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Sample records for acid-reactive substances levels

  1. A Simple Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances in Fried Fast Foods.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Alam; Ullah, Fareed

    2016-01-01

    A simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as a marker for lipid peroxidation in fried fast foods. The method uses the reaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and TBA in the glacial acetic acid medium. The method was precise, sensitive, and highly reproducible for quantitative determination of TBARS. The precision of extractions and analytical procedure was very high as compared to the reported methods. The method was used to determine the TBARS contents in the fried fast foods such as Shami kebab, samosa, fried bread, and potato chips. Shami kebab, samosa, and potato chips have higher amount of TBARS in glacial acetic acid-water extraction system than their corresponding pure glacial acetic acid and vice versa in fried bread samples. The method can successfully be used for the determination of TBARS in other food matrices, especially in quality control of food industries.

  2. Determination of carnosine, anserine, homocarnosine, pentosidine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances contents in meat from different animal species.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Medana, Claudio; Visentin, Sonja; Giancotti, Valeria; Zunino, Valentina; Meineri, Giorgia

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this research was to determine the content of the histidinic antioxidants, advanced glycation end products (pentosidine) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in the meat from different animal species. Carnosine, anserine, homocarnosine and pentosidine were quantified by HPLC/MS, while TBARS was determined by photometric measurements. The total CRCs (carnosine+anserine+homocarnosine) content was in the increasing order: beef

  3. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile compounds in chicken breast meat infused with plant extracts and subjected to electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Rababah, T; Hettiarachchy, N S; Horax, R; Cho, M J; Davis, B; Dickson, J

    2006-06-01

    The effect of irradiation on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and volatile compounds in raw and cooked nonirradiated and irradiated chicken breast meat infused with green tea and grape seed extracts was investigated. Chicken breast meat was vacuum infused with green tea extract (3,000 ppm), grape seed extract (3,000 ppm), or their combination (at a total of 6,000 ppm), irradiated with an electron beam, and stored at 5 degrees C for 12 d. The targeted irradiation dosage was 3.0 kGy and the average absorbed dosage was 3.12 kGy. Values of TBARS and volatile compound contents of raw and cooked chicken meat were determined during the 12-d storage period. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values ranged from 15.5 to 71.4 mg of malondialdehyde/kg for nonirradiated raw chicken and 17.3 to 80.1 mg of malondialdehyde/kg for irradiated raw chicken. Values for cooked chicken ranged from 31.4 to 386.2 and 38.4 to 504.1 mg of malondialdehyde/kg for nonirradiated and irradiated chicken, respectively. Irradiation increased TBARS and hexanal values of controls and meat infused with plant extracts. Hexanal had the highest intensity of volatiles followed by pentanal and other volatiles. Cooking the samples significantly (P < 0.05) increased the amounts of TBARS and volatiles. Addition of plant extracts decreased the amount of TBARS as well as hexanal and pentanal values. Although irradiation increases lipid oxidation, infusion of chicken meat with plant extracts could reduce lipid oxidation caused by irradiation.

  4. Effect of dietary Satureja khuzistanica powder on semen characteristics and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration in testicular tissue of Iranian native breeder rooster

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, M. J.; Mohammadzadeh, S.; Kheradmand, A.; Alirezaei, M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of a paucity of information on the effect of Satureja khuzistanica in male chickens, this study was undertaken to determine the influence of dietary S. khuzistanica powder (SKP) on seminal characteristics and testes thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content in Iranian native breeder rooster. Thirty-six 40-week-old roosters were randomly allotted to 3 equal groups and received either a basal diet without SKP (T1 or control), or a diet containing 20 g/kg (T2) and 40 g/kg (T3) of SKP for 8-week-long experimental period. Semen samples were obtained weekly by abdominal massage to evaluate the seminal characteristics. At the end of the eighth week 18 birds (6 birds per each group) were randomly slaughtered, and sample was taken from right testes for TBARS evaluation. Administration of SKP improved all semen traits, except for sperm concentration. Likewise, TBARS content in SKP treatments did not significantly differ from the control (P>0.05). Seminal volume, live sperm percentage and plasma membrane integrity percentage in SKP-treated groups were higher than the control. Conversely, abnormal sperm percentages reduced in SKP-treated groups (P<0.05). Plasma membrane integrity in experimental treatments was significantly higher than the control in 2nd, 3rd and 7th weeks. However, at 6th and 8th weeks only T3 treatment was significantly different from the control. Notably, there was an increase in total sperm concentration in SKP-treated groups in compared to the control birds. In conclusion, this study indicated that addition of SKP in rooster diet improves sperm quality and also reduces their sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, which may lead to higher fertilization rate. PMID:27175185

  5. Plasma substance P levels in fibrositis.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W J; Chiu, B; Inman, R D

    1988-12-01

    The mechanism of pain in the fibrositis syndrome is unknown. We measured plasma levels of substance P in 32 patients with fibrositis and 26 sex and age matched controls using a radioimmunoassay. The mean plasma level of substance P in the patients with fibrositis was 371 +/- 91 pg/ml and in controls 397 +/- 84 pg/ml (p = NS). We conclude that determination of plasma levels of substance P in fibrositis is of no diagnostic value. This does not exclude the possible role of substance P as a neurotransmitter in the fibrositis syndrome.

  6. Effect of electron beam irradiation and storage at 5 degrees C on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and carbonyl contents in chicken breast meat infused with antioxidants and selected plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Rababah, Taha; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Horax, Ronny; Eswaranandam, Satchithanandam; Mauromoustakos, Andronikos; Dickson, James; Niebuhr, Steven

    2004-12-29

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of synthetic and natural antioxidants, green tea, commercial grape seed extracts/combinations, and TBHQ, with varying concentrations of lipid oxidation of nonirradiated and irradiated chicken breast meats stored at 5 degrees C for 12 days. Fresh boneless and skinless chicken breast meats were vacuum-infused with varying concentrations of antioxidants: green tea, grape seed extracts alone/in combination, and TBHQ. The irradiation dosage was 3.0 kGy. Carbonyl values of raw chicken meat and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values of raw and cooked chicken meat were determined for 0-12 days at 5 degrees C storage. TBARS values for 0-12 days of storage at 5 degrees C ranged from 1.21 to 7.3 and 1.22 to 8.51 mg malondialdehyde/100 g chicken for nonirradiated and irradiated raw chicken, respectively. TBARS values of cooked chicken ranged from 2.19 to 35.83 and 2.45 to 45.72 mg malondialdehyde/100 g chicken for nonirradiated and irradiated chicken, respectively. Irradiation increased TBARS values of both controls and plant extracts. The carbonyl content in meat lipid ranged from 1.7 to 2.9 and 1.7 to 4.41 micromol acetophenone/10 g of nonirradiated and irradiated chicken meat, respectively, and meat protein ranged from 1.4 to 2.07 and 1.41 to 2.72 micromol/10 g meat. Infusion of chicken meat with selected plant extracts is an effective method to minimize lipid oxidation and volatiles developments caused by irradiation.

  7. Solution-Focused Group Therapy for Level 1 Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smock, Sara A.; Trepper, Terry S.; Wetchler, Joseph L.; McCollum, Eric E.; Ray, Rose; Pierce, Kent

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared solution-focused group therapy (SFGT) with a traditional problem-focused treatment for level 1 substance abusers. Outcome research on the effectiveness of solution-focused group therapy is minimal, especially in treating substance abusers. In the present study, clients were measured before and after treatment to…

  8. Effects of School-Level Norms on Student Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Revathy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationship between school norms of substance use disapproval and students' use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Analysis indicated that in general, school-level disapproval lowered the probability of students' use of these substances. A school environment of disapproval was also found to create a protective environment for…

  9. Solution-focused group therapy for level 1 substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Smock, Sara A; Trepper, Terry S; Wetchler, Joseph L; McCollum, Eric E; Ray, Rose; Pierce, Kent

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared solution-focused group therapy (SFGT) with a traditional problem-focused treatment for level 1 substance abusers. Outcome research on the effectiveness of solution-focused group therapy is minimal, especially in treating substance abusers. In the present study, clients were measured before and after treatment to determine therapeutic effectiveness. Clients in the solution-focused group significantly improved on both the Beck Depression Inventory and the Outcome Questionnaire. The clients in the comparison group did not improve significantly on either measure. Therapist skill level and adherence to theoretical models were measured in each group to reduce confounding variables.

  10. Cultural-level influences on substance use & misuse.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy P

    2007-01-01

    This presentation discusses potential associations between dimensions of culture and patterns of substance use. Several well-known frameworks for organizing cultural values and orientations are presented. As an illustration, one framework (Hofstede, 2001) is examined for its relevance in understanding national-level variations in patterns of alcohol and illicit drug use. Two of four cultural dimensions examined, individualism-collectivism and uncertainty avoidance, are found to be independently associated with one or more substance use measures in a diverse sample of 64 nations. Future multi-level analyses that integrate cultural values and orientations into empirical studies will enable more systematic assessments of the role of socio-cultural contexts in substance use epidemiology.

  11. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William

    2010-01-01

    Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…

  12. Elevated substance P levels in HIV-infected women in comparison to HIV-negative women.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Steven D; Cnaan, Avital; Lynch, Kevin G; Benton, Tami; Zhao, Huaqing; Gettes, David R; Evans, Dwight L

    2008-03-01

    Substance P and its receptor (neurokinin-1R) are potent modulators of neuroimmunoregulation and HIV/AIDS infection. We previously demonstrated that HIV-seropositive men had significantly higher substance P levels compared to uninfected controls. We now demonstrate that substance P plasma levels are significantly higher in HIV-infected women in comparison to uninfected control women.

  13. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  14. Implementation of E.U. Water Framework Directive: source assessment of metallic substances at catchment levels.

    PubMed

    Chon, Ho-Sik; Ohandja, Dieudonne-Guy; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-01-01

    The E.U. Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to prevent deterioration of water quality and to phase out or reduce the concentrations of priority substances at catchment levels. It requires changes in water management from a local scale to a river basin scale, and establishes Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) as a guideline for the chemical status of receiving waters. According to the Directive, the standard and the scope of the investigation for water management are more stringent and expanded than in the past, and this change also needs to be applied to restoring the level of metals in water bodies. The aim of this study was to identify anthropogenic emission sources of metallic substances at catchment levels. Potential sources providing substantial amounts of such substances in receiving waters included stormwater, industrial effluents, treated effluents, agricultural drainage, sediments, mining drainage and landfill leachates. Metallic substances have more emission sources than other dangerous substances at catchment levels. Therefore, source assessment for these substances is required to be considered more significantly to restore their chemical status in the context of the WFD. To improve source assessment quality, research on the role of societal and environmental parameters and contribution of each source to the chemical distribution in receiving waters need to be carried out.

  15. Organizational- and individual-level correlates of posttreatment substance use: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Toorjo

    2008-03-01

    In addressing the need to study the effects of organizational factors on individual-level treatment outcomes, this study used hierarchical models to examine the organizational- and individual-level correlates of posttreatment substance use. Risk for posttreatment use varied significantly across organizations. Factors in the external institutional environment of facilities significantly influenced risk for use: managed care regulation increased the risk, whereas Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations accreditation decreased it (p < .01 for both). On the individual level, longer treatment episodes and treatment completion reduced the risk (p < .01 for both) after controlling for client characteristics. The benefits of length of stay in treatment were modified by elements of the external institutional environment and organizational treatment technology. The ameliorative effects of prolonged treatment were reduced by higher levels of managed care regulation, organizational monitoring, caseload size (p < .01 for all), and proportion of degreed staff (p < .05). The results highlight the influence of organizational factors on posttreatment use.

  16. Development of acute exposure guideline levels for airborne exposures to hazardous substances.

    PubMed

    Krewski, Daniel; Bakshi, Kulbir; Garrett, Roger; Falke, Ernest; Rusch, George; Gaylor, David

    2004-04-01

    Hazardous substances can be released into the atmosphere due to industrial and transportation accidents, fires, tornadoes, earthquakes, and terrorists, thereby exposing workers and the nearby public to potential adverse health effects. Various enforceable guidelines have been set by regulatory agencies for worker and ambient air quality. However, these exposure levels generally are not applicable to rare lifetime acute exposures, which possibly could occur at high concentrations. Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) provide estimates of concentrations for airborne exposures for an array of short durations that possibly could cause mild (AEGL-1), severe, irreversible, potentially disabling adverse health effects (AEGL-2), or life threatening effects (AEGL-3). These levels can be useful for emergency responders and planners in reducing or eliminating potential risks to the public. Procedures and methodologies for deriving AEGLs are reviewed in this paper that have been developed in the United States, with direct input from international representatives of OECD member-countries, by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guidelines for Hazardous Substances and reviewed by the National Research Council. Techniques are discussed for the extrapolation of effects across different exposure durations. AEGLs provide a viable approach for assisting in the prevention, planning, and response to acute airborne exposures to toxic agents.

  17. Maternal and Neonatal Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Relation to Gestational Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Fisher, Mandy; Bouchard, Maryse F; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Taback, Shayne; Fraser, William

    2016-01-20

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous, persistent pollutants widely used in the production of common household and consumer goods. There is a limited body of literature suggesting that these chemicals may alter metabolic pathways and growth trajectories. The relationship between prenatal exposures to these chemicals and gestational weight gain (GWG) has received limited attention. One objective was to analyze the associations among maternal plasma levels of three common perfluoroalkyl substances (perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfanoate (PFHxS)) and GWG. Additionally, we explored whether GWG was associated with cord blood PFAS levels. This study utilized data collected in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada cohort study of 2001 pregnant women. Our analysis quantified associations between (1) maternal PFAS concentrations and GWG and (2) GWG and cord blood PFAS concentrations. Maternal PFOS concentrations were positively associated with GWG (β = 0.39 95% CI: 0.02, 0.75). Interquartile increases in GWG were significantly associated with elevated cord blood PFOA (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56) and PFOS (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.40) concentrations. No statistically significant associations were observed between GWG and either measure of PFHxS. These findings warrant elucidation of the potential underlying mechanisms.

  18. Maternal and Neonatal Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Relation to Gestational Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Fisher, Mandy; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Taback, Shayne; Fraser, William

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous, persistent pollutants widely used in the production of common household and consumer goods. There is a limited body of literature suggesting that these chemicals may alter metabolic pathways and growth trajectories. The relationship between prenatal exposures to these chemicals and gestational weight gain (GWG) has received limited attention. One objective was to analyze the associations among maternal plasma levels of three common perfluoroalkyl substances (perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfanoate (PFHxS)) and GWG. Additionally, we explored whether GWG was associated with cord blood PFAS levels. This study utilized data collected in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada cohort study of 2001 pregnant women. Our analysis quantified associations between (1) maternal PFAS concentrations and GWG and (2) GWG and cord blood PFAS concentrations. Maternal PFOS concentrations were positively associated with GWG (β = 0.39 95% CI: 0.02, 0.75). Interquartile increases in GWG were significantly associated with elevated cord blood PFOA (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56) and PFOS (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.40) concentrations. No statistically significant associations were observed between GWG and either measure of PFHxS. These findings warrant elucidation of the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:26805861

  19. Social network and census tract-level influences on substance use among emerging adult males: An activity spaces approach

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Crystal; Perley, Lauren; Bailey, Jonathan; Barbour, Russell; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-01-01

    Social network and area level characteristics have been linked to substance use. We used snowball sampling to recruit 90 predominantly African American emerging adult men who provided typical locations visited (n=510). We used generalized estimating equations to examine social network and area level predictors of substance use. Lower social network quality was associated with days of marijuana use (B=-0.0037, p<0.0001) and problem alcohol use (B=-0.0050, p=0.0181). The influence of area characteristics on substance use differed between risky and non-risky spaces. Peer and area influences are important for substance use among men, and may differ for high and low risk places. PMID:26176810

  20. Serum Levels of Substance P and Mortality in Patients with a Severe Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M.; Almeida, Teresa; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Ramos, Luis; Argueso, Mónica; Riaño-Ruiz, Marta; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Hernández, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Substance P (SP), a member of tachykinin family, is involved in the inflammation of the central nervous system and in the appearance of cerebral edema. Higher serum levels of SP have been found in 18 patients with cerebral ischemia compared with healthy controls. The aim of our multi-center study was to analyze the possible association between serum levels of SP and mortality in ischemic stroke patients. We included patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) lower than 9. Non-surviving patients at 30 days (n = 31) had higher serum concentrations of SP levels at diagnosis of severe MMCAI than survivors (n = 30) (p < 0.001). We found in multiple regression an association between serum concentrations of SP higher than 362 pg/mL and mortality at 30 days (Odds Ratio = 5.33; 95% confidence interval = 1.541–18.470; p = 0.008) after controlling for age and GCS. Thus, the major novel finding of our study was the association between serum levels of SP and mortality in patients suffering from severe acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27338372

  1. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl substances in estuarine sediments of Charleston, SC.

    PubMed

    White, Natasha D; Balthis, Len; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; De Silva, Amila O; Wu, Qian; French, Katherine M; Daugomah, James; Spencer, Christine; Fair, Patricia A

    2015-07-15

    Urban areas are sources of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the environment, although little is known about specific point sources and distribution of PFASs. Sentinel species, like bottlenose dolphins, are important indicators of environmental perturbations. The high PFAS levels found in dolphins inhabiting Charleston, South Carolina prompted investigation of these chemicals in this area. This study provides further evidence on the extent of contamination and potential sources of PFASs. In this study, concentrations of 11 PFASs measured in estuarine sediments collected in 2012 from the Charleston Harbor and the Ashley and Cooper Rivers (n=36) in South Carolina revealed higher levels than those reported in any other U.S. urban areas. Detectable levels were found in all sample locations with mean total PFAS concentrations of 3.79ngg(-1) (range 0.22 to 19.2ngg(-1) d.w.). Dominant compounds were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (mean 1.52ngg(-1); range 0.09-7.37ngg(-1) d.w.), followed by perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) (mean 0.83ngg(-1); range 0.06-4.76ngg(-1) d.w.) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (mean 0.42ngg(-1); range 0.02-2.52ngg(-1) d.w.). PFOS levels in sediments at 19 of 36 sites (representing 52% of the study area) exceeded the published global median PFOS sediment concentration of 0.54ngg(-1).

  2. Does Bachelor's-Level Social Work Education Impact Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Substance-Abusing Clients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senreich, Evan; Straussner, Shulamith Lala A.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared 248 graduating seniors with 301 beginning juniors at 10 bachelor's-level social work programs in the Northeast concerning their knowledge and attitudes regarding working with substance-abusing clients. Graduating seniors demonstrated modestly higher levels of knowledge and only slightly more positive attitudes toward working…

  3. Activation of vagus nerve by semapimod alters substance P levels and decreases breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Erin, Nuray; Duymuş, Ozlem; Oztürk, Saffet; Demir, Necdet

    2012-11-10

    Chronic inflammation is involved in initiation as well as in progression of cancer. Semapimod, a tetravalent guanylhydrazon and formerly known as CNI-1493, inhibits the release of inflammatory cytokines from activated macrophages and this effect is partly mediated by the vagus nerve. Our previous findings demonstrated that inactivation of vagus nerve activity as well sensory neurons enhanced visceral metastasis of 4THM breast carcinoma. Hence semapimod by activating vagus nerve may inhibit breast cancer metastasis. Here, effects of semapimod on breast cancer metastasis, the role of vagal sensory neurons on this effect and changes in mediators of the neuroimmune connection, such as substance P (SP) as well as neprilysin-like activity, were examined. Vagotomy was performed on half of the control animals that were treated with semapimod following orthotopic injection of 4THM breast carcinoma cells. Semapimod decreased lung and liver metastases in control but not in vagotomized animals with an associated increased SP levels in sensory nerve endings. Semapimod also increased neprilysin-like activity in lung tissue of control animals but not in tumor-bearing animals. This is the first report demonstrating that semapimod enhances vagal sensory nerve activity and may have anti-tumoral effects under in-vivo conditions. Further studies, however, are required to elucidate the conditions and the mechanisms involved in anti-tumoral effects of semapimod.

  4. Levels of Contamination by Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Honey from Selected European Countries.

    PubMed

    Surma, Magdalena; Zieliński, Henryk; Piskuła, Mariusz

    2016-07-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are man-made chemicals manufactured for numerous applications. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of 10 PFASs in selected types of honey samples from selected eastern, northern and southern European countries. A total of 26 samples of honey were analyzed. PFCAs (perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids) were detected in almost all (92 %) analyzed samples in the range of 0.124-0.798 ng g(-1) ww (wet weight). The average concentrations of particular PFCAs (ng g(-1) ww) in honey samples increased in the following order: perfluorononanoic acid (0.164) < perfluorooctanoic acid (0.189) < perfluoroheptanoic acid (0.271) < perfluorodecanoic acid (0.278). Amongst perfluoroalkane sulfonates, only perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) was identified in four of 26 analyzed samples, and its concentrations ranged from 0.080 to 0.191 ng g(-1) ww. Italian eucalyptus honey contained the highest total content of PFASs (0.878 ng g(-1) ww). Samples originating from an industrial region of Poland showed 20 % higher concentrations of PFCAs compared to those from non-industrial regions.

  5. Ozone at high-pollution urban levels causes airway hyperresponsiveness to substance P but not to other agonists.

    PubMed

    Segura, P; Montaño, L M; Bazán-Perkins, B; Gustin, P; Vargas, M H

    1997-06-06

    Ozone (O(3)) causes airway hyperresponsiveness, but few studies have evaluated this effect at urban concentrations. In this work dose-response curves to intravenous acetylcholine, histamine or substance P were performed in guinea pigs with or without previous exposure to O(3) (0.15, 0.3, 0.6 or 1.2 ppm for 4 h, 16-18 h before the studies). We found airway hyperresponsiveness to histamine, but not to acetylcholine, only after 1.2 ppm O(3). By contrast, airway hyperresponsiveness to substance P was developed at O(3) levels encountered in highly-polluted cities (0.3 ppm). These results suggest that excitatory non-adrenergic non-cholinergic responses could be affected by air pollution, and that substance P is a useful pharmacological tool for evaluating the airway hyperresponsiveness induced by low O(3) concentrations.

  6. [Classification of substances to predict the order of magnitude of their safe water levels in terms of carcinogenic effect].

    PubMed

    Zholdakova, Z I; Kharchevnikova, N V

    2011-01-01

    A classification has been developed to predict the safe water levels of chemical compounds in terms of their carcinogenic effect, by using as the base the LTD@10 value that is a lower 95% confidence limits for the lowest dose that statistically significantly causes a 10% increase in the incidence of cancer in laboratory animals continuously receiving a daily dose of the compound throughout their life, which is given in the CPDB internet resource, and the carcinogenicity classification adopted by the International Agency or Research on Cancer Based on an analysis ofthe maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of the standardized water substances in terms of their carcinogenic effect, the authors determined MA4 C ranges corresponding to different classes in accordance with the proposed classification. They predicted the orders of magnitude of MAC of the standardized water substances without taking into account their carcinogenic effect and those of four substances unstandardized in Russia.

  7. Substance Use and Community Violence: A Test of the Relation at the Daily Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Edward P.; Odgers, Candice; Skeem, Jennifer; Gardner, William; Schubert, Carol; Lidz, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Prior research has consistently demonstrated an association between substance use and involvement in violence among individuals with mental illness. Yet little is known about the temporal quality of this relationship, largely because longitudinal data required to address this issue are not readily available. This study examined the relationship…

  8. Parental Knowledge and Substance Use among African American Adolescents: Influence of Gender and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Cook, Emily C.; Vanderploeg, Jeffrey J.; Feinn, Richard; Chinman, Matthew J.; Shepard, Jane K.; Brabham, Tamika; Connell, Christian M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental knowledge is defined as parental awareness and information about a child's activities, whereabouts, and associations that is obtained through parental monitoring, parental solicitation, or self-disclosure. Increased parental knowledge is generally associated with lower adolescent substance use; however, the influence of various contextual…

  9. Systems and methods for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Michael V.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Lindquist, Alan; Gallardo, Vincente

    2016-03-15

    A method and device for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid comprising using a concentrator system to produce a retentate and analyzing the retentate for the presence of at least one harmful substance. The concentrator system performs a method comprising pumping at least 10 liters of fluid from a sample source through a filter. While pumping, the concentrator system diverts retentate from the filter into a container. The concentrator system also recirculates at least part of the retentate in the container again through the filter. The concentrator system controls the speed of the pump with a control system thereby maintaining a fluid pressure less than 25 psi during the pumping of the fluid; monitors the quantity of retentate within the container with a control system, and maintains a reduced volume level of retentate and a target volume of retentate.

  10. Growth of Bacteria in Inorganic Medium at Different Levels of Airborne Organic Substances

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Annette

    1983-01-01

    Invasion rates of airborne organic substances into sterile mineral medium were compared by using flasks closed with cotton stoppers, silicone stoppers, and screw caps with Teflon gaskets. The resulting increases of dissolved organic carbon were 0.5, 0.2, and 0 mg/liter per week, respectively. The compounds supported the growth of lake water bacteria and a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Growth rates were correlated to the permeability of the stoppers used. The measured input of organic carbon in the sterile mineral medium is considered to be a minimum value for the actual contribution of organic compounds by the air. Multiplication rates of the bacteria suggest that the organisms prevent the escape of volatile organic substances from the medium by rapid utilization. The steady nutrient supply through the air should be considered in growth experiments with bacteria at low concentrations of nutrients. PMID:16346438

  11. Organizational-Level Predictors of Adoption Across Time: Naltrexone in Private Substance-Use Disorders Treatment Centers*

    PubMed Central

    Oser, Carrie B.; Roman, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Prominent on the nation's research agenda on substance-use disorders treatment is the dissemination of effective pharmacotherapies. Thus, the purpose of this article is to use a “diffusion of innovations” theoretical framework to examine the organizational-level predictors of the adoption of a pharmacotherapy, naltrexone (Revia), in private substance use-disorders treatment centers (N = 165). Method Data for these analyses were derived from the National Treatment Center Study, which contains four waves of data collected between 1994 and 2003. An event history model examined the impact of culture, leadership characteristics, internal structure, and external characteristics on the likelihood of adopting naltrexone between 1994 and 2003. Results The results suggest that organizations embracing a 12-step model and those employing more experienced administrators were significantly less likely to adopt naltrexone. Moreover, treatment centers that used prescription drugs, possessed an employee handbook, were accredited, and operated on a for-profit basis were significantly more likely to adopt naltrexone over time. Conclusions Structural characteristics do affect the innovation adoption behaviors of private substance-use disorders treatment centers. Organizational-level “research to practice” implications to further the adoption of innovative evidence-based treatments are discussed. PMID:17960303

  12. Levels and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in beached plastic pellets and sediments collected from Greece.

    PubMed

    Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Barceló, Damià

    2014-10-15

    Plastic debris damages marine wildlife and ecosystems becoming an important source of marine pollution. In addition, they can sorb, concentrate and stabilise contaminants acting as toxic carriers to the marine food web. In this context, the presence of 18 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in plastic pellets (n=5) and beach sediment (n=9) samples widely distributed around Greek coastal areas was assessed. The results, mainly, showed the sorption of PFASs onto pellet surface from surrounding water with concentrations from method limit of quantification to 115 ng/kg for C5, C7, C8 and C10 carboxylic acids and C8 sulfonate acid. A similar pattern was found by comparing plastic pellets and sediment for the same sampling locations that could indicate a common origin of contamination in both types of samples. However, since the number of analysed samples is limited, a more comprehensive study with a higher number of samples should be performed in future research.

  13. EVALUATION OF PLASMA SUBSTANCE P AND BETA‐ENDORPHIN LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH PRADER‐WILLI SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Butler, M.G.; Nelson, T. A.; Driscoll, D.J.; Manzardo, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare obesity-related genetic disorder often caused by a deletion of the chromosome 15q11–q13 region inherited from the father or by maternal disomy 15. Growth hormone deficiency with short stature, hypogonadism, cognitive and behavioral problems, analgesia, decreased gastric motility and decreased ability to vomit with hyperphagia are common in PWS leading to severe obesity in early childhood, if not controlled. Substance P (SP) and beta-endorphin (BE) are neuropeptides involved with centrally and peripherally mediated pain perception, emotional regulation, and gastric motility impacting nausea, emesis and feeding patterns. Objective The goal of this study was to investigate potential mechanisms for PWS symptom development for pain, emotion and gastric motility and plasma levels of substance P and beta-endorphin between PWS and unrelated unaffected children. Methodology Plasma samples were collected from 23 Caucasian children with PWS and 18 unrelated, unaffected siblings with an average age of 8.2 ±2.0 years and age range of 5 to 11 years following an overnight fast and neuropeptide substance p and beta-endorphin levels were assessed using Multiplex sandwich immunoassays using the Luminex magnetic-bead based platform. Linear regression analysis was carried out on log-transformed values adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Results The mean plasma SP (57 ± 23 pg/ml) and BE (592 ± 200 pg/ml) levels in PWS were significantly higher than SP (35 ± 20 pg/ml, F=10.5, P<0.01) and BE (402 ± 162 pg/ml, F=10.8, P<0.01) levels found in unrelated, unaffected siblings suggesting a previously uncharacterized neuroendocrine pathophysiology in PWS. Conclusions The increased BE and SP plasma levels relative to unrelated, unaffected siblings may contribute to hyperphagia, abnormal pain sensation and adrenal insufficiency seen in PWS. Increases in SP levels may be modulated by central and/or peripheral actions of BE on

  14. [Carbon nanotubes - Characteristic of the substance, biological effects and occupational exposure levels].

    PubMed

    Świdwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2017-03-24

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a diverse group of nano-objects in terms of structure, size (length, diameter), shape and characteristics. The growing interest in these structures is due to the increasing number of people working in exposure to CNTs. Occupational exposure to carbon nanotubes may occur in research laboratories, as well as in plants producing CNTs and their nanocomposites. Carbon nanotubes concentration at the emission source may reach 107 particles/cm3. These values, however, are considerably reduced after the application of adequate ventilation. Animal studies suggest that the main route of exposure is inhalation. Carbon nanotubes administered orally are largely excreted in the feces. In animals exposed by inhalation, CNTs caused mainly inflammation, as a result of oxidative stress, leading above all to changes in the lungs. The main effect of animal dermal exposure is oxidative stress causing local inflammation. In animals exposed by ingestion the mild or no toxicity was observed. Carbon nanotubes did not induce mutations in the bacterial tests, but they were genotoxic in a series of tests on cells in vitro, as well as in exposed mice in vivo. Embryotoxicity of nanotubes depends mainly on their modifications and carcinogenicity - primarily on the CNT size and its rigidity. Occupational exposure limits for CNTs proposed by world experts fall within the range of 1-80 μg/m3. The different effects of various kinds of CNT, leads to the conclusion that each type of nanotube should be treated as a separate substance with individual estimation of hygienic normative. Med Pr 2017;68(2):259-276.

  15. Automatic cryogenic liquid level controller is safe for use near combustible substances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, M.

    1966-01-01

    Automatic mechanical liquid level controller that is independent of any external power sources is used with safety in the presence of combustibles. A gas filled capillary tube which leads from a pressurized chamber, is inserted into the cryogenic liquid reservoir and becomes a liquid level sensing element or probe.

  16. Sex Differences in Cortisol Level and Neurobehavioral Disinhibition in Children of Substance Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Gardner, William; Kirillova, Galina P.; Vanyukov, Michael M.

    2001-01-01

    Determines the extent to which cortisol level covaries with psychological dysregulation. Results indicated that dysregulation was higher and cortisol level lower in boys compared to girls. Concludes that boys and girls differ with respect to biochemical indicators of stress reactivity underlying psychological dysregulation, a putative phenotype…

  17. Differential changes in Substance P, VIP as well as neprilysin levels in patients with gastritis or ulcer.

    PubMed

    Erin, Nuray; Türker, Sema; Elpek, Ozlem; Yıldırım, Bülent

    2012-06-01

    The protective effect of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerve (CSSN) activation was recently demonstrated in human gastric mucosa. We here examined changes in neuropeptides, specifically Substance P (SP), calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in patients with chronic gastritis or ulcer. Furthermore changes in neprilysin levels, which hydrolyse these neuropeptides, were determined. Gastric biopsies were obtained from both lesion- and normal-appearing mucosa of 57 patients. The presence of H. pylori infection was verified with rapid urease assay. Neuronal and non-neuronal levels of SP, VIP, CGRP and neprilysin activity were determined in freshly frozen biopsies. Immunohistochemical localization of neprilysin was performed in 30 paraffin embedded specimens. We here found that neuronal SP levels decreased significantly in normally appearing mucosa of patients with gastritis while levels of non-neuronal SP increased in diseased areas of gastritis and ulcer. The presence of H. pylori led to further decreases of SP levels. The content of VIP in both disease-involved and uninvolved mucosa, and expression of neprilysin, markedly decreased in patients with gastritis or ulcer. Since VIP, as well as SP fragments, formed following hydrolysis with neprilysin is recognized to have gastroprotective effects, decreased levels of VIP, SP and neprilysin may predispose to cellular damage.

  18. Are levels of perfluoroalkyl substances in soil related to urbanization in rapidly developing coastal areas in North China?

    PubMed

    Meng, Jing; Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Yueqing; Li, Qifeng; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were quantified in 79 surface soil samples from 17 coastal cities in three provinces and one municipality along the Bohai and Yellow Seas. The ∑PFASs concentrations ranged from less than limitation of quantification (LOQ) to 13.97 ng/g dry weight (dw), with a mean of 0.98 ng/g dw. The highest concentration was observed along the Xiaoqing River from Shandong province, followed by that from the Haihe River in Tianjin (10.62 ng/g dw). Among four regions, ∑PFASs concentrations decreased in the order of Tianjin, Shandong, Liaoning and Hebei, which was consistent with levels of urbanization. Fluorine chemical industries allocated in Shandong and Liaoning played important roles in terms of point emission and contamination of PFASs, dominated by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Intensive anthropogenic activities involved in urbanization possibly resulted in increasing releases of PFASs from industrial and domestic sources.

