beta-carotene deficiency (23.3% versus 3.3%, P = 0.026) was found in the group with human immunodeficiency virus than in the control group. No correlation was found for low retinol and beta-carotene levels, changes in lipid and glucose metabolism, or lipodystrophy in children and adolescents with AIDS. Despite the high frequency of dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, and retinol and beta-carotene deficiencies, it was not possible to demonstrate a correlation of these findings with lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance. More studies are needed to investigate the causes of retinol and beta-carotene deficiencies in this population and the clinical

  13. Impact of Added Encapsulated Phosphate Level on Lipid Oxidation Inhibition during the Storage of Cooked Ground Meat.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, B; Şimşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E; Bilecen, D

    2016-02-01

    The effect of levels (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%) of added encapsulated (e) phosphate (sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium hexametaphosphate, HMP; sodium pyrophosphate, SPP) on lipid oxidation inhibition during storage (0, 1, and 7 d) of ground meat (chicken, beef) was evaluated. The use of eSTP and eSPP resulted in lower and higher cooking loss (CL) compared to eHMP, respectively (P < 0.05). Increasing encapsulated phosphate level (PL) enhanced the impact of phosphates on CL in both chicken and beef samples (P < 0.05). Encapsulated STP increased pH, whereas eSPP decreased pH (P < 0.05). pH was not affected by PL. The highest orthophosphate (OP) was obtained with eSTP, followed by eSPP and eHMP (P < 0.05). The level of OP determined in both chicken and beef samples increased (P < 0.05) during storage. Increasing PL caused an increase in OP (P < 0.05). The highest reduction rate in the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and LPO for both meat species were obtained with eSPP, followed by eSTP and eHMP (P < 0.05). Increasing PL resulted in lower TBARS and LPO (P < 0.05). Findings suggest that encapsulated phosphates can be a strategy to inhibit lipid oxidation for the meat industry and the efficiency of encapsulated phosphates on lipid oxidation inhibition can be enhanced by increasing PL.

  14. Dietary lipid level influences fatty acid profiles, tissue composition, and lipid peroxidation of soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Huei; Lin, Way-Yee; Chu, Jen-Hong

    2005-11-01

    Dietary lipids containing equal portions of soybean oil and fish oil were fed to juvenile Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, at supplementation level of 0 to 15% for 8 weeks. Tissue fat contents of turtles increased when dietary lipid concentration increased. Fatty acid profiles for turtles fed diets supplemented with 6% or higher levels of lipids were similar to those in dietary lipids. On absolute value basis, fatty acids of 14-, 16-, and 18-carbons in muscle of turtles fed diet without lipid supplementation were higher than those in the initial turtle muscle. Among them, C16:1 and C18:1 was approximately 4 and 2 fold higher, respectively, than that of the initial turtles. By contrast, absolute amounts of C20:5 and C22:6 in muscle of turtles fed diet without lipid supplementation were slightly less than those in the initial turtles. For turtles fed lipid supplemented diets, tissue C20:5 and C22:6, however, increased when dietary lipid level increased. These results suggest that soft-shelled turtles are capable of synthesizing fatty acids up to 18 carbons from other nutrients and that they may have limited or no ability to synthesize highly unsaturated fatty acids. Lipid peroxidation measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in tissues of turtles fed 12% and 15% lipids was greater (p<0.05) than that in turtles fed 3% to 9% lipids. This could be due to high lipid and unsaturated fatty acid content in these tissues. On lipid basis, lipid peroxidation in turtles fed diet without lipid supplementation was the highest among all groups suggesting the existence of antioxidant factors in the dietary lipids.

  15. Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, Charles L.; Thilly, William G.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity). Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. The invention also includes mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics.

  16. Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, C.L.; Thilly, W.G.

    1999-08-10

    The present invention pertains to a line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity). Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. The invention also includes mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics. 3 figs.

  17. Toxic Substances; Biphenyl; Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This rule promulgates EPA’s decision to require manufacturers and processors to test biphenyl (CAS No: 92—52—4) for environmental effects and chemical fate under section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

  18. Low-level laser therapy attenuates the acute inflammatory response induced by muscle traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock; Scheffer, Debora da Luz; Glaser, Viviane; Remor, Aline Pertile; Pinho, Ricardo Aurino; Aguiar Junior, Aderbal Silva; Latini, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of early and long-term low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers after acute-traumatic muscle injury in Wistar rats. Animals were randomly divided into the following four groups: control group (CG), muscle injury group (IG), CG + LLLT, and IG + LLLT: laser treatment with doses of 3 and 5 J/cm(2). Muscle traumatic injury was induced by a single-impact blunt trauma in the rat gastrocnemius. Irradiation for 3 or 5 J/cm(2) was initiated 2, 12, and 24 h after muscle trauma induction, and the treatment was continued for five consecutive days. All the oxidant markers investigated. namely thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance, carbonyl, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, were increased as soon as 2 h after muscle injury and remained increased up to 24 h. These alterations were prevented by LLLT at a 3 J/cm(2) dose given 2 h after the trauma. Similarly, LLLT prevented the trauma-induced proinflammatory state characterized by IL-6 and IL-10. In parallel, trauma-induced reduction in BDNF and VEGF, vascular remodeling and fiber-proliferating markers, was prevented by laser irradiation. In order to test whether the preventive effect of LLLT was also reflected in muscle functionality, we tested the locomotor activity, by measuring distance traveled and the number of rearings in the open field test. LLLT was effective in recovering the normal locomotion, indicating that the irradiation induced biostimulatory effects that accelerated or resolved the acute inflammatory response as well as the oxidant state elicited by the muscle trauma.

  19. Abuse deterrent formulations and the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).

    PubMed

    Sapienza, Frank L

    2006-06-01

    The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) has reduced the diversion of controlled substances at the manufacturing and distribution levels. Recent increased diversion has occurred at the retail level. Levels of diversion and abuse of controlled substances with similar abuse potential and therapeutic indications often parallel availability for medical use, while rates of diversion and abuse may be influenced by factors related to specific products, including their formulations and risk management plans. Abuse deterrent formulations may reduce abuse and attendant adverse health consequences even if the products are diverted. Their development should consider how, to what extent and by whom products containing the targeted substance are abused. It should take into consideration all potential types of abuse including "as is", multiple doses, alternate routes of administration, physical or chemical separation of the active ingredient, compromised extended release mechanisms and abuse in combination with other substances. Industry incentives for developing abuse-resistant formulations include enhanced corporate image and potentially less restrictive scheduling or risk management plans. Scheduling is substance specific, but the CSA includes products/formulations that are differentially scheduled. Issues to be considered for differential scheduling under the CSA include: (1) whether there is legal authority to do so; (2) application of standard scheduling criteria to individual products; (3) product specific data for "eight factor analyses"; (4) development of predictive data and standards accepted by the scientific and regulatory communities; (5) use of predictive data or post marketing surveillance data; (6) international treaty obligations. These issues must be addressed before differential scheduling can be considered.

  20. A low level of dietary selenium has both beneficial and toxic effects and is protective against Cd-toxicity in the least killifish Heterandria formosa.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lingtian; Wu, Xing; Chen, Hongxing; Dong, Wu; Cazan, Alfy Morales; Klerks, Paul L

    2016-10-01

    As an essential element, selenium (Se) is beneficial at low levels yet toxic at high levels. The present study assessed the effects of dietary exposure to Se in the least killifish Heterandria formosa, and investigated how this exposure influences the effects of a subsequent exposure to cadmium (Cd). The fish were pre-exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration (2 μg g(-1) dry wt) of dietary selenite (Se(4+)) or seleno-l-methionine (Se-Met) for 10 d. The same fish were then exposed to 0.5 mg L(-1) of Cd for 5 d. Both Se(IV) and Se-Met rapidly accumulated in H. formosa. Results for the two Se species were generally similar in this study. Fish exposed to Se had lower levels of lipid peroxidation (measured as levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances or TBARS) and a higher catalase (CAT) activity. In contrast, their Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was reduced. The Cd exposure resulted in an increase in lipid peroxidation and decreases in the activities of catalase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. The Cd-exposed H. formosa that were pre-exposed to Se had lower Cd body burdens, less lipid peroxidation, and higher catalase activity, than did fish not pre-exposed to Se. The Se exposure did not have a protective effect on the Cd-induced reduction in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. These results clearly demonstrate that a Se-enriched diet reduces some (but not all) forms of Cd-toxicity and that Se can simultaneously have beneficial and detrimental effects, making it difficult to predict the net outcome of changes in dietary Se levels for fish.

  1. Attention problems in childhood and adult substance use.

    PubMed

    Galéra, Cédric; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Fombonne, Eric; Michel, Grégory; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Melchior, Maria

    2013-12-01

    To assess the link between childhood attention problems (AP) and substance use 18 years later. This cohort study was conducted in a community sample of 1103 French youths followed from 1991 to 2009. Exposures and covariates were childhood behavioral problems (based on parental report at baseline), early substance use, school difficulties, and family adversity. Outcome measures were regular tobacco smoking, alcohol problems, problematic cannabis use, and lifetime cocaine use (based on youth reports at follow-up). Individuals with high levels of childhood AP had higher rates of substance use (regular tobacco smoking, alcohol problems, problematic cannabis use, and lifetime cocaine use). However, when taking into account other childhood behavioral problems, early substance use, school difficulties, and family adversity, childhood AP were related only to regular tobacco smoking and lifetime cocaine use. Early cannabis exposure was the strongest risk factor for all substance use problems. This longitudinal community-based study shows that, except for tobacco and cocaine, the association between childhood AP and substance use is confounded by a range of early risk factors. Early cannabis exposure plays a central role in later substance use. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Substance use and violence among youth: a daily calendar analysis.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Walton, Maureen A; Zimmerman, Marc A; Chermack, Stephen T; Blow, Frederic C; Booth, Brenda M; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2015-02-01

    While researchers have identified factors that contribute to youth violence, less is known about the details of violent incidents. In addition, substance use has been linked to youth violence; however, little is known about actual substance use on days in which violence occurs. This study examined reasons for peer violence and the association between substance use and violence using daily calendar-based analyses among at-risk urban youth. Data were collected from Emergency Department (ED) patients (ages 14-24; n = 599; 59% male, 65% African American) who screened positive for substance use in the past 6 months. Daily data regarding past 30-day substance use and violence and reasons for violent incidents were obtained via semi-structured interviews. Multi-level multinomial regression models were conducted to test the associations between substance use and peer violence incidents (i.e., none, moderate and severe). Conflict over 'personal belongings' was a common reason for violence among males; 'jealousy'/'rumors' were common reasons among females. Moderate victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and cocaine use. Severe victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol use. Moderate or severe aggression was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and non-medical sedative use. RESULTS suggest that youth violence prevention that addresses differential reasons for violence among males and females as well as substance use would be beneficial.

  3. Substance use and abuse among older youth in foster care.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Michael G; Ollie, Marcia T; McMillen, J Curtis; Scott, Lionel; Munson, Michelle

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore prevalence and predictors of current and lifetime substance use, substance abuse disorder, and polysubstance use among older youth in foster care. Interviews were conducted with 406 17-year old youth (90% of those eligible) in one state's foster care system between December 2001 and June 2003. Forty-five percent of foster care youth reported using alcohol or illicit drugs within the last six months; 49% had tried drugs sometime during their lifetime and 35% met criteria for a substance use disorder. Having a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder and/or living in an independent living situation significantly increased the likelihood of current and lifetime substance use and disorder. A diagnosis of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder also predicted increased likelihood of polysubstance use and substance abuse disorder. In conclusion, older youth in the foster care system report similar levels of lifetime alcohol and illicit substance use when compared to the general adolescent population. However, rates of substance use disorder are high. Particularly at risk for both high rates of use and disorder are youth in independent living situations and youth with a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

  4. Substance Use and Abuse among Older Youth in Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Ollie, Marcia T.; McMillen, J. Curtis; Scott, Lionel; Munson, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore prevalence and predictors of current and lifetime substance use, substance abuse disorder, and polysubstance use among older youth in foster care. Interviews were conducted with 406 17-year old youth (90% of those eligible) in one state’s foster care system between December 2001 and June 2003. Forty-five percent of foster care youth reported using alcohol or illicit drugs within the last six months; 49% had tried drugs sometime during their lifetime and 35% met criteria for a substance use disorder. Having a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder and/or living in an independent living situation significantly increased the likelihood of current and lifetime substance use and disorder. A diagnosis of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder also predicted increased likelihood of polysubstance use and substance abuse disorder. In conclusion, older youth in the foster care system report similar levels of lifetime alcohol and illicit substance use when compared to the general adolescent population. However, rates of substance use disorder are high. Particularly at risk for both high rates of use and disorder are youth in independent living situations and youth with a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. PMID:17239547

  5. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in eggs of coastal and offshore birds: Increasing PFAS levels associated with offshore bird species breeding on the Pacific coast of Canada and wintering near Asia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Elliott, John E; Elliott, Kyle H; Lee, Sandi; Cyr, Francois

    2015-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) have become virtually ubiquitous throughout the environment, and, based on laboratory studies, have known toxicological consequences. Various national and international voluntary phase-outs and restrictions on these compounds have been implemented over the last 10 to 15 years. In the present study, we examine trends (1990/1991-2010/2011) in aquatic birds (ancient murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus [2009 only]; Leach's storm-petrels, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; rhinoceros auklets, Cerorhinca monocerata; double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus; and great blue herons, Ardea herodias). The PFCA, PFSA, and stable isotope (δ(15) N and δ(13) C) data collected from these species from the Pacific coast of Canada, ranging over 20 to 30 years, were used to investigate temporal changes in PFAS coupled to dietary changes. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), the dominant PFSA compound in all 4 species, increased and subsequently decreased in auklet and cormorant eggs in line with the manufacturing phase-out of PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but concentrations continuously increased in petrel eggs and remained largely unchanged in heron eggs. Dominant PFCA compounds varied between the offshore and coastal species, with increases seen in the offshore species and little or variable changes seen in the coastal species. Little temporal change was seen in stable isotope values, indicating that diet alone is not driving observed PFAS concentrations. © 2015 SETAC.

  6. Schizophrenia, Substance Abuse, and Violent Crime

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Hjern, Anders; Grann, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Context Persons with schizophrenia are thought to be at increased risk of committing violent crime 4 to 6 times the level of general population individuals without this disorder. However, risk estimates vary substantially across studies, and considerable uncertainty exists as to what mediates this elevated risk. Despite this uncertainty, current guidelines recommend that violence risk assessment should be conducted for all patients with schizophrenia. Objective To determine the risk of violent crime among patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia and the role of substance abuse in mediating this risk. Design, Setting, and Participants Longitudinal designs were used to link data from nationwide Swedish registers of hospital admissions and criminal convictions in 1973-2006. Risk of violent crime in patients after diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 8003) was compared with that among general population controls (n = 80 025). Potential confounders (age, sex, income, and marital and immigrant status) and mediators (substance abuse comorbidity) were measured at baseline. To study familial confounding, we also investigated risk of violence among unaffected siblings (n = 8123) of patients with schizophrenia. Information on treatment was not available. Main Outcome Measure Violent crime (any criminal conviction for homicide, assault, robbery, arson, any sexual offense, illegal threats, or intimidation). Results In patients with schizophrenia, 1054 (13.2%) had at least 1 violent offense compared with 4276 (5.3%) of general population controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.2). The risk was mostly confined to patients with substance abuse comorbidity (of whom 27.6% committed an offense), yielding an increased risk of violent crime among such patients (adjusted OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 3.9-5.0), whereas the risk increase was small in schizophrenia patients without substance abuse comorbidity (8.5% of whom had at least 1 violent offense; adjusted OR, 1

  7. The Interaction of Conduct Problems and Depressed Mood in Relation to Adolescent Substance Involvement and Peer Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Hitchings, Julia E.; Spoth, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Conduct problems are strong positive predictors of substance use and problem substance use among teens, whereas predictive associations of depressed mood with these outcomes are mixed. Conduct problems and depressed mood often co-occur, and such co-occurrence may heighten risk for negative outcomes. Thus, this study examined the interaction of conduct problems and depressed mood at age 11 in relation to substance use and problem use at age 18, and possible mediation through peer substance use at age 16. Analyses of multirater longitudinal data collected from 429 rural youths (222 girls) and their families were conducted using a methodology for testing latent variable interactions. The link between the conduct problems X depressed mood interaction and adolescent substance use was negative and statistically significant. Unexpectedly, positive associations of conduct problems with substance use were stronger at lower levels of depressed mood. A significant negative interaction in relation to peer substance use also was observed, and the estimated indirect effect of the interaction on adolescent use through peer use as a mediator was statistically significant. Findings illustrate the complexity of multiproblem youth. PMID:18455886

  8. Bio protection and preservation of raw beef meat using pungent aromatic plant substances.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Kesavan Radha; Babuskin, Srinivasan; Babu, Packirisamy Azhagu Saravana; Fayidh, Mohammed Abbas; Sabina, Kalleary; Archana, Ganesan; Sivarajan, Meenatchisundaram; Sukumar, Muthusamy

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of three individual spice (clove, cinnamon and oregano) extracts and their combinations in raw beef meat during refrigerated storage. Meat samples were monitored for microbiological (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas spp.) and physicochemical (pH, colour and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)) attributes. Samples treated with the combination of all three spice extracts showed lower bacterial counts and better L*, a* and b* values among treated samples during the storage period. Positive and negative control samples had the highest TBARS values at the end of the storage period. With the addition of spice extracts, TBARS values in raw beef samples were retarded effectively (P < 0.05) compared with control samples, especially when the combination of all three spice extracts was used. The results of this study show that spice extracts were effective in inhibiting the growth of microbial populations and retarding lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage (4 °C) of raw beef meat. They also suggest that combinations of these extracts may have potential as natural preservatives in raw meat products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    DOEpatents

    Kirby, John A.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment which comprises the steps of: measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing a plant substance being passed through an environment with a counter; and generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level.

  10. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J.A.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes an apparatus and process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment. It comprises: measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing a plant substance being passed through an environment with a counter; and generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level.

  11. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment which comprises the steps of: (1) Measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; (2) measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing said plant substance being passed through said environment with said counter; and (3) generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level. Also disclosed is the apparatus and system used to conduct the process.

  12. Psilocybin for treating substance use disorders?

    PubMed

    de Veen, Bas T H; Schellekens, Arnt F A; Verheij, Michel M M; Homberg, Judith R

    2017-02-01

    Evidence based treatment for Substance use disorders (SUD) includes psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. However, these are only partially effective. Hallucinogens, such as psilocybin, may represent potential new treatment options for SUD. This review provides a summary of (human) studies on the putative therapeutic effects of psilocybin, and discusses the receptor systems, brain regions and cognitive and emotional processes mediating psilocybin's effects. Psilocybin's chemical structure is similar to that of serotonin. Dysregulations in the serotonin system are associated with alterations in stress hormones, such as cortisol, and mood disorders. After psilocybin administration cortisol levels spike and activate the executive control network, with subsequent increased control over emotional processes, and relief of negative thinking and persistent negative emotions. Preliminary data of ongoing alcohol and smoking addiction studies in humans shows promising effects of psilocybin administration on substance use. Importantly, psilocybin has a low risk of toxicity and dependence and can be used safely under controlled clinical conditions. Areas covered: This paper is a narrative review based on the search terms: psilocybin, substance use disorder, addiction, depression, serotonin. Literature on potential efficacy and mechanisms of action of psilocybin in SUD is discussed. Expert commentary: Recent positive findings with psilocybin need confirmation in well-designed placebo controlled randomized trials employing a large sample size.

