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Sample records for acid-reactive substance tbars

  1. Krebs cycle intermediates modulate thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) production in rat brain in vitro.

    PubMed

    Puntel, Robson L; Nogueira, Cristina W; Rocha, João B T

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Krebs cycle intermediates on basal and quinolinic acid (QA)- or iron-induced TBARS production in brain membranes. Oxaloacetate, citrate, succinate and malate reduced significantly the basal and QA-induced TBARS production. The potency for basal TBARS inhibition was in the order (IC50 is given in parenthesis as mM) citrate (0.37) > oxaloacetate (1.33) = succinate (1.91) > > malate (12.74). alpha-Ketoglutarate caused an increase in TBARS production without modifying the QA-induced TBARS production. Cyanide (CN-) did not modify the basal or QA-induced TBARS production; however, CN- abolished the antioxidant effects of succinate. QA-induced TBARS production was enhanced by iron ions, and abolished by desferrioxamine (DFO). The intermediates used in this study, except for alpha-ketoglutarate, prevented iron-induced TBARS production. Oxaloacetate, citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate and malate, but no succinate and QA, exhibited significantly iron-chelating properties. Only alpha-ketoglutarate and oxaloacetate protected against hydrogen peroxide-induced deoxyribose degradation, while succinate and malate showed a modest effect against Fe2+/H2O2-induced deoxyribose degradation. Using heat-treated preparations citrate, malate and oxaloacetate protected against basal or QA-induced TBARS production, whereas alpha-ketoglutarate induced TBARS production. Succinate did not offer protection against basal or QA-induced TBARS production. These results suggest that oxaloacetate, malate, succinate, and citrate are effective antioxidants against basal and iron or QA-induced TBARS production, while alpha-ketoglutarate stimulates TBARS production. The mechanism through which Krebs cycle intermediates offer protection against TBARS production is distinct depending on the intermediate used. Thus, under pathological conditions such as ischemia, where citrate concentrations vary it can assume an important role as a modulator of oxidative

  2. A Simple Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances in Fried Fast Foods.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Alam; Ullah, Fareed

    2016-01-01

    A simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as a marker for lipid peroxidation in fried fast foods. The method uses the reaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and TBA in the glacial acetic acid medium. The method was precise, sensitive, and highly reproducible for quantitative determination of TBARS. The precision of extractions and analytical procedure was very high as compared to the reported methods. The method was used to determine the TBARS contents in the fried fast foods such as Shami kebab, samosa, fried bread, and potato chips. Shami kebab, samosa, and potato chips have higher amount of TBARS in glacial acetic acid-water extraction system than their corresponding pure glacial acetic acid and vice versa in fried bread samples. The method can successfully be used for the determination of TBARS in other food matrices, especially in quality control of food industries.

  3. Non-destructive prediction of thiobarbituricacid reactive substances (TBARS) value for freshness evaluation of chicken meat using hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhenjie; Sun, Da-Wen; Pu, Hongbin; Xie, Anguo; Han, Zhong; Luo, Man

    2015-07-15

    This study examined the potential of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for rapid prediction of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content in chicken meat during refrigerated storage. Using the spectral data and the reference values of TBARS, a partial least square regression (PLSR) model was established and yielded acceptable results with regression coefficients in prediction (Rp) of 0.944 and root mean squared errors estimated by prediction (RMSEP) of 0.081. To simplify the calibration model, ten optimal wavelengths were selected by successive projections algorithm (SPA). Then, a new SPA-PLSR model based on the selected wavelengths was built and showed good results with Rp of 0.801 and RMSEP of 0.157. Finally, an image algorithm was developed to achieve image visualization of TBARS values in some representative samples. The encouraging results of this study demonstrated that HSI is suitable for determination of TBARS values for freshness evaluation in chicken meat.

  4. Determination of carnosine, anserine, homocarnosine, pentosidine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances contents in meat from different animal species.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Medana, Claudio; Visentin, Sonja; Giancotti, Valeria; Zunino, Valentina; Meineri, Giorgia

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this research was to determine the content of the histidinic antioxidants, advanced glycation end products (pentosidine) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in the meat from different animal species. Carnosine, anserine, homocarnosine and pentosidine were quantified by HPLC/MS, while TBARS was determined by photometric measurements. The total CRCs (carnosine+anserine+homocarnosine) content was in the increasing order: beefTBARS content towards even though its total CRCs was the highest. The structure of homocarnosine was elucidated by high resolving power multistage mass spectrometry.

  5. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile compounds in chicken breast meat infused with plant extracts and subjected to electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Rababah, T; Hettiarachchy, N S; Horax, R; Cho, M J; Davis, B; Dickson, J

    2006-06-01

    The effect of irradiation on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and volatile compounds in raw and cooked nonirradiated and irradiated chicken breast meat infused with green tea and grape seed extracts was investigated. Chicken breast meat was vacuum infused with green tea extract (3,000 ppm), grape seed extract (3,000 ppm), or their combination (at a total of 6,000 ppm), irradiated with an electron beam, and stored at 5 degrees C for 12 d. The targeted irradiation dosage was 3.0 kGy and the average absorbed dosage was 3.12 kGy. Values of TBARS and volatile compound contents of raw and cooked chicken meat were determined during the 12-d storage period. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values ranged from 15.5 to 71.4 mg of malondialdehyde/kg for nonirradiated raw chicken and 17.3 to 80.1 mg of malondialdehyde/kg for irradiated raw chicken. Values for cooked chicken ranged from 31.4 to 386.2 and 38.4 to 504.1 mg of malondialdehyde/kg for nonirradiated and irradiated chicken, respectively. Irradiation increased TBARS and hexanal values of controls and meat infused with plant extracts. Hexanal had the highest intensity of volatiles followed by pentanal and other volatiles. Cooking the samples significantly (P < 0.05) increased the amounts of TBARS and volatiles. Addition of plant extracts decreased the amount of TBARS as well as hexanal and pentanal values. Although irradiation increases lipid oxidation, infusion of chicken meat with plant extracts could reduce lipid oxidation caused by irradiation.

  6. Effect of dietary Satureja khuzistanica powder on semen characteristics and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration in testicular tissue of Iranian native breeder rooster

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, M. J.; Mohammadzadeh, S.; Kheradmand, A.; Alirezaei, M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of a paucity of information on the effect of Satureja khuzistanica in male chickens, this study was undertaken to determine the influence of dietary S. khuzistanica powder (SKP) on seminal characteristics and testes thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content in Iranian native breeder rooster. Thirty-six 40-week-old roosters were randomly allotted to 3 equal groups and received either a basal diet without SKP (T1 or control), or a diet containing 20 g/kg (T2) and 40 g/kg (T3) of SKP for 8-week-long experimental period. Semen samples were obtained weekly by abdominal massage to evaluate the seminal characteristics. At the end of the eighth week 18 birds (6 birds per each group) were randomly slaughtered, and sample was taken from right testes for TBARS evaluation. Administration of SKP improved all semen traits, except for sperm concentration. Likewise, TBARS content in SKP treatments did not significantly differ from the control (P>0.05). Seminal volume, live sperm percentage and plasma membrane integrity percentage in SKP-treated groups were higher than the control. Conversely, abnormal sperm percentages reduced in SKP-treated groups (P<0.05). Plasma membrane integrity in experimental treatments was significantly higher than the control in 2nd, 3rd and 7th weeks. However, at 6th and 8th weeks only T3 treatment was significantly different from the control. Notably, there was an increase in total sperm concentration in SKP-treated groups in compared to the control birds. In conclusion, this study indicated that addition of SKP in rooster diet improves sperm quality and also reduces their sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, which may lead to higher fertilization rate. PMID:27175185

  7. Effect of electron beam irradiation and storage at 5 degrees C on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and carbonyl contents in chicken breast meat infused with antioxidants and selected plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Rababah, Taha; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Horax, Ronny; Eswaranandam, Satchithanandam; Mauromoustakos, Andronikos; Dickson, James; Niebuhr, Steven

    2004-12-29

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of synthetic and natural antioxidants, green tea, commercial grape seed extracts/combinations, and TBHQ, with varying concentrations of lipid oxidation of nonirradiated and irradiated chicken breast meats stored at 5 degrees C for 12 days. Fresh boneless and skinless chicken breast meats were vacuum-infused with varying concentrations of antioxidants: green tea, grape seed extracts alone/in combination, and TBHQ. The irradiation dosage was 3.0 kGy. Carbonyl values of raw chicken meat and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values of raw and cooked chicken meat were determined for 0-12 days at 5 degrees C storage. TBARS values for 0-12 days of storage at 5 degrees C ranged from 1.21 to 7.3 and 1.22 to 8.51 mg malondialdehyde/100 g chicken for nonirradiated and irradiated raw chicken, respectively. TBARS values of cooked chicken ranged from 2.19 to 35.83 and 2.45 to 45.72 mg malondialdehyde/100 g chicken for nonirradiated and irradiated chicken, respectively. Irradiation increased TBARS values of both controls and plant extracts. The carbonyl content in meat lipid ranged from 1.7 to 2.9 and 1.7 to 4.41 micromol acetophenone/10 g of nonirradiated and irradiated chicken meat, respectively, and meat protein ranged from 1.4 to 2.07 and 1.41 to 2.72 micromol/10 g meat. Infusion of chicken meat with selected plant extracts is an effective method to minimize lipid oxidation and volatiles developments caused by irradiation.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation in presence of ascorbic acid on microbial composition and TBARS concentration of ground beef coated with an edible active coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, M.; Ouattara, B.; Saucier, L.; Giroux, M.; Smoragiewicz, W.

    2004-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation in presence of ascorbic acid on the microbiological characteristics and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) concentration of ground beef coated with an edible coating, crosslinked by gamma irradiation. The medium fat ground beef patties (23% fat ) were divided into two separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid. Meat samples were irradiated at doses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy and stored at 4±2°C. The content of TBARS was evaluated. After 7 days of storage, Enterobacteriaceae, presumptive Staphylococcus aureus, presumptive Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta and lactic acid bacteria were enumerated. Results showed that lactic acid bacteria and Br. thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. The content in TBARS was stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid. Shelf life extension periods estimated on the basis of a limit level of 6 log CFU/g for APCs were 4, 7, and 10 days for samples irradiated at 1, 2, and 3 kGy, respectively. However, the incorporation of ascorbic acid in ground beef did not improve significantly ( p>0.05) the inhibitory effect of gamma irradiation.

  9. Reaction conditions affecting the relationship between thiobarbituric acid reactivity and lipid peroxides in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, D; Ciofani, G; Pierdomenico, S D; Giamberardino, M A; Cuccurullo, F

    2001-08-01

    The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactivity of human plasma was studied to evaluate its adequacy in quantifying lipid peroxidation as an index of systemic oxidative stress. Two spectrophotometric TBA tests based on the use of either phosphoric acid (pH 2.0, method A) or trichloroacetic plus hydrochloric acid (pH 0.9, method B) were employed with and without sodium sulfate (SS) to inhibit sialic acid (SA) reactivity with TBA. To correct for background absorption, the absorbance values at 572 nm were subtracted from those at 532 nm, which represent the absorption maximum of the TBA:MDA adduct. Method B gave values of TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) 2-fold higher than those detected with method A. SS lowered TBARS by about 50% with both methods, indicating a significant involvement of SA in plasma TBA reactivity. Standard SA, at a physiologically relevant concentration of 1.5 mM, reacted with TBA, creating interference problems, which were substantially eliminated by SS plus correction for background absorbance. When method B was carried out in the lipid and protein fraction of plasma, SS inhibited by 65% TBARS formation only in the latter. Protein TBARS may be largely ascribed to SA-containing glycoproteins and, to a minor extent, protein-bound MDA. Indeed, EDTA did not affect protein TBARS assessed in the presence of SS. TBA reactivity of whole plasma and of its lipid fraction was instead inhibited by EDTA, suggesting that lipoperoxides (and possibly monofunctional lipoperoxidation aldehydes) are involved as MDA precursors in the TBA test. Pretreatment of plasma with KI, a specific reductant of hydroperoxides, decreased TBARS by about 27%. Moreover, aspirin administration to humans to inhibit prostaglandin endoperoxide generation reduced plasma TBARS by 40%. In conclusion, reaction conditions affect the relationship between TBA reactivity and lipid peroxidation in human plasma. After correction for the interfering effects of SA in the TBA test, 40% of plasma TBARS

  10. First Measurement of the Ratio sigma_(t-tbar) / sigma_(Z/\\gamma*->ll) and Precise Extraction of the t-tbar Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2010-04-01

    We report a measurement of the ratio of the t{bar t} to Z/{gamma}* production cross sections in {radical}s = 1.96 TeV p{bar p} collisions using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 4.6 fb{sup -1}, collected by the CDF II detector. The t{bar t} cross section ratio is measured using two complementary methods, a b-jet tagging measurement and a topological approach. By multiplying the ratios by the well-known theoretical Z/{gamma}* {yields} ll cross section predicted by the standard model, the extracted t{bar t} cross sections are effectively insensitive to the uncertainty on luminosity. A best linear unbiased estimate is used to combine both measurements with the result {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} = 7.70 {+-} 0.52 pb, for a top-quark mass of 172.5 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  11. Evidence for t{bar t} production at the Tevatron: Statistical significance and cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Koningsberg, J.; CDF Collaboration

    1994-09-01

    We summarize here the results of the ``counting experiments`` by the CDF Collaboration in the search of t{bar t} production in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1800 TeV at the Tevatron. We analyze their statistical significance by calculating the probability that the observed excess is a fluctuation of the expected backgrounds, and assuming the excess is from top events, extract a measurement of the t{bar t} production cross-section.

  12. Mapping of TBARS distribution in frozen-thawed pork using NIR hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Song, Xinglin; Qiu, Zhengjun; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    In this study, NIR hyperspectral imaging technology was applied to determine the distribution of TBARS in frozen-thawed pork. A total of 240 fresh pork samples were assigned to 4 treatment groups (0, 1, 3, 5 frozen-thawed cycles). For each sample, a hyperspectral image (874-1734nm) was collected, followed by chemical TBARS analysis. Successive projection algorithm (SPA) was applied to choose effective wavelengths (EWs). The selected 13 EWs of the calibration set and relevant TBARS value were used as inputs of partial least squares regression (PLSR) model, yielding correlation coefficient of prediction of 0.81 and root mean square error of prediction of 0.33. The developed PLSR model were applied pixel-wise to produce chemical maps of TBARS for 24 selected samples in the prediction set. The results indicated that NIR hyperspectral imaging combined with image processing has the potential to visualize TBARS distribution in frozen-thawed pork. This technique could be useful in real-time quality monitoring in meat industry.

  13. Effect of Grape Pomace Powder Addition on TBARS and Color of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kyeong Seon; Shim, Kwan Seob; Shin, Daekeun

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of grape skin and seed pomace (GSP) additions on the lipid oxidation susceptibility and the color change of cooked pork sausages, the chemical characteristics of GSP itself and the addition for two different levels of GSP (0.5 and 1.0% GSP, respectively) to sausages were examined. Both the redness and blueness of the GSP were significantly reduced as the pH level was increased from 5 to 7, but a reverse result was determined in the color tint and yellowness (p<0.05). The GSP polyphenol and flavonoid contents were influenced by the percentages of methanol solvents, and more flavonoids were established when 100% of methanol was applied as a solvent to the GSP. But, similar results were not observed in the polyphenol of GSP. In cooked pork sausages, significant decreases in the lightness and redness were found in both the 0.5% and 1.0% of GSP sausages during the storage period (p<0.05). However, an incompatible effect was observed in terms of yellowness, which increased as compared to the control sausage after 6 days of storage. The 0.5% addition of GSP decreased the levels of TBARS (p<0.05), but the ability of GSP to minimize lipid oxidation was not dose dependent. Therefore, the results indicated that the GSP is an efficient suppressor of lipid oxidation and has latent effects as a natural antioxidant when 0.5% of GSP is added to the cooked pork sausages.

  14. Effect of Grape Pomace Powder Addition on TBARS and Color of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Kyeong Seon; Shim, Kwan Seob; Shin, Daekeun

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of grape skin and seed pomace (GSP) additions on the lipid oxidation susceptibility and the color change of cooked pork sausages, the chemical characteristics of GSP itself and the addition for two different levels of GSP (0.5 and 1.0% GSP, respectively) to sausages were examined. Both the redness and blueness of the GSP were significantly reduced as the pH level was increased from 5 to 7, but a reverse result was determined in the color tint and yellowness (p<0.05). The GSP polyphenol and flavonoid contents were influenced by the percentages of methanol solvents, and more flavonoids were established when 100% of methanol was applied as a solvent to the GSP. But, similar results were not observed in the polyphenol of GSP. In cooked pork sausages, significant decreases in the lightness and redness were found in both the 0.5% and 1.0% of GSP sausages during the storage period (p<0.05). However, an incompatible effect was observed in terms of yellowness, which increased as compared to the control sausage after 6 days of storage. The 0.5% addition of GSP decreased the levels of TBARS (p<0.05), but the ability of GSP to minimize lipid oxidation was not dose dependent. Therefore, the results indicated that the GSP is an efficient suppressor of lipid oxidation and has latent effects as a natural antioxidant when 0.5% of GSP is added to the cooked pork sausages. PMID:26760939

  15. Effects of alpha-tocopheryl acetate and beta-carotene dietary supplementation on the antioxidant enzymes, TBARS and sensory attributes of turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Sárraga, C; Carreras, I; García Regueiro, J A; Guàrdia, M D; Guerrero, L

    2006-12-01

    1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of alpha-tocopheryl acetate (50 mg/kg) and beta-carotene (15 mg/kg) dietary supplementation on the oxidative status of raw turkey breast and leg muscles assessed by thiobarbituric acid test values, the vitamin E levels and the antioxidant enzyme activities. In parallel, a quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was carried out on cooked, stored and reheated samples. 2. Vitamin E was present in sufficient quantity to reduce oxidation, since iron-induced reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly lower in antioxidant-supplemented treatments. The results suggested that the presence of beta-carotene in the diet limits the accumulation of alpha-tocopherol in turkey muscles. 3. In the present study, there was no conclusive relationship between dietary antioxidant supplementation and endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities. 4. Sensory evaluation showed that a longer supplementation time and dose may be necessary in turkeys to prevent meat from rancidity and warmed-over flavour (WOF). Leg pastiness and stringiness were modified by dietary antioxidant supplementation, indicating the possible synergism between antioxidants and cysteine proteinases in the perception of meat quality. 5. Given the modern trends that lead consumers to increase their consumption of poultry meat, it would be interesting to evaluate the commercial potential and cost effectiveness of routine dietary antioxidant supplementation.

  16. Interference of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in the measurement of lipid peroxidation in aquatic organisms through TBARS assay.

    PubMed

    Monserrat, J M; Seixas, A L R; Ferreira-Cravo, M; Bürguer-Mendonça, M; Garcia, S C; Kaufmann, C G; Ventura-Lima, J

    2017-06-01

    Nanomaterials (NM) exhibit unique properties due their size and relative area, but the mechanisms and effects in the living organisms are yet to be unfold in their totality. Potential toxicity mechanisms concerning NM as carbon nanotubes include oxidative stress generation. Several fluorimetric and colorimetric methods have been systematically used to measure NM toxicity, and controversial results have been reported. One of the problems can be related to the interference effects induced by NM, leading to artifacts that can lead to misleading conclusions. In present study, it was performed in vitro assays with two aquatic species: the zebrafish Danio rerio and the polychaete Laeonereis acuta to evaluate the potential interference capacity of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in a fluorometric method (TBARS assay) to measure lipid peroxidation. Obtained results indicated that gills and brain of zebrafish presented a lowered fluorescence only at extremely high concentrations (50 and 500mg/L). Determinations in anterior, middle, and posterior body regions of L. acuta showed a quite different pattern: high fluorescence at low SWCNT concentrations (0.5mg/L) and lowering at the highest (500mg/L). To eliminate matrix effect of biological samples, tests employing the standard for TBARS assay, 1,3,3-tetramethoxipropane, were run and the results showed again higher fluorescence values at low concentrations (0.5-5mg SWCNT/L), a technique artifact that could lead to misleading conclusions since higher fluorescence values implicate higher TBARS concentration, implying oxidative stress. Using the colorimetric FOX assay with cumene hydroperoxide as standard presented remarkable better results since no artifacts were observed in the same SWCNT concentration range that employed with the TBARS technique.

  17. Fatty acid profile, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and TBARS value of turkey breast muscle cured with the addition of lycopene.

    PubMed

    Skiepko, N; Chwastowska-Siwiecka, I; Kondratowicz, J; Mikulski, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lycopene addition for curing turkey meat on the profile of fatty acids, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and the TBARS of the final products. The analyzed material comprised 64 breast muscles, of which 16 (RBM) were immediately transported to a laboratory. Another 16 (UBM) were heat treated in a convection steam oven, and 32 muscles were cured for 3 days in two types of curing mixture: without (CBM) and with (CBM+Lyc) tomato peel extract standardized for 5% lycopene content. After completed curing, samples were steamed and grilled under the same conditions as raw samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated the highest (P≤0.01) mean content of vitamin A (0.07 μg/g) in chilled muscles. The content of vitamin E was lower (P≤0.01) in UBM samples than in CBM+Lyc and RBM. The TBARS value was the lowest (P≤0.01) in RBM muscles (0.35 mg MDA/kg of meat). Although there were no differences between products, but lower TBARS were found in CBM+Lyc samples. The content of cholesterol was higher (P≤0.01) in CBM+Lyc products than in the RBM and UBM. RBM samples contained (P≤0.01) the lowest amount of saturated, monounsaturated, and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, and the highest of unsaturated, polyunsaturated, and hypocholesterolemic fatty acids. CBM+Lyc samples contained (P≤0.01) less hypercholesterolemic and more hypocholesterolemic fatty acids than CBM group. Higher (P≤0.01) unsaturated/saturated and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acid ratios were also found in CBM+Lyc products. The study demonstrated that the used processing technology caused reduction (P≤0.01) of n-3 and n-6 PUFA content. Findings suggest that the addition of lycopene in the process of meat curing and heat treatment in meat industry do not change the content of vitamins and cholesterol or alter the TBARS value in turkey meat products. Nevertheless, lycopene can be used to increase the content of essential

  18. Inclusive and differential measurements of the t t-bar charge asymmetry in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2012-10-01

    The t t-bar charge asymmetry is measured in events containing a charged lepton (electron or muon) and at least four jets, one of which is identified as originating from b-quark hadronization. The analyzed dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. An inclusive and three differential measurements of the t t-bar charge asymmetry as a function of rapidity, transverse momentum, and invariant mass of the t t-bar system are presented. The measured inclusive t t-bar charge asymmetry is A(C) = 0.004 +/- 0.010 (stat.) +/- 0.011 (syst.). This result and the three differential measurements are consistent with zero asymmetry as well as with the predictions of the standard model.

  19. Measurement of the {\\varvec{tbar{t}Z}} and {\\varvec{tbar{t}W}} production cross sections in multilepton final states using 3.2 fb^{-1} of \\varvec{pp} collisions at √{s} = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska-Blenessy, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. 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D. St.; Stabile, A.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stärz, S.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Araya, S. Tapia; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turgeman, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tyndel, M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Wong, K. H. Yau; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zwalinski, L.

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the tbar{t}Z and tbar{t}W production cross sections in final states with either two same-charge muons, or three or four leptons (electrons or muons) is presented. The analysis uses a data sample of proton-proton collisions at √{s} = 13 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2015, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb^{-1}. The inclusive cross sections are extracted using likelihood fits to signal and control regions, resulting in σ _{tbar{t}Z} = 0.9 ± 0.3 pb and σ _{tbar{t}W} = 1.5 ± 0.8 pb, in agreement with the Standard Model predictions.

  20. Combined measurement of the tbar t cross section and the b-tagging efficiency using l+jet events with CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, M.; Cms Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider, build at CERN, is the first collider in the world able to act as a top quark factory. The large amounts of top quark events produced allow us to study the properties of this heavy quark in great detail. We propose a combined measurement of the tbar t cross section and the b-tagging efficiency using the lepton+jets event topology observed by the CMS experiment in the 8 TeV proton collisions of the LHC. The data collected in 2012 used for this measurement corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.8 fb-1 for muon+jets events and 2.7 fb-1 for electron+jets events. The obtained tbar t cross section is 228.4 ± 9.0 (stat.) +29.0-26.0 (syst.) ± 10.0 (lumi) pb.

  1. Inhibition of iron/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation by an N-terminal peptide of bovine lactoferrin and its acylated derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, H; Matsumoto, H; Hashimoto, K; Teraguchi, S; Takase, M; Hayasawa, H

    1999-05-01

    Bovine lactoferrin (LF) and lactoferricin B (LFcin B), an antimicrobial peptide derived from bovine LF, inhibited thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) formation in a iron/ascorbate-induced liposomal phospholipid peroxidation system. The inhibition of TBARS formation occurred with N-acylated 9-mer peptides with a core sequence of LFcin B and, compared to LFcin B, their antioxidant effect was clearly observed at a concentration almost 100 times lower.

  2. Measurement of the top quark mass with the template method in the tbar{t} tolepton+jets channel using ATLAS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.

    2012-06-01

    The top quark mass has been measured using the template method in the tbar{t}tolepton+jets channel based on data recorded in 2011 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The data were taken at a proton-proton centre-of-mass energy of √{s}=7 TeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 1.04 fb-1. The analyses in the e+jets and μ+jets decay channels yield consistent results. The top quark mass is measured to be m top=174.5±0.6stat±2.3syst GeV.

  3. Measurement of the tbar t production cross section in the dilepton channel in proton-proton collisions at = 8 TeV with the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieseler, Jan; Cms Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The cross section for top quark pair production is measured in proton-proton collisions at = 8 TeV in a data sample corresponding to 2.4 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the CMS experiment in 2012. The measurement is performed with events with two leptons (electrons or muons), as well as with identified b-quark jets in the final state. The combined measured cross section is σtbar t = 227 ± 3 (stat.) ± 11 (syst.) ± 10 (lumi.) pb, in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  4. Addendum to `Measurement of the tbar{t} production cross-section using eμ events with b-tagged jets in pp collisions at √{s} = 7 and 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Santos, S. P. Amor Dos; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; da Costa, J. Barreiro Guimarães; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia, O.; Bessner, M. F.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; De Mendizabal, J. Bilbao; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; de Renstrom, P. A. Bruckman; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. 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F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Castanheira, M. Teixeira Dias; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tran, H. L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittig, T.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wright, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; della Porta, G. Zevi; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-11-01

    The ATLAS measurement of the inclusive top quark pair (tbar{t}) cross-section σ _{tbar{t}} in proton-proton collisions at √{s}=8 TeV has been updated using the final 2012 luminosity calibration. The updated cross-section result is: σ _{tbar{t}}= 242.9± 1.7± 5.5± 5.1± 4.2 pb, where the four uncertainties arise from data statistics, experimental and theoretical systematic effects, knowledge of the integrated luminosity and of the LHC beam energy. The result is consistent with theoretical QCD calculations at next-to-next-to-leading order. The measurement of the ratio of tbar{t} cross-sections at √{s}=8 TeV and √{s}=7 TeV, and the √{s}=8 TeV fiducial measurement corresponding to the experimental acceptance of the leptons, have also been updated.

  5. The antioxidative substances in cacao liquor.

    PubMed

    Osakabe, N; Yamagishi, M; Sanbongi, C; Natsume, M; Takizawa, T; Osawa, T

    1998-04-01

    The antioxidative substances contained in cacao liquor, which is one of the major ingredients of chocolate, were separated by column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Three major compounds were purified and two of them were identified by 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectra as (-)-epicatechin (EC) and (+)-catechin (CA). Their antioxidative activity was measured by monitoring the peroxide value of linoleic acid and the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values of erythrocyte ghost membranes and microsomes. EC and CA had strong antioxidative effects in all three methods, but one unidentified peak was found to be less effective. Additionally, we analyzed the polyphenol concentration of cacao liquor extractions produced in several countries. The total polyphenol concentration was 7.0 to 13.0%, catechin concentration was 0.31 to 0.49%, and epicatechin concentration was 0.35 to 1.68% in the extractions. It is believed that chocolate is stable against oxidative deterioration on account of the presence of these polyphenolic compounds, and it is also expected to have a protective role against lipid peroxidation in living systems.

  6. Measurement of the t t-bar Production Cross Section in pp Collisions at 7 TeV in Lepton + Jets Events Using b-quark Jet Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, S.; et al.,

    2011-11-01

    A new measurement of the inclusive production cross section for pp to t t-bar is performed at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The analysis uses a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns, and is based on the final state with one isolated, high transverse momentum muon or electron, missing transverse energy, and hadronic jets. The ttbar content of the selected events is enhanced by requiring the presence of at least one jet consistent with b-quark hadronization. The measured cross section is 150 +/- 9 (stat.) +/- 17 syst.) +/- 6 (lumi.) pb and is in agreement with higher-order QCD calculations. The combination of this measurement with a previous CMS result based on dileptons gives 154 +/- 17 (stat.+syst.) +/- 6 (lumi.) pb.

  7. Measurement of jet multiplicity distributions in t t-bar production in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, S.

    2014-08-20

    The normalised differential top quark-antiquark production cross section is measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the LHC with the CMS detector. The measurement is performed in both the dilepton and lepton + jets decay channels using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns. Using a procedure to associate jets to decay products of the top quarks, the differential cross section of the t t-bar production is determined as a function of the additional jet multiplicity in the lepton + jets channel. Furthermore, the fraction of events with no additional jets is measured in the dilepton channel, as a function of the threshold on the jet transverse momentum. The measurements are compared with predictions from perturbative quantum chromodynamics and no significant deviations are observed.

  8. Measurement of jet multiplicity distributions in t t-bar production in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Chatrchyan, S.

    2014-08-20

    The normalised differential top quark-antiquark production cross section is measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the LHC with the CMS detector. The measurement is performed in both the dilepton and lepton + jets decay channels using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns. Using a procedure to associate jets to decay products of the top quarks, the differential cross section of the t t-bar production is determined as a function of the additional jet multiplicity in the lepton + jets channel. Furthermore, the fractionmore » of events with no additional jets is measured in the dilepton channel, as a function of the threshold on the jet transverse momentum. The measurements are compared with predictions from perturbative quantum chromodynamics and no significant deviations are observed.« less

  9. Measurement of the tbar{t} production cross section in the τ+jets channel in pp collisions at &sqrt{s}=7; {TeV}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, Q.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Mahrous, A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Brochet, S.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Calpas, B.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.

    2013-04-01

    The top-quark pair production cross section in 7 TeV center-of-mass energy proton-proton collisions is measured using data collected by the CMS detector at the LHC. The measurement uses events with one jet identified as a hadronically decaying τ lepton and at least four additional energetic jets, at least one of which is identified as coming from a b quark. The analyzed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 3.9 fb-1 recorded by a dedicated multijet plus hadronically decaying τ trigger. A neural network has been developed to separate the top-quark pairs from the W+jets and multijet backgrounds. The measured value of σ_{tbar{t}} = 152± 12 ({stat.})± 32 ({syst.})±3 ({lum.}) {pb} is consistent with the standard model predictions.

  10. Plasma malondialdehyde in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Gallou, G; Ruelland, A; Legras, B; Maugendre, D; Allannic, H; Cloarec, L

    1993-02-28

    Malondialdehyde, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in 117 diabetic patients and 53 controls. Patients were divided into groups and subgroups according to the type of diabetes (type 1 and type 2) and the existence or not of vascular complication (macro- or micro-angiopathy). Results showed that TBARS concentrations were significantly higher in type 1 (P < 0.0001) and type 2 (P < 0.001) diabetic patients than in the control group. The plasma TBARS concentrations in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients did not differ significantly. Among the patients with vascular disease, type 2 diabetic patients with macroangiopathy had significantly higher TBARS concentrations than patients with no vascular complication (P < 0.05). Whichever the type of diabetes, there was no correlation between TBARS concentrations and glycaemic control: glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting blood glucose. This study confirmed the existence of lipid peroxidation disorders in diabetic patients.

  11. Substance use and multiculturalism.

    PubMed

    Adrian, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews intercultural variability of substance use behaviors, including availability of international statistics on consumption of alcohol and other drugs, as well as the use of drugs available locally only. Within a conceptual framework of intercultural relations, it considers the history of transcultural spread of substance use behaviors and possible reactions to the introduction of new drugs within a culture or jurisdiction, including illustrations of the "law of alien poisons." Although intercultural views of substance use have generally concentrated on majority groups' views of substance use in minority groups, minority and non-Western views of substance use need to be considered in the context of increasing international and intercultural communications that increase the rate at which substance use behaviors spread. Both Western and non-Western experiences with substance use and misuse must be taken into account so that better interventions can be developed to deal with addictions and other substance-related problems.

  12. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD.

  13. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified as the most frequently cited ... victim and/or the perpetrator who has the substance abuse problem. Substance abuse is believed to be a ...

  14. Oxidative Stress Marker and Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Draganovic, Dragica; Lucic, Nenad; Jojic, Dragica

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) is a state of extremely increased oxidative stress. Hence, research and test of role and significance of oxidative stress in hypertensive disturbance in pregnancy is very important. Aim: Aims of this research were to determine a level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) as oxidative stress marker in blood of pregnant woman with pregnancy induced hypertension and to analyze correlation of TBARS values with blood pressure values in pregnancy induced hypertensive pregnant women. Patients and methods: Research has been performed at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Clinical Centre in the Republic of Srpska. It covered 100 pregnant women with hypertension and 100 healthy pregnant women of gestation period from 28 to 40 weeks. Level of TBARS is determined as an equivalent of malondialdehyde standard, in accordance with recommendations by producer (Oxi Select TBARS Analisa Kit). Results: Pregnancy induced hypertension is a state of extremely increased oxidative stress. All pregnant women experiencing hypertension had increased TBARS values in medium value interval over 20 µmol, 66%, whereas in group of healthy pregnant women, only 1% experienced increased TBARS value. Pregnant women with difficult preeclampsia (32%) had high TBARS values, over 40 µmol, and with mild PIH, only 4.9% pregnant women. Conclusion: Pregnant women with pregnancy induced hypertension have extremely increased degree of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. TBARS values are in positive correlation with blood pressure values, respectively the highest TBARS value were present in pregnant women with the highest blood pressure values. PMID:28210016

  15. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - inhalants; Drug abuse - inhalants; Drug use - inhalants; Glue - inhalants ... symptoms and may include: Strong cravings for the drug Having mood swings from feeling depressed to agitated ...

  16. Substance use - amphetamines

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - amphetamines; Drug abuse - amphetamines; Drug use - amphetamines ... Amphetamine: goey, louee, speed, uppers, whiz Dextroamphetamine (ADHD medicine used illegally): dexies, kiddie-speed, pep pills, uppers; ...

  17. Substance Abuse Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzolino, Robert

    This brochure outlines the substance abuse policy for students at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM/Pennsylvania). Noted are the dangers of substance abuse during the stressful time of medical training and later for the doctor and clients during professional practice. The policy's five goals are briefly stated. Described next…

  18. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  19. Rat Strains Bred for Low and High Aerobic Running Capacity do not Differ in Their Survival Time to Hemorrhage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Tissues were homogenized in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), expressed as nanomoles of...also represent a differential response to the single administration of buprenorphine as this analgesic is known to decrease food and water intake in...23. Ensunsa JL, Symons JD, Lanoue L, Schrader HR, Keen CL. Reducing arginase activity via dietary manganese deficiency enhances endothelium-dependent

  20. The Effect of a Hypobaric, Hypoxic Environment on Acute Skeletal Muscle Edema After Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-15

    Tissue Antioxidant Status Tissues were homogenized in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer pH 7.4. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), expressed...Benzie and Strain [21]. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase activities were determined kinetically as previously described [22]. Reduced...the method of Trush et al. [24]. Briefly, tissues were homogenized in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer pH 6.0 containing 0.5% hexadecyltrimethylammonium

  1. Quantitative Assessment of Peroxisome Proliferation in B6C3F1 Mouse Liver after Subchronic Exposure to Trichloroethylene by Gavage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and dichloroacetic acid (DCA) (Herren-Freund, et al., 1987; Daniel, et al., 1992; DeAngelo, et al., 1991). Only CH has been found to...independent of peroxisome proliferation (Parrish, et al., 2 1996 and Nelson, et al., 1989). Both TCA and DCA increased the formation of thiobarbituric acid ...reactive substances (TBARS) in a dose-responsive manner, suggesting that each chloroacetate was capable of yielding a radical species that could

  2. Assessment of Oxidative Stress in Lungs from Sheep After Inhalation of Wood Smoke

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    hypoxia. Plasma and expired breath samples were collected pre-smoke, and 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 and 48 h after smoke exposure. Sheep were euthanatized 48... h after smoke exposure and lung and airway sections were evaluated histologically for injury and biochemically for indices of oxidative stress. Plasma...thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were 66 and 69% higher than controls after moderate and severe smoke exposure at 48 h , whereas total

  3. The antioxidant effect of free bilirubin on cumene-hydroperoxide treated human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Yesilkaya, A; Altinayak, R; Korgun, D K

    2000-07-01

    To examine the antioxidant effect of bilirubin (BR) on leukocyte, we treated leukocytes obtained from healthy subjects with an oxidant and various concentrations of BR. High concentrations of BR decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase activities, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but had no effect on glutathione (GSH) concentration. Our results showed that under physiological conditions, BR has an antioxidant effect only in high concentrations.