  19. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Operations, Level III

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations.

  20. Competitive sports participation in high school and subsequent substance use in young adulthood: Assessing differences based on level of contact.

    PubMed

    Veliz, Philip; Schulenberg, John; Patrick, Megan; Kloska, Deb; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Zarrett, Nicole

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this analysis is to examine how participation in different types of competitive sports (based on level of contact) during high school is associated with substance use 1 to 4 years after the 12(th) grade. The analysis uses nationally representative samples of 12(th) graders from the Monitoring the Future Study who were followed 1 to 4 years after the 12(th) grade. The longitudinal sample consisted of 970 12(th) graders from six recent cohorts (2006-2011). The analyses found that respondents who participated in at least one competitive sport during the 12(th) grade had greater odds of binge drinking during the past two weeks (AOR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.43, 2.90) 1 to 4 years after the 12(th) grade, when compared to their peers who did not participate in sports during their 12(th) grade year. Moreover, respondents who participated in high-contact sports (i.e., football, ice hockey, lacrosse, and wrestling) had greater odds of binge drinking (AOR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.18, 2.72) and engaging in marijuana use during the past 30 days (AOR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.12, 2.93) 1 to 4 years after the 12(th) grade when compared to their peers who did not participate in these types of sports during their 12(th) grade year. Accordingly, the findings indicate important distinctions in sport participation experiences on long-term substance use risk that can help inform potential interventions among young athletes.

  1. Competitive sports participation in high school and subsequent substance use in young adulthood: Assessing differences based on level of contact

    PubMed Central

    Veliz, Philip; Schulenberg, John; Patrick, Megan; Kloska, Deb; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Zarrett, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to examine how participation in different types of competitive sports (based on level of contact) during high school is associated with substance use 1 to 4 years after the 12th grade. The analysis uses nationally representative samples of 12th graders from the Monitoring the Future Study who were followed 1 to 4 years after the 12th grade. The longitudinal sample consisted of 970 12th graders from six recent cohorts (2006–2011). The analyses found that respondents who participated in at least one competitive sport during the 12th grade had greater odds of binge drinking during the past two weeks (AOR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.43, 2.90) 1 to 4 years after the 12th grade, when compared to their peers who did not participate in sports during their 12th grade year. Moreover, respondents who participated in high-contact sports (i.e., football, ice hockey, lacrosse, and wrestling) had greater odds of binge drinking (AOR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.18, 2.72) and engaging in marijuana use during the past 30 days (AOR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.12, 2.93) 1 to 4 years after the 12th grade when compared to their peers who did not participate in these types of sports during their 12th grade year. Accordingly, the findings indicate important distinctions in sport participation experiences on long-term substance use risk that can help inform potential interventions among young athletes. PMID:28344426

  2. [Fullerenes: Characteristics of the substance, biological effects and occupational exposure levels].

    PubMed

    Świdwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    Fullerenes are molecules composed of an even number of carbon atoms of a spherical or an ellipsoidal, closed spatial structure. The most common fullerene is the C60 molecule with a spherical structure - a truncated icosahedron, compared to a football. Fullerenes are widely used in the diagnostics and medicine, but also in the electronics and energy industry. Occupational exposure to fullerene may occur during its production. The occupational concentrations of fullerenes reached 0.12-1.2 μ/m3 for nanoparticles fraction (< 100 nm), which may evidence low exposure levels. However, fullerene mostly agglomerates into larger particles. Absorption of fullerene by oral and respiratory routes is low, and it is not absorbed by skin. After intravenous administration, fullerene accumulates mainly in the liver but also in the spleen and the kidneys. In animal experiments there was no irritation or skin sensitization caused by fullerene, and only mild irritation to the eyes. Fullerene induced transient inflammation in the lungs in inhalation studies in rodents. Oral exposure does not lead to major adverse effects. Fullerene was not mutagenic, genotoxic or carcinogenic in experimental research. However, fullerene may cause harmful effects on the mice fetus when administered intraperitoneally or intravenously. Pristine C60 fullerene is characterized by poor absorption and low toxicity, and it does not pose a risk in the occupational environment. The authors of this study are of the opinion that there is no ground for estimating the maximum allowable concentration (NDS) of pristine fullerene C60. Fullerene derivatives, due to different characteristics, require separate analysis in terms of occupational risk assessment. Med Pr 2016;67(3):397-410.

  3. ASAM Patient Placement Criteria treatment levels: do they correspond to care actually received by homeless substance abusing adults?

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Thomas P; Freyder, Paul J; Gibbon, Jeanette L; Hanusa, Barbara J; Seltzer, Debora; Fine, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    We report findings from a community-based two-city survey of homeless adults comparing the level of substance abuse treatment assigned to them using the ASAM Patient Placement Criteria with care actually received during the previous 12 months. Overall 531 adults were surveyed with 382 meeting DSM-IIIR criteria of being in need of treatment or having a demand for treatment. Of those with a treatment need, 1.5% met criteria for outpatient care, 40.3% intensive outpatient/partial hospitalization care, 29.8% medically monitored care and 28.8% managed care levels. In contrast, of those receiving treatment (50.5%, 162 persons), almost all care received by this cohort was either inpatient or residential based (83.6%). Unsheltered homeless persons and those without insurance were significantly more likely to report not receiving needed treatment. Lack of treatment availability or capacity, expense, and changing one's mind while on a wait list were the most commonly cited reasons for no treatment.

  4. Perfluoroalkyl substances in polar bear mother-cub pairs: a comparative study based on plasma levels from 1998 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Bytingsvik, Jenny; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Hamers, Timo; Swart, Kees; Aars, Jon; Lie, Elisabeth; Nilsen, Else Mari Espseth; Wiig, Oystein; Derocher, Andrew E; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2012-11-15

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are protein-binding blood-accumulating contaminants that may have detrimental toxicological effects on the early phases of mammalian development. To enable an evaluation of the potential health risks of PFAS exposure for polar bears (Ursus maritimus), an exposure assessment was made by examining plasma levels of PFASs in polar bear mothers in relation to their suckling cubs-of-the-year (~4 months old). Samples were collected at Svalbard in 1998 and 2008, and we investigated the between-year differences in levels of PFASs. Seven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑₇PFCAs: PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, and PFTrDA) and two perfluorinated sulfonic acids (∑₂PFSAs: PFHxS and PFOS) were detected in the majority of the mothers and cubs from both years. In mothers and cubs, most PFCAs were detected in higher concentrations in 2008 than in 1998. On the contrary, levels of PFOS were lower in 2008 than in 1998, while levels of PFHxS did not differ between the two sampling years. PFOS was the dominating compound in mothers and cubs both in 1998 and in 2008. Concentration of PFHpA did not differ between mothers and cubs, while concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTrDA, PFHxS, and PFOS were higher in mothers than in their cubs. Except from PFHpA, all compounds correlated significantly between mothers and their cubs. The mean cub to mother ratios ranged from 0.15 for PFNA to 1.69 for PFHpA. On average (mean±standard error of mean), the levels of ∑₇PFCAs and ∑₂PFSAs in cubs were 0.24±0.01 and 0.22±0.01 times the levels in their mothers, respectively. Although maternal transfer appears to be a substantial source of exposure for the cubs, the low cub to mother ratios indicate that maternal transfer of PFASs in polar bears is relatively low in comparison with hydrophobic contaminants (e.g. PCBs). Because the level of several PFASs in mothers and cubs from both sampling years exceeded the levels associated

  5. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruderman, Michael A.; Wilson, Deirdra F.; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Background Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Methods Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Results Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05–4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00–2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73–2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45–2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37–2.53). Conclusions Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted. PMID:26492490

  6. Maternal serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances and organochlorines and indices of fetal growth: a Scandinavian case–cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, Hilde B.; Larose, Tricia L.; Øien, Torbjørn; Sandanger, Torkjel M.; Odland, Jon Ø.; van de Bor, Margot; Jacobsen, Geir W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The associations between prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) and fetal growth are inconsistent, and few studies have considered small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth as an outcome. Our current study of Scandinavian parous women aimed to address these inconsistencies and gaps in the literature. Methods: This case–cohort study included 424 mother–child pairs who participated in a prospective, multi-center study of parous women in Norway (Trondheim and Bergen) and Sweden (Uppsala). We used linear and logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to analyze the associations between two perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and five organochlorines (OCs) from early second trimester and indices of fetal growth. Results: Among Swedish women, prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153 and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were associated with higher odds for SGA birth. We found stronger associations among Swedish male offspring. In the Norwegian cohort, we found no significant associations between EDC exposure and indices of fetal growth. Conclusions: Some populations may be more vulnerable to EDCs, possibly due to differences in exposure levels, exposure sources and/or modifiable lifestyle factors. Male offspring may be more vulnerable to endocrine disruption. PMID:27656770

  7. Humic substances alleviate the aquatic toxicity of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles to organisms of different trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuang; Quik, Joris T K; Song, Lan; Van Den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; Wouterse, Marja; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated how humic substances (HS) modify the aquatic toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as these particles agglomerate in water and interact with HS. An alga species (Raphidocelis subcapitata), a cladoceran species (Chydorus sphaericus), and a freshwater fish larva (Danio rerio), representing organisms of different trophic levels, were exposed to colloids of the polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs in the presence and absence of HS. Results show that the presence of HS alleviated the aquatic toxicity of the AgNP colloids to all the organisms in a dose-dependent manner. The particle size distribution of the AgNPs' colloidal particles shifted to lower values due to the presence of HS, implying that the decrease in the toxicity of the AgNP colloids cannot be explained by the variation of agglomeration size. The surface charge of the AgNPs was found to be more negative in the presence of high concentrations of HS, suggesting an electrostatic barrier by which HS might limit interactions between particles and algae cells; indeed, this effect reduced the algae toxicity. Observations on silver ions (Ag(+)) release show that HS inhibit AgNP dissolution, depending on the concentrations of HS. When toxic effects were expressed as a function of each Ag-species, toxicity of the free Ag(+) was found to be much higher than that of the agglomerated particles.

  8. Aggregate and event-level associations of substance use and sexual behavior among gay and bisexual men: Comparing retrospective and prospective data

    PubMed Central

    Rendina, H. Jonathon; Moody, Raymond L.; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite limited research, some evidence suggests that examining substance use at multiple levels may be of greater utility in predicting sexual behavior than utilizing one level of measurement, particularly when investigating different substances simultaneously. We aimed to examine aggregated and event-level associations between three forms of substance use—alcohol, marijuana, and club drugs—and two sexual behavior outcomes—sexual engagement and condomless anal sex (CAS). Method Analyses focused on both 6-week timeline follow-back (TLFB; retrospective) and 30-day daily diary (prospective) data among a demographically diverse sample of 371 highly sexually active HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Results Models from both TLFB and diary showed that event-level use of alcohol, marijuana, and club drugs was associated with increased sexual engagement, while higher aggregated frequency marijuana and any frequency club drug use were associated with decreased sexual engagement. Event-level use of club drugs was consistently associated with increased odds of CAS across both TLFB and diary models while higher frequency marijuana use was most consistently associated with a lower odds of CAS. Conclusions Findings indicated that results are largely consistent between retrospective and prospective data, but that retrospective results for substance use and sexual engagement were generally greater in magnitude. These results suggest that substance use primarily acts to increase sexual risk at the event-level and less so through individual-level frequency of use; moreover, it primarily does so by increasing the likelihood of sex on a given day with fewer significant associations with the odds of CAS on sex days. PMID:26190557

  9. Structure-based thresholds of toxicological concern-guidance for application to substances present at low levels in the diet

    SciTech Connect

    Renwick, A.G. . E-mail: A.G.Renwick@soton.ac.uk

    2005-09-01

    Health-based guidance values, such as the ADI, use chemical-specific data to determine the highest intake that would be without significant adverse health effects. A threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) is a level of intake predicted to be without adverse effects based on the toxicity of structurally related compounds. The main advantage of the use of TTCs is that the risk of low exposures can be evaluated without the need for chemical-specific animal toxicity data. TTCs have been used for many years for screening the safety of packaging migrants by the FDA in the USA, and of flavoring substances, by the JECFA. A recent reassessment of the use of TTCs, organized by ILSI Europe, has developed a decision tree which allows a systematic approach to the evaluation of low levels of diverse chemicals in food. The decision tree incorporates a series of increasing TTC values into a step-wise approach. Potentially genotoxic carcinogens are considered first, based on the presence of known structural alerts. Aflatoxin-like, azoxy- and nitroso-compounds are removed from consideration because they are the most potent, and a practical TTC could not be established. Other compounds with structural alerts for genotoxicity are allocated a TTC of 0.15 {mu}g/person per day. Compounds without structural alerts for genotoxicity are evaluated based on chemical structure and intake using a series of TTC values derived by the application of a 100-fold uncertainty factor to the 5th percentile of the distribution of NOAELs from chronic studies on compounds sharing similar structural characteristics.

  10. Brief Family Intervention Effects on Adolescent Substance Initiation: School-Level Growth Curve Analyses 6 Years Following Baseline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol; Azevedo,Kari

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the effects of 2 brief family-focused interventions on the trajectories of substance initiation over a period of 6 years following a baseline assessment. The 2 interventions, designed for general-population families of adolescents, were the 7-session Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP) (Molgaard & Spoth, 2001) and the…

  11. Effects of low-level dams on the distribution of sediment, trace metals, and organic substances in the lower Schuylkill River basin, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yorke, Thomas H.; Stamer, John K.; Pederson, Gary L.

    1985-01-01

    Heavy use of the Schuylkill River for municipal water supplies and a history of accidental spills and discharges of trace metals and organic substances have been a concern of State and local officials for many years. The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of their River Quality Assessment Program, developed a study to assess the occurrence and distribution of trace substances that pose a threat to human health and aquatic life. This report presents the results of the part of the study that evaluates the effects of low-level dams in the lower basin on the distribution and transport of sediment and trace substances. A combination of historical and current data were used in the assessment. Suspended-sediment data collected at several mainstem and tributary sites from 1954 to 1979 and sedimentation surveys of the six pools in the lower basin were used to define the sediment-transport characteristics of the river. These data provided a base for assessing the transport of trace substances, which are associated closely with riverbed sediments and suspended particles. Water and riverbed samples were collected for analyses of trace substances at numerous sites in the lower basin from 1978 to 1980. The six dams on the river between Pottstown and Philadelphia have had a significant effect on the transport of sediment and trace substances. Between 1954 and 1970, more than 4.7 million cubic yards of sediment accumulated in the pools formed by the dams. The quantity of sediment deposited in the pools ranged from 150,000 cubic yards in Plymouth Pool to 1.6 million cubic yards in Fairmount Pool. The rate of accumulation in the pools was a function of pool size and geometry and the frequency of storms. About 35 percent of the total sediment discharged by the river was stored in the six pools from 1954 to 1970. Since 1970, the net change in sediment accumulation has been minimal. More than 24 percent of the sediment in Fairmount Pool in 1970 was scoured from the pool during Hurricane

  12. Prenatal exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A and perfluoroalkyl substances and cord blood levels of IgE, TSLP and IL-33.

    PubMed

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Levy, Adrian R; Platt, Robert W; Marshall, Jean S; Arbuckle, Tye E

    2015-07-01

    The fetal time period is a critical window of immune system development and resulting heightened susceptibility to the adverse effects of environmental exposures. Epidemiologists and toxicologists have hypothesized that phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA) and perfluoroalkyl substance have immunotoxic properties. Immunotoxic effects of chemicals may manifest in an altered immune system profile at birth. Immunoglobulin E, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and interleukin-33 (IL-33) are integral in the etiology of childhood allergy and detectable at birth. The objective of this study was to determine the association between maternal levels of phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and perfluoroalkyl substances and elevated umbilical cord blood levels of IgE, TSLP, and IL-33. This study utilized data collected in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada cohort study of 2001 pregnant women. Of these women, 1258 had a singleton, term birth and cord blood sample. A Bayesian hierarchical model was employed to determine associations between log-transformed continuous variables and immune system biomarkers while adjusting for potential confounding from correlated environmental contaminants. Inverse, nonlinear associations were observed between maternal urinary MCPP levels and elevated levels of both IL-33/TSLP and IgE and between maternal urinary BPA levels and elevated levels of IL-33/TSLP. In this primarily urban Canadian population of pregnant women and their newborns, maternal urinary and plasma concentrations of phthalate metabolites, BPA, and perfluoroalkyl substances were not associated with immunotoxic effects that manifest as increased odds of elevated levels of IgE, TSLP or IL-33.

  13. Current levels and trends of selected EU Water Framework Directive priority substances in freshwater fish from the German environmental specimen bank.

    PubMed

    Fliedner, Annette; Lohmann, Nina; Rüdel, Heinz; Teubner, Diana; Wellmitz, Jörg; Koschorreck, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Under the German environmental specimen bank programme bream (Abramis brama) were sampled in six German rivers and analysed for the priority hazardous substances dicofol, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD), heptachlor + heptachlor epoxide (HC + HCE), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCDD/Fs + dl-PCBs), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). The aim was to assess compliance with the EU Water Framework Directive environmental quality standards for biota (EQSBiota) for the year 2013, and to analyse temporal trends for those substances that are of special concern. General compliance was observed for dicofol, HBCDD and HCBD whereas PBDEs exceeded the EQSBiota at all sites. For all other substances compliance in 2013 varied between locations. No assessment was possible for HC + HCE at some sites where the analytical sensitivity was not sufficient to cover the EQSBiota. Trend analysis showed decreasing linear trends for HCB and PFOS at most sampling sites between 1995 and 2014 indicating that the emission reduction measures are effective. Mostly decreasing trends or constant levels were also observed for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. In contrast, increasing trends were detected for PBDEs and HBCDD which were especially pronounced at one Saar site located downstream of the industries and conurbation of Saarbrücken and Völklingen. This finding points to new sources of emissions which should be followed in the coming years.

  14. Reaction conditions affecting the relationship between thiobarbituric acid reactivity and lipid peroxides in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, D; Ciofani, G; Pierdomenico, S D; Giamberardino, M A; Cuccurullo, F

    2001-08-01

    The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactivity of human plasma was studied to evaluate its adequacy in quantifying lipid peroxidation as an index of systemic oxidative stress. Two spectrophotometric TBA tests based on the use of either phosphoric acid (pH 2.0, method A) or trichloroacetic plus hydrochloric acid (pH 0.9, method B) were employed with and without sodium sulfate (SS) to inhibit sialic acid (SA) reactivity with TBA. To correct for background absorption, the absorbance values at 572 nm were subtracted from those at 532 nm, which represent the absorption maximum of the TBA:MDA adduct. Method B gave values of TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) 2-fold higher than those detected with method A. SS lowered TBARS by about 50% with both methods, indicating a significant involvement of SA in plasma TBA reactivity. Standard SA, at a physiologically relevant concentration of 1.5 mM, reacted with TBA, creating interference problems, which were substantially eliminated by SS plus correction for background absorbance. When method B was carried out in the lipid and protein fraction of plasma, SS inhibited by 65% TBARS formation only in the latter. Protein TBARS may be largely ascribed to SA-containing glycoproteins and, to a minor extent, protein-bound MDA. Indeed, EDTA did not affect protein TBARS assessed in the presence of SS. TBA reactivity of whole plasma and of its lipid fraction was instead inhibited by EDTA, suggesting that lipoperoxides (and possibly monofunctional lipoperoxidation aldehydes) are involved as MDA precursors in the TBA test. Pretreatment of plasma with KI, a specific reductant of hydroperoxides, decreased TBARS by about 27%. Moreover, aspirin administration to humans to inhibit prostaglandin endoperoxide generation reduced plasma TBARS by 40%. In conclusion, reaction conditions affect the relationship between TBA reactivity and lipid peroxidation in human plasma. After correction for the interfering effects of SA in the TBA test, 40% of plasma TBARS

  15. Assessment of the levels of potentially toxic substances around a transect of anthrosols in Aqaba shoreline, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahsha, Mohammad; Al-Rousan, Saber; Al-Jawasreh, Raid

    2016-04-01

    Soils are the major sink for potentially toxic substances (PTSs) such as heavy metals released into the environment by emissions from the quickly increasing of human impact including industrial mine tailings, disposal of high metal wastes, land misuse, wastewater irrigation, spillage of petrochemicals, and atmospheric deposition. The present study concerns the properties variability and soil biological health status in abandoned salt transportation port site in the Jordanian coast of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Seven sites were selected according to different morphological and pedological conditions, anthropogenic impact and the same climate conditions. Successively, all locations were sampled for topsoil in the period between spring-summer 2014. Field observations as well as laboratory analysis including heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn); soil chemo-physical parameters (pH, soil dry mass, carbonate, water holding, organic carbon content, soil particle size distribution), and quality of soil's biological community were determined. The anthropogenic influence related to former port activity on soils of the studied area is evident. Soils in the studied area site are highly contaminated by PTSs, mainly Cu and Zn, by 648, 298.6 mgKg-1respectively. Former activities proved to affect the microarthropods community altering both quantity and quality of soil and the chemo-physical structure of the microhabitats. The evaluation of soil biological quality index (QBS-ar) of the surface horizons from the study area is demonstrated that the area is "sufferings" since it is affected by PTSs contamination resulting in a failure in the ecological success of secondary recolonization after abandonment. However, there is an increasing need for further research in the soils of Aqaba focusing on soil health management , combining QBS-ar index with soil chemo-physical properties. Key words: Potentially Toxic Substances, Heavy Metals, Soil Quality.

  16. Hospitalizations for Substance Abuse Disorders Before and After Hurricane Katrina: Spatial Clustering and Area-Level Predictors, New Orleans, 2004 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Marilyn O.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Identifying at-risk groups is a challenge in post-disaster psychosocial response. Geospatial techniques can support the design and deployment of targeted and tailored interventions. This study compared spatial patterns in the distribution of hospitalizations for substance abuse disorders and associated area-level predictors before and after Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, Louisiana. Methods We used hospital data from the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals for 2004 (pre-Katrina) and 2008 (post-Katrina). Data were assessed by using descriptive statistics, multivariable Poisson regression, and geospatial analysis. We assessed hospitalizations by US Census block group in relation to the presence of blighted properties (ie, buildings declared an imminent health threat, in danger of collapse, or a public nuisance), race of residents (white or nonwhite), presence of nondisplaced residents (measured by the number of households receiving mail in 2008), and depth of water levels. Results The hospitalization rate for substance abuse disorders was 7.13 per 1,000 population for 2004 and 9.65 per 1,000 for 2008. The concentration of hospitalizations shifted geographically from block groups exposed to floods (levee breaches) in 2004 to the center of the city in 2008. Post Katrina, predictors for hospitalizations were presence of blighted properties, nonwhite populations, and presence of nondisplaced residents. Distance from flooded areas (high water depth) and levee breaches was negatively associated with hospitalizations. Men were more likely than women to be hospitalized during both periods (78%, 2004; 63%, 2008), and the percentage of the hospitalized white population increased from 2004 (28.8%) to 2008 (44.9%). Conclusion Geographic patterns of hospitalizations for substance abuse disorders shifted in post-Katrina New Orleans from flood-exposed areas to less exposed areas in the center of the city; however, poverty was a main predictor for

  17. Levels and spatial distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances in China Liaodong Bay basin with concentrated fluorine industry parks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Can; Han, Jianbo; Sun, Ruijun; Kong, Xiangyun; Wang, Xiaomeng; He, Xin

    2015-12-30

    Eighteen different perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in 35 river water samples and 34 sediment samples collected from rivers in the Liaodong Bay basin containing two fluorine industry parks. Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were the predominant PFASs in freshwater, with median concentrations of 26.5 ng/L and 1.87 ng/L, respectively. However, perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) had the highest maximum concentration (up to 124.1 ng/L, approximately two orders of magnitude higher) in water at a site which is the nearest to the industrial source of PFASs. Total PFASs in water at this site were also the highest. In contrast, PFOA and perfluorooctadecanoate (PFOcDA) were the most abundant PFASs in sediment, with median concentrations of 1.19 ng/g and 0.35 ng/g, respectively. Total PFAS concentrations in sediment from the site near to the industrial park were significantly higher than the other rivers. Mass loading of total PFASs from the rivers flowing into Liaodong Bay was estimated to be 506 kg/year.

  18. Quality survey of natural mineral water and spring water sold in France: Monitoring of hormones, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, perfluoroalkyl substances, phthalates, and alkylphenols at the ultra-trace level.

    PubMed

    Le Coadou, Laurine; Le Ménach, Karyn; Labadie, Pierre; Dévier, Marie-Hélène; Pardon, Patrick; Augagneur, Sylvie; Budzinski, Hélène

    2017-03-24

    The aim of the present study, one of the most complete ever performed in France, was to carry out an extensive survey on the potential presence of a large amount of emerging contaminants in 40 French bottled waters, including parent compounds and metabolites. The studied samples represented 70% of the French bottled water market in volume. Six classes of compounds were investigated, most of them being unregulated in bottled waters: pesticides and their transformation products (118), pharmaceutical substances (172), hormones (11), alkylphenols (APs) (8), phthalates (11) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) (10). One of the objectives of this work was to achieve low and reliable limits of quantification (LOQs) (87% of the LOQs were below 10ng/L) using advanced analytical technologies and reliable sample preparation methodologies, including stringent quality controls. Among the 14,000 analyses performed, 99.7% of the results were below the LOQs. None of the hormones, pharmaceutical substances and phthalates were quantified. Nineteen compounds out of the 330 investigated were quantified in 11 samples. Eleven were pesticides including 7 metabolites, 6 were PFAS and 2 were APs. As regards pesticides, their sum was at least twice lower than the quality standards applicable for bottled waters in France. The presence of a majority of pesticide metabolites suggested a former use in the recharge areas of the exploited aquifers. The quantification of a few unregulated emerging compounds at the nano-trace level, such as PFAS, raised the issue of their potential sources, including long-range atmospheric transport and deposition. This study confirmed that the groundwater aquifers exploited for bottling were well-preserved from chemicals, as compared to less geologically protected groundwaters, and also underlined the need to pursue the protection policies implemented in recharge areas in order to limit the anthropogenic pressure.

  19. Nucleic acid reactivity : challenges for next-generation semiempirical quantum models

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ming; Giese, Timothy J.; York, Darrin M.

    2016-01-01

    Semiempirical quantum models are routinely used to study mechanisms of RNA catalysis and phosphoryl transfer reactions using combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical methods. Herein, we provide a broad assessment of the performance of existing semiempirical quantum models to describe nucleic acid structure and reactivity in order to quantify their limitations and guide the development of next-generation quantum models with improved accuracy. Neglect of diatomic diffierential overlap (NDDO) and self-consistent density-functional tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) semiempirical models are evaluated against high-level quantum mechanical benchmark calculations for seven biologically important data sets. The data sets include: proton affinities, polarizabilities, nucleobase dimer interactions, dimethyl phosphate anion, nucleoside sugar and glycosidic torsion conformations, and RNA phosphoryl transfer model reactions. As an additional baseline, comparisons are made with several commonly used density-functional models, including M062X and B3LYP (in some cases with dispersion corrections). The results show that, among the semiempirical models examined, the AM1/d-PhoT model is the most robust at predicting proton affinities. AM1/d-PhoT and DFTB3-3ob/OPhyd reproduce the MP2 potential energy surfaces of 6 associative RNA phosphoryl transfer model reactions reasonably well. Further, a recently developed linear-scaling “modified divide-and-conquer” model exhibits the most accurate results for binding energies of both hydrogen bonded and stacked nucleobase dimers. The semiempirical models considered here are shown to underestimate the isotropic polarizabilities of neutral molecules by approximately 30%. The semiempirical models also fail to adequately describe torsion profiles within the dimethyl phosphate anion, the nucleoside sugar ring puckers, and the rotations about the nucleoside glycosidic bond. The modeling of pentavalent phosphorus, particularly with thio

  20. Persistent toxic substances in remote lake and coastal sediments from Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic: levels, sources and fluxes.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Liping; Zheng, Gene J; Minh, Tu Binh; Richardson, Bruce; Chen, Liqi; Zhang, Yuanhui; Yeung, Leo W; Lam, James C W; Yang, Xulin; Lam, Paul K S; Wong, Ming H

    2009-04-01

    Surface sediments from remote lakes and coastal areas from Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Relatively high levels of PAHs were encountered from several lakes from Ny-Alesund, which were within the range of levels reported for European high mountain lakes and some urban/industrialized areas in the world, pointing to the role of remote Arctic lakes as potential reservoir of semi-volatile organic compounds. Specific patterns of PBDEs were observed, showing higher concentrations of lower brominated compounds such as BDE-7, 17 and 28. Estimated surface sediment fluxes of PAHs in Ny-Alesund remote lakes were similar to those observed for some European high mountain lakes. The current PAH levels in sediments from three lakes exceeded Canadian sediment quality guidelines, suggesting the presence of possible risks for aquatic organisms and the need for further studies.

  1. Levels of explanation in psychiatric and substance use disorders: implications for the development of an etiologically based nosology

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, KS

    2011-01-01

    The soft medical model for psychiatric illness, which was operationalized in DSM-III, defines psychiatric disorders as syndromes with shared symptoms, signs, course of illness and response to treatment. Many in our field want to move to a hard medical model based on etiological mechanisms. This essay explores the feasibility of this move and asks whether psychiatric disorders have the needed single clear level of explanation for an etiologically based nosology. I propose seven criteria for a good explanation: (i) strength, (ii) causal confidence, (iii) generalizability, (iv) specificity, (v) manipulability, (vi) proximity and (vii) generativity. Applying them to cystic fibrosis, a gene-level approach to etiology performs well across the board. By contrast, a detailed review of alcohol dependence and a briefer review of major depression suggests that psychiatric disorders have multiple explanatory perspectives no one of which can be privileged over others using scientific data alone. Therefore, a move toward an etiologically based diagnostic system cannot assume that one level of explanation will stand out as the obvious candidate on which to base the nosology. This leaves two options. Either a hard medical model will be implemented that will require a consensus about a preferred level of explanation which must reflect value judgments as well as science. To take this approach, we need to agree on what we most want from our explanations. Alternatively, we will need to move away from the traditional hard medical model that requires that we ground our diagnoses in single biological essences, and focus instead on fuzzy, cross-level mechanisms, which may more realistically capture the true nature of psychiatric disorders. PMID:21670729

  2. Intra-articular (IA) ropivacaine microparticle suspensions reduce pain, inflammation, cytokine, and substance p levels significantly more than oral or IA celecoxib in a rat model of arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rabinow, Barrett; Werling, Jane; Bendele, Alison; Gass, Jerome; Bogseth, Roy; Balla, Kelly; Valaitis, Paul; Hutchcraft, Audrey; Graham, Sabine

    2015-02-01

    Current therapeutic treatment options for osteoarthritis entail significant safety concerns. A novel ropivacaine crystalline microsuspension for bolus intra-articular (IA) delivery was thus developed and studied in a peptidoglycan polysaccharide (PGPS)-induced ankle swelling rat model. Compared with celecoxib controls, both oral and IA, ropivacaine IA treatment resulted in a significant reduction of pain upon successive PGPS reactivation, as demonstrated in two different pain models, gait analysis and incapacitance testing. The reduction in pain was attended by a significant reduction in histological inflammation, which in turn was accompanied by significant reductions in the cytokines IL-18 and IL-1β. This may have been due to inhibition of substance P, which was also significantly reduced. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that the analgesic effects outlasted measurable ropivacaine levels in either blood or tissue. The results are discussed in the context of pharmacologic mechanisms both of local anesthetics as well as inflammatory arthritis.

  3. Sperm motility-initiating substance in newt egg-jelly induces differential initiation of sperm motility based on sperm intracellular calcium levels.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akihiko; Takayama-Watanabe, Eriko; Vines, Carol A; Cherr, Gary N

    2011-01-01

    Sperm motility-initiating substance (SMIS), a novel motility inducer from newt egg-jelly, is activated by the release from associated jelly substances at the beginning of internal fertilization and affects female-stored sperm. We examined motility initiation kinetics of newt sperm in response to SMIS by monitoring the changes of sperm intracellular calcium ([Ca²(+)](i)). In quiescent non-motile sperm loaded with the Ca²(+) indicator Fluo-4, intracellular free Ca²(+) was observed around mitochondria using confocal scanning laser microscopy. A slight increase in [Ca²(+)](i) occurred simultaneously and transiently at motility initiation in sperm treated with either heated jelly extract (hJE) containing activated SMIS, or a low osmotic solution, which naturally initiates motility in externally-fertilizing amphibians and can initiate motility in urodele sperm. When the increase of [Ca²(+)](i) at motility-initiation was monitored using spectrofluorometry, large increases in [Ca²(+)](i) occurred immediately in the low osmotic solution and within 1.5 min in the hJE. In the intact jelly extract (no heating), small increases of [Ca²(+)](i) irregularly occurred from around 1 min and for about 4 min, during which motility was differentially initiated among sperm. These results indicate that the SMIS induces differential initiation of sperm motility depending on the activational states of the SMIS and its overall activity. The motility initiation in the jelly extract was delayed in sperm whose intracellular Ca²(+) had been chelated with BAPTA-AM. The relative levels of [Ca²(+)](i) were variable with a mean of 414 ± 256 nmol/L among resting sperm, suggesting that the level of [Ca²(+)](i) in the resting sperm modulates the responsiveness to the SMIS.