  13. Reference materials for new psychoactive substances.

    PubMed

    Archer, Roland P; Treble, Ric; Williams, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the appearance of new psychoactive materials (and hence the requirement for new reference standards) has been relatively slow. This position has now changed, with 101 new psychoactive substances reported to EMCDDA-Europol since 2006. The newly reported materials, and associated metabolites, require properly certified reference materials to permit reliable identification and quantification. The traditional approach and timescales of reference material production and certification are being increasingly challenged by the appearance of these new substances. Reference material suppliers have to adopt new strategies to meet the needs of laboratories. This situation is particularly challenging for toxicology standards as the metabolism of many of these substances is initially unknown. Reference material production often involves synthesis from first principles. While it is possible to synthesis these materials, there can be significant difficulties, from synthetic complexities through to the need to use controlled materials. These issues are examined through a discussion of the synthesis of cathinones. Use of alternative sources, including pharmaceutical impurity materials or internet sourced products, as starting materials for conversion into appropriately certified reference materials are also discussed. The sudden appearance and sometimes brief lifetime in the market place of many of these novel legal highs or research chemicals present commercial difficulties for reference material producers. The need for collaboration at all levels is highlighted as essential to rapid identification of requirements for new reference materials. National or international commissioning or support may also be required to permit reference material producers to recover their development costs.

  14. Juvenile justice and substance use.

    PubMed

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad range of negative effects, such as smoking, risky sexual behavior, violence, and poor educational, occupational, and psychological outcomes. The high rates of substance use problems among young offenders, says Chassin, suggest a large need for treatment. Although young offenders are usually screened for substance use disorders, Chassin notes the need to improve screening methods and to ensure that screening takes place early enough to allow youths to be diverted out of the justice system into community-based programs when appropriate. Cautioning that no single treatment approach has been proven most effective, Chassin describes current standards of "best practices" in treating substance use disorders, examines the extent to which they are implemented in the juvenile justice system, and describes some promising models of care. She highlights several treatment challenges, including the need for better methods of engaging adolescents and their families in treatment and the need to better address environmental risk factors, such as family substance use and deviant peer networks, and co-occurring conditions, such as learning disabilities and other mental health disorders. Chassin advocates policies that encourage wider use of empirically validated therapies and of documented best practices for treating substance use disorders. High relapse rates among youths successfully treated for substance use disorders also point to a greater need for aftercare services and for managing these disorders as chronic illnesses characterized by relapse and remission. A shortage of aftercare services and a lack of service coordination in the

  15. Agitated Depression in Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Gelernter, Joel; Oslin, David; Anton, Raymond F.; Farrer, Lindsay A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression with psychomotor agitation (PMA; “agitated depression”) is a putative psychiatric phenotype that appears to associate with some forms of substance dependence. However, it is unclear whether such relationships extend across different substances and independent (I-MDE) versus substance-induced (SI-MDE) subtypes of major depressive episodes. Method We examined whether lifetime depression with (vs. without) PMA was associated with lifetime substance dependence across individuals with lifetime: (1) I-MDE only (n = 575); and (2) SI-MDE only (n = 1683). Data were pooled from several family and genetic studies of substance dependence in which participants received identical structured interviews to diagnose DSM-IV mental disorders. Results In I-MDE, PMA was significantly associated with alcohol, cocaine, opioid, other drug (hallucinogen, inhalant, speed-ball), and sedative dependence. After controlling for demographic and clinical co-factors, PMA's relationship to dependence on opioids, other drugs, and sedatives remained significant, but not its relationship to alcohol or cocaine. In SI-MDE, PMA was significantly associated with alcohol, cocaine, opioid, and other drug dependence. After adjusting for co-factors, associations remained significant for dependence on cocaine and opioids, but not alcohol or other drugs. Relationships between PMA and opioid dependence were stronger in I-MDE than SI-MDE. Depression subtype (I-MDE vs. SI-MDE) did not moderate relations between PMA and non-opioid forms of substance dependence. Conclusions Agitated depression associates with certain forms of substance dependence, particularly opioid dependence. MDE subtype did not alter most PMA-dependence associations, which suggests that the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are complex and potentially bidirectional. PMID:21277711

  16. Towards an Ontological Theory of Substance Intolerance and Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, William R.

    2010-01-01

    A proper ontological treatment of intolerance—including hypersensitivity—to various substances is critical to patient care and research. However, existing methods and standards for documenting these conditions have flaws that inhibit these goals, especially translational research that bridges the two activities. In response, I outline a realist approach to the ontology of substance intolerance, including hypersensitivity conditions. I defend a view of these conditions as a subtype of disease. Specifically, a substance intolerance is a disease whose pathological process(es) are realized upon exposure to a quantity of substance of a particular type, and this quantity would normally not cause the realization of the pathological process(es). To develop this theory, it was necessary to build pieces of a theory of pathological processes. Overall, however, the framework of the Ontology for General Medical Science (which uses Basic Formal Ontology as its uppermost level) was a more-than-adequate foundation on which to build the theory. PMID:20152933

  17. Substance Abuse and Hospitalization for Mood Disorder Among Medicaid Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Akincigil, Ayse; Hoover, Donald R.; Walkup, James T.; Bilder, Scott; Crystal, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the influence of substance abuse with that of other comorbidities (e.g., anxiety, HIV) among people with mood disorder (N = 129 524) to explore risk factors for psychiatric hospitalization and early readmission within 3 months of discharge. Methods. After linking Medicaid claims data in 5 states (California, Florida, New Jersey, New York, and Texas) to community-level information, we used logistic and Cox regression to examine hospitalization risk factors. Results. Twenty-four percent of beneficiaries with mood disorder were hospitalized. Of these, 24% were rehospitalized after discharge. Those with comorbid substance abuse accounted for 36% of all baseline hospitalizations and half of all readmissions. Conclusions. Results highlight the need for increased and sustained funding for the treatment of comorbid substance abuse and mood disorder, and for enhanced partnership between mental health and substance abuse professionals. PMID:19008505

  18. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Acculturation Stress Among Puerto Rican Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Kevin P.; Swendsen, Joel D.; Dierker, Lisa; Canino, Glorisa; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2007-01-01

    Background Although acculturation to the United States has been associated with an increase in substance, mood, and anxiety disorders in Latino populations, few studies have examined this concept relative to comorbidity among these syndromes. Methods This study: (1) compares the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among Puerto Ricans with substance use disorders living in San Juan (Puerto Rico) to those who have migrated to New Haven (Connecticut); and (2) examines the association between acculturation-related stress and the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among those who have migrated to New Haven. Results Lifetime levels of nearly all comorbid psychiatric disorders among respondents with substance use disorders (SUD) was generally similar across sites. However, the risk of any co-occurring psychiatric disorder was higher among SUD cases in New Haven who reported high levels of total acculturation stress and family-specific acculturation stress. These findings were generally accounted for by associations between affective disorders and high scores on these indicators of acculturation stress. Conclusions The overall prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity are remarkably similar among Puerto Rican substance abusers whether they live in San Juan or have migrated to New Haven, thereby demonstrating robustness to differences in geographic location. Nevertheless, the degree of acculturation-related family stress is positively associated with co-occurring substance and psychiatric disorders, particularly affective disorders. Intervention in family strain related to the acculturation process may diminish the development of comorbid mental disorders and assist in implementing successful treatment of substance abuse. PMID:17543714

  19. A hierarchical approach to coding chemical, biological and pharmaceutical substances.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Anya R; Bert, Joel L; Grace, John R; Makaroff, Sylvia J; Lang, Barbara J; Band, Pierre R

    2005-01-01

    This hierarchical coding system is designed to classify substances into successively subordinate categories on the basis of chemical, physical and biological properties. Although initially developed for occupational cancer epidemiological studies, it is general in nature and can be used for other purposes where a systematic approach is needed to catalogue or analyze large numbers of substances and/or physical properties. The coding system incorporates a multi level approach, where substances can be coded both on the basis of function and composition. On the first level, a three digit code is assigned to each substance to indicate its primary use in the occupational environment (e.g. pesticide, catalyst, adhesive). Substances can then be coded using a ten digit code to indicate structure and composition (e.g. organic molecule, biomolecule, pharmaceutical). Depending on the complexity required, analysis can incorporate the three digit code, ten digit code, or a combination of both. The approach to coding both chemical and biological agents is modeled in part after conventional approaches used by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists (IUPAC) and the International Union of Biochemists (IUB). Development of the coding system was initiated in the 1980's in response to a need for a system allowing analysis of individual agents as well classes or groups of substances. The project was undertaken as a collaborative venture between the BC Cancer Agency, Cancer Control Research program (then Division of Epidemiology) and the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at the University of British Columbia.

  20. No. 349-Substance Use in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ordean, Alice; Wong, Suzanne; Graves, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    To improve awareness and knowledge of problematic substance use in pregnancy and to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of this challenging clinical issue for all health care providers. This guideline reviews the use of screening tools, general approach to care, and recommendations for the clinical management of problematic substance use in pregnancy. Evidence-based recommendations for screening and management of problematic substance use during pregnancy and lactation. Updates in the literature were retrieved through searches of Medline, PubMed, and The Cochrane Library published from 1996 to 2016 using the following key words: pregnancy, electronic cigarettes, tobacco use cessation products, buprenorphine, and methadone. Results were initially restricted to systematic reviews and RCTs/controlled clinical trials. A subsequent search for observational studies was also conducted because there are few RCTs in this field of study. Articles were restricted to human studies published in English. Additional articles were located by hand searching through article reference lists. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report. This guideline is intended to increase the knowledge and comfort level of health care providers caring for pregnant women who have substance use disorders. Improved access to health care and assistance with appropriate addiction care lead to reduced health care costs and decreased maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of individual and combined exposure to sodium arsenite and sodium fluoride on tissue oxidative stress, arsenic and fluoride levels in male mice.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Megha; Flora, S J S

    2006-08-25

    Arsenic and fluoride are potent toxicants, widely distributed through drinking water and food and often result in adverse health effects. The present study examined the effects of sodium meta-arsenite (100 mg/l in drinking water) and sodium fluoride (5 mg/kg, oral, once daily), administered either alone or in combination for 8 weeks, on various biochemical variables indicative of tissue oxidative stress and cell injury in Swiss albino male mice. A separate group was first exposed to arsenic for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of fluoride exposure. Exposure to arsenic or fluoride led to a significant depletion of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and glutathione (GSH) level. These changes were accompanied by increased level of blood and tissues reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. An increase in the level of liver and kidney thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) along with a concomitant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced GSH content were observed in both arsenic and fluoride administered mice. The changes were significantly more pronounced in arsenic exposed animals than in fluoride. It was interesting to observe that during combined exposure the toxic effects were less pronounced compared to the effects of arsenic or fluoride alone. In some cases antagonistic effects were noted following co-exposure to arsenic and fluoride. Arsenic and fluoride concentration increased significantly on exposure. Interestingly, their concentration decreased significantly on concomitant exposure for 8 weeks. However, the group which was administered arsenic for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of fluoride administration showed no such protection suggesting that the antagonistic effect of fluoride on arsenic or vice versa is possible only during interaction at the gastro intestinal sites. These results are new and interesting and require further exploration.

  2. 38 CFR 48.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Controlled substance. 48...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the...

  3. 38 CFR 48.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Controlled substance. 48...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the...

  4. 22 CFR 312.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I...

  5. 22 CFR 312.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules...

  6. 22 CFR 312.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules...

  7. 22 CFR 312.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules...

  8. 22 CFR 312.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules...

  9. An Effective Method for Substance Detection Using the Broad Spectrum THz Signal: A “Terahertz Nose”

    PubMed Central

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.

    2015-01-01

    We propose an effective method for the detection and identification of dangerous substances by using the broadband THz pulse. This pulse excites, for example, many vibrational or rotational energy levels of molecules simultaneously. By analyzing the time-dependent spectrum of the THz pulse transmitted through or reflected from a substance, we follow the average response spectrum dynamics. Comparing the absorption and emission spectrum dynamics of a substance under analysis with the corresponding data for a standard substance, one can detect and identify the substance under real conditions taking into account the influence of packing material, water vapor and substance surface. For quality assessment of the standard substance detection in the signal under analysis, we propose time-dependent integral correlation criteria. Restrictions of usually used detection and identification methods, based on a comparison between the absorption frequencies of a substance under analysis and a standard substance, are demonstrated using a physical experiment with paper napkins. PMID:26020281

  10. Update on banned substances 2013.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Kenneth P; Rainbow, Catherine R

    2013-09-01

    Doping has been pervasive throughout the history of athletic competitions and has only recently been regulated by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). These regulatory bodies were created to preserve fair play and maintain the safety of the participants. Their updated 2013 lists of banned substances and practices include a variety of drugs and practices that could cause harm to an athlete or give one an unfair competitive advantage. Published websites for the WADA, USADA, and NCAA were investigated. These governing bodies update and publish their lists annually. The WADA, USADA, and NCAA monitor anabolic steroids, hormones, growth factors, β-agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, masking agents, street drugs, manipulation of blood and blood components, chemical and physical manipulation, gene doping, stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticosteroids, and β-blockers. Some substances may be used by athletes but require formal exemption. The WADA has also recently created a category of nonapproved substances that have yet to be identified to curb athletes from experimenting with new doping agents. The lists of banned substances and practices per the WADA, USADA, and NCAA are in place to ensure the integrity of sports and maintain safe competition. Health care providers who work with athletes under the jurisdiction of these organizations should review updated lists of banned substances when prescribing medications.

  11. Update on Banned Substances 2013

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Kenneth P.; Rainbow, Catherine R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Doping has been pervasive throughout the history of athletic competitions and has only recently been regulated by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). These regulatory bodies were created to preserve fair play and maintain the safety of the participants. Their updated 2013 lists of banned substances and practices include a variety of drugs and practices that could cause harm to an athlete or give one an unfair competitive advantage. Evidence Acquisition: Published websites for the WADA, USADA, and NCAA were investigated. These governing bodies update and publish their lists annually. Results: The WADA, USADA, and NCAA monitor anabolic steroids, hormones, growth factors, β-agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, masking agents, street drugs, manipulation of blood and blood components, chemical and physical manipulation, gene doping, stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticosteroids, and β-blockers. Some substances may be used by athletes but require formal exemption. The WADA has also recently created a category of nonapproved substances that have yet to be identified to curb athletes from experimenting with new doping agents. Conclusion: The lists of banned substances and practices per the WADA, USADA, and NCAA are in place to ensure the integrity of sports and maintain safe competition. Health care providers who work with athletes under the jurisdiction of these organizations should review updated lists of banned substances when prescribing medications. PMID:24427415

  12. Impulsivity links reward and threat sensitivities to substance use: a functional model

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, George B.; Freedlander, Jonathan M.; Katz, Elizabeth C.; Dai, Chia-Liang; Chen, Ching-Chen

    2014-01-01

    This study used structural equations modeling and undergraduate student data to examine the effects of reward and threat sensitivities on substance use, along with the extent to which impulsivity explained these effects. Our results suggest that impulsivity may translate inversely related reward and threat sensitivities into substance use, completely mediate the effect between threat sensitivity and substance use, and partially mediate the effect between reward sensitivity and substance use. Our results also suggest that individuals with a combination of higher levels on both reward and threat sensitivities may be most impulsive and vulnerable to heightened substance use. We discuss implications for research at the interface of personality and substance use and also substance abuse prevention and treatment. PMID:25386147

  13. Troubled Parents, Motivated Adolescents: Predicting Motivation to Change Substance Use among Runaways

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Erdem, Gizem; Budde, Hannah; Letcher, Amber; Bantchevska, Denitza; Garren, Rikki

    2009-01-01

    Runaway adolescents engage in high rates of substance use and report significant family and individual problems. However, in general, adolescents report low motivation to change their substance use. Because a higher level of motivation for changing substance use is associated with greater substance abuse treatment success, identifying variables associated with motivation for change can be useful for enhancing treatment success. In this study, predictors of motivation for changing substance use were examined among 140 shelter-recruited adolescents and their parents/primary caretakers. Several findings were noteworthy. A perceived negative family environment increased parents' and adolescents' depressive symptoms, which increased adolescent's motivation to change. Also, greater severity of adolescent substance use predicted higher motivation to change. Consideration of the family environment and parent problems when addressing motivation for changing substance use among these adolescents might be important foci for motivational interventions and future research. PMID:19411144

  14. Impact of contextual factors and substance characteristics on perspectives toward cognitive enhancement.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Sebastian; Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric; Sauer, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing cognitive performance with substances--especially prescription drugs--is a fiercely debated topic among scholars and in the media. The empirical basis for these discussions is limited, given that the actual nature of factors that influence the acceptability of and willingness to use cognitive enhancement substances remains unclear. In an online factorial survey, contextual and substance-specific characteristics of substances that improve academic performance were varied experimentally and presented to respondents. Students in four German universities rated their willingness to use and moral acceptance of different substances for cognitive enhancement. We found that the overall willingness to use performance enhancing substances is low. Most respondents considered the use of these substances as morally unacceptable. Situational influences such as peer pressure, policies concerning substance use, relative performance level of peers, but also characteristics of the substance, such as perceptions of substance safety, shape the willingness and acceptability of using a substance to enhance academic performance. Among the findings is evidence of a contagion effect meaning that the willingness was higher when the respondents have more CE drug users in their social network. We also found deterrence effects from strong side effects of using the substance, as well as from policy regulations and sanctions. Regulations might activate social norms against usage and sanctions can be seen as costly to users. Moreover, enhancement substances seem to be most tempting to low performers to catch up with others compared to high performers. By identifying contextual factors and substance characteristics influencing the willingness and acceptability of cognitive enhancers, policy approaches could consider these insights to better manage the use of such substances.

  15. Anticancer substances of mushroom origin.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, T S; Krupodorova, T A; Barshteyn, V Y; Artamonova, A B; Shlyakhovenko, V A

    2014-06-01

    The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms, as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed. Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines (including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins), and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc. are discussed. The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed.

  16. Best practice in substance misuse.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anne L

    2012-08-01

    While substance misuse by adolescents in the UK has declined over the last decade, the UK continues to have some of the highest rates of alcohol and drug use in Europe. Many young people will try smoking and drinking alcohol during their adolescence and a significant minority will misuse alcohol and illicit drugs. This behaviour remains a significant cause for concern owing to its associated risks to the health and wellbeing of adolescents. Guidance is emerging regarding good practice in the assessment and management of adolescent substance misuse. Paediatricians may encounter substance-misusing adolescents in a variety of clinical settings and can play a valuable role in the screening, management and support of this group of young people.