  4. Rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation produced during the oxidative metabolism of ethacrynic acid.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Masubuchi, Y; Narimatsu, S; Kobayashi, S; Horie, T

    2001-04-01

    Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were produced in rat liver microsomal suspension incubated with ethacrynic acid (loop diuretic drug) and NADPH. Two oxidative metabolites of ethacrynic acid with dicarboxylic acid and hydroxylated ethyl group, respectively, were formed in the reaction mixture. The oxidative metabolism of ethacrynic acid was inhibited by cytochrome P450 inhibitors. The formation of TBARS was remarkably depressed by inhibitors like diethyldithiocarbamate and disulfiram. These results indicate that lipid peroxidation occurred in rat liver microsomes through the oxidative metabolism of ethacrynic acid.

  5. Toxic substances handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  6. Substance use - marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - marijuana; Drug abuse - marijuana; Drug use - marijuana; Cannabis; Grass; Hashish; Mary Jane; Pot; Weed ... several minutes. If you eat foods containing the drug as an ingredient, such as brownies, you may ...

  7. Substance use - phencyclidine (PCP)

    MedlinePlus

    PCP; Substance abuse - phencyclidine; Drug abuse - phencyclidine; Drug use - phencyclidine ... PCP is a mind-altering drug. This means it acts on your brain (central nervous system) and changes your mood, behavior, and the way you relate to ...

  8. Toxic substances alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  9. Substance use during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Forray, Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal substance use is a critical public health concern that is linked with several harmful maternal and fetal consequences. The most frequently used substance in pregnancy is tobacco, followed by alcohol, cannabis and other illicit substances. Unfortunately, polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, as well as psychiatric comorbidity, environmental stressors, and limited and disrupted parental care, all of which can compound deleterious maternal and fetal outcomes. There are few existing treatments for prenatal substance use and these mainly comprise behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Contingency management has been shown to be the most efficacious of these. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the prenatal use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids, including the effects of these on maternal and fetal health and the current therapeutic options. PMID:27239283

  10. Supervision: Substance and Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  11. Organic substances in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeson, Phillip E.

    1981-01-01

    This is the third of several compilations of briefing papers on water quality by the U.S. Geological Survey. Each briefing paper is prepared in a simple, nontechnical, easy-to-understand manner. This U.S. Geological Survey Circular contains papers on selected organic substances in water. Briefing papers are included on ' Why study organic substances in water. ', ' Taste and odor in water ', and ' Classification and fractionation of organic solutes in natural waters'. (USGS)

  12. PTSD and Substance Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Substance use disorders (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are...Appendix……………………………………………………………………………. 10-end INTRODUCTION Substance use disorders (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD...International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies “Resilience After Trauma: From Surviving to Thriving” Annual Meeting 7-9 November 2013. Currently

  13. Measurement of tbar{t} production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at √{s}=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brendlinger, K.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.

    2012-06-01

    A measurement of the jet activity in tbar{t} events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented, using 2.05 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The tbar{t} events are selected in the dilepton decay channel with two identified b-jets from the top quark decays. Events are vetoed if they contain an additional jet with transverse momentum above a threshold in a central rapidity interval. The fraction of events surviving the jet veto is presented as a function of this threshold for four different central rapidity interval definitions. An alternate measurement is also performed, in which events are vetoed if the scalar transverse momentum sum of the additional jets in each rapidity interval is above a threshold. In both measurements, the data are corrected for detector effects and compared to the theoretical models implemented in MC@NLO, Powheg, Alpgen and Sherpa. The experimental uncertainties are often smaller than the spread of theoretical predictions, allowing deviations between data and theory to be observed in some regions of phase space.

  14. Approaching Suspicious Substances Safely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A mineral identification tool that was developed for NASA's Mars Rover Technology Development program is now serving as a powerful tool for U.S. law enforcement agencies and military personnel to identify suspicious liquid and solid substances. The tool can measure unknown substances through glass and plastic packaging materials with the RamanProbe(TradeMark) focused fiber-optic probe. The probe length can be extended up to 200 meters to enable users to analyze potentially dangerous substances at a safe distance. In many cases, the spectrometer and personnel are kept in a safe zone while the probe is positioned next to the sample being analyzed. Being able to identify chemicals in remote locations also saves users time and labor, since otherwise the samples would need to be collected, transported, and prepared prior to measurement in the laboratory.

  15. Drug and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults Making Your Wishes Known Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Drug and Substance Abuse Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...

  16. Substance Abuse and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos, Ed.

    This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…

  17. Risks and Chemical Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Avrom A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines exposure to chemicals within the home and three important ways in which hazardous substances can be identified and evaluated. Suggests a rational picture of human health risks and contains an introductory discussion of reasons for exposure, epidemiology, cancer causes and patterns, animal testing, toxins, and risk. (LZ)

  18. Substance Use Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Judy

    This report outlines the Hillsborough County, Florida, Head Start Program's project to field test with young children and their families curricula that were designed to prevent alcohol and other drug problems. A national search conducted by means of computers, individual contacts, and other methods yielded information on 22 substance abuse…

  19. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  20. Substance use - LSD

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - LSD; Drug abuse - LSD; Drug use - LSD; Lysergic acid diethylamide; Hallucinogen - LSD ... LSD is a mind-altering drug. This means it acts on your brain (central nervous system) and changes your mood, behavior, and the way you relate to ...

  1. Antioxidative effects of benidipine hydrochloride in patients with hypertension independent of antihypertensive effects. Relationship between blood pressure and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Osamu; Yoshida, Takayuki; Tani, Shigeya; Kato, Kimihiko; Yoneyama, Akihiko; Hibino, Tsuyoshi; Yokoi, Kiyoshi; Matsubara, Tatsuaki

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the significance of measuring plasma level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in patients with hypertension and compared the clinical effects of benidipine hydrochloride (CAS 91599-74-5, Coniel) and amlodipine besylate (CAS 111470-99-6) on plasma TBARS. At first, blood pressure and plasma TBARS were measured in 85 untreated patients (48 males and 37 females, 68 years old on average) with at least one risk factor of cardiovascular disease to investigate factors which had influence on plasma TBARS. As the result, plasma TBARS was significantly higher in those with hypertension, which was also true when adjusted for other factors (r = 0.359, p< 0.01). Among these patients, benidipine hydrochloride at the dose of 4 mg/day was administered to 49 patients with hypertension or angina pectoris. All patients stratified for each factor showed significantly decreased plasma TBARS after benidipine hydrochloride treatment. Second, 40 untreated patients with essential hypertension were randomly assigned to the amlodipine group (5-7.5 mg/day) or benidipine group (4-8 mg/day) to compare the plasma TBARS levels. Plasma TBARS levels were significantly decreased in both groups. The amlodipine group showed a positive correlation between the decrease in plasma TBARS level and those in both diastolic and systolic blood pressures after treatment. On the other hand, benidipine hydrochloride decreased plasma TBARS to a greater degree than both diastolic and systolic blood pressures. These findings suggest that patients with hypertension have high plasma TBARS, and benidipine hydrochloride decreases not only blood pressure but also oxidative stress in the clinical practice.

  2. Toxic Substances Control Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  3. Toxic Substances in the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of toxic substances, examining pesticides and herbicides, heavy metals, industrial chemicals, and household substances. Includes a list of major toxic substances (indicating what they are, where they are found, and health concerns) and a student activity on how pesticides enter the food chain. (JN)

  4. BACTERICIDAL SUBSTANCE FROM STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    PubMed Central

    Dajani, Adnan S.; Gray, Ernest D.; Wannamaker, Lewis W.

    1970-01-01

    A bactericidal substance previously isolated from phage type 71 Slaphylococcus aureus has been further identified and characterized. Staphylococci belonging to phage type 71 produce the substance in higher titers than staphylococci lysed by other phages in group II in addition to phage 71. Other staphylococci do not produce the bactericidal substance. The bactericidal substance shares several of the properties of bacteriocins but differs from this group of antibiotic substances in some respects. A combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column resulted in considerable degree of purification of the bactericidal substance. The substance is a previously unrecognized product of S. aureus and is distinct from other extracellular products of this organism. PMID:5443199

  5. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  6. Soldiering with Substance: Substance and Steroid Use among Military Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The military provides a unique social environment given the organization and culture of the institution. Understanding substance use by those inside this institution provides insight into both the population as well as substance use in general. Using data collected from in-depth interviews, this article explores the nature and extent of substance…

  7. Michigan Household Hazardous Substance Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Janet; Stone Nancy

    Common household hazardous substances include cleansers, drain cleaners, automotive products, paints, solvents, and pesticides. This handbook was designed to serve as a resource for people frequently contacted by the public for information on household hazardous substances and wastes. Included in the handbook are: (1) an introduction to Michigan's…

  8. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…

  9. Toxic Substances List. 1972 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Herbert E., Ed.; And Others

    The second edition of the Toxic Substances List, containing some 13,000 entries, is prepared annually by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. The purpose of the List is to identify all known toxic substances but not to quantitate the hazard. The List…

  10. 34 CFR 84.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Controlled substance. 84.610 Section 84.610 Education... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further...

  11. 36 CFR 1212.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Controlled substance. 1212.610... Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11...

  12. 43 CFR 43.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controlled substance. 43.610 Section 43... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 43.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21...

  13. 49 CFR 32.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Controlled substance. 32.610 Section 32.610... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further...

  14. 28 CFR 83.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Controlled substance. 83.610 Section 83...-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and...

  15. 5-aminolevulinic acid induced lipid peroxidation after light exposure on human colon carcinoma cells and effects of alpha-tocopherol treatment.

    PubMed

    Gederaas, O A; Lagerberg, J W; Brekke, O; Berg, K; Dubbelman, T M

    2000-10-16

    This work relates to studies on modes of phototoxicity by protoporphyrin (PpIX) after incubation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) on cultured cells. Lipid peroxidation in the 5-ALA incubated primary adenocarcinoma cells from the rectosigmoid colon (WiDr cells) was determined by measurement of protein-associated thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). TBARS were increased 2-fold in cells treated with 2 mM 5-ALA for 3.5 h in serum enriched medium. After illumination of 5-ALA incubated cells, TBARS were formed in a light dose dependent manner. TBARS analysis were compared with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of malondialdehyde, and results indicate that 90% of the thiobarbituric reactive substances were due to malondialdehyde. Pretreating WiDr cells with alpha-tocopherol for 48 h inhibits the cytotoxic effect of 5-ALA and increases 5-fold the light dose needed to kill 50% of the cells. Pretreatment with alpha-tocopherol shows a considerable decrease (about 80%) on TBARS formation after illumination. The cellular content of alpha-tocopherol was determined by HPLC and found to be 15.3 pmol/10(6) cells.

  16. Toxic Substances; Biphenyl; Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This rule promulgates EPA’s decision to require manufacturers and processors to test biphenyl (CAS No: 92—52—4) for environmental effects and chemical fate under section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

  17. Substances and Heart Rhythm Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... that trigger the heartbeat. Caffeine, Diet and Heart Arrhythmias Caffeine is the most common substance linked with abnormal heart rhythms ( arrhythmias ). Some people feel heart palpitations (fast heartbeats) when ...

  18. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical appearance and grooming Association with known substance abusers Need for money and stealing money Persistent dishonesty ... can be done to discourage youth from using drugs and alcohol? Everyone can help educate children and ...

  19. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  20. Agitated Depression in Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Gelernter, Joel; Oslin, David; Anton, Raymond F.; Farrer, Lindsay A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression with psychomotor agitation (PMA; “agitated depression”) is a putative psychiatric phenotype that appears to associate with some forms of substance dependence. However, it is unclear whether such relationships extend across different substances and independent (I-MDE) versus substance-induced (SI-MDE) subtypes of major depressive episodes. Method We examined whether lifetime depression with (vs. without) PMA was associated with lifetime substance dependence across individuals with lifetime: (1) I-MDE only (n = 575); and (2) SI-MDE only (n = 1683). Data were pooled from several family and genetic studies of substance dependence in which participants received identical structured interviews to diagnose DSM-IV mental disorders. Results In I-MDE, PMA was significantly associated with alcohol, cocaine, opioid, other drug (hallucinogen, inhalant, speed-ball), and sedative dependence. After controlling for demographic and clinical co-factors, PMA's relationship to dependence on opioids, other drugs, and sedatives remained significant, but not its relationship to alcohol or cocaine. In SI-MDE, PMA was significantly associated with alcohol, cocaine, opioid, and other drug dependence. After adjusting for co-factors, associations remained significant for dependence on cocaine and opioids, but not alcohol or other drugs. Relationships between PMA and opioid dependence were stronger in I-MDE than SI-MDE. Depression subtype (I-MDE vs. SI-MDE) did not moderate relations between PMA and non-opioid forms of substance dependence. Conclusions Agitated depression associates with certain forms of substance dependence, particularly opioid dependence. MDE subtype did not alter most PMA-dependence associations, which suggests that the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are complex and potentially bidirectional. PMID:21277711

  1. Juvenile justice and substance use.

    PubMed

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad range of negative effects, such as smoking, risky sexual behavior, violence, and poor educational, occupational, and psychological outcomes. The high rates of substance use problems among young offenders, says Chassin, suggest a large need for treatment. Although young offenders are usually screened for substance use disorders, Chassin notes the need to improve screening methods and to ensure that screening takes place early enough to allow youths to be diverted out of the justice system into community-based programs when appropriate. Cautioning that no single treatment approach has been proven most effective, Chassin describes current standards of "best practices" in treating substance use disorders, examines the extent to which they are implemented in the juvenile justice system, and describes some promising models of care. She highlights several treatment challenges, including the need for better methods of engaging adolescents and their families in treatment and the need to better address environmental risk factors, such as family substance use and deviant peer networks, and co-occurring conditions, such as learning disabilities and other mental health disorders. Chassin advocates policies that encourage wider use of empirically validated therapies and of documented best practices for treating substance use disorders. High relapse rates among youths successfully treated for substance use disorders also point to a greater need for aftercare services and for managing these disorders as chronic illnesses characterized by relapse and remission. A shortage of aftercare services and a lack of service coordination in the

  2. 38 CFR 48.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Controlled substance. 48...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the...

  3. 38 CFR 48.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Controlled substance. 48...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the...

  4. 22 CFR 312.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules...

  5. 22 CFR 312.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules...

  6. 22 CFR 312.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules...

  7. 22 CFR 312.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules...

  8. 22 CFR 312.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules...

  9. Update on Banned Substances 2013

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Kenneth P.; Rainbow, Catherine R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Doping has been pervasive throughout the history of athletic competitions and has only recently been regulated by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). These regulatory bodies were created to preserve fair play and maintain the safety of the participants. Their updated 2013 lists of banned substances and practices include a variety of drugs and practices that could cause harm to an athlete or give one an unfair competitive advantage. Evidence Acquisition: Published websites for the WADA, USADA, and NCAA were investigated. These governing bodies update and publish their lists annually. Results: The WADA, USADA, and NCAA monitor anabolic steroids, hormones, growth factors, β-agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, masking agents, street drugs, manipulation of blood and blood components, chemical and physical manipulation, gene doping, stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticosteroids, and β-blockers. Some substances may be used by athletes but require formal exemption. The WADA has also recently created a category of nonapproved substances that have yet to be identified to curb athletes from experimenting with new doping agents. Conclusion: The lists of banned substances and practices per the WADA, USADA, and NCAA are in place to ensure the integrity of sports and maintain safe competition. Health care providers who work with athletes under the jurisdiction of these organizations should review updated lists of banned substances when prescribing medications. PMID:24427415

  10. Anticancer substances of mushroom origin.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, T S; Krupodorova, T A; Barshteyn, V Y; Artamonova, A B; Shlyakhovenko, V A

    2014-06-01

    The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms, as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed. Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines (including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins), and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc. are discussed. The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed.

  11. BRIEF INTERVENTIONS IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Suresh; Malhotra, Anil

    2000-01-01

    Brief interventions in substance abuse refer to a group of cost-effective and time efficient strategies that aim at reduction of substance use and/or harm related to substance use. They are grounded in the scientific principles of harm reduction stage of change, motivational interviewing and feasibility of community-level delivery. This review discusses the characteristics, elements, and techniques of brief interventions for abuse of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The available evidence for effectiveness of these strategies vis-a-vis no treatment or extended treatment is also reviewed, which clearly supports these interventions to be effective, especially for alcohol abuse but also for others It is argued that India presents a fertile ground for application of these strategies and that Indian research in this area should be a top priority. PMID:21407932

  12. Best practice in substance misuse.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anne L

    2012-08-01

    While substance misuse by adolescents in the UK has declined over the last decade, the UK continues to have some of the highest rates of alcohol and drug use in Europe. Many young people will try smoking and drinking alcohol during their adolescence and a significant minority will misuse alcohol and illicit drugs. This behaviour remains a significant cause for concern owing to its associated risks to the health and wellbeing of adolescents. Guidance is emerging regarding good practice in the assessment and management of adolescent substance misuse. Paediatricians may encounter substance-misusing adolescents in a variety of clinical settings and can play a valuable role in the screening, management and support of this group of young people.

  13. Welfare Reform and Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Metsch, Lisa R; Pollack, Harold A

    2005-01-01

    The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) changed the nature, purpose, and financing of public aid. Researchers, administrators, and policymakers expressed special concern about the act's impact on low-income mothers with substance use disorders. Before PRWORA's passage, however, little was known about the true prevalence of these disorders among welfare recipients or about the likely effectiveness of substance abuse treatment interventions for welfare recipients. Subsequent research documented that substance abuse disorders are less widespread among welfare recipients than was originally thought and are less common than other serious barriers to self-sufficiency. This research also showed significant administrative barriers to the screening, assessment, and referral of drug-dependent welfare recipients. This article summarizes current research findings and examines implications for welfare reform reauthorization. PMID:15787954

  14. Substance Abuse Screening and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tenegra, Johnny C; Leebold, Bobby

    2016-06-01

    One of the more prevalent and often undiagnosed problems seen by primary care clinicians is substance misuse. Resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, loss of productivity, and increased health care costs, substance misuse in our society remains a significant public health issue. Primary care physicians are on the front lines of medical care, and as such, are in a distinctive position to recognize potential problems in this area and assist. This article outlines office-based screening approaches and strategies for managing and treating this complex issue confronting primary care.

  15. Pharmacotherapy for Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jared Wilson

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the current pharmacotherapy options available for the treatment of patients with substance use disorders. In the United States there are medications available to treat tobacco use disorders (nicotine replacement, bupropion, and varenicline), alcohol use disorders (naltrexone and acamprosate), and opioid use disorders (methadone and buprenorphine). These medications are likely underused and physicians should more readily prescribe for eligible patients.

  16. Substance Abuse by Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutsky, Irving; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…

  17. Substance Use as Impression Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  18. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  19. Substance Use and Early Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Steven C.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.

    2004-01-01

    Prior work indicates that substance use is related to adolescent marriage. We describe two different processes that may account for this relationship and hypothesize patterns of association that would be consistent or inconsistent with each. Using data from a study that followed west coast youth from 7th grade to young adulthood N3,324, we…

  20. Matters of Substance: Students' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gertrude

    2007-01-01

    America's romance with certainty leads to a belief that substances improve life and fits with the New Psychiatry. It's use of psychotropic medications to treat an array of mental illnesses changes evaluations, treatment and emergency coverage. The rising abuse of its prescription drugs alters the campus party scene, and challenges pretenses about…

  1. [Acting out and psychoactive substances: alcohol, drugs, illicit substances].

    PubMed

    Gillet, C; Polard, E; Mauduit, N; Allain, H

    2001-01-01

    In humans, some psychotropic agents (alcohol, drugs, illicit substances) have been suggested to play a role in the occurrence of major behavioural disorders, mainly due to the suppression of psychomotor inhibition. Behavioural disinhibition is a physiological mechanism which allows humans to behave appropriately according to a given environmental situation. The behavioural disinhibition induced by either therapeutic dosage or misuse involves the loss of restraint over certain types of social behaviour and may increase the risk of auto or hetero-aggression and acting out. The increased use of psychotropic agents in recent years and the occurrence of unwanted effects are worrying and must be detected and evaluated. The objective of the present study was to establish a causal relationship between psychoactive substance use and occurrence of major behavioural disorders, such as paradoxical rage reactions and suicidal behaviour, based on a literature analysis. It consisted of reviewing reports of drug-induced violent reactions in healthy volunteers and demonstrating, where possible, a cause-effect relationship. Patients with schizophrenia and psychopathic personalities were not included in our study since psychiatric comorbidity could influence behavioural responses. Psychotropic agents included drugs, licit and illicit substances already associated with violence in the past. Many reports used the "Go/No Go test" to evaluate the disinhibiting effect of psychotropic substances; this allows the "cognitive mapping" of drugs. The results suggest that only alcohol, antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cocaïne are related to aggressive behaviour. The best known precipitant of behavioural disinhibition is alcohol, which induces aggressive behaviour. However, there are large differences between individuals, and attentional mechanisms are now recognised as being important in mediating the effects of alcohol. Suicidal tendency as an adverse antidepressant reaction is rare

  2. [Some biochemical parameters of the synovial liquid for estimation of effectiveness of the treatment of the knee joint osteoarthrosis].

    PubMed

    Meshcheriakova, M G; Trilis, Ia G; Kirillova, N V; Alpatova, T F; Mukhin, I A; Kozhevin, A A

    2012-01-01

    The knee joint osteoarthrosis is accompanied by activation of the oxidative stress in the synovial liquid. Specific treatment decreased or even normalized such biochemical parameters of the synovial liquid as the carbonyl groups, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total protein content. The most demonstrative changes were found for early and late markers of the oxidative modification of proteins. These parameters may be used in laboratory diagnostics of the depth of the degenerative-dystrophic process in the knee joint and for the estimation of the effectiveness of the treatment.

  3. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and tissue damage released by muscle and liver after a single bout of swimming exercise.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Dionizio; Martins, Eduarda Gabrielle; Viana-Gomes, Diego; Casimiro-Lopes, Gustavo; Salerno, Verônica P

    2013-05-01

    Both acute exercise and excessive training can cause oxidative stress. The resulting increase in free radicals and the inadequate response from antioxidant systems can lead to a framework of cellular damage. An association between affected tissue and the biomarkers of oxidative stress that appear in plasma has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the source of oxidative stress biomarkers found in the plasma of untrained rats after a single bout of swimming exercise at 2 different intensities: low intensity (SBLIE) or high intensity (SBHIE). Immediately after the exercise, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma to characterize cell damage. Oxidative stress was assessed using protein carbonylation (PC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) quantified by malondialdehyde concentration. SBHIE raised levels of plasma AST (93%) and ALT (17%), and both exercise regimens produced an increase in GGT (7%) and LDH (∼55%). Plasma levels of PC and TBARS were greater in the SBHIE group; there were no changes in TAC. SBLIE caused only a modest increase in TBARS. In muscle, there were no changes in TAC, PC, or TBARS, regardless of exercise intensity, In the liver, TAC and TBARS increased significantly in both the SBLIE and SBHIE groups. This indicates that the oxidative stress biomarkers measured in the plasma immediately after a single bout of swimming exercise were generated primarily in the liver, not in muscle.

  4. Nanoscale Substances on the TSCA Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is to help the regulated community comply with the requirements of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Section 5 Premanufacturing Notice (PMN) Program for nanoscale chemical substances.

  5. Substance Abuse Taxes the American Workplace

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164283.html Substance Abuse Taxes the American Workplace Survey, analysis reveal the ... 24, 2017 FRIDAY, March 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Substance abuse exacts a heavy toll on the American workplace, ...

  6. Psychological consultation with substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, C J

    1987-05-01

    Previous work has documented that compliance rates of substance abusers undergoing inpatient detoxification could be influenced by professional psychological consultation. The administrative structure has been previously described as well as a clinical/humanistic component within the administrative structure. This report describes the individualized psychological consultation. This consultative intervention is in accord with the tripartite model of mental health which views the assessment of pathology from the perspectives of the mental health practitioner, the patient, and the culture; and the recent advances within self-psychology. A self-psychological model is suggested to understand the detoxifying substance abuser, from a stage of loss of cohesiveness to one of personality stabilization. The hospital environment and persons within the environment provide both a framework and self-object functions (mirroring, idealizing, and alter ego) during detoxification. Research recommendations are made to collect empirical data on the psychology of the detoxifying addict.

  7. 43 CFR 423.44 - Controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controlled substances. 423.44 Section 423... Conduct § 423.44 Controlled substances. You must not possess, consume, deliver, or be under the influence of, controlled substances included in schedules I, II, III, IV, or V of part B of the...

  8. 43 CFR 423.44 - Controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Controlled substances. 423.44 Section 423... Conduct § 423.44 Controlled substances. You must not possess, consume, deliver, or be under the influence of, controlled substances included in schedules I, II, III, IV, or V of part B of the...

  9. 34 CFR 84.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controlled substance. 84.610 Section 84.610 Education... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled..., 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec. 2455, Pub. L. 103-355, 108 Stat. 3243 at 3327.)...

  10. 22 CFR 1509.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  11. 22 CFR 1509.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  12. 22 CFR 210.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Controlled substance. 210.610 Section 210.610 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  13. 22 CFR 1509.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  14. 22 CFR 1509.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  15. 22 CFR 210.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled substance. 210.610 Section 210.610 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  16. 22 CFR 1509.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  17. 28 CFR 83.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controlled substance. 83.610 Section 83.610 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means...

  18. Working with Families Affected by Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, R. William

    This paper focuses on assisting families who have been damaged by substance abuse and on constructive involvement of families to help all members cope. The four main topics are: (1) "Substance Abuse and Family Systems," including the effects of substance abuse on families and children; (2) "Theories and Approaches to Family…

  19. 10 CFR 607.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Controlled substance. 607.610 Section 607.610 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  20. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios.

  1. Relationship between the solubility, dosage and antioxidant capacity of carnosic acid in raw and cooked ground buffalo meat patties and chicken patties.

    PubMed

    Naveena, B M; Vaithiyanathan, S; Muthukumar, M; Sen, A R; Kumar, Y Praveen; Kiran, M; Shaju, V A; Chandran, K Ramesh

    2013-10-01

    Antioxidant capacity of oil soluble and water dispersible carnosic acid (CA) extracted from dried rosemary leaves using HPLC was evaluated at two different dosages (22.5 ppm vs 130 ppm) in raw and cooked ground buffalo meat patties and chicken patties. Irrespective of total phenolic content, CA extracts reduced (p<0.05) the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) by 39%-47% and 37%-40% in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties at lower dosage (22.5 ppm) relative to control samples. However, at higher dosage (130 ppm) the TBARS values were reduced (p<0.05) by 86%-96% and 78%-87% in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties compared to controls. The CA extracts were also effective in inhibiting (p<0.05) peroxide value and free fatty acids in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties. The CA extracts when used at higher dosage, were also effective in stabilizing raw buffalo meat color.

  2. The lipid peroxidation in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz; Piekarski, Janusz

    2010-06-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress (by using different biomarkers of lipid peroxidation--isoprostanes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in patients with invasive breast cancer, patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group. We observed a statistically increased level of TBARS in plasma and isoprostanes in urine of patients with invasive breast cancer in comparison with a control group. The concentration of tested biomarkers in plasma or urine from patients with invasive breast cancer was also higher than in patients with benign breast diseases. Moreover, the levels of tested markers in patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group did not differ. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that free radicals induce peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acid in patients with breast cancer.

  3. Virgin coconut oil supplementation ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced systemic toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Nair, S S; Manalil, J J; Ramavarma, S K; Suseela, I M; Thekkepatt, A; Raghavamenon, A C

    2016-02-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is an unrefined kernal oil, prepared from Cocos nucifera L., having substantial nutritional and medicinal value. Experimental studies have suggested its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and hypolipidemic effects. The present study assesses its effect on formalin-induced chronic inflammation and cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced systemic toxicity in murine models. Oral administration of VCO effectively reduced formalin-induced paw oedema in mice with more or less similar efficacy as that of diclofenac. The CTX-induced hike in blood urea, creatinine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and liver marker enzymes in mice was marginally decreased by VCO (8 g/kg body weight) ingestion orally. The liver and kidney catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, together with cellular glutathione and TBARS levels, were found to be improved in these animals. Overall the study reveals the protective efficacy of VCO against secondary toxicity induced by CTX possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  4. Effects of pork meat cut and packaging type on lipid oxidation and oxidative products during refrigerated storage (8 degrees C).

    PubMed

    Park, S Y; Kim, Y J; Lee, H C; Yoo, S S; Shim, J H; Chin, K B

    2008-04-01

    Lipid oxidation and oxidative products as affected by pork meat cut, packaging method, and storage time were evaluated during refrigerated storage. Pork belly had higher pH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values than pork loin, and aerobic-packaged belly had higher TBARS than vacuum-packaged counterparts. Loin had higher free fatty acid (FFA) values than belly, and increased FFA values were observed with increased storage time. Peroxide values increased up to 7 d and decreased thereafter. Volatile compounds such as alkanes, aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols with high volatility in belly were higher than those in loin. Nonanoic acid, ethyl ester in belly, and hexadecanoic acid in loin might be considered as indices of lipid oxidation. Overall, vacuum packaging was better than aerobic packaging to retard lipid oxidation and production of oxidative products, and loin was more sensitive to lipid oxidation than belly.

  5. Effects of grape seed extract on the oxidative and microbial stability of restructured mutton slices.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G V Bhaskar; Sen, A R; Nair, Pramod N; Reddy, K Sudhakar; Reddy, K Kondal; Kondaiah, N

    2013-10-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) was studied in restructured mutton slices (RMS) under aerobic and vacuum packaging conditions during refrigerated storage. The RMS treated with grape seed extract (GSE) had significantly (P<0.05) lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values and free fatty acids (FFA) % compared to control (C) and butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) treated RMS during storage at 4±1°C. Addition of GSE significantly (P<0.05) reduced the total psychrophilic and coliform counts in RMS during refrigerated storage. The GSE treated mutton slices recorded significantly (P<0.05) superior scores of color, flavor, juiciness and overall palatability than C and BHA treated RMS. The TBARS values, FFA % and microbial counts increased significantly (P<0.05) during storage. It can be concluded that GSE has excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties compared to control and BHA treated RMS during refrigerated storage under aerobic and vacuum conditions.

  6. Effect of chitosan film incorporated with tea polyphenol on quality and shelf life of pork meat patties.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu-Yue; Yang, Ji-Yi; Lu, Hong-Bo; Wang, Sha-Sha; Yang, Jing; Yang, Xing-Chao; Chai, Man; Li, Lin; Cao, Jian-Xin

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chitosan (CH) film incorporated with tea polyphenol (TP) on quality and shelf life of pork meat patties stored at 4±1 °C for 12 days. The microbiological, physicochemical (pH, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, and metmyoglobin (MetMb)), and sensory qualities were measured on all the samples. A microbiological shelf-life extension of 6 days was achieved for CH and CH-TP treatment groups when compared to the control group. Wrapping with CH-TP composite film tended to retard the increases in TBARS values and MetMb content. CH-TP composite film maintained acceptable sensory quality of pork meat patties throughout the storage. The results indicated that CH-TP composite film could be a promising material as a packaging film for extending the shelf life of pork meat patties.

  7. Assessing of oxidative stress related parameters in diabetes mellitus type 2: cause excessive damaging to DNA and enhanced homocysteine in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Shazia Anwer; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Nagra, Saeed Ahmad; Anjum, Fauzia; Javed, Sadia; Farooq, Muhammad

    2015-03-01

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been documented subsist to the pathogenesis of many diseases including diabetes mellitus. The strength of both parameters could be estimated by measuring oxidative stress marker thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), its related parameters and the antioxidants glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in plasma of DM patients. Lipid peroxidation was measured as TBARS and presented as malondialdehyde, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride (Tg), the antioxidants (vitamin A (β-carotene), vitamin E, vitamin C, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase) levels. The results showed that these parameters, commonly, were declined appreciably in diabetic individuals as compared to the healthy individuals. In most cases, age and gender were appeared to involve in having greater values of diabetes marker. Further, increased level of lipid peroxidation and random behaviour of antioxidant potential also associated with Diabetes. For that reason these biomarkers might be of great important to diagnosis DNA damages of diabetic patients.

  8. Toxicity of ethacrynic acid in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Masubuchi, Y; Narimatsu, S; Kobayashi, S; Horie, T

    2002-04-01

    Ethacrynic acid, a loop diuretic drug, caused lipid peroxidation in isolated rat hepatocytes. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation showed a good correlation with the leakage of glutamic-oxaloacetic acid transaminase (GOT) from the hepatocytes. The addition of antioxidants such as N, N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD) and promethazine to the isolated rat hepatocyte suspension containing ethacrynic acid prevented the lipid peroxidation and decreased the GOT leakage to some extent. SKF-525A inhibited the oxidative metabolism of ethacrynic acid and decreased the TBARS formation, suggesting that the lipid peroxidation was caused by the oxidative metabolism. The intracellular reduced glutathione markedly decreased in the hepatocyte suspension containing ethacrynic acid and the hepatocellular protein sulfhydryls were decreased, which was negatively correlated with the GOT leakage. Thus the ethacrynic acid-induced hepatotoxicity was found to be related to the lipid peroxidation and the decrease of cellular protein sulfhydryls.

  9. Antioxidant enzyme activities are affected by salt content and temperature and influence muscle lipid oxidation during dry-salted bacon processing.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guofeng; He, Lichao; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Jianhao; Ma, Meihu

    2013-12-01

    Fresh pork bacon belly was used as material and manufactured into dry-salted bacon through salting and drying-ripening. During processing both oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme stability were evaluated by assessing peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and their correlations were also analysed. The results showed that all antioxidant enzyme activities decreased (p<0.05) until the end of process; GSH-Px was the most unstable one followed by catalase. Antioxidant enzyme activities were negatively correlated with TBARS (p<0.05), but the correlations were decreased with increasing process temperature. Salt showed inhibitory effect on all antioxidant enzyme activities and was concentration dependent. These results indicated that when process temperature and salt content were low at the same time during dry-salted bacon processing, antioxidant enzymes could effectively control lipid oxidation.

  10. Beef muscle isolation has no detrimental effect on premium ground beef programs.

    PubMed

    Ohman, C E; Wiegand, B R; Gruen, I U; Lorenzen, C L

    2015-08-01

    This experiment evaluated whether isolating certain muscles from the chuck for retail sale and excluding them from ground beef mix changes the number of days that ground chuck is acceptable to consumers. Chucks were harvested from twenty-four beef steers, and were allocated to either traditional or innovative fabrication methods. Resulting ground beef patties were stored in retail simulation conditions for 7days to determine color and oxidative stability. Raw patties were analyzed for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxymyoglobin concentration, objective color by Minolta Chromameter, and by a trained sensory panel for odor, color and percent discoloration. No differences (P>0.05) were observed between traditional and innovative style patties for TBARS, sensory odor or color, or oxymyoglobin concentration. Minolta Chromameter readings revealed more substantial fading (P<0.05) in traditional patties compared with innovative style patties. This study demonstrated that removing certain muscles from the ground chuck mix does not cause detrimental consequences in resulting ground chuck patties.

  11. Neuropathology of substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Bisagno, Veronica; Milroy, Christopher Mark

    2014-01-01

    Addictions to licit and illicit drugs are chronic relapsing brain disorders that affect circuits that regulate reward, motivation, memory, and decision-making. Drug-induced pathological changes in these brain regions are associated with characteristic enduring behaviors that continue despite adverse biopsychosocial consequences. Repeated exposure to these substances leads to egocentric behaviors that focus on obtaining the drug by any means and on taking the drug under adverse psychosocial and medical conditions. Addiction also includes craving for the substances and, in some cases, involvement in risky behaviors that can cause death. These patterns of behaviors are associated with specific cognitive disturbances and neuroimaging evidence for brain dysfunctions in a diverse population of drug addicts. Postmortem studies have also revealed significant biochemical and/or structural abnormalities in some addicted individuals. The present review provides a summary of the evidence that has accumulated over the past few years to implicate brain dysfunctions in the varied manifestations of drug addiction. We thus review data on cerebrovascular alterations, brain structural abnormalities, and postmortem studies of patients who abuse cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, heroin, and "bath salts". We also discuss potential molecular, biochemical, and cellular bases for the varied clinical presentations of these patients. Elucidation of the biological bases of addiction will help to develop better therapeutic approaches to these patient populations.

  12. [Substance abuse in older adults].

    PubMed

    Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen

    2014-09-03

    In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective.

  13. Cigarette smoking in pregnant substance users: Association with substance use and desire to quit.

    PubMed

    Winhusen, Theresa; Lewis, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is prevalent in pregnant substance users but receives low priority in substance use disorder treatment. This article reports the results of a secondary analysis of a randomized, multisite trial with 200 pregnant substance users, 145 (72.5%) of whom smoked at baseline. As predicted: (1) smokers had significantly greater substance use; (2) approximately half of smokers wanted to quit; and (3) smokers with a quit goal had significantly greater self-efficacy and lower perceived difficulty of quitting. Smoking may be associated with more severe substance use in pregnant substance-using patients, half of whom may be interested in smoking-cessation interventions.

  14. A Study of Substance non-use

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Vasantha; Anandaram, T.S.J.; Balan, Anand; Bashyam, V.S.P

    2003-01-01

    120 persons belonging to the four different groups namely, students, unskilled workers, skilled workers and professionals were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule on subsunce non-use. Results were analysed using SPSS 7.5 version. 65% of the sample used, at least, one of the substances during their lifetime. Alcohol (55.8%) and nicotine (45%) were the commonly used substances and paan (21.7%) was used to some extent. The non-users were questioned on the reasons for nonuse, with respect to each of the substances, namely, nicotine, alcohol, paan, cannabis, sedatives, opioids and others. Familial values, disinterest, effects of the substance, adverse effects due to substances, moral values, responsibilities and being a role model were the commonly attributed reasons for substance non-use. PMID:21206853

  15. Oviposition-Modifying Substances for Mosquitoes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    AD C: 2 OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR MOSQUITOES Annual Summary Report YIH-SHEN HWANG * ’September 1, 1980 Supported by U.S. ARMY MEDICAL...NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES...nd identify by block number) MOSQUITOES/ OVIPOSITION -ATTRACTANTS/ OVIPOSITION -REPELLENTS/ OVIPOSITION - MODIFYING-SUBSTANCES/CARBOXYLIC-ACIDS/OCTANOIC

  16. Substance abuse in the refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Little, A. Jr. ); Ross, J.K. ); Lavorerio, R. ); Richards, T.A. )

    1989-01-01

    In order to provide some background for the NPRA Annual Meeting Management Session panel discussion on Substance Abuse in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries, NPRA distributed a questionnaire to member companies requesting information regarding the status of their individual substance abuse policies. The questionnaire was designed to identify general trends in the industry. The aggregate responses to the survey are summarized in this paper, as background for the Substance Abuse panel discussions.