  4. Factors Associated with Maternal Serum Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Organochlorines: A Descriptive Study of Parous Women in Norway and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, Hilde B.; Larose, Tricia L.; Øien, Torbjørn; Odland, Jon Ø.; van de Bor, Margot; Jacobsen, Geir W.; Sandanger, Torkjel M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and organochlorines (OCs) are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment and proposed endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). They can be transferred across the placenta during pregnancy, and studies suggest that the prenatal period may be particularly sensitive for influences on fetal growth and development. Several studies have investigated socio-demographic and pregnancy related factors associated with maternal serum PFAS and OC levels, but few studies have been conducted in time periods with increasing emissions of PFASs and recent emissions of OCs. Methods Serum from 424 pregnant women participating in the NICHD Scandinavian Successive Small-for-gestational Age (SGA) births study was collected in 1986–1988, and analyses of two PFASs and six OCs were conducted. Associations between EDCs and geographic, time dependent, socio-demographic and pregnancy related variables were evaluated by using multivariable linear regression models. Results Previous breastfeeding duration, time since last breastfeeding period, sampling date and country of residence were important factors associated with serum levels of PFOS and PFOA. Smoking status and pre-pregnancy BMI were negatively associated with PFOS, and maternal height was borderline negatively associated with PFOS and PFOA. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was negatively associated with PFOS in a sub-sample. Maternal serum levels of OCs were positively associated with maternal age, and negatively associated with previous breastfeeding duration and sampling date. Smoking had a consistently negative association with PCB 118 in a dose-dependent manner. Education level, pre-pregnancy BMI and alcohol consumption varied in importance according to the compound under study. Conclusions Several maternal factors, including potentially modifiable factors, markers of pregnancy physiology and factors also related to perinatal outcomes were associated with EDC levels. Results from this

  5. Low Plasma Eicosapentaenoic Acid Levels are Associated with Elevated Trait Aggression and Impulsivity in Major Depressive Disorder with a History of Comorbid Substance Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Anne Mette; Lauritzen, Lotte; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Cooper, Thomas B.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Grunebaum, Michael F.; Mann, J. John; Sublette, M. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with low levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), holding promise for new perspectives on disease etiology and treatment targets. As aggressive and impulsive behaviors are associated with low omega-3 PUFA levels in some clinical contexts, we investigated plasma PUFA relationships with trait aggression and impulsivity in patients with MDD. Medication-free MDD patients (n=48) and healthy volunteers (HV, n=35) were assessed with the Brown-Goodwin Aggression Inventory. A subset (MDD, n=39; HV, n=33) completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Plasma PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) were quantified and ln-transformed to mitigate distributional skew. Ln-transformed PUFA (lnPUFA) levels were predictors in regression models, with aggression or impulsivity scores as outcomes, and cofactors of sex and diagnostic status (MDD with or without a history of substance use disorder [SUD], or HV). Interactions were tested between relevant PUFAs and diagnostic status. Additional analyses explored possible confounds of depression severity, self-reported childhood abuse history, and, in MDD patients, suicide attempt history. Among PUFA, lnEPA but not lnDHA predicted aggression (F1,76=12.493, p=0.001), and impulsivity (F1,65=5.598, p=0.021), with interactions between lnEPA and history of SUD for both aggression (F1,76=7.941, p=0.001) and impulsivity (F1,65=3.485, p=0.037). Results remained significant when adjusted for childhood abuse, depression severity, or history of suicide attempt. In conclusion, low EPA levels were associated with aggression and impulsivity only in patients with MDD and comorbid SUD, even though in most cases SUD was in full sustained remission. PMID:25017608

  6. The antioxidative substances in cacao liquor.

    PubMed

    Osakabe, N; Yamagishi, M; Sanbongi, C; Natsume, M; Takizawa, T; Osawa, T

    1998-04-01

    The antioxidative substances contained in cacao liquor, which is one of the major ingredients of chocolate, were separated by column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Three major compounds were purified and two of them were identified by 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectra as (-)-epicatechin (EC) and (+)-catechin (CA). Their antioxidative activity was measured by monitoring the peroxide value of linoleic acid and the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values of erythrocyte ghost membranes and microsomes. EC and CA had strong antioxidative effects in all three methods, but one unidentified peak was found to be less effective. Additionally, we analyzed the polyphenol concentration of cacao liquor extractions produced in several countries. The total polyphenol concentration was 7.0 to 13.0%, catechin concentration was 0.31 to 0.49%, and epicatechin concentration was 0.35 to 1.68% in the extractions. It is believed that chocolate is stable against oxidative deterioration on account of the presence of these polyphenolic compounds, and it is also expected to have a protective role against lipid peroxidation in living systems.

  7. Low plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels are associated with elevated trait aggression and impulsivity in major depressive disorder with a history of comorbid substance use disorder.

    PubMed

    Beier, Anne Mette; Lauritzen, Lotte; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Cooper, Thomas B; Oquendo, Maria A; Grunebaum, Michael F; Mann, J John; Sublette, M Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with low levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), holding promise for new perspectives on disease etiology and treatment targets. As aggressive and impulsive behaviors are associated with low omega-3 PUFA levels in some clinical contexts, we investigated plasma PUFA relationships with trait aggression and impulsivity in patients with MDD. Medication-free MDD patients (n = 48) and healthy volunteers (HV, n = 35) were assessed with the Brown-Goodwin Aggression Inventory. A subset (MDD, n = 39; HV, n = 33) completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Plasma PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) were quantified and ln-transformed to mitigate distributional skew. Ln-transformed PUFA (lnPUFA) levels were predictors in regression models, with aggression or impulsivity scores as outcomes, and cofactors of sex and diagnostic status (MDD with or without a history of substance use disorder [SUD], or HV). Interactions were tested between relevant PUFAs and diagnostic status. Additional analyses explored possible confounds of depression severity, self-reported childhood abuse history, and, in MDD patients, suicide attempt history. Among PUFA, lnEPA but not lnDHA predicted aggression (F1,76 = 12.493, p = 0.001), and impulsivity (F1,65 = 5.598, p = 0.021), with interactions between lnEPA and history of SUD for both aggression (F1,76 = 7.941, p = 0.001) and impulsivity (F1,65 = 3.485, p = 0.037). Results remained significant when adjusted for childhood abuse, depression severity, or history of suicide attempt. In conclusion, low EPA levels were associated with aggression and impulsivity only in patients with MDD and comorbid SUD, even though in most cases SUD was in full sustained remission.

  8. Changes in serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances during a 10-year follow-up period in a large population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Stubleski, Jordan; Salihovic, Samira; Lind, Lars; Lind, P Monica; van Bavel, Bert; Kärrman, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of man-made fluorinated chemicals which have, at background levels, been associated with negative health effects in humans. Thus far, most human biomonitoring studies have evaluated the general change in PFAS concentration over time by continuously testing various individuals. This is one of the few studies to report the longitudinal trend of a range of PFAS concentrations in humans. In addition, this is the first known longitudinal study to include a large background level exposed cohort of both men and women with the same age and location who were repeatedly sampled from 2001 to 2014. The longitudinal change in concentration of eight PFASs detected in serum collected from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort were determined and compared to results from general population studies. The sex-dependent changes in PFAS concentrations over time were also assessed. Serum was sampled from the same individuals at ages 70 (collection period 2001-2004), 75 (2006-2009) and 80 (2011-2014,). Eight (C6-11) of fourteen (C4-13) analyzed PFASs were usually detected in over 75% of individuals and assessed using a random effects (mixed) model. In the 579 individuals attending all three examinations, PFOSA and PFOS concentrations significantly decreased, while the remaining six PFASs significantly increased between ages 70 and 75. However, between ages 75 and 80 all PFAS concentrations significantly decreased. Overall from age 70 to 80, concentrations of PFHxS, PFUnDA, PFNA, and PFDA showed a significant increase (7% to 34%), whereas concentrations of PFOSA, PFHpA, PFOS, and PFOA (-75% to -27%) significantly decreased. Over time PFHxS concentrations increased more among women, while PFHpA concentrations showed a greater decrease among men. From age 70 to age 80, spanning from 2001-2004 to 2011-2014, the PIVUS cohort showed decreases in circulating levels of some PFASs phased out of

  9. Substance Dependency's Effect on Reading Decoding and Comprehension: Reading Decoding and Comprehension Levels as Indicators of Brain Dysfunctioning with Ramifications for Traditional Rehabilitation Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schadler, Debbie E.

    This paper discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the effects of substance dependency on the reading decoding and comprehension of 497 adolescents (ages 12-18) involved in an inpatient drug and alcohol rehabilitation program. The first part of the study involved the formal assessment of reading decoding and reading comprehension…

  10. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  11. Substance use and multiculturalism.

    PubMed

    Adrian, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews intercultural variability of substance use behaviors, including availability of international statistics on consumption of alcohol and other drugs, as well as the use of drugs available locally only. Within a conceptual framework of intercultural relations, it considers the history of transcultural spread of substance use behaviors and possible reactions to the introduction of new drugs within a culture or jurisdiction, including illustrations of the "law of alien poisons." Although intercultural views of substance use have generally concentrated on majority groups' views of substance use in minority groups, minority and non-Western views of substance use need to be considered in the context of increasing international and intercultural communications that increase the rate at which substance use behaviors spread. Both Western and non-Western experiences with substance use and misuse must be taken into account so that better interventions can be developed to deal with addictions and other substance-related problems.

  12. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD.

  13. BRIEF INTERVENTIONS IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Suresh; Malhotra, Anil

    2000-01-01

    Brief interventions in substance abuse refer to a group of cost-effective and time efficient strategies that aim at reduction of substance use and/or harm related to substance use. They are grounded in the scientific principles of harm reduction stage of change, motivational interviewing and feasibility of community-level delivery. This review discusses the characteristics, elements, and techniques of brief interventions for abuse of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The available evidence for effectiveness of these strategies vis-a-vis no treatment or extended treatment is also reviewed, which clearly supports these interventions to be effective, especially for alcohol abuse but also for others It is argued that India presents a fertile ground for application of these strategies and that Indian research in this area should be a top priority. PMID:21407932

  14. Association Between Seminal Plasma Copper and Magnesium Levels with Oxidative Stress in Iraqi Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Rasheed, Omar F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between copper, magnesium and malondialdehyde levels in seminal plasma of oligozoospermic, azoospermic in relation to normozoospermic men. Methods The present study was conducted at the Chemistry and Biochemistry department, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad-Iraq during September 2007 to February 2008 after obtaining approval from the research and ethics committee and obtaining written consent, 78 infertile men (age range 33.01±4.20 years) were recruited at the institute of embryo research and infertility treatment, Al-Kadhimiya teaching hospital, Iraq and were categorized according to their seminal fluid parameters to oligozoospermia (n=43) and azoospermia (n=35). 41 fertile men (age range 30.29±2.30 years) were selected as controls. Seminal plasma copper and magnesium were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde was measured calorimetrically using thiobarbituric acid assay which detects thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results Seminal plasma copper level was decreased significantly (p=0.000) in the azoospermic group compared to the control group. Whereas, the level decreased non-significantly in the oligozoospermic group. Seminal plasma magnesium levels were decreased significantly (p=0.000) in all the infertility groups studied. On the other hand, malondialdehyde levels which is an end product of lipid peroxidation were significantly elevated (p=0.000) in all the infertility groups studied. Conclusion Copper and magnesium work in different ways in order to maintain normal environment for spermatozoa for normal fertilization to occur. PMID:22043332

  15. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified as the most frequently cited ... victim and/or the perpetrator who has the substance abuse problem. Substance abuse is believed to be a ...

  16. Ground-water levels, water quality, and potential effects of toxic-substance spills or cessation of quarry dewatering near a municipal ground-water supply, southeastern Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedam, A.C.; Eberts, S.M.; Bair, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    A newly completed municipal ground-water supply that produces from a sand and gravel aquifer in southern Franklin County, Ohio, may be susceptible to potential sources of pollution. Among these are spills of toxic substances that could enter recharge areas of the aquifer or be carried by surface drainage and subsequently enter the aquifer by induced infiltration. Ground water of degraded quality also is present in the vicinity of several landfills located upstream from the municipal supply. Local dewatering by quarrying operations has created a ground-water divide which, at present, prevents direct movement of the degraded ground water to the municipal supply. In addition, the dewatering has held water levels at the largest landfills below the base of the landfill. Should the dewatering cease, concern would be raised regarding the rise of water levels at this landfills and transport of contaminants through the aquifer to the Scioto River and subsequently by the river to the well field. From June 1984 through July 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Columbus, Ohio, investigated the relations among the ground-water supply and potential sources of contamination by means of an observation-well network and a program of measuring water levels and sampling for water quality. Sample collections included those made to determine the baseline levels of organic chemicals and metals, as well as periodic sampling and analysis for common constituents to evaluate any changes taking place in the system. Finally, a steady-state, three-dimensional numerical model was used to determine ground-water flow directions and average ground-water velocities to asses potential effects of toxic-substance spills. The model also was used to simulate changes in the ground-water flow system that could result if part or all of the quarry dewatering ceased. Few of the organic-chemical and metal constituents analyzed for were present at detectable levels. With respect to

  17. Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain.

  18. Separation of Substances: A Teacher's Manual for General Level Program Development, Grade 9. Science and Society Teaching Units. Informal Series/26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Douglas A.; And Others

    Recognizing the problems and challenges associated with teaching general level or non-academic science courses in junior high school, a series of manuals was written to assist teachers in developing programs which focus on issues related to science and society. In the first in the series, how to make water fit to drink is investigated. Eight…

  19. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - inhalants; Drug abuse - inhalants; Drug use - inhalants; Glue - inhalants ... symptoms and may include: Strong cravings for the drug Having mood swings from feeling depressed to agitated ...

  20. Substance use - amphetamines

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - amphetamines; Drug abuse - amphetamines; Drug use - amphetamines ... Amphetamine: goey, louee, speed, uppers, whiz Dextroamphetamine (ADHD medicine used illegally): dexies, kiddie-speed, pep pills, uppers; ...

  1. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  2. Depression and Substance Use in Minority Middle-School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelder, Steven H.; Murray, Nancy G.; Orpinas, Pamela; Prokhorov, Alexander; McReynolds, Larkin; Zhang, Qing; Roberts, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the association between depression and substance use among minority (predominantly Hispanic American) middle school students. Student surveys indicated that depressive symptoms were strongly and positively related to self-reported substance use. Risk of substance use increased in a dose-response fashion with each higher level of…

  3. Effect of supranutritional level of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate and selenium on rabbit semen.

    PubMed

    Castellini, Cesare; Lattaioli, Paolo; Bosco, Alessandro Dal; Beghelli, Daniela

    2002-12-01

    This research examined the effects of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate (50 or 200 mg/kg diet) and selenium (Se, 0 or 0.5 ppm) supplementation on motion characteristics, oxidative stability and fertilizing ability of rabbit spermatozoa, fresh and stored for 24 h at 5 degrees C. The higher amount of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate increased the level of Vitamin E in the fresh semen (1.75 mmol/l versus 0.95 mmol/l) and its oxidative stability (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS 12.44 nmol malondialdehyde/10(8) sperm versus 21.4 nmol malondialdehyde/10(8) sperm). Dietary Se increased gluthatione peroxidase activity (GPx) in erythrocytes (285 U/g Hb versus 207 U/g Hb), seminal plasma (270 U/l versus 190 U/l) and spermatozoa (1338 mU/10(9) sperm versus 1103 mU/10(9) sperm), whereas it did not show any effect on alpha-tocopherol level and TBARS. No synergy between Vitamin E and Se was shown. Storage for 24 h at 5 degrees C increased the TBARS level in all the experimental groups. Neither live and acrosome reacted spermatozoa, nor kinetic parameters, nor fertility rate were modified by dietary supplementation.

  4. Substance Abuse Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzolino, Robert

    This brochure outlines the substance abuse policy for students at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM/Pennsylvania). Noted are the dangers of substance abuse during the stressful time of medical training and later for the doctor and clients during professional practice. The policy's five goals are briefly stated. Described next…

  5. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  6. Atomic layer deposition in nanometer-level replication of cellulosic substances and preparation of photocatalytic TiO2/cellulose composites.

    PubMed

    Kemell, Marianna; Pore, Viljami; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku; Lindén, Mika

    2005-10-19

    TiO2 replicas of filter paper with nanometer-level accuracy were prepared by atomic layer deposition of thin conformal TiO2 coating, followed by a removal of the paper by air-anneal at 450 degrees C. Photocatalytic anatase TiO2/cellulose composites were also made by leaving the paper intact. The TiO2 films were deposited from Ti(OMe)4 and H2O at 150-250 degrees C. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2/cellulose composite was verified by photocatalytic reduction of Ag(I) from an aqueous solution to Ag nanoparticles on the TiO2 surface. The TiO2/cellulose composites are mechanically more stable than the free-standing TiO2 replicas and are therefore potentially suitable as lightweight, high surface area photocatalysts.

  7. Comorbidity and Pattern of Substance Use in Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sepehrmanesh, Zahra; Ahmadvand, Afshin; Moraveji, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Substance use in patients with psychiatric disorder is an every-day seen. Detection of this comorbidity can significantly affect the treatment of these disorders, as well as substance use. Objectives: This study has been conducted to determine the prevalence and pattern of substance use in hospitalized psychiatric patients. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 210 hospitalized psychiatric patients were selected by simple randomization from all records of hospitalized patients. The instrument of gathering data was a demographic checklist including age, gender, marital status, education, type of disorder and substance abuse and duration of psychiatric disorder. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 using Fisher exact and Chi square tests. Results: The mean age of patients was 37.9 years. Most of the patients were male, married and unemployed. The Prevalence of substance use was 36.7%. The most prevalent pattern of substance use was opium, opioid, methamphetamines and other substances (poly substance). The prevalence of substance use in patients with mood disorders was more than the other disorders and the most prevalent substance use in these patients was opium and opioid. Poly substance use was the most prevalent pattern of use (80 %) in psychotic and mood disorders due to substance. Significant difference was seen between genders, marital status, occupation, duration of illness and frequency of substance use (P < 0.05 ), however no significant difference was seen between educational levels, age and substance use. Conclusions: The patients with mood disorders had the highest comorbidity with substance use and concurrent use of poly substance was the most prevalent pattern of use in these patients. Therefore, successful treatment of psychiatric disorders and substance use needs multimodal and more serious interventions. Regarding to the pattern of poly substance use in these patients, careful screening should be performed at admission

  8. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  9. Vitis vinifera (Muscat Variety) Seed Ethanolic Extract Preserves Activity Levels of Enzymes and Histology of the Liver in Adult Male Rats with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Eswar Kumar, Kilari; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2015-01-01

    The effect of V. vinifera seeds on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and other enzymes of the liver in diabetes is currently unknown. We therefore investigated changes in the activity levels of these enzymes following V. vinifera seed extract administration to diabetic rats. Methods. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) or glibenclamide (600 μg/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of treatment, liver was harvested and activity levels of various liver enzymes were determined. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in liver homogenates and liver histopathological changes were observed. Results. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract was able to prevent the decrease in ICDH, SDH, MDH, and G-6-PDH and the increase in LDH activity levels in liver homogenates. The seed extract also caused serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, ACP, GGT, and total bilirubin to decrease while causing total proteins to increase. Additionally, the levels of ALT, AST, and TBARS in liver homogenates were decreased. Histopathological changes in the liver were reduced. Conclusion. Near normal activity levels of various enzymes and histology of the liver following V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract administration may be due to decrease in liver oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:25852767

  10. Modulation of selenium tissue distribution and selenoprotein expression in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed diets with graded levels of plant ingredients.

    PubMed

    Betancor, Monica B; Dam, Thi M C; Walton, James; Morken, Thea; Campbell, Patrick J; Tocher, Douglas R

    2016-04-01

    Increased substitution of marine ingredients by terrestrial plant products in aquafeeds has been proven to be suitable for Atlantic salmon farming. However, a reduction in n-3 long-chain PUFA is a consequence of this substitution. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the effects of fishmeal and oil substitution on levels of micronutrients such as Se, considering fish are major sources of this mineral for human consumers. To evaluate the effects of dietary marine ingredient substitution on tissue Se distribution and the expression of Se metabolism and antioxidant enzyme genes, Atlantic salmons were fed three feeds based on commercial formulations with increasing levels of plant proteins (PP) and vegetable oil. Lipid content in flesh did not vary at any sampling point, but it was higher in the liver of 1 kg of fish fed higher PP. Fatty acid content reflected dietary input and was related to oxidation levels (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances). Liver had the highest Se levels, followed by head kidney, whereas the lowest contents were found in brain and gill. The Se concentration of flesh decreased considerably with high levels of substitution, reducing the added value of fish consumption. Only the brain showed significant differences in glutathione peroxidase, transfer RNA selenocysteine 1-associated protein 1b and superoxide dismutase expression, whereas no significant regulation of Se-related genes was found in liver. Although Se levels in the diets satisfied the essential requirements of salmon, high PP levels led to a reduction in the supply of this essential micronutrient.

  11. Radioprotective effect of sesamol on gamma-radiation induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants levels in cultured human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Prasad, N Rajendra; Menon, Venugopal P; Vasudev, V; Pugalendi, K V

    2005-05-05

    Sesamol pretreated (1, 5 and 10 microg/ml) lymphocytes were exposed to different doses of gamma-radiation, i.e., 1, 2 and 4 Gray (Gy) and the cellular changes were estimated by using cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay (MN), dicentric aberration (DC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Radiation significantly increased MN, DC frequencies, TBARS levels and decreased GSH and antioxidant enzyme levels in a dose dependent manner. The highest damage to lymphocytes was observed at 4 Gy irradiation. On the other hand, sesamol pretreatment significantly decreased MN, DC frequencies, TBARS levels and increased GSH levels and SOD, CAT and GPx activities in a concentration dependent manner. At 1 Gy irradiation all concentrations of sesamol (1, 5 and 10 microg/ml) significantly protects the lymphocytes from radiation damage. At 2 Gy irradiation 5 and 10 microg/ml of sesamol shows significant radioprotection. Since the highest damage was observed at 4 Gy irradiation both 1 and 5 microg/ml of sesamol pretreatment were not sufficient to protect the lymphocytes from radiation damage but 10 microg/ml of sesamol significantly (p<0.05) protects the lymphocytes from radiation effect. Thus, sesamol pretreatment gives significant protection to cultured human lymphocytes against gamma-radiation induced cellular damage. The possible mechanism involved in the radioprotective influence of sesamol is discussed.

  12. Prevention of substance abuse: a brief overview

    PubMed Central

    MEDINA-MORA, MARÍA ELENA

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in psychosocial research and neurosciences have provided new avenues for prevention of substance abuse at the individual and community level. A series of risk and protective factors affecting the likelihood of using and abusing substances have been identified. The scope of prevention has been broadened, allowing the prescription of different interventions for individuals according to their varying degrees of vulnerability to substance experimentation, continuous use and dependence. An increased awareness of comorbidity between mental and substance use disorders provides an arena for prevention within psychiatry and related disciplines. Emphasis on program evaluation has helped identify cost effective programs and policies. The integration of prevention within healthy life style policies and programs, including interventions at the school, family and community levels, is more likely to produce the desired outcomes. PMID:16633497

  13. Preventive antioxidant responses to extreme oxygen level fluctuation in a subterranean crustacean.

    PubMed

    Lawniczak, M; Romestaing, C; Roussel, D; Maazouzi, C; Renault, D; Hervant, F

    2013-06-01

    The principal aim of this work was to explore the responses of the groundwater crustacean Niphargus rhenorhodanensis to oxidative stress caused by short- and long-term drastic variations in oxygen level. To this end, we investigated thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and anti-oxidative enzyme (SOD and GPx) activities during 24 h anoxia and post-anoxia recovery, and during 10 days of severe hypoxia and post-hypoxia recovery. We observed a decrease in TBARS amounts during recovery from severe hypoxia. Parallel to these results, we observed an overactivation of SOD activity after a 24 h anoxic stress. GPx activity measured at the end of anoxia or severe hypoxia and in the early hours of post-stress recovery also showed an overactivation compared to the control group. We can hypothesize that this overproduction of GPx corresponded to an anticipatory mechanism coping with the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the recovery phase in subterranean animals. This response could be considered as a major asset for life in alternately normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and therefore in extreme biotopes such as groundwaters.

  14. Toxic substances handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  15. Substance use - marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - marijuana; Drug abuse - marijuana; Drug use - marijuana; Cannabis; Grass; Hashish; Mary Jane; Pot; Weed ... several minutes. If you eat foods containing the drug as an ingredient, such as brownies, you may ...

  16. Substance use - phencyclidine (PCP)

    MedlinePlus

    PCP; Substance abuse - phencyclidine; Drug abuse - phencyclidine; Drug use - phencyclidine ... PCP is a mind-altering drug. This means it acts on your brain (central nervous system) and changes your mood, behavior, and the way you relate to ...

  17. Toxic substances alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  18. Substance use during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Forray, Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal substance use is a critical public health concern that is linked with several harmful maternal and fetal consequences. The most frequently used substance in pregnancy is tobacco, followed by alcohol, cannabis and other illicit substances. Unfortunately, polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, as well as psychiatric comorbidity, environmental stressors, and limited and disrupted parental care, all of which can compound deleterious maternal and fetal outcomes. There are few existing treatments for prenatal substance use and these mainly comprise behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Contingency management has been shown to be the most efficacious of these. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the prenatal use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids, including the effects of these on maternal and fetal health and the current therapeutic options. PMID:27239283

  19. Supervision: Substance and Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  20. Organic substances in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeson, Phillip E.

    1981-01-01

    This is the third of several compilations of briefing papers on water quality by the U.S. Geological Survey. Each briefing paper is prepared in a simple, nontechnical, easy-to-understand manner. This U.S. Geological Survey Circular contains papers on selected organic substances in water. Briefing papers are included on ' Why study organic substances in water. ', ' Taste and odor in water ', and ' Classification and fractionation of organic solutes in natural waters'. (USGS)

  1. PTSD and Substance Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Substance use disorders (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are...Appendix……………………………………………………………………………. 10-end INTRODUCTION Substance use disorders (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD...International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies “Resilience After Trauma: From Surviving to Thriving” Annual Meeting 7-9 November 2013. Currently

  2. Effect of summer heat environment on body temperature, estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cow.

    PubMed

    Sakatani, Miki; Balboula, Ahmed Z; Yamanaka, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masashi

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of summer heat environment on estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cows. A total of 13 non-lactating Japanese Black cows (summer: 9, winter: 4) were examined. Body temperature was measured rectally and intravaginally using a thermometer and data logger, respectively. Estrous behavior was monitored using a radiotelemetric pedometer that recorded walking activity. Rectal temperatures were higher during summer than winter (P<0.001). There was an acute increase in vaginal temperature at the onset of estrus during winter but such an increase was not observed during summer. Walking activity during estrus decreased dramatically in the summer compared to the winter. Duration of estrous cycle was longer in summer (23.4 days, P<0.05) than winter (21.5 days), and the subsequent rise in progesterone concentrations following estrus tended to be delayed in summer. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in peripheral blood cells was higher during summer (P<0.05), while the levels of superoixde dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione were lower (P<0.05). These results indicate that high ambient temperature during summer increases both body temperature and oxidative stress, and also reduces signs of estrus in Japanese Black cows.

  3. Effects of coffee consumption on oxidative susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins and serum lipid levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, G S; Mune, M; Otani, H; Tone, Y; Liang, X-M; Iwahashi, H; Sakamoto, W

    2004-01-01

    Since little is known about how coffee intake affects low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidative susceptibility and serum lipid levels, we conducted an in vivo study in 11 healthy male students of Wakayama Medical University aged between 20 and 31 years fed an average Japanese diet. On days 1-7 of the study, the subjects drank mineral water. On day 7, the subjects began drinking coffee, 24 g total per day, for one week. This was followed by a one week "washout period" during which mineral water was consumed. Fasting peripheral venous blood samples were taken at the end of each one-week period. LDL oxidation lag time was approximately 8% greater (p < 0.01) after the coffee drinking period than the other periods. Serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly decreased after the coffee drinking period. Finally, regular coffee ingestion may favorably affect cardiovascular risk status by modestly reducing LDL oxidation susceptibility and decreasing LDL-cholesterol and MDA levels.

  4. Evaluation of uranium removal by Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle from low level nuclear waste under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Bhainsa, K C

    2016-02-01

    The present study evaluated uranium (U) removal ability and tolerance to low level nuclear waste (LLNW) of an aquatic weed Hydrilla verticillata. Plants were screened for growth in 10%-50% waste treatments up to 3 d. Treatments of 20% and 50% waste imposed increasing toxicity with duration assessed in terms of change in fresh weight and in the levels of photosynthetic pigments and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. U concentration, however, did not show a progressive increase and was about 42 μg g(-1) dw from 20% to 50% waste at 3 d. This suggested that a saturation stage was reached with respect to U removal due to increasing toxicity. However, in another experiment with 10% waste and 10% waste+10 ppm U treatments, plants showed an increase in U concentration with the maximum level approaching 426 μg g(-1) dw at 3 d without showing any toxicity as compared to that at 20% and 50% waste treatments. Hence, plants possessed significant potential to take up U and toxicity of LLNW limited their U removal ability. This implies that the use of Hydrilla plants for U removal from LLNW is feasible at low concentrations and would require repeated harvesting at short intervals.

  5. Trace Level Quantification of the (-)2-(2-amino-5-chlorophenyl)-4-cyclopropyl-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-butyn-2-ol Genotoxic Impurity in Efavirenz Drug Substance and Drug Product Using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Jaishetty, Nagadeep; Palanisamy, Kamaraj; Maruthapillai, Arthanareeswari; Jaishetty, Rajamanohar

    2015-10-18

    Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV). (2S)-(2-Amino-5-chlorophenyl)-4-cyclopropyl-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-butyn-2-ol (AMCOL), used as an intermediate in the synthesis of efavirenz and a degradation impurity, has an aminoaryl derivative which is a well-known alerting function for genotoxic activity. Upon request from a regulatory agency, a selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for trace level quantitative determination of AMCOL related compound of efavirenz, for a risk assessment and comparison of impurity levels with the commercially available innovator product (brand name: Sustiva). The method provided excellent sensitivity at a typical target analyte level of <2.5 ppm, an established threshold of toxicological concern (TTC), when the drug substance and drug product samples were prepared at 15.0 mg/mL. The AMCOL sample was analyzed on a Luna C18 (2) (100 mm × 4.6 mm, 3 µm) column interfaced with a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer operated in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Positive electrospray ionization (ESI) was employed as the ionization source and the mobile phase used was 5.0 mM ammonium acetate-methanol (35:65, v/v). The calibration curve showed good linearity over the concentration range of 0.2-5.0 ppm with a correlation coefficient of >0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 0.07 and 0.2 ppm, respectively. The developed method was validated as per international council on harmonization (ICH) guidelines in terms of LOD, LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, and robustness.

  6. Trace Level Quantification of the (−)2-(2-amino-5-chlorophenyl)-4-cyclopropyl-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-butyn-2-ol Genotoxic Impurity in Efavirenz Drug Substance and Drug Product Using LC–MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Jaishetty, Nagadeep; Palanisamy, Kamaraj; Maruthapillai, Arthanareeswari; Jaishetty, Rajamanohar

    2015-01-01

    Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV). (2S)-(2-Amino-5-chlorophenyl)-4-cyclopropyl-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-butyn-2-ol (AMCOL), used as an intermediate in the synthesis of efavirenz and a degradation impurity, has an aminoaryl derivative which is a well-known alerting function for genotoxic activity. Upon request from a regulatory agency, a selective and sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method was developed for trace level quantitative determination of AMCOL related compound of efavirenz, for a risk assessment and comparison of impurity levels with the commercially available innovator product (brand name: Sustiva). The method provided excellent sensitivity at a typical target analyte level of <2.5 ppm, an established threshold of toxicological concern (TTC), when the drug substance and drug product samples were prepared at 15.0 mg/mL. The AMCOL sample was analyzed on a Luna C18 (2) (100 mm × 4.6 mm, 3 µm) column interfaced with a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer operated in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Positive electrospray ionization (ESI) was employed as the ionization source and the mobile phase used was 5.0 mM ammonium acetate-methanol (35:65, v/v). The calibration curve showed good linearity over the concentration range of 0.2–5.0 ppm with a correlation coefficient of >0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 0.07 and 0.2 ppm, respectively. The developed method was validated as per international council on harmonization (ICH) guidelines in terms of LOD, LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, and robustness. PMID:28117312

  7. Effect of curcumin and curcumin copper complex (1:1) on radiation-induced changes of anti-oxidant enzymes levels in the livers of Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Koiram, Prabhakar R; Veerapur, Veeresh P; Kunwar, Amit; Mishra, Beena; Barik, Atanu; Priyadarsini, Indira K; Mazhuvancherry, Unnikrishnan K

    2007-05-01

    The effect of mononuclear copper (II) complex of curcumin in 1:1 stoichiometry (hereafter referred to as complex) administered 30 min before gamma-irradiation (4.5 Gy) on alterations in antioxidant and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in livers was studied in comparison to curcumin at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The different antioxidants like GSH, GST, catalase, SOD, TBARS and total thiols were estimated in the liver homogenates excised at different time intervals (1, 2 and 4 h) post irradiation using colorimetric methods. There was a radiation-induced decrease in the levels of all the studied enzymes at 1 h post irradiation, while an increase was observed at later time points. Both curcumin and complex treatment in sham-irradiated mice decreased the levels of GSH and total thiols, whereas there was an increase in the levels of catalase, GST and SOD compared to normal control. Under the influence of irradiation, both curcumin and complex treatment protected the decline in the levels of GSH, GST, SOD, catalase and total thiols, and inhibited radiation-induced lipid peroxidation. Further, the complex was found to be more effective in protecting the enzymes at 1 h post irradiation compared to curcumin treated group. This may be due to the higher rate constants of the complex compared to curcumin for their reactions with various free radicals.