  17. Welfare Reform and Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Metsch, Lisa R; Pollack, Harold A

    2005-01-01

    The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) changed the nature, purpose, and financing of public aid. Researchers, administrators, and policymakers expressed special concern about the act's impact on low-income mothers with substance use disorders. Before PRWORA's passage, however, little was known about the true prevalence of these disorders among welfare recipients or about the likely effectiveness of substance abuse treatment interventions for welfare recipients. Subsequent research documented that substance abuse disorders are less widespread among welfare recipients than was originally thought and are less common than other serious barriers to self-sufficiency. This research also showed significant administrative barriers to the screening, assessment, and referral of drug-dependent welfare recipients. This article summarizes current research findings and examines implications for welfare reform reauthorization. PMID:15787954

  18. Substance Abuse Screening and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tenegra, Johnny C; Leebold, Bobby

    2016-06-01

    One of the more prevalent and often undiagnosed problems seen by primary care clinicians is substance misuse. Resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, loss of productivity, and increased health care costs, substance misuse in our society remains a significant public health issue. Primary care physicians are on the front lines of medical care, and as such, are in a distinctive position to recognize potential problems in this area and assist. This article outlines office-based screening approaches and strategies for managing and treating this complex issue confronting primary care.

  19. The Aftermath of Public Housing Relocation: Relationship to Substance Misuse

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah L.; Bonney, Loida E.; Ross, Zev; Karnes, Conny; Hunter-Jones, Josalin; Kelley, Mary; Rothenberg, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Several cross-sectional studies have examined relationships between neighborhood characteristics and substance misuse. Using data from a sample of African-American adults relocating from US public housing complexes, we examined relationships between changes in exposure to local socioeconomic conditions and substance misuse over time. We tested the hypothesis that adults who experienced greater post-relocation improvements in local economic conditions and social disorder would have a lower probability of recent substance misuse. Methods Data were drawn from administrative sources to describe the census tracts where participants lived before and after relocating. Data on individual-level characteristics, including binge drinking, illicit drug use, and substance dependence, were gathered via survey before and after the relocations. Multilevel models were used to test hypotheses. Results Participants (N=172) experienced improvements in tract-level economic conditions and, to a lesser degree, in social disorder after moving. A one standard-deviation improvement in tract-level economic conditions was associated with a decrease in recent binge drinking from 34% to 20% (p=0.04) and with a decline in using illicit drugs weekly or more from 37% to 16% (p=0.02). A reduction in tract-level alcohol outlet density of >3.0 outlets per square mile predicted a reduction in binge drinking from 32% to 18% at p=0.05 significance level. Discussion We observed relationships between improvements in tract-level conditions and declines in substance misuse, providing further support for the importance of the local environment in shaping substance misuse. These findings have important implications for public housing policies and future research. PMID:23850372

  20. Screening for Adolescent Substance-Related Disorders Using the SASSI-A2: Implications for Nonreporting Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perera-Diltz, Dilani M.; Perry, Justin C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study (N = 137), although 70.8% of participants reported no current substance use and 42.3% reported never using, the Adolescent Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI-A2; Miller & Lazowski, 2001) screened 39.41% of the participants for a high level of probability of having a substance-related disorder. SASSI-A2 classified more…

  1. Screening for Adolescent Substance-Related Disorders Using the SASSI-A2: Implications for Nonreporting Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perera-Diltz, Dilani M.; Perry, Justin C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study (N = 137), although 70.8% of participants reported no current substance use and 42.3% reported never using, the Adolescent Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI-A2; Miller & Lazowski, 2001) screened 39.41% of the participants for a high level of probability of having a substance-related disorder. SASSI-A2 classified more…

  2. Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention for Substance Craving

    PubMed Central

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Bowen, Sarah; Douglas, Haley; Hsu, Sharon H.

    2012-01-01

    Craving, defined as the subjective experience of an urge or desire to use substances, has been identified in clinical, laboratory, and preclinical studies as a significant predictor of substance use, substance use disorder, and relapse following treatment for a substance use disorder. Various models of craving have been proposed from biological, cognitive, and/or affective perspectives, and, collectively, these models of craving have informed the research and treatment of addictive behaviors. In this article we discuss craving from a mindfulness perspective, and specifically how mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) may be effective in reducing substance craving. We present secondary analyses of data from a randomized controlled trial that examined MBRP as an aftercare treatment for substance use disorders. In the primary analyses of the data from this trial, Bowen and colleagues (2009) found that individuals who received MBRP reported significantly lower levels of craving following treatment, in comparison to a treatment-as-usual control group, which mediated subsequent substance use outcomes. In the current study, we extend these findings to examine potential mechanisms by which MBRP might be associated with lower levels of craving. Results indicated that a latent factor representing scores on measures of acceptance, awareness, and nonjudgment significantly mediated the relation between receiving MBRP and self-reported levels of craving immediately following treatment. The mediation findings are consistent with the goals of MBRP and highlight the importance of interventions that increase acceptance and awareness, and help clients foster a nonjudgmental attitude toward their experience. Attending to these processes may target both the experience of and response to craving. PMID:22534451

  3. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for substance craving.

    PubMed

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Bowen, Sarah; Douglas, Haley; Hsu, Sharon H

    2013-02-01

    Craving, defined as the subjective experience of an urge or desire to use substances, has been identified in clinical, laboratory, and preclinical studies as a significant predictor of substance use, substance use disorder, and relapse following treatment for a substance use disorder. Various models of craving have been proposed from biological, cognitive, and/or affective perspectives, and, collectively, these models of craving have informed the research and treatment of addictive behaviors. In this article we discuss craving from a mindfulness perspective, and specifically how mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) may be effective in reducing substance craving. We present secondary analyses of data from a randomized controlled trial that examined MBRP as an aftercare treatment for substance use disorders. In the primary analyses of the data from this trial, Bowen and colleagues (2009) found that individuals who received MBRP reported significantly lower levels of craving following treatment, in comparison to a treatment-as-usual control group, which mediated subsequent substance use outcomes. In the current study, we extend these findings to examine potential mechanisms by which MBRP might be associated with lower levels of craving. Results indicated that a latent factor representing scores on measures of acceptance, awareness, and nonjudgment significantly mediated the relation between receiving MBRP and self-reported levels of craving immediately following treatment. The mediation findings are consistent with the goals of MBRP and highlight the importance of interventions that increase acceptance and awareness, and help clients foster a nonjudgmental attitude toward their experience. Attending to these processes may target both the experience of and response to craving.

  4. Investigating Maternal Brain Structure and its Relationship to Substance Use and Motivational Systems.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Helena J V; Gerig, Guido; Gouttard, Sylvain; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C

    2015-09-01

    Substance use during pregnancy and the postpartum period may have significant implications for both mother and the developing child. However, the neurobiological basis of the impact of substance use on parenting is less well understood. Here, we examined the impact of maternal substance use on cortical gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes and whether this was associated with individual differences in motivational systems of behavioral activation and inhibition. Mothers were included in the substance-using group if any addictive substance was used during pregnancy and/or in the immediate postpartum period (within 3 months of delivery). GM volume was reduced in substance-using mothers compared to non-substance-using mothers, particularly in frontal brain regions. In substance-using mothers, we also found that frontal GM was negatively correlated with levels of behavioral activation (i.e., the motivation to approach rewarding stimuli). This effect was absent in non-substance-using mothers. Taken together, these findings indicate a reduction in GM volume is associated with substance use and that frontal GM volumetric differences may be related to approach motivation in substance-using mothers.

  5. Semipurified fractions from the submerged-culture broth of Agaricus blazei Murill reduce blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tae W; Kim, Yun A; Jang, Wook J; Byeon, Jae I; Ryu, Chung H; Kim, Jeong O; Ha, Yeong L

    2010-04-14

    Hypoglycemic action of semipurified fractions from hot-water extracts of the submerged-culture broth of Agaricus blazei Murill was examined in streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneal)-induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats, relative to the diabetes drug metformin. The hot-water extract, treated with ethanol to remove beta-glucans and glycoproteins, was freeze-dried, and fractionated into hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate (EA), and butanol fractions. The EA fraction (EAF; 200 mg/kg body weight) reduced (p < 0.05) the blood glucose level in the oral glucose tolerance test, relative to the other fractions and control. In a 14 day-treatment study, diabetic rats treated with the EAF displayed a suppressed blood glucose level and elevated plasma insulin and glucose transport-4 proteins; the reactions occurred in a dose-dependent manner (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) compared to those in control animals. The EAF reduced the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol in plasma, the activity of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase in blood, and the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance in the liver and kidney. The hypoglycemic efficacy of the EAF (400 mg/kg body weight) was similar to that of metformin (500 mg/kg body weight). The EAF contained substantial amounts of isoflavonoids including genistein, genistin, daidzein, and daidzin, which could have contributed to the fraction's hypoglycemic action. These results indicate that the hot-water extract of the submerged-culture broth of Agaricus blazei contains an EAF having potent hypoglycemic action, which could be useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  6. Tourette syndrome and excitatory substances: is there a connection?

    PubMed

    Zou, Li-Ping; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Li-Ping; Zhao, Jian-Bo; Lu, Jin-Fang; Liu, Qun; Wang, Hang-Yan

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between excitatory substances by testing the urine in children with Tourette syndrome (TS). We performed a control study involving 44 patients with TS and 44 normal children by investigating the children's daily eating habits. We used the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer from Agilent. Substances for detection included 197 excitatory substances prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and other substances with similar chemical structures or biological functions for urine samples. Forty-four patients who did not take any drugs in the past 2 weeks enrolled in the study. The positive rate in the experiment group was three cases, while it was negative in the control group. The level of 1-testosterone increased in one extremely severe TS patient who ate large amounts of puffed food and drank an average of 350 ml of cola per day. Cathine and other substances with similar chemical constitution or similar biological effects increased in one severe TS patient who ate bags of instant noodles daily, according to the high score of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. An increase in ephedrine type, testosterone, and stimulants may be related to the pathogenesis of TS. Unhealthy food possibly causes TS. The relationship between excitatory substances and TS needs to be explored with the goal of providing more information on diagnosing and treating TS.

  7. Dissociation, PTSD, and Substance Abuse: An Empirical Study

    PubMed Central

    Najavits, Lisa; Walsh, Marybeth

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder (SUD) and dissociation. We studied 77 women with current PTSD and substance dependence, classified into high- versus low-dissociation on the Dissociative Experiences Scale. They were compared on trauma- and substance-related symptoms, cognitions, coping skills, social adjustment, trauma history, psychiatric symptoms, and self-harm/suicidal behaviors. We found the high-dissociation group consistently more impaired than the low-dissociation group. Also, the sample overall evidenced relatively high levels of dissociation, indicating that even in the presence of recent substance use, dissociation remains a major psychological phenomenon. Indeed, the high-dissociation group reported stronger expectation that substances could manage their psychiatric symptoms. The high-dissociation group also had more trauma-related symptoms and childhood histories of emotional abuse and physical neglect. Discussion addresses methodology, the “chemical dissociation” hypothesis, and the need for more nuanced understanding of how substances are experienced in relation to dissociative phenomena. PMID:22211445

  8. Analysis of inedible substance ingestion at a Japanese psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Yayama, So; Tanimoto, Chie; Suto, Shunji; Matoba, Kei; Kajiwara, Tomomi; Inoue, Masue; Endo, Yoshimi; Yamakawa, Miyae; Makimoto, Kiyoko

    2017-01-27

    Inedible substance ingestion increases the risk of ileus, poisoning, and suffocation. Prevention is especially important in a psychiatric setting. This study aimed to analyze the incidence of inedible substance ingestion in a Japanese psychiatric hospital. Inedible substance ingestion incidents were extracted from an incident report database spanning 2000-2012 at a 400-bed psychiatric hospital in Japan. We tabulated the frequencies of incidents in accordance with major diagnosis, ingested materials, incident levels, and time of occurrence. The incidence rate was 0.09/1000 patient days, and 149 cases in 105 patients were classified as having experienced inedible substance ingestion. The most common diagnosis was dementia (n = 58), followed by schizophrenia (n = 22). Materials ingested by dementia patients were nappies or gauze attached to the patient's body after medical procedures. Materials ingested by schizophrenic patients were liquid soap, detergent or shampoo, and cigarettes. Inedible substance ingestion among dementia patients occurred mostly before or during meals. Among schizophrenic patients, the peak period of incidents was in the evening. Dementia patients were overrepresented in the inedible substance ingestion incidents. Items they wore or applied to their bodies were often subject to ingestion, and such behaviours mostly occurred around meal time. Therefore, the nursing staff were able to discover them quickly and treat most of the cases free of serious consequences. In contrast, schizophrenic patients were underrepresented in the incidents, and most cases involved ingestion of detergent powder or cigarettes, resulting in more serious consequences and requiring treatment. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  9. Athletes' perceptions toward substance use in Baghdad city.

    PubMed

    Habeeb, Mohammed Baqer; Kasim, Wissam Jabbar; Khamees, Leith Abbas; Hawi, Mohammed Mukheilef; Khashoom, Qais Nea'amah

    2012-11-01

    The majority of men's sports need high levels of strength and power. The effects of any given type of performance-enhancing substance are mostly directly related to its ergogenic effects (enhanced strength, higher energy production, and better recovery), anabolic potential (increased protein synthesis, especially in muscles), and/or stimulating properties (increased attention and loss of fear), which give a competitive advantage to athletes. A descriptive correlational study was conducted to identify bodybuilders' and athletes' perception toward substance use and to identify the relationship between substance use and those athletes' sociodemographic characteristics of age, level of education, social status, and monthly income. A purposive "nonprobability" sample of 172 bodybuilding athletes were recruited from gym users of Baghdad city. The study found that two fifths of those who used anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) were 19 years old or younger, less than one half were overweight (body mass index = 25-29.9), two fifths of participants enjoyed exercise/training to an extreme level, two fifths of study participants highly perceived the improvement of athletic performance, two fifths of the study participants highly perceived the importance of improving athletic performance, less than half of the study participants used AAS, one quarter of the study participants who used AAS had been influenced by their coaches to use such substances, and more than one third of the study participants who used AAS were using such substances in the form of oral tablets and intramuscular injection together.

  10. Psychoactive substances and the political ecology of mental distress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to both understand and depathologize clinically significant mental distress related to criminalized contact with psychoactive biotic substances by employing a framework known as critical political ecology of health and disease from the subdiscipline of medical geography. The political ecology of disease framework joins disease ecology with the power-calculus of political economy and calls for situating health-related phenomena in their broad social and economic context, demonstrating how large-scale global processes are at work at the local level, and giving due attention to historical analysis in understanding the relevant human-environment relations. Critical approaches to the political ecology of health and disease have the potential to incorporate ever-broadening social, political, economic, and cultural factors to challenge traditional causes, definitions, and sociomedical understandings of disease. Inspired by the patient-centered medical diagnosis critiques in medical geography, this paper will use a critical political ecology of disease approach to challenge certain prevailing sociomedical interpretations of disease, or more specifically, mental disorder, found in the field of substance abuse diagnostics and the related American punitive public policy regimes of substance abuse prevention and control, with regards to the use of biotic substances. It will do this by first critically interrogating the concept of "substances" and grounding them in an ecological context, reviewing the history of both the development of modern substance control laws and modern substance abuse diagnostics, and understanding the biogeographic dimensions of such approaches. It closes with proposing a non-criminalizing public health approach for regulating human close contact with psychoactive substances using the example of cannabis use. PMID:22257499

  11. Association Between Substance Use Disorder and Polygenic Liability to Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hartz, Sarah M; Horton, Amy C; Oehlert, Mary; Carey, Caitlin E; Agrawal, Arpana; Bogdan, Ryan; Chen, Li-Shiun; Hancock, Dana B; Johnson, Eric O; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Rice, John P; Bierut, Laura J

    2017-06-06

    There are high levels of comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance use disorder, but little is known about the genetic etiology of this comorbidity. We tested the hypothesis that shared genetic liability contributes to the high rates of comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance use disorder. To do this, polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia derived from a large meta-analysis by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were computed in three substance use disorder datasets: the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence (ascertained for tobacco use disorder; n = 918 cases; 988 control subjects), the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (ascertained for alcohol use disorder; n = 643 cases; 384 control subjects), and the Family Study of Cocaine Dependence (ascertained for cocaine use disorder; n = 210 cases; 317 control subjects). Phenotypes were harmonized across the three datasets and standardized analyses were performed. Genome-wide genotypes were imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel. In each individual dataset and in the mega-analysis, strong associations were observed between any substance use disorder diagnosis and the polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (mega-analysis pseudo-R(2) range 0.8-3.7%; minimum p = 4 × 10(-23)). These results suggest that comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance use disorder is partially attributable to shared polygenic liability. This shared liability is most consistent with a general risk for substance use disorder rather than specific risks for individual substance use disorders and adds to increasing evidence of a blurred boundary between schizophrenia and substance use disorder. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Network analysis of substance abuse and dependence symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rhemtulla, Mijke; Fried, Eiko I; Aggen, Steven H; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Kendler, Kenneth S; Borsboom, Denny

    2016-04-01

    The DSM uses one set of abuse and dependence criteria to assess multiple substance use disorders (SUDs). Most SUD research aggregates across these symptoms to study the behavior of SUD as a static construct. We use an alternative approach that conceptualizes symptoms as directly interacting variables in psychopathological networks. We apply network models to symptom-level data to investigate the unique roles of individual symptoms and their interactions in SUD. We analyzed 11 DSM III-R/IV abuse and dependence criteria in a sample of 2405 adult twins who reported use of at least one illicit substance six or more times from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders (VATSPSUD). We estimated a symptom network for each substance class as well as a global network collapsed across all substance classes. We examined similarities and differences across the 6 networks in terms of symptom-to-symptom connections and symptom centrality. The global network model revealed several interesting symptom connections, such as a strong predictive relation between tolerance and more-than-planned substance use. The most central symptom was using a drug more than planned. In addition, several interesting differences across substances emerged, both in the strength of symptom connections as well as the centrality of symptoms to each network. When analyzed as networks, abuse and dependence symptoms do not function equivalently across illicit substance classes. These findings suggest the value of analyzing individual symptoms and their associations to gain new insight into the mechanisms of SUD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Teenagers' Awareness of Peers' Substance and Drug Use in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Omu, Florence E; Bader, Al-Wadaany; Helen, Delles; Slabeeb, Shukriya; Safar, Hanan; Omu, Alexander E

    Teenage substance use is a global challenge, and youths residing in Kuwait are not immune from it. Tobacco products are licit; however, alcohol and other mood-altering illicit substance are prohibited with severe penalties including imprisonment. Youths residing in Kuwait are being initiated into the use of mood-altering substances like tobacco at an early age, and it is postulated that, as they grow older, they may progress into using alcohol and other prohibited illicit drugs. The aim of this study was to determine licit and illicit substance use by teenagers residing in Kuwait. The study will also explore their awareness of substance use among their peers. A cross-sectional survey using a snowball sampling technique was used to recruit 190 teenagers aged 15-18 years residing in Kuwait. Data were collected using the 130-item questionnaire adapted from 1998 New Jersey Triennial Public High School Survey of Drug and Alcohol Use. Data collection was from September 2012 to June 2013. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 22 for Windows was used. Pearson's chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to test the hypotheses. Tobacco was the most commonly used substance by these teenagers; 8.4% were current smokers, and 50% had experimented. Age of initiation for 21% was before 14 years old. Hashish (marijuana) was the most commonly used illicit drug, with 3.7% current users and 5.3% claiming to have used it. More male than female teenagers in Grade 9 were using tobacco products (χ = 27.428, df = 5, p < .001). The use and abuse of mood/mind-altering licit and illicit substances appear to be increasing among older teenagers. Intensifying campaigns about the hazards of substance use and drug testing should start from the primary school level.