  17. Molecular size of aquatic humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Wershaw, R. L.; Malcolm, R.L.; Pinckney, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Aquatic humic substances, which account for 30 to 50% of the organic carbon in water, are a principal component of aquatic organic matter. The molecular size of aquatic humic substances, determined by small-angle X-ray scattering, varies from 4.7 to 33 A?? in their radius of gyration, corresponding to a molecular weight range of 500 to greater than 10,000. The aquatic fulvic acid fraction contains substances with molecular weights ranging from 500 to 2000 and is monodisperse, whereas the aquatic humic acid fraction contains substances with molecular weights ranging from 1000 to greater than 10,000 and is generally polydisperse. ?? 1982.

  18. Fact Sheet: Benzidine-Based Chemical Substances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  19. Plasma substance P levels in fibrositis.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W J; Chiu, B; Inman, R D

    1988-12-01

    The mechanism of pain in the fibrositis syndrome is unknown. We measured plasma levels of substance P in 32 patients with fibrositis and 26 sex and age matched controls using a radioimmunoassay. The mean plasma level of substance P in the patients with fibrositis was 371 +/- 91 pg/ml and in controls 397 +/- 84 pg/ml (p = NS). We conclude that determination of plasma levels of substance P in fibrositis is of no diagnostic value. This does not exclude the possible role of substance P as a neurotransmitter in the fibrositis syndrome.

  20. Pharmaceuticals and Controlled Substances and Demolition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pharmaceuticals and controlled substances found during residential demolition, such as prescription medications or illegal drugs, may require special treatment for disposal or recycling before demolition.

  1. Molecular aggregation of humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) form molecular aggregates in solution and on mineral surfaces. Elucidation of the mechanism of formation of these aggregates is important for an understanding of the interactions of HS in soils arid natural waters. The HS are formed mainly by enzymatic depolymerization and oxidation of plant biopolymers. These reactions transform the aromatic and lipid plant components into amphiphilic molecules, that is, molecules that consist of separate hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) parts. The nonpolar parts of the molecules are composed of relatively unaltered segments of plant polymers and the polar parts of carboxylic acid groups. These amphiphiles form membrane-like aggregates on mineral surfaces and micelle-like aggregates in solution. The exterior surfaces of these aggregates are hydrophilic, and the interiors constitute separate hydrophobic liquid-like phases.

  2. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction.

  3. Childhood sexual abuse and substance abuse treatment utilization among substance-dependent incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony

    2011-10-01

    Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms.

  4. Social isolation stress-induced oxidative damage in mouse brain and its modulation by majonoside-R2, a Vietnamese ginseng saponin.

    PubMed

    Huong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Murakami, Yukihisa; Tohda, Michihisa; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2005-08-01

    Stressors with a physical factor such as immobilization, electric foot shock, cold swim, etc., have been shown to produce oxidative damage to membrane lipids in the brain. In this study, we investigated the effect of protracted social isolation stress on lipid peroxidation activity in the mouse brain and elucidated the protective effect of majonoside-R2, a major saponin component of Vietnamese ginseng, in mice exposed to social isolation stress. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels, one of the end products of lipid peroxidation reaction, were increased in the brains of mice subjected to 6-8 weeks of social isolation stress. Measurements of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (NO(x)(-)) also revealed a significant increase of NO production in the brains of socially isolated mice. Moreover, the depletion of brain glutathione content, an endogenous antioxidant, in socially isolated animals occurred in association with the rise in lipid peroxidation. The intraperitoneal administration of majonoside-R2 (10-50 mg/kg) had no effect on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), NO, or glutathione levels in the brains of group-housed control mice but it significantly suppressed the increase in TBARS and NO levels and the decrease in glutathione levels caused by social isolation stress. These results suggest that mice subjected to 6-8 weeks of social isolation stress produces oxidative damage in the brain partly via enhancement of NO production, and that majonoside-R2 exerts a protective effect by modulating NO and glutathione systems in the brain.

  5. Cultural Issues in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Dharma E.; Ja, Davis; Noboa, Abdin; Perry, Vincent; Robinson, Robert; Rodriguez, Domingo; Stubben, Jerry

    This monograph provides a tool to help providers and other substance abuse treatment professionals gain a greater understanding of the cultural, social, political, and economic forces affecting substance abuse treatment among Hispanic Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. An…

  6. TR's Role in Treating Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunstler, Robin

    1992-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation is important in treating substance abuse problems. It addresses attitudes and behaviors leading to substance abuse (inability to experience pleasure or control). It encourages participation in activities that help abusers cope and obtain enjoyable states, reducing reliance on drugs. The article discusses the theory of flow…

  7. Toxic Substances in the Environment. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Ronald J.

    Modern society is very dependent upon numerous chemical substances. Chemicals have a wide variety of uses, including drugs to prolong our lives and pesticides to control insect and weed pests. Life would be drastically different without the availability of these chemical substances but, while the benefits of chemicals should be appreciated, the…

  8. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  9. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain…

  10. Teacher Intervention for the Adolescent Substance Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Sue A.; Selinger, Marilyn

    The paper reviews adolescent development and considers the teacher's role in dealing with a compulsive substance abuser. Typical characteristics of substance abusers, such as isolation or withdrawal from the family unit, decreased academic achievement, initial denial of a drug/alcohol problem, and interactions with a negative peer group are noted,…

  11. Substance Abuse and Pregnancy: A Comprehensive Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krulewitch, Cara J.; Herman, Allen A.

    This bibliography, containing over 1,000 entries from the period 1968 to June, 1991, was compiled to assist in the development of a report to Congress on the impact (both maternal and fetal) of substance abuse on pregnancy. Topics include pregnancy outcome, child health issues, legal and political issues, epidemiological aspects of substance abuse…

  12. Harm Reduction in MSW Substance Abuse Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eversman, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…

  13. Substance Abuse and the American Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    The first comprehensive assessment of substance abuse and women, this report arose from an analysis of more than 1,700 scientific and technical articles, surveys, government reports and books. Results show that American women are closing the gap with men in that they are increasingly likely to abuse substances at the same rate as men. Findings…

  14. Substance Use, Distress, and Adolescent School Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations of substance use, psychological distress, and mental health services receipt with the structure and content of adolescent school-based networks. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we found that substance use was associated with receiving more, but making fewer, peer…

  15. Substance Abuse in Families: Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Rivka

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the teacher's role as an advocate for a child's educational needs when parents are involved in substance abuse treatment. Discusses substance abuse treatment issues, including addiction, the treatment process, and agencies involved with the family, and provides a list of recommendations for educators and administrators to assist…

  16. Nursing and Substance Use Disorders in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Pantoja, Miguel A; Mendez-Ruiz, Martha D

    2016-04-01

    The authors of this article see substance use disorders as a major public health problem in Mexico in which nursing is taking on an increasingly important role in addressing. The authors discuss some the challenges and opportunities nurse researchers, educators, and clinicians face in the prevention and treatment of substance use disorders in Mexico.

  17. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  18. Combat Stress and Substance Use Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    COVERED 15 Sept 2013 – 14 Sept 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Combat Stress and Substance Abuse Intervention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...the stigma and common barriers associated with seeking treatment. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Combat stress, substance abuse , alcohol, brief intervention... abuse . These data are vital to understanding additional steps the military might take in addressing issues of behavioral health, such as developing

  19. Directions in Substance Abuse Counseling, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam W., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This volume of six lessons provides expert information on a variety of issues in substance abuse counseling. The lessons, which may be applied toward continuing education credits, are: (1) "Ethics in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation" (Robert L. Hewes); (2) "Addressing the Needs of Clients with Traumatic Injury and Alcoholism"…

  20. Juvenile Drug Courts and Teen Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey A., Ed.; Roman, John, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substance abuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substance abuse treatment for drug-involved…

  1. Juvenile Offender Comprehensive Reentry Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Donnie W.

    2004-01-01

    The literature provides ample evidence of the relationship of substance abuse to crime. Research over the last 20 years has established a strong correlation between substance abuse and juvenile delinquency (held, 1998). Currently, there are more than 350,000 juveniles on probation and in continuing care programs in the U.S. who have substance…

  2. Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Donald F.; Henriksen, Lisa; Christenson, Peter G.

    This study examines the frequency and nature of substance use in the most popular movie rentals and songs of 1996 and 1997. The intent was to determine the accuracy of public perceptions about extensive substance use in media popular among youth. Because teenagers are major consumers of movies and music, there is concern about the potential for…

  3. Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

    Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

  4. Perceptions of Elders' Substance Abuse and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…

  5. Translating Developmental Neuroscience to Substance Use Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Several preventive interventions have demonstrated efficacy in reducing substance use. However, opportunities exist to further improve prevention approaches. The application of recent advances in developmental neuroscience can inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs. This paper first briefly describes the developmental integration of the prefrontal cortex with emotion and motivation centers of the brain, and the implications of this process for substance use vulnerability. Discussed next are specific examples of how developmental neuroscience can inform prevention timing, development, and evaluation. Contextual considerations are then suggested including a critical role for schools in substance misuse prevention. Finally, current theoretical and methodological challenges to the translation of developmental neuroscience to substance use prevention are discussed. PMID:26236576

  6. [International comparison of sensitizing chemical substances].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tomoe; Oyma, Tsunehiro; Isse, Toyohi; Narai, Rie; Kanaoka, Maki; Pham, Thi-Thu-Phuong; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2007-09-01

    Some occupational and environmental chemicals cause allergic diseases. To prevent chemical allergies, it is essential to identify the chemical substances that cause sensitization and to eliminate such sensitizers from daily life. As an occupational countermeasure, information for evaluating sensitization of chemical substances is needed. The aims of this article are to compare the criteria for sensitizers among national organizations in various countries and international organizations, and to make out a list of these chemical substances. The definition of sensitizing chemicals and the designation of respective sensitizers according to the PRTR law, Japan Society for Occupational Health (JSHO), American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), European Union (EU), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinshaft (DFG) and Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy were studied. There are 1,389 chemical substances which are designated as sensitizers by any of the laws and five organizations. We specify each chemical substance in the list.

  7. Psychosocial Problems Syndemically Increase Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Deng, Jianxiong; Gao, Xue; Xu, Yan; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jinghui; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A growing body of studies have indicated the associations between substance use and psychosocial problems in adolescents. However, few of them have examined whether these psychosocial problems form a syndemic, which means the co-occurrence of psychosocial problems accompanied by additional effects on substance use. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 82,812 Chinese adolescents who were selected using a multistage random procedure. Bivariate associations were estimated between selected syndemic indicators and adolescent substance use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the syndemic indicator count score (the count of syndemic indicators) and adolescent substance use. In addition, cluster analysis was used to partition participants reporting at least one of syndemic indicators to assess associations between resolved cluster memberships and adolescent substance use. All selected syndemic indicators were associated with each other and with adolescent substance use. As the number of syndemic indicators increases, stronger associations with substance use were found in our analysis: the range of adjusted OR was from 1.57 (95% CI: 1.38–1.79) for 1 syndemic indicator to 9.45 (95% CI: 7.60–11.76) for 5 or 6 syndemic indicators. There was no effect modification of gender on these additive associations. The multivariate logistic regression indicated that the cluster membership of nonlow SES academic failures has the highest odds of using substance (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 2.12–2.41), compared to students reporting none syndemic indicators. Our findings support the syndemic hypothesis that adolescents bearing multiple psychosocial problems experience additive risks of using substance. Our findings support that a comprehensive approach to substance use prevention in adolescents would necessitate the involvement of a variety of providers. PMID:26717391

  8. Exposure to tebuconazol in rice field and laboratory conditions induces oxidative stress in carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Toni, Cândida; Loro, Vania Lucia; Santi, Adriana; de Menezes, Charlene Cavalheiro; Cattaneo, Roberta; Clasen, Bárbara Estevão; Zanella, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides can have an effect on the biochemical and physiological functions of living organisms. The changes seen in fish and their response to pesticides can be used as an example for vertebrate toxicity. In this study, carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to different concentrations of tebuconazol fungicide, by rice field (31.95 μg/L) and laboratory (33.47 and 36.23 μg/L) conditional testing, during a 7 day period. Parameters such thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels (TBARS), protein carbonyl, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities were studied, using the liver, brain and white muscle of the fish. The field experiment showed that the TBARS levels were increased in all the analyzed tissues. Similarly, the protein carbonyl of the liver and the brain AChE activity increased after 7 days. The laboratory experiment demonstrated that the TBARS levels in the liver were increased in both of the concentration tests. TBARS levels in the muscle increased only by the lowest test concentration. On the other hand, the protein carbonyl was increased only by the highest concentration. The results indicate that the tebuconazol exposure from the field and laboratory conditions directly affected the health of the fish, showing the occurrence of oxidative stress.

  9. Role of component herbs in antioxidant activity of shengmai san--a traditional Chinese medicine formula preventing cerebral oxidative damage in rat.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Haruyo; Wang, Xuejiang; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2003-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an attractive model for studying antioxidant-based composite therapy. We previously reported that Shengmai San (SMS), a TCM formulation for treating cardiac disorders, inhibited cerebral oxidative damage in rats when evaluated by both glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity loss and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) formation after forebrain ischemia-reperfusion. In the present study, we further examined the preventive effect of SMS and related decoctions composed of three component herbs (Panax ginseng, Ophiopogon japonicus and Schisandra chinensis) against oxidative brain injury to rationalize the complex formulation of SMS. Schisandra chinensis itself and decoctions containing it all inhibited TBARS formation in vivo. In contrast, Ophiopogon japonicus itself and formulations containing it had little effect on TBARS formation. GPX activity loss in vivo, on the other hand, was completely prevented only by SMS and Ophiopogon japonicus itself. A comparison of the in vitro antioxidant potential of SMS and related decoctions and in vivo effectiveness in preventing cerebral oxidative damage revealed that all the in vitro antioxidant indices examined here essentially correlated well with inhibition of TBARS formation in vivo. DPPH quenching and crocin bleaching activities showed particularly good correlation, and then, superoxide scavenging activity followed. However, none of them correlated with the inhibition of GPX activity loss in vivo. The role of each component herb is also discussed for the SMS effect.

  10. Cadmium-induced alterations in the antioxidant defense system of the rat eye in relation to dietary selenium intake

    SciTech Connect

    Sinno, J.A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary cadmium (Cd)upon enzymatic antioxidant function in the ocular tissues of the albino rat. Activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Se-independent GSH-Px and catalase, and concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione, and the elements Se, Cd and copper (Cu) were determined in ocular tissues from each group. Feeding rats a low Se diet resulted in a significant decrease in GSH-Px activity irrespective of Cd treatment. Activity of Se-independent GSH-Px in rats maintained on the low Se diet decreased when compared to Se-adequate controls. Cd treatment of rats fed low Se resulted in increased activity when compared to low-Se controls. When comparisons were made between ocular TBARS in rats maintained at either level of dietary Se, with or without Cd treatment, decreased ocular TBARS were observed in Cd-treated groups. A significant decrease in the ocular concentration of Se occurred in rats fed 0.05 ppm Se when compared to rats supplemented with 0.10 ppm Se. Administering Cd to the low Se group increased ocular Se levels 100%. A negative correlation between ocular Se concentration and the level of TBARS was observed, suggesting a possible alternate role for Se as an antioxidant in the eye.

  11. 76 FR 50236 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention,......

  12. Preventing Substance Use among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a computerized gender-specific, parent-involvement intervention program grounded in family interaction theory and aimed at preventing substance use among adolescent girls. Following program delivery and 1 year later, girls randomly assigned to the intervention arm improved more than girls in a control arm on variables associated with reduced risks for substance use, including communication with their mothers, knowledge of family rules about substance use, awareness of parental monitoring of their discretionary time, non-acceptance of peer substance use, problem-solving skills, and ability to refuse peer pressure to use substances. Relative to control-arm girls, those in the intervention arm also reported less 30-day use of alcohol and marijuana and lower intentions to smoke, drink, and take illicit drugs in the future. Girls’ mothers in the intervention arm reported greater improvements after the program and relative to control-arm mothers in their communication with their daughters, establishment of family rules about substance use, and monitoring of their daughters’ discretionary time. Study findings lend support to the potential of gender-specific, parent-involvement, and computerized approaches to preventing substance use among adolescent girls. PMID:19632053

  13. Substance abuse among individuals with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Carroll Chapman, Shawna L; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are a growing population that confronts multiple disadvantages from social and environmental determinants of health. In particular, the 7-8 million people in the U.S. with an intellectual disability (ID) suffer disproportionately from substance use problems, largely because of a lack of empirical evidence to inform prevention and treatment efforts for them. Although available research could inform future research efforts, studies are scattered across disciplines with the last review synthesizing findings written more than five years ago. To consider more recent findings with earlier works, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar were searched and produced 37 peer-reviewed texts across multiple disciplines, 15 from 2006 or later. While the prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug use in this population are low, the risk of having a substance-related problem among ID substance users is comparatively high. Gaps in the research and population subgroups that warrant special attention are identified, such as individuals with borderline and mild ID, individuals with co-occurring mental illness, and individuals who are incarcerated. Compared with substance abusers without ID, ID substance abusers are less likely to receive substance abuse treatment or remain in treatment. Research is needed to better gauge the magnitude of substance use problems, identify prevention strategies, and specify treatment components that meet the unique needs of individuals with ID.

  14. Best practice in workplace hazardous substances management.

    PubMed

    Winder, C

    1995-09-01

    Chemical-induced injury and disease remains a significant problem in workers in industry. As a result of this problem, a number of national and international initiatives have recommended the development of conventions, regulations, and codes of practice to attempt to deal with the problems of hazardous substances at work. Within Australia, workplace hazardous substances regulations are in development which will impose legal obligations and responsibilities on the suppliers of hazardous substances and on the employers who use them. At the same time, internationally consistent ISO standards are in use, or are being developed, for quality systems, environmental management, and occupational health and safety. These standards outline a model for the management of quality, environment, or safety, and the processes involved are applicable to the management of hazardous substances. This process includes: obtaining commitment from senior management; instituting consultative mechanisms; developing a hazardous substances policy; identifying components of the hazardous substances management program; resourcing, implementing, and reviewing the program; and integrating the program into the organisation's strategic plan. Only by blending in a specific management program for hazardous substances into the overall planning of an organization will they be managed effectively and efficiently.

  15. Developmental cascades: Linking adolescent substance use, affiliation with substance use promoting peers, and academic achievement to adult substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Moira; Handley, Elizabeth; Chassin, Laurie; Bountress, Kaitlin

    2010-01-01

    Using a high-risk community sample (N = 405), the current study examined developmental cascades among substance use, affiliation with substance use promoting peers, and academic achievement over an 18-year period and tested whether these pathways mediated the influence of parental alcoholism on adult alcohol and drug use disorders. Results showed that the influence of parental alcoholism on adult drug disorders was mediated by developmental cascades across all three domains, whereas the influence of parental alcoholism on adult alcohol disorders was mediated through affiliation with substance use promoting peers and persistence in binge drinking. Adolescent drug use had more implications for adult outcomes than did adolescent alcohol use, which was less likely to spill over into other domains of functioning. Findings indicated that adolescent risk factors had indirect rather than unique effects on adult substance use disorders, suggesting that adolescent risk is not immutable and is largely mediated by later influences. PMID:20883589

  16. Neurobiology of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aditi; Morrow, Jonathan D

    2016-07-01

    There are many facets of the neurobiology of substance use that are distinct in adolescence as compared with adulthood. The adolescent brain is subject to intense subcortical reward processes, but is left with an immature prefrontal control system that is often unable to resist the pull of potentially exciting activities like substance use, even when fully aware of the dangers involved. Peer influences serve only to magnify these effects and foster more sensation-seeking, risky behavior. The unique aspects of neurobiology should be taken into consideration when designing prevention programs and clinical interventions for adolescent substance use disorders.

  17. Investigating widely available substances as vaginal microbicides.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Microbicides to protect women from HIV are urgently needed. Several potential pharmaceutical microbicides are now undergoing obligatory clinical trials to check safety, acceptability and efficacy before approval for use. Microbicides may have side-effects and, paradoxically, their use may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Several widely available substances have been suggested as microbicides, including substances with a low pH such as lemon juice, vinegar, soft drinks and lactobacillus dairy products. Because of the potential for harm it is important that these substances are tested before their use is widely promoted. After small scale safety and acceptability studies, their promotion needs to be evaluated as a communication intervention.

  18. A human model for assessing comedogenic substances.

    PubMed

    Mills, O H; Kligman, A M

    1982-11-01

    Substances that are moderately to strongly comedogenic in the rabbit ear model test have been found to be capable of inducing comedones in the human model described in this report. The test substances are applied under occlusion for one month to the upper part of the backs of young adult, black men who have large follicles. The degree of follicular hyperkeratosis is assessed by a noninvasive "follicular biopsy" techniques, employing a fast-setting cyanoacrylate glue to remove the follicular contents. The rabbit model is more sensitive than the human. Substances that are weakly comedogenic in the rabbit are probably safe for human use with the possible exception of acne-prone persons.

  19. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review.

    PubMed

    Kraanen, Fleur L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2011-04-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex offenders and nonsexual offenders and substance abuse in the normal population; 4) sex offenders' intoxication at the time of the offense; and 5) differences in intoxication at the time of the offense among different types of sex offenders. Studies will be discussed according to the method they used to assess substance abuse, i.e., file research, screening instruments or semi-structured interviews. This review shows that about half of the sex offenders has a history of substance abuse, a quarter to half of the sex offenders has a history of alcohol misuse and that about one fifth to a quarter of the sex offenders has a history of drug misuse. Furthermore, about a quarter to half of the sex offenders appeared to be intoxicated at the time of the offense. The review results in recommendations for future research. Because of the high prevalence of substance abuse in sex offenders it is advisable to routinely screen for substance abuse and, if necessary, to treat substance abuse.

  20. Acrylonitrile-induced toxicity and oxidative stress in isolated rat colonocytes.

    PubMed

    Mohamadin, Ahmed M; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2005-02-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN), an environmental toxic pollutant, has been detected in drinking water, food products and occupational environment. The objective of the present work was to investigate the cytotoxic effects as well as the oxidative stress induced by ACN in cultured rat colonocytes. Colonocytes were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of ACN (0.1-2.0mM) for 60min. Also, colonocytes were incubated with ACN (1.0mM) for different time intervals extending to 180min. Cytotoxicity was determined by assessing cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Oxidative stress was assessed by determining reduced glutathione (GSH) level and lipid peroxidation as indicated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production. Exposure of colonocytes to ACN (1.0mM) for 60min caused nearly a 50% decrease in cell viability and induced a 2.5-fold increase of LDH leakage. In the same experiment, ACN caused a significant decrease in cellular GSH content as well as a significant enhancement of TBARS accumulation. These toxic responses to ACN were dependent on both concentration and duration of exposure to ACN. There was a good correlation between LDH release and TBARS formation (r(2)=0.97, p<0.05). Treatment of colonocytes with GSH, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or dithiothreitol (DDT) prior to exposure to ACN afforded different degrees of protection as indicated by significant decrease in the LDH leakage and TBARS formation as compared to ACN alone-treated cells. Also, pretreatment of colonocytes with the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase (CAT) significantly inhibited LDH leakage and TBARS production. Preincubation with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a hydroxyl radical scavenger or desferroxiamine (DFO), an iron chelator, diminished ACN-induced LDH leakage and TBARS generation. Our results suggest that ACN has a potential cytotoxic effect in rat colonocytes; and thiol group-donors, antioxidant enzymes, hydroxyl radical scavengers and iron

  1. Differential cytoprotection by glycine against oxidant damage to proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Sogabe, K; Roeser, N F; Venkatachalam, M A; Weinberg, J M

    1996-09-01

    Tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) injured freshly isolated proximal tubules in an Fe-dependent fashion that was ameliorated by a lipophilic antioxidant, diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD), but was only minimally affected by glycine. Menadione-induced injury was Fe-independent and was unaffected by DPPD, but was strongly blocked by glycine. Fe was highly toxic when intracellular loading was facilitated by concomitant treatment with hydroxyquinoline (HQ). This toxicity was blocked by DPPD or chelating the Fe, but not by glycine. All of the lesions were characterized by severe depletion of glutathione and other soluble thiols. Menadione induced large increases in protein associated with the Triton-insoluble cytoskeleton and decreases in protein thiol content, consistent with extensive cross linking, but did not increase thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). tBHP and HQ + Fe had either no effect or only moderate, delayed effects on cytoskeletal proteins, but induced substantial increases of TBARS. Glycine did not the alter changes in cytoskeletal proteins, thiols, or TBARS produced by any of the agents. Protection against tBHP toxicity by deferoxamine and DPPD was accompanied by substantial suppression of TBARS accumulation. Superimposition of hypoxia during tBHP exposure reduced TBARS accumulation and restored cytoprotective activity to glycine. Thus, in contrast to its consistently strong cytoprotection against a number of other insults, glycine is only variably cytoprotective against oxidant lesions in freshly isolated proximal tubules. Extensive oxidative crosslinking of proteins is compatible with maintenance of glycine cytoprotection against lethal membrane damage. Fe-induced injury to proximal tubules associated with lipid peroxidation as manifested by TBARS formation is a relatively glycine-insensitive insult.

  2. 75 FR 76756 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... substances: Drug Schedule Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (2010) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Methamphetamine... (7370), and Methamphetamine (1105) only, the company manufactures these controlled substances in...

  3. 76 FR 35243 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (2010) I Amphetamine... controlled substances in bulk for distribution and sale to its customers for Amphetamine (1100). The...

  4. Substance use in the perinatal period

    PubMed Central

    Forray, Ariadna; Foster, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal substance use remains a major public health problem and is associated with a number of deleterious maternal and fetal effects. Polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, and can potentiate adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Tobacco is the most commonly used substance in pregnancy, followed by alcohol and illicit substances. The treatments for perinatal substance use are limited and consist mostly of behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Of these contingency management has shown the most efficacy. More recently, novel interventions such as progesterone for postpartum cocaine use have shown promise. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids in the perinatal period, their effects on maternal and fetal health and current treatments. PMID:26386836

  5. The Confusion of Molecular Particles with Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selley, N. J.

    1978-01-01

    Objects to the idea of treating molecular particles, such as molecules and atoms, as equal in kind to substances when discussing chemical reactions, thus confusing their different roles in the theory of matter. (GA)

  6. Toxic Substances; Mesityl Oxide; Final Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a final test rule establishing testing requirements under section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) for manufacturers and processors of mesityl oxide (MO; CAS No. 141-97-7).

  7. Teens Mix Prescription Opioids with Other Substances

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... least one other substance in the past year. Marijuana and alcohol were the most common (58.5% ...

  8. Treating substance abuse: partner and family approaches.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Keith; O'Farrell, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Historically, alcohol and other substance use disorders were viewed as individual-based problems that were most effectively treated by focusing on the diagnosed individual. However, in response to numerous clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy (and often superiority) of couple and family treatments for alcoholism and drug abuse, this emphasis on treating the individual has slowly given way to a greater awareness of family members' crucial roles in the etiology, maintenance, and long-term course of substance use and addictive behavior. As a result, clinicians are increasingly interested in understanding substance misuse from a systemic perspective and exploring how partner- and family-involved interventions may be used to address individuals' substance abuse.

  9. Prevention of substance abuse: a brief overview

    PubMed Central

    MEDINA-MORA, MARÍA ELENA

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in psychosocial research and neurosciences have provided new avenues for prevention of substance abuse at the individual and community level. A series of risk and protective factors affecting the likelihood of using and abusing substances have been identified. The scope of prevention has been broadened, allowing the prescription of different interventions for individuals according to their varying degrees of vulnerability to substance experimentation, continuous use and dependence. An increased awareness of comorbidity between mental and substance use disorders provides an arena for prevention within psychiatry and related disciplines. Emphasis on program evaluation has helped identify cost effective programs and policies. The integration of prevention within healthy life style policies and programs, including interventions at the school, family and community levels, is more likely to produce the desired outcomes. PMID:16633497

  10. Sleep and substance use disorders: an update.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Deirdre A; Arnedt, J Todd

    2014-10-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD) are common and individuals who suffer from them are prone to relapse. One of the most common consequences of the use of and withdrawal from substances of abuse is sleep disturbance. Substances of abuse affect sleep physiology, including the neurotransmitter systems that regulate the sleep-wake system. Emerging research now highlights an interactive effect between sleep disorders and substance use. New findings in alcohol and sleep research have utilized sophisticated research designs and expanded the scope of EEG and circadian rhythm analyses. Research on marijuana and sleep has progressed with findings on the effects of marijuana withdrawal on objective and subjective measures of sleep. Treatment studies have focused primarily on sleep in alcohol use disorders. Therapies for insomnia in cannabis disorders are needed. Future research is poised to further address mechanisms of sleep disturbance in alcoholics and the effect of medical marijuana on sleep and daytime functioning.

  11. Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota

    SciTech Connect

    Hohreiter, D.W.

    1980-05-01

    The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

  12. Novel psychoactive substances: a novel clinical challenge

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher Daniel; Williams, Margaret; Shaikh, Maliha

    2013-01-01

    The recreational use of novel psychoactive substances in the UK has increased markedly within the last decade. The variety of new substances synthesised and sold as ‘legal’, often under the pretence of being ‘plant food’ or ‘bath salts’ is similarly increasing. This presents challenges to clinicians: they may be unaware of these substances or unable to identify them and their potential for complications and drug interactions. This case describes a patient who ingested a novel psychoactive substance and presented with severe agitation following a delay of several days. He experienced renal, hepatic and neurological complications requiring critical care input. Our case adds to the current repertoire of knowledge regarding the effects of ingestion of novel cathinones. PMID:23964049

  13. Communications in American Politics: Symbols without Substance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.

    1980-01-01

    Political campaigns have been more concerned with public relations than with public policy as a result of television domination. Illustrates how political speeches are dominated by symbols without substance. (CK)

  14. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Dimeff, Linda A.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2008-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a well-established treatment for individuals with multiple and severe psychosocial disorders, including those who are chronically suicidal. Because many such patients have substance use disorders (SUDs), the authors developed DBT for Substance Abusers, which incorporates concepts and modalities designed to promote abstinence and to reduce the length and adverse impact of relapses. Among these are dialectical abstinence, “clear mind,” and attachment strategies that include off-site counseling as well as active attempts to find patients who miss sessions. Several randomized clinical trials have found that DBT for Substance Abusers decreased substance abuse in patients with borderline personality disorder. The treatment also may be helpful for patients who have other severe disorders co-occurring with SUDs or who have not responded to other evidence-based SUD therapies. PMID:18497717

  15. Microcomputer for controlled substance record keeping.

    PubMed

    Stein, R L; Motta, L J; Yee, A D

    1984-01-01

    The use of a microcomputer to maintain controlled substance inventory and record keeping is described. The system maintains perpetual inventories of the central narcotic vault and proof-of-use controlled drug records outstanding at nursing stations. The computerized system has eliminated (1) the delay previously encountered in the posting of transactions from the numeric log to perpetual inventory logs and (2) the potential addition and subtraction errors inherent in a manual system. Computerizing the controlled drug record-keeping system has saved approximately 166 minutes of labor per day, a cost savings of approximately $26. The new system also helps prevent diversion of controlled substances. The computer may also be used for other tasks while not running the controlled substance program. A microcomputer is well suited to the task of controlled-substance record-keeping functions, and the cost of the system (less than $4000) can be quickly recouped in labor savings.

  16. Gender differences in substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Brady, K T; Randall, C L

    1999-06-01

    Despite the fact that the rate of substance abuse and dependence is higher among men than it is among women, the prevalence rates, especially the more recent ones, indicate that a diagnosis of substance abuse is not gender specific. From the emerging literature on gender differences over the past 25 years, male and female substance abusers are clearly not the same. Women typically begin using substances later than do men, are strongly influenced by spouses or boyfriends to use, report different reasons for maintaining the use of the substances, and enter treatment earlier in the course of their illnesses than do men. Importantly, women also have a significantly higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety, than do men, and these disorders typically predate the onset of substance-abuse problems. For women, substances such as alcohol may be used to self-medicate mood disturbances, whereas for men, this may not be true. Although these comorbid disorders might complicate treatment for women, women are, in fact, responsive to treatment and do as well as men in follow-up. Gender differences and similarities have significant treatment implications. This is especially true for the telescoping phenomenon, in which the window for intervention between progressive landmarks is shorter for women than for men. This is also true for the gender differences in physical and sexual abuse, as well as other psychiatric comorbidity that is evident in female substance abusers seeking treatment. The barriers to treatment for women are being addressed in many treatment settings to encourage more women to enter treatment, and family and couples therapy are standard therapeutic interventions. Negative consequences associated with substance abuse are different for men and women, and gender-sensitive rating instruments must be used to measure not only the severity of the problem but also to evaluate treatment efficacy. To determine whether gender

  17. Oviposition-Modifying Substances for Mosquitoes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    preference may be due to the presence of oviposition pheromones or oviposition attractants and repellents in natural habitats. These oviposition -modifying...LfD-R125 421 OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR MOSQUITOES(U) 11 I CALIFORNIA UNIV RIVERSIDE DEPT OF ENTOMOLOGY Y HWANG I 91 JUL 81 DANDi?7-79-C...STANDARDS- 1963-A ." !’, -b b’, -1 I- I 1. AD__ _ _ _ * N 3 OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR MOSQUITOES Final Report Yih-Shen Hwang * July 1, 1981

  18. Oviposition-Modifying Substances for Mosquitoes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    high degree of pre- ference in selecting specific oviposition sites in the general area of their breeding sources. This preference may be due to the...7 -Ai5 419 OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR MOSQUITOES(U) /7, CALIFORNIA UNIV RIVERSIDE DEPT OF ENTOMOLOGY Y HWANGICLRSFE 91 SEP 79 DAMD7-?9-C...9026 FO63 N - . L’. ! 1111112. MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESr CHART NATIONAt BURAU Of S1ANDARDS 196J A -17 * 0) AD __ OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR

  19. Preparative isolation of aquatic humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    A useful procedure has been developed which utilizes adsorption chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography, hydrogen saturation by ion exchange, and lypholization to obtain low-ash aqueous humic substances. The preparative concentration of aquatic humic substances is done by multiple reconcentration procedures even though initial concentrations of aqueous humus may be less than 25 ??g/L. The procedure yields concentration factors of 25 000 times for both humic and fulvic acid in water.

  20. Substance abuse among oral healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Marnewick, J C; van Zyl, A W

    2014-05-01

    The abuse of both licit and illicit substances by the general population affects at least one in ten people. Research shows that the oral healthcare worker has at least the same prevalence of substance abuse, perhaps even higher. The emergence of prescription drug abuse is one of the most worrying and dangerous aspects for the healthcare worker, due to ease of access to such drugs. According to the United Nations, prescription drug abuse is amongst the top three practices of substance abuse. We have an obligation to incorporate the evidence of substance abuse among oral healthcare professionals in our undergraduate dental curricula in order to combat this phenomenon. As the stress of daily survival in single practitioner practices increase, so will the danger of substance abuse. This may lead to impairment of the healthcare worker and ultimately loss of registration. It will take a combined effort from organised dentistry and academic institutions to establish a national strategy to ensure we address this important issue at undergraduate level and provide support at practitioner level. This paper will deal with substance abuse and the implications of impairment it holds for the oral healthcare worker.

  1. Humic substance formation during wastewater infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L. ); Hildmann-Smed, R.; Filip, Z.K. , Langen . Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene); Jenssen, P.D. . Centre for Soil and Environmental Research)

    1991-01-01

    Soil infiltration of wastewater effluents is a widely practiced method of treatment and disposal/reuse throughout the world. Renovation of the wastewater results from a wide variety of complex physicochemical and biological processes. One set of processes is speculated to involve the accumulation of organic matter by filtration and sorption followed by formation of humic substances. This humic substance formation can effect the performance of soil treatment systems by contributing to soil pore clogging and reduction in hydraulic capacity, and by yielding reactive substances and an enhancement of purification processes. While there has been a wealth of research into the nature and genesis of humic substances in terrestrial environments, there has been limited research of humic substance formation during soil infiltration of wastewater. The purpose of the research reported herein was to determine if humic substances can form under conditions typical of those present during wastewater infiltration into natural soil systems. This work was conducted during 1989 to 1990 as a collaborative effort between the Centre for Soil and Environmental Research, located in Aas, Norway and the Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene located in Langen, West Germany. 11 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Substance abuse treatment participation and employment outcomes for public disability beneficiaries with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Debra L

    2007-07-01

    Quantitative research methods are used to examine the interaction among public disability benefit receipt, substance abuse, participation in substance abuse treatment, and employment among US adults. Using cross-sectional data from the 2002 and 2003 Survey on Drug Abuse and Health, the results demonstrate that disability beneficiaries who have substance use disorders are more likely to access treatment than persons with substance use disorders who are not beneficiaries. Results could not confirm, however, that those beneficiaries who access treatment are more likely to return to employment than those who do not access treatment.

  3. Stimulation and inhibition of gastrointestinal propulsion induced by substance P and substance K in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, P.