  8. Substance abuse among oral healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Marnewick, J C; van Zyl, A W

    2014-05-01

    The abuse of both licit and illicit substances by the general population affects at least one in ten people. Research shows that the oral healthcare worker has at least the same prevalence of substance abuse, perhaps even higher. The emergence of prescription drug abuse is one of the most worrying and dangerous aspects for the healthcare worker, due to ease of access to such drugs. According to the United Nations, prescription drug abuse is amongst the top three practices of substance abuse. We have an obligation to incorporate the evidence of substance abuse among oral healthcare professionals in our undergraduate dental curricula in order to combat this phenomenon. As the stress of daily survival in single practitioner practices increase, so will the danger of substance abuse. This may lead to impairment of the healthcare worker and ultimately loss of registration. It will take a combined effort from organised dentistry and academic institutions to establish a national strategy to ensure we address this important issue at undergraduate level and provide support at practitioner level. This paper will deal with substance abuse and the implications of impairment it holds for the oral healthcare worker.

  9. Recovery resources and psychiatric severity among persons with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Majer, John M; Payne, Jason C; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-05-01

    A comparative analysis of recovery resources (abstinence social support, abstinence self-efficacy) was conducted among two groups exiting inpatient treatment for substance use disorders: persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders and persons with substance use disorders. Both groups reported comparable levels of abstinence social support, but this resource was not significantly related to substance use among persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders. Although abstinence self-efficacy was significantly related to substance use, persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders reported significantly lower levels of abstinence self-efficacy than persons with substance use disorders. Findings suggest that persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders exit alcohol/drug treatment with lower levels of abstinence self-efficacy compared to their substance use disorder peers.

  10. Spending on substance abuse treatment: how much is enough?

    PubMed Central

    Meara, Ellen; Frank, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    Aim To describe a framework that can be used to determine optimal spending on substance abuse treatment in the United States. Methods Selective review of the literature on spending for substance abuse treatment combined with an economic analysis of how to determine when spending is optimal, defining optimal spending as that which minimizes the social costs of substance use disorders. Results In 1997, only $11.9 billion of the $294 billion estimated social costs of substance abuse was spent on treatment. The discrepancy between the high indirect costs of illness relative to the level of spending on treatment of addictive disorders leads many to believe that the United States spends too little on treatment. In this paper, we argue that information on the social costs of substance abuse disorders and the level of spending on treatment is insufficient to determine whether current spending is optimal. We develop a framework that could be used to determine optimal spending on substance abuse treatment in the United States. We develop this framework in four steps. First, we provide background on the unique financial and delivery features of substance abuse treatment. Secondly, we outline the points raised by advocates of expanded substance abuse treatment: substance abuse has high social costs, yet few people receive the many effective treatments available partly because of financial barriers to treatment. Thirdly, we provide a framework that can be used to judge the additional benefits of alternative levels and types of spending on substance abuse treatment. Finally, we discuss the distinction between the potential impact of spending on substance abuse treatment and its actual impact, using productivity as an example of one significant portion of the costs of substance abuse. Conclusion To determine optimal spending on substance abuse treatment, research should describe who receives treatment, the quality of treatment received, and how treatments relate to outcomes that

  11. Effect of fluoride intoxication on the levels of intestinal antioxidants studied in rats.

    PubMed

    Shanthakumari, D; Srinivasalu, S; Subramanian, S

    2007-03-01

    High concentration of fluorine is noxious to the health of humans and animals. Analysis of fluoride in water samples meant for human consumption in the Vellore District of Tamil Nadu, India, revealed its presence above the permissible limit (4.56 ppm). The present study was aimed to investigate the toxic effects of oral administration of the water sample that contains the highest fluoride content on the status of pathophysiological parameters and lipid peroxidation in experimental rats. A positive control group orally treated with 4.5 ppm of fluoride was also included in the study. The assay of pathophysiological enzymes and histological observations made on the stomach and intestinal tissue have revealed the toxic effects of fluoride intoxication. The observed increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) both in plasma and in intestinal epithelium, with a concomitant decrease in both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in the plasma of experimental rats, revealed that the altered antioxidant status during fluoride intoxication may be due to increased free radical generation.

  12. Effect of some medicinal plants on plasma antioxidant system and lipid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Mi; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2005-05-01

    Several inflammatory diseases are thought to be related to oxidative injury and free oxygen radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of heart disease and aging. To investigate the effects of daily intake of medicinal plants on antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and lipid profiles in rat, 28 rats were randomly divided into four groups and administered with three plant extracts (0.2 g/kg body weight): Piper cubeba (fruit), Physalis angulata (flower), Rosa hybrida (flower) and with saline as a control. After 3 weeks, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels in plasma were measured. The SOD activity of the Piper cubeba group and the catalase activity of the Piper cubeba and Rosa hybrida groups were significantly increased compared with the control group, while the SOD and catalase activities of the Physalis angulata group were not significantly changed (p<0.05). TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was significantly lower in all experimental groups compeered with the control group. No significant changes occurred in the TG, total- and LDL-cholesterol of all groups, but the HDL-cholesterol of the Physalis angulata group was significantly increased. This study showed that the intake of medicinal plants in rats results in an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and HDL-cholesterol, and a decrease in malondialdehyde, which may reduce the risk of inflammatory and heart disease.

  13. Approaching Suspicious Substances Safely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A mineral identification tool that was developed for NASA's Mars Rover Technology Development program is now serving as a powerful tool for U.S. law enforcement agencies and military personnel to identify suspicious liquid and solid substances. The tool can measure unknown substances through glass and plastic packaging materials with the RamanProbe(TradeMark) focused fiber-optic probe. The probe length can be extended up to 200 meters to enable users to analyze potentially dangerous substances at a safe distance. In many cases, the spectrometer and personnel are kept in a safe zone while the probe is positioned next to the sample being analyzed. Being able to identify chemicals in remote locations also saves users time and labor, since otherwise the samples would need to be collected, transported, and prepared prior to measurement in the laboratory.

  14. Serum Oxidized LDL Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Retinopathy in Mthatha Region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a powerful natural prooxidant derived from native LDL by cell-mediated oxidation. Such oxidation occurs more easily in glycated LDL as observed in diabetes mellitus. We evaluated and compared selected biomarkers of oxidative stress and total antioxidant (TAO) levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with and without retinopathy in the Mthatha region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The participants totaled to 140 and this number comprised 98 diabetic patients on treatment, stratified by diabetes (54) and diabetes with retinopathy (44). Forty-two nondiabetic healthy controls made up the 140. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, serum ox-LDL, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and TAO levels were measured. A statistically significant increase in FPG, HbA1c, TBARS, and ox-LDL and a significant decrease in TAO levels were seen in T2DM patients with retinopathy as compared to controls. A significant negative correlation was observed between TAO and ox-LDL levels in the diabetic group. In multiple linear regression analyses, duration of diabetes, triglyceride, TAO, and LDL cholesterol were found to be significantly associated with ox-LDL. In multiple logistic regression analyses, ox-LDL [OR 1.02 (1.01–1.03), P = 0.005] was the only risk factor and was significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy. PMID:27433285

  15. Drug and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults Making Your Wishes Known Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Drug and Substance Abuse Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...

  16. Substance Abuse and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos, Ed.

    This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…

  17. Risks and Chemical Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Avrom A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines exposure to chemicals within the home and three important ways in which hazardous substances can be identified and evaluated. Suggests a rational picture of human health risks and contains an introductory discussion of reasons for exposure, epidemiology, cancer causes and patterns, animal testing, toxins, and risk. (LZ)

  18. Substance Use Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Judy

    This report outlines the Hillsborough County, Florida, Head Start Program's project to field test with young children and their families curricula that were designed to prevent alcohol and other drug problems. A national search conducted by means of computers, individual contacts, and other methods yielded information on 22 substance abuse…

  19. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  20. Substance use - LSD

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - LSD; Drug abuse - LSD; Drug use - LSD; Lysergic acid diethylamide; Hallucinogen - LSD ... LSD is a mind-altering drug. This means it acts on your brain (central nervous system) and changes your mood, behavior, and the way you relate to ...

  1. Development of RP UPLC-TOF/MS, stability indicating method for omeprazole and its related substances by applying two level factorial design; and identification and synthesis of non-pharmacopoeial impurities.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Sushant Bhimrao; Kumar, C Kiran; Bandichhor, Rakeshwar; Bhosale, P N

    2016-01-25

    A new UPLC-TOF/MS compatible, reverse phase-stability indicating method was developed for determination of Omeprazole (OMP) and its related substances in pharmaceutical dosage forms by implementing Design of Experiment (DoE) i.e. two level full factorial Design (2(3)+3 center points=11 experiments) to understand the Critical Method Parameters (CMP) and its relation with Critical Method Attribute (CMA); to ensure robustness of the method. The separation of eleven specified impurities including conversion product of OMP related compound F (13) and G (14) i.e. Impurity-I (1), OMP related compound-I (11) and OMP 4-chloro analog (12) was achieved in a single method on Acquity BEH shield RP18 100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm column, with inlet filter (0.2 μm) using gradient elution and detector wavelength at 305 nm and validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and found to be accurate, precise, reproducible, robust and specific. The drug was found to degrade extensively in heat, humidity and acidic conditions and forms unknown degradation products during stability studies. The same method was used for LC-MS analysis to identify m/z and fragmentation of maximum unknown impurities (Non-Pharmacopoeial) i.e. Impurity-I (1), Impurity-III (3), Impurity-V (5) and Impurity-VIII (9) formed during stability studies. Based on the results, degradation pathway for the drug has been proposed and synthesis of identified impurities i.e. impurities (Impurity-I (1), Impurity-III (3), Impurity-V (5) and Impurity-VIII (9)) are discussed in detail to ensure in-depth understanding of OMP and its related impurities and optimum performance during lifetime of the product.

  2. Differences in Substance Use and Substance Use Risk Factors by Asian Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Regina A.; Tucker, Joan S.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Ewing, Brett A.; Pedersen, Eric R.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined differences in lifetime use and initiation of substance use and associated risk factors for alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana among seven subgroups of Asian American (AA) adolescents: Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Mixed heritage Asian. Sixth and 7th grade AA adolescents in Southern California were surveyed five times over three academic years. We examined subgroup differences in (1) lifetime alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use assessed at baseline, (2) initiation of each substance over three years, and (3) baseline individual (positive and negative expectancies about substances, resistance self-efficacy, and intentions to use), family (closest adult and older sibling substance use), and school factors (perceived peer use). Although there was considerable heterogeneity in lifetime substance use and initiation rates, subgroup differences were not statistically significant (ps > .20). Significant subgroup differences existed for negative expectancies about use, perceived peer use, and close adult alcohol and cigarette use (ps < .05). Specifically, Vietnamese and Japanese adolescents had the lowest negative expectancies about cigarettes and marijuana, respectively. Vietnamese adolescents reported the highest levels of perceived peer cigarette use. Mixed-heritage adolescents reported the highest frequency of alcohol and cigarette use by their closest adult. Although no differences in substance use rates were observed, these findings are an important first step in understanding heterogeneity in AA adolescents’ risk for substance use and initiation. PMID:26388971

  3. The relationship between substance abuse treatment completion, sociodemographics, substance use characteristics, and criminal history.

    PubMed

    Turan, Reyhan; Yargic, Ilhan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if a significant relationship exists between the sociodemographics, substance use characteristics, criminal history, and completion of substance abuse treatment. In this study, 115 individuals being monitored for substance abuse treatment on probation at the Probation and Help Center under the Republic of Turkey's Ministry of Justice's Chief Public Prosecutor's Office of Istanbul were included successively between the dates of April 2008 and April 2009. During a 24-week follow-up, individuals whose urine analyses were clean 6 times consecutively were considered to have completed the treatment successfully. To determine the effect of sociodemographic factors and substance use characteristics on treatment completion, a semistructured sociodemographic data survey was used. Also, the participants' criminal records were examined. A total of 115 people participated in the study. One hundred ten (95.7%) of them were male. Sixty-eight (59.1%) of the participants had completed treatment. Age group, education level, age of onset for substance use, number of substances used, employment status, and criminal records showed a significant difference between treatment completers and noncompleters. When a logistic regression analysis was done, only number of substances used and criminal record (other than drug possession) were significantly different for the 2 groups. The current treatment program for polysubstance users and individuals with a criminal record is insufficient. It is necessary that treatment systems be developed so they can be beneficial for these types of patients.

  4. Glycoprotein (90 kDa) isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten MAKINO lowers plasma lipid level through scavenging of intracellular radicals in Triton WR-1339-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Oh, Phil-Sun; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2006-07-01

    The Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten MAKINO (OFI) has been traditionally used as health food and herbal agent in folk medicine in Korea. In this study, we investigated whether the OFI glycoprotein has antioxidative activity and hypolipidemic effect on Triton WR-1339-induced A/J mice. The OFI glycoprotein inhibits the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by glucose/glucose oxidase (G/GO) in BNL CL.2 cells. With its antioxidative property, the mice were orally administered in the OFI glycoprotein [50 mg/kg body weight (BW)] for two weeks. Our finding resulted in a significant decrease of plasma lipid levels in Triton WR-1339-treated mice such as total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Indeed, mice which induced by Triton WR-1339 were significantly increased the levels of TC, TG and LDL, whereas the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level obviously decreased. However, the values were reversed at pretreatment with OFI glycoprotein in Triton WR-1339-treated mice. The data also showed that pretreatment with OFI glycoprotein resulted in decrease of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level and in increase of nitric oxide (NO) amount in presence of Triton WR-1339-treated mice, while the activities of antioxidant enzyme [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] were augmented. Therefore, we speculate that the OFI glycoprotein would be effective in lowering of plasma lipid levels.

  5. Antinociceptive effects of dexmedetomidine via spinal substance P and CGRP.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruiqin; Qi, Feng; Zhang, Junlong; Ji, Yong; Zhang, Dengxin; Shen, Zhiyun; Lei, Weifu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role played by substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in engagement of antinociception evoked by dexmedetomidine (DEX). Paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) to mechanical stimulation was determined after chronic intrathecal infusion of DEX and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to examine the levels of spinal substance P and CGRP. Our results show that PWT was significantly increased by intrathecal administration of DEX in rats (P < 0.05 vs. vehicle control, n = 20 in each group). Also, intrathecal infusion of DEX significantly decreased the concentrations of substance P and CGRP as compared with vehicle control (P < 0.05 DEX vs. vehicle control, n = 20 in each group). Blocking α2-adrenoreceptors (α2-AR) blunted the decreases of substance P and CGRP levels and the enhancement of PWT evoked by DEX. Additionally, a linear relationship was observed between PWT and the levels of spinal substance P (r = 0.87; P < 0.005) and CGRP (r = 0.85; P < 0.005). Moreover, blocking individual substance P and CGRP receptors amplified PWT without altering substance P and CGRP levels. Thus, DEX plays a role in stimulating α2-AR receptors, which thereby decreases substance P and CGRP levels within the dorsal horn. This contributes to DEX-evoked antinociception.

  6. Toxic Substances Control Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  7. Toxic Substances in the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of toxic substances, examining pesticides and herbicides, heavy metals, industrial chemicals, and household substances. Includes a list of major toxic substances (indicating what they are, where they are found, and health concerns) and a student activity on how pesticides enter the food chain. (JN)

  8. Photoprotective substance occurs primarily in outer layers of fish skin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabacher, D.L.; Little, E.E.

    1998-01-01

    Methanol extracts of dorsal skin layers, eyes, gills, and livers from ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation-sensitive and UVB-tolerant species of freshwater fish were examined for a substance that appears to be photoprotective. Significantly larger amounts of this substance were found in extracts of outer dorsal skin layers from both UVB-sensitive and UVB-tolerant fish when compared with extracts of inner dorsal skin layers. This substance occurred in minor amounts or was not detected in eye, gill, and liver extracts. The apparent primary function of this substance in fish is to protect the cells in outer dorsal skin layers from harmful levels of UVB radiation.

  9. Exposure to Violence, Substance Use, and Neighborhood Context

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Emily M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to violence and substance use are both public health problems, but how neighborhood context contributes to these outcomes is unclear. This study uses prospective data from 1,416 adolescents to examine the direct and interacting influences of victimization and neighborhood factors on adolescent substance use. Based on hierarchical Bernoulli regression models that controlled for prior substance use and multiple individual-level factors, exposure to violence significantly increased the likelihood of marijuana use but not alcohol use or binge drinking. There was little evidence that community norms regarding adolescent substance use influenced rates of substance use or moderated the impact of victimization. Community disadvantage did not directly impact substance use, but the relationship between victimization and marijuana use was stronger for those in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage. The results suggest that victimization is particularly likely to affect adolescents’ marijuana use, and that this relationship may be contingent upon neighborhood economic conditions. PMID:25432621

  10. Rural drug users: factors associated with substance abuse treatment utilization.

    PubMed

    Oser, Carrie B; Leukefeld, Carl G; Tindall, Michele Staton; Garrity, Thomas F; Carlson, Robert G; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a modified version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to identify the correlates of the number of substance abuse treatment episodes received by rural drug users. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews with 711 drug users in rural areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. Descriptive analyses examine rural drug users' substance use histories and retrospective substance abuse treatment service utilization patterns. A negative binomial regression model indicated that selected predisposing, historical health, and enabling factors were significantly associated with the utilization of substance abuse treatment among rural drug users. Despite high levels of recent and lifetime self-reported substance use among these rural drug users, treatment services were underutilized. Future studies are needed to examine the impact of the health care system and characteristics of the external environment associated with rural substance abuse treatment in order to increase utilization among drug users.

  11. Exposure to violence, substance use, and neighborhood context.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Abigail A; Wright, Emily M; Pinchevsky, Gillian M

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to violence and substance use are both public health problems, but how neighborhood context contributes to these outcomes is unclear. This study uses prospective data from 1416 adolescents to examine the direct and interacting influences of victimization and neighborhood factors on adolescent substance use. Based on hierarchical Bernoulli regression models that controlled for prior substance use and multiple individual-level factors, exposure to violence significantly increased the likelihood of marijuana use but not alcohol use or binge drinking. There was little evidence that community norms regarding adolescent substance use influenced rates of substance use or moderated the impact of victimization. Community disadvantage did not directly impact substance use, but the relationship between victimization and marijuana use was stronger for those in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage. The results suggest that victimization is particularly likely to affect adolescents' marijuana use, and that this relationship may be contingent upon neighborhood economic conditions.

  12. Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, Charles L.; Thilly, William G.

    1985-01-01

    A line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity) is disclosed. Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. Mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics, are also disclosed.

  13. Substance Use among Women at Risk for HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambach, K. G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 620 nonpregnant, culturally diverse women at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection concerning alcohol, marijuana, powder cocaine, crack cocaine, and intravenous drug use. Found consumption levels which exceeded expectations based on general estimates of female substance use. Substance use was associated with specific…

  14. 78 FR 23184 - Proposed Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... Contaminant Level for benzene in drinking water is 5 parts per billion (ppb). The PMNs' New Chemical Exposure... significant new use of the chemical substances. Potential benefits of the chemical substances. Information...

  15. Variations in Oxidative Stress Levels in 3 Days Follow-up in Ultramarathon Mountain Race Athletes.

    PubMed

    Spanidis, Ypatios; Stagos, Dimitrios; Orfanou, Marina; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Bar-Or, David; Spandidos, Demetrios; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2017-03-01

    Spanidis, Y, Stagos, D, Orfanou, M, Goutzourelas, N, Bar-or, D, Spandidos, D, and Kouretas, D. Variations in oxidative stress levels in 3 days follow-up in ultramarathon mountain race athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 582-594, 2017-The aim of the present study was the monitoring of the redox status of runners participating in a mountain ultramarathon race of 103 km. Blood samples from 12 runners were collected prerace and 24, 48, and 72 hours postrace. The samples were analyzed by using conventional oxidative stress markers, such as protein carbonyls (CARB), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma, as well as glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT) activity in erythrocytes. In addition, 2 novel markers, the static oxidation-reduction potential marker (sORP) and the capacity oxidation-reduction potential (cORP), were measured in plasma. The results showed significant increase in sORP levels and significant decrease in cORP and GSH levels postrace compared with prerace. The other markers did not exhibit significant changes postrace compared with prerace. Furthermore, an interindividual analysis showed that in all athletes but one sORP was increased, whereas cORP was decreased. Moreover, GSH levels were decreased in all athletes at least at 2 time points postrace compared with prerace. The other markers exhibited great variations between different athletes. In conclusion, ORP and GSH markers suggested that oxidative stress has existed even 3 days post ultramarathon race. The practical applications from these results would be that the most effective markers for short-term monitoring of ultramarathon mountain race-induced oxidative stress were sORP, cORP, and GSH. Also, administration of supplements enhancing especially GSH is recommended during ultramarathon mountain races to prevent manifestation of pathological conditions.

  16. Adolescents' Exposure to Disasters and Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Fang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews the impact of exposure to man-made or natural disasters on adolescent substance use. It covers empirical studies published from 2005 to 2015 concerning (a) the scope of the problem, (b) vulnerable groups and risk and protective factors, and (c) evidence-based interventions. The review suggests a strong link between adolescent substance use and exposure to either man-made or natural disaster. Vulnerable groups include adolescents with previous exposure to traumatic events, living in areas that are continually exposed to disasters, and ethnic minorities. Risk and protective factors at the individual, familial, community, and societal levels are described based on the bioecological model of mass trauma. Given that mass trauma is unfortunately a global problem, it is important to establish international interdisciplinary working teams to set gold standards for comparative studies on the etiology for adolescent substance use in the context of disasters.

  17. Effects of Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil on Serum Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Homocysteine Levels in a Post-Menopausal Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Siti Khadijah; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Umar, Nor Aini; Mokhtar, Norhayati; Mohamed, Norazlina; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2008-01-01

    Oxidized unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we examined the effects of heated palm oil mixed with 2% cholesterol diet on serum lipid profile, homocysteine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in estrogen-deficient rats. Twenty-four female Sprague Dawley rats were ovariectomized and then were divided equally into four groups. The control group was given 2% cholesterol diet only throughout the study period. The three treatment groups received 2% cholesterol diet fortified with fresh, once-heated or five-times-heated palm oil, respectively. Serum TBARS, lipid profile and homocysteine levels were measured prior to ovariectomy and at the end of four months of the study. Five-times-heated palm oil caused a significant increase in TBARS and total cholesterol (TC) compared to control (F = 22.529, p < 0.05). There was a significant increase in serum homocysteine in the control as well as five-times heated palm oil group compared to fresh and once-heated palm oil groups (F = 4.432, p < 0.05). The findings suggest that repeatedly heated palm oil increase lipid peroxidation and TC. Ovariectomy increases the development of atherosclerosis as seen in this study. Feeding with fresh and once-heated palm oil does not cause any deleterious effect but repeatedly heated oil may be harmful because it causes oxidative damage thereby predisposing to atherosclerosis. PMID:19148313

  18. Changes in the Physico-chemical and Microbial Quality during the Production of Pastırma Cured with Different Levels of Sodium Nitrite

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Pastırma, a dry-cured meat product, is produced from the whole muscle and/or muscles obtained from certain parts of beef and water buffalo carcasses. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of sodium nitrite on changes in the physicochemical and microbial quality during the production of pastırma. The changes in residual nitrite, salt, pH, moisture, thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances (TBARS), colour (L*, a*, b*), total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Micrococcus/Staphylococcus (M/S), mould-yeast (M-Y), and Enterobacteriaceae counts of pastırma with 0, 50, 100 and 150 ppm sodium nitrite were determined during the production. The nitrite levels and the production stages had significant effects (p<0.01) on residual nitrite, TBARS, pH, salt, and colour values. The TBARS values of the pastırma with nitrite were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the control. The final TAMB, LAB, M/S, and M-Y counts of pastırma with 150 ppm nitrite were significantly (p<0.05) lower than the control. Also, the a* (relative redness) values of control pastırma were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the pastırma with nitrite. The production stages had a significant effect (p<0.01) on the moisture. PMID:27857537

  19. Oxidative stress parameters in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) juveniles infected with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and maintained at different levels of water pH.

    PubMed

    Garcia, L O; Becker, A G; Bertuzzi, T; Cunha, M A; Kochhann, D; Finamor, I A; Riffel, A P K; Llesuy, S; Pavanato, M A; Baldisserotto, B

    2011-05-31

    The aim of this study was to determine oxidative stress parameters in the liver, gill and muscle of silver catfish juveniles infected with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and maintained at pH 5.0 or 7.0 for three days. Juveniles were infected by adding one I. multifiliis-infected juvenile and water containing theronts to tanks. After the appearance of white spots on the skin, infected juveniles exposed to pH 5.0 and 7.0 showed significantly higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in the liver and gills compared to uninfected juveniles. Liver of infected juveniles exposed to pH 7.0 showed higher catalase (CAT) and lower glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, but those maintained at pH 5.0 showed significantly higher GST activity than uninfected juveniles. The gills of infected juveniles showed significantly higher CAT (day two) and GST activity at both pH 5.0 and 7.0 compared to uninfected juveniles. Muscle of infected juveniles showed significantly lower CAT and GST activity and TBARS levels (at day three) when maintained at both pH 5.0 and 7.0 compared to uninfected juveniles. In conclusion, I. multifiliis infection induces liver and gill damage via lipid peroxidation products in silver catfish, but higher antioxidant enzyme activity could indicate a greater degree of protection against this parasite.

  20. Changes in the Physico-chemical and Microbial Quality during the Production of Pastırma Cured with Different Levels of Sodium Nitrite.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Muhammet Irfan; Erdemir, Ebru; Çakıcı, Neslihan

    2016-10-31

    Pastırma, a dry-cured meat product, is produced from the whole muscle and/or muscles obtained from certain parts of beef and water buffalo carcasses. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of sodium nitrite on changes in the physicochemical and microbial quality during the production of pastırma. The changes in residual nitrite, salt, pH, moisture, thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances (TBARS), colour (L*, a*, b*), total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Micrococcus/Staphylococcus (M/S), mould-yeast (M-Y), and Enterobacteriaceae counts of pastırma with 0, 50, 100 and 150 ppm sodium nitrite were determined during the production. The nitrite levels and the production stages had significant effects (p<0.01) on residual nitrite, TBARS, pH, salt, and colour values. The TBARS values of the pastırma with nitrite were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the control. The final TAMB, LAB, M/S, and M-Y counts of pastırma with 150 ppm nitrite were significantly (p<0.05) lower than the control. Also, the a* (relative redness) values of control pastırma were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the pastırma with nitrite. The production stages had a significant effect (p<0.01) on the moisture.

  1. BACTERICIDAL SUBSTANCE FROM STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    PubMed Central

    Dajani, Adnan S.; Gray, Ernest D.; Wannamaker, Lewis W.

    1970-01-01

    A bactericidal substance previously isolated from phage type 71 Slaphylococcus aureus has been further identified and characterized. Staphylococci belonging to phage type 71 produce the substance in higher titers than staphylococci lysed by other phages in group II in addition to phage 71. Other staphylococci do not produce the bactericidal substance. The bactericidal substance shares several of the properties of bacteriocins but differs from this group of antibiotic substances in some respects. A combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column resulted in considerable degree of purification of the bactericidal substance. The substance is a previously unrecognized product of S. aureus and is distinct from other extracellular products of this organism. PMID:5443199

  2. Non-destructive prediction of thiobarbituricacid reactive substances (TBARS) value for freshness evaluation of chicken meat using hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhenjie; Sun, Da-Wen; Pu, Hongbin; Xie, Anguo; Han, Zhong; Luo, Man

    2015-07-15

    This study examined the potential of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for rapid prediction of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content in chicken meat during refrigerated storage. Using the spectral data and the reference values of TBARS, a partial least square regression (PLSR) model was established and yielded acceptable results with regression coefficients in prediction (Rp) of 0.944 and root mean squared errors estimated by prediction (RMSEP) of 0.081. To simplify the calibration model, ten optimal wavelengths were selected by successive projections algorithm (SPA). Then, a new SPA-PLSR model based on the selected wavelengths was built and showed good results with Rp of 0.801 and RMSEP of 0.157. Finally, an image algorithm was developed to achieve image visualization of TBARS values in some representative samples. The encouraging results of this study demonstrated that HSI is suitable for determination of TBARS values for freshness evaluation in chicken meat.

  3. Relations between heavy drinking, gender, and substance-free reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G

    2010-04-01

    Behavioral economic theory and laboratory research have suggested that substance abuse may be associated with diminished engagement in enjoyable substance-free activities (substance-free reinforcement). However, college students, in particular men, have reported numerous social benefits from drinking that might mitigate the expected inverse relation between drinking and substance-free reinforcement. In this study, we examined the relations between college student heavy drinking, gender, and several categories of substance-free reinforcement (peer, dating, sexual, school, and family activities). Participants were 246 undergraduate students who were classified as a function of their reported frequency of heavy drinking during a typical week in the past month (120 heavy drinkers, 126 light drinkers). Heavy drinking was associated with significantly higher substance-free peer and sexual reinforcement. This association was gender invariant and remained significant in multiple regression models that controlled for gender, ethnicity, and fraternity or sorority membership. Substance-free reinforcement did not predict frequency of heavy drinking in models that included levels of substance-related reinforcement. The results indicate that college student heavy drinking is not associated with global deficits in substance-free reinforcement and is instead associated with increased peer and sexual activity that occurs outside the context of drinking or drug use. Prevention programs should help students to compensate for the potential loss of social reinforcement associated with reductions in drinking.

  4. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  5. The behavioral economics of young adult substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol and drug use peaks during young adulthood and can interfere with critical developmental tasks and set the stage for chronic substance misuse and associated social, educational, and health-related outcomes. There is a need for novel, theory-based approaches to guide substance abuse prevention efforts during this critical developmental period. This paper discusses the particular relevance of behavioral economic theory to young adult alcohol and drug misuse, and reviews of available literature on prevention and intervention strategies that are consistent with behavioral economic theory. Behavioral economic theory predicts that decisions to use drugs and alcohol are related to the relative availability and price of both alcohol and substance-free alternative activities, and the extent to which reinforcement from delayed substance-free outcomes is devalued relative to the immediate reinforcement associated with drugs. Behavioral economic measures of motivation for substance use are based on relative levels of behavioral and economic resource allocation towards drug versus alternatives, and have been shown to predict change in substance use over time. Policy and individual level prevention approaches that are consistent with behavioral economic theory are discussed, including brief interventions that increase future orientation and engagement in rewarding alternatives to substance use. Prevention approaches that increase engagement in constructive future-oriented activities among young adults (e.g., educational/vocational success) have the potential to reduce future health disparities associated with both substance abuse and poor educational/vocational outcomes.

  6. The Effect of Race/Ethnicity on the Relation between Substance Use Disorder Diagnosis and Substance Use Treatment Receipt among Male Serious Adolescent Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Mansion, Andre D.; Chassin, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    The high rates of substance disorders in the juvenile justice system, as well as the relation between substance use and reoffending, suggest the importance of substance use treatment service and understanding the factors that influence treatment provision. The current study tested whether race/ethnicity affects the relation between substance use disorder diagnosis and the receipt of substance use treatment services among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (N=638). Findings showed that among adolescents with a substance use disorder diagnosis, there were no race/ethnicity differences in substance use treatment receipt. However, among adolescents without a substance use disorder diagnosis, non-Hispanic Caucasians were more likely to receive substance use treatment than were Hispanics or African-Americans. Additionally, findings showed that there were race/ethnicity differences in service receipt at moderate levels of substance use problems, such that non-Hispanic Caucasians were more likely to receive substance use treatment than Hispanics or African-Americans. There were no race/ethnicity differences in treatment receipt when substance use problems were either very severe or very low. Results suggest that race/ethnicity may play a role in service provision in the juvenile justice system when levels of need are less clear. PMID:26806995

  7. S. 2637: A Bill to amend the Toxic Substances Control Act to reduce the levels of lead in the environment, and for other purposes. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, May 16, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the Senate of the United States on May 16, 1990 to amend the Toxic Substances Control Act to reduce the levels of lead in the environment. Provisions are provided on the following: restrictions on continuing uses of certain lead-containing products; inventory of lead-containing products; product labeling; recycling of lead-acid batteries; prohibited acts; lead abatement and measurement; establishment of national centers for the prevention of lead poisoning; reporting of blood-lead levels and blood-lead laboratory reference project; update to 1988 report to Congress on childhood lead poisoning; conforming amendments; and authorization of appropriations.