  14. Consumption of pomegranate juice decreases blood lipid peroxidation and levels of arachidonic acid in women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kojadinovic, Milica I; Arsic, Aleksandra C; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina D; Konic-Ristic, Aleksandra I; Kardum, Nevena Dj; Popovic, Tamara B; Glibetic, Marija D

    2017-04-01

    Pomegranate juice is a rich source of polyphenols and is thus a promising dietary antioxidant with numerous health-promoting effects. These include a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health that could be partly attributed to the effects of polyphenols on lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of pomegranate juice for 6 weeks could modify lipid peroxidation and phospholipid fatty acid composition of plasma and erythrocytes in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-three women, aged 40-60 years, were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups: the intervention group, in which each participant consumed 300 mL of juice per day for 6 weeks; and a control group. A statistically significant decrease in the relative amount of arachidonic acid (P < 0.05) and an increase in the relative amount of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) were observed in the intervention group at the end of the consumption period. In addition, pomegranate juice significantly increased the relative amount of total mono-unsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.05), and significantly decreased the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (P < 0.05). The status of blood lipids and the values for blood pressure were not changed during the study. The results obtained indicate a positive impact of the consumption of pomegranate juice on lipid peroxidation and fatty acid status in subjects with metabolic syndrome and suggest potential anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective effects. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Substance Use and Early Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Steven C.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.

    2004-01-01

    Prior work indicates that substance use is related to adolescent marriage. We describe two different processes that may account for this relationship and hypothesize patterns of association that would be consistent or inconsistent with each. Using data from a study that followed west coast youth from 7th grade to young adulthood N3,324, we…

  16. Substance Use as Impression Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  17. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  18. Substance Abuse and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, John P.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the effect that a substance abuser may have on the family system and the maladaptive roles sometimes assumed by family members. Discusses dysfunctional family phases and therapeutic issues and presents 11 guidelines for counselors working with chemically dependent families. (JAC)

  19. Matters of Substance: Students' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gertrude

    2007-01-01

    America's romance with certainty leads to a belief that substances improve life and fits with the New Psychiatry. It's use of psychotropic medications to treat an array of mental illnesses changes evaluations, treatment and emergency coverage. The rising abuse of its prescription drugs alters the campus party scene, and challenges pretenses about…

  20. Substance Use as Impression Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  1. Substance Abuse and Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimian, Michael J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined on-the-job stress in relationship with need to use and frequency of use of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription (P) drugs and alcohol (A), across five teacher samples (N=1,788). Results showed high stress frequencies were significantly related to the frequent use of OTC, P, and A substances. (Author/BH)

  2. Substance Abuse by Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutsky, Irving; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…

  3. Substance Abuse by Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutsky, Irving; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…

  4. Matters of Substance: Students' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gertrude

    2007-01-01

    America's romance with certainty leads to a belief that substances improve life and fits with the New Psychiatry. It's use of psychotropic medications to treat an array of mental illnesses changes evaluations, treatment and emergency coverage. The rising abuse of its prescription drugs alters the campus party scene, and challenges pretenses about…

  5. Pharmacotherapy for Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jared Wilson

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the current pharmacotherapy options available for the treatment of patients with substance use disorders. In the United States there are medications available to treat tobacco use disorders (nicotine replacement, bupropion, and varenicline), alcohol use disorders (naltrexone and acamprosate), and opioid use disorders (methadone and buprenorphine). These medications are likely underused and physicians should more readily prescribe for eligible patients.

  6. ON GROUP SPECIFIC A SUBSTANCES

    PubMed Central

    Landsteiner, K.; Chase, M. W.

    1936-01-01

    A method of preparation and a preliminary chemical investigation of the substance present in commercial (pig) pepsin which reacts with human A antiserum are presented. The material offers especial advantage in securing in quantity a serologically highly active preparation suitable for further studies. Active preparations were isolated moreover from commercial (pig) gastric mucin. Some other materials showing group specific reactions are mentioned. PMID:19870506

  7. Consequences of prenatal substance use.

    PubMed

    Sithisarn, Thitinart; Granger, Don T; Bada, Henrietta S

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal substance use is a major public health problem and a social morbidity, with consequences on the drug user and the offspring. This review focuses on the child and adolescent outcomes following in utero drug exposure. Studies on the effects of specific substances, legal and illegal; i.e., tobacco or nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, opiates, and methamphetamine were evaluated and analyzed. In general, manifestations of prenatal exposure to legal and illegal substances include varying deficits in birth anthropometric measurements, mild-to-moderate transient neurobehavioral alterations in infancy and long-term behavioral problems noted from early childhood to adolescence. Severity of expression of behavioral problems is influenced by environmental factors. Further, behavioral alterations following in utero drug exposure often exist with mental health co-morbidities. Because of the long-term consequences of prenatal drug exposure on child and adolescent mental health, health providers need to promote substance use prevention, screen for exposure effects and provide or refer affected youths for intervention services. Preventive measures and treatment should consider other factors that may further increase the risk of psychopathology in the exposed children.

  8. [Acting out and psychoactive substances: alcohol, drugs, illicit substances].

    PubMed

    Gillet, C; Polard, E; Mauduit, N; Allain, H

    2001-01-01

    In humans, some psychotropic agents (alcohol, drugs, illicit substances) have been suggested to play a role in the occurrence of major behavioural disorders, mainly due to the suppression of psychomotor inhibition. Behavioural disinhibition is a physiological mechanism which allows humans to behave appropriately according to a given environmental situation. The behavioural disinhibition induced by either therapeutic dosage or misuse involves the loss of restraint over certain types of social behaviour and may increase the risk of auto or hetero-aggression and acting out. The increased use of psychotropic agents in recent years and the occurrence of unwanted effects are worrying and must be detected and evaluated. The objective of the present study was to establish a causal relationship between psychoactive substance use and occurrence of major behavioural disorders, such as paradoxical rage reactions and suicidal behaviour, based on a literature analysis. It consisted of reviewing reports of drug-induced violent reactions in healthy volunteers and demonstrating, where possible, a cause-effect relationship. Patients with schizophrenia and psychopathic personalities were not included in our study since psychiatric comorbidity could influence behavioural responses. Psychotropic agents included drugs, licit and illicit substances already associated with violence in the past. Many reports used the "Go/No Go test" to evaluate the disinhibiting effect of psychotropic substances; this allows the "cognitive mapping" of drugs. The results suggest that only alcohol, antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cocaïne are related to aggressive behaviour. The best known precipitant of behavioural disinhibition is alcohol, which induces aggressive behaviour. However, there are large differences between individuals, and attentional mechanisms are now recognised as being important in mediating the effects of alcohol. Suicidal tendency as an adverse antidepressant reaction is rare

  9. A Comparison of Opioid and Nonopioid Substance Users in Residential Treatment for Co-Occurring Substance Use and Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bride, Brian E.; Macmaster, Samuel A.; Morse, Siobhan A.; Watson, Cayce M.; Choi, Sam; Seiters, John

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen a marked increase in the illicit use of opioids, as well as a doubling of the percentage of individuals seeking treatment for opioid use disorders. However, little is known about the differences between opioid users and nonopioid users in residential treatment. Further, no studies have been published that compare opioid users and nonopioid users in treatment for co-occurring substance use and mental disorders. To address this gap, this study examined differences between opioid and nonopioid substance users in residential treatment for co-occurring disorders. Data was drawn from 1,972 individuals treated between 2009 and 2011 at one of three private residential treatment centers that provide integrated treatment for co-occurring substance use and mental disorders. Data was collected at program intake, and 1- and 6-month postdischarge using the Addiction Severity Index and the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment. To examine within-group changes in substance use, addiction severity, and mental health across time, linear mixed-model analyses were conducted with facility, year, age, gender, and race included as covariates. The authors found more similarities than differences between the two groups on baseline characteristics, treatment motivation, length of stay, and outcomes on measures of substance use, addiction severity, and mental health. The results demonstrate that though opioid users entered treatment with higher levels of substance use–related impairment, they were just as successful in treatment outcomes as their non-opioid-using peers. PMID:27366988

  10. Adolescent Obesity and Future Substance Use: Incorporating the Psychosocial Context

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Grella, Christine E.; Chung, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of work has shown that obese adolescents are at risk of engaging in problematic substance use, but mixed findings highlight the complexity of the relationship. Incorporating the psychosocial context into this research may inform past discrepancies. The current study assessed whether obese adolescents had a higher likelihood of experiencing a psychosocial context that predicted problematic substance use in young adulthood. Latent class analysis on 10,637 adolescents from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) identified four psychosocial classes in adolescence: Adjusted, Deviant Peer/Victimization, Moderate Depression, and Maladjusted. Obese adolescents were more likely to belong to the Maladjusted class, characterized by higher levels of depression and deviant peer affiliation. Those in the Maladjusted class had the second highest levels of cigarette smoking and marijuana use in young adulthood. Obese adolescents’ psychosocial context should be considered in future research linking obesity and substance use. PMID:26349450

  11. Maternal substance use and HIV status: adolescent risk and resilience.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Noelle R; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Cleland, Charles M; Vekaria, Pooja C; Ferns, Bill

    2008-06-01

    We examined the risk and protective factors and mental health problems of 105 low SES, urban adolescents whose mothers were coping with alcohol abuse and other drug problems. Approximately half of the mothers were also HIV-infected. As hypothesized, there were few differences between adolescents of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers in background characteristics, mental health issues and current substance use risk behaviors. In addition to maternal substance abuse, youth in both groups experienced similar risk factors including early foster care placement and high levels of maltreatment. Current patterns of emerging risk behaviors were evident among youth in both groups as well as signs of resiliency including high levels of school attendance. These results underscore the importance of interventions for youth of substance abusing mothers, particularly those living in urban poverty.

  12. Impact of Contextual Factors and Substance Characteristics on Perspectives toward Cognitive Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Sebastian; Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Éric; Sauer, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing cognitive performance with substances–especially prescription drugs–is a fiercely debated topic among scholars and in the media. The empirical basis for these discussions is limited, given that the actual nature of factors that influence the acceptability of and willingness to use cognitive enhancement substances remains unclear. In an online factorial survey, contextual and substance-specific characteristics of substances that improve academic performance were varied experimentally and presented to respondents. Students in four German universities rated their willingness to use and moral acceptance of different substances for cognitive enhancement. We found that the overall willingness to use performance enhancing substances is low. Most respondents considered the use of these substances as morally unacceptable. Situational influences such as peer pressure, policies concerning substance use, relative performance level of peers, but also characteristics of the substance, such as perceptions of substance safety, shape the willingness and acceptability of using a substance to enhance academic performance. Among the findings is evidence of a contagion effect meaning that the willingness was higher when the respondents have more CE drug users in their social network. We also found deterrence effects from strong side effects of using the substance, as well as from policy regulations and sanctions. Regulations might activate social norms against usage and sanctions can be seen as costly to users. Moreover, enhancement substances seem to be most tempting to low performers to catch up with others compared to high performers. By identifying contextual factors and substance characteristics influencing the willingness and acceptability of cognitive enhancers, policy approaches could consider these insights to better manage the use of such substances. PMID:23940757

  13. Adolescent Sexual Minority Girls Are at Elevated Risk for Use of Multiple Substances.

    PubMed

    Dermody, Sarah S; Marshal, Michael P; Cheong, JeeWon; Chung, Tammy; D Stepp, Stephanie; Hipwell, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minority youth, especially girls, are at risk for alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use when these substances are examined individually. However, little is known about concurrent use of these substances (i.e., three-substance use) in relation to sexual orientation. The present study compared profiles of past year alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use between SMGs and heterosexual girls. In addition, because internalizing and externalizing symptoms are associated with substance use, we examined whether sexual orientation was associated with substance use profile over and above co-occurring psychopathology. Mixture modeling was used to identify patterns of alcohol (including binge drinking), cigarette, and marijuana use in the past year using a cross-sectional sample of urban adolescent girls (Pittsburgh Girls Study; N = 2,064; mean age = 17). Approximately 8% (n = 173) of the girls endorsed a lesbian or bisexual identity. Five substance using classes were identified: low-level substance use (72%), marijuana use (5%), cigarette use (8%), alcohol use (8%), and three-substance use (7%). SMGs were at an increased risk for substance use than heterosexual girls, particularly three-substance use (OR = 6.69, p < .001), cigarette use (OR = 6.26, p < .001), and marijuana use (OR = 3.86, p < .001) classes. Substance use patterns were regressed on sexual orientation, internalizing symptoms (i.e., depression, anxiety), and externalizing symptoms (i.e., conduct problems, oppositional defiant disorder). The disparities remained robust after controlling for internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Clinicians and researchers should be aware of potential three-substance use among SMGs. Substance use interventions for SMG may benefit from targeting risk factors that cut-across several substances, particularly externalizing symptoms.

  14. PETRORISK: a risk assessment framework for petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    Redman, Aaron D; Parkerton, Thomas F; Comber, Mike H I; Paumen, Miriam Leon; Eadsforth, Charles V; Dmytrasz, Bhodan; King, Duncan; Warren, Christopher S; den Haan, Klaas; Djemel, Nadia

    2014-07-01

    PETRORISK is a modeling framework used to evaluate environmental risk of petroleum substances and human exposure through these routes due to emissions under typical use conditions as required by the European regulation for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). Petroleum substances are often complex substances comprised of hundreds to thousands of individual hydrocarbons. The physicochemical, fate, and effects properties of the individual constituents within a petroleum substance can vary over several orders of magnitude, complicating risk assessment. PETRORISK combines the risk assessment strategies used on single chemicals with the hydrocarbon block approach to model complex substances. Blocks are usually defined by available analytical characterization data on substances that are expressed in terms of mass fractions for different structural chemical classes that are specified as a function of C number or boiling point range. The physicochemical and degradation properties of the blocks are determined by the properties of representative constituents in that block. Emissions and predicted exposure concentrations (PEC) are then modeled using mass-weighted individual representative constituents. Overall risk for various environmental compartments at the regional and local level is evaluated by comparing the PECs for individual representative constituents to corresponding predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) derived using the Target Lipid Model. Risks to human health are evaluated using the overall predicted human dose resulting from multimedia environmental exposure to a substance-specific derived no-effect level (DNEL). A case study is provided to illustrate how this modeling approach has been applied to assess the risks of kerosene manufacture and use as a fuel.

  15. Marijuana and Other Substance Use Among Motor Vehicle Operators: A Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Michael; Harrell, Paul; Romano, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The deleterious effect of multiple-substance use on driving performance is well established, but relatively little research has examined the patterns of drug use among multiple-substance users and its relationship to both alcohol use and adverse driving outcomes. Method: The current study used latent class analysis to examine subgroups of substance users among a population of drivers who screened positively for 2 or more of 13 substances other than alcohol (N = 250). A series of logistic regression analyses was conducted to examine demographic predictors of latent class assignment and class association with adverse driving outcomes. Results: Four distinct subclasses of users were identified among multiple-substance-using drivers: Class 1 consisted of individuals who demonstrated high levels of all substances indicators (5%). The second class demonstrated high levels of marijuana and cocaine use and lower levels of all other substances (27%). The third class screened high for marijuana and nonmedical prescription opiate analgesics use (36%), whereas the last class demonstrated high nonmedical prescription opiate analgesics and benzodiazepine use (32%). Drivers in Class 2 (marijuana and cocaine users) were more likely to be younger and have a positive breath alcohol concentration than drivers in any other class. Conclusions: Because multidrug users show dissimilar characteristics, the propensity of researchers to lump all multiple-substance users together may either erroneously attribute the potentially profound impact of those in the marijuana and cocaine use class to all multiple-substance users or dilute their specific contribution to crash risk. PMID:26562599

  16. Marijuana and Other Substance Use Among Motor Vehicle Operators: A Latent Class Analysis.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Michael; Harrell, Paul; Romano, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    The deleterious effect of multiple-substance use on driving performance is well established, but relatively little research has examined the patterns of drug use among multiple-substance users and its relationship to both alcohol use and adverse driving outcomes. The current study used latent class analysis to examine subgroups of substance users among a population of drivers who screened positively for 2 or more of 13 substances other than alcohol (N = 250). A series of logistic regression analyses was conducted to examine demographic predictors of latent class assignment and class association with adverse driving outcomes. Four distinct subclasses of users were identified among multiple-substance-using drivers: Class 1 consisted of individuals who demonstrated high levels of all substances indicators (5%). The second class demonstrated high levels of marijuana and cocaine use and lower levels of all other substances (27%). The third class screened high for marijuana and nonmedical prescription opiate analgesics use (36%), whereas the last class demonstrated high nonmedical prescription opiate analgesics and benzodiazepine use (32%). Drivers in Class 2 (marijuana and cocaine users) were more likely to be younger and have a positive breath alcohol concentration than drivers in any other class. Because multidrug users show dissimilar characteristics, the propensity of researchers to lump all multiple-substance users together may either erroneously attribute the potentially profound impact of those in the marijuana and cocaine use class to all multiple-substance users or dilute their specific contribution to crash risk.