    1985-01-01

    Substance P and substance K (neurokinin A) (dose range: 0.08-80 nmol kg-1) were tested for their effects on gastrointestinal propulsion in the rat. The peptides were given by intraperitoneal injection concurrently with the intragastric administration of a test meal containing charcoal and 51Cr. Examination 3 min after the test meal showed that high doses of substance P (greater than 0.74 nmol kg-1) and substance K (greater than 8.8 nmol kg-1) inhibited gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit. This inhibitory effect was changed to a stimulant effect by pretreatment of the rats with atropine (3.5 mumol kg-1). Guanethidine pretreatment (67 mumol kg-1) revealed a facilitatory effect of low doses of the two tachykinins (about 1 nmol kg-1) on gastrointestinal propulsion. Examination 15 min after the test meal demonstrated that substance P (greater than 0.74 nmol kg-1) dose-dependently enhanced gastrointestinal propulsion, an effect that was also seen after atropine pretreatment. Low doses of substance K (about 1 nmol kg-1) also stimulated gastrointestinal propulsion but this effect was abolished by atropine. In addition, atropine pretreatment revealed a stimulant effect of high doses of substance K (88 nmol kg-1) on gastric emptying. These results show that the effects of substance P and substance K on gastrointestinal propulsion vary with dose and time and involve, at least partly, activation of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:2413940

  4. Chemical substances and contact allergy--244 substances ranked according to allergenic potency.

    PubMed

    Schlede, E; Aberer, W; Fuchs, T; Gerner, I; Lessmann, H; Maurer, T; Rossbacher, R; Stropp, G; Wagner, E; Kayser, D

    2003-12-01

    From 1985 to 2001 a group consisting of thirty experts including dermatologists from universities, representatives from the chemical industry and from regulatory authorities elaborated and consequently decided on the potency ranking of chemicals with contact allergenic properties. These chemicals were defined either as synthetic chemicals or as chemicals identified as ingredients in natural products. On 244 substances clinical and experimental data on humans and results of animal tests as documented in the scientific literature were carefully collected and evaluated. This careful evaluation and assessment of these chemicals clearly demonstrate that ranking of substances according to their allergenic potency is possible and justified. It was decided to rank the most potent contact allergens in Category A of substances having significant allergenic properties. Substances with a solid-based indication of a contact allergenic potential and substances with the capacity of cross-reactions were listed in Category B and substances with insignificant or questionable allergenic effects were listed in Category C. An assessment of these compiled data is published here. Three Appendices give a comprehensive overview of the 98 substances listed in Category A, the 77 substances listed in Category B and the 69 substances listed in Category C.

  5. The Relationship Between Controlled Substances and Violence.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Emma E; Choksy, Seema; Wintemute, Garen J

    2016-01-01

    A causal relationship between controlled substances and firearm violence has been widely assumed in the United States, and federal law prohibits individuals who are "unlawful users of or addicted to any controlled substance" from purchasing or possessing firearms (68 FR 3750. 2003. Codified at 27 CFR §478.11). However, the law does a poor job of defining "unlawful users," resulting in recent calls for a revised, actionable definition. Such a definition should be informed by research evidence, but to date the epidemiologic research on the relationship between controlled substances and violence has not been comprehensively reviewed. The initial goal of this review was to summarize the best available evidence on the relationship between controlled substances and firearm violence, but only 1 study specific to firearm violence was identified. We therefore reviewed studies of this relationship using broader measures of interpersonal violence and suicide, all of which included but were not limited to firearm violence, and measures of illicit firearm carrying. Prospective longitudinal studies (n = 22) from 1990 to 2014 were identified by using searches of online databases and citation tracking. Information was extracted from each study by using a standardized protocol. Quality of evidence was independently assessed by 2 reviewers. Aggregate measures of controlled substance use were associated with increased interpersonal violence and suicide, but evidence regarding the relationship between specific substances and violence was mixed. Involvement in illegal drug sales was consistently associated with interpersonal violence. To effectively revise extant federal law and delineate appropriate prohibiting criteria, more research is needed to understand the relationship between controlled substances and firearm violence.

  6. Effect of BCAA intake during endurance exercises on fatigue substances, muscle damage substances, and energy metabolism substances.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Jeong, Woo-Seok; Lee, Ha-Yan

    2013-12-01

    The increase rate of utilization of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) by muscle is reduced to its plasma concentration during prolonged exercise leading to glycogen. BCAA supplementation would reduce the serum activities of intramuscular enzymes associated with muscle damage. To examine the effects of BCAA administration on fatigue substances (serotonin, ammonia and lactate), muscle damage substances (CK and LDH) and energy metabolism substances (FFA and glucose) after endurance exercise. Subjects (n = 26, college-aged males) were randomly divided into an experimental (n = 13, EXP) and a placebo (n = 13, CON) group. Subjects both EXP and CON performed a bout of cycle training (70% VO2max intensity) to exhaustion. Subject in the EXP were administrated BCAA (78ml/kg·w) prior to the bout of cycle exercise. Fatigue substances, muscle damage substances and energy metabolism substances were measured before ingesting BCAAs and placebos, 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, immediately after exercise, and 30 min after exercise. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measure ANCOVA, correlation and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The following results were obtained from this study; 1. In the change of fatigue substances : Serotonin in the EXP tended to decreased at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, post exercise, and recovery 30 min. Serotonin in the CON was significantly greater than the EXP at the10 min before exercise and recovery 30. Ammonia in the EXP was increased at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, and post exercise, but significantly decreased at the recovery 30min (p < 0.05). Ammonia in the CON was significantly lower than the EXP at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, and post exercise (p < 0.05). Lactate in the EXP was significantly increased at the 30 min into exercise and significantly decreased at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. Lactate in the CON was significantly lower than the EXP

  7. 48 CFR 245.7310-5 - Controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controlled substances. 245... Controlled substances. The sale of controlled substances, e.g., narcotics, stimulants, depressants, or hallucinogenic drugs, shall be subject to the following special conditions: (a) Controlled Substances. Bids...

  8. 78 FR 30330 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Title 21, Code... class of controlled substance listed in schedule II. The facility intends to import the above listed controlled substance for legitimate use. Supplies of this particular controlled substance are inadequate...

  9. Review of the Proposed "DSM-5" Substance Use Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, K. Dayle; Gill, Carman; Ray, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    The "DSM-5" Task Force has recommended a new substance use disorder to replace substance abuse and dependence. This article provides an overview of substance abuse and dependence, a description of the "DSM-5" substance use disorder, and implications and potential consequences of this change.

  10. 40 CFR 766.25 - Chemical substances for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical substances for testing. 766... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.25 Chemical substances for testing. (a) Listing of chemical substances. Chemical...

  11. 40 CFR 766.25 - Chemical substances for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemical substances for testing. 766... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.25 Chemical substances for testing. (a) Listing of chemical substances. Chemical...

  12. 40 CFR 766.25 - Chemical substances for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemical substances for testing. 766... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.25 Chemical substances for testing. (a) Listing of chemical substances. Chemical...

  13. 40 CFR 766.25 - Chemical substances for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical substances for testing. 766... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.25 Chemical substances for testing. (a) Listing of chemical substances. Chemical...

  14. 40 CFR 766.25 - Chemical substances for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemical substances for testing. 766... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.25 Chemical substances for testing. (a) Listing of chemical substances. Chemical...

  15. 48 CFR 52.223-11 - Ozone-Depleting Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...

  16. 48 CFR 52.223-11 - Ozone-Depleting Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...

  17. 48 CFR 52.223-11 - Ozone-Depleting Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...

  18. 48 CFR 52.223-11 - Ozone-Depleting Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...

  19. 48 CFR 52.223-11 - Ozone-Depleting Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...

  20. 30 CFR 56.16012 - Storage of incompatible substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of incompatible substances. 56.16012... Storage and Handling § 56.16012 Storage of incompatible substances. Chemical substances, including... substances, where such contact could cause a violent reaction or the liberation of harmful fumes or gases....

  1. 30 CFR 57.16012 - Storage of incompatible substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of incompatible substances. 57.16012... Storage and Handling § 57.16012 Storage of incompatible substances. Chemical substances, including... substances, where such contact could cause a violent reaction or the liberation of harmful fumes or gases....

  2. Adolescent Alcohol and Substance Abuse: Parent and Peer Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halebsky, Mark A.

    1987-01-01

    Researched the effects of peer and parent drug usage on substance abuse by the adolescent. Found parent usage correlated with increased adolescent usage, as did parental attitude toward illicit substance use. Supports Kandel's theory of stages of substance use. Shows adolescent substance usage is learned, in part, by modeling and imitation.…

  3. Playing video games while using or feeling the effects of substances: associations with substance use problems.

    PubMed

    Ream, Geoffrey L; Elliott, Luther C; Dunlap, Eloise

    2011-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance--referred to herein as "concurrent use"-is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabé Morán's 2002 problem video game play (PVP) measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for "drug interaction" between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use.

  4. Sustainability, substance flow management and time. Part I Temporal analysis of substance flows.

    PubMed

    Kümmerer, Klaus; Hofmeister, Sabine

    2008-09-01

    Flows of chemical substances need to be managed in a sustainable way. Sustainable development as a whole and the sustainable management of substance flows in particular are both time issues. These include the importance of the dynamics of substance flows and the way these interconnect with the use of resources, the avoidance of environmental pollution, and their effects on health and food production. Another prerequisite for the proper management of substance flows is justice within and between generations. This requires a systematic approach and a systematic analysis of the issues as well as of the actions to be taken. One tool for such a systematic approach is temporal analysis. It brings the temporal aspects of the substances themselves and of their intended use, as well as factors affecting the stakeholders, such as decision makers, producers and consumers, into focus. In the past, timing factors were rarely taken into account. Knowledge of the temporal dynamics of substance flows and their resultant outcomes, as well as of their interaction with ecological, economic and social systems, is a basic requirement for successful substance flow management. The need to include temporal aspects into substance flow management and how to do so is outlined here. Included are not only politicians but also practitioners and scientists who must explicitly take into account adequate time scales, points in time, breaks and other forms of time in planning and acting.

  5. Substance Abuse Training and Perceived Knowledge: Predictors of Perceived Preparedness to Work in Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bina, Rena; Yum, Joohee; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Sowbel, Lynda; Mollette, Angela; Jani, Jayshree; Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2008-01-01

    As frontline mental health care providers, social workers need to be prepared to confront and properly manage substance abuse issues in practice. This study examined predictors of recent master of social work (MSW) graduates' perceptions of preparedness to practice in the area of substance abuse. A cross-sectional design was used, and 232 recent…

  6. Attitude and Peer Influences on Adolescent Substance Use: The Moderating Effect of Age, Sex, and Substance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Holub, Shayla C.; Arnett, Mitzi

    2003-01-01

    Examines the importance of peer influence and personal attitudes in relation to self-reported use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana for 213 younger adolescents and 219 older adolescents. Friends' use was significantly related to substance use for both age groups, both sexes, and all substances examined. Resistance self- efficacy was…

  7. Effects of Substance Use Education Programs: Gender Differences in Student Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venuti, John Paul; Conroy, Matthew; Landis, Pamela; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study assesses the differential substance use between male and female college students through the administration of a survey of recent use of six commonly used psychoactive substances (cigarettes, chewing tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and caffeine). It investigates the situational contexts associated with use of particular substances…

  8. Oral health of substance-dependent individuals: impact of specific substances.

    PubMed

    D'Amore, Meredith M; Cheng, Debbie M; Kressin, Nancy R; Jones, Judith; Samet, Jeffrey H; Winter, Michael; Kim, Theresa W; Saitz, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Little is known about how different types of substances affect oral health. Our objective was to examine the respective effects of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, and marijuana on oral health in substance-dependent persons. Using self-reported data from 563 substance-dependent individuals, we found that most reported unsatisfactory oral health, with their most recent dental visit more than 1 year ago. In multivariable logistic regressions, none of the substance types were significantly associated with oral health status. However, opioid use was significantly related to a worse overall oral health rating compared to 1 year ago. These findings highlight the poor oral health of individuals with substance dependence and the need to address declining oral health among opioid users. General health and specialty addiction care providers should be aware of oral health problems among these patients. In addition, engagement into addiction and medical care may be facilitated by addressing oral health concerns.

  9. Adolescents' Exposure to Disasters and Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Fang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews the impact of exposure to man-made or natural disasters on adolescent substance use. It covers empirical studies published from 2005 to 2015 concerning (a) the scope of the problem, (b) vulnerable groups and risk and protective factors, and (c) evidence-based interventions. The review suggests a strong link between adolescent substance use and exposure to either man-made or natural disaster. Vulnerable groups include adolescents with previous exposure to traumatic events, living in areas that are continually exposed to disasters, and ethnic minorities. Risk and protective factors at the individual, familial, community, and societal levels are described based on the bioecological model of mass trauma. Given that mass trauma is unfortunately a global problem, it is important to establish international interdisciplinary working teams to set gold standards for comparative studies on the etiology for adolescent substance use in the context of disasters.

  10. Novel psychoactive substances of interest for psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Schifano, Fabrizio; Orsolini, Laura; Duccio Papanti, G; Corkery, John M

    2015-01-01

    Novel psychoactive substances include synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone derivatives, psychedelic phenethylamines, novel stimulants, synthetic opioids, tryptamine derivatives, phencyclidine-like dissociatives, piperazines, GABA-A/B receptor agonists, a range of prescribed medications, psychoactive plants/herbs, and a large series of performance and image enhancing drugs. Users are typically attracted by these substances due to their intense psychoactive effects and likely lack of detection in routine drug screenings. This paper aims at providing psychiatrists with updated knowledge of the clinical pharmacology and psychopathological consequences of the use of these substances. Indeed, these drugs act on a range of neurotransmitter pathways/receptors whose imbalance has been associated with psychopathological conditions, including dopamine, cannabinoid CB1, GABA-A/B, 5-HT2A, glutamate, and k opioid receptors. An overall approach in terms of clinical management is briefly discussed. PMID:25655145

  11. Occupational turnover intentions among substance abuse counselors

    PubMed Central

    Rothrauff, Tanja C.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Bride, Brian E.; Roman, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of occupational turnover intention (OcTI) among substance abuse counselors. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 929 counselors working in 225 private substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs across the U.S. Hierarchical multiple regression models were conducted to assess predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of OcTI. OcTI scores were relatively low on a 7-point scale, indicating that very few counselors definitely intended to leave the SAT field. Age, certification, positive perceptions of procedural and distributive justice, and hospital-based status negatively predicted OcTI. Counselors’ substance use disorder impacted history moderated the association between organizational commitment and OcTI. Organizational turnover intention partially mediated the link between organizational commitment and OcTI. Workforce stability might be achieved by promoting perceptions of advantages to working in a particular treatment program, organizational commitment, showing appreciation for counselors’ work, and valuing employees from diverse backgrounds. PMID:20947285

  12. Liver abnormalities in drug and substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Pateria, Puraskar; de Boer, Bastiaan; MacQuillan, Gerry

    2013-08-01

    Drug and substance abuse remains a major medical problem. Alcohol use, abuse and dependence are highly prevalent conditions. Alcohol related liver disease can present as simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. Paracetamol hepatotoxicity secondary to accidental or deliberate overdose is another common problem. While the adverse cardiovascular, neurological, renal and psychiatric consequences of various illicit substance abuses are widely studied and publicized, less attention has been directed towards possible hepatotoxic effects. Illicit drug abuse can cause a range of liver abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic derangement of liver function tests to fulminant hepatic failure. This article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, investigations, management and prognostic factors of alcohol related liver disease and paracetamol hepatotoxicity as well as the current knowledge pertaining to hepatotoxicity of the more commonly used illicit substances including cannabis, amphetamine type stimulants, cocaine, khat chewing and complementary and alternate medicine.

  13. Sociocultural perspective of substance use in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H K

    1996-01-01

    The present communication focuses on a sociocultural perspective of substance use in a pluralistic and diverse culture. India has a history of use of plant products, viz., cannabis, opium, and home-brewed alcoholic beverages, within a defined sociocultural framework over five millennium. Cross sectional epidemiological studies in the field of substance use in different parts of India show that certain social groups are more "vulnerable" to substance use. Caste, religion, and local customs and traditions play a significant role in the choice of drugs, their consumption, and their control in rural/semiurban populations. The intercultural barriers are diminishing in urban populations, and even alien drugs like heroin have been introduced. The social and cultural implications of the traditional vis-a-vis the altering drug use scene are discussed at length.

  14. An integral approach to substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Amodia, Diana S; Cano, Carol; Eliason, Michele J

    2005-12-01

    There is a pressing need in the substance abuse field for more comprehensive models of etiology and treatment that address the complex issues of addiction, including the biological, social, cultural, spiritual and developmental needs of individuals and groups. This article presents a theoretical framework for an integral approach to substance abuse that expands on the existing biopsychosocial model. One contribution of the model is an integrated approach to spirituality from a cross-cultural perspective. This integral approach examines substance abuse etiology and treatment from a four-quadrant perspective adapted from the work of Ken Wilber, and incorporates concepts from integrative medicine and transpersonal psychology/psychiatry. Implications of the model are explored.

  15. [Is substance abuse among physicians a problem?].

    PubMed

    Akvardar, Yildiz; Türkcan, Ahmet; Cakmak, Duran

    2002-01-01

    In today's medical community, there is growing concern about substance use among physicians, not only because of their own health, but also because of the potential adverse effects on their clinical practices. Physicians affect public health both by treatment and preventive studies and as role models. Prevalence data concerning substance abuse are generally lacking. There is no consensus on the rates of substance abuse being higher among physicians than among the general public. Physicians are less likely to smoke cigarettes and use illicit substances (like marijuana, cocaine and heroin) and more likely to use alcohol and two types of prescription medications--benzodiazepines and minor opioids--compared with their age groups. Doctors are at special risk of developing addiction problems owing to the strain of medical practice, erosion of the taboo against injecting and using opiates, and particularly access to supplies. The most common precipitating factors mentioned are physical pain and illness, usually chronic, with family tragedy such as death of a wife or child next. The third most common factor is an addicted wife. Stress, overwork and marital problems are also mentioned. No data were found about physicians' substance use in Turkey. This article generally aims to review the knowledge on the prevalence of substance use among physicians, the drug of choice, the development of dependence, the treatment and prognosis and to discuss the importance of this issue by evaluating three cases treated at the Alcohol and Drug Addiction Treatment and Research Center (AMATEM), Bakirköy State Hospital for Mental and Neurological Diseases.

  16. 76 FR 36557 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... Abuse and Mental Health Services, Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  17. 78 FR 15961 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National Advisory Council; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance... below). Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for...

  18. 75 FR 16487 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT.... Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's CSAT National Advisory...

  19. 75 FR 16488 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT.... Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's CSAT National Advisory...

  20. 76 FR 20994 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  1. Leaf-closing substance in Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Sohtome, Yoshihiro; Tokunaga, Takashi; Ueda, Katsuhiro; Yamamura, Shosuke; Ueda, Minoru

    2002-01-01

    Potassium (2R,3R)-2,3,4-trihydroxy-2-methylbutanoate (1) was identified as a leaf-closing substance in the nyctinastic plant, Leucaena leucocephala. Compound 1 showed strong leaf-closing activity toward L. leucocephala and was not effective against other nyctinastic plants. The potassium ion was indispensable for the bioactivity of 1. Compound 1 gradually lost its bioactivity because of the exchange of the counter cation during isolation. A leaf-opening substance was also observed in the same plant.

  2. Integrated Care for Pediatric Substance Abuse.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Rebecca P; Hilt, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Integrated care is a way to improve the prevention, identification, and treatment of mental health difficulties, including substance abuse, in pediatric care. The pediatrician's access, expertise in typical development, focus on prevention, and alignment with patients and families can allow successful screening, early intervention, and referral to treatment. Successful integrated substance abuse care for youth is challenged by current reimbursement systems, information exchange, and provider role adjustment issues, but these are being addressed as comfort with this care form and resources to support its development grow.

  3. Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of hazardous substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojan, M.; Damian, V.; Fleaca, C.; Vasile, T.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we report spectral measurements of some relatively common substances but from the hazardous category (possibly to be used like explosives or their manipulation is dangerous) in view to create a database with spectra of such substances. THz transmission spectra of some pure materials and mixed ones are also introduced. The measurements were performed using a Time-Domain system that work in the range of 0.2-4.5 THz. We develop our algorithm to obtain maximum information from the measurement and to minimize the errors.

  4. Identifying the substance abuser in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Bell, K

    1992-01-01

    Illicit drugs are used regularly by 14.5 million Americans. By identifying patients who abuse substances, the nurse will be better able to provide for the treatment interventions needed and omit ineffective treatment interventions. The patient will benefit by receiving timely and appropriate care. To identify substance abusers, the nurse must know effects of commonly abused drugs, their routes of administration, withdrawal signs, and the physical assessments that should be performed. The most common drugs abused are narcotics, depressants, antidepressants, anti-anxiety drugs, stimulants, hallucinogens, and marijuana.

  5. A Substance Flow Model for Global Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccari, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    A system-based substance flow model (SFM) for phosphorus is developed based on the global phosphorus substance flow analysis (SFA) of Cordell et al (2009). The model is based strictly on mass balance considerations. It predicts the sensitivity of phosphorus consumption to various interventions intended to conserve reserves, as well as interactions among these efforts, allowing a comparison of their impacts on phosphorus demand. The interventions include control of phosphorus losses from soil erosion, food production and food waste, or phosphorus recycling such as from animal manure or human waste.

  6. Substance misuse prevention as corporate social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Radacsi, Gergely; Hardi, Peter

    2014-03-01

    All sectors of society should be involved in reducing substance misuse, including businesses. However, the business sector is typically involved only to the extent that their products compel them to be (e.g., alcohol producers promoting responsible alcohol consumption). This article examines why business participation has been limited and how embedding prevention within a framework of health promotion could increase participation. It reviews both Hungarian and international cases, concluding that although corporate social responsibility (CSR) offers a framework to approach substance misuse reduction, a different perception of the role of the business sector is necessary to make it viable.

  7. Differences in Substance Use and Substance Use Risk Factors by Asian Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Regina A.; Tucker, Joan S.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Ewing, Brett A.; Pedersen, Eric R.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined differences in lifetime use and initiation of substance use and associated risk factors for alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana among seven subgroups of Asian American (AA) adolescents: Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Mixed heritage Asian. Sixth and 7th grade AA adolescents in Southern California were surveyed five times over three academic years. We examined subgroup differences in (1) lifetime alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use assessed at baseline, (2) initiation of each substance over three years, and (3) baseline individual (positive and negative expectancies about substances, resistance self-efficacy, and intentions to use), family (closest adult and older sibling substance use), and school factors (perceived peer use). Although there was considerable heterogeneity in lifetime substance use and initiation rates, subgroup differences were not statistically significant (ps > .20). Significant subgroup differences existed for negative expectancies about use, perceived peer use, and close adult alcohol and cigarette use (ps < .05). Specifically, Vietnamese and Japanese adolescents had the lowest negative expectancies about cigarettes and marijuana, respectively. Vietnamese adolescents reported the highest levels of perceived peer cigarette use. Mixed-heritage adolescents reported the highest frequency of alcohol and cigarette use by their closest adult. Although no differences in substance use rates were observed, these findings are an important first step in understanding heterogeneity in AA adolescents’ risk for substance use and initiation. PMID:26388971

  8. The relationship between substance abuse treatment completion, sociodemographics, substance use characteristics, and criminal history.

    PubMed

    Turan, Reyhan; Yargic, Ilhan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if a significant relationship exists between the sociodemographics, substance use characteristics, criminal history, and completion of substance abuse treatment. In this study, 115 individuals being monitored for substance abuse treatment on probation at the Probation and Help Center under the Republic of Turkey's Ministry of Justice's Chief Public Prosecutor's Office of Istanbul were included successively between the dates of April 2008 and April 2009. During a 24-week follow-up, individuals whose urine analyses were clean 6 times consecutively were considered to have completed the treatment successfully. To determine the effect of sociodemographic factors and substance use characteristics on treatment completion, a semistructured sociodemographic data survey was used. Also, the participants' criminal records were examined. A total of 115 people participated in the study. One hundred ten (95.7%) of them were male. Sixty-eight (59.1%) of the participants had completed treatment. Age group, education level, age of onset for substance use, number of substances used, employment status, and criminal records showed a significant difference between treatment completers and noncompleters. When a logistic regression analysis was done, only number of substances used and criminal record (other than drug possession) were significantly different for the 2 groups. The current treatment program for polysubstance users and individuals with a criminal record is insufficient. It is necessary that treatment systems be developed so they can be beneficial for these types of patients.

  9. Playing Video Games While Using or Feeling the Effects of Substances: Associations with Substance Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Geoffrey L.; Elliott, Luther C.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance—referred to herein as “concurrent use”—is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabé Morán’s 2002 problem video game play (PVP) measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for “drug interaction” between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use. PMID:22073023

  10. 49 CFR 172.323 - Infectious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Infectious substances. 172.323 Section 172.323 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  11. 49 CFR 172.323 - Infectious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Infectious substances. 172.323 Section 172.323 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  12. 49 CFR 172.323 - Infectious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Infectious substances. 172.323 Section 172.323 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  13. 49 CFR 172.323 - Infectious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Infectious substances. 172.323 Section 172.323 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  14. Public perceptions of behavioral and substance addictions.

    PubMed

    Lang, Brent; Rosenberg, Harold

    2017-02-01

    Most of the research on public perceptions of people with addictive disorders has focused on alcohol and illicit drugs, rather than addiction to behavioral activities. To expand the range of addictive behaviors and types of perceptions studied, we designed the present study to assess the lay public's definitions of and willingness to affiliate with people described as addicted to 1 of 2 specific behaviors (i.e., pornography or gambling) or 1 of 3 specific substances (i.e., alcohol, marijuana, or heroin). A nationwide convenience sample (N = 612) of American adults completed online questionnaires during the summer of 2015. Participants rated heroin as more addictive than the other drugs and behaviors and, despite differences among the conditions, were generally unwilling to affiliate with an individual addicted to any of the 2 behaviors or 3 substances. When asked to rate different potential indications of addiction, participants endorsed behavioral signs of impaired control and physiological and psychological dependence as more indicative of all 5 types of addiction than desire to use the substance or engage in the addictive behavior. Despite recent efforts to increase public knowledge about addictive disorders, members of the public continue to endorse some attitudes indicative of stigmatization toward people with selected substance and behavioral addictions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Cocaine Babies: Florida's Substance-Exposed Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpring, Jayme

    This report is designed to provide Florida's school personnel with assistance in working with students prenatally exposed to cocaine or other toxic substances. The report offers background data, practical strategies for teaching and learning, and resources for networking. The first chapter outlines statistics on the incidence of the problem of…

  16. Program Evaluation Strategies for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, William B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in program evaluation for substance abuse prevention efforts. Included in this review is a discussion of approaches to process, outcome, and impact evaluation. Evaluation designs are reviewed with attention given to topics such as recruitment and retention of sites and participants, defining interventions,…

  17. Lichen substances prevent lichens from nutrient deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Willenbruch, Karen; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The dibenzofuran usnic acid, a widespread cortical secondary metabolite produced by lichen-forming fungi, was shown to promote the intracellular uptake of Cu(2+) in two epiphytic lichens, Evernia mesomorpha and Ramalina menziesii, from acidic, nutrient-poor bark. Higher Cu(2+) uptake in the former, which produces the depside divaricatic acid in addition to usnic acid, suggests that this depside promotes Cu(2+) uptake. Since Cu(2+) is one of the rarest micronutrients, promotion of Cu(2+) uptake by lichen substances may be crucial for the studied lichens to survive in their nutrient-poor habitats. In contrast, study of the uptake of other metals in E. mesomorpha revealed that the intracellular uptake of Mn(2+), which regularly exceeds potentially toxic concentrations in leachates of acidic tree bark, was partially inhibited by the lichen substances produced by this species. Inhibition of Mn(2+) uptake by lichen substances previously has been demonstrated in lichens. The uptake of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), which fail to reach toxic concentrations in acidic bark at unpolluted sites, although they are more common than Cu(2+), was not affected by lichen substances of E. mesomorpha.

  18. A Community Education Approach to Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL. Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

    Alcohol and drug abuse not only affect the individual, but the entire community. No single person or organization alone is capable of, nor responsible for solving the substance abuse problem. It is now important that schools establish partnerships with the community to develop and implement appropriate programs to foster healthy adolescent…

  19. Family Medicine Curriculum Guide to Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liepman, Michael R., Ed.; And Others

    This curriculum guide on substance abuse is intended for teachers of family medicine. Comments, learning objectives, teaching hints, and evaluations of knowledge are provided for each area in all chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on the pharmacology of commonly abused drugs including depressants, opioids, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and…

  20. Infants Make Quantity Discriminations for Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J.; Christie, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 ("N" = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they…

  1. Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…

  2. 24 CFR 21.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Controlled substance. 21.610 Section 21.610 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.610...

  3. Screening for substance abuse in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jimerson, Steven D; Musick, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    Several states have proposed laws that urine drug screening be performed as a part of qualifying for public assistance. At least one state (Florida) has passed such a law, and several other states are considering similar laws. The Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth created a committee to study laws and policies regarding the use of illegal drugs while pregnant. To get a better understanding of drug screening and pregnancy, 151 consecutive obstetrical patients receiving Medicaid were screened at their initial obstetrical visit by verbal and written questionnaire's concerning the use of alcohol, nicotine, and other illicit\\dangerous drugs; in addition a urine drug screen for the use of illicit or dangerous drugs was performed. The patient histories regarding the use of dangerous or illicit substances was reviewed and compared with the urine drug screens performed at the same visit. The authors note that when studied the incidence of substance abuse has been similar in patient population receiving public assistance and patient populations with traditional insurance. Oklahoma is one of 13 states with laws requiring mandatory reporting of substance abuse in pregnancy or the exposure of the newborn to illicit substances.

  4. Detecting explosive substances by the IR spectrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuula, J.; Rinta, Heikki J.; Pölönen, I.; Puupponen, H.-H.; Haukkamäki, Marko; Teräväinen, T.

    2014-05-01

    Fast and safe detection methods of explosive substances are needed both before and after actualized explosions. This article presents an experiment of the detection of three selected explosives by the ATR FTIR spectrometer and by three different IR hyperspectral imaging devices. The IR spectrometers give accurate analyzing results, whereas hyperspectral imagers can detect and analyze desired samples without touching the unidentified target at all. In the controlled explosion experiment TNT, dynamite and PENO were at first analyzed as pure substances with the ATR FTIR spectrometer and with VNIR, SWIR and MWIR cameras. After three controlled explosions also the residues of TNT, dynamite and PENO were analyzed with the same IR devices. The experiments were performed in arctic outdoor conditions and the residues were collected on ten different surfaces. In the measurements the spectra of all three explosives were received as pure substances with all four IR devices. Also the explosion residues of TNT were found on cotton with the IR spectrometer and with VNIR, SWIR and MWIR hyperspectral imagers. All measurements were made directly on the test materials which had been placed on the explosion site and were collected for the analysis after each blast. Measurements were made with the IR spectrometer also on diluted sample. Although further tests are suggested, the results indicate that the IR spectrography is a potential detection method for explosive subjects, both as pure substances and as post-blast residues.

  5. Multiple Substance Use Disorders in Juvenile Detainees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Gary M.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the 6-month prevalence of multiple substance use disorders (SUDs) among juvenile detainees by demographic subgroups (sex, race/ethnicity, age). Method: Participants were a randomly selected sample of 1,829 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic detainees (1,172 males, 657 females, aged 10 to 18). Patterns and…

  6. 24 CFR 21.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled substance. 21.610 Section 21.610 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.610...

  7. Resources: Substances and Alcohol Abuse Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biakeddy, Eddie; Yazzie, Arnold D.

    To assist schools and community organizations in implementing the 1984 Navajo Nation Education Policy on Substance and Alcohol Abuse, the Monitoring-Evaluation and Technical Assistance office has identified resources, materials, and operational programs that should be helpful in the development of programs to prevent and combat the enormous…

  8. A cytotoxic substance from Sangre de Grado.

    PubMed

    Itokawa, H; Ichihara, Y; Mochizuki, M; Enomori, T; Morita, H; Shirota, O; Inamatsu, M; Takeya, K

    1991-04-01

    Taspine has been isolated as a cytotoxic substance from Sangre de Grado, sap of Croton palanostigma (Euphorbiaceae), by bioassay guided fractionation. The cytotoxicity (IC50) of taspine was found to be 0.39 microgram/ml against KB cells and 0.17 microgram/ml against V-79 cells.

  9. Substance Use of Creatively Talented Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Barbara; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 22 writers, 27 artists, and 12 musicians compared their substance use (caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, hallucinogens, cocaine, tranquilizers, stimulants, and narcotics) with that of a control group. In general, no significant intergroup differences were found. Older participants used marijuana less than younger participants.…

  10. 21 CFR 70.11 - Related substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... considered to have additive toxic effects. (b) Food additives may also cause pharmacological or biological... chemicals may also cause pharmacological or biological effects similar or related to such effects caused by... General Provisions § 70.11 Related substances. (a) Different color additives may cause similar or...

  11. Pharmacy informatics in controlled substances research.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Ling; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Na, Paul J; Leff, Michelle; Contoreggi, Carlo

    2008-11-06

    Pharmacies have become essential components in support of clinical research. Their operations become highly complex when preponderance of prescriptions is composed of controlled substances. Application of informatics will result in more efficient operations. We present the Pharmacy Information Management System (PIMS) that includes a set of decision support systems to address the pharmacy challenges and is integrated into our electronic health record system.

  12. 21 CFR 70.11 - Related substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Related substances. 70.11 Section 70.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES... pharmacological or biological effects, and, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, those that do so will...

  13. 21 CFR 70.11 - Related substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Related substances. 70.11 Section 70.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES... pharmacological or biological effects, and, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, those that do so will...

  14. Substance abuse in victims of fire.

    PubMed

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R

    1996-01-01

    Ethanol or drug use may increase the risk of fire-related injury or death. This study was performed to quantify the role of substance abuse in fatal fires occurring in New Jersey over a 7-year period. Records of all the fatalities of fire reported to the State Medical Examiners Office between 1985 and 1991 were retrospectively examined. Blood assay results for ethanol were positive in 215 of the 727 (29.5%) fatalities of fire tested. For this group, the mean blood-ethanol level was 193.9 mg/dl. Blood or urine assay results for substances of abuse were positive in 78 of the 534 (14.6%) fatalities tested. The most commonly detected illicit substances were cocaine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and cannabinoids. The test results were positive for both ethanol and drug use in 36 victims. Forty percent of all the fatalities of fire were aged younger than 11 or older than 70. In contradistinction, 75% of drug-positive fatalities of fire and 58% of ethanol-positive fatalities of fire were between the ages of 21 and 50, suggesting that inebriation may impair the ability to escape from fire. Substance abusers in middle life are a previously unrecognized group at higher risk of injury or death in a fire.

  15. Substance Abuse among Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are a growing population that confronts multiple disadvantages from social and environmental determinants of health. In particular, the 7-8 million people in the U.S. with an intellectual disability (ID) suffer disproportionately from substance use problems, largely because of a lack of empirical evidence to inform…

  16. Would Controlled Substance Status Affect Steroid Trafficking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Virginia S.

    1987-01-01

    Loss of control over the use of anabolic steriods had prompted the federal government to take steps to stem the black market manufacture and distribution of these drugs. However, these steps are likely to stop short of bestowing controlled substance status on steriods. (Author/CB)

  17. 31 CFR 20.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Controlled substance. 20.610 Section 20.610 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.610 Controlled...

  18. 31 CFR 20.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Controlled substance. 20.610 Section 20.610 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.610 Controlled...

  19. 31 CFR 20.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Controlled substance. 20.610 Section 20.610 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.610 Controlled...

  20. 31 CFR 20.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Controlled substance. 20.610 Section 20.610 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.610 Controlled...

  1. 31 CFR 20.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controlled substance. 20.610 Section 20.610 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.610 Controlled...

  2. MIGRATION OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES THROUGH SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factorlally designed column and batch leaching studies were conducted on samples of various Industrial wastes, flue gas desulfurlzatlon sludges, and coal fly ash to determine the effect of leaching solution composition on release of hazardous substances from waste samples, and t...