  8. Soldiering with Substance: Substance and Steroid Use among Military Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The military provides a unique social environment given the organization and culture of the institution. Understanding substance use by those inside this institution provides insight into both the population as well as substance use in general. Using data collected from in-depth interviews, this article explores the nature and extent of substance…

  9. Physical Exercise Combined with Whole-Body Cryotherapy in Evaluating the Level of Lipid Peroxidation Products and Other Oxidant Stress Indicators in Kayakers

    PubMed Central

    Sutkowy, Paweł; Augustyńska, Beata; Woźniak, Alina; Rakowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The influence of exercise combined with whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on the oxidant/antioxidant balance in healthy men was assessed. The study included 16 kayakers of the Polish National Team, aged 22.7 ± 2.6, subjected to WBC (−120°C–−145°C; 3 min) twice a day for the first 10 days of a 19-day physical training cycle: pre exercise morning stimulation and post exercise afternoon recovery. Blood samples were taken on Day 0 (baseline) and on Days 5, 11 and 19. The serum concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls, vitamin E, urea, cortisol, and testosterone were determined, along with the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and morphological blood parameters. On 5th day of exercise/WBC, the baseline GPx activity decreased by 15.1% (P < 0.05), while on 19th day, it increased by 19.7% (P < 0.05) versus Day 5. On Day 19 TBARS concentration decreased versus baseline and Day 5 (by 15.9% and 17.4%, resp.; P < 0.01). On 19 Day urea concentration also decreased versus 11 Day; however, on 5th and 11th days the level was higher versus baseline. Combining exercise during longer training cycles with WBC may be advantageous. PMID:24864189

  10. Leptin Administration Downregulates the Increased Expression Levels of Genes Related to Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in the Skeletal Muscle of ob/ob Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sáinz, Neira; Rodríguez, Amaia; Catalán, Victoria; Becerril, Sara; Ramírez, Beatriz; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2010-01-01

    Obese leptin-deficient ob/ob mice exhibit a low-grade chronic inflammation together with a low muscle mass. Our aim was to analyze the changes in muscle expression levels of genes related to oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in leptin deficiency and to identify the effect of in vivo leptin administration. Ob/ob mice were divided in three groups as follows: control ob/ob, leptin-treated ob/ob (1 mg/kg/d) and leptin pair-fed ob/ob mice. Gastrocnemius weight was lower in control ob/ob than in wild type mice (P < .01) exhibiting an increase after leptin treatment compared to control and pair-fed (P < .01) ob/ob animals. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, markers of oxidative stress, were higher in serum (P < .01) and gastrocnemius (P = .05) of control ob/ob than in wild type mice and were significantly decreased (P < .01) by leptin treatment. Leptin deficiency altered the expression of 1,546 genes, while leptin treatment modified the regulation of 1,127 genes with 86 of them being involved in oxidative stress, immune defense and inflammatory response. Leptin administration decreased the high expression of Crybb1, Hspb3, Hspb7, Mt4, Cat, Rbm9, Serpinc1 and Serpinb1a observed in control ob/ob mice, indicating that it improves inflammation and muscle loss. PMID:20671928

  11. Effects of toxic substances on zooplankton populations: a Great Lakes perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.S.; McNaught, D.

    1988-01-01

    The chapter discusses how toxic substances can affect zooplankton, both at the species and community level, modifying factors affecting toxicity, the effects of various environmental pertubations, including toxic substances, on Great Lakes zooplankton, and the role of zooplankton in the transport, persistence, and biomagnification of toxic substances.

  12. Using Social Disorganization Theory to Guide Substance Abuse Prevention among Adolescents: Implications for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaynes, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and abuse are problematic in the lives of adolescents, including interpersonal problems and scholastic problems. Risk for substance use has commonly been assessed at the individual level. This paper examines risk of adolescent substance abuse as a variable impacted by environmental or contextual factors surrounding the individual.…

  13. Effectiveness of Emotional Intelligence Group Training on Anger in Adolescents with Substance-Abusing Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Namadian, Gholamreza; Hatami, Seyed Esmaeil; Norozi Khalili, Mina

    2017-01-01

    Parental substance abuse is associated with impaired skills and ability to take care of children. Children of substance-abusing parents display higher levels of emotional difficulties. This article shows the effectiveness of emotional intelligence group training on anger in adolescents with substance-abusing fathers. The sample consisted of 60…

  14. 75 FR 51734 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemical Substances; Third Group of Chemical Substances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Chemicals.'' The proposed rule, when finalized, would require manufacturers, importers, and processors of certain high production volume (HPV) chemical substances to conduct testing to obtain screening level data...., chemical manufacturing and petroleum refineries. Processors of one or more of the 29 subject...

  15. Substance abuse in victims of fire.

    PubMed

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R

    1996-01-01

    Ethanol or drug use may increase the risk of fire-related injury or death. This study was performed to quantify the role of substance abuse in fatal fires occurring in New Jersey over a 7-year period. Records of all the fatalities of fire reported to the State Medical Examiners Office between 1985 and 1991 were retrospectively examined. Blood assay results for ethanol were positive in 215 of the 727 (29.5%) fatalities of fire tested. For this group, the mean blood-ethanol level was 193.9 mg/dl. Blood or urine assay results for substances of abuse were positive in 78 of the 534 (14.6%) fatalities tested. The most commonly detected illicit substances were cocaine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and cannabinoids. The test results were positive for both ethanol and drug use in 36 victims. Forty percent of all the fatalities of fire were aged younger than 11 or older than 70. In contradistinction, 75% of drug-positive fatalities of fire and 58% of ethanol-positive fatalities of fire were between the ages of 21 and 50, suggesting that inebriation may impair the ability to escape from fire. Substance abusers in middle life are a previously unrecognized group at higher risk of injury or death in a fire.

  16. Michigan Household Hazardous Substance Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Janet; Stone Nancy

    Common household hazardous substances include cleansers, drain cleaners, automotive products, paints, solvents, and pesticides. This handbook was designed to serve as a resource for people frequently contacted by the public for information on household hazardous substances and wastes. Included in the handbook are: (1) an introduction to Michigan's…

  17. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…

  18. Toxic Substances List. 1972 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Herbert E., Ed.; And Others

    The second edition of the Toxic Substances List, containing some 13,000 entries, is prepared annually by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. The purpose of the List is to identify all known toxic substances but not to quantitate the hazard. The List…

  19. Genetic and perinatal effects of abused substances

    SciTech Connect

    Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.

  20. Examining the effect of the Life Enhancement Treatment for Substance Use (LETS ACT) on residential substance abuse treatment retention.

    PubMed

    Magidson, Jessica F; Gorka, Stephanie M; MacPherson, Laura; Hopko, Derek R; Blanco, Carlos; Lejuez, C W; Daughters, Stacey B

    2011-06-01

    Effective, parsimonious behavioral interventions that target reinforcement are needed for substance users with depression to improve mood as well as treatment retention. The Life Enhancement Treatment for Substance Use (LETS ACT; Daughters et al., 2008) is a behavioral activation-based approach tailored to increase levels of positive reinforcement among depressed substance users while in substance abuse treatment. The current study tested the efficacy of LETS ACT compared to a contact-time matched control condition, supportive counseling (SC), examining effects on depressed mood, substance abuse treatment retention, and behavioral activation outcomes. Fifty-eight adult substance users in residential substance abuse treatment presenting with depressive symptoms (BDI≥12) were randomly assigned to LETS ACT or SC. Assessments were administered at pre- and post-treatment and included assessment of DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses, depression severity, treatment motivation, overall activation, environmental reward, and substance abuse treatment retention. Patients in LETS ACT had significantly higher rates of substance abuse treatment retention and significantly greater increases in activation on the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) compared to those in SC. Both groups had decreased depression severity at post-treatment, although the group by time interaction was not significant. This study was the first to compare LETS ACT to a contact-time matched control treatment to evaluate effects on substance abuse treatment retention and two distinct measures of behavioral activation: overall activation and environmental reward. Findings suggest preliminary support for the feasibility, tolerability, and efficacy of a brief behavioral activation-based protocol that may be particularly useful to improve substance abuse treatment retention.

  1. 34 CFR 84.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Controlled substance. 84.610 Section 84.610 Education... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further...

  2. 36 CFR 1212.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Controlled substance. 1212.610... Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11...

  3. 43 CFR 43.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controlled substance. 43.610 Section 43... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 43.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21...

  4. 49 CFR 32.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Controlled substance. 32.610 Section 32.610... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further...

  5. 28 CFR 83.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Controlled substance. 83.610 Section 83...-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and...

  6. Protection of low density lipoprotein oxidation at chemical and cellular level by the antioxidant drug dipyridamole.

    PubMed Central

    Iuliano, L.; Colavita, A. R.; Camastra, C.; Bello, V.; Quintarelli, C.; Alessandroni, M.; Piovella, F.; Violi, F.

    1996-01-01

    1. The oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to be an important factor in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. Natural and synthetic antioxidants have been shown to protect LDL from oxidation and to inhibit atherosclerosis development in animals. Synthetic antioxidants are currently being tested, by they are not necessarily safe for human use. 2. We have previously reported that dipyridamole, currently used in clinical practice, is a potent scavenger of free radicals. Thus, we tested whether dipyridamole could affect LDL oxidation at chemical and cellular level. 3. Chemically induced LDL oxidation was made by Cu(II), Cu(II) plus hydrogen peroxide or peroxyl radicals generated by thermolysis of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidino propane). Dipyridamole, (1-10 microM), inhibited LDL oxidation as monitored by diene formation, evolution of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, apoprotein modification and by the fluorescence of cis-parinaric acid. 4. The physiological relevance of the antioxidant activity was validated by experiments at the cellular level where dipyridamole inhibited endothelial cell-mediated LDL oxidation, their degradation by monocytes, and cytotoxicity. 5. In comparison with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and probucol, dipyridamole was the more efficient antioxidant with the following order of activity: dipyridamole > probucol > ascorbic acid > alpha-tocopherol. The present study shows that dipyridamole inhibits oxidation of LDL at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The inhibition of LDL oxidation is unequivocally confirmed by use of three different methods of chemical oxidation, by several methods of oxidation monitoring, and the pharmacological relevance is demonstrated by the superiority of dipyridamole over the naturally occurring antioxidants, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol and the synthetic antioxidant probucol. Images Figure 6 PMID:8968553

  7. Personality and Substance Use in Midlife: Conscientiousness as a Moderator and the Effects of Trait Change.

    PubMed

    Turiano, Nicholas A; Whiteman, Shawn D; Hampson, Sarah E; Roberts, Brent W; Mroczek, Daniel K

    2012-06-01

    Personality traits predict substance use in adolescence, but less is known about prospective substance use in middle age and beyond. Moreover, there is growing interest in how personality change and the multiplicative effects among personality traits relate to substance use. Participants included approximately 4,000 adults aged 25-74 who participated in two waves of the Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS) study. Higher levels of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, and lower levels of conscientiousness and agreeableness predicted longitudinal substance use. Increases in neuroticism and openness predicted increased substance use while increases in conscientiousness and agreeableness predicted decreased substance use. Higher levels of conscientiousness moderated two of the other trait main effects. Personality, trait change, and interactions among traits reliably forecasted 10-year substance-use behaviors.

  8. Personality and Substance Use in Midlife: Conscientiousness as a Moderator and the Effects of Trait Change

    PubMed Central

    Turiano, Nicholas A.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Roberts, Brent W.; Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    Personality traits predict substance use in adolescence, but less is known about prospective substance use in middle age and beyond. Moreover, there is growing interest in how personality change and the multiplicative effects among personality traits relate to substance use. Participants included approximately 4,000 adults aged 25–74 who participated in two waves of the Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS) study. Higher levels of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, and lower levels of conscientiousness and agreeableness predicted longitudinal substance use. Increases in neuroticism and openness predicted increased substance use while increases in conscientiousness and agreeableness predicted decreased substance use. Higher levels of conscientiousness moderated two of the other trait main effects. Personality, trait change, and interactions among traits reliably forecasted 10-year substance-use behaviors. PMID:22773867

  9. Promoting Reduced and Discontinued Substance Use among Adolescent Substance Users: Effectiveness of a Universal Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Nieri, Tanya; Yabiku, Scott; Stromwall, Layne K.; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to address youth substance use have focused on prevention among non-users and treatment among severe users with less attention given to youth occupying the middle ground who have used substances but not yet progressed to serious abuse or addiction. Using a sample from 35 middle schools of 1,364 youth who reported using substances, this study examined the effectiveness of a universal youth substance use prevention program, the SAMHSA Model Program keepin’ it REAL, in promoting reduced or recently discontinued alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Discrete-time event history methods modeled the rates of reduced and recently discontinued use across four waves of data. Each substance (alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana) was modeled separately. Beginning at the second wave, participants who reported use at wave 1 were considered at risk of reducing or discontinuing use. Since the data sampled students in schools, multi-level models accounted for the nesting of data at the school level. Results indicated that prevention program participation influenced the rates of reduced and recently discontinued use only for alcohol, controlling for baseline use severity, age, grades, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and gender. Among youth who reported use of alcohol in wave 1 (N= 1,028), the rate of reducing use for program participants was 72% higher than the rate for control students. The rate of discontinuing use was 66% higher than the rate for control students. Among youth who reported use of one or more of the three substances in wave 1 (N = 1,364), the rate of discontinuing all use was 61% higher for program participants than for control students. Limitations and implications of these findings and plans for further research are discussed. PMID:17096196

  10. Effects of low-level laser therapy (GaAs) in an animal model of muscular damage induced by trauma.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock; da Silva, Luciano Acordi; Pinho, Cleber Aurino; De Souza, Priscila Soares; Ronsani, Merieli Medeiros; Scheffer, Debora da Luz; Pinho, Ricardo Aurino

    2013-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and oxidative damage markers are increased after muscle damage. Recent studies have demonstrated that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) modulates many biochemical processes mainly those related to reduction of muscular injures, increment of mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis, as well as acceleration of the healing process. The objective of the present investigation was to verify the influence of LLLT in some parameters of muscular injury, oxidative damage, antioxidant activity, and synthesis of collagen after traumatic muscular injury. Adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 6), namely, sham (uninjured muscle), muscle injury without treatment, and muscle injury with LLLT (GaAs, 904 nm). Each treated point received 5 J/cm(2) or 0.5 J of energy density (12.5 s) and 2.5 J per treatment (five regions). LLLT was administered 2, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after muscle trauma. The serum creatine kinase activity was used as an index of skeletal muscle injury. Superoxide anion, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) measurement, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were used as indicators of oxidative stress. In order to assess the synthesis of collagen, levels of hydroxyproline were measured. Our results have shown that the model of traumatic injury induces a significant increase in serum creatine kinase activity, hydroxyproline content, superoxide anion production, TBARS level, and activity of SOD compared to control. LLLT accelerated the muscular healing by significantly decreasing superoxide anion production, TBARS levels, the activity of SOD, and hydroxyproline content. The data strongly indicate that increased ROS production and augmented collagen synthesis are elicited by traumatic muscular injury, effects that were significantly decreased by LLLT.

  11. Prevalence of Substance Use in Patients Diagnosed with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    TEKİN ULUDAĞ, Yasemin; GÜLEÇ, Gülcan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Substance abuse among schizophrenic patients is a growing clinical concern. Substance use disorders and their effects on the course of schizophrenia have made the identification and treatment of schizophrenic patients a high priority. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of substance use, preferred types of substances, sociodemographic characteristics and clinical features of schizophrenia, and substance use impact in schizophrenic patients. Methods Hundred patients who were consecutively admitted to the psychiatry clinic and were diagnosed with schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV criteria were enrolled in this study. Individual interviews were conducted during the patients. In order to evaluate substance abuse disorder (SAD) as per DSM-IV criteria, the substance use disorder section of the structured clinical interview for DSM disorders-II (SCID-II) form was used. In addition, the following were applied to schizophren-ic patients: sociodemographic data form, medical history form, Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ), UKU Side Effect Rating Scale (UKUSERS), Insight Rating Scale (IRS), Alcohol Use Dis-orders Identification Test (AUDIT), Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test (FNDT), Global As-sessment of Functioning Scale (GAF), Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), and Calgary Depression Scale (CDS). Results Schizophrenia and alcohol and drug use were more common in males, and younger age was found to have no association with substance use. Unemployment, low education levels, rural survival rates, age at disease onset, the doctor first age of the applicant, the first inpatient years, legal issues, harm caused by others and suicidal behavior, SAPS, SANS, CDS received from their scores significant difference was detected. Schizophrenic patients with substance use had higher side effects of drugs, disability, and psychopathology scores than schizophrenic patients without

  12. Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Birolim, Marcela Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarise the scientific evidence on the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and on the factors associated with their intake among truck drivers. A systematic review was performed in the databases PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, and Cochrane and 36 cross-sectional studies were identified with quantitative results about the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers. Out of these, 28 were carried out in countries with large land areas and 23 obtained their information through self-reporting. The most frequently studied substances were alcohol (n=25), amphetamines (n=17), marijuana (n=16) and cocaine (n=13). The prevalence of the use of these substances greatly varied: alcohol (0.1-91.0%); amphetamines (0.2-82.5%), marijuana (0.2-29.9%), cocaine (0.1-8.3%). The frequency of substance use was lower in studies that investigated the presence of these substances in biological samples than in those based on self-reported use. In 12 studies that evaluated factors associated with the intake of psychoactive substances, the following stood out: younger age, higher income, longer trips, alcohol consumption, driving in the night shift, travelling interstate routes, long or short sleep, fewer hours of rest, little experience of the driver, connection with small and medium sized companies, income below levels determined by labour agreements, productivity-based earnings and prior involvement in accidents. The frequency of psychoactive substance use by truck drivers seems to be high, although that greatly varies according to the type of substance and the method of collecting the information. The use of these substances was mainly associated with indicators of poor working conditions.

  13. Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Birolim, Marcela Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarise the scientific evidence on the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and on the factors associated with their intake among truck drivers. A systematic review was performed in the databases PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, and Cochrane and 36 cross-sectional studies were identified with quantitative results about the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers. Out of these, 28 were carried out in countries with large land areas and 23 obtained their information through self-reporting. The most frequently studied substances were alcohol (n=25), amphetamines (n=17), marijuana (n=16) and cocaine (n=13). The prevalence of the use of these substances greatly varied: alcohol (0.1–91.0%); amphetamines (0.2–82.5%), marijuana (0.2–29.9%), cocaine (0.1–8.3%). The frequency of substance use was lower in studies that investigated the presence of these substances in biological samples than in those based on self-reported use. In 12 studies that evaluated factors associated with the intake of psychoactive substances, the following stood out: younger age, higher income, longer trips, alcohol consumption, driving in the night shift, travelling interstate routes, long or short sleep, fewer hours of rest, little experience of the driver, connection with small and medium sized companies, income below levels determined by labour agreements, productivity-based earnings and prior involvement in accidents. The frequency of psychoactive substance use by truck drivers seems to be high, although that greatly varies according to the type of substance and the method of collecting the information. The use of these substances was mainly associated with indicators of poor working conditions. PMID:24145953

  14. Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, Charles L.; Thilly, William G.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity). Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. The invention also includes mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics.

  15. Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, C.L.; Thilly, W.G.

    1999-08-10

    The present invention pertains to a line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity). Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. The invention also includes mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics. 3 figs.

  16. A cross-sectional examination of medicinal substance abuse and use of nonmedicinal substances among Canadian youth: findings from the 2012-2013 Youth Smoking Survey

    PubMed Central

    Leos-Toro, Cesar; Hammond, David; Manske, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal substance abuse is prevalent in Canada; however, little is known about patterns of abuse among young people. In this study, we sought to characterize the abuse of medicinal substances, such as prescription medications and selected over-the-counter substances, as well as that of licit and illicit nonmedicinal substances, using a nationally representative sample of young people. Methods: Cross-sectional, nationally representative data for children in grades 7-12 were obtained from Health Canada's 2012-2013 Youth Smoking Survey (n = 38 667). Multinomial regression analyses were conducted to examine subgroup differences in medicinal substance abuse and comorbid abuse of both medicinal and nonmedicinal substances. Results: About 5% of youth reported abusing medicinal substances in the previous year. Dextromethorphan, a substance found in many cough and cold syrups, was the most widely abused (2.9%), followed by pain medications (2.6%), sleeping medications (1.8%), stimulants (1.7%) and sedatives (1.0%). Abuse of nonmedicinal substances aside from tobacco and alcohol was reported by 21.3% of the population, and abuse of any substances was detected in 23.0% of the surveyed population. Girls at each grade level reported higher rates of abuse of medicinal substances than boys. Regional differences were seen with regard to the types of substances abused across Canada. Interpretation: A substantial minority of Canadian youth report abusing medicinal substances, including over-the-counter medications (e.g., cough syrup) and prescriptions medications (e.g., pain medication). In contrast to nonmedicinal substances, girls were more likely than boys to report abuse of medicinal substances. PMID:27570758

  17. Toxic Substances; Biphenyl; Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This rule promulgates EPA’s decision to require manufacturers and processors to test biphenyl (CAS No: 92—52—4) for environmental effects and chemical fate under section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

  18. Substances and Heart Rhythm Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... that trigger the heartbeat. Caffeine, Diet and Heart Arrhythmias Caffeine is the most common substance linked with abnormal heart rhythms ( arrhythmias ). Some people feel heart palpitations (fast heartbeats) when ...

  19. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical appearance and grooming Association with known substance abusers Need for money and stealing money Persistent dishonesty ... can be done to discourage youth from using drugs and alcohol? Everyone can help educate children and ...

  20. Impact of Added Encapsulated Phosphate Level on Lipid Oxidation Inhibition during the Storage of Cooked Ground Meat.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, B; Şimşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E; Bilecen, D

    2016-02-01

    The effect of levels (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%) of added encapsulated (e) phosphate (sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium hexametaphosphate, HMP; sodium pyrophosphate, SPP) on lipid oxidation inhibition during storage (0, 1, and 7 d) of ground meat (chicken, beef) was evaluated. The use of eSTP and eSPP resulted in lower and higher cooking loss (CL) compared to eHMP, respectively (P < 0.05). Increasing encapsulated phosphate level (PL) enhanced the impact of phosphates on CL in both chicken and beef samples (P < 0.05). Encapsulated STP increased pH, whereas eSPP decreased pH (P < 0.05). pH was not affected by PL. The highest orthophosphate (OP) was obtained with eSTP, followed by eSPP and eHMP (P < 0.05). The level of OP determined in both chicken and beef samples increased (P < 0.05) during storage. Increasing PL caused an increase in OP (P < 0.05). The highest reduction rate in the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and LPO for both meat species were obtained with eSPP, followed by eSTP and eHMP (P < 0.05). Increasing PL resulted in lower TBARS and LPO (P < 0.05). Findings suggest that encapsulated phosphates can be a strategy to inhibit lipid oxidation for the meat industry and the efficiency of encapsulated phosphates on lipid oxidation inhibition can be enhanced by increasing PL.

  1. Abuse deterrent formulations and the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).

    PubMed

    Sapienza, Frank L

    2006-06-01

    The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) has reduced the diversion of controlled substances at the manufacturing and distribution levels. Recent increased diversion has occurred at the retail level. Levels of diversion and abuse of controlled substances with similar abuse potential and therapeutic indications often parallel availability for medical use, while rates of diversion and abuse may be influenced by factors related to specific products, including their formulations and risk management plans. Abuse deterrent formulations may reduce abuse and attendant adverse health consequences even if the products are diverted. Their development should consider how, to what extent and by whom products containing the targeted substance are abused. It should take into consideration all potential types of abuse including "as is", multiple doses, alternate routes of administration, physical or chemical separation of the active ingredient, compromised extended release mechanisms and abuse in combination with other substances. Industry incentives for developing abuse-resistant formulations include enhanced corporate image and potentially less restrictive scheduling or risk management plans. Scheduling is substance specific, but the CSA includes products/formulations that are differentially scheduled. Issues to be considered for differential scheduling under the CSA include: (1) whether there is legal authority to do so; (2) application of standard scheduling criteria to individual products; (3) product specific data for "eight factor analyses"; (4) development of predictive data and standards accepted by the scientific and regulatory communities; (5) use of predictive data or post marketing surveillance data; (6) international treaty obligations. These issues must be addressed before differential scheduling can be considered.

  2. Substance use and abuse among older youth in foster care.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Michael G; Ollie, Marcia T; McMillen, J Curtis; Scott, Lionel; Munson, Michelle

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore prevalence and predictors of current and lifetime substance use, substance abuse disorder, and polysubstance use among older youth in foster care. Interviews were conducted with 406 17-year old youth (90% of those eligible) in one state's foster care system between December 2001 and June 2003. Forty-five percent of foster care youth reported using alcohol or illicit drugs within the last six months; 49% had tried drugs sometime during their lifetime and 35% met criteria for a substance use disorder. Having a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder and/or living in an independent living situation significantly increased the likelihood of current and lifetime substance use and disorder. A diagnosis of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder also predicted increased likelihood of polysubstance use and substance abuse disorder. In conclusion, older youth in the foster care system report similar levels of lifetime alcohol and illicit substance use when compared to the general adolescent population. However, rates of substance use disorder are high. Particularly at risk for both high rates of use and disorder are youth in independent living situations and youth with a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

  3. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in eggs of coastal and offshore birds: Increasing PFAS levels associated with offshore bird species breeding on the Pacific coast of Canada and wintering near Asia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Elliott, John E; Elliott, Kyle H; Lee, Sandi; Cyr, Francois

    2015-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) have become virtually ubiquitous throughout the environment, and, based on laboratory studies, have known toxicological consequences. Various national and international voluntary phase-outs and restrictions on these compounds have been implemented over the last 10 to 15 years. In the present study, we examine trends (1990/1991-2010/2011) in aquatic birds (ancient murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus [2009 only]; Leach's storm-petrels, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; rhinoceros auklets, Cerorhinca monocerata; double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus; and great blue herons, Ardea herodias). The PFCA, PFSA, and stable isotope (δ(15) N and δ(13) C) data collected from these species from the Pacific coast of Canada, ranging over 20 to 30 years, were used to investigate temporal changes in PFAS coupled to dietary changes. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), the dominant PFSA compound in all 4 species, increased and subsequently decreased in auklet and cormorant eggs in line with the manufacturing phase-out of PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but concentrations continuously increased in petrel eggs and remained largely unchanged in heron eggs. Dominant PFCA compounds varied between the offshore and coastal species, with increases seen in the offshore species and little or variable changes seen in the coastal species. Little temporal change was seen in stable isotope values, indicating that diet alone is not driving observed PFAS concentrations.

  4. A low level of dietary selenium has both beneficial and toxic effects and is protective against Cd-toxicity in the least killifish Heterandria formosa.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lingtian; Wu, Xing; Chen, Hongxing; Dong, Wu; Cazan, Alfy Morales; Klerks, Paul L

    2016-10-01

    As an essential element, selenium (Se) is beneficial at low levels yet toxic at high levels. The present study assessed the effects of dietary exposure to Se in the least killifish Heterandria formosa, and investigated how this exposure influences the effects of a subsequent exposure to cadmium (Cd). The fish were pre-exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration (2 μg g(-1) dry wt) of dietary selenite (Se(4+)) or seleno-l-methionine (Se-Met) for 10 d. The same fish were then exposed to 0.5 mg L(-1) of Cd for 5 d. Both Se(IV) and Se-Met rapidly accumulated in H. formosa. Results for the two Se species were generally similar in this study. Fish exposed to Se had lower levels of lipid peroxidation (measured as levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances or TBARS) and a higher catalase (CAT) activity. In contrast, their Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was reduced. The Cd exposure resulted in an increase in lipid peroxidation and decreases in the activities of catalase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. The Cd-exposed H. formosa that were pre-exposed to Se had lower Cd body burdens, less lipid peroxidation, and higher catalase activity, than did fish not pre-exposed to Se. The Se exposure did not have a protective effect on the Cd-induced reduction in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. These results clearly demonstrate that a Se-enriched diet reduces some (but not all) forms of Cd-toxicity and that Se can simultaneously have beneficial and detrimental effects, making it difficult to predict the net outcome of changes in dietary Se levels for fish.

  5. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment which comprises the steps of: (1) Measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; (2) measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing said plant substance being passed through said environment with said counter; and (3) generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level. Also disclosed is the apparatus and system used to conduct the process.

  6. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J.A.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes an apparatus and process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment. It comprises: measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing a plant substance being passed through an environment with a counter; and generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level.

  7. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    DOEpatents

    Kirby, John A.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment which comprises the steps of: measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing a plant substance being passed through an environment with a counter; and generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level.

  8. Reference materials for new psychoactive substances.

    PubMed

    Archer, Roland P; Treble, Ric; Williams, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the appearance of new psychoactive materials (and hence the requirement for new reference standards) has been relatively slow. This position has now changed, with 101 new psychoactive substances reported to EMCDDA-Europol since 2006. The newly reported materials, and associated metabolites, require properly certified reference materials to permit reliable identification and quantification. The traditional approach and timescales of reference material production and certification are being increasingly challenged by the appearance of these new substances. Reference material suppliers have to adopt new strategies to meet the needs of laboratories. This situation is particularly challenging for toxicology standards as the metabolism of many of these substances is initially unknown. Reference material production often involves synthesis from first principles. While it is possible to synthesis these materials, there can be significant difficulties, from synthetic complexities through to the need to use controlled materials. These issues are examined through a discussion of the synthesis of cathinones. Use of alternative sources, including pharmaceutical impurity materials or internet sourced products, as starting materials for conversion into appropriately certified reference materials are also discussed. The sudden appearance and sometimes brief lifetime in the market place of many of these novel legal highs or research chemicals present commercial difficulties for reference material producers. The need for collaboration at all levels is highlighted as essential to rapid identification of requirements for new reference materials. National or international commissioning or support may also be required to permit reference material producers to recover their development costs.

  9. Agitated Depression in Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Gelernter, Joel; Oslin, David; Anton, Raymond F.; Farrer, Lindsay A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression with psychomotor agitation (PMA; “agitated depression”) is a putative psychiatric phenotype that appears to associate with some forms of substance dependence. However, it is unclear whether such relationships extend across different substances and independent (I-MDE) versus substance-induced (SI-MDE) subtypes of major depressive episodes. Method We examined whether lifetime depression with (vs. without) PMA was associated with lifetime substance dependence across individuals with lifetime: (1) I-MDE only (n = 575); and (2) SI-MDE only (n = 1683). Data were pooled from several family and genetic studies of substance dependence in which participants received identical structured interviews to diagnose DSM-IV mental disorders. Results In I-MDE, PMA was significantly associated with alcohol, cocaine, opioid, other drug (hallucinogen, inhalant, speed-ball), and sedative dependence. After controlling for demographic and clinical co-factors, PMA's relationship to dependence on opioids, other drugs, and sedatives remained significant, but not its relationship to alcohol or cocaine. In SI-MDE, PMA was significantly associated with alcohol, cocaine, opioid, and other drug dependence. After adjusting for co-factors, associations remained significant for dependence on cocaine and opioids, but not alcohol or other drugs. Relationships between PMA and opioid dependence were stronger in I-MDE than SI-MDE. Depression subtype (I-MDE vs. SI-MDE) did not moderate relations between PMA and non-opioid forms of substance dependence. Conclusions Agitated depression associates with certain forms of substance dependence, particularly opioid dependence. MDE subtype did not alter most PMA-dependence associations, which suggests that the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are complex and potentially bidirectional. PMID:21277711

  10. Juvenile justice and substance use.

    PubMed

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad range of negative effects, such as smoking, risky sexual behavior, violence, and poor educational, occupational, and psychological outcomes. The high rates of substance use problems among young offenders, says Chassin, suggest a large need for treatment. Although young offenders are usually screened for substance use disorders, Chassin notes the need to improve screening methods and to ensure that screening takes place early enough to allow youths to be diverted out of the justice system into community-based programs when appropriate. Cautioning that no single treatment approach has been proven most effective, Chassin describes current standards of "best practices" in treating substance use disorders, examines the extent to which they are implemented in the juvenile justice system, and describes some promising models of care. She highlights several treatment challenges, including the need for better methods of engaging adolescents and their families in treatment and the need to better address environmental risk factors, such as family substance use and deviant peer networks, and co-occurring conditions, such as learning disabilities and other mental health disorders. Chassin advocates policies that encourage wider use of empirically validated therapies and of documented best practices for treating substance use disorders. High relapse rates among youths successfully treated for substance use disorders also point to a greater need for aftercare services and for managing these disorders as chronic illnesses characterized by relapse and remission. A shortage of aftercare services and a lack of service coordination in the

  11. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Acculturation Stress Among Puerto Rican Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Kevin P.; Swendsen, Joel D.; Dierker, Lisa; Canino, Glorisa; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2007-01-01

    Background Although acculturation to the United States has been associated with an increase in substance, mood, and anxiety disorders in Latino populations, few studies have examined this concept relative to comorbidity among these syndromes. Methods This study: (1) compares the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among Puerto Ricans with substance use disorders living in San Juan (Puerto Rico) to those who have migrated to New Haven (Connecticut); and (2) examines the association between acculturation-related stress and the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among those who have migrated to New Haven. Results Lifetime levels of nearly all comorbid psychiatric disorders among respondents with substance use disorders (SUD) was generally similar across sites. However, the risk of any co-occurring psychiatric disorder was higher among SUD cases in New Haven who reported high levels of total acculturation stress and family-specific acculturation stress. These findings were generally accounted for by associations between affective disorders and high scores on these indicators of acculturation stress. Conclusions The overall prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity are remarkably similar among Puerto Rican substance abusers whether they live in San Juan or have migrated to New Haven, thereby demonstrating robustness to differences in geographic location. Nevertheless, the degree of acculturation-related family stress is positively associated with co-occurring substance and psychiatric disorders, particularly affective disorders. Intervention in family strain related to the acculturation process may diminish the development of comorbid mental disorders and assist in implementing successful treatment of substance abuse. PMID:17543714

  12. A hierarchical approach to coding chemical, biological and pharmaceutical substances.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Anya R; Bert, Joel L; Grace, John R; Makaroff, Sylvia J; Lang, Barbara J; Band, Pierre R

    2005-01-01

    This hierarchical coding system is designed to classify substances into successively subordinate categories on the basis of chemical, physical and biological properties. Although initially developed for occupational cancer epidemiological studies, it is general in nature and can be used for other purposes where a systematic approach is needed to catalogue or analyze large numbers of substances and/or physical properties. The coding system incorporates a multi level approach, where substances can be coded both on the basis of function and composition. On the first level, a three digit code is assigned to each substance to indicate its primary use in the occupational environment (e.g. pesticide, catalyst, adhesive). Substances can then be coded using a ten digit code to indicate structure and composition (e.g. organic molecule, biomolecule, pharmaceutical). Depending on the complexity required, analysis can incorporate the three digit code, ten digit code, or a combination of both. The approach to coding both chemical and biological agents is modeled in part after conventional approaches used by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists (IUPAC) and the International Union of Biochemists (IUB). Development of the coding system was initiated in the 1980's in response to a need for a system allowing analysis of individual agents as well classes or groups of substances. The project was undertaken as a collaborative venture between the BC Cancer Agency, Cancer Control Research program (then Division of Epidemiology) and the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at the University of British Columbia.

  13. 38 CFR 48.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Controlled substance. 48...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the...