  17. [Relationships among risk knowledge, attitudes and ability to resist substance abuse in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Chueh, Ke-Hsin; Ding, Guan-Yu; Yao, Ke-Wu; Huang, Yi-Jien; Hung, Chao-Chia

    2013-02-01

    The Ministries of Justice and Education have implemented adolescent substance abuse prevention programs for many years. Rates of substance abuse among high school students continue to rise in spite of such programs. This study investigates adolescents' substance abuse-related knowledge and attitudes and self-confidence to resist substance use in order to identify predictive factors of poor adolescent resistance to substance use. A cross-sectional study survey gathered data on substance abuse-related knowledge and attitudes and self-confidence to resist substance use from 243 second-year senior high school students studying at two schools in northern Taiwan. Participants were most knowledgeable about tobacco (80.2%), followed by alcohol (72.0%), ecstasy (56.0%), and marijuana (30.0%). Only 19.3% demonstrated an understanding of the harmful effects of using Ketamine. A 10-point Likert scale measured participant substance use attitudes. Alcohol was the substance participants were most willing to use (2.18 ± 3.27), followed by tobacco (0.66 ± 2.19), ecstasy (0.45 ± 1.88), Ketamine (0.43 ± 1.93), and marijuana (0.38 ± 1.83). Participants had higher awareness of the harmful effects of Ketamine (t = -2.37, p = .018), marijuana (t = -2.33, p = .021), and tobacco (t = -2.02, p = .044), with participants reporting greater self-confidence to resist using these three substances. Multiple regression analysis found the three most important factors affecting participant self-confidence to resist substance use to be gender (β= .26, p < .001), knowledge about the substance (β= .15, p = .028), and attitude toward substance use (β= -.20, p < .001). Level of harmful effects knowledge and attitudes toward use varied among the various substances considered in this paper. Being female, having strong knowledge about the substance, and negative attitude toward substance use correlated with higher levels of self-confidence to resist substance use. Study results will be used in

  18. Low-level laser therapy (904nm) can increase collagen and reduce oxidative and nitrosative stress in diabetic wounded mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Tatmatsu-Rocha, José Carlos; Ferraresi, Cleber; Hamblin, Michael R; Damasceno Maia, Flávio; do Nascimento, Nilberto Robson Falcão; Driusso, Patricia; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Over the last decade we have seen an increased interest in the use of Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in diseases that involve increased oxidative stress. It is well established that hyperglycemia in diabetes elicits a rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production but the effect of LLLT remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether LLLT was able to improve oxidative/nitrosative stress parameters in the wound healing process in diabetic mice. Twenty male mice were divided into four groups: non-irradiated control (NIC), irradiated control (IC), non-irradiated and diabetic (NID), irradiated and diabetic (ID). Diabetes was induced by administration of streptozotocin. Wounds were created 120days after the induction of diabetes in groups IC and ID and these groups were irradiated daily for 5days (superpulsed 904nm laser, average power 40mW, 60s). All animals were sacrificed 1day after the last irradiation and histology, collagen amount, catalase activity, nitrite and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured. Histology showed that collagen fibers were more organized in IC and ID when compared to NID group, and significant differences in collagen content were found in group ID versus NID. Catalase activity was higher in IC group compared to other groups (p<0.001). TBARS levels were higher in IC versus NIC, but were lower in ID versus NID (p<0.001). Nitrite was lower in both irradiated groups versus the respective non-irradiated groups (p<0.001). Delayed wound healing in diabetes is still a challenge in clinical practice with high social costs. The increased production of collagen and decreased oxidative and nitrosative stress suggests that LLLT may be a viable therapeutic alternative in diabetic wound healing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Exercise and Substance Use Among American Youth, 1991–2009

    PubMed Central

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The National Institute on Drug Abuse has called for increased research into the use of physical activity in substance abuse prevention, specifically research into physical activity type and context. Purpose This paper examines the relationships between (1) secondary school student substance use and (2) exercise in general and school athletic team participation, and examines such relationships over time. Methods Nationally representative cross-sectional samples of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students were surveyed each year from 1991 to 2009. Substance use measures included past 2-week binge drinking and past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, smokeless tobacco, marijuana, and steroid use. Analyses were conducted during 2009–2010. Results Across grades, higher levels of exercise associated with lower levels of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Higher levels of athletic team participation associated with higher levels of smokeless tobacco use and lower levels of cigarette and marijuana use across grades and to higher levels of high school alcohol and steroid use. Exercise helped suppress the undesired relationship between team participation and alcohol use; exercise and athletic team participation worked synergistically in lowering cigarette and marijuana use. Observed relationships were generally stable across time. Conclusions There appear to be substantive differences between exercise and team sport participation in relation to adolescent substance use. These findings from cross-sectional data suggest that interventions to improve levels of general physical activity should be evaluated to determine if they help delay or reduce substance use among youth in general as well as among student athletes. PMID:21496752

  20. Exercise and substance use among American youth, 1991-2009.

    PubMed

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2011-05-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse has called for increased research into the use of physical activity in substance abuse prevention, specifically research into physical activity type and context. This paper examines the relationships between (1) secondary school student substance use and (2) exercise in general and school athletic team participation, and examines such relationships over time. Nationally representative cross-sectional samples of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students were surveyed each year from 1991 to 2009. Substance use measures included past 2-week binge drinking and past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, smokeless tobacco, marijuana, and steroid use. Analyses were conducted during 2009-2010. Across grades, higher levels of exercise were associated with lower levels of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Higher levels of athletic team participation were associated with higher levels of smokeless tobacco use and lower levels of cigarette and marijuana use across grades and to higher levels of high school alcohol and steroid use. Exercise helped suppress the undesired relationship between team participation and alcohol use; exercise and athletic team participation worked synergistically in lowering cigarette and marijuana use. Observed relationships were generally stable across time. There appear to be substantive differences between exercise and team sport participation in relation to adolescent substance use. These findings from cross-sectional data suggest that interventions to improve levels of general physical activity should be evaluated to determine if they help delay or reduce substance use among youth in general as well as among student athletes. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Use of illicit substances in the workplace].

    PubMed

    Lhermitte, M; Frimat, P; Labat, L; Haguenoer, J-M

    2012-01-01

    The development of addictive behaviors is a source of worry and concern for workplace and occupational physicians. To estimate the prevalence of behaviors, two types of surveys can be carried out: self-assessment surveys and biological testing in the workplace. For the latter, when a settlement is within the company, the prevalence is often lower compared to those enterprises that have not adapted this policy. Very few investigations have been published in France to date. Data published by the United Nations Office against Drugs and Crime (UNODC) shows a stable consumption of illicit substances in recent years. They reported consumption in the world among the general population (all subjects aged 15 to 64). For France, were described a prevalence estimated in 2005 to 8.6%, 0.6% and 0.2% for cannabis, cocaine and amphetamine derivatives, respectively, and in 2007 to 4.6% for opiates. Some prevalence in the workplace have been reported in Europe in chemical, petrochemical, metallurgical, automotive, in the transport sector and in medical and military fields. However, it appears that few surveys in the workplace have been published in France, this lack may be explained by a desire for anonymity on the subject at the level of company management and doctors work that focus on individual support with the problem of addiction. Screening for illicit substances is necessary because these psychotropic substances affect alertness and pose risks in the workplace, especially such that the association cannabis-alcohol further increases the risk. Knowledge of consumption is, moreover, an important factor in job security. It may be acquired if reliable methods, inexpensive to allow routine screening. Publication of results will reveal the extent of the problem and implement more effective campaigns of information and prevention in the workplace. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Substance Abuse among Iranian High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Momtazi, Saeed; Rawson, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review In this study, we reviewed data on drug use among high school students in Iran. Recent findings Published epidemiological studies in international and domestic journals show that drug use/abuse is a serious mental health problem in Iran. There is cultural support for opium in Iran, and also there is cultural tolerance for tobacco smoking, especially as water pipe smoking, in Iranian families. Alcohol, opium, and cannabis are the most frequently used illicit drugs, but there are new emerging problems with anabolic steroids, ecstasy, and stimulant substances, such as crystal methamphetamine. Summary There is serious drug abuse problem among Iranian high school students. It could be due to role-modeling by parents – mainly fathers – and also cultural tolerance of some substances. Early onset of tobacco smoking, with a daily use rate between 4.4% and 12.8% in high school students, is an important risk factor for other drug abuse problems. Use of all types of drugs, except prescription drugs, is more prevalent among boys. Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance, with a lifetime rate of at least 9.9%. Lifetime rates of opiate use – mostly opium – were between 1.2 an 8.6% in different parts of the country. As drug abuse is a frequent problem among Iranian high school students, it is necessary to design and implement drug prevention programs to protect them. Such programs, including life skills training and drug education, have been operating in recent years for Iranian students from kindergarten to the university level. PMID:20308905

  3. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance abuse problem simultaneously. Dual diagnosis is a very broad ... person abuses heroin during periods of mania. Either substance abuse or mental illness can develop first. A person ...

  4. Substance Abuse Taxes the American Workplace

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164283.html Substance Abuse Taxes the American Workplace Survey, analysis reveal the ... 24, 2017 FRIDAY, March 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Substance abuse exacts a heavy toll on the American workplace, ...

  5. 77 FR 75783 - Disposal of Controlled Substances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ..., and throw into the garbage or flush) or surrender the substances to law enforcement or DEA. There is concern, however, that throwing controlled substances into the garbage or flushing them can contribute...

  6. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a term for when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance use disorder simultaneously. Either disorder—substance use or mental illness—can develop first. People experiencing a mental health ...

  7. Substance abuse among reproductive age women.

    PubMed

    Albright, Brittany B; Rayburn, William F

    2009-12-01

    Substance abuse poses significant health risks to reproductive age women in the United States and, for those who become pregnant, to their children. Substance abuse or dependence is defined as a maladaptive pattern of substance use marked by recurrent and significant negative consequences related to the repeated use of substances. Alcohol is the most prevalent substance consumed by childbearing-aged women, followed by tobacco and various illicit drugs. Substance use in the preconception period predicts continued but often limited substance use during the prenatal period. Providers must be aware of reproductive age women's unique physiologic, psychological, and social needs and the related legal and ethical ramifications surrounding substance abuse before referral to a community-based multidisciplinary team for often long-term treatment.

  8. Infant of a substance using mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... drug abuse; Maternal substance use; Maternal drug use; Narcotic exposure - infant; Substance use disorder - infant ... In the case of babies whose mothers used narcotics, the baby is most often given small doses ...

  9. Nanoscale Substances on the TSCA Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is to help the regulated community comply with the requirements of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Section 5 Premanufacturing Notice (PMN) Program for nanoscale chemical substances.

  10. [Development of the method for determining substances--markers of the hazardous production of advanced oil processing (ethylene oxide, 1,3-butadiene) in the air at the level of reference concentrations].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The results of experimental studies on the development of gas chromatographic method for the determination of 1,3-butadiene and ethylene oxide in ambient air at the level of reference concentration with the use of sorption of the compounds studied from ambient air on the adsorbent TenaxTA in conjunction with optimum conditions of thermal desorption and the use of capillary gas chromatography are presented. The parameters of adsorption, thermal desorption and gas chromatographic determination of 1,3-butadiene and ethylene oxide in ambient air have been justified. A high sensitivity of gas chromatographic determination in the range of concentrations (in mg/m3) of 1,3-butadiene, 0,002 - 5, 0, ethylene oxide 0.005 - 1, 0 with 25% uncertainty in the determination has been reached .

  11. Psychological consultation with substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, C J

    1987-05-01

    Previous work has documented that compliance rates of substance abusers undergoing inpatient detoxification could be influenced by professional psychological consultation. The administrative structure has been previously described as well as a clinical/humanistic component within the administrative structure. This report describes the individualized psychological consultation. This consultative intervention is in accord with the tripartite model of mental health which views the assessment of pathology from the perspectives of the mental health practitioner, the patient, and the culture; and the recent advances within self-psychology. A self-psychological model is suggested to understand the detoxifying substance abuser, from a stage of loss of cohesiveness to one of personality stabilization. The hospital environment and persons within the environment provide both a framework and self-object functions (mirroring, idealizing, and alter ego) during detoxification. Research recommendations are made to collect empirical data on the psychology of the detoxifying addict.

  12. Substance use in female adolescents with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Stock, Suzanne L; Goldberg, Eudice; Corbett, Shannon; Katzman, Debra K

    2002-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of substance use in adolescents with eating disorders, compare the results with a data set of Ontario high school students, and explore why adolescents with eating disorders do, or do not, use various substances. From January 1999 to March 2000, 101 female adolescents who met the DSM-IV criteria for an eating disorder were followed up in a tertiary care pediatric treatment center. They were asked to participate in a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire assessing substance use and investigating reasons for use and nonuse; 95 agreed to participate and 77 completed the questionnaire (mean age, 15.2 years). The patients were divided into two groups: 63 with restrictive symptoms only, 17 with purging symptoms. The rates of drug use between subjects and their comparison groups were compared by z-scores, with the level of significance set at.05. During the preceding year, restrictors used significantly less tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis than grade- and sex-matched comparison populations, and purgers used these substances at rates similar to those of comparison subjects. Other drugs seen frequently in the purgers included hallucinogens, tranquilizers, stimulants, LSD, PCP, cocaine, and "ecstasy." Both groups used caffeine and laxatives, but few used diet pills. Restrictors said they did not use substances because they were bad for their health, tasted unpleasant, were contrary to their beliefs, and were too expensive. Purgers generally used substances to relax, relieve anger, avoid eating, and "get away" from problems. Female adolescents with eating disorders who have restrictive symptoms use substances less frequently than the general adolescent population but do not abstain from their use. Those with purging symptoms use substances with a similar frequency to that found in the general adolescent population. Because the sample size for the purging group was small, firm conclusions cannot be drawn from our analysis

  13. 22 CFR 210.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled substance. 210.610 Section 210.610 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  14. 22 CFR 1509.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  15. Working with Families Affected by Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, R. William

    This paper focuses on assisting families who have been damaged by substance abuse and on constructive involvement of families to help all members cope. The four main topics are: (1) "Substance Abuse and Family Systems," including the effects of substance abuse on families and children; (2) "Theories and Approaches to Family…

  16. Why adolescents use substances of abuse.

    PubMed

    Duhigg, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    In summary, adolescent substance use is associated with a variety of risks. Using a nonjudgmental and collaborative approach to treating adolescent substance users can yield positive results. Motivational interviewing and the adolescent community reinforcement approach are evidence-based, nonpharmacologic treatments for teens with substance use disorders.

  17. 22 CFR 1509.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  18. 22 CFR 1509.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  19. 22 CFR 210.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Controlled substance. 210.610 Section 210.610 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  20. 22 CFR 1509.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  1. 22 CFR 1509.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  2. 43 CFR 423.44 - Controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controlled substances. 423.44 Section 423... Conduct § 423.44 Controlled substances. You must not possess, consume, deliver, or be under the influence of, controlled substances included in schedules I, II, III, IV, or V of part B of the...

  3. 28 CFR 83.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controlled substance. 83.610 Section 83.610 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means...

  4. 34 CFR 84.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controlled substance. 84.610 Section 84.610 Education... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled..., 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec. 2455, Pub. L. 103-355, 108 Stat. 3243 at 3327.)...

  5. 43 CFR 423.44 - Controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Controlled substances. 423.44 Section 423... Conduct § 423.44 Controlled substances. You must not possess, consume, deliver, or be under the influence of, controlled substances included in schedules I, II, III, IV, or V of part B of the...

  6. 45 CFR 1173.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controlled substance. 1173.610 Section 1173.610 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1173.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled...

  7. 45 CFR 1155.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in...

  8. 10 CFR 607.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Controlled substance. 607.610 Section 607.610 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  9. Social Functioning and Self-Esteem of Substance Abuse Patients.

    PubMed

    Ersöğütçü, Filiz; Karakaş, Sibel Asi

    2016-10-01

    This descriptive study was conducted to examine the levels of social functioning and self-esteem in individuals diagnosed with substance abuse. The study was conducted at the AMATEM (Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment Center) service of a psychiatry clinic in the Elazığ province in eastern Turkey between September 1, 2014 and February 1, 2015. The population is comprised of 249 patients being treated in this clinic, and the sample included 203 patients who comply with the research criteria and agreed to participate in the study. A Socia-Demographic Questionnaire, Coopersmith Self-esteem Scale (CSI) and Social Functioning Scale (SFS) were used for data collection. Percentages, averages, standard deviations and Pearson's correlation were used for data analysis. This study found that the patients' mean sore on the Self-esteem Scale is 50.97±18.01. Their score on the Social Functioning Scale is 115.76±22.41. A significant correlation between the patients' self-esteem and the age of first substance use was detected (p=0.001). A significant correlation was detected between their social functioning and the duration of their substance use (p<0.005). This study found a positive significant correlation between social functioning and self-esteem (p<0.001). This study found that substance abuse patients have a medium level of self-esteem and social functioning. A significant positive correlation between social functioning and self-esteem was found. It was also found that the age of first substance use and self-esteem are directly correlated. Counseling to increase patients' levels of self-esteem and improve their social functioning is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Substance Abuse Counselors and Moral Reasoning: Hypothetical and Authentic Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Shari M.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the assumption that the level of moral reasoning (Defining Issues Test; J. R. Rest, 1986) used in solving hypothetical and authentic dilemmas is similar for substance abuse counselors (N = 188). The statistical analyses used were paired-sample t tests, Pearson product-moment correlation, and simultaneous multiple…

  11. Effects of Differential Family Acculturation on Latino Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Charles R., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined links between parent-youth differential acculturation and youth substance-use likelihood in a sample of 73 recently immigrated Latino families with middle-school-aged youth. Multiple agents were utilized to assess family functioning and youth outcomes. Findings suggested that a greater level of differential acculturation…

  12. Substance Abuse Counselors and Moral Reasoning: Hypothetical and Authentic Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Shari M.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the assumption that the level of moral reasoning (Defining Issues Test; J. R. Rest, 1986) used in solving hypothetical and authentic dilemmas is similar for substance abuse counselors (N = 188). The statistical analyses used were paired-sample t tests, Pearson product-moment correlation, and simultaneous multiple…

  13. Psychosocial Correlates of Substance Use Behaviors among African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Darlene R.; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    Cross-sectional data were collected on substance use behaviors and potential correlates in 1,494 African American students enrolled in grades 5-12 in eight schools in a central Alabama school district. Using a risk and asset framework, self-reported recent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use were analyzed by identifying and measuring levels of…

  14. The toxicological effects of heavy fuel oil category substances.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; Reitman, Fred; Schreiner, Ceinwen; White, Russell; Charlap, Jeffrey H; O'Neill, Thomas P; Goyak, Katy Olsavsky

    2014-01-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) category substances are used to manufacture HFO, a product used in industrial boilers and marine diesel engines. Commercial HFOs and blending stream components are substances of complex and variable composition, composed of C20 to >C50 hydrocarbons, although lower molecular weight material may be added to reduce viscosity and improve flow characteristics. An HFO blending stream (catalytically cracked clarified oil [CCCO]) was tested for target organ and developmental toxicity in rats following repeated dermal administration at doses of 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg/d. In the repeated dose study, there was evidence of increased liver weights, reduced thymus weights, and reductions in hematological parameters with an overall no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg/d. In the developmental toxicity test, there were significant reductions in fetal survival, significant increases in resorption frequency, and significantly reduced fetal weights with an overall NOAEL of 5 mg/kg/d. These target organ and developmental effects are associated with the types and levels of aromatic constituents in these substances. Among HFO blending streams, CCCOs have the highest levels of aromatics and, because they produce the characteristic toxicological effects at the lowest levels, are considered as "reasonable worst-case examples" for this group of substances. Other HFO category members with lower levels of aromatics produce similar effects but have higher NOAELs. The potential for target organ and developmental effects of other HFO category members can be predicted from information on the types and levels of the aromatic constituents present in these substances.

  15. SOGS-RA gambling scores and substance use in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Buja, Alessandra; Lion, Camilla; Scioni, Manuela; Vian, Paolo; Genetti, Bruno; Vittadello, Fabio; Sperotto, Milena; Simeoni, Elisabetta; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims There is a well-established association between pathological gambling and substance use disorders in adolescents. The aim of this study was to shed light on the association between adolescents' different levels of involvement in gambling activities and substance use (smoking tobacco and cannabis and drinking alcoholic beverages), based on a large sample. Methods A survey was conducted in 2013 on 34,746 students attending 619 secondary schools, who formed a representative sample of the Italian 15- to 19-year-old population. The prevalence of different categories of gamblers was estimated by age group and gender. A multiple correspondence analysis (CA) was conducted to explain the multivariate associations between substance use and gambling. Results The prevalence of problem gambling was 2.7% among the 15- to 17-year-olds, and rose to 3.6% among the 18- and 19-year-olds. Multiple CA revealed that, even when it does not reach risk-related or problem levels, gambling is associated with the use of alcohol and tobacco. In particular, the analysis showed that non-problem gambling levels were associated with alcohol and tobacco use at least once in the previous month, and that higher-risk gambling levels related to the use of cannabis and episodes of drunkenness at least once in the previous month. Conclusion This study found that any gambling behavior, even below risk-related or problem levels, was associated with some degree of substance use by youths, and that adolescents' levels of gambling lay along a continuum of the categories of substance use.

  16. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios.

  17. **1**5N-NMR INVESTIGATION OF HYDROXYLAMINE DERIVATIZED HUMIC SUBSTANCES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Arterburn, Jeffrey B.; Mikita, Michael A.

    1986-01-01

    Humic substances are the most abundant naturally occurring refactory organic compounds in soils and water. They have a broad range of physical, chemical and physiological properties. In soils, humic substances contribute to the cation exchange capacity, help maintain the physical structure, and play a role in plant growth and nutrition. In aquatic systems, humic substances serve to regulate the levels of inorganic constituents, yield trihalomethanes upon chlorination, and transport or concentrate organic and inorganic pollutants. The oxygen containing functional groups of humic and fulvic acids are believed to play a key role in the chemical properties of humic substances. This study was undertaken to gain additional information on the specific types of oxygen functionalities in humic substances. Since the analysis of hydroxyl moieties had been earlier established, we focused our attention on the analysis of ketone and aldehyde functional groups in humic substances.