  3. Understanding Learning Disabilities and Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Star, Nonnie; Shadoff, Sander

    This guide is designed to assist people with learning disabilities to recognize their disabilities and the connection between learning disabilities and substance abuse. It begins by defining learning disabilities and providing a self-test checklist for common signs and symptoms of learning disabilities. Difficulties with organization, memory,…

  4. Malignant Neglect: Substance Abuse and America's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report on drug abuse in schools is based on 6 years of analysis, focus groups, and field investigations. Prior research has determined that if young people do not engage in smoking or substance abuse by age 21, their chances of engaging later are next to nothing. It has also been determined that next to parents, schools have the greatest…

  5. Comorbidity and Pattern of Substance Use in Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sepehrmanesh, Zahra; Ahmadvand, Afshin; Moraveji, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Substance use in patients with psychiatric disorder is an every-day seen. Detection of this comorbidity can significantly affect the treatment of these disorders, as well as substance use. Objectives: This study has been conducted to determine the prevalence and pattern of substance use in hospitalized psychiatric patients. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 210 hospitalized psychiatric patients were selected by simple randomization from all records of hospitalized patients. The instrument of gathering data was a demographic checklist including age, gender, marital status, education, type of disorder and substance abuse and duration of psychiatric disorder. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 using Fisher exact and Chi square tests. Results: The mean age of patients was 37.9 years. Most of the patients were male, married and unemployed. The Prevalence of substance use was 36.7%. The most prevalent pattern of substance use was opium, opioid, methamphetamines and other substances (poly substance). The prevalence of substance use in patients with mood disorders was more than the other disorders and the most prevalent substance use in these patients was opium and opioid. Poly substance use was the most prevalent pattern of use (80 %) in psychotic and mood disorders due to substance. Significant difference was seen between genders, marital status, occupation, duration of illness and frequency of substance use (P < 0.05 ), however no significant difference was seen between educational levels, age and substance use. Conclusions: The patients with mood disorders had the highest comorbidity with substance use and concurrent use of poly substance was the most prevalent pattern of use in these patients. Therefore, successful treatment of psychiatric disorders and substance use needs multimodal and more serious interventions. Regarding to the pattern of poly substance use in these patients, careful screening should be performed at admission

  6. On the nature of humic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, G. N.; Shoba, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    It is argued that the isolation of low-molecular-weight compounds from humic substances does not prove their supramolecular nature, because small molecules can be sorbed on macromolecules by interacting with them due to noncovalent bonds. The relative mobility of molecular segments in humic substances has been proposed to be used as a criterion for the discrimination between the humic substances of supraand macromolecular nature. The macromolecules are characterized by mobility of their segments, whereas supramolecular systems have stiff structure. This difference between macroand supramolecules results in different behaviors of the matrices (gels) formed from them in the processes of segregation. In the macromolecules, the formations of a new phase appearing at the segregation (microphase separation) are of nano size, at least in one dimension. They are incapable of moving within the matrix and form a well-known, limited set of systems. In the supramolecular matrices, the new-phase formations should have higher mobility and ability to move within the matrix with the formation of particles and zones of not only nano, but also micro sizes, as well as a significantly larger set of systems, including fractal configurations. The experimental electron microscopic study of the humic matrices of soil gels shows that the new-phase formations in the matrix of humic substances have not only nano, but also micro sizes and are capable of moving within the matrix, which confirms the supramolecular nature of humic substances. The proposed method has allowed generalizing the supraand macromolecular approaches, because macromolecules can enter into the composition of supramolecular systems. It is no less important that the behavior of HSs can be perceived as the behavior of stiff impenetrable particles that may compose the structures of different types and sizes.

  7. Is it the music? Peer substance use as a mediator of the link between music preferences and adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2010-06-01

    Both music preferences and the substance use behavior of peers are important elements in explaining adolescent substance use. The extent to which music preference and peer use overlap in explaining adolescent substance use remains to be determined. A nationally representative sample of 7324 Dutch school-going adolescents (aged 12-16) provided data on music preferences, substance use behaviors and perceived number of peers using substances. Factor analyses showed that preferences for eight music genres factored into four styles: Pop (chart music, Dutch pop), Adult (classical music, jazz), Urban (rap/hiphop, soul/R&B) and Hard (punk/hardcore, techno/hardhouse); substance use was indicated by smoking, drinking, and cannabis use. Structural equation modeling revealed that the relationship between music preference and substance use was either wholly or partially mediated by perceived peer use. Music can model substance use and fans of different types of music may select friends with use patterns that reinforce their own substance use inclinations.

  8. Final Rule: Extremely Hazardous Substances List (deletion of 36 substances) 53 FR 5574

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    February 28, 1988: delisting of these substances was based on the Agency's explicit recognition that they did not meet the criteria established for list qualification and were listed in error. They are no longer subject to reporting and notification.

  9. Addressing substance abuse and violence in substance use disorder treatment and batterer intervention programs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) are interrelated, major public health problems. Methods We surveyed directors of a sample of substance use disorder treatment programs (SUDPs; N=241) and batterer intervention programs (BIPs; N=235) in California (70% response rate) to examine the extent to which SUDPs address IPV, and BIPs address substance abuse. Results Generally, SUDPs were not addressing co-occurring IPV perpetration in a formal and comprehensive way. Few had a policy requiring assessment of potential clients, or monitoring of admitted clients, for violence perpetration; almost one-quarter did not admit potential clients who had perpetrated IPV, and only 20% had a component or track to address violence. About one-third suspended or terminated clients engaging in violence. The most common barriers to SUDPs providing IPV services were that violence prevention was not part of the program’s mission, staff lacked training in violence, and the lack of reimbursement mechanisms for such services. In contrast, BIPs tended to address substance abuse in a more formal and comprehensive way; e.g., one-half had a policy requiring potential clients to be assessed, two-thirds required monitoring of substance abuse among admitted clients, and almost one-half had a component or track to address substance abuse. SUDPs had clients with fewer resources (marriage, employment, income, housing), and more severe problems (both alcohol and drug use disorders, dual substance use and other mental health disorders, HIV + status). We found little evidence that services are centralized for individuals with both substance abuse and violence problems, even though most SUDP and BIP directors agreed that help for both problems should be obtained simultaneously in separate programs. Conclusions SUDPs may have difficulty addressing violence because they have a clientele with relatively few resources and more complex psychological and medical

  10. Oxidative stress markers in hypertensive states of pregnancy: preterm and term disease.

    PubMed

    Kurlak, Lesia O; Green, Amanda; Loughna, Pamela; Broughton Pipkin, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Discussion continues as to whether de novo hypertension in pregnancy with significant proteinuria (pre-eclampsia; PE) and non-proteinuric new hypertension (gestational hypertension; GH) are parts of the same disease spectrum or represent different conditions. Non-pregnant hypertension, pregnancy and PE are all associated with oxidative stress. We have established a 6 weeks postpartum clinic for women who experienced a hypertensive pregnancy. We hypothesized that PE and GH could be distinguished by markers of oxidative stress; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antioxidants (ferric ion reducing ability of plasma; FRAP). Since the severity of PE and GH is greater pre-term, we also compared pre-term and term disease. Fifty-eight women had term PE, 23 pre-term PE, 60 had term GH and 6 pre-term GH, 11 pre-existing (essential) hypertension (EH) without PE. Limited data were available from normotensive pregnancies (n = 7) and non-pregnant controls (n = 14). There were no differences in postpartum TBARS or FRAP between hypertensive states; TBARS (P = 0.001) and FRAP (P = 0.009) were lower in plasma of non-pregnant controls compared to recently-pregnant women. Interestingly FRAP was higher in preterm than term GH (P = 0.013). In PE and GH, TBARS correlated with low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (P = 0.036); this association strengthened with inclusion of EH (P = 0.011). The 10 year Framingham index for cardiovascular risk was positively associated with TBARS (P = 0.003). Oxidative stress profiles do not differ between hypertensive states but appear to distinguish between recently-pregnant and non-pregnant states. This suggests that pregnancy may alter vascular integrity with changes remaining 6 weeks postpartum. LDL-cholesterol is a known determinant of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease and we have shown this association to be present in hypertensive pregnancy further emphasizing that such a pregnancy may be revealing a pre

  11. Membrane lipid peroxidation in copper alloy-mediated contact killing of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hong, Robert; Kang, Tae Y; Michels, Corinne A; Gadura, Nidhi

    2012-03-01

    Copper alloy surfaces are passive antimicrobial sanitizing agents that kill bacteria, fungi, and some viruses. Studies of the mechanism of contact killing in Escherichia coli implicate the membrane as the target, yet the specific component and underlying biochemistry remain unknown. This study explores the hypothesis that nonenzymatic peroxidation of membrane phospholipids is responsible for copper alloy-mediated surface killing. Lipid peroxidation was monitored with the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Survival, TBARS levels, and DNA degradation were followed in cells exposed to copper alloy surfaces containing 60 to 99.90% copper or in medium containing CuSO(4). In all cases, TBARS levels increased with copper exposure levels. Cells exposed to the highest copper content alloys, C11000 and C24000, exhibited novel characteristics. TBARS increased immediately at a very rapid rate but peaked at about 30 min. This peak was associated with the period of most rapid killing, loss in membrane integrity, and DNA degradation. DNA degradation is not the primary cause of copper-mediated surface killing. Cells exposed to the 60% copper alloy for 60 min had fully intact genomic DNA but no viable cells. In a fabR mutant strain with increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids, sensitivity to copper alloy surface-mediated killing increased, TBARS levels peaked earlier, and genomic DNA degradation occurred sooner than in the isogenic parental strain. Taken together, these results suggest that copper alloy surface-mediated killing of E. coli is triggered by nonenzymatic oxidative damage of membrane phospholipids that ultimately results in the loss of membrane integrity and cell death.

  12. Peroxidation in intestinal mucosa of normal and iron-overloaded rats differing in selenium status

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, A.W.; Vega, S. )

    1991-03-15

    Material in the digesta may lead to lipid peroxidation of the intestinal mucosa. To study the effect of Se deficiency ({minus}Se) and Fe overload (++Fe) on mucosal free radical damage, 60 220g rats in four groups were fed torula yeast diet for 20d. Fe-overload was caused in two groups by three IM injections of Fe dextran given on days 4, 9, and 14. Fe-control rats (+Fe) were sham-injected with n-saline. Se-control rats (+Se) were given Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 3}-supplemented drinking water. Se deficiency reduced liver and mucosal glutathione peroxidase activity, but Fe overload did not. Serum, liver and mucosal Fe was higher in the Fe-overloaded rats. Fe and Se treatments did not affect hemoglobin level, but Fe-overload reduced weight gain. Fe overload increased liver and mucosal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), but Se status did not affect them. On days 5-9, CBrCL{sub 3}, an environmental pollutant and lipid peroxidation initiator which must be activated by cytochrome P-450, was gavaged in 10 rats from each group; the higher dose increased mucosal TBARS in Fe-overloaded rats but not Se-deficient ones. But, the lower CBrCL{sub 3} dose did not affect mucosal TBARS. Liver TBARS was not affected by CBrCL{sub 3}; however, the highest liver and mucosal TBARS levels occurred in the {minus}Se++Fe rats given the higher CBrCL{sub 3} dose. Liver cytochrome P-450 activity was not affected by Fe{minus} nor Se status.

  13. Membrane Lipid Peroxidation in Copper Alloy-Mediated Contact Killing of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Robert; Kang, Tae Y.; Michels, Corinne A.

    2012-01-01

    Copper alloy surfaces are passive antimicrobial sanitizing agents that kill bacteria, fungi, and some viruses. Studies of the mechanism of contact killing in Escherichia coli implicate the membrane as the target, yet the specific component and underlying biochemistry remain unknown. This study explores the hypothesis that nonenzymatic peroxidation of membrane phospholipids is responsible for copper alloy-mediated surface killing. Lipid peroxidation was monitored with the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Survival, TBARS levels, and DNA degradation were followed in cells exposed to copper alloy surfaces containing 60 to 99.90% copper or in medium containing CuSO4. In all cases, TBARS levels increased with copper exposure levels. Cells exposed to the highest copper content alloys, C11000 and C24000, exhibited novel characteristics. TBARS increased immediately at a very rapid rate but peaked at about 30 min. This peak was associated with the period of most rapid killing, loss in membrane integrity, and DNA degradation. DNA degradation is not the primary cause of copper-mediated surface killing. Cells exposed to the 60% copper alloy for 60 min had fully intact genomic DNA but no viable cells. In a fabR mutant strain with increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids, sensitivity to copper alloy surface-mediated killing increased, TBARS levels peaked earlier, and genomic DNA degradation occurred sooner than in the isogenic parental strain. Taken together, these results suggest that copper alloy surface-mediated killing of E. coli is triggered by nonenzymatic oxidative damage of membrane phospholipids that ultimately results in the loss of membrane integrity and cell death. PMID:22247141

  14. Effect of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis on redox status in chronic renal failure patients: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of hemodialysis (HD) and periotoneal dialysis (PD) on oxidative stress in chronic renal failure patients (CRF). Methods 20 HD patients (M/F: 8/12, 36 ± 12 years) and 20 PD patients (M/F: 10/10, 40 ± 8 years) were compared with 20 end stage renal failure patients (CRF) (M/F: 4/16, 61 ± 13 years). Results Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were elevated in HD and decreased in PD compared to CRF (P < 0.05). TBARS-VLDL and TBARS-HDL2 were decreased in HD and PD, compared to CRF (p < 0.05). TBARS-LDL were higher in HD compared to CRF (p < 0.05). No significant difference in TBARS-HDL3 values between the three groups. Carbonyls were increased in HD (p < 0.05) and PD (p < 0.01) compared to CRF. Plasma superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) was decreased in HD compared to CRF and PD (P < 0.05). Glutathion peroxidase activity (GSH-Px) was decreased in HD and PD (P < 0.005), compared to CRF. Decrease in catalase activity was noted only in PD compared to CRF (P < 0.05). An increase in nitric oxide was noted in HD compared to CRF (p < 0.05). Albumin concentrations were higher in HD and PD compared to CRF (P < 0.001). Whereas uric acid concentrations were decreased in HD (P < 0.001) compared to CRF and PD. Bilirubin values were similar in all groups. Increased values of iron were noted in HD and PD, compared to PD (p < 0.001). Conclusion HD and PD aggravate oxidative stress generated by uremia. HD accentuates lipid and protein peroxidation, while PD aggravates protein oxidation. However, the activity of antioxidant enzymes was altered by both dialysis treatments. PMID:20815897

  15. Psychopathology in Substance Use Disorder Patients with and without Substance-Induced Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhornitsky, Simon; Tikàsz, Andràs; Rizkallah, Élie; Chiasson, Jean-Pierre; Potvin, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Background. Substance-induced psychotic disorder (SIPD) is a diagnosis constructed to distinguish substance-induced psychotic states from primary psychotic disorders. A number of studies have compared SIPD persons with primary psychotic patients, but there is little data on what differentiates substance use disorder (SUD) individuals with and without SIPD. Here, we compared psychopathology, sociodemographic variables, and substance use characteristics between SUD patients with and without SIPD. Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted on newly admitted patients at a rehabilitation centre between 2007 and 2012. Results. Of the 379 patients included in the study, 5% were diagnosed with SIPD (n = 19) and 95% were diagnosed with SUDs without SIPD (n = 360). More SIPD patients reported using cannabis and psychostimulants, and fewer SIPD patients reported using alcohol than SUDs patients without SIPD. SIPD patients scored higher on the “schizophrenia nuclear symptoms” dimension of the SCL-90R psychoticism scale and exhibited more ClusterB personality traits than SUD patients without SIPD. Discussion. These data are consistent with previous studies suggesting that psychopathology, substance type, and sociodemographic variables play important role in the development of SIPD. More importantly, the results highlight the need for paying greater attention to the types of self-reported psychotic symptoms during the assessment of psychotomimetic effects associated with psychoactive substances. PMID:26417473

  16. 19 CFR 162.61 - Importing and exporting controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and... export from the United States any controlled substance or narcotic drug listed in schedules I through...

  17. 19 CFR 162.61 - Importing and exporting controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and... export from the United States any controlled substance or narcotic drug listed in schedules I through...

  18. 19 CFR 162.61 - Importing and exporting controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and... export from the United States any controlled substance or narcotic drug listed in schedules I through...

  19. 19 CFR 162.61 - Importing and exporting controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and... export from the United States any controlled substance or narcotic drug listed in schedules I through...

  20. 19 CFR 162.61 - Importing and exporting controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and... export from the United States any controlled substance or narcotic drug listed in schedules I through...

  1. 76 FR 56810 - Controlled Substances: 2011 Proposed Aggregate Production Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Enforcement Administration Controlled Substances: 2011 Proposed Aggregate Production Quotas AGENCY: Drug...: This notice proposes to adjust the 2011 aggregate production quotas for several controlled substances... aggregate production quotas for five synthetic cannabinoids temporarily controlled in Schedule I....

  2. Substance Abuse and Prison Recidivism: Themes from Qualitative Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Lindsay A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.

  3. Behavioral Health and Substance Abuse Treatment Services Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the United States or U.S. Territories for substance abuse/addiction and/or mental health problems. PLEASE NOTE: ... and Spanish for individuals and family members facing substance abuse and mental health issues. 24 hours a day, ...

  4. 75 FR 16235 - Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ..., hospitals, and practitioners with the ability to use modern technology for controlled substance... to allow the creation, signature, transmission, and processing of controlled substance prescriptions... greatest extent possible, prevent the possibility of insider creation or alteration of controlled...

  5. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Federal Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 provides EPA with authority to require reporting, record-keeping and testing requirements, and restrictions relating to chemical substances and/or mixtures.

  6. 77 FR 5846 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... substances: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import... registered with DEA as a manufacturer of several controlled substances that are manufactured from opium,...

  7. 76 FR 17967 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... substances: Drug Schedule Raw Opium (9600) II Concentrate of Poppy Straw (9670) II The company plans to... registered with DEA as a manufacturer of several controlled substances that are manufactured from raw...

  8. 76 FR 62447 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate... substances that are manufactured from raw opium, poppy straw, and concentrate of poppy straw. As explained...

  9. 75 FR 65658 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... classes of controlled substances listed in schedule II: Drug Schedule Raw Opium (9600) II Concentrate of... substances that are manufactured from raw opium, poppy straw, and concentrate of poppy straw. As explained...

  10. 76 FR 62449 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... a bulk manufacturer of Diphenoxylate (9170), a basic class of controlled substance listed...

  11. Toxic Substances Control Act Section 8(e): Frequent Questions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Section 8(e) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires notification to EPA of information that reasonably supports the conclusion that their substances or mixtures presents a substantial risk of injury to health or the environment.

  12. A theory of adolescent substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Spotts, J V; Shontz, F C

    1985-01-01

    This report applies a theory of psychological individuation to inferences drawn from an 8-year series of clinical studies of men who practice heavy, chronic use of different drugs. Each man was studied intensively over a period of 4-5 months, using interviews and a comprehensive battery of dimensional and morphogenic assessment procedures. Users of barbiturates and sedative hypnotics were found to be least mature, followed by users of opiates, users of amphetamine, users of cocaine, and nonusers of drugs, who were found to be most mature. A theory is described which conceives adolescent substance abuse as rooted in dysfunctional relationships with parental figures which block or delay the normal individuation process. Comparable sets of representative case studies of heavy, chronic users of alcohol and marihuana are recommended to facilitate the development of treatment programs that take into account the special needs of persons who practice heavy, chronic use of different substances.

  13. Substance dependency among homeless American Indians.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Susan; Vaughan, Margaret Mortensen

    2003-01-01

    Extensive qualitative research in the San Francisco Bay Area in California and in Tucson, Arizona, indicates strong associations between substance abuse and homelessness among American Indians. This article takes a comparative approach to describe and analyze precipitating factors and survival patterns of those who are both homeless and who suffer from substance dependency. Possible precipitating factors presented through case studies consider the complex interaction of childhood fostering or adoption into non-Native families, different types of involuntary institutionalization during youth, and the personal impact of accident, trauma and loss. Coping strategies and keys to survival are examined, including the role of the extended family and close friendships, American Indian and mainstream organizations that offer formal and informal services, the existence of anchor or key households, the helping relationships and sobriety groups among homeless individuals, spirituality, and cultural resiliency.

  14. Borderline personality and substance use in women.

    PubMed

    Feske, Ulrike; Tarter, Ralph E; Kirisci, Levent; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2006-01-01

    The association between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorder (SUD) was examined in a predominantly psychiatric (77.6%) sample of 232 women. BPD proved to be a significant predictor of a lifetime diagnosis of SUD across four different categories: any SUD (including alcohol); alcohol use; drug use; and heroin, cocaine, or poly-substance use. BPD continued to be a predictor of SUD even when the effects of other cluster B and all cluster C PDs were controlled statistically. Antisocial personality disorder generally yielded larger odds ratios than BPD and emerged as a partial mediator of the relation between BPD and SUD. Histrionic PD was the only other PD that showed meaningful relations with SUD.

  15. [The substance experience, a history of LSD].

    PubMed

    Beck, François; Bonnet, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    This article reviews the recent knowledge on LSD stemming from various disciplines among which pharmacology, sociology and epidemiology. The d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a particularly powerful hallucinogenic substance. It produces distortions and hearing, visual and tactile hallucinations. Rarely used (only 1.7% of people aged 15-64 years old have tried it in their lifetime), this very powerful drug generates a strong apprehension within the general population, but the ethnographical studies show that its image seems rather good among illicit drug users. This representation relies both on the proper effects of this substance and also on the history of LSD very closely linked to the counterculture characteristic of the years 1960-1970.

  16. Biologic Approaches to Treat Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Skolnick, Phil

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to traditional pharmacodynamic approaches to treat substance use disorders, the use of biologics (vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, genetically modified enzymes) is based on a pharmacokinetic principle: reduce the amount of (and in the ideal, eliminate) abused drug entering the central nervous system. Preclinical studies indicate biologics are effective in both facilitating abstinence and preventing relapse to abused substances ranging from nicotine to heroin. While data are still emerging, the results from multiple clinical trials can best be described as mixed. Nonetheless, these clinical studies have already provided important insights using “first generation” tools that may inform the development of effective and commercially viable biologics to treat tobacco, cocaine, and methamphetamine use disorders. PMID:26435208

  17. [Antihypoxic properties of opiates and substance P].

    PubMed

    Vlasova, I G; Torshin, V I

    2001-01-01

    Using survival slices of the rat cerebellum, we studied the influence of opiates (alpha- and beta-endorphines, met-enkephalines) as well as substance P (SP) on the impulse activity (IA) of neurons. Low doses of the studied substances (10(-8)-10(-10) M) for the most part increased the IA of the neurons, while high doses (10(6)-10(-5) M) produced biphasic reaction (inhibition-excitation). It is supposed that opiates and SP act as transmitters in the cerebellum. Under increasing hypoxia, opiates and SP manifested antixypoxic properties both in low O22 concentration and under reoxygenation. Opiates and SP proved to be natural antihypoxants involved not only in nociception mechanisms but also in brain adaptation to oxygen deficiency.

  18. Addiction and Substance Abuse in Anesthesiology

    PubMed Central

    Bryson, Ethan O.; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    Despite substantial advances in our understanding of addiction and the technology and therapeutic approaches used to fight this disease, addiction still remains a major issue in the anesthesia workplace and outcomes have not appreciably changed. While alcoholism and other forms of impairment such as addiction to other substances and mental illness impact anesthesiologists at similar rates to other professions, as recently as 2005, the drug of choice for anesthesiologists entering treatment was still an opioid. There exists a considerable association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology and successful treatment for addiction is less likely when co-morbid psychopathology is not treated. Individuals under evaluation or treatment for substance abuse should have an evaluation with subsequent management of co-morbid psychiatric conditions. Participation in self-help groups is still considered a vital component in the therapy of the impaired physician, along with regular monitoring if the anesthesiologist wishes to attempt re-entry into clinical practice. PMID:18946304

  19. Expert systems in treating substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Wesson, D R; Hink, R H

    1990-05-01

    Computer programs can assist humans in solving complex problems that cannot be solved by traditional computational techniques using mathematic formulas. These programs, or "expert systems," are commonly used in finance, engineering, and computer design. Although not routinely used in medicine at present, medical expert systems have been developed to assist physicians in solving many kinds of medical problems that traditionally require consultation from a physician specialist. No expert systems are available specifically for drug abuse treatment, but at least one is under development. Where access to a physician specialist in substance abuse is not available for consultation, this expert system will extend specialized substance abuse treatment expertise to nonspecialists. Medical expert systems are a developing technologic tool that can assist physicians in practicing better medicine.

  20. Disposal of controlled substances. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-09-09

    This rule governs the secure disposal of controlled substances by registrants and ultimate users. These regulations will implement the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010 by expanding the options available to collect controlled substances from ultimate users for the purpose of disposal, including: Take-back events, mail-back programs, and collection receptacle locations. These regulations contain specific language allowing law enforcement to voluntarily continue to conduct take-back events, administer mail-back programs, and maintain collection receptacles. These regulations will allow authorized manufacturers, distributors, reverse distributors, narcotic treatment programs (NTPs), hospitals/clinics with an on-site pharmacy, and retail pharmacies to voluntarily administer mail-back programs and maintain collection receptacles. In addition, this rule expands the authority of authorized hospitals/clinics and retail pharmacies to voluntarily maintain collection receptacles at long-term care facilities. This rule also reorganizes and consolidates previously existing regulations on disposal, including the role of reverse distributors.

  1. Neurochemical Profiles of some novel psychoactive substances

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Les; Gibbons, Simon; Treble, Ric; Setola, Vincent; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L.

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen substances from the class of drugs sometimes known as “legal highs” were screened against a battery of human receptors in binding assays, and their potencies as inhibitors of monoamine uptake determined in functional in vitro assays. Thirteen of the test substances acted as inhibitors of monoamine uptake at submicromolar concentrations, including 9 potent inhibitors of the dopamine transporter (DAT), 12 potent inhibitors of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and 4 potent inhibitors of the serotonin transporter (SERT). Seven compounds acted as submicromolar inhibitors of both DAT and NET, and three substances 1-(benzofuran-5-yl)propan-2-amine (5-APB),1-naphthalen-2-yl-2-pyrrolidin-1-ylpentan-1-one hydrochloride, (“naphyrone”) and 1-naphthalen-1-yl-2-pyrrolidin-1-ylpentan-1-one hydrochloride, (“1-naphyrone”) were submicromolar inhibitors of all three monoamine transporters. There was a lack of correlation between results of functional uptake experiments and in vitro binding assays for the monoamine transporters. There was also no correlation between the human behavioural effects of the substances and the results of bindings assays for a range of receptor targets, although 1-(benzofuran-5-yl)propan-2-amine(5-APB), 1-(benzofuran-6-yl)propan-2-amine hydrochloride(6-APB) and 5-iodo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-amine hydrochloride,(5-iodo-aminoindane) exhibited <100nM affinities for 5HT2B and α2C receptors. Functional assays revealed that 5-APB and 6-APB were potent full agonists at 5HT2B receptors. PMID:23261499

  2. Substance abuse, HIV-1 and hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Nirzari; Nonnemacher, Michael R; Pirrone, Vanessa; Block, Timothy; Mehta, Anand; Wigdahl, Brian

    2012-10-01

    During the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease, the virus has been shown to effectively escape the immune response with the subsequent establishment of latent viral reservoirs in specific cell populations within the peripheral blood (PB) and associated lymphoid tissues, bone marrow (BM), brain, and potentially other end organs. HIV-1, along with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), are known to share similar routes of transmission, including intravenous drug use, blood transfusions, sexual intercourse, and perinatal exposure. Substance abuse, including the use of opioids and cocaine, is a significant risk factor for exposure to HIV-1 and the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, as well as HBV and HCV exposure, infection, and disease. Thus, coinfection with HIV-1 and HBV or HCV is common and may be impacted by chronic substance abuse during the course of disease. HIV- 1 impacts the natural course of HBV and HCV infection by accelerating the progression of HBV/HCV-associated liver disease toward end-stage cirrhosis and quantitative depletion of the CD4+ T-cell compartment. HBV or HCV coinfection with HIV-1 is also associated with increased mortality when compared to either infection alone. This review focuses on the impact of substance abuse and coinfection with HBV and HCV in the PB, BM, and brain on the HIV-1 pathogenic process as it relates to viral pathogenesis, disease progression, and the associated immune response during the course of this complex interplay. The impact of HIV-1 and substance abuse on hepatitis virus-induced disease is also a focal point.

  3. Combat Stress and Substance Abuse Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of two Web -based brief interventions (BIs) for...approaches and programs. Volunteers will complete a brief Web assessment for alcohol use and current stress reactions. Participants are randomly...assigned to one of three intervention conditions: Wait-list control, Stress BI, or Stress plus Substance Use BI. A Web -based intervention provides a

  4. In the Clinic. Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Pace, Christine A; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2016-04-05

    This issue provides a clinical overview of substance use disorders, focusing on epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis, complications, and management. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  5. Genetic and perinatal effects of abused substances

    SciTech Connect

    Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.

  6. [Consumption of psychoactive substances by caregivers].

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Françoise

    2012-11-01

    Prescribed medication, self-medication or doping the use of psychoactive substances by caregivers is varied. Doping behaviour in the care environment is under-estimated and trivialised. It is often difficult to spot at an early stage and yet this consumption is not without consequences on the quality and safety of work. Gérard-Marchant general hospital in Toulouse integrates this issue into its professional risk management policy.

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Samantha; Pepler, Debra; Jiang, Depeng; Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Craig, Wendy; Connolly, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal data from 746 adolescents in Toronto, Canada (54% females), was gathered in eight waves over seven years (1995 through 2001), beginning when the youths were 10 to 12 years old (mean age = 11.8, SD = 1.2 years). Five trajectories of substance use were identified: chronic-high, childhood onset-rapid high, childhood onset-moderate,…

  8. 21 CFR 176.130 - Anti-offset substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.130 Anti-offset substances. Substances named in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section may be safely used to prevent the transfer of inks...

  9. 21 CFR 176.130 - Anti-offset substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.130 Anti-offset substances. Substances named in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section may be safely used to prevent the transfer of inks...

  10. 49 CFR 382.215 - Controlled substances testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Controlled substances testing. 382.215 Section 382... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.215 Controlled substances testing. No driver...

  11. 78 FR 30329 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application Pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 958... manufacturer of a controlled substance in schedule I or II, and prior to issuing a regulation under 21 U.S.C... controlled substance listed in schedule I. The company plans to manufacture the above listed...

  12. 49 CFR 382.213 - Controlled substance use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Controlled substance use. 382.213 Section 382.213... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.213 Controlled substance use. (a) No driver shall report...

  13. Violence against Native Women in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylors, Karen; Daliparthy, Nalini

    2006-01-01

    Many mental health problems among substance abusing populations are directly linked to high rates of abuse and trauma. There is increasing evidence of associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse to adult substance use and HIV-risk behavior. The relationship of abuse, mental health problems, substance abuse, and high-risk sexual…

  14. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  15. 16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Method of testing toxic substances. 1500.40... testing toxic substances. The method of testing the toxic substances referred to in § 1500.3(c) (1)(ii)(C... with additional strips and should fit snugly around the trunk of the animal. The ends of the sleeve...

  16. Resilience as a Theoretical Basis for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Patterson, Joan M.

    2003-01-01

    Uses the resilience perspective to examine the risk and protective mechanisms associated with adolescent substance use. Resilience is defined and resilience processes related to substance use are explored. Effective adolescent substance use prevention programs that promote youth resilience are reviewed. (Contains 120 references.) (GCP)

  17. 77 FR 33619 - Certification of Substance Abuse Experts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Certification of Substance Abuse Experts AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... substance abuse expert. The NRC determined that the issues raised in the PRM are appropriate for... substance abuse expert. The NRC received one comment during the public comment period (ADAMS Accession...

  18. 76 FR 62293 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8728 of October 3, 2011 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 By... increase their chances of living long, healthy, and productive lives. During National Substance Abuse... diagnosable substance abuse or dependence problems--countless families and communities also live with the...

  19. School-Based Interventions for Students with Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Jenson, William R.; Clark, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    Experimentation with substances is typical for many young people, but unfortunately some will go on to develop substance abuse problems that substantially affect their lives. Successfully intervening with students who use or abuse substances is a challenge for school mental health professionals across the nation. There is a need for evidence-based…

  20. Rehabilitation Counselor Attitudes toward Counseling Individuals with Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers-Bonaccorsy, Roe A.

    2010-01-01

    The study assessed attitudes toward counseling individuals with substance use disorders and perceived confidence of providing substance abuse screenings and referrals among a random sample of Certified Rehabilitation Counselors (CRCs). Results indicated CRCs have positive attitudes toward counseling individuals with substance use disorders.…

  1. 77 FR 60615 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By... substance abuse are profound. Yet, we also know that they are preventable. This month, we pay tribute to all those working to prevent substance abuse in our communities, and we rededicate ourselves to building...

  2. Attitudes towards Substance Addiction: A Study of Turkish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungu, Hilmi

    2015-01-01

    Substance addiction has become one of the important issues in the world. The studies concerning substance use reveal the extent of the problem. According to the results of such studies, the number of the people using illicit drugs has increased profoundly in recent years. In this study, it was tried to find out how common substance use among…

  3. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section 4.03-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance...

  4. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section 4.03-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance...

  5. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section 4.03-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance...

  6. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section 4.03-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance...

  7. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section 4.03-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance...

  8. 40 CFR 707.20 - Chemical substances import policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical substances import policy. 707... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT CHEMICAL IMPORTS AND EXPORTS General Import Requirements and Restrictions § 707.20 Chemical substances import policy. (a) Scope. (1) This statement addresses the policy of the...

  9. 40 CFR 792.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test,...

  10. 40 CFR 160.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control,...

  11. 40 CFR 160.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control,...

  12. 40 CFR 792.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test,...

  13. 40 CFR 160.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control,...

  14. 40 CFR 160.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control,...

  15. 40 CFR 792.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test,...

  16. 40 CFR 792.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test,...

  17. 40 CFR 792.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test,...

  18. 40 CFR 160.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control,...

  19. Depression and Substance Use in Minority Middle-School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelder, Steven H.; Murray, Nancy G.; Orpinas, Pamela; Prokhorov, Alexander; McReynolds, Larkin; Zhang, Qing; Roberts, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the association between depression and substance use among minority (predominantly Hispanic American) middle school students. Student surveys indicated that depressive symptoms were strongly and positively related to self-reported substance use. Risk of substance use increased in a dose-response fashion with each higher level of…

  20. The Generalizability of Substance Use Predictors Across Racial Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tamara L.; Miller, Joshua D.; Clayton, Richard R.

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have examined the predictors of substance use for ethnic minority adolescents. The current longitudinal study investigated whether factors predictive of substance use for Caucasian adolescents were also predictive for African American adolescents. Results indicated which predictors of substance use actually differ across African…

  1. Substance Abuse and Schizophrenia: A Health Maintenance Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron, Susan W.; Simpson, William R.

    Abuse of alcohol or other substances by schizophrenic patients seriously undermines effective treatment. To document the extent of substance abuse among schizophrenic patients hospitalized in one Veterans Administration Hospital, medical records of 100 patients were reviewed. The results revealed that 54 patients had recent substance abuse, with…

  2. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William

    2010-01-01

    Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…

  3. 49 CFR 392.4 - Drugs and other substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drugs and other substances. 392.4 Section 392.4... VEHICLES General § 392.4 Drugs and other substances. (a) No driver shall be on duty and possess, be under the influence of, or use, any of the following drugs or other substances: (1) Any 21 CFR...

  4. 49 CFR 392.4 - Drugs and other substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs and other substances. 392.4 Section 392.4... VEHICLES General § 392.4 Drugs and other substances. (a) No driver shall be on duty and possess, be under the influence of, or use, any of the following drugs or other substances: (1) Any 21 CFR...

  5. 49 CFR 392.4 - Drugs and other substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drugs and other substances. 392.4 Section 392.4... VEHICLES General § 392.4 Drugs and other substances. (a) No driver shall be on duty and possess, be under the influence of, or use, any of the following drugs or other substances: (1) Any 21 CFR...

  6. 49 CFR 392.4 - Drugs and other substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drugs and other substances. 392.4 Section 392.4... VEHICLES General § 392.4 Drugs and other substances. (a) No driver shall be on duty and possess, be under the influence of, or use, any of the following drugs or other substances: (1) Any 21 CFR...

  7. 49 CFR 392.4 - Drugs and other substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drugs and other substances. 392.4 Section 392.4... VEHICLES General § 392.4 Drugs and other substances. (a) No driver shall be on duty and possess, be under the influence of, or use, any of the following drugs or other substances: (1) Any 21 CFR...

  8. 76 FR 53961 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated April... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of 4-Anilino-N-phenethyl-4-Piperidine... controlled substance in the manufacturer of another controlled substance. No comments or objections have...

  9. Linking Substance Use and Problem Behavior across Three Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David

    2006-01-01

    This study examined patterns of between-generation continuity in substance use from generation 1 (G1) parents to generation 2 (G2) adolescents and from G2 adult substance use and G1 substance use to generation 3 (G3) problem behavior in childhood. Structural equation modeling of prospective, longitudinal data from 808 participants, their parents,…

  10. Substance Use by Persons with Recent Spinal Cord Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others

    Substance use histories were obtained from 103 persons (16 to 63 years of age) with recent spinal cord injuries (SCI). Lifetime exposure to and current use of substances with abuse potential were substantially greater in this sample compared to a like-age national sample. Exposure to and recent use of substances with abuse potential was…

  11. Secondary School Experiences of Male Recovering Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Rebecca C.

    2012-01-01

    Problem: Adolescents who begin abusing substances, including alcohol, prescription drugs, and illegal drugs often fail in school suffering life-altering consequences (Cox, Zhang, Johnson, & Bender, 2007). While plentiful research exists on substance abuse, there is a dearth of research on the school experiences of recovering substance abusers.…

  12. School Bonding and Substance Use in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shears, Jeffrey; Edwards, Ruth W.; Stanley, Linda R.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent substance use in U.S. rural communities is now equal to or greater than urban use for many substances. Yet much research focuses on urban and suburban populations, raising doubt as to the generalizability of etiological models of substance use to rural populations.This study examines whether the relationship between school bonding and…

  13. Issues in the Treatment of Antisocial Adolescent Substance Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, James R.; Buka, Stephen L.