  14. 38 CFR 48.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Controlled substance. 48...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the...

  15. 22 CFR 312.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules...

  16. 22 CFR 312.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules...

  17. 22 CFR 312.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules...

  18. 22 CFR 312.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules...

  19. 22 CFR 312.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules...

  20. Update on Banned Substances 2013

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Kenneth P.; Rainbow, Catherine R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Doping has been pervasive throughout the history of athletic competitions and has only recently been regulated by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). These regulatory bodies were created to preserve fair play and maintain the safety of the participants. Their updated 2013 lists of banned substances and practices include a variety of drugs and practices that could cause harm to an athlete or give one an unfair competitive advantage. Evidence Acquisition: Published websites for the WADA, USADA, and NCAA were investigated. These governing bodies update and publish their lists annually. Results: The WADA, USADA, and NCAA monitor anabolic steroids, hormones, growth factors, β-agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, masking agents, street drugs, manipulation of blood and blood components, chemical and physical manipulation, gene doping, stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticosteroids, and β-blockers. Some substances may be used by athletes but require formal exemption. The WADA has also recently created a category of nonapproved substances that have yet to be identified to curb athletes from experimenting with new doping agents. Conclusion: The lists of banned substances and practices per the WADA, USADA, and NCAA are in place to ensure the integrity of sports and maintain safe competition. Health care providers who work with athletes under the jurisdiction of these organizations should review updated lists of banned substances when prescribing medications. PMID:24427415

  1. Effects of individual and combined exposure to sodium arsenite and sodium fluoride on tissue oxidative stress, arsenic and fluoride levels in male mice.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Megha; Flora, S J S

    2006-08-25

    Arsenic and fluoride are potent toxicants, widely distributed through drinking water and food and often result in adverse health effects. The present study examined the effects of sodium meta-arsenite (100 mg/l in drinking water) and sodium fluoride (5 mg/kg, oral, once daily), administered either alone or in combination for 8 weeks, on various biochemical variables indicative of tissue oxidative stress and cell injury in Swiss albino male mice. A separate group was first exposed to arsenic for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of fluoride exposure. Exposure to arsenic or fluoride led to a significant depletion of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and glutathione (GSH) level. These changes were accompanied by increased level of blood and tissues reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. An increase in the level of liver and kidney thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) along with a concomitant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced GSH content were observed in both arsenic and fluoride administered mice. The changes were significantly more pronounced in arsenic exposed animals than in fluoride. It was interesting to observe that during combined exposure the toxic effects were less pronounced compared to the effects of arsenic or fluoride alone. In some cases antagonistic effects were noted following co-exposure to arsenic and fluoride. Arsenic and fluoride concentration increased significantly on exposure. Interestingly, their concentration decreased significantly on concomitant exposure for 8 weeks. However, the group which was administered arsenic for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of fluoride administration showed no such protection suggesting that the antagonistic effect of fluoride on arsenic or vice versa is possible only during interaction at the gastro intestinal sites. These results are new and interesting and require further exploration.

  2. Troubled Parents, Motivated Adolescents: Predicting Motivation to Change Substance Use among Runaways

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Erdem, Gizem; Budde, Hannah; Letcher, Amber; Bantchevska, Denitza; Garren, Rikki

    2009-01-01

    Runaway adolescents engage in high rates of substance use and report significant family and individual problems. However, in general, adolescents report low motivation to change their substance use. Because a higher level of motivation for changing substance use is associated with greater substance abuse treatment success, identifying variables associated with motivation for change can be useful for enhancing treatment success. In this study, predictors of motivation for changing substance use were examined among 140 shelter-recruited adolescents and their parents/primary caretakers. Several findings were noteworthy. A perceived negative family environment increased parents' and adolescents' depressive symptoms, which increased adolescent's motivation to change. Also, greater severity of adolescent substance use predicted higher motivation to change. Consideration of the family environment and parent problems when addressing motivation for changing substance use among these adolescents might be important foci for motivational interventions and future research. PMID:19411144

  3. Anticancer substances of mushroom origin.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, T S; Krupodorova, T A; Barshteyn, V Y; Artamonova, A B; Shlyakhovenko, V A

    2014-06-01

    The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms, as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed. Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines (including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins), and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc. are discussed. The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed.

  4. Best practice in substance misuse.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anne L

    2012-08-01

    While substance misuse by adolescents in the UK has declined over the last decade, the UK continues to have some of the highest rates of alcohol and drug use in Europe. Many young people will try smoking and drinking alcohol during their adolescence and a significant minority will misuse alcohol and illicit drugs. This behaviour remains a significant cause for concern owing to its associated risks to the health and wellbeing of adolescents. Guidance is emerging regarding good practice in the assessment and management of adolescent substance misuse. Paediatricians may encounter substance-misusing adolescents in a variety of clinical settings and can play a valuable role in the screening, management and support of this group of young people.

  5. Welfare Reform and Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Metsch, Lisa R; Pollack, Harold A

    2005-01-01

    The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) changed the nature, purpose, and financing of public aid. Researchers, administrators, and policymakers expressed special concern about the act's impact on low-income mothers with substance use disorders. Before PRWORA's passage, however, little was known about the true prevalence of these disorders among welfare recipients or about the likely effectiveness of substance abuse treatment interventions for welfare recipients. Subsequent research documented that substance abuse disorders are less widespread among welfare recipients than was originally thought and are less common than other serious barriers to self-sufficiency. This research also showed significant administrative barriers to the screening, assessment, and referral of drug-dependent welfare recipients. This article summarizes current research findings and examines implications for welfare reform reauthorization. PMID:15787954

  6. Substance Abuse Screening and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tenegra, Johnny C; Leebold, Bobby

    2016-06-01

    One of the more prevalent and often undiagnosed problems seen by primary care clinicians is substance misuse. Resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, loss of productivity, and increased health care costs, substance misuse in our society remains a significant public health issue. Primary care physicians are on the front lines of medical care, and as such, are in a distinctive position to recognize potential problems in this area and assist. This article outlines office-based screening approaches and strategies for managing and treating this complex issue confronting primary care.

  7. Impact of contextual factors and substance characteristics on perspectives toward cognitive enhancement.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Sebastian; Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric; Sauer, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing cognitive performance with substances--especially prescription drugs--is a fiercely debated topic among scholars and in the media. The empirical basis for these discussions is limited, given that the actual nature of factors that influence the acceptability of and willingness to use cognitive enhancement substances remains unclear. In an online factorial survey, contextual and substance-specific characteristics of substances that improve academic performance were varied experimentally and presented to respondents. Students in four German universities rated their willingness to use and moral acceptance of different substances for cognitive enhancement. We found that the overall willingness to use performance enhancing substances is low. Most respondents considered the use of these substances as morally unacceptable. Situational influences such as peer pressure, policies concerning substance use, relative performance level of peers, but also characteristics of the substance, such as perceptions of substance safety, shape the willingness and acceptability of using a substance to enhance academic performance. Among the findings is evidence of a contagion effect meaning that the willingness was higher when the respondents have more CE drug users in their social network. We also found deterrence effects from strong side effects of using the substance, as well as from policy regulations and sanctions. Regulations might activate social norms against usage and sanctions can be seen as costly to users. Moreover, enhancement substances seem to be most tempting to low performers to catch up with others compared to high performers. By identifying contextual factors and substance characteristics influencing the willingness and acceptability of cognitive enhancers, policy approaches could consider these insights to better manage the use of such substances.

  8. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for substance craving.

    PubMed

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Bowen, Sarah; Douglas, Haley; Hsu, Sharon H

    2013-02-01

    Craving, defined as the subjective experience of an urge or desire to use substances, has been identified in clinical, laboratory, and preclinical studies as a significant predictor of substance use, substance use disorder, and relapse following treatment for a substance use disorder. Various models of craving have been proposed from biological, cognitive, and/or affective perspectives, and, collectively, these models of craving have informed the research and treatment of addictive behaviors. In this article we discuss craving from a mindfulness perspective, and specifically how mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) may be effective in reducing substance craving. We present secondary analyses of data from a randomized controlled trial that examined MBRP as an aftercare treatment for substance use disorders. In the primary analyses of the data from this trial, Bowen and colleagues (2009) found that individuals who received MBRP reported significantly lower levels of craving following treatment, in comparison to a treatment-as-usual control group, which mediated subsequent substance use outcomes. In the current study, we extend these findings to examine potential mechanisms by which MBRP might be associated with lower levels of craving. Results indicated that a latent factor representing scores on measures of acceptance, awareness, and nonjudgment significantly mediated the relation between receiving MBRP and self-reported levels of craving immediately following treatment. The mediation findings are consistent with the goals of MBRP and highlight the importance of interventions that increase acceptance and awareness, and help clients foster a nonjudgmental attitude toward their experience. Attending to these processes may target both the experience of and response to craving.

  9. Screening for Adolescent Substance-Related Disorders Using the SASSI-A2: Implications for Nonreporting Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perera-Diltz, Dilani M.; Perry, Justin C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study (N = 137), although 70.8% of participants reported no current substance use and 42.3% reported never using, the Adolescent Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI-A2; Miller & Lazowski, 2001) screened 39.41% of the participants for a high level of probability of having a substance-related disorder. SASSI-A2 classified more…

  10. Athletes' perceptions toward substance use in Baghdad city.

    PubMed

    Habeeb, Mohammed Baqer; Kasim, Wissam Jabbar; Khamees, Leith Abbas; Hawi, Mohammed Mukheilef; Khashoom, Qais Nea'amah

    2012-11-01

    The majority of men's sports need high levels of strength and power. The effects of any given type of performance-enhancing substance are mostly directly related to its ergogenic effects (enhanced strength, higher energy production, and better recovery), anabolic potential (increased protein synthesis, especially in muscles), and/or stimulating properties (increased attention and loss of fear), which give a competitive advantage to athletes. A descriptive correlational study was conducted to identify bodybuilders' and athletes' perception toward substance use and to identify the relationship between substance use and those athletes' sociodemographic characteristics of age, level of education, social status, and monthly income. A purposive "nonprobability" sample of 172 bodybuilding athletes were recruited from gym users of Baghdad city. The study found that two fifths of those who used anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) were 19 years old or younger, less than one half were overweight (body mass index = 25-29.9), two fifths of participants enjoyed exercise/training to an extreme level, two fifths of study participants highly perceived the improvement of athletic performance, two fifths of the study participants highly perceived the importance of improving athletic performance, less than half of the study participants used AAS, one quarter of the study participants who used AAS had been influenced by their coaches to use such substances, and more than one third of the study participants who used AAS were using such substances in the form of oral tablets and intramuscular injection together.

  11. Investigating Maternal Brain Structure and its Relationship to Substance Use and Motivational Systems.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Helena J V; Gerig, Guido; Gouttard, Sylvain; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C

    2015-09-01

    Substance use during pregnancy and the postpartum period may have significant implications for both mother and the developing child. However, the neurobiological basis of the impact of substance use on parenting is less well understood. Here, we examined the impact of maternal substance use on cortical gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes and whether this was associated with individual differences in motivational systems of behavioral activation and inhibition. Mothers were included in the substance-using group if any addictive substance was used during pregnancy and/or in the immediate postpartum period (within 3 months of delivery). GM volume was reduced in substance-using mothers compared to non-substance-using mothers, particularly in frontal brain regions. In substance-using mothers, we also found that frontal GM was negatively correlated with levels of behavioral activation (i.e., the motivation to approach rewarding stimuli). This effect was absent in non-substance-using mothers. Taken together, these findings indicate a reduction in GM volume is associated with substance use and that frontal GM volumetric differences may be related to approach motivation in substance-using mothers.

  12. Dissociation, PTSD, and Substance Abuse: An Empirical Study

    PubMed Central

    Najavits, Lisa; Walsh, Marybeth

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder (SUD) and dissociation. We studied 77 women with current PTSD and substance dependence, classified into high- versus low-dissociation on the Dissociative Experiences Scale. They were compared on trauma- and substance-related symptoms, cognitions, coping skills, social adjustment, trauma history, psychiatric symptoms, and self-harm/suicidal behaviors. We found the high-dissociation group consistently more impaired than the low-dissociation group. Also, the sample overall evidenced relatively high levels of dissociation, indicating that even in the presence of recent substance use, dissociation remains a major psychological phenomenon. Indeed, the high-dissociation group reported stronger expectation that substances could manage their psychiatric symptoms. The high-dissociation group also had more trauma-related symptoms and childhood histories of emotional abuse and physical neglect. Discussion addresses methodology, the “chemical dissociation” hypothesis, and the need for more nuanced understanding of how substances are experienced in relation to dissociative phenomena. PMID:22211445

  13. Psychoactive substances and the political ecology of mental distress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to both understand and depathologize clinically significant mental distress related to criminalized contact with psychoactive biotic substances by employing a framework known as critical political ecology of health and disease from the subdiscipline of medical geography. The political ecology of disease framework joins disease ecology with the power-calculus of political economy and calls for situating health-related phenomena in their broad social and economic context, demonstrating how large-scale global processes are at work at the local level, and giving due attention to historical analysis in understanding the relevant human-environment relations. Critical approaches to the political ecology of health and disease have the potential to incorporate ever-broadening social, political, economic, and cultural factors to challenge traditional causes, definitions, and sociomedical understandings of disease. Inspired by the patient-centered medical diagnosis critiques in medical geography, this paper will use a critical political ecology of disease approach to challenge certain prevailing sociomedical interpretations of disease, or more specifically, mental disorder, found in the field of substance abuse diagnostics and the related American punitive public policy regimes of substance abuse prevention and control, with regards to the use of biotic substances. It will do this by first critically interrogating the concept of "substances" and grounding them in an ecological context, reviewing the history of both the development of modern substance control laws and modern substance abuse diagnostics, and understanding the biogeographic dimensions of such approaches. It closes with proposing a non-criminalizing public health approach for regulating human close contact with psychoactive substances using the example of cannabis use. PMID:22257499

  14. Semipurified fractions from the submerged-culture broth of Agaricus blazei Murill reduce blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tae W; Kim, Yun A; Jang, Wook J; Byeon, Jae I; Ryu, Chung H; Kim, Jeong O; Ha, Yeong L

    2010-04-14

    Hypoglycemic action of semipurified fractions from hot-water extracts of the submerged-culture broth of Agaricus blazei Murill was examined in streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneal)-induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats, relative to the diabetes drug metformin. The hot-water extract, treated with ethanol to remove beta-glucans and glycoproteins, was freeze-dried, and fractionated into hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate (EA), and butanol fractions. The EA fraction (EAF; 200 mg/kg body weight) reduced (p < 0.05) the blood glucose level in the oral glucose tolerance test, relative to the other fractions and control. In a 14 day-treatment study, diabetic rats treated with the EAF displayed a suppressed blood glucose level and elevated plasma insulin and glucose transport-4 proteins; the reactions occurred in a dose-dependent manner (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) compared to those in control animals. The EAF reduced the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol in plasma, the activity of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase in blood, and the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance in the liver and kidney. The hypoglycemic efficacy of the EAF (400 mg/kg body weight) was similar to that of metformin (500 mg/kg body weight). The EAF contained substantial amounts of isoflavonoids including genistein, genistin, daidzein, and daidzin, which could have contributed to the fraction's hypoglycemic action. These results indicate that the hot-water extract of the submerged-culture broth of Agaricus blazei contains an EAF having potent hypoglycemic action, which could be useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  15. Pharmacotherapy for Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jared Wilson

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the current pharmacotherapy options available for the treatment of patients with substance use disorders. In the United States there are medications available to treat tobacco use disorders (nicotine replacement, bupropion, and varenicline), alcohol use disorders (naltrexone and acamprosate), and opioid use disorders (methadone and buprenorphine). These medications are likely underused and physicians should more readily prescribe for eligible patients.

  16. Substance Abuse by Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutsky, Irving; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…

  17. Substance Use as Impression Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  18. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  19. Substance Use and Early Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Steven C.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.

    2004-01-01

    Prior work indicates that substance use is related to adolescent marriage. We describe two different processes that may account for this relationship and hypothesize patterns of association that would be consistent or inconsistent with each. Using data from a study that followed west coast youth from 7th grade to young adulthood N3,324, we…

  20. Matters of Substance: Students' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gertrude

    2007-01-01

    America's romance with certainty leads to a belief that substances improve life and fits with the New Psychiatry. It's use of psychotropic medications to treat an array of mental illnesses changes evaluations, treatment and emergency coverage. The rising abuse of its prescription drugs alters the campus party scene, and challenges pretenses about…

  1. [Acting out and psychoactive substances: alcohol, drugs, illicit substances].

    PubMed

    Gillet, C; Polard, E; Mauduit, N; Allain, H

    2001-01-01

    In humans, some psychotropic agents (alcohol, drugs, illicit substances) have been suggested to play a role in the occurrence of major behavioural disorders, mainly due to the suppression of psychomotor inhibition. Behavioural disinhibition is a physiological mechanism which allows humans to behave appropriately according to a given environmental situation. The behavioural disinhibition induced by either therapeutic dosage or misuse involves the loss of restraint over certain types of social behaviour and may increase the risk of auto or hetero-aggression and acting out. The increased use of psychotropic agents in recent years and the occurrence of unwanted effects are worrying and must be detected and evaluated. The objective of the present study was to establish a causal relationship between psychoactive substance use and occurrence of major behavioural disorders, such as paradoxical rage reactions and suicidal behaviour, based on a literature analysis. It consisted of reviewing reports of drug-induced violent reactions in healthy volunteers and demonstrating, where possible, a cause-effect relationship. Patients with schizophrenia and psychopathic personalities were not included in our study since psychiatric comorbidity could influence behavioural responses. Psychotropic agents included drugs, licit and illicit substances already associated with violence in the past. Many reports used the "Go/No Go test" to evaluate the disinhibiting effect of psychotropic substances; this allows the "cognitive mapping" of drugs. The results suggest that only alcohol, antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cocaïne are related to aggressive behaviour. The best known precipitant of behavioural disinhibition is alcohol, which induces aggressive behaviour. However, there are large differences between individuals, and attentional mechanisms are now recognised as being important in mediating the effects of alcohol. Suicidal tendency as an adverse antidepressant reaction is rare

  2. A Comparison of Opioid and Nonopioid Substance Users in Residential Treatment for Co-Occurring Substance Use and Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bride, Brian E.; Macmaster, Samuel A.; Morse, Siobhan A.; Watson, Cayce M.; Choi, Sam; Seiters, John

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen a marked increase in the illicit use of opioids, as well as a doubling of the percentage of individuals seeking treatment for opioid use disorders. However, little is known about the differences between opioid users and nonopioid users in residential treatment. Further, no studies have been published that compare opioid users and nonopioid users in treatment for co-occurring substance use and mental disorders. To address this gap, this study examined differences between opioid and nonopioid substance users in residential treatment for co-occurring disorders. Data was drawn from 1,972 individuals treated between 2009 and 2011 at one of three private residential treatment centers that provide integrated treatment for co-occurring substance use and mental disorders. Data was collected at program intake, and 1- and 6-month postdischarge using the Addiction Severity Index and the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment. To examine within-group changes in substance use, addiction severity, and mental health across time, linear mixed-model analyses were conducted with facility, year, age, gender, and race included as covariates. The authors found more similarities than differences between the two groups on baseline characteristics, treatment motivation, length of stay, and outcomes on measures of substance use, addiction severity, and mental health. The results demonstrate that though opioid users entered treatment with higher levels of substance use–related impairment, they were just as successful in treatment outcomes as their non-opioid-using peers. PMID:27366988

  3. Adolescent Obesity and Future Substance Use: Incorporating the Psychosocial Context

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Grella, Christine E.; Chung, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of work has shown that obese adolescents are at risk of engaging in problematic substance use, but mixed findings highlight the complexity of the relationship. Incorporating the psychosocial context into this research may inform past discrepancies. The current study assessed whether obese adolescents had a higher likelihood of experiencing a psychosocial context that predicted problematic substance use in young adulthood. Latent class analysis on 10,637 adolescents from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) identified four psychosocial classes in adolescence: Adjusted, Deviant Peer/Victimization, Moderate Depression, and Maladjusted. Obese adolescents were more likely to belong to the Maladjusted class, characterized by higher levels of depression and deviant peer affiliation. Those in the Maladjusted class had the second highest levels of cigarette smoking and marijuana use in young adulthood. Obese adolescents’ psychosocial context should be considered in future research linking obesity and substance use. PMID:26349450

  4. PETRORISK: a risk assessment framework for petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    Redman, Aaron D; Parkerton, Thomas F; Comber, Mike H I; Paumen, Miriam Leon; Eadsforth, Charles V; Dmytrasz, Bhodan; King, Duncan; Warren, Christopher S; den Haan, Klaas; Djemel, Nadia

    2014-07-01

    PETRORISK is a modeling framework used to evaluate environmental risk of petroleum substances and human exposure through these routes due to emissions under typical use conditions as required by the European regulation for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). Petroleum substances are often complex substances comprised of hundreds to thousands of individual hydrocarbons. The physicochemical, fate, and effects properties of the individual constituents within a petroleum substance can vary over several orders of magnitude, complicating risk assessment. PETRORISK combines the risk assessment strategies used on single chemicals with the hydrocarbon block approach to model complex substances. Blocks are usually defined by available analytical characterization data on substances that are expressed in terms of mass fractions for different structural chemical classes that are specified as a function of C number or boiling point range. The physicochemical and degradation properties of the blocks are determined by the properties of representative constituents in that block. Emissions and predicted exposure concentrations (PEC) are then modeled using mass-weighted individual representative constituents. Overall risk for various environmental compartments at the regional and local level is evaluated by comparing the PECs for individual representative constituents to corresponding predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) derived using the Target Lipid Model. Risks to human health are evaluated using the overall predicted human dose resulting from multimedia environmental exposure to a substance-specific derived no-effect level (DNEL). A case study is provided to illustrate how this modeling approach has been applied to assess the risks of kerosene manufacture and use as a fuel.

  5. Impact of Contextual Factors and Substance Characteristics on Perspectives toward Cognitive Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Sebastian; Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Éric; Sauer, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing cognitive performance with substances–especially prescription drugs–is a fiercely debated topic among scholars and in the media. The empirical basis for these discussions is limited, given that the actual nature of factors that influence the acceptability of and willingness to use cognitive enhancement substances remains unclear. In an online factorial survey, contextual and substance-specific characteristics of substances that improve academic performance were varied experimentally and presented to respondents. Students in four German universities rated their willingness to use and moral acceptance of different substances for cognitive enhancement. We found that the overall willingness to use performance enhancing substances is low. Most respondents considered the use of these substances as morally unacceptable. Situational influences such as peer pressure, policies concerning substance use, relative performance level of peers, but also characteristics of the substance, such as perceptions of substance safety, shape the willingness and acceptability of using a substance to enhance academic performance. Among the findings is evidence of a contagion effect meaning that the willingness was higher when the respondents have more CE drug users in their social network. We also found deterrence effects from strong side effects of using the substance, as well as from policy regulations and sanctions. Regulations might activate social norms against usage and sanctions can be seen as costly to users. Moreover, enhancement substances seem to be most tempting to low performers to catch up with others compared to high performers. By identifying contextual factors and substance characteristics influencing the willingness and acceptability of cognitive enhancers, policy approaches could consider these insights to better manage the use of such substances. PMID:23940757

  6. Marijuana and Other Substance Use Among Motor Vehicle Operators: A Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Michael; Harrell, Paul; Romano, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The deleterious effect of multiple-substance use on driving performance is well established, but relatively little research has examined the patterns of drug use among multiple-substance users and its relationship to both alcohol use and adverse driving outcomes. Method: The current study used latent class analysis to examine subgroups of substance users among a population of drivers who screened positively for 2 or more of 13 substances other than alcohol (N = 250). A series of logistic regression analyses was conducted to examine demographic predictors of latent class assignment and class association with adverse driving outcomes. Results: Four distinct subclasses of users were identified among multiple-substance-using drivers: Class 1 consisted of individuals who demonstrated high levels of all substances indicators (5%). The second class demonstrated high levels of marijuana and cocaine use and lower levels of all other substances (27%). The third class screened high for marijuana and nonmedical prescription opiate analgesics use (36%), whereas the last class demonstrated high nonmedical prescription opiate analgesics and benzodiazepine use (32%). Drivers in Class 2 (marijuana and cocaine users) were more likely to be younger and have a positive breath alcohol concentration than drivers in any other class. Conclusions: Because multidrug users show dissimilar characteristics, the propensity of researchers to lump all multiple-substance users together may either erroneously attribute the potentially profound impact of those in the marijuana and cocaine use class to all multiple-substance users or dilute their specific contribution to crash risk. PMID:26562599

  7. Substance Abuse among Iranian High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Momtazi, Saeed; Rawson, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review In this study, we reviewed data on drug use among high school students in Iran. Recent findings Published epidemiological studies in international and domestic journals show that drug use/abuse is a serious mental health problem in Iran. There is cultural support for opium in Iran, and also there is cultural tolerance for tobacco smoking, especially as water pipe smoking, in Iranian families. Alcohol, opium, and cannabis are the most frequently used illicit drugs, but there are new emerging problems with anabolic steroids, ecstasy, and stimulant substances, such as crystal methamphetamine. Summary There is serious drug abuse problem among Iranian high school students. It could be due to role-modeling by parents – mainly fathers – and also cultural tolerance of some substances. Early onset of tobacco smoking, with a daily use rate between 4.4% and 12.8% in high school students, is an important risk factor for other drug abuse problems. Use of all types of drugs, except prescription drugs, is more prevalent among boys. Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance, with a lifetime rate of at least 9.9%. Lifetime rates of opiate use – mostly opium – were between 1.2 an 8.6% in different parts of the country. As drug abuse is a frequent problem among Iranian high school students, it is necessary to design and implement drug prevention programs to protect them. Such programs, including life skills training and drug education, have been operating in recent years for Iranian students from kindergarten to the university level. PMID:20308905

  8. Nanoscale Substances on the TSCA Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is to help the regulated community comply with the requirements of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Section 5 Premanufacturing Notice (PMN) Program for nanoscale chemical substances.

  9. Substance Abuse Taxes the American Workplace

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164283.html Substance Abuse Taxes the American Workplace Survey, analysis reveal the ... 24, 2017 FRIDAY, March 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Substance abuse exacts a heavy toll on the American workplace, ...

  10. Psychological consultation with substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, C J

    1987-05-01

    Previous work has documented that compliance rates of substance abusers undergoing inpatient detoxification could be influenced by professional psychological consultation. The administrative structure has been previously described as well as a clinical/humanistic component within the administrative structure. This report describes the individualized psychological consultation. This consultative intervention is in accord with the tripartite model of mental health which views the assessment of pathology from the perspectives of the mental health practitioner, the patient, and the culture; and the recent advances within self-psychology. A self-psychological model is suggested to understand the detoxifying substance abuser, from a stage of loss of cohesiveness to one of personality stabilization. The hospital environment and persons within the environment provide both a framework and self-object functions (mirroring, idealizing, and alter ego) during detoxification. Research recommendations are made to collect empirical data on the psychology of the detoxifying addict.

  11. Psychosocial Correlates of Substance Use Behaviors among African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Darlene R.; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    Cross-sectional data were collected on substance use behaviors and potential correlates in 1,494 African American students enrolled in grades 5-12 in eight schools in a central Alabama school district. Using a risk and asset framework, self-reported recent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use were analyzed by identifying and measuring levels of…

  12. Substance Abuse Counselors and Moral Reasoning: Hypothetical and Authentic Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Shari M.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the assumption that the level of moral reasoning (Defining Issues Test; J. R. Rest, 1986) used in solving hypothetical and authentic dilemmas is similar for substance abuse counselors (N = 188). The statistical analyses used were paired-sample t tests, Pearson product-moment correlation, and simultaneous multiple…

  13. Effects of Differential Family Acculturation on Latino Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Charles R., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined links between parent-youth differential acculturation and youth substance-use likelihood in a sample of 73 recently immigrated Latino families with middle-school-aged youth. Multiple agents were utilized to assess family functioning and youth outcomes. Findings suggested that a greater level of differential acculturation…

  14. The toxicological effects of heavy fuel oil category substances.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; Reitman, Fred; Schreiner, Ceinwen; White, Russell; Charlap, Jeffrey H; O'Neill, Thomas P; Goyak, Katy Olsavsky

    2014-01-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) category substances are used to manufacture HFO, a product used in industrial boilers and marine diesel engines. Commercial HFOs and blending stream components are substances of complex and variable composition, composed of C20 to >C50 hydrocarbons, although lower molecular weight material may be added to reduce viscosity and improve flow characteristics. An HFO blending stream (catalytically cracked clarified oil [CCCO]) was tested for target organ and developmental toxicity in rats following repeated dermal administration at doses of 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg/d. In the repeated dose study, there was evidence of increased liver weights, reduced thymus weights, and reductions in hematological parameters with an overall no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg/d. In the developmental toxicity test, there were significant reductions in fetal survival, significant increases in resorption frequency, and significantly reduced fetal weights with an overall NOAEL of 5 mg/kg/d. These target organ and developmental effects are associated with the types and levels of aromatic constituents in these substances. Among HFO blending streams, CCCOs have the highest levels of aromatics and, because they produce the characteristic toxicological effects at the lowest levels, are considered as "reasonable worst-case examples" for this group of substances. Other HFO category members with lower levels of aromatics produce similar effects but have higher NOAELs. The potential for target organ and developmental effects of other HFO category members can be predicted from information on the types and levels of the aromatic constituents present in these substances.

  15. 43 CFR 423.44 - Controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controlled substances. 423.44 Section 423... Conduct § 423.44 Controlled substances. You must not possess, consume, deliver, or be under the influence of, controlled substances included in schedules I, II, III, IV, or V of part B of the...

  16. 43 CFR 423.44 - Controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Controlled substances. 423.44 Section 423... Conduct § 423.44 Controlled substances. You must not possess, consume, deliver, or be under the influence of, controlled substances included in schedules I, II, III, IV, or V of part B of the...

  17. 34 CFR 84.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controlled substance. 84.610 Section 84.610 Education... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled..., 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec. 2455, Pub. L. 103-355, 108 Stat. 3243 at 3327.)...

  18. 22 CFR 1509.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  19. 22 CFR 1509.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  20. 22 CFR 210.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Controlled substance. 210.610 Section 210.610 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  1. 22 CFR 1509.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  2. 22 CFR 1509.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  3. 22 CFR 210.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled substance. 210.610 Section 210.610 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  4. 22 CFR 1509.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  5. 28 CFR 83.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controlled substance. 83.610 Section 83.610 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means...

  6. Working with Families Affected by Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, R. William

    This paper focuses on assisting families who have been damaged by substance abuse and on constructive involvement of families to help all members cope. The four main topics are: (1) "Substance Abuse and Family Systems," including the effects of substance abuse on families and children; (2) "Theories and Approaches to Family…

  7. 10 CFR 607.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Controlled substance. 607.610 Section 607.610 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  8. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios.

  9. NEIGHBORHOOD NORMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG TEENS

    PubMed Central

    Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598

  10. **1**5N-NMR INVESTIGATION OF HYDROXYLAMINE DERIVATIZED HUMIC SUBSTANCES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Arterburn, Jeffrey B.; Mikita, Michael A.

    1986-01-01

    Humic substances are the most abundant naturally occurring refactory organic compounds in soils and water. They have a broad range of physical, chemical and physiological properties. In soils, humic substances contribute to the cation exchange capacity, help maintain the physical structure, and play a role in plant growth and nutrition. In aquatic systems, humic substances serve to regulate the levels of inorganic constituents, yield trihalomethanes upon chlorination, and transport or concentrate organic and inorganic pollutants. The oxygen containing functional groups of humic and fulvic acids are believed to play a key role in the chemical properties of humic substances. This study was undertaken to gain additional information on the specific types of oxygen functionalities in humic substances. Since the analysis of hydroxyl moieties had been earlier established, we focused our attention on the analysis of ketone and aldehyde functional groups in humic substances.

  11. Substance Abuse among Health-Care Professionals in Rutherford and Surrounding Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sherri Reid; Heritage, Jeannette G.

    Drug abuse is a serious problem in today's work force. It is found in every occupation, from the entry-level employee to the chief executive officer. Among health care professionals alcohol is the number-one substance abused, prescription drugs are second, and cocaine is third. Substance abuse among health-care professionals in Rutherford,…

  12. Initiation of Substance Use by Adolescents after One Year in Residential Youth Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monshouwer, Karin; Kepper, Annelies; van den Eijnden, Regina; Koning, Ina; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown that substance use levels among adolescents living in residential youth care are high. However, it is not clear to what extent adolescents initiate (heavy) substance during their stay and to what extent these rates are higher than would be expected based on their risk profile. Objective: The aim of the…

  13. The Issue of Stimulus Deprivation in Substance Abuse Residential Post-Detoxification Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machell, David F.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrates the stimulus addiction chain experienced by a substance addicted person and recommends that substance abuse treatment agencies provide low-stimulus activity by controlling their use of high-stimulus structure and high-level recreational stimulus producers. Suggests quiet activities to help regulate stimulus and reinforce reflectiveness…

  14. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 and Stages of Change: A Screening Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Piazza, Nick J.; Salyers, Kathleen; Roseman, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 (SASSI-3) was examined among substance-dependent adults enrolled in a family drug court. The SASSI-3 had a high sensitivity rate with this population, even across varying levels of motivation to change. (Contains 2 tables.)