  18. Verbal Sexual Coercion Experiences, Sexual Risk, and Substance Use in Women

    PubMed Central

    GILMORE, AMANDA K.; SCHACHT, REBECCA L.; GEORGE, WILLIAM H.; DAVIS, KELLY CUE; NORRIS, JEANETTE; HEIMAN, JULIA R.

    2016-01-01

    Research has linked sexual assault, substance use, and sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk in women. Sexual assault by means of verbal sexual coercion (VSC) is more common than sexual assault by means of physical tactics, but VSC is rarely assessed independently. In addition, past work has established global connections among substance use, sexual assault history, and STI risk; however, assessing substance use during sexual behavior is less common. This study examined the relations among VSC, STI risk behavior, and substance use and attitudes. We hypothesized that women with larger numbers of VSC experiences would report more frequent sexual risk behaviors and substance use and attitudes. Participants with larger numbers of VSC experiences reported larger numbers of anal sex partners, more frequent penile–vaginal sex and sexual activity after substance use, and stronger sex-related alcohol expectancies. These findings suggest that VSC is associated with higher levels of STI risk in women. PMID:26941549

  19. Involvement of humic substances in regrowth.

    PubMed

    Camper, Anne K

    2004-05-01

    There appear to be interactions in the distribution system that complicate the ability to use AOC/BDOC as an independent assessment of regrowth potential. Two such complications are the limitation of the assays themselves and the potential interaction between the organic carbon concentration with the presence of disinfectants and pipe materials. To address these interactions, a series of experiments spanning several years have been conducted in model distribution systems at the Center for Biofilm Engineering (CBE) using soil-derived humics. When compared to easily utilized organics, humic substances supported the same order of magnitude of biofilm organisms. As carbon concentration was increased from 500 to 1000 to 2000 ppb, there was no increase in growth rate of the organisms, suggesting zero-order kinetics. If the system was chlorinated, there was less biomass, but growth rates were higher. In the presence of corrosion products, humic-fed systems supported more organisms than a control system fed biologically treated water. When free chlorine was maintained at a residual of about 0.2 mg/l, biofilm numbers on the surfaces were reduced. Phosphate alone did not result in fewer bacteria, while a combination of chorine and phosphate had the best results (lowest biofilm numbers). Adjustment to pH 9 was not effective. Recently completed work compared increasing levels of humic substances in the presence of free chlorine and monochloramine on biofilm growth on a number of surfaces (PVC, epoxy, cement, ductile iron). As the concentration of humic substances was increased from 0, 0.5 to 2 mg/l, there was an increase in biofilm numbers on all surfaces. This effect was the most pronounced on iron surfaces. These results illustrate that carbon compounds not measured by the BDOC or AOC tests may profoundly influence biofilm numbers. In addition, iron surfaces are at much higher risk for elevated biofilm counts in the presence of humic substances, even if disinfection is

  20. Substance use and Violence among Youth: A Daily Calendar Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Walton, Maureen; Zimmerman, Marc; Chermack, Stephen; Blow, Frederic C; Booth, Brenda M; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background While researchers have identified factors that contribute to youth violence, less is known about the details of violent incidents. In addition, substance use has been linked to youth violence; however, little is known about actual substance use on days in which violence occurs. Objective This study examined reasons for peer violence and the association between substance use and violence using daily calendar-based analyses among at-risk urban youth. Methods Data were collected from Emergency Department (ED) patients (ages 14–24; n=599; 59% male, 65% African American) who screened positive for substance use in the past 6 months. Daily data regarding past 30-day substance use and violence and reasons for violent incidents were obtained via semi-structured interviews. Multi-level multinomial regression models were conducted to test the associations between substance use and peer violence incidents (i.e., none, moderate and severe). Results Conflict over ‘personal belongings’ was a common reason for violence among males; ‘jealousy’/’rumors’ were common reasons among females. Moderate victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and cocaine use. Severe victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol use. Moderate or severe aggression was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and non-medical sedative use. Conclusions Results suggest that youth violence prevention that addresses differential reasons for violence among males and females as well as substance use would be beneficial. PMID:25493643

  1. Corneal Nerve Morphology and Tear Film Substance P in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Markoulli, Maria; You, Jingjing; Kim, Juno; Duong, Carmen L; Tolentino, Jonathan B; Karras, Joshua; Lum, Edward

    2017-07-01

    This work aims to characterize the relationship between tear film neuropeptide substance P and the structural integrity of the sub-basal nerve plexus in diabetes. Seventeen healthy control participants and nine participants with diabetes were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Total protein content and substance P concentrations were determined in the flush tears of participants. Corneal nerve morphology was assessed by capturing the corneal sub-basal nerve plexus using the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II with the Rostock Corneal Module (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) in the central cornea. Corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD) was measured using ACCMetrics (M.A. Dabbah, Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, Manchester, UK) on eight captured images. Comparisons between groups were made using independent samples t-tests. Correlations between parameters were analyzed using Pearson's correlations. Substance P concentrations were significantly higher in the tears of the control group compared to participants with diabetes (4150 ± 4752 and 1473 ± 1671 pg/mL, respectively, P = .047). There was no significant difference in total protein content between the groups (3.4 ± 1.8 and 2.6 ± 1.7 mg/mL in the control and diabetes groups, respectively, P = .262). CNFD was significantly lower in the participants with diabetes compared to the control group (16.1 ± 5.7 and 21.5 ± 7.0 mm/mm, respectively, P = .041). There was a moderate correlation between substance P and CNFD (r = 0.48, P = .01). Substance P is expressed at a significantly lower level in the tears of people with diabetes compared with healthy controls. The positive correlation between substance P and corneal nerve density indicates that substance P may be a potential biomarker for corneal nerve health.

  2. NEIGHBORHOOD NORMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG TEENS

    PubMed Central

    Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598

  3. The Implication of Substance P in the Development of Tendinopathy: A Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Han, Soo-Hong; Choi, Wonchul; Song, Jiye; Kim, Jaehee; Lee, Seungyong; Choi, Youngrak; Byun, Seong-Eun; Ahn, Taekeun; Ahn, Heejung; Ding, Catherine; Baik, Lloyd; Ward, Spencer; Ting, Kang; Lee, Soonchul

    2017-06-09

    It was reported that substance P had beneficial effects in the healing of acute tendon injury. However, the relationship between substance P and degenerative tendinopathy development remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of substance P in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. Healthy and tendinopathy tendon were harvested from human and tenocytes were cultured individually. The expression levels of genes associated with tendinopathy were compared. Next, substance P was exogenously administered to the healthy tenocyte and the effect was evaluated. The results showed that tendinopathy tenocytes had higher levels of COL3A1, MMP1, COX2, SCX, ACTA2, and substance P gene expression compared to healthy tenocytes. Next, substance P treatment on the healthy tenocyte displayed similar changes to that of the tendinopathy tenocytes. These differences between the two groups were also determined by Western blot. Additionally, cells with substance P had the tendinopathy change morphologically although cellular proliferation was significantly higher compared to that of the control group. In conclusion, substance P enhanced cellular proliferation, but concomitantly increased immature collagen (type 3 collagen). Substance P plays a crucial role in tendinopathy development and could be a future therapeutic target for treatment.

  4. The Implication of Substance P in the Development of Tendinopathy: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Soo-Hong; Choi, Wonchul; Song, Jiye; Kim, Jaehee; Lee, Seungyong; Choi, Youngrak; Byun, Seong-Eun; Ahn, Taekeun; Ahn, Heejung; Ding, Catherine; Baik, Lloyd; Ward, Spencer; Ting, Kang; Lee, Soonchul

    2017-01-01

    It was reported that substance P had beneficial effects in the healing of acute tendon injury. However, the relationship between substance P and degenerative tendinopathy development remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of substance P in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. Healthy and tendinopathy tendon were harvested from human and tenocytes were cultured individually. The expression levels of genes associated with tendinopathy were compared. Next, substance P was exogenously administered to the healthy tenocyte and the effect was evaluated. The results showed that tendinopathy tenocytes had higher levels of COL3A1, MMP1, COX2, SCX, ACTA2, and substance P gene expression compared to healthy tenocytes. Next, substance P treatment on the healthy tenocyte displayed similar changes to that of the tendinopathy tenocytes. These differences between the two groups were also determined by Western blot. Additionally, cells with substance P had the tendinopathy change morphologically although cellular proliferation was significantly higher compared to that of the control group. In conclusion, substance P enhanced cellular proliferation, but concomitantly increased immature collagen (type 3 collagen). Substance P plays a crucial role in tendinopathy development and could be a future therapeutic target for treatment. PMID:28598390

  5. Predictors of Outreach Meetings Among Substance Using Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Jasmin; Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Murnan, Aaron; Brakenhoff, Brittany

    2017-01-01

    Homeless youth have high rates of substance use and often lack connection to social services. Outreach is critical for connecting youth to services, but factors influencing their outreach engagement are unknown. This study examined predictors of meetings with outreach workers among 79 non-service connected, substance using homeless youth between 14 and 24 years of age. Results provide direction to service providers in that older age, higher levels of depressive symptoms, fewer drug-related problems, and no use of hard drugs within the prior 30 days predicted higher meeting attendance. Future research is needed testing strategies that overcome barriers to outreach engagement.

  6. Initiation of Substance Use by Adolescents after One Year in Residential Youth Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monshouwer, Karin; Kepper, Annelies; van den Eijnden, Regina; Koning, Ina; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown that substance use levels among adolescents living in residential youth care are high. However, it is not clear to what extent adolescents initiate (heavy) substance during their stay and to what extent these rates are higher than would be expected based on their risk profile. Objective: The aim of the…

  7. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Risk for Early Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Daniel J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Interpersonal and intrapersonal risk for substance use were investigated for 1,170 Caucasian and Hispanic American sixth and seventh graders, equally divided by gender. Mean use levels did not differ for ethnic groups. Across both gender and ethnicity, susceptibility to peer pressure and peer alcohol use were the best predictors of substance use.…

  8. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 and Stages of Change: A Screening Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Piazza, Nick J.; Salyers, Kathleen; Roseman, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 (SASSI-3) was examined among substance-dependent adults enrolled in a family drug court. The SASSI-3 had a high sensitivity rate with this population, even across varying levels of motivation to change. (Contains 2 tables.)

  9. Changes in At-Risk American Men's Crime and Substance Use Trajectories following Fatherhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Owen, Lee D.; Wiesner, Margit; Pears, Katherine C.

    2011-01-01

    Fatherhood can be a turning point in development and in men's crime and substance use trajectories. At-risk boys (N = 206) were assessed annually from ages 12 to 31 years. Crime, arrest, and tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use trajectories were examined. Marriage was associated with lower levels of crime and less frequent substance use. Following…

  10. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 and Stages of Change: A Screening Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Piazza, Nick J.; Salyers, Kathleen; Roseman, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 (SASSI-3) was examined among substance-dependent adults enrolled in a family drug court. The SASSI-3 had a high sensitivity rate with this population, even across varying levels of motivation to change. (Contains 2 tables.)

  11. The neighborhood effects of disrupted family processes on adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Sigfusdottir, Inga D

    2009-07-01

    In the current paper, we argue that the neighborhood-level of disrupted family processes (weak social ties to parents and coercive family interaction) should have a contextual effect on adolescent substance use (cigarette smoking, heavy drinking, and lifetime cannabis use), because adolescents living in neighborhoods in which disrupted family processes are prevalent should be more likely to associate with deviant (substance using) peers. We use nested data on 5491 Icelandic adolescents aged 15 and 16 years in 83 neighborhoods to examine the neighborhood-contextual effects of disrupted family processes on adolescent substance use (cigarette smoking, heavy drinking, and lifetime cannabis use), that is, whether neighborhoods in which disrupted family processes are common have more adolescent substance use, even after partialling out the individual-level effects of disrupted family processes on substance use. As predicted, we find that the neighborhood-levels of disrupted family processes have significant, contextual effects on all the indicators of substance use, and that association with substance using peers mediates a part of these contextual effects. The findings illustrate the limitation of an individual-level approach to adolescent substance use.

  12. Abstinence Self-Efficacy and Abstinence 1 Year After Substance Use Disorder Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Mark; McKellar, John; Tiet, Quyen

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between abstinence self-efficacy and treatment outcomes in substance use disorder patients, experts in the field need more information about the levels of abstinence self-efficacy most predictive of treatment outcomes. Participants (N = 2,967) from 15 residential substance use disorder treatment programs were…

  13. Abstinence Self-Efficacy and Abstinence 1 Year After Substance Use Disorder Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Mark; McKellar, John; Tiet, Quyen

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between abstinence self-efficacy and treatment outcomes in substance use disorder patients, experts in the field need more information about the levels of abstinence self-efficacy most predictive of treatment outcomes. Participants (N = 2,967) from 15 residential substance use disorder treatment programs were…

  14. Community Determinants of Substance Abuse Treatment Referrals from Juvenile Courts: Do Rural Youths Have Equal Access?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullmann, Michael D.; Heflinger, Craig Anne

    2009-01-01

    Many youths in juvenile justice are in need of substance use services, yet referral to services is often inadequate. This study examines the ecological factors related to substance use service referrals made through Tennessee's juvenile courts. A series of hierarchical binomial logistic models indicated that individual-level factors accounted for…

  15. Changes in At-Risk American Men's Crime and Substance Use Trajectories following Fatherhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Owen, Lee D.; Wiesner, Margit; Pears, Katherine C.

    2011-01-01

    Fatherhood can be a turning point in development and in men's crime and substance use trajectories. At-risk boys (N = 206) were assessed annually from ages 12 to 31 years. Crime, arrest, and tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use trajectories were examined. Marriage was associated with lower levels of crime and less frequent substance use. Following…

  16. Stress and Substance Use among Asian American and Latino College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Burkey, Heidi; Ratanasiripong, Nop

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between stress and substance use among 347 Asian American, 346 Latino, and 776 White college students. Although stress was not found to predict substance use among the ethnic/ethnic group studied, results of the study indicated that Latino students reported a significantly higher stress level than…

  17. 77 FR 18752 - Benzidine-Based Chemical Substances; Di-n

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... substances indicates no current manufacture (Ref. 1) within or outside the United States. In addition, four... within the United States at a level below current IUR reporting thresholds, and some substances appear to be manufactured outside the United States generally and may therefore potentially be imported as...

  18. A Comprehensive Substance Abuse Counselor Education Program: From Specialty Certificate to Ph.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Lloyd R., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    East Carolina University has one of the few comprehensive substance abuse counselor education (SACE) programs in the nation that offers an undergraduate, master's, and doctoral level of preparation in substance abuse counseling. This article describes the evolution of this SACE from its beginning in 1972 to its current status. This comprehensive…

  19. Substance Abuse among Health-Care Professionals in Rutherford and Surrounding Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sherri Reid; Heritage, Jeannette G.

    Drug abuse is a serious problem in today's work force. It is found in every occupation, from the entry-level employee to the chief executive officer. Among health care professionals alcohol is the number-one substance abused, prescription drugs are second, and cocaine is third. Substance abuse among health-care professionals in Rutherford,…

  20. Adolescent Substance Use: The Role of Demographic Marginalization and Socioemotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Wang, Yijie

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the links between racial/ethnic marginalization (i.e., having few same-race/ethnic peers at school) and adolescents' socioemotional distress and subsequent initiation of substance use (alcohol and marijuana) and substance use levels. Data from 7,731 adolescents (52% female; 55% White, 21% African American, 16% Latino, 8% Asian…

  1. Stress and Substance Use among Asian American and Latino College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Burkey, Heidi; Ratanasiripong, Nop

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between stress and substance use among 347 Asian American, 346 Latino, and 776 White college students. Although stress was not found to predict substance use among the ethnic/ethnic group studied, results of the study indicated that Latino students reported a significantly higher stress level than…

  2. Adolescent Substance Use: The Role of Demographic Marginalization and Socioemotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Wang, Yijie

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the links between racial/ethnic marginalization (i.e., having few same-race/ethnic peers at school) and adolescents' socioemotional distress and subsequent initiation of substance use (alcohol and marijuana) and substance use levels. Data from 7,731 adolescents (52% female; 55% White, 21% African American, 16% Latino, 8% Asian…

  3. Initiation of Substance Use by Adolescents after One Year in Residential Youth Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monshouwer, Karin; Kepper, Annelies; van den Eijnden, Regina; Koning, Ina; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown that substance use levels among adolescents living in residential youth care are high. However, it is not clear to what extent adolescents initiate (heavy) substance during their stay and to what extent these rates are higher than would be expected based on their risk profile. Objective: The aim of the…

  4. Mental Health and Substance Use Characteristics of Flight Attendants Enrolled in an In-Patient Substance Abuse Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Gail; Diaz, Naelys; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Mullaney, Donald

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence rates of co-occurring mental health problems among 70 flight attendants in substance abuse treatment. Results indicated that flight attendants in treatment were more likely to experience alcohol dependency than drug dependency. A high proportion of participants reported clinical levels of…

  5. Mental Health and Substance Use Characteristics of Flight Attendants Enrolled in an In-Patient Substance Abuse Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Gail; Diaz, Naelys; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Mullaney, Donald

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence rates of co-occurring mental health problems among 70 flight attendants in substance abuse treatment. Results indicated that flight attendants in treatment were more likely to experience alcohol dependency than drug dependency. A high proportion of participants reported clinical levels of…

  6. New psychoactive substances: catalysing a shift in forensic science practice?

    PubMed

    Tettey, Justice; Crean, Conor

    2015-08-05

    The analysis of substances of abuse remains one of the most matured areas in forensic science with a strong scientific basis, namely analytical chemistry. The current evolving drug markets, characterized by the global emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and the need for forensic scientists to identify an unprecedented and ever-increasing number of NPS, presents a unique challenge to this discipline. This article looks at the current situation with NPS at the global level, and the challenges posed to the otherwise technically robust forensic science discipline of analysis of substances of abuse. It discusses the preparedness of forensic science to deal with the current situation and identifies the need for a shift in forensic science practice, especially one which embraces research and looks beyond normal casework in order to provide the much needed data for developing effective policy responses to the NPS problem. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. [Plants as a source of natural harmful substances].

    PubMed

    Czerwiecki, Ludwik

    2005-01-01

    In this review the several data concerning phytotoxins as natural harmful substances of plants and phycotoxins--toxicants of algae were described. For example plants are source of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, glycoalkaloids, glucosinolates as well as glycosides, saponine and psolarens. Possible adverse effects of phytoestrogens as endocrine disruptors versus beneficial influence these substances on human organism were mentioned. About lectins as possible factors of some diseases was reported, as well as some proteins as allergens of soy and peanuts was mentioned. Accumulated by shellfish and fish the most important phycotoxins such as saxitoxin, okadaic acid, brevetoxins and ciguatoxins were described. Phycotoxins produced several poisoning symptoms. Microcystins and nodularin--cyanobacterial phycotoxins of freshwater, was mentioned. In conclusion, the need of limitation of permissible levels of some plant toxicants, development of analytical methods as well as knowledge of influence of some technological processes on toxic plant substances was highlighted. The importance of balanced diet as a tool of defense against plant toxicants was concluded.