    1994-01-01

    Presents findings from research programs: first on substance abuse in juvenile offenders/adolescents with psychiatric/behavioral disorders focused on treatment issues (attributions for substance use, beliefs about effects of drugs, perceptions of family functioning); and second on psychiatric disorders in adolescent substance abuse patients…

  14. Perspectives on Violence and Substance Use in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL.

    Although violence and substance use are usually considered urban problems, rates of violence and substance use in rural areas are catching up to urban rates. This collection of six articles explores violence and substance use in rural America, the relationship between the two, the factors contributing to these problems, and effective preventive…

  15. Gang youth, substance use, and drug normalization

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use.1 Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates of use for a variety of illegal substances (De La Rosa, Rugh, & Rice, 2006; Hagedorn, Torres, & Giglio, 1998; Hunt, Jo-Laidler, & Evans, 2002; Mata et al., 2002; Valdez, Kaplan, & Cepeda, 2006). Gang youth, however, have differential attitudes towards the use of various illegal drugs. Marijuana, for instance, has remained a staple within gang culture, but the use of other drugs has been heavily stigmatized, especially heroin, methamphetamine, and crack cocaine (MacKenzie, Hunt, & Joe-Laidler, 2005; Moore, 1978; Taylor, 1990; Waldorf, 1993). Perspectives with good explanatory power should be flexible enough to elucidate these distinctions regarding illicit substance use patterns and preferences. PMID:25221432

  16. Reference materials for new psychoactive substances.

    PubMed

    Archer, Roland P; Treble, Ric; Williams, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the appearance of new psychoactive materials (and hence the requirement for new reference standards) has been relatively slow. This position has now changed, with 101 new psychoactive substances reported to EMCDDA-Europol since 2006. The newly reported materials, and associated metabolites, require properly certified reference materials to permit reliable identification and quantification. The traditional approach and timescales of reference material production and certification are being increasingly challenged by the appearance of these new substances. Reference material suppliers have to adopt new strategies to meet the needs of laboratories. This situation is particularly challenging for toxicology standards as the metabolism of many of these substances is initially unknown. Reference material production often involves synthesis from first principles. While it is possible to synthesis these materials, there can be significant difficulties, from synthetic complexities through to the need to use controlled materials. These issues are examined through a discussion of the synthesis of cathinones. Use of alternative sources, including pharmaceutical impurity materials or internet sourced products, as starting materials for conversion into appropriately certified reference materials are also discussed. The sudden appearance and sometimes brief lifetime in the market place of many of these novel legal highs or research chemicals present commercial difficulties for reference material producers. The need for collaboration at all levels is highlighted as essential to rapid identification of requirements for new reference materials. National or international commissioning or support may also be required to permit reference material producers to recover their development costs.

  17. Gang youth, substance use, and drug normalization.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use. Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates of use for a variety of illegal substances (De La Rosa, Rugh, & Rice, 2006; Hagedorn, Torres, & Giglio, 1998; Hunt, Jo-Laidler, & Evans, 2002; Mata et al., 2002; Valdez, Kaplan, & Cepeda, 2006). Gang youth, however, have differential attitudes towards the use of various illegal drugs. Marijuana, for instance, has remained a staple within gang culture, but the use of other drugs has been heavily stigmatized, especially heroin, methamphetamine, and crack cocaine (MacKenzie, Hunt, & Joe-Laidler, 2005; Moore, 1978; Taylor, 1990; Waldorf, 1993). Perspectives with good explanatory power should be flexible enough to elucidate these distinctions regarding illicit substance use patterns and preferences.

  18. Effects of Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil on Serum Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Homocysteine Levels in a Post-Menopausal Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Siti Khadijah; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Umar, Nor Aini; Mokhtar, Norhayati; Mohamed, Norazlina; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2008-01-01

    Oxidized unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we examined the effects of heated palm oil mixed with 2% cholesterol diet on serum lipid profile, homocysteine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in estrogen-deficient rats. Twenty-four female Sprague Dawley rats were ovariectomized and then were divided equally into four groups. The control group was given 2% cholesterol diet only throughout the study period. The three treatment groups received 2% cholesterol diet fortified with fresh, once-heated or five-times-heated palm oil, respectively. Serum TBARS, lipid profile and homocysteine levels were measured prior to ovariectomy and at the end of four months of the study. Five-times-heated palm oil caused a significant increase in TBARS and total cholesterol (TC) compared to control (F = 22.529, p < 0.05). There was a significant increase in serum homocysteine in the control as well as five-times heated palm oil group compared to fresh and once-heated palm oil groups (F = 4.432, p < 0.05). The findings suggest that repeatedly heated palm oil increase lipid peroxidation and TC. Ovariectomy increases the development of atherosclerosis as seen in this study. Feeding with fresh and once-heated palm oil does not cause any deleterious effect but repeatedly heated oil may be harmful because it causes oxidative damage thereby predisposing to atherosclerosis. PMID:19148313

  19. The combine effects of salting and thyme oil on sensory and chemical changes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Pınar Oǧuzhan

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the combine effects of salting and thyme oil on chemical and sensory changes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during storage (4°C) was investigated over a period of 24 days. There groups were constituted: group A-control salted, group B-salted samples with 0.4% of thyme oil and group C-salted samples with 0.8% of thyme oil. Fillets were subject to chemical (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS, total volatile base nitrogen-TVB-N) and sensory analyses on certain days (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24th days) of storage. Five experienced panelists, academic staff who were trained in sensory descriptors for fishes, were employed to evaluate the quality of trout fillets during storage. Rainbow trout fillets were assessed on the basis of appearance, taste, texture and odour characteristics using a nine point descriptive scale. TVB-N and TBARS values increased in the duration of storage time in all groups. TVB-N and TBARS values in control groups were higher than other groups. Group C samples were assessed as the most acceptable products by the panellists. Difference in chemical and sensory changes between samples was found to be significant (p<0.05) during storage period.

  20. Changes in the Physico-chemical and Microbial Quality during the Production of Pastırma Cured with Different Levels of Sodium Nitrite

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Pastırma, a dry-cured meat product, is produced from the whole muscle and/or muscles obtained from certain parts of beef and water buffalo carcasses. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of sodium nitrite on changes in the physicochemical and microbial quality during the production of pastırma. The changes in residual nitrite, salt, pH, moisture, thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances (TBARS), colour (L*, a*, b*), total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Micrococcus/Staphylococcus (M/S), mould-yeast (M-Y), and Enterobacteriaceae counts of pastırma with 0, 50, 100 and 150 ppm sodium nitrite were determined during the production. The nitrite levels and the production stages had significant effects (p<0.01) on residual nitrite, TBARS, pH, salt, and colour values. The TBARS values of the pastırma with nitrite were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the control. The final TAMB, LAB, M/S, and M-Y counts of pastırma with 150 ppm nitrite were significantly (p<0.05) lower than the control. Also, the a* (relative redness) values of control pastırma were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the pastırma with nitrite. The production stages had a significant effect (p<0.01) on the moisture. PMID:27857537

  1. Protective Effect of Carvacrol on Oxidative Stress and Cellular DNA Damage Induced by UVB Irradiation in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Aristatile, Balakrishnan; Al-Numair, Khalid S; Al-Assaf, Abdullah H; Veeramani, Chinnadurai; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB; 280-320 nm) radiation induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the biological system. In this study, we examined the protective effect of carvacrol on UVB-induced lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage with reference to alterations in cellular an-tioxidant status in human lymphocytes. A series of in vitro assays (hydroxyl radical, superoxide, nitric oxide, DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl), and ABTS (2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assays) demonstrate antioxidant property of carvacrol in our study. UVB exposure significantly increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LHPs), % tail DNA and tail moment; decreased % cell viability and antioxidant status in UVB-irradiated lymphocytes. Treatment with carvacrol 30 min prior to UVB-exposure resulted in a significant decline of TBARS, LHP, % tail DNA, and tail moment and increased % cell viability as carvacrol concentration increased. UVB irradiated lymphocytes with carvacrol alone (at 10 μg/mL) gave no significant change in cell viability, TBARS, LHP, % tail DNA, and tail moment when compared with normal lymphocytes. On the basis of our results, we conclude that carvacrol, a dietary antioxidant, mediates its protective effect through modulation of UVB-induced ROS.

  2. Antioxidant Effects of Medicinal Mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes): Evidence from Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Yurkiv, Borys; Wasser, Solomon P; Nevo, Eviatar; Sybirna, Nataliya O

    2015-01-01

    With diabetes mellitus and increased glucose concentrations, the mitochondria electron transport chain is disrupted, superoxide anions are overproduced, and oxidative stress develops in cells. Thus, preventing oxidative stress can produce a decrease in the antioxidant system activity and an increase in apoptosis in immune cells. The application of medicinal mushrooms is a new possible approach to diabetes mellitus treatment. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the influence of administration of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum on antioxidant enzyme activity in rat leukocytes. Wistar outbred white rats were used in the study. Streptozotocin was intraperitoneally injected once at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Mushroom preparations were orally administered at a dose of 1 g/kg/day for 2 weeks. This revealed that in diabetes mellitus, the level of antioxidant enzyme activity is significantly decreased compared with control values, whereas the levels of lipid peroxidation is increased; this manifested in an increase in the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The medicinal mushrooms' administration is accompanied by an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity to control values and is even higher in the case of A. brasiliensis administration when compared with the diabetic group. As for the indicators of lipid peroxidation under mushroom administration of A. brasiliensis and G. lucidum, we observed a significant decrease of TBARS levels compared with the diabetic group. Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduction of TBARS level indicate pronounced antioxidant properties of studied mushrooms.

  3. Investigation of oxidative stress in blood, brain, kidney, and liver after oxime antidote HI-6 application in a mouse experimental model.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Sobotka, Jakub; Svobodova, Hana; Stetina, Rudolf

    2011-07-01

    Oxime reactivator HI-6 (asoxime, in some sources) is a potent antidote suitable for treatment of intoxication by nerve agents. Despite the fact that HI-6 is considered for practical application in emergency situations, the impact of HI-6 on patients' bodies has not been established yet. The present experiment was carried out in order to estimate whether HI-6 would be able to trigger or protect from oxidative stress in a BALB/c mice model. HI-6 was applied in doses ranging from 0.2 to 20% of LD₅₀. Ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), and glutathione reductase (GR) were assayed in the blood, liver, kidney, and brain of treated animals. It was found that HI-6 does not increase GR or TBARS. On the contrary, TBARS levels in the brain and liver were found to be significantly decreased in HI-6-treated animals. Pertinent antioxidant properties of HI-6 were excluded by the FRAP method. Endogenous antioxidants were unchanged, with the exception of the kidney. Low-molecular-weight antioxidants assayed by the FRAP method were significantly decreased in kidneys of animals treated with HI-6. However, GSH partially recovered the loss of the other low-molecular-weight antioxidants and was significantly increased in the kidney of HI-6-exposed mice. HI-6 potential to produce nephropathy is hypothesized. The achieved conclusions were quite surprising and showed a complex impact of HI-6 on the body.

  4. Antioxidative activity, polyphenolic content and anti-glycation effect of some Thai medicinal plants traditionally used in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Kusirisin, W; Srichairatanakool, S; Lerttrakarnnon, P; Lailerd, N; Suttajit, M; Jaikang, C; Chaiyasut, C

    2009-03-01

    Ethanolic extracts of 30 Thai medicinal plants, traditionally used as alternative treatments in diabetes, were evaluated for antioxidative activity by the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method. They were evaluated in vitro for oxidative stress by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) assay in pooled plasma of diabetic patients compared to without treatment of the extracts (control). The extracts were also assayed for protein glycation. The results showed that five plants had strong antioxidant activity: Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE), Terminalia chebula Retz. (TC), Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MC), Kaempferia parviflora Wall. (KP) and Houttuynia cordata Thunb.(HC), respectively. Thirty plant extracts were good correlation between total antioxidant activity and antiradical activity by TBARS as well as by glycation (r = 0.856, p<0.01 and r = 0.810, p<0.01). PE had stronger antioxidative activity as well as inhibition of TBARS and glycation than the other plants. The investigation showed that total polyphenol and tannin content of PE and the flavonoid content of HC were the highest. The results imply that these plants are potential sources of natural antioxidants which have free radical scavenging activity and might be used for reducing oxidative stress in diabetes.

  5. Effect of Potentilla fulgens on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Saio, Valrielyn; Syiem, Donkupar; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Potentilla fulgens (Rosaceae) root traditionally used as a folk remedy by local health practitioners of Khasi Hills, Meghalaya was investigated for its effects on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Significant increase in levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and decrease in activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were observed under diabetic condition. Intraperitoneal administration of methanol extract of P. fulgens roots at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight to male swiss albino diabetic mice for 14 days caused significant reduction in the elevated TBARS level, while increasing the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in diabetic mice. Maximum reduction in TBARS level was observed in liver tissue (75%, p<0.001). Kidney exhibited the highest elevation in the activity for catalase (68%, p<0.001) and superoxide dismutase (29%, p<0.001) while maximum increase in glutathione peroxidase activity was seen in brain (50%, p<0.001). The effects of P. fulgens was compared against known antioxidant, vitamin C. Results indicate that Potentilla fulgens methanolic root extract can reduce free radical mediated oxidative stress in experimental diabetes mellitus. PMID:24826032

  6. Modulation of oxidative stress by γ-glutamylcysteine (GGC) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer mixture in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yukiko K; Dubick, Michael A; Omaye, Stanley T

    2012-06-01

    Individually, γ-glutamylcysteine (GGC), a dipeptide and precursor of glutathione (GSH), and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a trans-fatty acid, exhibit antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to compare effects of co-administration of GGC and CLA to treatment with GGC alone on oxidative stress and GSH synthesis in human endothelial cells. Changes in levels of 8-epi-PGF2α, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), GSH, total antioxidants, GSH synthetase (GSS) expression, and transcription factor DNA binding were assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) treated with GGC alone (100 μmol/L) or combined with CLA isomer mixture (10, 50, 100 μmol/L) for 24h. Significantly higher levels of TBARS, 8-epi-PGF2α, GSH, and GSS protein were found in cells treated with GGC and 10 μmol/L CLA, compared to cells treated with GGC alone, indicative of prooxidant effects of CLA. Approximately 40% cell death was microscopically observed in cells incubated with GGC and 100 μmol/L CLA. Despite lower levels of GSH, treatment with GGC and 50 μmol/L CLA appeared to be protective from oxidative stress similar to treatment with GGC alone, as indicated by lower levels of TBARS, compared to control cells not treated with GGC and CLA.

  7. In vivo antioxidant assessment of two antimalarial plants-Allamamda cathartica and Bixa orellana

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Omonhinmin A.; Dike, Ijeoma Precious; Agbara, Uche

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the free radical scavenging potentials pytochemical constituents of ethanol leaves extracts of Allamanda cathartica (A. cathartica) and Bixa orellana (B. orellana) and thus their effects in antimalarial activities. Methods Both ethanol extracted plant samples were administered at 50 mg/mL, 100 mg/mL and 200 mg/mL to Albino rats and then administered with CCl4 at 1 mL/kg body weight, in liquid paraffin (1:1, v/v) for 2 days (negative control) and compared with 5% Tween 80 (placebo) and vitamin E (positive control) pretreatments. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) activities in blood and liver tissues were assessed. Results In CCl4 treated rats, TBARS levels significantly increased, while decreased GSH and CAT levels were recorded for both plant extracts. Generally, higher TBARS and GSH values were recorded for blood than for liver homogenates; with reverse trend observed for CAT level. Increased concentrations of A. cathartica extract recorded significant antioxidant levels similar to tocopherol (vitamin E). Reducing sugars, saponins, flavonoids were recorded for both species; alkaloids in A. cathartica and terpenoids in B. orellana. Conclusions A. cathartica, possess phytochemicals that recorded significant antioxidative defense activities for blood and liver tissues with increasing concentration. However B. orellana did not record similar results. PMID:23646303

  8. Changes in blood lipid peroxidation markers and antioxidants after a single sprint anaerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Groussard, C; Rannou-Bekono, F; Machefer, G; Chevanne, M; Vincent, S; Sergent, O; Cillard, J; Gratas-Delamarche, A

    2003-03-01

    It has been well demonstrated that the principal factor responsible for oxidative damage during exercise is the increase in oxygen consumption. However, other theoretical factors (acidosis, catecholamine autoxidation, ischemia-reperfusion syndrome, etc.) that are known to induce, in vitro, oxidative damage may also be operative during short-term supramaximal anaerobic exercise. Therefore, we hypothesized that short-term supramaximal anaerobic exercise (30-s Wingate test) could induce an oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation markers [serum lipid radical production detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels detected by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method], as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities [glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD)] and erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) levels, were measured at rest, after the Wingate test and during the 40 min of recovery. The recovery of exercise was associated with a significant increase (x2.7) in lipid radical production detected by ESR spectroscopy, as well as with changes in the erythrocyte GSH level (-13.6%) and SOD activity (-11.7%). The paradoxical decrease in plasma TBARS (-23.7%) which was correlated with the peak power developed during the Wingate test ( r=-0.7), strongly suggests that such exercise stimulates the elimination of MDA. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that short-term supramaximal anaerobic exercise induces an oxidative stress and that the plasma TBARS level is not a suitable marker during this type of exercise.

  9. Effect of supranutritional level of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate and selenium on rabbit semen.

    PubMed

    Castellini, Cesare; Lattaioli, Paolo; Bosco, Alessandro Dal; Beghelli, Daniela

    2002-12-01

    This research examined the effects of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate (50 or 200 mg/kg diet) and selenium (Se, 0 or 0.5 ppm) supplementation on motion characteristics, oxidative stability and fertilizing ability of rabbit spermatozoa, fresh and stored for 24 h at 5 degrees C. The higher amount of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate increased the level of Vitamin E in the fresh semen (1.75 mmol/l versus 0.95 mmol/l) and its oxidative stability (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS 12.44 nmol malondialdehyde/10(8) sperm versus 21.4 nmol malondialdehyde/10(8) sperm). Dietary Se increased gluthatione peroxidase activity (GPx) in erythrocytes (285 U/g Hb versus 207 U/g Hb), seminal plasma (270 U/l versus 190 U/l) and spermatozoa (1338 mU/10(9) sperm versus 1103 mU/10(9) sperm), whereas it did not show any effect on alpha-tocopherol level and TBARS. No synergy between Vitamin E and Se was shown. Storage for 24 h at 5 degrees C increased the TBARS level in all the experimental groups. Neither live and acrosome reacted spermatozoa, nor kinetic parameters, nor fertility rate were modified by dietary supplementation.

  10. Lycopene as a natural protector against gamma-radiation induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in primary culture of isolated rat hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, M; Sudheer, A Ram; Pillai, K Raveendran; Kumar, P Raghu; Sudhakaran, P R; Menon, V P

    2007-04-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of lycopene, a naturally occurring dietary carotenoid, on gamma-radiation induced toxicity in cultured rat hepatocytes. The cellular changes were estimated using lipid peroxidative indices like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), ceruloplasmin, vitamins A, E, C and uric acid. The DNA damage was analysed by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The increase in the severity of DNA damage was observed with the increase in gamma-radiation dose (1, 2 and 4 Gy) in cultured rat hepatocytes. TBARS were increased significantly whereas the levels of GSH, vitamins C, E and A, ceruloplasmin, uric acid and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in gamma-irradiated groups. The maximum damage to hepatocytes was observed at 4 Gy irradiation. Pretreatment with lycopene (1.86, 9.31 and 18.62 microM) showed a significant decrease in the levels of TBARS and DNA damage. The antioxidant enzymes increased significantly along with the levels of GSH, vitamins A, E, C, uric acid and ceruloplasmin. The maximum protection of hepatocytes was observed at 9.31 muM of lycopene pretreatment. Thus, our results show that pretreatment with lycopene offers protection against gamma-radiation induced cellular damage and can be developed as an effective radioprotector during radiotherapy.

  11. Radioprotective effect of sesamol on gamma-radiation induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants levels in cultured human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Prasad, N Rajendra; Menon, Venugopal P; Vasudev, V; Pugalendi, K V

    2005-05-05

    Sesamol pretreated (1, 5 and 10 microg/ml) lymphocytes were exposed to different doses of gamma-radiation, i.e., 1, 2 and 4 Gray (Gy) and the cellular changes were estimated by using cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay (MN), dicentric aberration (DC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Radiation significantly increased MN, DC frequencies, TBARS levels and decreased GSH and antioxidant enzyme levels in a dose dependent manner. The highest damage to lymphocytes was observed at 4 Gy irradiation. On the other hand, sesamol pretreatment significantly decreased MN, DC frequencies, TBARS levels and increased GSH levels and SOD, CAT and GPx activities in a concentration dependent manner. At 1 Gy irradiation all concentrations of sesamol (1, 5 and 10 microg/ml) significantly protects the lymphocytes from radiation damage. At 2 Gy irradiation 5 and 10 microg/ml of sesamol shows significant radioprotection. Since the highest damage was observed at 4 Gy irradiation both 1 and 5 microg/ml of sesamol pretreatment were not sufficient to protect the lymphocytes from radiation damage but 10 microg/ml of sesamol significantly (p<0.05) protects the lymphocytes from radiation effect. Thus, sesamol pretreatment gives significant protection to cultured human lymphocytes against gamma-radiation induced cellular damage. The possible mechanism involved in the radioprotective influence of sesamol is discussed.

  12. Effects of Edible Films Containing Procyanidin on the Preservation of Pork Meat during Chilled Storage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Procyanidins, which are natural antioxidants and antimicrobials found in grapes, enhance the quality and extend the shelf life of meat. We explored the effects of edible films incorporating procyanidins on pork loin stored for various times. Procyanidins (0, 0.1, and 0.3%, w/w) were incorporated into the edible films. We assessed meat color, pH, levels of volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and microbial populations for 14 d. The chromaticities and pH values of pork loin wrapped in film containing procyanidins (0.1% and 0.3%) generally increased (p<0.05) with storage time. VBN and TBARS levels, and total bacterial and Escherichia coli (E. coli) counts, significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the procyanidin groups. In particular, procyanidins strongly inhibited TBARS formation. Thus, our findings suggest that edible film impregnated with procyanidins inhibits lipid oxidation and microbial growth, thereby enhancing the quality and shelf life of pork meat. PMID:27194932

  13. Effects of curcumin on bleomycin‑induced oxidative stress in malignant testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Cort, Aysegul; Ozdemir, Evrim; Timur, Mujgan; Ozben, Tomris

    2012-10-01

    Bleomycin is commonly used in the treatment of testicular cancer. Bleomycin generates oxygen radicals, induces the oxidative cleavage of DNA strands and induces cancer cell apoptosis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a potent antioxidant and chief component of the spice turmeric. No study investigating the effects of curcumin on intrinsic and bleomycin-induced oxidative stress in testicular germ cell tumors has been reported in the literature. For this reason, the present study aimed to examine the effects of curcumin on oxidative stress produced in wild-type NTera-2 and p53-mutant NCCIT testicular cancer cells incubated with bleomycin and the results were compared with cells treated with H2O2 which directly produces oxidative stress. The protein carbonyl content, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), 8-isoprostane, lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) levels and total antioxidant capacity in the two testicular cancer cell lines were determined. Results showed that bleomycin and H2O2 significantly increased protein carbonyl, TBARS, 8-isoprostane and LPO levels in the NTera-2 and NCCIT cell lines. Bleomycin and H2O2 significantly decreased the antioxidant capacity and GSH levels in NTera-2 cells. Curcumin significantly decreased LPO, 8-isoprostane and protein carbonyl content, and TBARS levels increased in cells treated with bleomycin and H2O2. Curcumin enhanced GSH levels and the antioxidant capacity of NTera-2 cells. In conclusion, curcumin inhibits bleomycin and H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human testicular cancer cells.

  14. The antioxidative properties of Holy basil and Galangal in cooked ground pork.

    PubMed

    Juntachote, T; Berghofer, E; Siebenhandl, S; Bauer, F

    2006-03-01

    The ethanolic extracts from Holy basil and Galangal were examined for their extraction yield, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity against a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion system, DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power. Ethanolic extracts of Holy basil exhibited higher extraction yield, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power than ethanolic extracts of Galangal. Antioxidative efficiency to inhibit lipid oxidation of dried Holy basil and dried Galangal powder, ethanolic extracts of Galangal and Holy basil and commercial antioxidant mixture in cooked ground pork was investigated during refrigerated storage at 5°C for 14 days. The quantitative measurements of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated diene, peroxide value (POV) and hexanal content were used as indicators of lipid oxidation. Increased levels of TBARS value, POV and hexanal content were noticed in all meat samples during storage, however most marked in cooked ground pork without antioxidants, whereas conjugated diene tended to decrease with increasing storage time. Ranking of the treatment in order of their antioxidant effectiveness showed that commercial antioxidant mixture (0.3% citric acid+0.5% ascorbic acid+0.02% α-tocopherol)>dried Galangal powder>dried Holy basil powder>ethanolic extracts of Galangal>ethanolic extracts of Holy basil>control. Furthermore, in cooked ground pork samples a high correlation between TBARS value and hexanal contents was obtained.

  15. Cataract induction by administration of nitroglycerin in cardiac patients through imbalance in redox status

    PubMed Central

    El-Gharabawy, Rehab M; Ahmed, Amira S; Al-Najjar, Amal H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of nitroglycerin in the pathogenesis of cataract. Design Prospective study. Patient and methods This study was performed in adults from tertiary Saudi Arabian hospitals (34 males and 26 females in each group, aged from 40 to 60 years), who were divided into four groups with an equal number of subjects (control group, cardiac group, idiopathic cataract group, and a group of cardiac patients using nitroglycerin and with cataracts). Fasting glucose concentrations, blood glycated hemoglobin levels, lipid profiles, and levels of nitrite, conjugated dienes (CD), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH) were determined. Results Treatment of cardiac patients with nitroglycerin produced an imbalance in their systemic redox status, leading to the development of cataracts, which was reflected by a significant increase in the levels of nitrite, CD, and TBARS and a significant decrease in SOD activity and GSH, compared with idiopathic cataract patients. The results of correlation studies and multiple regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between different biochemical parameters (GSH, SOD, TBARS, CD, and nitrite) in the blood and lens in both idiopathic cataract patients and cardiac patients treated with nitroglycerin. Conclusion The study points to the relative and predictive effects of nitric oxide derived from nitroglycerin in the development of cataract in the presence of the oxidative stress induced by nitroglycerin treatment. PMID:27729797

  16. Lipid and colour stability of M. longissimus muscle from lambs fed camelina or linseed as oil or seeds.

    PubMed

    Moloney, A P; Kennedy, C; Noci, F; Monahan, F J; Kerry, J P

    2012-09-01

    Colour and lipid stability of M. longissimus dorsi (LD) from sheep fed diets containing different lipid sources (Megalac (MG), camelina oil (CO), linseed oil (LO), NaOH-treated camelina seed (CS), NaOH-treated linseed (LS) or CO treated with ethanolamine (CA)) were examined. After 100 days on-feed, samples of LD were collected, fatty acid profile determined and colour and lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS) measured during retail display in high oxygen packaging. The LS ration was most effective in increasing the 18:3n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration in muscle. Within camelina, CA resulted in the highest 18:3n-3 and lowest CLA concentration in muscle. There was no difference in colour stability. Oil (seed) supplementation increased TBARS compared to MG in the early part of display while linseed-based rations tended to cause higher TBARS than camelina-based rations. Higher muscle 18:3n-3 concentration was associated with higher oxidation during early retail display but this was not reflected in a loss of colour stability.

  17. Effects of the acute exposition to glyphosate-based herbicide on oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant responses in a hybrid Amazon fish surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp).

    PubMed

    Sinhorin, Valéria Dornelles Gindri; Sinhorin, Adilson Paulo; Teixeira, Jhonnes Marcos dos Santos; Miléski, Kelly Márcia Lazarotto; Hansen, Paula Carine; Moreira, Paula Sueli Andrade; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins; Loro, Vania Lúcia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute glyphosate (active ingredient) exposure on the oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant defenses of a hybrid surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp). The fish were exposed to different herbicide concentrations for 96 h. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls and antioxidant responses were verified. The 15 mg a.pL(-1) of herbicide resulted in the death of 50% of the fish after 96 h. An increase in liver and muscle TBARS levels was observed when fish were exposed to the herbicide. The protein carbonyl content was also increased in the liver (4.5mg a.pL(-1) concentration) and brain (2.25 mg a.pL(-1) concentration). The antioxidant activities decreased in the liver and brain after exposure to herbicide. Levels of ascorbic acid in the liver (2.25 mg a.pL(-1) and 4.5 mg a.pL(-1) concentrations) and brain (2.25 mg a.pL(-1) concentration) were increased post-treatment. Levels of total thiols were increased in the liver and brain (2.25 mg L(-1) and 7.5mg a.pL(-1), respectively). Glyphosate exposure, at the tested concentrations affects surubim health by promoting changes that can affect their survival in natural environment. Some parameters as TBARS and protein carbonyl could be early biomarkers for Roundup exposure in this fish species.

  18. Tiliroside and gnaphaliin inhibit human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Schinella, Guillermo R; Tournier, Horacio A; Máñez, Salvador; de Buschiazzo, Perla M; Del Carmen Recio, María; Ríos, José Luis

    2007-01-01

    Two flavonoids, gnaphaliin and tiliroside, isolated from Helichrysum italicum, were studied in vitro for their capacity to inhibit Cu(2+)-induced human low density lipoprotein (LDL) and diluted plasma oxidation. LDL oxidation was monitored by conjugated diene, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) formation and electrophoretic mobility on agarose gel. Gnaphaliin and tiliroside increased the lag-phase for diene conjugate production in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction of TBARS production confirmed the antioxidant activity of gnaphaliin and tiliroside with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 8.0+/-3.9 microM and 7.0+/-2.6 microM respectively. Furthermore, the flavonoids negated the Cu(2+)-induced increase in electrophoretic mobility of LDL. Antioxidant activity of gnaphaliin and tiliroside was significantly different when diluted plasma was oxidised by adding 1 mM CuSO(4). Although both flavonoids again reduced the TBARS production, tiliroside showed higher activity than gnaphaliin (IC(50)=10.6+/-2.5 microM vs. IC(50)>50 microM). In conclusion, tiliroside and gnaphaliin are antioxidants against in vitro Cu(2+)-induced LDL oxidation in the same order of magnitude compared to that of the reference drug, probucol.

  19. Pycnogenol efficiency on glycaemia, motor nerve conduction velocity and markers of oxidative stress in mild type diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Jankyova, S; Kucera, P; Goldenberg, Z; Yaghi, D; Navarova, J; Kyselova, Z; Stolc, S; Klimas, J; Racanska, E; Matyas, S

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effects of Pycnogenol at various doses on preprandial and postprandial glucose levels, the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAGA) and on motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Pycnogenol treatment (10, 20, 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day) lasted for 8 weeks after induction of diabetes. Pycnogenol significantly decreased elevated levels of preprandial glycaemia in treated animals at all doses. At doses of 10 mg/kg b.w./day and 20 mg/kg b.w./day it significantly decreased elevated levels of postprandial glycaemia compared with diabetic non-treated animals. Pycnogenol failed to induce a significant decrease of postprandial glycaemia at a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w./day. Pycnogenol improved significantly the impaired MNCV at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w./day compared with non-treated animals. The levels of TBARs were elevated in diabetic rats. The levels of NAGA increased gradually despite the treatment. Pycnogenol failed to affect the increased levels of TBARs and NAGA. Pycnogenollowered the elevated levels of glycaemia and reduced the decline in motor nerve conduction velocity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The effect of Pycnogenol on postprandial glycaemic levels and MNCV was not dose-dependent.

  20. Further studies on long-term preservation of rat liver: Celsior versus UW solution.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Andrea; Tartaglia, Annalisa; Di Nucci, Amalia; Bertone, Vittorio; Richelmi, Plinio; Neri, Daniele; Freitas, Isabel; Vairetti, Mariapia

    2008-01-01

    The effects of Celsior solution were compared with those of the University of Wisconsin solution (UW) after 18 or 48 hours of cold storage in a perfused rat liver model. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), hyaluronic acid (HA) uptake, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), tissue reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and ATP were evaluated. Histochemical in situ evaluation ofLDH and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also performed. No significant difference in LDH release, HA uptake, TBARS, ATP levels and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed between UW and Celsior solution when the livers were preserved for 18 hours. By contrast, when preservation was performed for 48 hours, LDH release, TBARS and ROS formation were higher and the ATP levels, GSH/GSSG ratio and HA uptake were lower in the liver preserved by Celsior as compared with UW. Celsior solution was as effective as UW in liver preservation up to 18 hours but the superiority of UW over Celsior solution was obtained when liver was preserved for 48 hours.

  1. Dietary palm olein oil augments cardiac antioxidant enzymes and protects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Narang, D; Sood, S; Thomas, M; Dinda, A K; Maulik, S K

    2005-11-01

    Wistar rats, 150-200 g, of either sex, were fed daily with commercial rat diet supplemented with palm olein oil in two doses (5% v/w (n = 16) and 10% v/w (n = 16) of diet) for 30 days. Control rats (n = 16) were fed with normal diet. On the 29(th) and 30(th) days, 8 rats from each group were administred isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, s.c., 24-h interval). On the 31(st) day, all rats were sacrificed and myocardial tissues were studied for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), antioxidant enzymes and light microscopic changes, along with the ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). A significant rise in myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and FRAP level were observed in rats fed with palm olein oil. Isoproterenol caused an increase in myocardial oxidative stress in control rats, as evidenced by an increase in myocardial TBARS level, reduction in FRAP and myocardial SOD, catalase and GPx activity, along with focal necrosis of cardiac muscle fibres on light microscopy. The rise in myocardial TBARS and depletion of SOD and catalase activity following isoproterenol administration were prevented in palm-olein-oil-supplemented diet-fed rats at both doses. Isoproterenol-induced myocardial light-microscopic changes were also prevented in the treated groups. The results suggest that dietary palm olein oil caused augmentation of myocardial antioxidant enzymes and protected against isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis and associated oxidative stress.

  2. Erythrocytic enzymes and antioxidant status in people with type 2 diabetes: beneficial effect of Syzygium cumini leaf extract in vitro.

    PubMed

    De Bona, Karine Santos; Bellé, Luziane Potrich; Bittencourt, Paula Eliete Rodrigues; Bonfanti, Gabriela; Cargnelluti, Lariane Oliveira; Pimentel, Victor Camera; Ruviaro, Amanda Roggia; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Moretto, Maria Beatriz

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Syzygium cumini leaf extract (ASc), on Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, and also on oxidative stress parameters in erythrocytes hemolysates (RBCs) and erythrocytes membranes (ghosts) from type 2 diabetics patients (Type 2 DM) under in vitro conditions. Non protein thiol groups (NP-SH), AChE, Catalase (CAT) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activities were measure in RBCs. Further, ADA activity, Thiobarbituric Acid-Reactive Substances (TBARS) levels and protein thiol groups (P-SH) were estimated in ghosts. Also, P-SH and Vitamin C (VIT C) were measure in plasma sample. The results demonstrated that ADA and AChE activities, besides TBARS levels were higher in erythrocytes of Type 2 DM, while SOD activity and NP-SH levels were decreased when compared to control group. ASc, in vitro, reduced ADA and AChE activities and some parameters of oxidative stress. Furthermore, we observed correlations between VIT C and P-SH levels, ADA activity and P-SH levels, as well as NP-SH and TBARS levels in diabetics. The results suggest that ASc in vitro is able to promote the reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress parameters, and act against biochemical changes occurring in Diabetes mellitus (DM).

  3. Impact of Metal Nanoform Colloidal Solution on the Adaptive Potential of Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Ludmila; Kovalenko, Mariia; Okanenko, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles are a known cause of oxidative stress and so induce antistress action. The latter property was the purpose of our study. The effect of two concentrations (120 and 240 mg/l) of nanoform biogenic metal (Ag, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn) colloidal solution on antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase; the level of the factor of the antioxidant state; and the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) of soybean plant in terms of field experience were studied. It was found that the oxidative processes developed a metal nanoparticle pre-sowing seed treatment variant at a concentration of 120 mg/l, as evidenced by the increase in the content of TBARS in photosynthetic tissues by 12 %. Pre-sowing treatment in a double concentration (240 mg/l) resulted in a decrease in oxidative processes (19 %), and pre-sowing treatment combined with vegetative treatment also contributed to the reduction of TBARS (10 %). Increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was observed in a variant by increasing the content of TBARS; SOD activity was at the control level in two other variants. Catalase activity decreased in all variants. The factor of antioxidant activity was highest (0.3) in a variant with nanoparticle double treatment (pre-sowing and vegetative) at a concentration of 120 mg/l. Thus, the studied nanometal colloidal solution when used in small doses, in a certain time interval, can be considered as a low-level stress factor which according to hormesis principle promoted adaptive response reaction.

  4. Hyperargininemia and renal oxidative stress: Prevention by antioxidants and N(G) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Delwing-de Lima, Daniela; Delwing-Dal Magro, Débora; Vieira, Cindy Laís Pett; Grola, Gislaine Maria Marestoni; Fischer, Débora Adriana; de Souza Wyse, Angela Terezinha

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of arginine (Arg) on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) and on the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in renal tissues of rats. We also studied the influence of antioxidants (α-tocopherol plus ascorbic acid) and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) on the effects elicited by Arg. Results showed that Arg in vitro (1.5 mM) decreased SOD activity and increased the levels of TBA-RS in the renal medulla. Acute administration of Arg [0.8 g/kg, intraperitoneal injection] decreased CAT activity, increased SOD activity and TBA-RS levels in the renal medulla, and decreased CAT activity in the renal cortex of rats. Most results were prevented by antioxidants and/or l-NAME. Data indicate that Arg causes an oxidative imbalance in the renal tissues studied; however, in the presence of antioxidants and l-NAME, some of these alterations in oxidative stress were prevented.