  15. Stress and Substance Use among Asian American and Latino College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Burkey, Heidi; Ratanasiripong, Nop

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between stress and substance use among 347 Asian American, 346 Latino, and 776 White college students. Although stress was not found to predict substance use among the ethnic/ethnic group studied, results of the study indicated that Latino students reported a significantly higher stress level than…

  16. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Risk for Early Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Daniel J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Interpersonal and intrapersonal risk for substance use were investigated for 1,170 Caucasian and Hispanic American sixth and seventh graders, equally divided by gender. Mean use levels did not differ for ethnic groups. Across both gender and ethnicity, susceptibility to peer pressure and peer alcohol use were the best predictors of substance use.…

  17. Adolescent Substance Use: The Role of Demographic Marginalization and Socioemotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Wang, Yijie

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the links between racial/ethnic marginalization (i.e., having few same-race/ethnic peers at school) and adolescents' socioemotional distress and subsequent initiation of substance use (alcohol and marijuana) and substance use levels. Data from 7,731 adolescents (52% female; 55% White, 21% African American, 16% Latino, 8% Asian…

  18. Changes in At-Risk American Men's Crime and Substance Use Trajectories following Fatherhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Owen, Lee D.; Wiesner, Margit; Pears, Katherine C.

    2011-01-01

    Fatherhood can be a turning point in development and in men's crime and substance use trajectories. At-risk boys (N = 206) were assessed annually from ages 12 to 31 years. Crime, arrest, and tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use trajectories were examined. Marriage was associated with lower levels of crime and less frequent substance use. Following…

  19. Abstinence Self-Efficacy and Abstinence 1 Year After Substance Use Disorder Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Mark; McKellar, John; Tiet, Quyen

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between abstinence self-efficacy and treatment outcomes in substance use disorder patients, experts in the field need more information about the levels of abstinence self-efficacy most predictive of treatment outcomes. Participants (N = 2,967) from 15 residential substance use disorder treatment programs were…

  20. The neighborhood effects of disrupted family processes on adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Sigfusdottir, Inga D

    2009-07-01

    In the current paper, we argue that the neighborhood-level of disrupted family processes (weak social ties to parents and coercive family interaction) should have a contextual effect on adolescent substance use (cigarette smoking, heavy drinking, and lifetime cannabis use), because adolescents living in neighborhoods in which disrupted family processes are prevalent should be more likely to associate with deviant (substance using) peers. We use nested data on 5491 Icelandic adolescents aged 15 and 16 years in 83 neighborhoods to examine the neighborhood-contextual effects of disrupted family processes on adolescent substance use (cigarette smoking, heavy drinking, and lifetime cannabis use), that is, whether neighborhoods in which disrupted family processes are common have more adolescent substance use, even after partialling out the individual-level effects of disrupted family processes on substance use. As predicted, we find that the neighborhood-levels of disrupted family processes have significant, contextual effects on all the indicators of substance use, and that association with substance using peers mediates a part of these contextual effects. The findings illustrate the limitation of an individual-level approach to adolescent substance use.

  1. Mental Health and Substance Use Characteristics of Flight Attendants Enrolled in an In-Patient Substance Abuse Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Gail; Diaz, Naelys; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Mullaney, Donald

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence rates of co-occurring mental health problems among 70 flight attendants in substance abuse treatment. Results indicated that flight attendants in treatment were more likely to experience alcohol dependency than drug dependency. A high proportion of participants reported clinical levels of…

  2. New psychoactive substances: catalysing a shift in forensic science practice?

    PubMed

    Tettey, Justice; Crean, Conor

    2015-08-05

    The analysis of substances of abuse remains one of the most matured areas in forensic science with a strong scientific basis, namely analytical chemistry. The current evolving drug markets, characterized by the global emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and the need for forensic scientists to identify an unprecedented and ever-increasing number of NPS, presents a unique challenge to this discipline. This article looks at the current situation with NPS at the global level, and the challenges posed to the otherwise technically robust forensic science discipline of analysis of substances of abuse. It discusses the preparedness of forensic science to deal with the current situation and identifies the need for a shift in forensic science practice, especially one which embraces research and looks beyond normal casework in order to provide the much needed data for developing effective policy responses to the NPS problem.

  3. [Plants as a source of natural harmful substances].

    PubMed

    Czerwiecki, Ludwik

    2005-01-01

    In this review the several data concerning phytotoxins as natural harmful substances of plants and phycotoxins--toxicants of algae were described. For example plants are source of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, glycoalkaloids, glucosinolates as well as glycosides, saponine and psolarens. Possible adverse effects of phytoestrogens as endocrine disruptors versus beneficial influence these substances on human organism were mentioned. About lectins as possible factors of some diseases was reported, as well as some proteins as allergens of soy and peanuts was mentioned. Accumulated by shellfish and fish the most important phycotoxins such as saxitoxin, okadaic acid, brevetoxins and ciguatoxins were described. Phycotoxins produced several poisoning symptoms. Microcystins and nodularin--cyanobacterial phycotoxins of freshwater, was mentioned. In conclusion, the need of limitation of permissible levels of some plant toxicants, development of analytical methods as well as knowledge of influence of some technological processes on toxic plant substances was highlighted. The importance of balanced diet as a tool of defense against plant toxicants was concluded.

  4. Hazardous substances, CERCLA, and nanoparticles - can the three be reconciled?

    PubMed

    Bashaw, John

    2012-01-01

    Toxicology research in the nanotechnology area has focused primarily on human inhalation, ingestion or dermal exposure. Less research has been published on the impact to ecological systems resulting from a release of nanomaterials. Environmental laws such as CERCLA ("Superfund") address the release of "hazardous substances" by obligating the party releasing the substance to (a) report the release and (b) investigate the nature and extent of the release and to then remediate it to some objective cleanup standard. Applying this regime to the release of nanomaterials, however, is complicated. First, is the nanomaterial a hazardous waste, toxic substance, or hazardous substance as defined under the environmental laws? A compound that may be defined as hazardous or toxic could have properties at the nano level that are distinctly non-hazardous. Second, what constitutes a release of a nanoparticle that would require reporting under applicable environmental laws? Typically, release reporting is based upon the weight of the hazardous substance that is released, but for nanomaterials a weight threshold might be meaningless. Third, how do you sample nanoparticles in the field and analyze them using existing instrumentation? There are few approved tests for nanomaterials. Fourth, how do you determine an objective risk-based cleanup standard for the thousands of possible nanomaterials?

  5. Effect of Different Psychoactive Substances on Serum Biochemical Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Sanli, Dilek Beker; Bilici, Rabia; Suner, Ozgur; Citak, Serhat; Kartkaya, Kazim; Mutlu, Fezan Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychoactive substances affect mainly central nervous system and brain function causing changes in behavior. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different psychoactive substances on serum biochemical parameters. Patients and Methods: The study included 324 drug dependents, and 69 controls. The patient group was determined according to DSM-IV (The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition) criteria. All patients and control subjects were tested for routine biochemical parameters and urine toxicology parameters for psychoactive substance use. Cases and controls with accompanying diseases like diabetes, cancer, metabolic disorders etc. are excluded from the study. Moreover, an association between urine toxicology results and changes in biochemical parameters was evaluated for statistical significance. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), uric acid, creatinine, urea, albumin, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) medians between the dependent and control groups (P < 0.05). We found a statistically significant difference in sodium and albumin levels between the opium-dependent and control groups (P < 0.05). In the benzodiazepin dependent group, we found a significant difference in GGT, urea, glucose, sodium, T protein, and AST levels (P < 0.05). Moreover, a statistically significant difference was observed in triglyceride and GGT levels between the ethyl glucuronide and control groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In psychoactive substance dependents, serum routine biochemistry parameters can be used to predict the need for intensive monitoring and treatment programs. PMID:26405680

  6. Control substances and alcohol use and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act was signed into law in October of 1991. The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 required the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) to enact regulations requiring the testing of employees that perform ``safety sensitive functions`` for illegal controlled substance use and alcohol misuse. The Transportation Management Division, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (TMD/EM-261), United States Department of Energy (DOE), Training Program Manager is committed to promoting the availability of the necessary information to those affected members of the Department of Energy (DOE) community in an effort to attain the highest possible level of regulatory compliance and to enhance the safety of each individual in the workplace.

  7. Comparison of whole-blood glutathione peroxidase activity, levels of serum selenium, and lipid peroxidation in subjects from the fishing and rural communities of "Rabo de Peixe" village, San Miguel Island, the Azores' Archipelago, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pavão, M; Cordeiro, C; Costa, A; Raposo, J; Santos, M; Nève, J; Viegas-Crespo, A

    2003-04-01

    The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), serum selenium (Se), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in the whole blood of 148 healthy adults aged 20-60 yr from the fishing and rural communities of "Rabo de Peixe," The Azores, Portugal. The subjects did not live in the same household and had different socioeconomic profiles and dietary habits. The serum lipid profile and selected life habits were also considered in this study. No significant differences in the activity of GSH-Px were found in the interpopulation or intrapopulation analyses, classified by age or lipid profile. An age-dependent GSH-Px increase was noted in the younger male (M) subgroups (20-39 yr). The Se levels were higher in fishers (f) of both genders (M, F) than in subjects living in the rural (r) environment: 110+/-25 microg/L (f, M), 89+/-20 microg/L (f, F), 88+/-22 microg/L (r, M) and 80+/-17 microg/L (r, F). In the fishers, but not in the rural population, Se was higher in the males, but it did not show significant variation with age. The levels of TBARS were lower in the f than in the r male group. The Se level was lower and TBARS higher in the hyperlipemic women in the f group, compared to the corresponding controls. Our results suggest that the fishers (mainly men) show a better antioxidant status than that of their rural counterparts, due to differences in dietary habits between the study populations and between genders.

  8. Problematic Substance Use in Urban Adolescents: Role of Intrauterine Exposures to Cocaine and Marijuana and Post-Natal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Kuranz, Seth; Appugliese, Danielle; Cabral, Howard; Chen, Clara; Crooks, Denise; Heeren, Timothy; Liebschutz, Jane; Richardson, Mark; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background Linkages between intrauterine exposures to cocaine and marijuana and adolescents’ problematic substance use have not been fully delineated. Methods Prospective longitudinal study with assessors unaware of intrauterine exposure history followed 157 urban participants from birth until late adolescence. Level of intrauterine exposures was identified by mother's report and infant’s meconium. Problematic substance use, identified by the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (V-DISC) or the Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and urine assay, was a composite encompassing DSM-IV indication of tolerance, abuse, and dependence on alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco and any use of cocaine, glue, or opiates. Results Twenty percent (32/157) of the sample experienced problematic substance use by age 18 years, of whom the majority (22/157) acknowledged abuse, tolerance or dependence on marijuana with or without other substances. Structural equation models examining direct and indirect pathways linking a Cox survival model for early substance initiation to a logistic regression models found effects of post-natal factors including childhood exposure to violence and household substance use, early youth substance initiation, and ongoing youth violence exposure contributing to adolescent problematic substance use. Conclusion We did not identify direct relationships between intrauterine cocaine or marijuana exposure and problematic substance use, but did find potentially modifiable post-natal risk factors also noted to be associated with problematic substance use in the general population including earlier substance initiation, exposure to violence and to household substance use. PMID:24999059

  9. Child, Parent, and Peer Predictors of Early-Onset Substance Use: A Multisite Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaplow, Julie B.; Curran, Patrick J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify kindergarten-age predictors of early-onset substance use from demographic, environmental, parenting, child psychological, behavioral, and social functioning domains. Data from a longitudinal study of 295 children were gathered using multiple-assessment methods and multiple informants in kindergarten and 1st grade. Annual assessments at ages 10, 11, and 12 reflected that 21% of children reported having initiated substance use by age 12. Results from longitudinal logistic regression models indicated that risk factors at kindergarten include being male, having a parent who abused substances, lower levels of parental verbal reasoning, higher levels of overactivity, more thought problems, and more social problem solving skills deficits. Children with no risk factors had less than a 10% chance of initiating substance use by age 12, whereas children with 2 or more risk factors had greater than a 50% chance of initiating substance use. Implications for typology, etiology, and prevention are discussed. PMID:12041707

  10. [Process of change in patients with concurrent substance use - mental health problems].

    PubMed

    Acier, Didier; Nadeau, Louise; Landry, Michel

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a retrospective study with a five year follow-up which examines the variations in substance use and the determinants of these variations. This exploratory research studied a sub-sample of 22 participants, selected from an initial sample of 197 patients with concurrent substance use and other mental health disorders. At the quantitative level, the statistical analysis shows an improvement in the problematic use of alcohol and drugs but no change in psychological state, health, family and interpersonals relations, as well as employment. At the qualitative level, the analysis of the participant's subjective view indicates that the two main elements of progression in substance use are the effects and the availability of substances. The main elements of reduction in substance use are the use of services, the personal techniques developed by participants, the family network, physical health, lack of financial resources, "occupational" activities, and a process of maturation.

  11. The effect of low-level laser therapy on oxidative stress and functional fitness in aged rats subjected to swimming: an aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Guaraldo, Simone A; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Amadio, Eliane Martins; Antônio, Ednei Luis; Silva, Flávio; Portes, Leslie Andrews; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in conjunction with aerobic training interferes with oxidative stress, thereby influencing the performance of old rats participating in swimming. Thirty Wistar rats (Norvegicus albinus) (24 aged and six young) were tested. The older animals were randomly divided into aged-control, aged-exercise, aged-LLLT, aged-LLLT/exercise, and young-control. Aerobic capacity (VO2max(0.75)) was analyzed before and after the training period. The exercise groups were trained for 6 weeks, and the LLLT was applied at 808 nm and 4 J energy. The rats were euthanized, and muscle tissue was collected to analyze the index of lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. VO2 (0.75)max values in the aged-LLLT/exercise group were significantly higher from those in the baseline older group (p <0.01) and the LLLT and exercise group (p <0.05). The results indicate that the activities of CAT, SOD, and GPx were higher and statistically significant (p <0.05) in the LLLT/exercise group than those in the LLLT and exercise groups. Young animals presented lesser and statistically significant activities of antioxidant enzymes compared to the aged group. The LLLT/exercise group and the LLLT and exercise group could also mitigate the concentration of TBARS (p > 0.05). Laser therapy in conjunction with aerobic training may reduce oxidative stress, as well as increase VO2 (0.75)max, indicating that an aerobic exercise such as swimming increases speed and improves performance in aged animals treated with LLLT.

  12. Neuropathology of substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Bisagno, Veronica; Milroy, Christopher Mark

    2014-01-01

    Addictions to licit and illicit drugs are chronic relapsing brain disorders that affect circuits that regulate reward, motivation, memory, and decision-making. Drug-induced pathological changes in these brain regions are associated with characteristic enduring behaviors that continue despite adverse biopsychosocial consequences. Repeated exposure to these substances leads to egocentric behaviors that focus on obtaining the drug by any means and on taking the drug under adverse psychosocial and medical conditions. Addiction also includes craving for the substances and, in some cases, involvement in risky behaviors that can cause death. These patterns of behaviors are associated with specific cognitive disturbances and neuroimaging evidence for brain dysfunctions in a diverse population of drug addicts. Postmortem studies have also revealed significant biochemical and/or structural abnormalities in some addicted individuals. The present review provides a summary of the evidence that has accumulated over the past few years to implicate brain dysfunctions in the varied manifestations of drug addiction. We thus review data on cerebrovascular alterations, brain structural abnormalities, and postmortem studies of patients who abuse cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, heroin, and "bath salts". We also discuss potential molecular, biochemical, and cellular bases for the varied clinical presentations of these patients. Elucidation of the biological bases of addiction will help to develop better therapeutic approaches to these patient populations.

  13. [Substance abuse in older adults].

    PubMed

    Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen

    2014-09-03

    In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective.

  14. Perceived ethnic discrimination versus acculturation stress: influences on substance use among Latino youth in the Southwest.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Nieri, Tanya

    2009-12-01

    Using a predominately Mexican-origin Latino sample of 5th grade students from the Southwestern United States, this study examined the relative effects of perceived discrimination and acculturation stress on substance use, and it assessed whether these effects were moderated by linguistic acculturation or time in the United States. Although rates of substance use were generally low in the sample, given the young age of the participants, over half (59%) of the sample perceived some discrimination, and almost half (47%) experienced some acculturation stress. Spanish-dominant and bilingual youth perceived more discrimination than English-dominant youth, whereas youth who have been in the United States five or fewer years perceived more discrimination than youth with more time in the United States. Youth who were Spanish-dominant or were recent arrivals experienced the most acculturation stress, with levels declining as linguistic acculturation and time in the United States increased. Multiple regression estimates indicated that perceived discrimination was associated with larger amounts and higher frequency of recent substance use and an array of substance use attitudes, such as stronger intentions to use substances, espousal of pro-drug norms, more positive substance use expectancies, and peer approval of substance use. Although acculturation stress was not associated with substance use, it was positively associated with several substance use attitudes, which are known antecedents of actual use. With a few exceptions, linguistic acculturation and time in the United States did not moderate the effects of perceived discrimination or acculturation stress.

  15. Profiles of executive functioning: associations with substance dependence and risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Golub, Sarit A; Starks, Tyrel J; Kowalczyk, William J; Thompson, Louisa I; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2012-12-01

    The present investigations applied a theoretical perspective regarding the impact of executive functioning (EF) on sexual risk among substance users, using a methodological approach designed to examine whether EF subtypes differentially predict behavior patterns. Participants included 104 substance-using HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Participants completed 5 neuropsychological assessment tasks selected to tap discrete EF components, and these data were linked to data on substance dependence and behavioral reports of substance use and sexual risk in the past 30 days. Cluster analysis identified 3 EF subtypes: (a) high performing (good performance across all measures); (b) low performing (poor performance across all measures); and (c) poor IGT performance (impairment on the Iowa Gambling Task [IGT] and its variant, but good performance on all other tasks). The 3 subtypes did not differ in amount of substance use, but the low-performing subtype was associated with greater rates of substance dependence. The low-performing subtype reported the highest rates of sexual behavior and risk, while the poor-IGT-performance subtype reported the lowest rates of sexual risk taking. Global associations between substance use and sexual risk were strongest among the low-performing subtype, but event-level associations appeared strongest among individuals in the high-performing subtype. These data suggest complex associations between EF and sexual risk among substance users, and suggest that the relationship between substance use and sexual risk may vary by EF subtypes.

  16. The JFFMA assessment of flavoring substances structurally related to menthol and uniquely used in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mirokuji, Yoshiharu; Abe, Hajime; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Saito, Kenji; Sekiya, Fumiko; Hayashi, Shim-mo; Maruyama, Shinpei; Ono, Atsushi; Nakajima, Madoka; Degawa, Masakuni; Ozawa, Shogo; Shibutani, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio

    2014-02-01

    Using the procedure devised by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), we performed safety evaluations on four flavoring substances structurally related to menthol (L-menthyl 2-methylbutyrate, DL-menthyl octanoate, DL-menthyl palmitate, and DL-menthyl stearate) uniquely used in Japan. While no genotoxicity study data were available in the literature, all four substances had no chemical structural alerts predictive of genotoxicity. Moreover, they all four are esters consisting of menthol and simple carboxylic acids that were assumed to be immediately hydrolyzed after ingestion and metabolized into innocuous substances for excretion. As menthol and carboxylic acids have no known genotoxicity, it was judged that the JECFA procedure could be applied to these four substances. According to Cramer's classification, these substances were categorized as class I based on their chemical structures. The estimated daily intakes for all four substances were within the range of 1.54-4.71 μg/person/day and 60-1250 μg/person/day, using the methods of Maximized Survey-Derived Intake and Single Portion Exposure Technique, respectively, based on the annual usage data of 2001, 2005, and 2010 in Japan. As the daily intakes of these substances were below the threshold of concern applied to class I substances viz., 1800 μg/person/day, it was concluded that all four substances raise no safety concerns when used for flavoring foods under the currently estimated intake levels.

  17. Commonalities and differences across substance use disorders: phenomenological and epidemiological aspects

    PubMed Central

    Shmulewitz, Dvora; Greene, Emily R; Hasin, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Background Although psychoactive substances vary in many ways, they have important commonalties, particularly in their ability to lead to an addiction syndrome. The field lacks an updated review of the commonalities and differences in the phenomenology of alcohol, cannabis, tobacco, stimulants, opioids, hallucinogens, sedatives/tranquilizers and inhalants and their related substance use disorders (SUD). Methods DSM-IV and DSM-5 SUD diagnostic criteria were reviewed, as was evidence from recent epidemiological and clinical research: psychometric studies (test-retest reliability, latent trait analysis); physiological indicators (tolerance, withdrawal); prevalence and age of onset. Information was incorporated from previous reviews, PubMed and Scopus literature searches, and data from large U.S. national surveys. Results Empirical evidence in the form of test-retest reliability and unidimensionality supports use of the same DSM-IV dependence or DSM-5 SUD diagnostic criteria across substances. For most substances, the criteria sets were generally most informative in general population samples at moderate-to-severe levels of SUD. Across substances, two criteria (tolerance and use in hazardous situations) were identified as functioning differently in population subgroups. Since substances have different pharmacological effects, withdrawal is assessed using substance-specific symptoms, while tolerance is not; issues remain with the assessment of tolerance. Alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis were consistently identified as the substances with earliest onset of use, highest prevalence of lifetime use, and highest prevalence of lifetime disorder. Conclusions Despite differences between psychoactive substances, the generic DSM criteria set appear equally applicable across substances. Additional studies of tolerance and hazardous use will be useful for future nosologies. Alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco are the substances with the greatest public health impact due to the high

  18. Psychosocial correlates of substance use behaviors among African American youth.

    PubMed

    Wright, Darlene R; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M

    2004-01-01

    Cross-sectional data were collected on substance use behaviors and potential correlates in 1,494 African American students enrolled in grades 5-12 in eight schools in a central Alabama school district. Using a risk and asset framework, self-reported recent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use were analyzed by identifying and measuring levels of influence, including individual, family, and school. For alcohol and marijuana use, recurrent risk factors were age, being hit by a parent, affiliation with gangs, and a tolerant attitude of peers toward drug use. For cigarette use, risk factors were peer-oriented: associations with gangs or cohorts holding lenient attitudes about substance use. For all substances, salient asset factors were academic achievement and parental monitoring. Findings suggest that efforts to reduce substance use behaviors should be directed at adolescents in terms of academic achievement and grade level as well as their social environments. For the latter, peer/family risks and family/school assets should be the foci for programs to minimize the short- and long-term consequences of these behaviors. Hence, the emphasis should be placed on modeling attitudes, preventing gang and family violence, encouraging parental supervision, and building positive teacher-student interactions.

  19. Effects of increasing levels of dried corn distillers grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of yearling heifers.

    PubMed

    Depenbusch, B E; Coleman, C M; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2009-08-01

    Three hundred forty-seven crossbred heifers (330 +/- 11 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block study to identify the optimal level of dried corn distillers grains with solubles (DGS) in flaked corn finishing diets. Fifty-four pens were used, with 9 pens per treatment and 6 to 7 heifers per pen. Finishing diets were steam-flaked corn-based and were fed once daily for 148 d. Dietary treatments consisted of 6 levels of DGS (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75%, DM basis). Dry matter intake, ADG, and final BW responded quadratically (P < or = 0.03) to increasing levels of DGS and were maximized at 15% DGS. However, G:F decreased linearly (P = 0.01) as level of DGS increased. Longissimus muscle areas were not different (P > or = 0.27), whereas 12th-rib fat thicknesses decreased linearly (P = 0.05) for heifers fed increasing levels of DGS. Marbling score and USDA yield grades were not different (P > or = 0.06) for heifers fed different levels of DGS. Number of carcasses grading USDA Prime or Choice were not different (P > or = 0.07), whereas number of carcasses grading USDA Select increased (P = 0.02; linear) as dietary level of DGS increased from 0 to 75%. Myofibrillar and overall tenderness increased linearly (P = 0.01) as dietary level of DGS increased from 0 to 75%. Juiciness, off-flavor intensity, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were not different (P > or = 0.16) among treatments. Redness of steaks (i.e., a*) was not different (P > or = 0.13) for steaks collected from heifers fed different levels of DGS as evidenced by similar instrumental color measurements after d 0, 3, and 5 of display. However, on d 7, steak color was less red (P = 0.04) and had more metmyoglobin. Concentration of linoleic acid (18:2n-6cis), total n-6 fatty acids, and total PUFA linearly increased (P = 0.01) with increasing levels of DGS.

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid substance P concentrations are elevated in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Per; Almqvist, Erik G; Wallin, Anders; Johansson, Jan-Ove; Andreasson, Ulf; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Svensson, Johan

    2015-11-16

    The neuropeptides substance P, orexin A (hypocretin-1) and neurotensin are signaling molecules that influence brain activity. We examined their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels in a study population consisting of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnosed with AD dementia upon follow-up (n=32), stable MCI (SMCI, n=13), other dementias (n=15), and healthy controls (n=20). CSF substance P level was increased in AD patients compared to patients with other dementias and healthy controls (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Patients with other dementia or SMCI had lower CSF orexin A level than AD patients (both P<0.05) and marginally lower level than healthy controls (both P=0.05). CSF neurotensin level was similar in all groups. In the total study population (n=80), CSF substance P level correlated positively with CSF levels of T-tau and P-tau, and in AD patients (n=32), CSF substance P level correlated positively with CSF Aβ1-42 level. In conclusion, CSF substance P level was elevated in AD patients and correlated with CSF Aβ1-42 level, a well established marker of senile plaque pathology. The role of low CSF orexin A level in other dementias or SMCI needs to be explored in further studies.

  1. Cigarette smoking in pregnant substance users: Association with substance use and desire to quit.

    PubMed

    Winhusen, Theresa; Lewis, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is prevalent in pregnant substance users but receives low priority in substance use disorder treatment. This article reports the results of a secondary analysis of a randomized, multisite trial with 200 pregnant substance users, 145 (72.5%) of whom smoked at baseline. As predicted: (1) smokers had significantly greater substance use; (2) approximately half of smokers wanted to quit; and (3) smokers with a quit goal had significantly greater self-efficacy and lower perceived difficulty of quitting. Smoking may be associated with more severe substance use in pregnant substance-using patients, half of whom may be interested in smoking-cessation interventions.

  2. A Study of Substance non-use

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Vasantha; Anandaram, T.S.J.; Balan, Anand; Bashyam, V.S.P

    2003-01-01

    120 persons belonging to the four different groups namely, students, unskilled workers, skilled workers and professionals were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule on subsunce non-use. Results were analysed using SPSS 7.5 version. 65% of the sample used, at least, one of the substances during their lifetime. Alcohol (55.8%) and nicotine (45%) were the commonly used substances and paan (21.7%) was used to some extent. The non-users were questioned on the reasons for nonuse, with respect to each of the substances, namely, nicotine, alcohol, paan, cannabis, sedatives, opioids and others. Familial values, disinterest, effects of the substance, adverse effects due to substances, moral values, responsibilities and being a role model were the commonly attributed reasons for substance non-use. PMID:21206853

  3. Possible barriers to enrollment in substance abuse treatment among a diverse sample of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: opinions of treatment clients.

    PubMed

    Masson, Carmen L; Shopshire, Michael S; Sen, Soma; Hoffman, Kim A; Hengl, Nicholas S; Bartolome, John; McCarty, Dennis; Sorensen, James L; Iguchi, Martin Y

    2013-03-01

    This mixed methods study examined motivations and barriers to substance abuse treatment entry and treatment continuation among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) substance users. AAPI substance users (N = 61) were recruited from substance abuse treatment programs in California and Hawaii. Semi-structured interviews and interviewer-administered surveys assessed barriers and facilitators to entering substance abuse treatment. Barriers included peer pressure, family influences, and face loss concerns. Facilitators included peer support, involvement in the criminal justice system, a perceived need for treatment, and culturally competent substance abuse treatment services. Family and peer influences may act as both facilitators and impediments. AAPI substance using populations face many of the same individual-level and structural and systems barriers to entry to treatment as other substance using populations. However, similar to other racial/ethnic minority groups, it is important to address cultural differences and develop culturally competent substance abuse treatments for the AAPI population.

  4. Illuminating the relationship between bullying and substance use among middle and high school youth.

    PubMed

    Radliff, Kisha M; Wheaton, Joe E; Robinson, Kelly; Morris, Julie

    2012-04-01

    The increased prevalence and negative impact of bullying and substance use among youth has been established independently in the literature; however, few researchers have examined the association between involvement in bullying and substance use across middle and high school youth. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the self-reported prevalence of bullying and substance use (alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana) among youth in middle and high school. Middle and high school students from 16 school districts across a large metropolitan area (N=78,333) completed a school-based survey. Scales were created to examine involvement in bullying, victimization, and substance use. A link between involvement in bullying and substance use was evident. Youth involved in bullying were more likely than students not involved in bullying to use substances, with bully-victims reporting the greatest levels of substance use. Differences at the school level and across status (i.e., bullies, victims, and bully-victims) are discussed. Implications for practice and prevention and intervention programs are offered. Findings support the need for continued research into risky behaviors, such as substance use, that are correlated with bullying behavior and may contribute to an increase in negative outcomes.

  5. Acculturation, Depression, Self-Esteem, and Substance Abuse among Hispanic Men

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Elias Provencio; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; De Santis, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    The demographics of the United States are rapidly changing as a result of immigration from Latin America. Predictions indicate that by the year 2050, one of every four persons in the United States will be of Hispanic ethnicity. If health disparities relating to substance abuse and related mental health conditions among Hispanics are not fully understood and addressed, these will continue grow along with this population. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the relationships among acculturation, depression, self-esteem, and substance abuse among a community sample of Hispanic men in South Florida (N = 164, 82 heterosexual men and 82 men who have sex with men). Standardized instruments measuring acculturation, depression, self-esteem, and substance abuse were administered in English or Spanish in a face-to-face interview format. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression were used to illustrate participant characteristics and test relationships among the variables. Despite the fact that the majority of participants were more acculturated to the Hispanic culture than US culture, reported low levels of education and income, were depressed, and used substances, this group of men reported high levels of self-esteem. However, age and depression were the only predictors of substance abuse. Acculturation and self-esteem were not predictors of substance abuse. Clinicians need to be aware of the high rates of depression and substance abuse in this population and screen frequently for signs and symptoms of depression and substance abuse during health care encounters. PMID:21247274

  6. A parallel process growth mixture model of conduct problems and substance use with risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Wu, Johnny; Witkiewitz, Katie; McMahon, Robert J; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2010-10-01

    Conduct problems, substance use, and risky sexual behavior have been shown to coexist among adolescents, which may lead to significant health problems. The current study was designed to examine relations among these problem behaviors in a community sample of children at high risk for conduct disorder. A latent growth model of childhood conduct problems showed a decreasing trend from grades K to 5. During adolescence, four concurrent conduct problem and substance use trajectory classes were identified (high conduct problems and high substance use, increasing conduct problems and increasing substance use, minimal conduct problems and increasing substance use, and minimal conduct problems and minimal substance use) using a parallel process growth mixture model. Across all substances (tobacco, binge drinking, and marijuana use), higher levels of childhood conduct problems during kindergarten predicted a greater probability of classification into more problematic adolescent trajectory classes relative to less problematic classes. For tobacco and binge drinking models, increases in childhood conduct problems over time also predicted a greater probability of classification into more problematic classes. For all models, individuals classified into more problematic classes showed higher proportions of early sexual intercourse, infrequent condom use, receiving money for sexual services, and ever contracting an STD. Specifically, tobacco use and binge drinking during early adolescence predicted higher levels of sexual risk taking into late adolescence. Results highlight the importance of studying the conjoint relations among conduct problems, substance use, and risky sexual behavior in a unified model.

  7. Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behaviors Among Young Men Working at a Rural Roadside Market in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Jere, Diana L; Norr, Kathleen F; Bell, Carl C; Corte, Colleen; Dancy, Barbara L; Kaponda, Chrissie P N; Levy, Judith A

    Using an ecological model, we describe substance use and sexual risk behaviors of young male laborers at a roadside market in Malawi. Data included observations and interviews with 18 key market leaders and 15 laborers (ages 18-25 years). Alcohol, marijuana, and commercial sex workers (CSWs) were widely available. We identified three patterns of substance use: 6 young men currently used, 6 formerly used, and 3 never used. Substance use was linked to risky sex, including sex with CSWs. The market supported risky behaviors through availability of resources; supportive norms, including beliefs that substance use enhanced strength; and lack of restraints. Community-level poverty, cultural support for alcohol, interpersonal family/peer influences, early substance use, and school dropout also contributed to risky behaviors. Parental guidance was protective but not often reported. Local programs addressing substance use and risky sex simultaneously and better national substance use policies and mental health services are needed.

  8. Assertive Outreach Strategies for Narrowing the Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Gap: Implications for Research, Practice, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Ozechowski, Timothy J.; Waldron, Holly Barrett

    2009-01-01

    In any given year, only about 10% of the nearly two million adolescents exhibiting substance abuse or dependence in the United States receive substance abuse treatment. Given this state of affairs, it is unlikely that the massive effort and expenditure of resources over the past decade on developing, testing, and disseminating effective treatments for adolescent substance abuse can have an appreciable impact on the prevalence of substance use disorders among the adolescent population. In order to substantially diminish the pervasive gap between levels of need for and utilization of adolescent substance abuse treatment, specialized assertive outreach strategies may be needed. This paper outlines a framework for assertive outreach for adolescents with substance use disorders, and proposes specific types of strategies for identifying and enrolling such adolescents into treatment. Implications for practice and policy pertaining to adolescent substance abuse treatment service delivery are considered. PMID:18690540

  9. Oviposition-Modifying Substances for Mosquitoes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    AD C: 2 OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR MOSQUITOES Annual Summary Report YIH-SHEN HWANG * ’September 1, 1980 Supported by U.S. ARMY MEDICAL...NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES...nd identify by block number) MOSQUITOES/ OVIPOSITION -ATTRACTANTS/ OVIPOSITION -REPELLENTS/ OVIPOSITION - MODIFYING-SUBSTANCES/CARBOXYLIC-ACIDS/OCTANOIC

  10. Substance abuse in the refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Little, A. Jr. ); Ross, J.K. ); Lavorerio, R. ); Richards, T.A. )

    1989-01-01

    In order to provide some background for the NPRA Annual Meeting Management Session panel discussion on Substance Abuse in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries, NPRA distributed a questionnaire to member companies requesting information regarding the status of their individual substance abuse policies. The questionnaire was designed to identify general trends in the industry. The aggregate responses to the survey are summarized in this paper, as background for the Substance Abuse panel discussions.