  8. Illicit substance use among adolescents: a matrix of prospective predictors.

    PubMed

    Petraitis, J; Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Torpy, E J; Greiner, B

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews findings from 58 prospective studies of illicit substance use (ISU) among adolescents. It arranges 384 findings according to three types of influence (viz., social, attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and four levels of influence (viz., ultimate, distal, proximal, and immediate). The bulk of evidence reconfirms the importance of several predictors of ISU (e.g., intentions and prior substance-related behavior, friendship patterns and peer behaviors, absence of supportive parents, psychological temperament), reveals that a few variables thought to be well-established predictors may not be (e.g., parental behaviors, parental permissiveness, depression, low self-esteem), and uncovers several variables where findings were either sparse or inconsistent (e.g., the role of public policies concerning ISU, mass media depictions of ISU, certain parenting styles, affective states, perceptions of parental disapproval for ISU, and substance-specific refusal skills). Directions for future research are discussed.

  9. Medical students' attitudes toward pregnant women with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Cacho, William A; Strickland, Lisa; Beraun, Cristina; Meng, Chen; Rayburn, William F

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether medical students' attendance at a clinic designed for pregnant substance users would yield changes in their attitudes toward the special needs of this population. This prospective study involved 104 consecutive third-year students rotating on our obstetrics-gynecology clerkship. Students were assigned to attend either a half day prenatal clinic designed specifically for women with substance use disorders during the first 4 weeks (study group) or during the second 4 weeks (control group). Each answered a confidential 24-question survey (using a 5-point scale from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree"), dealing with comfort levels and attitudes, at the beginning and midway points of the 8-week clerkship. Student t tests were used for comparisons of averaged scores. At the beginning of the clerkship, no differences were found between the study (n = 52) and control groups (n = 52) in their responses to the survey. Regardless of gender, students who attended the clinic reported they became more comfortable in talking with patients about their substance use (P < .001) and more nonjudgmental in treating these patients (P < .02). Compared with before the clerkship, the control group became less comfortable in talking with these patients about their habits (P < .01), less aware about the prevalence of substance abuse during pregnancy (P < .02), and less aware about the efficacy of counselors (P < .05). Medical students became more comfortable and better informed about pregnant women with substance use disorders after attending a clinic dedicated toward this population's special needs.

  10. Detection and identification of substances using noisy THz signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Zakharova, Irina G.; Zagursky, Dmitry Yu.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.

    2017-05-01

    We discuss an effective method for the detection and identification of substances using a high noisy THz signal. In order to model such a noisy signal, we add to the THz signal transmitted through a pure substance, a noisy THz signal obtained in real conditions at a long distance (more than 3.5 m) from the receiver in air. The insufficiency of the standard THz-TDS method is demonstrated. The method discussed in the paper is based on time-dependent integral correlation criteria calculated using spectral dynamics of medium response. A new type of the integral correlation criterion, which is less dependent on spectral characteristics of the noisy signal under investigation, is used for the substance identification. To demonstrate the possibilities of the integral correlation criteria in real experiment, they are applied for the identification of explosive HMX in the reflection mode. To explain the physical mechanism for the false absorption frequencies appearance in the signal we make a computer simulation using 1D Maxwell's equations and density matrix formalism. We propose also new method for the substance identification by using the THz pulse frequency up-conversion and discuss an application of the cascade mechanism of molecules high energy levels excitation for the substance identification.

  11. Hazardous substances, CERCLA, and nanoparticles - can the three be reconciled?

    PubMed

    Bashaw, John

    2012-01-01

    Toxicology research in the nanotechnology area has focused primarily on human inhalation, ingestion or dermal exposure. Less research has been published on the impact to ecological systems resulting from a release of nanomaterials. Environmental laws such as CERCLA ("Superfund") address the release of "hazardous substances" by obligating the party releasing the substance to (a) report the release and (b) investigate the nature and extent of the release and to then remediate it to some objective cleanup standard. Applying this regime to the release of nanomaterials, however, is complicated. First, is the nanomaterial a hazardous waste, toxic substance, or hazardous substance as defined under the environmental laws? A compound that may be defined as hazardous or toxic could have properties at the nano level that are distinctly non-hazardous. Second, what constitutes a release of a nanoparticle that would require reporting under applicable environmental laws? Typically, release reporting is based upon the weight of the hazardous substance that is released, but for nanomaterials a weight threshold might be meaningless. Third, how do you sample nanoparticles in the field and analyze them using existing instrumentation? There are few approved tests for nanomaterials. Fourth, how do you determine an objective risk-based cleanup standard for the thousands of possible nanomaterials?

  12. Does the General Strain Theory Explain Gambling and Substance Use?

    PubMed

    Greco, Romy; Curci, Antonietta

    2016-11-22

    General Strain Theory (GST: Agnew Criminology 30:47-87, 1992) posits that deviant behaviour results from adaptation to strain and the consequent negative emotions. Empirical research on GST has mainly focused on aggressive behaviours, while only few research studies have considered alternative manifestations of deviance, like substance use and gambling. The aim of the present study is to test the ability of GST to explain gambling behaviours and substance use. Also, the role of family in promoting the adoption of gambling and substance use as coping strategies was verified. Data from 266 families with in mean 8 observations for each group were collected. The multilevel nature of the data was verified before appropriate model construction. The clustered nature of gambling data was analysed by a two-level Hierarchical Linear Model while substance use was analysed by Multivariate Linear Model. Results confirmed the effect of strain on gambling and substance use while the positive effect of depressive emotions on these behaviours was not supported. Also, the impact of family on the individual tendency to engage in addictive behaviours was confirmed only for gambling.

  13. Comparison of whole-blood glutathione peroxidase activity, levels of serum selenium, and lipid peroxidation in subjects from the fishing and rural communities of "Rabo de Peixe" village, San Miguel Island, the Azores' Archipelago, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pavão, M; Cordeiro, C; Costa, A; Raposo, J; Santos, M; Nève, J; Viegas-Crespo, A

    2003-04-01

    The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), serum selenium (Se), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in the whole blood of 148 healthy adults aged 20-60 yr from the fishing and rural communities of "Rabo de Peixe," The Azores, Portugal. The subjects did not live in the same household and had different socioeconomic profiles and dietary habits. The serum lipid profile and selected life habits were also considered in this study. No significant differences in the activity of GSH-Px were found in the interpopulation or intrapopulation analyses, classified by age or lipid profile. An age-dependent GSH-Px increase was noted in the younger male (M) subgroups (20-39 yr). The Se levels were higher in fishers (f) of both genders (M, F) than in subjects living in the rural (r) environment: 110+/-25 microg/L (f, M), 89+/-20 microg/L (f, F), 88+/-22 microg/L (r, M) and 80+/-17 microg/L (r, F). In the fishers, but not in the rural population, Se was higher in the males, but it did not show significant variation with age. The levels of TBARS were lower in the f than in the r male group. The Se level was lower and TBARS higher in the hyperlipemic women in the f group, compared to the corresponding controls. Our results suggest that the fishers (mainly men) show a better antioxidant status than that of their rural counterparts, due to differences in dietary habits between the study populations and between genders.

  14. Effect of Different Psychoactive Substances on Serum Biochemical Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Sanli, Dilek Beker; Bilici, Rabia; Suner, Ozgur; Citak, Serhat; Kartkaya, Kazim; Mutlu, Fezan Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychoactive substances affect mainly central nervous system and brain function causing changes in behavior. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different psychoactive substances on serum biochemical parameters. Patients and Methods: The study included 324 drug dependents, and 69 controls. The patient group was determined according to DSM-IV (The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition) criteria. All patients and control subjects were tested for routine biochemical parameters and urine toxicology parameters for psychoactive substance use. Cases and controls with accompanying diseases like diabetes, cancer, metabolic disorders etc. are excluded from the study. Moreover, an association between urine toxicology results and changes in biochemical parameters was evaluated for statistical significance. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), uric acid, creatinine, urea, albumin, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) medians between the dependent and control groups (P < 0.05). We found a statistically significant difference in sodium and albumin levels between the opium-dependent and control groups (P < 0.05). In the benzodiazepin dependent group, we found a significant difference in GGT, urea, glucose, sodium, T protein, and AST levels (P < 0.05). Moreover, a statistically significant difference was observed in triglyceride and GGT levels between the ethyl glucuronide and control groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In psychoactive substance dependents, serum routine biochemistry parameters can be used to predict the need for intensive monitoring and treatment programs. PMID:26405680

  15. Motivation and maltreatment history among youth entering substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Susan E; Henderson, Joanna L; Muller, Robert T; Goodman, Ilana R

    2012-03-01

    Research has established that maltreatment experiences are common in the life histories of youth with substance abuse problems, and efforts are now moving in the direction of enhancing our understanding of the unique clinical presentations and treatment needs of this population. The current study endeavored to contribute to this body of research by examining associations between experiences of maltreatment and levels of motivation among youth entering outpatient substance abuse treatment. Upon admission, 188 youth (131 males, 57 females) completed a package of self-report questionnaires including measures of motivation to change, motivation for treatment, and history of maltreatment experiences. Results indicated that youth with histories of all forms of maltreatment examined tended to be more aware of the problematic aspects of their substance use, more ready to engage in treatment, more motivated by feelings of shame, and more motivated by external influences. Emotional abuse was the form of maltreatment that predicted level of motivation most strongly. Emotional abuse was particularly strongly associated with the form of motivation reflecting shame regarding substance use, predicting this form of motivation over and above other factors previously reported to be associated with motivation, such as severity of substance abuse and age. While clinicians are increasingly attending to exposure to traumatic events among youth entering substance abuse treatment, these findings suggest that attending to experiences of emotional abuse is also important. Such experiences appear to be related to treatment motivation and may be important to treatment processes and outcomes for these vulnerable youth. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Substance Use, Sexual Intercourse, and Condom Nonuse among Depressed Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shrier, Lydia A.; Walls, Courtney; Lops, Christopher; Kendall, Ashley D.; Blood, Emily A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine daily- and event-level associations of substance use with occurrence of sex and condom nonuse among depressed youth. Methods Depressed, sexually active outpatients age 15–22 reported alcohol use, marijuana use, and sex on a personal digital assistant for 2 weeks. If they reported sex, participants indicated partner type and condom use. Data were analyzed for participants who reported both substance use and sex events (N=39) using generalized estimating equations. Daily-level models compared the likelihood of sex and of condom nonuse between days on which participants did or did not use substances. Event-level models examined the likelihood of sex in the 2, 6, and 12 hours following substance use and the likelihood of condom nonuse if substances were used in the preceding 2, 6, and 12 hours. Results Participants reported 307 sex events (180 unprotected) and 391 substance use events on 572 days. Substance use was associated with increased odds of sex on the same day, but not after adjusting for weekend. Depressed youth were less likely to have sex within 2 hours following substance use and more likely to have sex within 12 hours after marijuana use. There was no main effect of substance use on condom nonuse; however, there was a significant interaction such that on weekdays, condom nonuse was less likely when substances were used within 6 hours before sex. Conclusions The findings from this small, predominantly female sample suggest that contextual factors, not intoxication, influence associations of substance use with sexual behavior in depressed youth. PMID:22325132

  17. Problematic Substance Use in Urban Adolescents: Role of Intrauterine Exposures to Cocaine and Marijuana and Post-Natal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Kuranz, Seth; Appugliese, Danielle; Cabral, Howard; Chen, Clara; Crooks, Denise; Heeren, Timothy; Liebschutz, Jane; Richardson, Mark; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background Linkages between intrauterine exposures to cocaine and marijuana and adolescents’ problematic substance use have not been fully delineated. Methods Prospective longitudinal study with assessors unaware of intrauterine exposure history followed 157 urban participants from birth until late adolescence. Level of intrauterine exposures was identified by mother's report and infant’s meconium. Problematic substance use, identified by the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (V-DISC) or the Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and urine assay, was a composite encompassing DSM-IV indication of tolerance, abuse, and dependence on alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco and any use of cocaine, glue, or opiates. Results Twenty percent (32/157) of the sample experienced problematic substance use by age 18 years, of whom the majority (22/157) acknowledged abuse, tolerance or dependence on marijuana with or without other substances. Structural equation models examining direct and indirect pathways linking a Cox survival model for early substance initiation to a logistic regression models found effects of post-natal factors including childhood exposure to violence and household substance use, early youth substance initiation, and ongoing youth violence exposure contributing to adolescent problematic substance use. Conclusion We did not identify direct relationships between intrauterine cocaine or marijuana exposure and problematic substance use, but did find potentially modifiable post-natal risk factors also noted to be associated with problematic substance use in the general population including earlier substance initiation, exposure to violence and to household substance use. PMID:24999059

  18. The effect of low-level laser therapy on oxidative stress and functional fitness in aged rats subjected to swimming: an aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Guaraldo, Simone A; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Amadio, Eliane Martins; Antônio, Ednei Luis; Silva, Flávio; Portes, Leslie Andrews; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in conjunction with aerobic training interferes with oxidative stress, thereby influencing the performance of old rats participating in swimming. Thirty Wistar rats (Norvegicus albinus) (24 aged and six young) were tested. The older animals were randomly divided into aged-control, aged-exercise, aged-LLLT, aged-LLLT/exercise, and young-control. Aerobic capacity (VO2max(0.75)) was analyzed before and after the training period. The exercise groups were trained for 6 weeks, and the LLLT was applied at 808 nm and 4 J energy. The rats were euthanized, and muscle tissue was collected to analyze the index of lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. VO2 (0.75)max values in the aged-LLLT/exercise group were significantly higher from those in the baseline older group (p <0.01) and the LLLT and exercise group (p <0.05). The results indicate that the activities of CAT, SOD, and GPx were higher and statistically significant (p <0.05) in the LLLT/exercise group than those in the LLLT and exercise groups. Young animals presented lesser and statistically significant activities of antioxidant enzymes compared to the aged group. The LLLT/exercise group and the LLLT and exercise group could also mitigate the concentration of TBARS (p > 0.05). Laser therapy in conjunction with aerobic training may reduce oxidative stress, as well as increase VO2 (0.75)max, indicating that an aerobic exercise such as swimming increases speed and improves performance in aged animals treated with LLLT.

  19. Silicon Reverses Lipid Peroxidation but not Acetylcholinesterase Activity Induced by Long-Term Exposure to Low Aluminum Levels in Rat Brain Regions.

    PubMed

    Noremberg, Simone; Bohrer, Denise; Schetinger, Maria R C; Bairros, André V; Gutierres, Jessié; Gonçalves, Jamile F; Veiga, Marlei; Santos, Francielli W

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is the most widely distributed metal in the environment and is extensively used in daily life leading to easy exposure to human beings. Besides not having a recognized physiological role, Al may produce adverse effects through the interaction with the cholinergic system contributing to oxidative stress. The present study evaluated, in similar conditions of parenteral nutrition, whether the reaction of silicon (SiO2) with Al(3+) to form hydroxyaluminosilicates (HAS) reduces its bioavailability and toxicity through intraperitoneal administrations of 0.5 mg Al/kg/day and/or 2 mg Si/kg/day in Wistar rats. Al and Si concentrations were determined in rat brain tissue and serum. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were analyzed in the cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus, and blood. An increase in the Al concentration was verified in the Al + Si group in the brain. All the groups demonstrated enhanced Si compared to the control animals. Al(3+) increased LPO measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in cerebellum and hippocampus, whereas SiO2 reduced it when compared with the control group. An increase of AChE activity was observed in the Al-treated group in the cerebellum whereas a decrease of this enzyme activity was observed in the cortex and hippocampus in the Al and Al + Si groups. Al and Si concentrations increased in rat serum; however, no effect was observed in blood TBARS levels and AChE activity. SiO2 showed a protective effect in the hippocampus and cerebellum against cellular damage caused by Al(3+)-induced lipid peroxidation. Thus, SiO2 may be considered an important protector in LPO induced by Al(3+).

  20. Effect of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors on oxidative stress evoked hydroxyl radical level and macromolecules oxidation in cell free system of rat brain cortex.

    PubMed

    Czapski, Grzegorz A; Cakala, Magdalena; Kopczuk, Dorota; Strosznajder, Joanna B

    2004-02-06

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a nuclear enzyme involved in DNA repair, replication and cell cycle. However, its overactivation leads to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and ATP depletion and cell death. The inhibitors of PARP-1 were successfully used in the basic studies and in animal models of different diseases. For this reason, it is important to discriminate between specific and non-specific antioxidant properties of PARP-1 inhibitors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PARP-1 inhibitors on the free radical level and oxidation of macromolecules and to compare their properties with the efficacy of antioxidants. Oxidative stress was induced in the brain cortex homogenate by FeCl(2) or CuSO(4) at 25 microM during 15 min incubation at 37 degrees C. PARP-1 inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), 1,5-dihydroxyisoquinoline (DHIQ) and 3,4-dihydro-5-[4-(1-piperidinyl)butoxy]-1(2H)-isoquinolinone (DPQ), and the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, resveratrol and Tempol were used at 0-5 mM. Free radical contents were estimated by spin-trapping using HPLC. Lipid and protein oxidation were determined by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and carbonyl groups or using fluorescent probe TyrFluo, respectively. Our data indicate that 3-AB and DHIQ are potent hydroxyl radical scavengers and inhibitors of protein oxidation. DHIQ additionally decreases lipid peroxidation. DPQ has no antioxidant properties and seems to be a specific PARP-1 inhibitor, however, it is a water insoluble compound. Among the investigated antioxidants, the most potent was resveratrol and then alpha-tocopherol and Tempol. These results indicate that 3-A beta, benzamide and DHIQ are potent hydroxyl radical scavengers and antioxidants. These data ought to be taken into consideration when properties of these compounds as PARP inhibitors are evaluated.

  1. Control substances and alcohol use and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act was signed into law in October of 1991. The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 required the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) to enact regulations requiring the testing of employees that perform ``safety sensitive functions`` for illegal controlled substance use and alcohol misuse. The Transportation Management Division, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (TMD/EM-261), United States Department of Energy (DOE), Training Program Manager is committed to promoting the availability of the necessary information to those affected members of the Department of Energy (DOE) community in an effort to attain the highest possible level of regulatory compliance and to enhance the safety of each individual in the workplace.

  2. Method for determining immunochemical substances

    SciTech Connect

    O'connor, J.

    1980-07-22

    Drawing a method for detecting and measuring a predetermined specifically-bindable immunochemical substance in a liquid sample in a cuvette, comprising the steps of: (A) providing, in an immunoassay technique for the liquid sample in said cuvette, a component comprising a suspension of particles which may be agglutinated or insolubilized in relationship to the presence and concentration of the immunochemical substance in the sample; and (B) determining the presence and concentration of the immunochemical substance by measuring the electromagnetic radiation transmission properties of the sample using a calibrated radiation-measuring apparatus, said apparatus comprising: (1) a suitable electromagnetic radiation source capable of providing radiation at wavelengths equal to or less than the mean diameter of said particles; (2) means for concentrating and collimating radiation from the electromagnetic radiation source to form a beam; (3) means for filtering the beam to (I) eliminate radiation having wavelengths greater than the means diameter of the particles and (II) transmit radiation, which radiation has a range, whereby the upper wavelength is equal to or below the mean diameter of the particles, and the range is of at least about 100nm; (4) means for (I) positioning a sample-containing cuvette and for (II) allowing the filtered beam incident on the cuvette to be transmitted through the cuvette and sample, and for (III) receiving a portion of the filtered beam transmitted through the sample at two or more predetermined angles with respect to the beam; and (5) means for detecting and measuring the portion of the beam transmitted at a predetermined angle.