  5. Nutritional supplementation with the mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus reduces oxidative stress in children with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Figueira, Marcela S; Sá, Luana A; Vasconcelos, Amanda S; Moreira, Danilo R; Laurindo, Paula SOC; Ribeiro, Danielle RG; Santos, Rogério S; Guzzo, Paulo; Dolabela, Maria F; Percario, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The involvement of free radicals and oxidative stress in HIV infection has been extensively studied, and the benefits of antioxidant supplementation in animal studies have been demonstrated. However, few studies have demonstrated a benefit in clinical studies. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effects of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus, a mushroom rich in antioxidants, on the oxidative profile of children born with HIV undergoing antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: The sample included 24 children (both boys and girls) between two and eight years of age, of whom 10 were HIV positive and received supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus for a three-month period, and 14 were HIV negative and received no supplementation. At the beginning and conclusion of the study, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite and nitrate (NN), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and the antioxidant capacity of inhibition of diphenyl-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) free radicals were analyzed. RESULTS: Before supplementation, significantly higher values of TBARS and NN, but decreased values of DPPH, were observed in infected subjects when compared with HIV-negative subjects. After supplementation, a reduction of TBARS and NN values and an increase in DPPH and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values were observed in HIV-positive subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in HIV infection, with the participation of NN synthesis. Additionally, supplementation reversed oxidative alterations and improved antioxidant defense in infected individuals, and may become a complementary strategy in the treatment of these patients. PMID:25371688

  6. Exposure to chrysotile asbestos causes carbonylation of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase through a reaction with lipid peroxidation products in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Yuki; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2010-05-19

    Exposure to asbestos is known to lead to a reduction in glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity and to cause oxidative damage to cells. In the present study, we exposed the human lung carcinoma cell line A549 to chrysotile. We observed an increase in the production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, the breakdown products of lipid peroxide) along with a significant decrease in G6PDH activity. Alternatively, when chrysotile was added directly to the cell extract obtained by removing the cell membrane, no loss of G6PDH activity was observed. To elucidate the mechanism of G6PDH inactivation due to exposure to chrysotile, we focused on the TBARS responsible for protein modification via carbonylation. When malondialdehyde or 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal was added to a membrane-free A549 cell extract, G6PDH activity was reduced markedly. However, when t-butylhydroperoxide was added to the extract, there was no significant decrease in G6PDH activity. Western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation of the carbonylated proteins in the A549 cell lysate that was prepared after exposure to chrysotile demonstrated that G6PDH had been carbonylated. Our findings indicate that the decrease in G6PDH activity that occurs after exposure of the cultured cells to chrysotile results from the carbonylation of G6PDH by TBARS.

  7. Oxidative status, in vitro iron-induced lipid oxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in rhea meat.

    PubMed

    Terevinto, A; Ramos, A; Castroman, G; Cabrera, M C; Saadoun, A

    2010-04-01

    Rhea (Rhea americana) muscles Obturatorius medialis (OM) Iliotibialis lateralis (IL) and Iliofibularis (I), obtained from farmed animals, were evaluated regarding their oxidative/antioxidant status. The mean level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) expressed as malonaldehyde (MDA) content was of 0.84 mg MDA/kg wet tissue for the three muscles. TBARS level was significantly higher in IL than OM and I, with the two latter showing similar levels. The mean level of carbonyl proteins expressed as dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) was 1.59 nmol DNPH mg(-1). Carbonyl protein levels were significantly different (P<0.05) between the three muscles (IL>OM>I). Iron-induced TBARS generation was not significantly different between the three muscles at any time, nor for each muscle during the 5 h of the experiment. Superoxide dismutase activity in IL muscle was significantly higher (P<0.05) than in I muscle. However, the difference between IL and OM muscles was not significant. The differences between the three muscles became not significant when the results were expressed by mg of protein contained in the extract, instead by g of wet tissue. No differences were found for catalase (micromol of discomposed H(2)O(2) min(-1) g(-1) wet tissue or by mg of protein contained in the extract) and glutathione peroxidase (micromol ol of oxidized NADPH min(-1) g(-1) of wet tissue or by mg of protein contained in the extract) activities between the three muscles.

  8. Oxidative damage induced by heat stress could be relieved by nitric oxide in Trichoderma harzianum LTR-2.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Yang, Zijun; Guo, Kai; Li, Zhe; Zhou, Hongzi; Wei, Yanli; Li, Jishun; Zhang, Xinjian; Harvey, Paul; Yang, Hetong

    2015-04-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is an important commercial biocontrol fungal agent. The temperature has been shown to be an important parameter and strain-specific to the mycelia growth of fungi, but less report makes the known of the mechanisms in T. harzianum. In our study, a 6-h treatment of heat increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitric oxide (NO) concentration in mycelia to 212 and 230 % the level of the control, respectively. The exogenous NO donor sodium nitroprusside (150 μM) reduced the TBARS concentration to 53 % of that under heat stress (HS). At the same time, the NO-specific scavenger at 250 μM, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-1-oxyl-3-oxide, prevented the exogenous NO-relieved TBARS accumulation under HS. The increased NO concentration under HS was reduced 41 % by the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester, but not the nitrate reductase (NR) inhibitor tungstate. Our study exhibited that NO can protect the mycelia of T. harzianum from HS and reduce the oxidative damage by enhancing the activity of NOS and NR.

  9. Uric acid deposits and estivation in the invasive apple-snail, Pomacea canaliculata.

    PubMed

    Giraud-Billoud, Maximiliano; Abud, María A; Cueto, Juan A; Vega, Israel A; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

    2011-04-01

    The physiological ability to estivate is relevant for the maintenance of population size in the invasive Pomacea canaliculata. However, tissue reoxygenation during arousal from estivation poses the problem of acute oxidative stress. Uric acid is a potent antioxidant in several systems and it is stored in specialized tissues of P. canaliculata. Changes in tissue concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), uric acid and allantoin were measured during estivation and arousal in P. canaliculata. Both TBARS and uric acid increased two-fold during 45 days estivation, probably as a consequence of concomitant oxyradical production during uric acid synthesis by xanthine oxidase. However, after arousal was induced, uric acid and TBARS dropped to or near baseline levels within 20 min and remained low up to 24h after arousal induction, while the urate oxidation product allantoin continuously rose to a maximum at 24h after induction, indicating the participation of uric acid as an antioxidant during reoxygenation. Neither uric acid nor allantoin was detected in the excreta during this 24h period. Urate oxidase activity was also found in organs of active snails, but activity shut down during estivation and only a partial and sustained recovery was observed in the midgut gland.

  10. Garlic attenuates chrysotile-mediated pulmonary toxicity in rats by altering the phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Ameen, Mohamed; Musthapa, M Syed; Abidi, Parveen; Ahmad, Iqbal; Rahman, Qamar

    2003-01-01

    Asbestos and its carcinogenic properties have been extensively documented. Asbestos exposure induces diverse cellular events associated with lung injury. Previously, we have shown that treatment with chrysotile shows significant alteration in phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzyme system. In this study we have examined some potential mechanisms by which garlic treatment attenuates chrysotile-mediated pulmonary toxicity in rat. Female Wistar rats received an intratracheal instillation of 5 mg chrysotile (0.5 mL saline) as well as intragastric garlic treatment (1% body weight (v/w); 6 days per week). Effect of garlic treatment was evaluated after 1, 15, 30, 90, and 180 days by assaying aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in rat lung microsome. The results showed that AHH and TBARS formation were significantly reduced at day 90 and day 180 in chrysotile treated garlic cofed rats; GSH recovered 15 days later to the near normal level and GST elevated significantly after treatment of garlic as compared to chrysotile alone treated rat lung microsome. The data obtained shows that inhibition of AHH activity and induction of GST activity could be contributing factor in chrysotile-mediated pulmonary toxicity in garlic cofed rats. However, recovery of GSH and inhibition of TBARS formation by garlic and its constituent(s) showed that garlic may give protection by altering the drug metabolizing enzyme system.

  11. Changes in the Physico-chemical and Microbial Quality during the Production of Pastırma Cured with Different Levels of Sodium Nitrite.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Muhammet Irfan; Erdemir, Ebru; Çakıcı, Neslihan

    2016-10-31

    Pastırma, a dry-cured meat product, is produced from the whole muscle and/or muscles obtained from certain parts of beef and water buffalo carcasses. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of sodium nitrite on changes in the physicochemical and microbial quality during the production of pastırma. The changes in residual nitrite, salt, pH, moisture, thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances (TBARS), colour (L*, a*, b*), total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Micrococcus/Staphylococcus (M/S), mould-yeast (M-Y), and Enterobacteriaceae counts of pastırma with 0, 50, 100 and 150 ppm sodium nitrite were determined during the production. The nitrite levels and the production stages had significant effects (p<0.01) on residual nitrite, TBARS, pH, salt, and colour values. The TBARS values of the pastırma with nitrite were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the control. The final TAMB, LAB, M/S, and M-Y counts of pastırma with 150 ppm nitrite were significantly (p<0.05) lower than the control. Also, the a* (relative redness) values of control pastırma were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the pastırma with nitrite. The production stages had a significant effect (p<0.01) on the moisture.

  12. 78 FR 72841 - List of Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug Substances That...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used To Compound Drug Products in... Administration (FDA or Agency) is withdrawing the proposed rule to list bulk drug substances used in pharmacy... Pharmacopoeia chapter on pharmacy compounding; (II) if such a monograph does not exist, are drug substances...

  13. Is It the Music? Peer Substance Use as a Mediator of the Link between Music Preferences and Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Both music preferences and the substance use behavior of peers are important elements in explaining adolescent substance use. The extent to which music preference and peer use overlap in explaining adolescent substance use remains to be determined. A nationally representative sample of 7324 Dutch school-going adolescents (aged 12-16) provided data…

  14. 29 CFR 1917.23 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...

  15. 29 CFR 1917.23 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...

  16. 29 CFR 1917.23 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...

  17. 29 CFR 1917.23 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...

  18. 29 CFR 1917.23 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...

  19. Substance Use Among Victimized Women on Probation and Parole

    PubMed Central

    Golder, Seana; Hall, Martin T.; Logan, TK; Higgins, George; Dishon, Amanda; Renn, Tanya; Winham, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Victimized women within the criminal justice system are an important group and understanding their substance use is critical. Substance use was examined among 406 victimized women on probation and parole in an urban community from 2010 to 2013. Ninety-three percent reported lifetime use of an illicit substance, while 58% and 45% reported use of at least one illicit substance in the past two years and 12 months, respectively. Among probationers, having been in a controlled environment was associated with a higher prevalence of illicit substance use as compared to parolees. Implications for practice, policy and future research are discussed. PMID:24138096

  20. Substance use among victimized women on probation and parole.

    PubMed

    Golder, Seana; Hall, Martin T; Logan, T K; Higgins, George E; Dishon, Amanda; Renn, Tanya; Winham, Katherine M

    2014-03-01

    Victimized women within the criminal justice system are an important group and understanding their substance use is critical. Substance use was examined among 406 victimized women on probation and parole in an urban community from 2010 to 2013. Ninety-three percent reported lifetime use of an illicit substance, whereas 58% and 45% reported use of at least one illicit substance in the past 2 years and 12 months, respectively. Among probationers, having been in a controlled environment was associated with a higher prevalence of illicit substance use as compared to parolees. Implications for practice, policy, and future research are discussed.

  1. Interpersonal Guilt and Substance Use in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Geoffrey W.; Shilkret, Robert; Everett, Joyce E.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2016-01-01

    The college years are a time for developing independence and separating from one’s family, and it is also a time in which substance use often escalates. This study examined the relationships between use of substances and interpersonal guilt, an emotion that can arise from feelings about separation, among 1,979 college students. Regular users of alcohol, cigarettes, cannabis, and other illicit drugs were compared with non-regular users of each substance. Sequential linear regression, controlling for confounding variables, examined relationships between regular use of each substance and scores on a guilt index. Risky drinkers and daily smokers had significantly more interpersonal guilt than their peers who did not regularly use these substances. In contrast, regular cannabis users had significantly less guilt than non-regular cannabis users. These data suggest that substance use among college students may be related to interpersonal guilt and family separation issues, and this relationship may vary across substances. PMID:24579980

  2. Self-control and jail inmates’ substance misuse post-release: Mediation by friends’ substance use and moderation by age

    PubMed Central

    Malouf, Elizabeth; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined the relationship between two risk factors for substance misuse (self-control, substance using friends) and changes in jail inmates’ substance misuse from pre-incarceration to post-release. Method Participants were 485 adult jail inmates held on a felony conviction, recruited from a metropolitan county-jail situated in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. During incarceration, participants completed self-report assessments of pre-incarceration substance misuse and self-control. At one-year post-release, participants reported their substance misuse and proportion of substance-using friends (n=322 at follow-up). Results The relationship between self-control and changes in inmates’ substance misuse was fully mediated by association with substance-using friends. Age moderated the relationship between friends’ substance use and changes in inmates’ own misuse of marijuana and cocaine. Friends’ use was more strongly related to marijuana misuse for younger adults than for older adults. However, for cocaine misuse, this relationship was stronger for older adults than for younger adults. Self-control’s relationships with other variables were not moderated by age. Conclusions This study underscores importance of self-control’s indirect relationship (through substance-using friends) with changes in substance misuse: inmates with lower self-control were more likely to associate with substance-using friends and, in turn, had more symptoms of substance misuse 1-year post release. Results emphasize the importance of considering adult substance-users’ friend-relationships. However, age and type of substance appear important when considering the relative importance of friends’ influence. PMID:22727787

  3. Promoting Reduced and Discontinued Substance Use among Adolescent Substance Users: Effectiveness of a Universal Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Nieri, Tanya; Yabiku, Scott; Stromwall, Layne K.; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to address youth substance use have focused on prevention among non-users and treatment among severe users with less attention given to youth occupying the middle ground who have used substances but not yet progressed to serious abuse or addiction. Using a sample from 35 middle schools of 1,364 youth who reported using substances, this study examined the effectiveness of a universal youth substance use prevention program, the SAMHSA Model Program keepin’ it REAL, in promoting reduced or recently discontinued alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Discrete-time event history methods modeled the rates of reduced and recently discontinued use across four waves of data. Each substance (alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana) was modeled separately. Beginning at the second wave, participants who reported use at wave 1 were considered at risk of reducing or discontinuing use. Since the data sampled students in schools, multi-level models accounted for the nesting of data at the school level. Results indicated that prevention program participation influenced the rates of reduced and recently discontinued use only for alcohol, controlling for baseline use severity, age, grades, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and gender. Among youth who reported use of alcohol in wave 1 (N= 1,028), the rate of reducing use for program participants was 72% higher than the rate for control students. The rate of discontinuing use was 66% higher than the rate for control students. Among youth who reported use of one or more of the three substances in wave 1 (N = 1,364), the rate of discontinuing all use was 61% higher for program participants than for control students. Limitations and implications of these findings and plans for further research are discussed. PMID:17096196

  4. Spending on substance abuse treatment: how much is enough?

    PubMed Central

    Meara, Ellen; Frank, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    Aim To describe a framework that can be used to determine optimal spending on substance abuse treatment in the United States. Methods Selective review of the literature on spending for substance abuse treatment combined with an economic analysis of how to determine when spending is optimal, defining optimal spending as that which minimizes the social costs of substance use disorders. Results In 1997, only $11.9 billion of the $294 billion estimated social costs of substance abuse was spent on treatment. The discrepancy between the high indirect costs of illness relative to the level of spending on treatment of addictive disorders leads many to believe that the United States spends too little on treatment. In this paper, we argue that information on the social costs of substance abuse disorders and the level of spending on treatment is insufficient to determine whether current spending is optimal. We develop a framework that could be used to determine optimal spending on substance abuse treatment in the United States. We develop this framework in four steps. First, we provide background on the unique financial and delivery features of substance abuse treatment. Secondly, we outline the points raised by advocates of expanded substance abuse treatment: substance abuse has high social costs, yet few people receive the many effective treatments available partly because of financial barriers to treatment. Thirdly, we provide a framework that can be used to judge the additional benefits of alternative levels and types of spending on substance abuse treatment. Finally, we discuss the distinction between the potential impact of spending on substance abuse treatment and its actual impact, using productivity as an example of one significant portion of the costs of substance abuse. Conclusion To determine optimal spending on substance abuse treatment, research should describe who receives treatment, the quality of treatment received, and how treatments relate to outcomes that

  5. 75 FR 82408 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., including specimen, drug analytes and their cutoffs, methodologies, proficiency testing, best...

  6. 40 CFR 712.5 - Method of identification of substances for reporting purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be reported as the substance itself, not as a mixture, since these preparations are regarded as the substance in practice. (1) The chemical substance in aqueous solution. (2) The chemical substance...

  7. Substance Abuse among Iranian High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Momtazi, Saeed; Rawson, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review In this study, we reviewed data on drug use among high school students in Iran. Recent findings Published epidemiological studies in international and domestic journals show that drug use/abuse is a serious mental health problem in Iran. There is cultural support for opium in Iran, and also there is cultural tolerance for tobacco smoking, especially as water pipe smoking, in Iranian families. Alcohol, opium, and cannabis are the most frequently used illicit drugs, but there are new emerging problems with anabolic steroids, ecstasy, and stimulant substances, such as crystal methamphetamine. Summary There is serious drug abuse problem among Iranian high school students. It could be due to role-modeling by parents – mainly fathers – and also cultural tolerance of some substances. Early onset of tobacco smoking, with a daily use rate between 4.4% and 12.8% in high school students, is an important risk factor for other drug abuse problems. Use of all types of drugs, except prescription drugs, is more prevalent among boys. Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance, with a lifetime rate of at least 9.9%. Lifetime rates of opiate use – mostly opium – were between 1.2 an 8.6% in different parts of the country. As drug abuse is a frequent problem among Iranian high school students, it is necessary to design and implement drug prevention programs to protect them. Such programs, including life skills training and drug education, have been operating in recent years for Iranian students from kindergarten to the university level. PMID:20308905

  8. Failure to get into substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Dennis G; Reynolds, Grace L; D'Anna, Laura H; Hosmer, David W; Hardan-Khalil, Kholoud

    2017-02-01

    Among substance abusers in the US, the discrepancy in the number who access substance abuse treatment and the number who need treatment is sizable. This results in a major public health problem of access to treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics of Persons Who Use Drugs (PWUDs) that either hinder or facilitate access to treatment. 2646 participants were administered the Risk Behavior Assessment (RBA) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. The RBA included the dependent variable which was responses to the question "During the last year, have you ever tried, but been unable, to get into a drug treatment or detox program?" In multivariate analysis, factors associated with being unable to access treatment included: Previously been in drug treatment (OR=4.51), number of days taken amphetamines in the last 30days (OR=1.18), traded sex for drugs (OR=1.53), homeless (OR=1.73), Nonplanning subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (OR=1.19), age at interview (OR=0.91), and sexual orientation, with bisexual men and women significantly more likely than heterosexuals to have tried but been unable to get into treatment. The answers to the question on "why were you unable to get into treatment" included: No room, waiting list; not enough money, did not qualify, got appointment but no follow through, still using drugs, and went to jail before program start. As expected, findings suggest that limiting organizational and financial obstacles to treatment may go a long way in increasing drug abuse treatment accessibility to individuals in need. Additionally, our study points to the importance of developing approaches for increasing personal planning skills/reducing Nonplanning impulsivity among PWUDs when they are in treatment as a key strategy to ensure access to additional substance abuse treatment in the future.

  9. AN ANTIVIRAL SUBSTANCE FROM PENICILLIUM FUNICULOSUM

    PubMed Central

    Shope, Richard E.

    1966-01-01

    1. Helenine injected intraperitoneally 24 hr prior to a regularly fatal dose of Semliki Forest virus saves most of the mice to which it is administered. 2. Mice saved by helenine develop no viral immunity and regularly succumb when rechallenged 2 wk later with the same dose of virus from which they were originally saved. 3. The time during which helenine is optimally effective in protecting mice from death by Semliki Forest virus covers a period of approximately 36 hr beginning after about 12 hr and extending to 48 hr before virus infection. When periods of less than 12 hr, or more than 48 hr, elapse between the time of helenine administration and virus inoculation, its protective effectiveness diminishes progressively. 4. Repeated injections of helenine at 2- or 3-day intervals, if continued long enough, exhaust the capacity of a host to respond favorably to helenine administered 24 hr before virus inoculation. 5. Helenine injections at intervals of 4, 3, and 2 wk before its administration 24 hr prior to infection do not decrease the effectiveness of this final dose in protecting mice from fatal infection by the virus. The experimental results here reported indicate that, as suggested by the findings of earlier work, helenine does not act directly as an antiviral substance, but instead exerts its effect through some substance that it induces the host to elaborate. The nature of this induced antiviral substance is as yet unknown though, to judge from the failure of spared mice to acquire viral immunity, it appears to act at a stage in viral replication prior to that at which antigenic viral protein is produced. The findings with helenine and those thus far reported for interferon afford no factual basis for judging the relationship of the two, if any. PMID:5905239

  10. USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Toxic Substances Hydrology Program adapts research priorities to address the most important contamination issues facing the Nation and to identify new threats to environmental health. The Program investigates two major types of contamination problems: * Subsurface Point-Source Contamination, and * Watershed and Regional Contamination. Research objectives include developing remediation methods that use natural processes, characterizing and remediating contaminant plumes in fractured-rock aquifers, identifying new environmental contaminants, characterizing new and understudied pesticides in common pesticide-use settings, explaining mercury methylation and bioaccumulation, and developing approaches for remediating watersheds affected by active and historic mining.

  11. Longitudinal determinants of substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Finch, Stephen J; Seltzer, Nathan; Brook, David W

    2013-12-01

    Substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) have been linked with marital discord. Relatively little is known, however, about the antecedents of SUDs, the mediators of these factors over time, or their associations with the spousal/partner relationship among urban adults. A better understanding of the longitudinal pathways to marital conflict and to SUDs should help prevention and intervention programs target their precursors within the developmental period in which they occur. The present study, therefore, examined the longitudinal predictors of an unsupportive spousal/partner relationship and SUDs among a community sample of urban African American and Puerto Rican adults from East Harlem, NY. Participants (N = 816) completed structured questionnaires at five time waves, from adolescence to adulthood (mean ages = 14, 19, 24, 29, and 32 years). Structural equation modeling examined the effects of earlier environmental and social stressors and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors on later SUDs in adulthood. There was a good fit of the structural equation model (CFI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.06; and SRMR = 0.06), which revealed three main pathways from adolescence to the spousal/partner relationship and SUDs in adulthood. One pathway linked a weak parent-adolescent attachment relationship with the participant's psychological symptoms in emerging adulthood (p < 0.01), which in turn were related to affiliation with deviant and drug-using peers, also in emerging adulthood (p < 0.001). Peer deviance and drug use were associated with the participant's substance use in young adulthood (p < 0.001), which predicted both an unsupportive spousal/partner relationship (p < 0.05) and SUDs (p < 0.001) later in adulthood. Other pathways highlighted the continuity of psychological symptoms as related to both substance use in young adulthood (p < 0.001) and an unsupportive spousal/partner relationship in adulthood (p < 0.001). Findings

  12. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    PubMed

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.

  13. Pharmacotherapy of dual substance abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Kenna, George A; Nielsen, Darci M; Mello, Patricia; Schiesl, Alison; Swift, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    The US FDA has approved a limited number of treatments for alcohol, nicotine and opioid dependence; however, no treatments for other abused drugs such as marijuana, cocaine or methamphetamine are approved. This review focuses on research into drug pharmacotherapies, particularly single-drug therapies, for substance abuse and dependence contributing to the most important dual substance use disorders (SUDs). Given the implications of poly-substance abuse, it is essential that clinicians and researchers be aware of potential pharmacotherapies for the treatment of dual SUDs.A substantial number of patients abuse more than one drug concurrently, complicating the treatment of SUD and leaving clinicians with few FDA-approved drug options for their patients. In this era of evidence-based medicine, such patients are typically treated with therapeutically proven medications, but in ways that are outside the scope of a drug's original indication by the FDA. Such 'off-label' prescribing has become an important therapeutic strategy for practitioners seeking treatments for other diseases in subpopulations such as paediatrics and gerontology or for medical conditions such as oncology or mental illness. Similarly, the information that most clinicians use to make their decisions for treating patients abusing multiple drugs stems from trials treating a single SUD, anecdotal experiences from their own practice or that of their colleagues, or single-case studies reported in the literature. The existing evidence suggests there are few treatments for SUDs that confer significant reductions in substance use across a broad patient population. Moreover, even fewer clinical efficacy trials have been conducted that provide evidence of therapeutic benefit for these drugs. Recognising the difficulty in making the proper drug choice for facilitating maximum treatment success, this review highlights the single drugs or drug combinations that show some potential for treating dual SUDs. This

  14. AN ANTIVIRAL SUBSTANCE FROM PENICILLIUM FUNICULOSUM

    PubMed Central

    Shope, Richard E.

    1953-01-01

    A culture of P. funiculosum isolated on Guam proved capable of elaborating a substance which exerted a favorable therapeutic effect against swine influenza virus infections in white mice. The culture was extremely variable and irregular in its production of the antiviral substance, and during maintenance in the laboratory for several years gradually lost this property. Efforts to restore it were unsuccessful. Subsequently it was found that the mold elaborated a substance, now designated helenine, which is therapeutically effective against Columbia SK encephalomyelitis virus infections in mice. Helenine appears to differ from the substance earlier procured from the mold, which was active against swine influenza virus infections in mice. It is frequently present in greater or lesser amount in the fluid portions of stationary cultures of P. funiculosum but is more regularly obtained and in larger amount, from the cellular components of the pellicles. When liberated from these latter by mechanical bruising and fracturing, it goes into solution in the culture fluids. It is precipitable from aqueous solution by 50 per cent acetone. Infected mice injected with helenine in amounts less than the amount which produces a maximal therapeutic effect exhibit a dosage response. Increasing the dose above the optimum fails to increase the therapeutic effect. Helenine exerts its maximum effect when given within the first 10 hours after viral infection but its influence is apparent even when treatment is delayed for up to 24 hours. It is not effective against massive amounts of virus and gives the best therapeutic results when used in the treatment of animals infected with from 10 to 1000 fatal doses of virus. Treatment of infected mice with helenine delays the entrance of virus into their brains for from 24 to 48 hours. The mechanism by which helenine exerts its therapeutic effect against SK virus is not known but the findings presented suggest either that it causes an inhibition or

  15. Who's protecting you from hazardous substances

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Employee accidents, life endangering spills of harmful chemicals, toxic materials leaching into drinking water, polluted air, crippling side effects of wonder metals and products, and human and animal deaths made it apparent that in order to protect and preserve the community and the environment, the community needed to be aware/knowledgeable of chemical uses and related possible dangers, i.e., it was time to establish rules and regulations for the use and disposal of hazardous substances and chemicals. This report details several organizations, acts, rules, and regulations created in the interest of hazardous materials safety.

  16. [Is nutritional obesity a substance use disorder?

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Özgür; de Zwaan, Martina

    2016-12-01

    Today, food addiction has become an increasing area of research. Multiple studies aim to characterize individuals in terms of food addiction based on the assumption, that hyperpalatable foods rich of salt, sugar and fat may induce a cluster of behavioral changes that may resemble a substance use disorder, despite the fact that to date there is no evidence, that nutritional factors lead to an addictive eating-like behavior in humans. In this review article, we aim to introduce the basic experiments, that build the framework upon which food addiction is being investigated and to critically discuss the concept of food addiction.

  17. School Victimization and Substance Use among Adolescents in California

    PubMed Central

    Astor, Ron A.; Estrada, Joey N.; Benbenishty, Rami; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2016-01-01

    Substance use and violence co-occur among adolescents. However, the extant literature focuses on the substance use behaviors of perpetrators of violence and not on victims. This study identifies patterns of school victimization and substance use and how they co-occur. The California Healthy Kids Survey was used to identify latent classes/clusters of school victimization patterns and lifetime and frequency of recent (past month) alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use (N =419,698). Demographic characteristics (age, gender, and race/ethnicity) were included as predictors of latent class membership. Analyses revealed four latent classes of school victimization: low victimization (44.4 %), moderate victimization (22.3 %), verbal/relational victimization (20.8 %), and high victimization (with physical threats; 12.5 %). There were also four classes of substance use: non-users (58.5 %), alcohol experimenters (some recent alcohol use; 25.8 %), mild poly-substance users (lifetime use of all substances with few days of recent use; 9.1 %), and frequent poly-substance users (used all substances several times in the past month; 6.5 %). Those in the high victimization class were twice as likely to be frequent poly-substance users, and mild poly-substance use was most salient for those in the verbal victimization class. Few studies have explored latent patterns of substance use and violence victimization concurrently. The findings indicate substantial heterogeneity in victimization and substance use among youth in California schools with implications for targeted and tailored interventions. Understanding how certain types of victimization are associated with particular patterns of substance use will provide schools with opportunities to screen for concurrent behavioral health problems among youth. PMID:24482139

  18. NEIGHBORHOOD NORMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG TEENS

    PubMed Central

    Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598

  19. Catfish antibodies to blood group substances

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    An antiserum prepared in the freshwater catfish Tandanus tandanus by the injection of O secretor seminal plasma was fractionated into anti-H reagents showing different specificities by absorption with A1B erythrocytes and by absorption and elution from A1B cells. Although purified human and hog H blood group substances inhibited the haemagglutination of O erythrocytes by both the eluate from A1B cells and the serum remaining after absorption with A1B cells, all of the simple sugars tested, except 2′-fucosyl-lactose, failed to inhibit either sample. The H-substances inhibited the A1B-eluate at dilutions which were significantly higher than those required to inhibit the A1B-absorbed serum. Inconsistent with this result was the finding that 2′-fucosyl-lactose, a trisaccharide with a structure similar to the terminal H-active groupings on the type 2 chains of the ABH macromolecules, was a more active inhibitor of the absorbed than of the eluted serum. Seventeen different samples of O secretor saliva either failed to inhibit the A1B-absorbed serum, or produced inhibition at very low dilution. These same saliva samples inhibited the A1B-eluate in high dilution. PMID:5032492

  20. Basic substances: an opportunity for approval of low-concern substances under EU pesticide regulation.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Patrice A

    2015-09-01

    Plant extracts and byproducts furnish various alternative products for crop protection and are traditionally used by farmers. However, the cost and timeframe for their registration as active substances are prohibitive for small companies and farmers' associations with the new Plant Protection Products (PPP) Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009. However, there is now a possibility of registering light compounds as 'basic substances', a new category described in Article 23 and in 'Whereas/Recital 18'. We developed a regulatory expertise on the approval of such products within the framework of the PPP regulation. A Draft Assessment Report in one volume was established, later transformed by EC Directorate into a Basic Substance Application Template, and subsequently used by the EC as a matrix for the corresponding Guidelines for applicants (SANCO 10363/2012 rev. 9). Here we provide further tools, consisting of methodological, linguistic and strategic recommendations in order to constitute a Basic Substance Application (BSA) and proceed to its registration. While the use of alternative agents for crop protection is increasing both in organic and conventional agriculture, these usages are still considered as 'minor uses'. Our approach and tools are valuable to non-PPP specialised applicants for simplifying and facilitating their submission of the BSA.

  1. 76 FR 75794 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances; Withdrawal of Two Chemical Substances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... zinc, sodium-doped (PMN P-06-37; CAS No. 389623-07-8). These chemical substances are subject to TSCA..., tin zinc, sodium-doped (PMN P-06-37; CAS No. 389623-07-8) because the Agency received a notice...

  2. Substance Dependence Severity Scale: reliability and validity for ICD-10 substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Miele, G M; Carpenter, K M; Cockerham, M S; Trautman, K D; Blaine, J; Hasin, D S

    2001-01-01

    The Substance Dependence Severity Scale (SDSS) is a semistructured interview that assesses the severity of the DSM-IV diagnoses of dependence and abuse and the ICD-10 diagnoses of substance dependence and harmful use across a wide range of substances. Previous research has demonstrated that the SDSS' DSM-IV dependence scales are reliable and valid indicators of diagnostic severity. However, the ICD-10 scales have not been psychometrically tested. This study investigated the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, diagnostic concordance, and concurrent validity of the SDSS' ICD-10 dependence and harmful use scales in 180 (112 male and 68 female) treated substance users. Test-retest reliabilities for the ICD-10 dependence scales ranged from good to excellent for alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and cannabis. Test-retest reliabilities for the SDSS' ICD-10 harmful use scales were in the good range for alcohol, cocaine, and heroin and the poor to fair range for cannabis. Internal consistency, diagnostic concordance, and concurrent validity results were comparable to the test-retest findings. These results support the use of the SDSS for assessing the severity of the ICD-10 dependence and harmful use diagnoses.

  3. 75 FR 51734 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemical Substances; Third Group of Chemical Substances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Chemicals.'' The proposed rule, when finalized, would require manufacturers, importers, and processors of certain high production volume (HPV) chemical substances to conduct testing to obtain screening level data...., chemical manufacturing and petroleum refineries. Processors of one or more of the 29 subject...

  4. Substance dependence among those without symptoms of substance abuse in the World Mental Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Lago, Luise; Glantz, Meyer D; Kessler, Ronald C; Sampson, Nancy A; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Florescu, Silvia; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Murphy, Sam; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2017-02-17

    The World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative uses the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The first 13 surveys only assessed substance dependence among respondents with a history of substance abuse; later surveys also assessed substance dependence without symptoms of abuse. We compared results across the two sets of surveys to assess implications of the revised logic and develop an imputation model for missing values of lifetime dependence in the earlier surveys. Lifetime dependence without symptoms of abuse was low in the second set of surveys (0.3% alcohol, 0.2% drugs). Regression-based imputation models were built in random half-samples of the new surveys and validated in the other half. There were minimal differences for imputed and actual reported cases in the validation dataset for age, gender and quantity; more mental disorders and days out of role were found in the imputed cases. Concordance between imputed and observed dependence cases in the full sample was high for alcohol [sensitivity 88.0%, specificity 99.8%, total classification accuracy (TCA) 99.5%, area under the curve (AUC) 0.94] and drug dependence (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 99.8%, TCA 99.8%, AUC 1.00). This provides cross-national evidence of the small degree to which lifetime dependence occurs without symptoms of abuse. Imputation of substance dependence in the earlier WMH surveys improved estimates of dependence.

  5. Enhanced Case Management versus Substance Abuse Treatment Alone among Substance Abusers with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striley, Catherine W.; Nattala, Prasanthi; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Dennis, Michael L.; Cottler, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of enhanced case management for substance abusers with comorbid major depression, which was an integrated approach to care. One hundred and 20 participants admitted to drug treatment who also met Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule criteria for major depression at baseline were randomized to…

  6. [Responsibilities of enterprises introducing new dangerous chemical substances and preparations].

    PubMed

    Cieśla, Jacek; Majka, Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the responsibilities of producers, importers and distributors set in a new Act of January 2001 on chemical substances and preparations (Off. J. 2001, No. 11, item 84, with subsequent amendments). This Act together with executive provisions is aimed at harmonizing Polish legislation with EU requirements. The Act sets conditions, restriction and bans of production placing on the market and use of chemical substances and preparations in order to protect human health and environment against their harmful effects. The Act together with a number of executive provisions render those who introduce dangerous chemicals and chemical preparations, including distributors responsible for: classification and labelling of dangerous chemical substances and preparations; possessing, making available and up-dating safety data sheets; supplying packages containing certain dangerous substances with child-proof fastenings; notifying the Inspector for Chemical Substances and Preparations about placing a dangerous preparation on the market; notifying the Inspector about a new substance and conducting required studies; being properly qualified to handle dangerous substances. The Act strictly defines the term "placing a substance or a preparation on the market"--it means making a substance or a preparation available to third parties on the territory of The Republic of Poland, territories of the Member States of the European Union or the territory of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, unless the Act provides otherwise; it also means introduction of a substance or a preparation from outside of the territory referred to above on the customs territory of The Republic of Poland, or that of the member states of the European Union and other states listed above. In addition, some of the responsibilities defined by the provisions of the law on chemical substances and preparations are also applicable to handling of biocidals, which are classified as dangerous substances. The Act

  7. Exposure to Violence, Substance Use, and Neighborhood Context

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Emily M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to violence and substance use are both public health problems, but how neighborhood context contributes to these outcomes is unclear. This study uses prospective data from 1,416 adolescents to examine the direct and interacting influences of victimization and neighborhood factors on adolescent substance use. Based on hierarchical Bernoulli regression models that controlled for prior substance use and multiple individual-level factors, exposure to violence significantly increased the likelihood of marijuana use but not alcohol use or binge drinking. There was little evidence that community norms regarding adolescent substance use influenced rates of substance use or moderated the impact of victimization. Community disadvantage did not directly impact substance use, but the relationship between victimization and marijuana use was stronger for those in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage. The results suggest that victimization is particularly likely to affect adolescents’ marijuana use, and that this relationship may be contingent upon neighborhood economic conditions. PMID:25432621

  8. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in studies of substance use.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Saul

    2009-12-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This article reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has been most applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based reports of substance use with time-based assessments. Approaches to data organization and analysis have been very diverse, particularly regarding their treatment of time. Compliance with signaled assessments is often high. Compliance with recording of substance use appears good but is harder to validate. Treatment applications of EMA are emerging. EMA captures substance use patterns not measured by questionnaires or retrospective data and holds promise for substance use research.

  9. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in Studies of Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Saul

    2010-01-01

    Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This paper reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has most been applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based reports of substance use with time-based assessments. Approaches to data organization and analysis have been very diverse, particularly regarding their treatment of time. Compliance with signaled assessments is often high. Compliance with recording of substance use appears good, but is harder to validate. Treatment applications of EMA are emerging. EMA captures substance use patterns not measured by questionnaires or retrospective data, and hold promise for substance use research. PMID:19947783

  10. Offending, Substance Use, and Cohabitation in Young Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Lonardo, Robert A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2010-01-01

    Over half of young adults have cohabited, but relatively little is known about the role delinquency and substance use play in youths’ odds of cohabiting as well as the implications of cohabitation for early adult offending and substance use. This study focuses on the reciprocal relationship between cohabitation during late adolescence and young adulthood and self-reported offending and substance use. Using longitudinal data, we find that net of traditional predictors delinquency involvement is associated with increased odds of cohabitation and cohabiting at younger ages while substance use is not related to cohabiting during early adulthood. Further analysis indicates that cohabitation is associated with lower reports of substance use. However, cohabitation is not associated with self-reported offending. The results help to unravel the connection between cohabitation experience, offending and substance use, and early adult outcomes. PMID:21359092

  11. Rural drug users: factors associated with substance abuse treatment utilization.

    PubMed

    Oser, Carrie B; Leukefeld, Carl G; Tindall, Michele Staton; Garrity, Thomas F; Carlson, Robert G; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a modified version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to identify the correlates of the number of substance abuse treatment episodes received by rural drug users. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews with 711 drug users in rural areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. Descriptive analyses examine rural drug users' substance use histories and retrospective substance abuse treatment service utilization patterns. A negative binomial regression model indicated that selected predisposing, historical health, and enabling factors were significantly associated with the utilization of substance abuse treatment among rural drug users. Despite high levels of recent and lifetime self-reported substance use among these rural drug users, treatment services were underutilized. Future studies are needed to examine the impact of the health care system and characteristics of the external environment associated with rural substance abuse treatment in order to increase utilization among drug users.

  12. Brief Family Based Intervention for Substance Abusing Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Lynn; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Research has consistently shown that a lack of parental involvement in the activities of their children predicts initiation and escalation of substance use. Parental monitoring, as well as youth disclosure about their whereabouts, parent child communication, positive parenting and family management strategies, e.g., consistent limit setting, and parental communication about and disapproval of substance use, have all been shown to protect against adolescent substance abuse and substance problems. Given the empirical evidence, family and parenting approaches to preventing and intervening on adolescent substance misuse have received support in the literature. This article discusses the theoretical foundations as well as the application of the Family Check-up, a brief family-based intervention for adolescent substance use. PMID:26092741

  13. Exposure to violence, substance use, and neighborhood context.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Abigail A; Wright, Emily M; Pinchevsky, Gillian M

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to violence and substance use are both public health problems, but how neighborhood context contributes to these outcomes is unclear. This study uses prospective data from 1416 adolescents to examine the direct and interacting influences of victimization and neighborhood factors on adolescent substance use. Based on hierarchical Bernoulli regression models that controlled for prior substance use and multiple individual-level factors, exposure to violence significantly increased the likelihood of marijuana use but not alcohol use or binge drinking. There was little evidence that community norms regarding adolescent substance use influenced rates of substance use or moderated the impact of victimization. Community disadvantage did not directly impact substance use, but the relationship between victimization and marijuana use was stronger for those in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage. The results suggest that victimization is particularly likely to affect adolescents' marijuana use, and that this relationship may be contingent upon neighborhood economic conditions.

  14. Effect of Tridax procumbens on liver antioxidant defense system during lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatitis in D-galactosamine sensitised rats.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Vilwanathan; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the effect of chloroform insoluble fraction of ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (TP) against D-Galactosamine/Lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS)-induced hepatitis in rats. Induction of rats with D-GalN/LPS (300 mg/kg body weight/30 microg/kg body weight) led to a marked increase in lipid peroxidation as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver. Further there was a decline in the activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione s-transferase and the levels of non-enzymic antioxidants namely reduced glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E. These biochemical alterations were normalised upon pretreatment with TP extract. Thus, the above results suggest that TP (300 mg/kg body weight orally for 10 days) is very effective in allievating the D-GalN/LPS-induced oxidative stress suggesting its antioxidant property.

  15. Oxidative processes during enzymatic hydrolysis of cod protein and their influence on antioxidant and immunomodulating ability.

    PubMed

    Halldorsdottir, Sigrun M; Sveinsdottir, Holmfridur; Freysdottir, Jona; Kristinsson, Hordur G

    2014-01-01

    Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) have many desirable properties, however heating and shifts in pH can cause oxidation during enzymatic hydrolysis. The objective was to investigate oxidative processes during enzymatic hydrolysis of fish protein and the impact of oxidation on the antioxidant and immunomodulating ability of FPH. Protease P "Amano" 6 was used to hydrolyze cod protein in the presence and absence of pro-oxidants at pH 8 and 36°C to achieve 20% degree of hydrolysis. Results from thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory analysis indicate that oxidation can develop rapidly during hydrolysis. A cellular antioxidant assay using a HepG2 cell model indicated a negative impact of oxidation products on antioxidant properties of the FPH while results obtained in chemical assays showed a negligible impact. Results from a dendritic cell model indicating that oxidation products may affect anti-inflammatory activity in the body. This study provides important information regarding bioactive FPH.

  16. The effect of natural antioxidants on haemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation during enzymatic hydrolysis of cod protein.

    PubMed

    Halldorsdottir, Sigrun M; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Sveinsdottir, Holmfridur; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Hamaguchi, Patricia Y

    2013-11-15

    Heating and changes in pH often practised during fish protein hydrolysis can cause lipid oxidation. The effect of natural antioxidants towards haemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation during enzymatic hydrolysis of cod proteins was investigated. Different variants of a washed cod model system, containing different combinations of haemoglobin and natural antioxidants (l-ascorbic acid and Fuscus vesiculosus extract), were hydrolysed using Protease P "Amano" 6 at pH 8 and 36°C to achieve 20% degree of hydrolysis. Lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were analysed periodically during the hydrolysis process. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the final products was investigated. Results indicate that oxidation can develop rapidly during hydrolysis and antioxidant strategies are preferable to produce good quality products. Oxidation products did not have an impact on the in vitro antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates. The natural antioxidants inhibited oxidation during hydrolysis and contributed to the antioxidant activity of the final product.

  17. Effect of irradiation and packaging on lipid fraction of Bulgarian salami during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakalivanova, T.; Grigorova, S.; Kaloyanov, N.

    2009-04-01

    The effect of γ-irradiation (4 and 9 kGy) and packaging on the lipolytic and oxidative processes in lipid fraction of Bulgarian fermented salami during storage at 5 °C was evaluated (1st, 15th and 30th days). No significant differences were observed in the amounts of total lipids (TL), total phospholipids (TPL) and acid number (AN) within the vacuum packed samples of salami treated with 4 and 9 kGy during storage. The changes in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) depended mainly on the irradiation dose applied and did not exceed 1.37 mg/kg in all groups. The most intensive lipolytic and oxidative processes and the lowest sensory assessment were found in the non-packed irradiated (9 kGy) samples.

  18. Radappertization of ready-to-eat shelf-stable, traditional Indian bread - Methi Paratha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoir, Shraddha A.; Muppalla, Shobita R.; Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    Shelf-stable ready-to-eat (RTE) Methi Paratha (flavored Indian unleavened flat bread) was developed using combination of hurdles including radiation processing. The Methi Paratha was prepared using dough containing wheat flour, dried fenugreek leaves and spices. The samples were vacuum packed in multi-layered pouches and irradiated at 25 kGy in frozen conditions. Samples were evaluated for microbiological counts, lipid peroxidation and sensory attributes during storage under ambient conditions. Samples were found to be devoid of any viable microorganism throughout the storage period of 180 days. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value which indicates lipid peroxidation of samples did not show any significant increase with time. The Methi Paratha was found to be acceptable by the evaluating panelists.

  19. The effect of diamond nanoparticles on redox and immune parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Tomasz; Szmidt, Maciej; Sawosz, Ewa; Grodzik, Marta; Mitura, Katarzyna

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of nanodiamond (ND) particles manufactured by detonation method (size of grains 2-10 nm) on organism health status. Wistar rats were administrated with diamond nanoparticles colloid by intravenous and intraperitoneal injection. Both routes of administration increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and at the same time decreased activity of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) within erythrocytes. ND did not significantly affect neither total antioxidative state (TAS) nor thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in examined animals blood plasma. This study was also designed to examine the effect of ND on the phagocytosis activity and oxidative burst of innate immune cells. Both intravenous and intraperitoneal administration of ND hydrocolloid decreased the number of the phagocytosing neutrophiles stimulated by E. coli. Independently of the injection method nanodiamond increased the number of cells with stimulated oxidative burst and it suppressed the mechanism of oxygen dependent bacteria elimination.

  20. On the properties of calcium-induced permeability transition in neonatal heart mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Pavón, Natalia; Gallardo, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Esquivel, Luz María; El-Hafidi, Mohammed; Buelna-Chontal, Mabel; Zazueta, Cecilia; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Chávez, Edmundo

    2011-12-01

    Permeability transition was examined in heart mitochondria isolated from neonate rats. We found that these mitochondria were more susceptible to Ca(2+)-induced membrane leakiness than mitochondria from adult rats. In K(+) containing medium, at 25 °C, mitochondria were unable to accumulate Ca(2+). Conversely, in Na(+) containing medium, mitochondria accumulated effectively Ca(2+). At 15 °C mitochondria accumulated Ca(2+) regardless of the presence of K(+). Kinetics of Ca(2+) accumulation showed a similar Vmax as that of adult mitochondria. Lipid milieu of inner membrane contained more unsaturated fatty acids than adult mitochondria. Aconitase inhibition and high thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) indicate that oxidative stress caused mitochondrial damage. In addition, proteomics analysis showed that there is a considerable diminution of succinate dehydrogenase C and subunit 4 of cytochrome oxidase in neonate mitochondria. Our proposal is that dysfunction of the respiratory chain makes neonate mitochondria more susceptible to damage by oxidative stress.

  1. Oxidative damage to poultry, pork, and beef during frozen storage through the analysis of novel protein oxidation markers.

    PubMed

    Utrera, Mariana; Estévez, Mario

    2013-08-21

    The susceptibility of meats from different animal species (beef quadriceps femoris, porcine longissimus dorsi, and chicken pectoralis major) to undergo protein oxidation during frozen storage (20 weeks/-18 °C) was studied through the analysis of novel oxidation markers. Frozen storage induced protein carbonylation (α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes), carboxylation (α-aminoadipic acid), and formation of Schiff bases in meat from the three species. Major rates of protein and lipid oxidation products [thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and hexanal] were found in beef patties. Among the endogenous factors having a potential influence on the susceptibility of meat to undergo protein oxidation, heme iron seemed to play a major role. The present study illustrates the severe chemical modifications induced by oxidative stress during frozen storage of ground meat and provides original insight into the underlying mechanisms and factors.

  2. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM THE SHOOTS AND ROOTS OF pRi-TRANSFORMED PLANTS OF REHMANNIA GLUTINOSA LIBOSCH.

    PubMed

    Piatczak, Ewelina; Dfbska, Marta; Kontek, Bogdan; Olas, Beata; Wysokinskai, Halina

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts derived from shoots (HR-shoots) and roots (HR-roots) of pRi-transformed Rehmannia glutinosa plants were determined. The activity was indicated by the ability of the plant extracts to inhibit superoxide anion (O2(-·)) generation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production in resting blood platelets and platelets activated by thrombin. The strongest activity was exhibited by the HR-shoot extract (50 μg/mL). The present study also examines the antioxidant properties of the plant extracts against human plasma lipid peroxidation induced by strong biological oxidants: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and H2O2/Fe. The study shows that extracts from transformed R. glutinosa plants may be a promising source of natural antioxidants, which would be valuable in various cardiovascular diseases. The extracts may also protect lipids against oxidative modifications.

  3. NO-donor phenols: a new class of products endowed with antioxidant and vasodilator properties.

    PubMed

    Boschi, Donatella; Tron, Gian Cesare; Lazzarato, Loretta; Chegaev, Konstantin; Cena, Clara; Di Stilo, Antonella; Giorgis, Marta; Bertinaria, Massimo; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2006-05-18

    The synthesis and study of the antioxidant and vasodilator properties of a new class of phenols able to release nitric oxide are described. The products were designed through a symbiotic approach using selected phenols and selected nitrooxy and furoxan NO-donors as reference models. The antioxidant activities of the hybrid products were assessed by detecting the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) produced in the ferrous salt/ascorbate-induced autoxidation of lipids present in microsomial membranes of rat hepatocytes. The vasodilator activity was assessed on rat aortic strips precontracted with phenylephrine. Some of the products (13, 35, 37, 60-62, 64) behave principally as vasodilators and others as antioxidants (24, 32, 72), and the two properties are relatively balanced in 19, 41, and 68. Further in vivo studies should clarify whether some of these products may become preclinical candidates for the treatment of cardiovascular disease underpinned by atheroma.

  4. Probing the anti-hyperlipidemic efficacy of the allspice (Pimenta officinalis Lindl.) in rats fed with high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Shyamala, M P; Paramundayil, Julie J; Venukumar, M R; Latha, M S

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of aqueous extract of Pimenta officinalis (APO) was investigated in experimental rats fed with high fat diet (HFD). Hyperlipidemia in experimental rats was evidenced by a significant enhancement in the level of glycerol, triglycerides and phopholipids in serum, and also in liver and kidney tissues. HFD caused oxidative stress in these animals as shown by marked increment in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and diene conjugates (CD), and a distinct diminution in reduced glutathione (GSH) content in liver and kidneys. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) showed reduced activity in hyperlipidemic rats. All these biochemical parameters showed reliable signs of retrieving towards near-normalcy in APO-administered HFD fed rats. This study unveiled the anti-hyperlipidemic as well as antioxidant activity of APO.

  5. Volatile profile, lipid oxidation and protein oxidation of irradiated ready-to-eat cured turkey meat products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xi; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-10-01

    Irradiation had little effects on the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey meat products, while it increased protein oxidation at 4.5 kGy. The volatile profile analyses indicated that the amount of sulfur compounds increased linearly as doses increased in RTE turkey meat products. By correlation analysis, a positive correlation was found between benzene/ benzene derivatives and alcohols with lipid oxidation, while aldehydes, ketones and alkane, alkenes and alkynes were positively correlated with protein oxidation. Principle component analysis showed that irradiated meat samples can be discriminated by two categories of volatile compounds: Strecker degradation products and radiolytic degradation products. The cluster analysis of volatile data demonstrated that low-dose irradiation had minor effects on the volatile profile of turkey sausages (<1.5 kGy). However, as the doses increased, the differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated cured turkey products became significant.

  6. Antihyperglycaemic activity of Musa sapientum flowers: effect on lipid peroxidation in alloxan diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Pari, L; Umamaheswari, J

    2000-03-01

    Musa sapientum commonly known as 'banana' is widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Oral administration of 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 g/kg body weight of the chloroform extract of the flowers for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin and an increase in total haemoglobin. The extract prevented a decrease in body weight, and also resulted in a decrease in free radical formation in the tissues. Thus the study shows that banana flower extract (BFEt) has an antihyperglycaemic action. The decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the increase in reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) clearly shows the antioxidant property of BFEt. The effect of BFEt was more prominently seen in the case of animals given 0.25 g/kg body weight. BFEt was more effective than glibenclamide.

  7. Polyphenol extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus attenuate nephropathy in experimental type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Chin; Wang, Chau-Jong; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Hsu, Jen-Dong; Cheng, Su-Ya; Chen, Hong-Chen; Lee, Huei-Jane

    2009-03-25

    Diabetic nephropathy progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is found in type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Oxidative stress is one of the precipitation factors in diabetic nephropathy. Previously, Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus and its polyphenol extracts were found to possess antioxidative effects. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. polyphenol extract (HPE) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic nephropathy. The results show that HPE reduced kidney mass induced by STZ significantly, as well as improving hydropic change of renal proximal convoluted tubules in the rats. HPE also significantly reduced serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL in STZ induced rats. Treatment with HPE significantly increased the activity of catalase and glutathione and reduced lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS). The findings of this research show the beneficial effects of HPE on STZ induced diabetic nephropathy including pathology, serum lipid profile and oxidative marker in kidney.

  8. Assay to detect lipid peroxidation upon exposure to nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Potter, Timothy M; Neun, Barry W; Stern, Stephan T

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes a method for the analysis of human hepatocarcinoma cells (HEP G2) for lipid peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), following treatment with nanoparticle formulations. Oxidative stress has been identified as a likely mechanism of nanoparticle toxicity, and cell-based in vitro systems for evaluation of nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress are widely considered to be an important component of biocompatibility screens. The products of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides, and aldehydes, such as MDA, can be measured via a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. In this assay, which can be performed in cell culture or in cell lysate, MDA combines with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) to form a fluorescent adduct that can be detected at an excitation wavelength of 530 nm and an emission wavelength of 550 nm. The results are then expressed as MDA equivalents, normalized to total cellular protein (determined by Bradford assay).

  9. In vitro effects of Monascus purpureus on antioxidation activity during fermentation of Kinmen sorghum liquor waste.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chin-Shiu; Hu, Hung-Hsi; Tsai, Ya-Mei; Chang, Wen-Teish

    2013-04-01

    Monascus purpureus CWT715 is a strain of red yeast rice that can scavenge free radicals when fermented with residual sorghum from Kinmen sorghum liquor waste (KSL). This study used KSL as the primary nutrient source in the production of metabolites from M. purpureus CWT715, whose antioxidant activity was tested on mouse embryonic liver cells (BNL CL.2). Image analysis of a comet assay was performed to evaluate DNA strand breaks, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) analysis was used to measure lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate that, compared with the control, M. purpureus CWT715 pretreated with 100 μg/ml of fermentation broth reduced DNA damage by 61% and lipid peroxidation by 51%. Thus, KSL shows considerable potential as an antioxidant in functional foods. This is the first report on the use of Monascus species in the conversion of KSL to produce antioxidants.

  10. DC discharges in atmospheric air for bio-decontamination - spectroscopic methods for mechanism identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machala, Z.; Jedlovský, I.; Chládeková, L.; Pongrác, B.; Giertl, D.; Janda, M.; Ikurová, L. Å.; Polčic, P.

    2009-08-01

    Three types of DC electrical discharges in atmospheric air (streamer corona, transient spark and glow discharge) were tested for bio-decontamination of bacteria and yeasts in water solution, and spores on surfaces. Static vs. flowing treatment of contaminated water were compared, in the latter the flowing water either covered the grounded electrode or passed through the high voltage needle electrode. The bacteria were killed most efficiently in the flowing regime by transient spark. Streamer corona was efficient when the treated medium flew through the active corona region. The spores on plastic foil and paper surfaces were successfully inactivated by negative corona. The microbes were handled and their population evaluated by standard microbiology cultivation procedures. The emission spectroscopy of the discharges and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) absorption spectrometric detection of the products of lipid peroxidation of bacterial cell membranes indicated a major role of radicals and reactive oxygen species among the bio-decontamination mechanisms.

  11. Effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestibility of lipid and cholesterol oxidation products in beef during in vitro human digestion.

    PubMed

    Hur, Sun Jin; Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung-Jae

    2015-01-01

    In this study, beef patties were encapsulated with 3% chitosan, pectin, onion powder, or green tea powder and the beef patties were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model. The total lipid digestibility was lowest (p<0.05) in beef patties encapsulated with chitosan and pectin after digestion in the small intestine. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were significantly lower (p<0.05) for beef patties encapsulated with chitosan and pectin, when compared with the control, after digestion in the small intestine. In contrast, the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging activity was highest (p<0.05) in beef patties encapsulated with onion powder and green tea powder after digestion in the small intestine. The total cholesterol oxidation product (COP) content was significantly lower (p<0.05) in beef patties encapsulated with biopolymers than in the control after digestion in the small intestine.

  12. Characterisation of fluorescent Schiff bases formed during oxidation of pig myofibrils.

    PubMed

    Chelh, Ilham; Gatellier, Philippe; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the formation of fluorescent Schiff bases between proteins and lipid oxidation products in myofibrils. Myofibrils were prepared from pig M. longissimus dorsi and oxidized by hydroxyl (OH()) and superoxide (O(2)(-)) radical generating systems. Protein oxidation was measured by the carbonyl content and lipid oxidation was estimated by measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). To avoid any bias due to their low solubility, fluorescent pigments were estimated directly in the solid state by a front-face fluorescence technique. Hydroxyl radicals generated high levels of lipid and protein oxidation as well as fluorescent pigments, whereas only fluorescence was affected by superoxide radicals. The formation of fluorescent pigments was linked not only to aldehyde production, but also to the availability of the amino groups of the myofibrillar protein side chains. Schiff bases could be implicated in protein aggregation with deleterious effect on meat quality.

  13. Effect of Zinc and Copper Nanoparticles on Drought Resistance of Wheat Seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, Nataliya; Storozhenko, Volodymyr; Svietlova, Nataliia; Batsmanova, Ludmila; Shvartau, Viktor; Kovalenko, Mariia

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a colloidal solution of Cu,Zn-nanoparticles on pro-oxidative/antioxidative balance and content of photosynthetic pigments and leaf area of winter wheat plants of steppe (Acveduc) and forest-steppe (Stolichna) ecotypes was investigated in drought conditions. It has been shown that Cu,Zn-nanoparticles decreased the negative effect of drought action upon plants of steppe ecotype Acveduc. In particular, increased activity of antioxidative enzymes reduced the level of accumulation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and stabilized the content of photosynthetic pigments and increased relative water content in leaves. Colloidal solution of Cu,Zn-nanoparticles had less significant influence on these indexes in seedlings of the Stolichna variety under drought.

  14. Multi-Biomarker Responses After Exposure to Pollution in the Mediterranean Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis L.) in the Aegean Coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Dilara; Dagdeviren, Melih; Katalay, Selma; Guner, Adem; Yavaşoğlu, N Ülkü Karabay

    2017-01-01

    In this study, sublethal effects on the Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis L.) collected from the Aegean coast of Turkey were determined. Enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), metallothionein (MT) mRNA expressions, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) contents, determination of 14 heavy metals and micronucleus frequency were selected as multibiomarkers. Results show that heavy metals and an increase in the level of MT gene expression have been determined in tissues of mussels collected from all stations. The GST, SOD and CAT enzymes were increased in mussels of Aliaga and Old Foca, compared to the mussels of Urla, while it was showed inhibition at AChE levels. Extensive LP is determined on mussels of Aliaga. It was determined that mussels in Aliaga region have exposed more oxidative stress than Old Foca and Urla. These biomarkers were carried out for the first time in these stations to assess environmental quality.

  15. Effect of prochloraz fungicide on biotransformation enzymes and oxidative stress parameters in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.).

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Wilfried; Piccini, Benjamin; Porcher, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize biomarker responses in three-spined sticklebacks exposed to prochloraz (Pcz). For this purpose, adult sticklebacks were exposed for 2 weeks to prochloraz at 0, 10, 50, 100 and 500 microg/L prior to one week of depuration in clean water. At days 7, 14 and 21, several hepatic biomarkers were measured including 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), total glutathione (GSH) content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Pcz induced a transient increase of antioxidant enzymes and a depletion of glutathione content during the first 7 days of exposure. This study showed that EROD activity and antioxidants were disrupted in a transient manner. GST was rapidly induced in a dose-dependent manner and this induction was persistent and observed also after depuration. GST appeared as a valuable biomarker to assess the exposure to Pcz.

  16. Effect of pomegranate peel extract on lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Sebahattin Serhat; Soyer, Ayla; Işıkçı, Fatma

    2016-06-01

    Antioxidant effect of pomegranate peel extract (PE) to retard lipid and protein oxidation was investigated in meatballs during refrigerated storage at 4±1°C. Concentrated lyophilised water extract of pomegranate peel was incorporated into freshly minced beef meat at 0.5% and 1% concentrations and compared with 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as a reference and control (without any antioxidant). PE showed high phenolic content and antioxidant activity. In PE added samples, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, peroxide formation, loss of sulfhydryl groups and formation of protein carbonyls were lower than control (P<0.01) after 8 days of storage. Sensory evaluation with respect to colour and rancid odour revealed that PE incorporation in meatballs prolonged the refrigerated storage up to 8 days. Addition of both 0.5 and 1% PE in meatballs reduced lipid and protein oxidation and improved sensory scores. These results indicated that PE was effective on retarding lipid and protein oxidation.

  17. Giffonins A-I, antioxidant cyclized diarylheptanoids from the leaves of the hazelnut tree (Corylus avellana), source of the Italian PGI product "Nocciola di Giffoni".

    PubMed

    Masullo, Milena; Cerulli, Antonietta; Olas, Beata; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2015-01-23

    Eight new diaryl ether heptanoids, giffonins A-H (1-8), and one diaryl heptanoid, giffonin I (9), were isolated from the methanol extract of the leaves of Corylus avellana. Its hazelnut is the PGI product of the Campania region (Italy) known as "Nocciola di Giffoni". The MeOH extract of C. avellana leaves and giffonins A-I (1-9) were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on human plasma lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 and H2O2/Fe(2+), by measuring the concentration of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances). Compounds 4 and 8 at 10 μM reduced both H2O2- and H2O2/Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation by more than 60% and 50%, respectively, indicating higher activity than curcumin used as reference compound.

  18. The role of oxygen free radicals in idiopathic facial pain.

    PubMed

    Aghabeigi, B; Haque, M; Wasil, M; Hodges, S J; Henderson, B; Harris, M

    1997-06-01

    Patients with chronic facial pain including those with facial arthromyalgia (TMJ dysfunction syndrome) were investigated for evidence of abnormal systemic and intra-articular free radical activity. Chronic facial pain patients showed significantly raised serum 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid after an oral dose of 1.2 g of aspirin which indicates increased systemic free radical activity. This was reflected in the TMJ aspirates of the facial arthromyalgia patients which contained thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBA-RS) which is also a product of free radical activity. The synovial aspirates also contained high levels of the hyperalgesic eicosanoid 15-HETE. However, there was no difference between the painful and symptom-free joints, which suggested that in part the clinical features are probably determined by asymmetrical masticatory function or as yet unknown algesic factors such as local cytokine production.

  19. Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Sousa, M João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrusxaurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using beta-carotene-linoleate model system in liposomes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay in brain homogenates. Reducing sugars and phenolics were the main antioxidant compounds found in all the extracts. Peels polar fractions revealed the highest contents in phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and reducing sugars, which certainly contribute to the highest antioxidant potential found in these fractions. Peels volatile fractions were clearly separated using discriminant analysis, which is in agreement with their lowest antioxidant potential.

  20. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on color and lipid oxidation of beef patties during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Hur, S J; Ye, B W; Lee, J L; Ha, Y L; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2004-04-01

    The effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on color and lipid oxidation of beef patties were investigated. Ground beef was divided into three batches. The control patties were prepared with 90% lean meat and 10% tallow. The second treatment consisted of 90% lean meat with 9.5% tallow+0.5% CLA sources. The third treatment consisted of 90% lean meat with 8% tallow+2% CLA sources. The patties were wrap-packaged and then stored at 4° for 14 days. The CLA concentration significantly increased (P<0.05) by substituting CLA sources for fat. Storage of the patties did not alter the CLA concentration in beef patties. The treatment substituted with CLA sources had significantly lower TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) values (P<0.05) than the control. For oxymyoglobin contents and a* value, substituted CLA sources treatments had significantly higher values than the control. However, L* value significantly increased by substituting CLA sources for fat.

  1. Hydrolytic cleavage of DNA by quercetin zinc(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tan; Bochu, Wang; Liancai, Zhu

    2007-03-01

    Quercetin zinc(II) complex was investigated focusing on its hydrolytic activity toward DNA. The complex successfully promotes the cleavage of plasmid DNA, producing single and double DNA strand breaks. The amount of conversion of supercoiled form (SC) of plasmid to the nicked circular form (NC) depends on the concentration of the complex as well as the duration of incubation of the complex with DNA. The rate of conversion of SC to NC is 1.68x10(-4) s(-1) at pH 7.2 in the presence of 100 microM of the complex. The hydrolytic cleavage of DNA by the complex is supported by the evidence from free radical quenching, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay, and T4 ligase ligation.

  2. Hydrolytic cleavage of DNA by quercetin manganese(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tan; Bochu, Wang; Liancai, Zhu

    2007-04-01

    Quercetin manganese(II) complexes were investigated focusing on its DNA hydrolytic activity. The complexes successfully promote the cleavage of plasmid DNA, producing single and double DNA strand breaks. The amount of conversion of supercoiled form (SC) of plasmid DNA to the nicked circular form (NC) depends on the concentration of the complex as well as the duration of incubation of the complexes with DNA. The maximum rate of conversion of the supercoiled form to the nicked circular form at pH 7.2 in the presence of 100 microM of the complexes is found to be 1.32 x 10(-4) s(-1). The hydrolytic cleavage of DNA by the complexes was supported by the evidence from free radical quenching, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay and T4 ligase ligation.

  3. Illicit substance use in pregnancy – a review

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Katherine; Lust, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Illicit substance use is not uncommon in women of childbearing age. The direct effects of illicit substance use on the mother, pregnancy and the fetus are not well understood, in contrast to the indirect effects of social disadvantage and intercurrent medical and psychiatric illness, which are well documented. We have undertaken a review of the current literature regarding the effects of illicit substance use in pregnancy and include a suggested approach to identification and management of at-risk women. PMID:27579069

  4. Symbolism and rationality in the politics of psychoactive substances.

    PubMed

    Room, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Psychoactive substances take on many symbolic meanings, and thus the politics of psychoactive substances has featured symbolic elements, or value-based rationality, alongside and often dominating instrumental rationality. Drawing particularly on the work of Joseph Gusfield and Nordic scholars, the chapter considers the symbolic dimension in the politics of substance use, even in Nordic countries celebrated for their societal commitment to knowledge-based policymaking, and its effects on the interplay of science and policy.

  5. [Substance abuse and the emergency department: a current problem].

    PubMed

    Amigó Tadín, Montserrat

    2005-09-01

    Alcohol, tobacco, heroin, cocaine and benzodiazepines, in that order, are the most common substance addictions in Spain. The medical problems caused both by chronic medical pathologies associated with their consumption and by overdoses and withdrawal syndromes, are frequently seen in emergency departments. Knowledge of substance abuse and addiction--how it is caused, the behaviour and pathology it produces--are essential to enable nurses to determine the attitudes to adopt the skills necessary to manage patients with problems of substance.

  6. 49 CFR 172.432 - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.432 INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label. (a) Except for size and...

  7. 49 CFR 172.432 - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.432 INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label. (a) Except for size and...

  8. 49 CFR 172.432 - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.432 INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label. (a) Except for size and...

  9. 49 CFR 172.432 - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.432 INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label. (a) Except for size and...

  10. Pubertal Timing, Friend Smoking, and Substance Use in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Marklein, Elizabeth; Negriff, Sonya

    2017-01-01

    The influence of friend substance use on the association between pubertal timing and substance use has received little consideration in the literature. With a sample of 264 female adolescents (11–17 years), this study examined (a) the relationship between pubertal timing and substance use, (b) the impact of number of friends that smoke cigarettes on adolescents' use of three substances (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana), and (c) the interactions between pubertal timing and friends' smoking in predicting individual substance use. Results showed a significant relationship between pubertal timing and alcohol use; later timing was related to more alcohol use. This association between late timing and alcohol use is contrary to previous literature and may be due to the broad age range of this sample. Pubertal timing may have less of an effect in late adolescence when drinking becomes more normative and less deviant; the rationale for this association is discussed. Second, this study found females who reported that more of their friends smoke regularly (at least once a week) used significantly more cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana than those who reported no friends who smoke. Finally, the interaction between pubertal timing and number of friends who were regular smokers was not significantly related to adolescent substance use. However, friend smoking explained more of the variation in substance use than pubertal timing. This indicates that having friends who smoke is more influential in predicting substance use than pubertal timing. These findings are important when considering the development of interventions to target adolescent substance use. PMID:19067163

  11. 76 FR 81979 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Thebaine (9333) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company is a contract manufacturer. In reference to Poppy Straw Concentrate the company will manufacture...

  12. Photoprotective substance occurs primarily in outer layers of fish skin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabacher, D.L.; Little, E.E.

    1998-01-01

    Methanol extracts of dorsal skin layers, eyes, gills, and livers from ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation-sensitive and UVB-tolerant species of freshwater fish were examined for a substance that appears to be photoprotective. Significantly larger amounts of this substance were found in extracts of outer dorsal skin layers from both UVB-sensitive and UVB-tolerant fish when compared with extracts of inner dorsal skin layers. This substance occurred in minor amounts or was not detected in eye, gill, and liver extracts. The apparent primary function of this substance in fish is to protect the cells in outer dorsal skin layers from harmful levels of UVB radiation.

  13. Getting boozy in books: substance use in adolescent literature.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Phillips, James C

    2011-09-01

    Media effects research provides evidence for a link between adolescent exposure to media portrayals of substance use and usage. Exposure to media content that glamorizes and normalizes substance use carries potential public health risks. Though substance use has been examined in other media, such as film, television, and magazines, no research to date examines usage portrayals in adolescent novels. Given that adolescents do read, and given the potential impact of content on adolescent attitudes and behavior, this study provides a detailed analysis of the frequency and nature of substance use in the understudied area of novels. Substance use was examined in 40 best-selling adolescent novels on the New York Times Best Sellers list (time span June-July 2008). Substance use varied widely. Of the various types of substances, alcohol portrayals were most common. Almost all substance use was portrayed as having no consequences. Alcohol use was portrayed in similar frequencies in books aimed at younger, middle, and older adolescents, though illegal drug use was more likely to be found in books aimed at older ages. Our results suggest that the manner in which substance use is generally portrayed may encourage use among adolescents. Researchers, parents, and adolescents are encouraged to examine books as one potentially overlooked area of influence.

  14. Relations between heavy drinking, gender, and substance-free reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G

    2010-04-01

    Behavioral economic theory and laboratory research have suggested that substance abuse may be associated with diminished engagement in enjoyable substance-free activities (substance-free reinforcement). However, college students, in particular men, have reported numerous social benefits from drinking that might mitigate the expected inverse relation between drinking and substance-free reinforcement. In this study, we examined the relations between college student heavy drinking, gender, and several categories of substance-free reinforcement (peer, dating, sexual, school, and family activities). Participants were 246 undergraduate students who were classified as a function of their reported frequency of heavy drinking during a typical week in the past month (120 heavy drinkers, 126 light drinkers). Heavy drinking was associated with significantly higher substance-free peer and sexual reinforcement. This association was gender invariant and remained significant in multiple regression models that controlled for gender, ethnicity, and fraternity or sorority membership. Substance-free reinforcement did not predict frequency of heavy drinking in models that included levels of substance-related reinforcement. The results indicate that college student heavy drinking is not associated with global deficits in substance-free reinforcement and is instead associated with increased peer and sexual activity that occurs outside the context of drinking or drug use. Prevention programs should help students to compensate for the potential loss of social reinforcement associated with reductions in drinking.

  15. Collecting substance use data with an anonymous mailed survey.

    PubMed

    Trinkoff, A M; Storr, C L

    1997-10-25

    Because mailed surveys minimize personal contact, they are useful for collecting sensitive data on substance use, as long as the problems of achieving adequate response rates can be conquered. To address these issues, we report on an anonymous mailed survey of substance use with a 78% response rate, including data collection and survey methods. Analysis of sociodemographic effects on responding found certain groups required additional contacts. Substance use estimates were not affected by non-response bias, suggesting that anonymous mailed surveys can be a feasible means of collecting data on substance use.

  16. Epidemiology of Substance Use among University Students in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Tarig; Victor, Cathrine; Abdulmoneim, Alaa; Mohammed, Hala; Abdalla, Fatima; Ahmed, Asma; Ali, Eiman; Mohammed, Wael

    2016-01-01

    Background. Youth populations are vulnerable to substance use particularly in developing countries where circumstances may be favorable for it. There is no published data on substance use among the youth in Sudan other than on tobacco use. Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, circumstances, and factors associated with substance use. Methods. An institution-based survey was conducted on a sample of 500 students. Data was collected using a questionnaire designed by the WHO for student drug surveys and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20. Results. The overall prevalence of substance use is 31%. The current prevalence of tobacco, cannabis, alcohol, amphetamines, tranquilizers, inhalants, opiates, cocaine, and heroin use was 13.7%, 4.9%, 2.7%, 2.4%, 3.2%, 1%, 1.2%, 0.7%, and 0.5%, respectively. Curiosity (33.1%) was the main reason for initiation of substance use. The main adverse effects reported were health problems (19.7%) and theft (19.7%). Peers (40.9%) were the prime source of substance use. On multivariate analysis, male sex was the principle predictor for substance use (AOR: 5.55; 95% CI: 3.38, 9.17). Conclusion. Strategies to control substance use should encompass the role of the university and parents in observing and providing education to improve awareness of substances and their consequences. PMID:27006856

  17. Isolation and identification of an allelopathic substance from Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    PubMed

    Suwitchayanon, Prapaipit; Pukclai, Piyatida; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2015-05-01

    In this study, an allelopathic substance was isolated from an aqueous methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. by column chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. The chemical structure of the substance was determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry as trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate. Trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate inhibited the growth of cress hypocotyls and roots at concentrations greater than 10 mM. The concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition of the hypocotyls and roots of cress were 20.3 and 14.4 mM, respectively. The inhibitory activity of trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate suggests that the substance may act as an allelopathic substance of H. sabdariffa.

  18. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse in substance-abusing adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert J; Goodale, Leslie A; Shay-Fiddler, Michele A; Gloster, Susan P; Chang, Samuel Y

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine misuse and abuse was examined in 450 adolescents referred for substance abuse treatment. Twenty three percent reported nonmedical use of these substances and six percent were diagnosed as methylphenidate or dextroamphetamine abusers. Abuse was more common in individuals who were out of school and had an eating disorder. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse appears to be much less common than abuse of most other substances. It does occur, however, and parents and schools need to exert greater control over the dispensing of these medications. Physicians are advised to prescribe non-stimulant medications (eg, bupropion) when treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in substance-abusing individuals.

  19. Process for the preparation of solutions from environmentally noxious substances

    SciTech Connect

    Frenken, H.; Friedsam, J.; Voss, K.

    1984-01-24

    The invention relates to a process for the automatic preparation of solutions from environmentally noxious substances in solvents whereby the noxious substance is brought on a receiver and by means of an airtight adapter and a feed connection into a hermetical sealed, storage bin, an exact quantity of the substance is dosed into a measuring and mixing vessel by means of a dosing screw after the solvent is dosed into this vessel, the substance is mixed and dissolved maintained at a certain temperature filtered and delivered to a storage vessel in an automatic sequence.

  20. Producing, Importing, and Exporting Ozone-Depleting Substances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview page provides links to information on producing, importing, and exporting ozone-depleting substances, including information about the HCFC allowance system, importing, labeling, recordkeeping and reporting.