  3. Cognitive impairment in substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Vik, Peter W; Cellucci, Tony; Jarchow, Amy; Hedt, Jill

    2004-03-01

    Conventional wisdom, and even well-reasoned theoretical mechanisms, suggests that the chronic use of psychoactive substances would impair cognitive functioning of individuals. This article summarizes the research literature with regard to specific drugs of abuse. Undoubtedly, acute intoxication and immediate and protracted withdrawal produce transient alterations of cognitions that can persist for weeks to months. Some subtle residual effects remain for up to 1 year for certain drugs. Evidence of irreversible effects is less clear. Even subtle lingering effects can impact treatment efforts, yet they often go undetected or unaddressed.

  4. [Process of change in patients with concurrent substance use - mental health problems].

    PubMed

    Acier, Didier; Nadeau, Louise; Landry, Michel

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a retrospective study with a five year follow-up which examines the variations in substance use and the determinants of these variations. This exploratory research studied a sub-sample of 22 participants, selected from an initial sample of 197 patients with concurrent substance use and other mental health disorders. At the quantitative level, the statistical analysis shows an improvement in the problematic use of alcohol and drugs but no change in psychological state, health, family and interpersonals relations, as well as employment. At the qualitative level, the analysis of the participant's subjective view indicates that the two main elements of progression in substance use are the effects and the availability of substances. The main elements of reduction in substance use are the use of services, the personal techniques developed by participants, the family network, physical health, lack of financial resources, "occupational" activities, and a process of maturation.

  5. Child, Parent, and Peer Predictors of Early-Onset Substance Use: A Multisite Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaplow, Julie B.; Curran, Patrick J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify kindergarten-age predictors of early-onset substance use from demographic, environmental, parenting, child psychological, behavioral, and social functioning domains. Data from a longitudinal study of 295 children were gathered using multiple-assessment methods and multiple informants in kindergarten and 1st grade. Annual assessments at ages 10, 11, and 12 reflected that 21% of children reported having initiated substance use by age 12. Results from longitudinal logistic regression models indicated that risk factors at kindergarten include being male, having a parent who abused substances, lower levels of parental verbal reasoning, higher levels of overactivity, more thought problems, and more social problem solving skills deficits. Children with no risk factors had less than a 10% chance of initiating substance use by age 12, whereas children with 2 or more risk factors had greater than a 50% chance of initiating substance use. Implications for typology, etiology, and prevention are discussed. PMID:12041707

  6. Profiles of Executive Functioning: Associations with Substance Dependence and Risky Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Sarit A.; Starks, Tyrel J.; Kowalczyk, William J.; Thompson, Louisa I.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigations applied a theoretical perspective regarding the impact of executive functioning (EF) on sexual risk among substance users, by using a methodological approach designed to examine whether EF subtypes differentially predict behavior patterns. Participants included 104 substance-using HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Participants completed five neuropsychological assessment tasks selected to tap discrete EF components, and these data were linked to data on substance dependence and behavioral reports of substance use and sexual risk in the past 30 days. Cluster analysis identified three EF subtypes: a) High-performing (good performance across all measures); b) Low Performing (poor performance across all measures); and c) Poor IGT Performance (impairment on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and its variant, but good performance on all other tasks). The three subtypes did not differ in amount of substance use, but the Low-Performing subtype was associated with greater rates of substance dependence. The Low-Performing subtype reported the highest rates of sexual behavior and risk, while the Poor IGT-Performance subtype reported the lowest rates of sexual risk-taking. Global associations between substance use and sexual risk were strongest among the Low-Performing subtype, but event-level associations appeared strongest among individuals in the High-Performing subtype. These data suggest complex associations between EF and sexual risk among substance users, and suggest that the relationship between substance use and sexual risk may vary by EF subtypes. PMID:22775771

  7. Profiles of executive functioning: associations with substance dependence and risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Golub, Sarit A; Starks, Tyrel J; Kowalczyk, William J; Thompson, Louisa I; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2012-12-01

    The present investigations applied a theoretical perspective regarding the impact of executive functioning (EF) on sexual risk among substance users, using a methodological approach designed to examine whether EF subtypes differentially predict behavior patterns. Participants included 104 substance-using HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Participants completed 5 neuropsychological assessment tasks selected to tap discrete EF components, and these data were linked to data on substance dependence and behavioral reports of substance use and sexual risk in the past 30 days. Cluster analysis identified 3 EF subtypes: (a) high performing (good performance across all measures); (b) low performing (poor performance across all measures); and (c) poor IGT performance (impairment on the Iowa Gambling Task [IGT] and its variant, but good performance on all other tasks). The 3 subtypes did not differ in amount of substance use, but the low-performing subtype was associated with greater rates of substance dependence. The low-performing subtype reported the highest rates of sexual behavior and risk, while the poor-IGT-performance subtype reported the lowest rates of sexual risk taking. Global associations between substance use and sexual risk were strongest among the low-performing subtype, but event-level associations appeared strongest among individuals in the high-performing subtype. These data suggest complex associations between EF and sexual risk among substance users, and suggest that the relationship between substance use and sexual risk may vary by EF subtypes. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Perceived ethnic discrimination versus acculturation stress: influences on substance use among Latino youth in the Southwest.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Nieri, Tanya

    2009-12-01

    Using a predominately Mexican-origin Latino sample of 5th grade students from the Southwestern United States, this study examined the relative effects of perceived discrimination and acculturation stress on substance use, and it assessed whether these effects were moderated by linguistic acculturation or time in the United States. Although rates of substance use were generally low in the sample, given the young age of the participants, over half (59%) of the sample perceived some discrimination, and almost half (47%) experienced some acculturation stress. Spanish-dominant and bilingual youth perceived more discrimination than English-dominant youth, whereas youth who have been in the United States five or fewer years perceived more discrimination than youth with more time in the United States. Youth who were Spanish-dominant or were recent arrivals experienced the most acculturation stress, with levels declining as linguistic acculturation and time in the United States increased. Multiple regression estimates indicated that perceived discrimination was associated with larger amounts and higher frequency of recent substance use and an array of substance use attitudes, such as stronger intentions to use substances, espousal of pro-drug norms, more positive substance use expectancies, and peer approval of substance use. Although acculturation stress was not associated with substance use, it was positively associated with several substance use attitudes, which are known antecedents of actual use. With a few exceptions, linguistic acculturation and time in the United States did not moderate the effects of perceived discrimination or acculturation stress.

  9. Regulation of Controlled Substance Prescribing: An Overview for Certified Nurse-Midwives and Certified Midwives.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Kathryn

    2017-05-01

    In addition to the regulation of prescriptive authority and prescribing practices conducted by individual states, the prescription of controlled substances is also regulated at the federal level by the US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). While there are variations in state laws relative to controlled substance prescribing, federal law is uniform across states as established by the Controlled Substances Act (21 United States Code § 801-890) and the DEA Regulations (Title 21, Code of Federal Regulations). The only controlled substance for which states have authorized use that is outside the regulations set forth in the Controlled Substances Act is marijuana for the treatment of certain medical conditions. A review of statutes and administrative rules for all 50 states and the District of Columbia revealed that certified midwives (CMs) are authorized to prescribe controlled substances only in the state of New York, and there are variations across states in the regulation of controlled substance prescribing by certified nurse-midwives (CNMs). The purpose of this article is to examine the federal regulation of controlled substance prescribing by the US DEA and common variations in state regulations relative to controlled substance prescribing. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  10. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination versus Acculturation Stress: Influences on Substance Use among Latino Youth in the Southwest*

    PubMed Central

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Nieri, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    Using a predominately Mexican-origin Latino sample of 5th grade students from the Southwestern United States, this study examined the relative effects of perceived discrimination and acculturation stress on substance use, and it assessed whether these effects were moderated by linguistic acculturation or time in the United States. Although rates of substance use were generally low in the sample, given the young age of the participants, over half (59%) of the sample perceived some discrimination, and almost half (47%) experienced some acculturation stress. Spanish-dominant and bilingual youth perceived more discrimination than English-dominant youth, whereas youth who have been in the United States five or fewer years perceived more discrimination than youth with more time in the United States. Youth who were Spanish-dominant or were recent arrivals experienced the most acculturation stress, with levels declining as linguistic acculturation and time in the United States increased. Multiple regression estimates indicated that perceived discrimination was associated with larger amounts and higher frequency of recent substance use and an array of substance use attitudes, such as stronger intentions to use substances, espousal of pro-drug norms, more positive substance use expectancies, and peer approval of substance use. Although acculturation stress was not associated with substance use, it was positively associated with several substance use attitudes, which are known antecedents of actual use. With a few exceptions, linguistic acculturation and time in the United States did not moderate the effects of perceived discrimination or acculturation stress. PMID:20099450

  11. The JFFMA assessment of flavoring substances structurally related to menthol and uniquely used in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mirokuji, Yoshiharu; Abe, Hajime; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Saito, Kenji; Sekiya, Fumiko; Hayashi, Shim-mo; Maruyama, Shinpei; Ono, Atsushi; Nakajima, Madoka; Degawa, Masakuni; Ozawa, Shogo; Shibutani, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio

    2014-02-01

    Using the procedure devised by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), we performed safety evaluations on four flavoring substances structurally related to menthol (L-menthyl 2-methylbutyrate, DL-menthyl octanoate, DL-menthyl palmitate, and DL-menthyl stearate) uniquely used in Japan. While no genotoxicity study data were available in the literature, all four substances had no chemical structural alerts predictive of genotoxicity. Moreover, they all four are esters consisting of menthol and simple carboxylic acids that were assumed to be immediately hydrolyzed after ingestion and metabolized into innocuous substances for excretion. As menthol and carboxylic acids have no known genotoxicity, it was judged that the JECFA procedure could be applied to these four substances. According to Cramer's classification, these substances were categorized as class I based on their chemical structures. The estimated daily intakes for all four substances were within the range of 1.54-4.71 μg/person/day and 60-1250 μg/person/day, using the methods of Maximized Survey-Derived Intake and Single Portion Exposure Technique, respectively, based on the annual usage data of 2001, 2005, and 2010 in Japan. As the daily intakes of these substances were below the threshold of concern applied to class I substances viz., 1800 μg/person/day, it was concluded that all four substances raise no safety concerns when used for flavoring foods under the currently estimated intake levels.

  12. Commonalities and differences across substance use disorders: phenomenological and epidemiological aspects

    PubMed Central

    Shmulewitz, Dvora; Greene, Emily R; Hasin, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Background Although psychoactive substances vary in many ways, they have important commonalties, particularly in their ability to lead to an addiction syndrome. The field lacks an updated review of the commonalities and differences in the phenomenology of alcohol, cannabis, tobacco, stimulants, opioids, hallucinogens, sedatives/tranquilizers and inhalants and their related substance use disorders (SUD). Methods DSM-IV and DSM-5 SUD diagnostic criteria were reviewed, as was evidence from recent epidemiological and clinical research: psychometric studies (test-retest reliability, latent trait analysis); physiological indicators (tolerance, withdrawal); prevalence and age of onset. Information was incorporated from previous reviews, PubMed and Scopus literature searches, and data from large U.S. national surveys. Results Empirical evidence in the form of test-retest reliability and unidimensionality supports use of the same DSM-IV dependence or DSM-5 SUD diagnostic criteria across substances. For most substances, the criteria sets were generally most informative in general population samples at moderate-to-severe levels of SUD. Across substances, two criteria (tolerance and use in hazardous situations) were identified as functioning differently in population subgroups. Since substances have different pharmacological effects, withdrawal is assessed using substance-specific symptoms, while tolerance is not; issues remain with the assessment of tolerance. Alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis were consistently identified as the substances with earliest onset of use, highest prevalence of lifetime use, and highest prevalence of lifetime disorder. Conclusions Despite differences between psychoactive substances, the generic DSM criteria set appear equally applicable across substances. Additional studies of tolerance and hazardous use will be useful for future nosologies. Alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco are the substances with the greatest public health impact due to the high

  13. Effects of increasing levels of dried corn distillers grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of yearling heifers.

    PubMed

    Depenbusch, B E; Coleman, C M; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2009-08-01

    Three hundred forty-seven crossbred heifers (330 +/- 11 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block study to identify the optimal level of dried corn distillers grains with solubles (DGS) in flaked corn finishing diets. Fifty-four pens were used, with 9 pens per treatment and 6 to 7 heifers per pen. Finishing diets were steam-flaked corn-based and were fed once daily for 148 d. Dietary treatments consisted of 6 levels of DGS (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75%, DM basis). Dry matter intake, ADG, and final BW responded quadratically (P < or = 0.03) to increasing levels of DGS and were maximized at 15% DGS. However, G:F decreased linearly (P = 0.01) as level of DGS increased. Longissimus muscle areas were not different (P > or = 0.27), whereas 12th-rib fat thicknesses decreased linearly (P = 0.05) for heifers fed increasing levels of DGS. Marbling score and USDA yield grades were not different (P > or = 0.06) for heifers fed different levels of DGS. Number of carcasses grading USDA Prime or Choice were not different (P > or = 0.07), whereas number of carcasses grading USDA Select increased (P = 0.02; linear) as dietary level of DGS increased from 0 to 75%. Myofibrillar and overall tenderness increased linearly (P = 0.01) as dietary level of DGS increased from 0 to 75%. Juiciness, off-flavor intensity, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were not different (P > or = 0.16) among treatments. Redness of steaks (i.e., a*) was not different (P > or = 0.13) for steaks collected from heifers fed different levels of DGS as evidenced by similar instrumental color measurements after d 0, 3, and 5 of display. However, on d 7, steak color was less red (P = 0.04) and had more metmyoglobin. Concentration of linoleic acid (18:2n-6cis), total n-6 fatty acids, and total PUFA linearly increased (P = 0.01) with increasing levels of DGS.

  14. [Substance abuse in older adults].

    PubMed

    Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen

    2014-09-03

    In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective.

  15. Neuropathology of substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Bisagno, Veronica; Milroy, Christopher Mark

    2014-01-01

    Addictions to licit and illicit drugs are chronic relapsing brain disorders that affect circuits that regulate reward, motivation, memory, and decision-making. Drug-induced pathological changes in these brain regions are associated with characteristic enduring behaviors that continue despite adverse biopsychosocial consequences. Repeated exposure to these substances leads to egocentric behaviors that focus on obtaining the drug by any means and on taking the drug under adverse psychosocial and medical conditions. Addiction also includes craving for the substances and, in some cases, involvement in risky behaviors that can cause death. These patterns of behaviors are associated with specific cognitive disturbances and neuroimaging evidence for brain dysfunctions in a diverse population of drug addicts. Postmortem studies have also revealed significant biochemical and/or structural abnormalities in some addicted individuals. The present review provides a summary of the evidence that has accumulated over the past few years to implicate brain dysfunctions in the varied manifestations of drug addiction. We thus review data on cerebrovascular alterations, brain structural abnormalities, and postmortem studies of patients who abuse cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, heroin, and "bath salts". We also discuss potential molecular, biochemical, and cellular bases for the varied clinical presentations of these patients. Elucidation of the biological bases of addiction will help to develop better therapeutic approaches to these patient populations.

  16. Health Policy Formulation on a Federal Level, Process and Substance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambler, Moses

    Factors which influence the federal government's policy toward health care include cost, technology, social values, federalism, interest group politics, increased federal involvement, and the current utilitarian attitude toward research. The interaction of these factors results in a complex process of policy formation. For example, when the…

  17. Psychosocial correlates of substance use behaviors among African American youth.

    PubMed

    Wright, Darlene R; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M

    2004-01-01

    Cross-sectional data were collected on substance use behaviors and potential correlates in 1,494 African American students enrolled in grades 5-12 in eight schools in a central Alabama school district. Using a risk and asset framework, self-reported recent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use were analyzed by identifying and measuring levels of influence, including individual, family, and school. For alcohol and marijuana use, recurrent risk factors were age, being hit by a parent, affiliation with gangs, and a tolerant attitude of peers toward drug use. For cigarette use, risk factors were peer-oriented: associations with gangs or cohorts holding lenient attitudes about substance use. For all substances, salient asset factors were academic achievement and parental monitoring. Findings suggest that efforts to reduce substance use behaviors should be directed at adolescents in terms of academic achievement and grade level as well as their social environments. For the latter, peer/family risks and family/school assets should be the foci for programs to minimize the short- and long-term consequences of these behaviors. Hence, the emphasis should be placed on modeling attitudes, preventing gang and family violence, encouraging parental supervision, and building positive teacher-student interactions.

  18. Possible Barriers to Enrollment in Substance Abuse Treatment among a Diverse Sample of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: Opinions of Treatment Clients

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Carmen L.; Shopshire, Michael S.; Sen, Soma; Hoffman, Kim; Hengl, Nicholas; Bartolome, John; McCarty, Dennis; Sorensen, James L.; Iguchi, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined motivations and barriers to substance abuse treatment entry and treatment continuation among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) substance users. AAPI substance users (N = 61) were recruited from substance abuse treatment programs in California and Hawaii. Semi-structured interviews and interviewer-administered surveys assessed barriers and facilitators to entering substance abuse treatment. Barriers included peer pressure, family influences, and face loss concerns. Facilitators included peer support, involvement in the criminal justice system, a perceived need for treatment, and culturally competent substance abuse treatment services. Family and peer influences may act as both facilitators and impediments. AAPI substance using populations face many of the same individual-level and structural and systems barriers to entry to treatment as other substance using populations. However, similar to other racial/ethnic minority groups, it is important to address cultural differences and develop culturally competent substance abuse treatments for the AAPI population. PMID:22985677

  19. Possible barriers to enrollment in substance abuse treatment among a diverse sample of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: opinions of treatment clients.

    PubMed

    Masson, Carmen L; Shopshire, Michael S; Sen, Soma; Hoffman, Kim A; Hengl, Nicholas S; Bartolome, John; McCarty, Dennis; Sorensen, James L; Iguchi, Martin Y

    2013-03-01

    This mixed methods study examined motivations and barriers to substance abuse treatment entry and treatment continuation among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) substance users. AAPI substance users (N = 61) were recruited from substance abuse treatment programs in California and Hawaii. Semi-structured interviews and interviewer-administered surveys assessed barriers and facilitators to entering substance abuse treatment. Barriers included peer pressure, family influences, and face loss concerns. Facilitators included peer support, involvement in the criminal justice system, a perceived need for treatment, and culturally competent substance abuse treatment services. Family and peer influences may act as both facilitators and impediments. AAPI substance using populations face many of the same individual-level and structural and systems barriers to entry to treatment as other substance using populations. However, similar to other racial/ethnic minority groups, it is important to address cultural differences and develop culturally competent substance abuse treatments for the AAPI population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cigarette smoking in pregnant substance users: Association with substance use and desire to quit.

    PubMed

    Winhusen, Theresa; Lewis, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is prevalent in pregnant substance users but receives low priority in substance use disorder treatment. This article reports the results of a secondary analysis of a randomized, multisite trial with 200 pregnant substance users, 145 (72.5%) of whom smoked at baseline. As predicted: (1) smokers had significantly greater substance use; (2) approximately half of smokers wanted to quit; and (3) smokers with a quit goal had significantly greater self-efficacy and lower perceived difficulty of quitting. Smoking may be associated with more severe substance use in pregnant substance-using patients, half of whom may be interested in smoking-cessation interventions.