  11. Molecular size of aquatic humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Wershaw, R. L.; Malcolm, R.L.; Pinckney, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Aquatic humic substances, which account for 30 to 50% of the organic carbon in water, are a principal component of aquatic organic matter. The molecular size of aquatic humic substances, determined by small-angle X-ray scattering, varies from 4.7 to 33 A?? in their radius of gyration, corresponding to a molecular weight range of 500 to greater than 10,000. The aquatic fulvic acid fraction contains substances with molecular weights ranging from 500 to 2000 and is monodisperse, whereas the aquatic humic acid fraction contains substances with molecular weights ranging from 1000 to greater than 10,000 and is generally polydisperse. ?? 1982.

  12. Fact Sheet: Benzidine-Based Chemical Substances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  13. Pharmaceuticals and Controlled Substances and Demolition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pharmaceuticals and controlled substances found during residential demolition, such as prescription medications or illegal drugs, may require special treatment for disposal or recycling before demolition.

  14. Molecular aggregation of humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) form molecular aggregates in solution and on mineral surfaces. Elucidation of the mechanism of formation of these aggregates is important for an understanding of the interactions of HS in soils arid natural waters. The HS are formed mainly by enzymatic depolymerization and oxidation of plant biopolymers. These reactions transform the aromatic and lipid plant components into amphiphilic molecules, that is, molecules that consist of separate hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) parts. The nonpolar parts of the molecules are composed of relatively unaltered segments of plant polymers and the polar parts of carboxylic acid groups. These amphiphiles form membrane-like aggregates on mineral surfaces and micelle-like aggregates in solution. The exterior surfaces of these aggregates are hydrophilic, and the interiors constitute separate hydrophobic liquid-like phases.

  15. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction.

  16. Childhood sexual abuse and substance abuse treatment utilization among substance-dependent incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony

    2011-10-01

    Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms.

  17. Perceived Ease of Access to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Substances in Rural and Urban US Students

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jacob C.; Smalley, K. Bryant; Barefoot, K. Nikki

    2015-01-01

    students’ perceived ease of access to a variety of substances, with rural students reporting higher levels of access to legal substances and urban students reporting higher levels of access predominantly to illicit substances. Most troubling were the high levels of perceived access to substances, however, particularly in high school students, with more than half even of rural students reporting at least somewhat easy access to marijuana, and more than 60% of both rural and urban high school students reporting easy access to alcohol. Future research should investigate ways to decrease the perceptions of access to substances in order to prevent use and abuse. PMID:26518286

  18. Telomere length in children environmentally exposed to low-to-moderate levels of lead

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlas, Natalia; Płachetka, Anna; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Broberg, Karin; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2015-09-01

    Shorter relative telomere length in peripheral blood is a risk marker for some types of cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Several environmental hazards appear to shorten telomeres, and this shortening may predispose individuals to disease. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of environmental exposure to lead on relative telomere length (rTL) in children. A cohort of 99 8-year-old children was enrolled from 2007–2010. Blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and blood rTL was measured by quantitative PCR. The geometric mean of B-Pb was 3.28 μg/dl (range: 0.90–14.2), and the geometric mean of rTL was 1.08 (range: 0.49–2.09). B-Pb was significantly inversely associated with rTL in the children (r{sub S} = − 0.25, p = 0.013; in further analyses both log-transformed-univariate regression analysis β = − 0.13, p = 0.026, and R{sup 2}adj 4%; and β = − 0.12, p = 0.056 when adjusting for mothers' smoking during pregnancy, Apgar score, mother's and father's ages at delivery, sex and mother's education, R{sup 2}adj 12%, p = 0.011). The effect of lead remained significant in children without prenatal tobacco exposure (N = 87, r{sub S} = − 0.24, p = 0.024; in further analyses, β = − 0.13, p = 0.029, and R{sup 2}adj 4%). rTL was not affected by sex, the concentrations of other elements in the blood (i.e., cadmium and selenium concentrations), or oxidative injury parameters (total antioxidant status, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances). Lead exposure in childhood appears to be associated with shorter telomeres, which might contribute to diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. The inverse association between blood lead level and the telomeres in children emphasizes the importance of further reducing lead levels in the environment. - Highlights: • This cross-sectional study analyzes the association between environmental lead exposure

  19. A cause for concern: male couples' sexual agreements and their use of substances with sex.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W; Boyd, Carol; McCabe, Sean; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-07-01

    Substance use is strongly associated with HIV risk among gay men. Many gay couples establish sexual agreements. However, little is known about gay couples' use of substances with sex, and whether substance use is associated with couples' agreements. The present study assessed whether gay couples' use of substances with sex was associated with their establishment of, type of, and adherence to, a sexual agreement. Dyadic data from 275 HIV-negative US gay couples were collected online in a nation-wide, cross-sectional study, and analyzed at the couple-level. Findings revealed that couples with an established agreement, and a recently broken agreement, were more likely to have used amyl nitrates and marijuana with sex within their relationship. This same trend was also noted, but for alcohol use with sex outside of couples' relationships. Further research is urgently needed to examine the fluidity of HIV-negative gay male couples' sexual agreements and substance use with sex.

  20. Victimization from Mental and Physical Bullying and Substance Use in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Haviland, Amelia; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between victimization from mental and physical bullying and use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and inhalants among middle school students. Self-report data were analyzed from 926 ethnically diverse sixth through eighth grade students (43% white, 26% Latino, 7% Asian American/Pacific Islander, 3% African American, 14% mixed ethnic origin, and 5% “other”) ages 11 – 14 years from southern California. Substance use was collected at two time points (fall 2004 and spring 2005) during an academic year. Models were run for each substance separately. Results supported an association between victimization from bullying and substance use. Youths who experienced each type of bullying (mental or physical) separately or in combination were more likely to report use of each substance in spring 2005. This finding held after controlling for gender, grade level, ethnicity and substance use in fall 2004. PMID:19398162

  1. Primary and substance-induced psychotic disorders in methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Hides, Leanne; Dawe, Sharon; McKetin, Rebecca; Kavanagh, David J; Young, Ross McD; Teesson, Maree; Saunders, John B

    2015-03-30

    This study investigates the rates of primary psychotic disorders (PPD) and substance-induced psychotic disorders (SIPDs) in methamphetamine (MA) users accessing needle and syringe programs (NSPs). The aim was to determine if there are systematic differences in the characteristics of MA users with PPDs and SIPDs compared to those with no psychotic disorder. Participants were 198 MA users reporting use in the previous month. Diagnosis was determined using the Psychiatric Research Interview for DSM-IV Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM-IV). Current psychiatric symptoms and substance use were also measured. Just over half (n=101) of participants met DSM-IV criteria for a lifetime psychotic disorder, including 81 (80%) with a SIPD and 20 (20%) with a PPD. Those with a younger age of onset of weekly MA use were at increased risk of a lifetime SIPD. A current psychotic disorder was found in 62 (39%), comprising 49 SIPDs (79%) and 13 PPDs (21%). MA users with a current PPD were more likely to have received psychiatric treatment in the past month than those with a current SIPD, despite a similar level of psychotic symptom severity. A high proportion of MA users accessing NSPs have psychotic disorders, the majority of which are substance-induced.

  2. Hydrophobic substances induce water stress in microbial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhaganna, Prashanth; Volkers, Rita J. M.; Bell, Andrew N. W.; Kluge, Kathrin; Timson, David J.; McGrath, John W.; Ruijssenaars, Harald J.; Hallsworth, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Ubiquitous noxious hydrophobic substances, such as hydrocarbons, pesticides and diverse industrial chemicals, stress biological systems and thereby affect their ability to mediate biosphere functions like element and energy cycling vital to biosphere health. Such chemically diverse compounds may have distinct toxic activities for cellular systems; they may also share a common mechanism of stress induction mediated by their hydrophobicity. We hypothesized that the stressful effects of, and cellular adaptations to, hydrophobic stressors operate at the level of water : macromolecule interactions. Here, we present evidence that: (i) hydrocarbons reduce structural interactions within and between cellular macromolecules, (ii) organic compatible solutes – metabolites that protect against osmotic and chaotrope‐induced stresses – ameliorate this effect, (iii) toxic hydrophobic substances induce a potent form of water stress in macromolecular and cellular systems, and (iv) the stress mechanism of, and cellular responses to, hydrophobic substances are remarkably similar to those associated with chaotrope‐induced water stress. These findings suggest that it may be possible to devise new interventions for microbial processes in both natural environments and industrial reactors to expand microbial tolerance of hydrophobic substances, and hence the biotic windows for such processes. PMID:21255365

  3. Hazardous substances in the aquatic environment of Estonia.

    PubMed

    Roots, Ott; Roose, Antti

    2013-09-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to regulate the management of European surface water bodies. Directive 2008/105/EC, which establishes the environmental quality standards of priority substances and certain other pollutants, the content of which in the surface water should be monitored, has been transposed by the Estonian Ministry of Environment 9 September 2010 Regulation No. 49. Sampled hazardous substances were selected primarily based on their toxicity, as well as their lifetime in environment and ability to accumulate in living organisms (bioaccumulation). The contents of hazardous substances and their groups determined from Estonian surface waters remained below the limits of quantifications of used analysis methods in most cases. However, the content of some heavy metals, mono- and dibasic phenols in the surface water/waste water and sewage sludge/bottom sediments can still reach the delicate levels in the Estonian oil shale region in particular. Among new substances analysed in Estonia historically first time in 2010, amounts of organotin compounds in sediments and some alkylphenols, their ethoxylates and phthalates were found in various sample matrices.

  4. Co-occurrences between adolescent substance use and academic performance: school context influences a multilevel-longitudinal perspective.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Fernando H

    2014-08-01

    A growing body of literature has linked substance use and academic performance exploring substance use as a predictor of academic performance or vice versa. This study uses a different approach conceptualizing substance use and academic performance as parallel outcomes and exploring two topics: its multilevel-longitudinal association and school contextual effects on both outcomes. Using multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis and multilevel-longitudinal analyses, the empirical estimates relied on 7843 students nested in 114 schools (Add Health study). The main finding suggests that the correlation between substance use and academic performance was positive at the school level in contraposition to the negative relationship at the individual level. Additional findings suggest a positive effect of a school risk factor on substance use and a positive effect of academic pressure on academic performance. These findings represent a contribution to our understanding of how schools could affect the relationship between academic performance and substance use.

  5. Cultural Issues in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Dharma E.; Ja, Davis; Noboa, Abdin; Perry, Vincent; Robinson, Robert; Rodriguez, Domingo; Stubben, Jerry

    This monograph provides a tool to help providers and other substance abuse treatment professionals gain a greater understanding of the cultural, social, political, and economic forces affecting substance abuse treatment among Hispanic Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. An…

  6. TR's Role in Treating Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunstler, Robin

    1992-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation is important in treating substance abuse problems. It addresses attitudes and behaviors leading to substance abuse (inability to experience pleasure or control). It encourages participation in activities that help abusers cope and obtain enjoyable states, reducing reliance on drugs. The article discusses the theory of flow…

  7. Toxic Substances in the Environment. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Ronald J.

    Modern society is very dependent upon numerous chemical substances. Chemicals have a wide variety of uses, including drugs to prolong our lives and pesticides to control insect and weed pests. Life would be drastically different without the availability of these chemical substances but, while the benefits of chemicals should be appreciated, the…

  8. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  9. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain…

  10. Teacher Intervention for the Adolescent Substance Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Sue A.; Selinger, Marilyn

    The paper reviews adolescent development and considers the teacher's role in dealing with a compulsive substance abuser. Typical characteristics of substance abusers, such as isolation or withdrawal from the family unit, decreased academic achievement, initial denial of a drug/alcohol problem, and interactions with a negative peer group are noted,…

  11. Substance Abuse and Pregnancy: A Comprehensive Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krulewitch, Cara J.; Herman, Allen A.

    This bibliography, containing over 1,000 entries from the period 1968 to June, 1991, was compiled to assist in the development of a report to Congress on the impact (both maternal and fetal) of substance abuse on pregnancy. Topics include pregnancy outcome, child health issues, legal and political issues, epidemiological aspects of substance abuse…

  12. Harm Reduction in MSW Substance Abuse Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eversman, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…

  13. Substance Abuse and the American Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    The first comprehensive assessment of substance abuse and women, this report arose from an analysis of more than 1,700 scientific and technical articles, surveys, government reports and books. Results show that American women are closing the gap with men in that they are increasingly likely to abuse substances at the same rate as men. Findings…

  14. Substance Use, Distress, and Adolescent School Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations of substance use, psychological distress, and mental health services receipt with the structure and content of adolescent school-based networks. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we found that substance use was associated with receiving more, but making fewer, peer…

  15. Substance Abuse in Families: Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Rivka

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the teacher's role as an advocate for a child's educational needs when parents are involved in substance abuse treatment. Discusses substance abuse treatment issues, including addiction, the treatment process, and agencies involved with the family, and provides a list of recommendations for educators and administrators to assist…

  16. Nursing and Substance Use Disorders in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Pantoja, Miguel A; Mendez-Ruiz, Martha D

    2016-04-01

    The authors of this article see substance use disorders as a major public health problem in Mexico in which nursing is taking on an increasingly important role in addressing. The authors discuss some the challenges and opportunities nurse researchers, educators, and clinicians face in the prevention and treatment of substance use disorders in Mexico.

  17. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  18. Combat Stress and Substance Use Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    COVERED 15 Sept 2013 – 14 Sept 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Combat Stress and Substance Abuse Intervention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...the stigma and common barriers associated with seeking treatment. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Combat stress, substance abuse , alcohol, brief intervention... abuse . These data are vital to understanding additional steps the military might take in addressing issues of behavioral health, such as developing

  19. Directions in Substance Abuse Counseling, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam W., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This volume of six lessons provides expert information on a variety of issues in substance abuse counseling. The lessons, which may be applied toward continuing education credits, are: (1) "Ethics in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation" (Robert L. Hewes); (2) "Addressing the Needs of Clients with Traumatic Injury and Alcoholism"…

  20. Juvenile Drug Courts and Teen Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey A., Ed.; Roman, John, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substance abuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substance abuse treatment for drug-involved…

  1. Juvenile Offender Comprehensive Reentry Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Donnie W.

    2004-01-01

    The literature provides ample evidence of the relationship of substance abuse to crime. Research over the last 20 years has established a strong correlation between substance abuse and juvenile delinquency (held, 1998). Currently, there are more than 350,000 juveniles on probation and in continuing care programs in the U.S. who have substance…

  2. Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Donald F.; Henriksen, Lisa; Christenson, Peter G.

    This study examines the frequency and nature of substance use in the most popular movie rentals and songs of 1996 and 1997. The intent was to determine the accuracy of public perceptions about extensive substance use in media popular among youth. Because teenagers are major consumers of movies and music, there is concern about the potential for…

  3. Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

    Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

  4. Perceptions of Elders' Substance Abuse and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…

  5. Glial abnormalities in substance use disorders and depression: Does shared glutamatergic dysfunction contribute to comorbidity?

    PubMed Central

    Niciu, Mark J.; Henter, Ioline D.; Sanacora, Gerard; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Preclinical and clinical research in neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly mood and substance use disorders, have historically focused on neurons; however, glial cells – astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes – also play key roles in these disorders. Methods Peer-reviewed PubMed/Medline articles published through December 2012 were identified using the following keyword combinations: glia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes/glia, microglia, substance use, substance abuse, substance dependence, alcohol, opiate, opioid, cocaine, psychostimulants, stimulants, and glutamate. Results Depressive and substance use disorders are highly comorbid, suggesting a common or overlapping aetiology and pathophysiology. Reduced astrocyte cell number occurs in both disorders. Altered glutamate neurotransmission and metabolism – specifically changes in the levels/activity of transporters, receptors, and synaptic proteins potentially related to synaptic physiology – appear to be salient features of both disorders. Glial cell pathology may also underlie the pathophysiology of both disorders via impaired astrocytic production of neurotrophic factors. Microglial/neuroinflammatory pathology is also evident in both depressive and substance use disorders. Finally, oligodendrocyte impairment decreases myelination and impairs expression of myelin-related genes in both substance use and depressive disorders. Conclusions Glial-mediated glutamatergic dysfunction is a common neuropathological pathway in both substance use and depression. Therefore, glutamatergic neuromodulation is a rational drug target in this comorbidity. PMID:24024876

  6. Acculturation, Social Self-Control, and Substance Use Among Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Sussman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear how acculturation is related to self-control characteristics and whether part of the effect of acculturation on Hispanic adolescents’ substance use behavior is mediated through lower self-control. We tested social self-control, peer substance use, and baseline substance use as mediators of the effect of Hispanic (predominantly Mexican or Mexican American) adolescents’ level of U.S. acculturation on their substance use behavior 1 year later. In addition, we tested gender as a possible moderator of the pathways involved in the mediation model. Participants included 1,040 self-identified Hispanic/Latino adolescents (M = 14.7; SD = 0.90; 89% Mexican/Mexican American) recruited from nine public high schools. Acculturation was measured in terms of adolescents’ extent of English language use in general, at home, with friends, and their use of the English-language entertainment media. Analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling and controlled for potential confounders such as age and parental education. Results indicated a statistically significant three-path mediation in which poor social self-control and peer substance use mediated the effects of acculturation on prospective substance use. Paths in the mediation model were not found to differ by gender. Our findings suggest that acculturation may influence adolescents’ self-control characteristics related to interpersonal functioning, which may in turn influence their affiliation with substance-using friends and substance use behavior. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of future research and prevention programming. PMID:23772765

  7. Acculturation, social self-control, and substance use among Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A; Sussman, Steve

    2013-09-01

    It is unclear how acculturation is related to self-control characteristics and whether part of the effect of acculturation on Hispanic adolescents' substance use behavior is mediated through lower self-control. We tested social self-control, peer substance use, and baseline substance use as mediators of the effect of Hispanic (predominantly Mexican or Mexican American) adolescents' level of U.S. acculturation on their substance use behavior 1 year later. In addition, we tested gender as a possible moderator of the pathways involved in the mediation model. Participants included 1,040 self-identified Hispanic/Latino adolescents (M = 14.7; SD = 0.90; 89% Mexican/Mexican American) recruited from nine public high schools. Acculturation was measured in terms of adolescents' extent of English language use in general, at home, with friends, and their use of the English-language entertainment media. Analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling and controlled for potential confounders such as age and parental education. Results indicated a statistically significant three-path mediation in which poor social self-control and peer substance use mediated the effects of acculturation on prospective substance use. Paths in the mediation model were not found to differ by gender. Our findings suggest that acculturation may influence adolescents' self-control characteristics related to interpersonal functioning, which may in turn influence their affiliation with substance-using friends and substance use behavior. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of future research and prevention programming.

  8. Sequential assessment via daphnia and zebrafish for systematic toxicity screening of heterogeneous substances.

    PubMed

    Jang, Gun Hyuk; Park, Chang-Beom; Kang, Benedict J; Kim, Young Jun; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2016-09-01

    Environment and organisms are persistently exposed by a mixture of various substances. However, the current evaluation method is mostly based on an individual substance's toxicity. A systematic toxicity evaluation of heterogeneous substances needs to be established. To demonstrate toxicity assessment of mixture, we chose a group of three typical ingredients in cosmetic sunscreen products that frequently enters ecosystems: benzophenone-3 (BP-3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), and titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP). We first determined a range of nominal toxic concentration of each ingredient or substance using Daphnia magna, and then for the subsequent organismal level phenotypic assessment, chose the wild-type zebrafish embryos. Any phenotype change, such as body deformation, led to further examinations on the specific organs of transgenic zebrafish embryos. Based on the systematic toxicity assessments of the heterogeneous substances, we offer a sequential environmental toxicity assessment protocol that starts off by utilizing Daphnia magna to determine a nominal concentration range of each substance and finishes by utilizing the zebrafish embryos to detect defects on the embryos caused by the heterogeneous substances. The protocol showed additive toxic effects of the mixtures. We propose a sequential environmental toxicity assessment protocol for the systematic toxicity screening of heterogeneous substances from Daphnia magna to zebrafish embryo in-vivo models.

  9. The relation between trait mindfulness and aggression in men seeking residential substance use treatment.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-06-01

    There has been an abundance of research in recent years on mindfulness, including mindfulness within individuals seeking substance use treatment. However, to date, there has been no research on whether trait mindfulness is associated with increased aggression among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Past research has demonstrated that individuals in substance use treatment evidence higher levels of aggression than non-substance abusers, and preliminary research has shown that trait mindfulness is inversely associated with aggression in non-substance-use treatment-seeking populations. The current study examined whether trait mindfulness was associated with aggression among men seeking residential substance use treatment (N = 116). Results demonstrated that lower trait mindfulness was associated with increased aggression (physical, verbal, and aggressive attitude). Moreover, this relation held for both verbal aggression and aggressive attitude after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age, all known predictors of aggression. Findings provide the first evidence that mindfulness is negatively associated with aggression among men in substance use treatment, which could have important implications for intervention. That is, mindfulness-based interventions may prove helpful for the treatment of both substance use and aggression.

  10. Youth substance use and body composition: does risk in one area predict risk in the other?

    PubMed

    Pasch, Keryn E; Velazquez, Cayley E; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Moe, Stacey G; Lytle, Leslie A

    2012-01-01

    Both substance use and obesity are prevalent among youth. As youth age, substance use rates increase and over the past three decades, obesity rates among youth have tripled. While these two factors have both short- and long-term health impacts, little research has explored how substance use and obesity among youth may be related. This study explores the bi-directional longitudinal relationships between substance use and body composition. Participants (N = 704; 50.7% female) were mostly white (86.4%) with a baseline mean age of 14.7 years. Objectively measured body composition was used to calculate body mass index z-scores (BMI z-score) and percent body fat. Cross-lagged structural equation models, accounting for clustering at the school level, were run to determine the longitudinal association between body composition and self-reported substance use (alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana), adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, pubertal status, and weight satisfaction. Baseline alcohol use predicted decreased BMI z-score at follow-up and a similar association with percent body fat approached significance. Baseline cigarette use predicted increased percent body fat. No longitudinal associations were seen between baseline body composition and future substance use. Our results suggest that substance use contributes to subsequent body composition; however, body composition does not contribute to subsequent substance use. Continued research that explores these relationships longitudinally is greatly needed.

  11. Implementing Key Strategies for Successful Network Integration in the Quebec Substance-Use Disorders Programme

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Michel; Grenier, Guy; Imboua, Armelle; Brochu, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fragmentation and lack of coordination often occur among organisations offering treatment for individuals with substance-use disorders. Better integration from a system perspective within a network of organisations offering substance-use disorder services can be developed using various integration strategies at the administrative and clinical levels. This study aims to identify integration strategies implemented in Quebec substance-use disorder networks and to assess their strengths and limitations. Methods: A total of 105 stakeholders representing two regions and four local substance-use disorder networks participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Thematic qualitative and descriptive quantitative analyses were conducted. Results: Six types of service integration strategies have been implemented to varying degrees in substance-use disorder networks. They are: 1) coordination activities-governance, 2) primary-care consolidation models, 3) information and monitoring management tools, 4) service coordination strategies, 5) clinical evaluation tools and 6) training activities. Conclusion: Important investments have been made in Quebec for the training and assessment of individuals with substance-use disorders, particularly in terms of support for emergency room liaison teams and the introduction of standardised clinical evaluation tools. However, the development of integration strategies was insufficient to ensure the implementation of successful networks. Planning, consolidation of primary care for substance-use disorders and systematic implementation of various clinical and administrative integration strategies are needed in order to ensure a better continuum of care for individuals with substance-use disorders. PMID:27616951

  12. Does adolescents' religiousness moderate links between harsh parenting and adolescent substance use?

    PubMed

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P; Holmes, Christopher J; Longo, Gregory S

    2014-12-01

    Extant literature suggests that religiousness is inversely related to adolescent substance use; yet, no systematic investigation has examined whether religiousness may be a protective factor against substance use in the presence of risk factors. We examined whether religiousness moderates the links between parents' psychological and physical aggression and adolescent substance use directly and indirectly through adolescent self-control. The sample comprised adolescents (n = 220, 45% female) and their primary caregivers. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that adolescents with low religiousness were likely to engage in substance use when subjected to harsh parenting, but there was no association between harsh parenting and substance use among adolescents with high religiousness. Furthermore, although harsh parenting was related to poor adolescent self-control regardless of religiousness levels, poor self-control was significantly related to substance use for adolescents with low religiousness, whereas the link between poor self-control and substance use did not exist for adolescents with high religiousness. The findings present the first evidence that adolescent religiousness may be a powerful buffering factor that can positively alter pathways to substance use in the presence of risk factors such as harsh parenting and poor self-control.

  13. Translating Developmental Neuroscience to Substance Use Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Several preventive interventions have demonstrated efficacy in reducing substance use. However, opportunities exist to further improve prevention approaches. The application of recent advances in developmental neuroscience can inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs. This paper first briefly describes the developmental integration of the prefrontal cortex with emotion and motivation centers of the brain, and the implications of this process for substance use vulnerability. Discussed next are specific examples of how developmental neuroscience can inform prevention timing, development, and evaluation. Contextual considerations are then suggested including a critical role for schools in substance misuse prevention. Finally, current theoretical and methodological challenges to the translation of developmental neuroscience to substance use prevention are discussed. PMID:26236576

  14. [International comparison of sensitizing chemical substances].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tomoe; Oyma, Tsunehiro; Isse, Toyohi; Narai, Rie; Kanaoka, Maki; Pham, Thi-Thu-Phuong; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2007-09-01

    Some occupational and environmental chemicals cause allergic diseases. To prevent chemical allergies, it is essential to identify the chemical substances that cause sensitization and to eliminate such sensitizers from daily life. As an occupational countermeasure, information for evaluating sensitization of chemical substances is needed. The aims of this article are to compare the criteria for sensitizers among national organizations in various countries and international organizations, and to make out a list of these chemical substances. The definition of sensitizing chemicals and the designation of respective sensitizers according to the PRTR law, Japan Society for Occupational Health (JSHO), American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), European Union (EU), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinshaft (DFG) and Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy were studied. There are 1,389 chemical substances which are designated as sensitizers by any of the laws and five organizations. We specify each chemical substance in the list.

  15. A GHS-consistent approach to health hazard classification of petroleum substances, a class of UVCB substances.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charles R; McKee, Richard H; Freeman, James J; Swick, Derek; Mahagaokar, Suneeta; Pigram, Glenda; Roberts, Linda G; Smulders, Chantal J; Beatty, Patrick W

    2013-12-01

    The process streams refined from petroleum crude oil for use in petroleum products are among those designated by USEPA as UVCB substances (unknown or variable composition, complex reaction products and biological materials). They are identified on global chemical inventories with unique Chemical Abstract Services (CAS) numbers and names. The chemical complexity of most petroleum substances presents challenges when evaluating their hazards and can result in differing evaluations due to the varying level of hazardous constituents and differences in national chemical control regulations. Global efforts to harmonize the identification of chemical hazards are aimed at promoting the use of consistent hazard evaluation criteria. This paper discusses a systematic approach for the health hazard evaluation of petroleum substances using chemical categories and the United Nations (UN) Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of classification and labeling. Also described are historical efforts to characterize the hazard of these substances and how they led to the development of categories, the identification of potentially hazardous constituents which should be considered, and a summary of the toxicology of the major petroleum product groups. The use of these categories can increase the utility of existing data, provide better informed hazard evaluations, and reduce the amount of animal testing required.

  16. Psychosocial Problems Syndemically Increase Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Deng, Jianxiong; Gao, Xue; Xu, Yan; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jinghui; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A growing body of studies have indicated the associations between substance use and psychosocial problems in adolescents. However, few of them have examined whether these psychosocial problems form a syndemic, which means the co-occurrence of psychosocial problems accompanied by additional effects on substance use. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 82,812 Chinese adolescents who were selected using a multistage random procedure. Bivariate associations were estimated between selected syndemic indicators and adolescent substance use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the syndemic indicator count score (the count of syndemic indicators) and adolescent substance use. In addition, cluster analysis was used to partition participants reporting at least one of syndemic indicators to assess associations between resolved cluster memberships and adolescent substance use. All selected syndemic indicators were associated with each other and with adolescent substance use. As the number of syndemic indicators increases, stronger associations with substance use were found in our analysis: the range of adjusted OR was from 1.57 (95% CI: 1.38–1.79) for 1 syndemic indicator to 9.45 (95% CI: 7.60–11.76) for 5 or 6 syndemic indicators. There was no effect modification of gender on these additive associations. The multivariate logistic regression indicated that the cluster membership of nonlow SES academic failures has the highest odds of using substance (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 2.12–2.41), compared to students reporting none syndemic indicators. Our findings support the syndemic hypothesis that adolescents bearing multiple psychosocial problems experience additive risks of using substance. Our findings support that a comprehensive approach to substance use prevention in adolescents would necessitate the involvement of a variety of providers. PMID:26717391

  17. Effects of supplementation with two sources and two levels of copper on meat lipid oxidation, meat colour and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities in Nellore beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Correa, Lísia Bertonha; Zanetti, Marcus Antonio; Del Claro, Gustavo Ribeiro; de Paiva, Fernanda Alves; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; Netto, Arlindo Saran

    2014-10-28

    In the present study, thirty-five Nellore bulls were used to determine the effects of two levels and two sources (organic and inorganic) of Cu supplementation on the oxidative stability of lipids, measured by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) test, meat colour and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities. The following treatments were used: (1) control (C) - basal diet without supplementation of Cu (7 mg Cu/kg DM); (2) I10 - basal diet supplemented with 10 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper sulphate (inorganic form); (3) I40 - basal diet supplemented with 40 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper sulphate; (4) O10 - basal diet supplemented with 10 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper proteinate (organic form); (5) O40 - basal diet supplemented with 40 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper proteinate. Lipid oxidation was determined in meat samples exposed to display, modified atmosphere (MA) and vacuum packaging (VC) conditions and in liver samples using the TBARS test. These samples were also evaluated for meat discolouration after exposure to air. The activities of SOD and GSH-Px enzymes were determined in liver samples. In display, MA and VC conditions, the TBARS values of samples from animals supplemented with 40 mg Cu/kg DM were lower than those of samples from control animals. There was no effect of treatment on the colour variables (L*, a*, b*). There was also no significant effect of treatment on hepatic TBARS concentrations and GSH-Px activity. Supplementation with Cu at 40 mg/kg, regardless of the source, induced higher hepatic SOD activity compared with the control treatment. In conclusion, Cu supplementation improved the oxidative stability of lipids in samples exposed to display, MA and VC conditions, demonstrating the antioxidant effect of this mineral.

  18. 76 FR 50236 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention,......

  19. Substance P modulates colitis-associated fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Koon, Hon Wai; Shih, David; Karagiannides, Iordanes; Zhao, Dezheng; Fazelbhoy, Zafeer; Hing, Tressia; Xu, Hua; Lu, Bao; Gerard, Norma; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2010-11-01

    Substance P (SP) and the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) are involved in the development of colitis and mucosal healing after colonic inflammation. We studied whether SP modulates colonic fibrosis by using a chronic model of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and NK-1R-deficient (NK-1R KD) mice. We found increased mRNA expression levels of collagen, vimentin, and the fibrogenic factors transforming growth factor β1 and insulin-like growth factor 1 in the chronically inflamed colons of WT mice treated with repeated intracolonic TNBS administrations. Fibrosis in TNBS-treated mice was also evident immunohistochemically by collagen deposition in the colon. Treatment of TNBS-exposed WT mice with the NK-1R antagonist CJ-12255 reduced colonic inflammation, colonic fibrosis, fibroblast accumulation, and expression levels of the fibrogenic factors. NK-1R knockout mice chronically exposed to TNBS had similar colonic inflammation compared with WT, but reduced colonic fibrosis, fibroblast accumulation, and expression levels of fibrogenic factors. Immunohistochemical staining also showed co-localization of NK-1R with fibroblasts in inflamed colons of mice and in colonic mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease. Exposure of human colonic CCD-18Co fibroblasts to SP (10 nmol/L) increased cell migration. SP stimulated collagen synthesis in CCD-18Co fibroblasts in the presence of transforming growth factor β1 and insulin-like growth factor 1, and this effect was reduced by Akt inhibition. Thus, SP, via NK-1R, promotes intestinal fibrogenesis after chronic colitis by stimulating fibrotic responses in fibroblasts.

  20. Preventing Substance Use among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a computerized gender-specific, parent-involvement intervention program grounded in family interaction theory and aimed at preventing substance use among adolescent girls. Following program delivery and 1 year later, girls randomly assigned to the intervention arm improved more than girls in a control arm on variables associated with reduced risks for substance use, including communication with their mothers, knowledge of family rules about substance use, awareness of parental monitoring of their discretionary time, non-acceptance of peer substance use, problem-solving skills, and ability to refuse peer pressure to use substances. Relative to control-arm girls, those in the intervention arm also reported less 30-day use of alcohol and marijuana and lower intentions to smoke, drink, and take illicit drugs in the future. Girls’ mothers in the intervention arm reported greater improvements after the program and relative to control-arm mothers in their communication with their daughters, establishment of family rules about substance use, and monitoring of their daughters’ discretionary time. Study findings lend support to the potential of gender-specific, parent-involvement, and computerized approaches to preventing substance use among adolescent girls. PMID:19632053

  1. Substance abuse among individuals with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Carroll Chapman, Shawna L; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are a growing population that confronts multiple disadvantages from social and environmental determinants of health. In particular, the 7-8 million people in the U.S. with an intellectual disability (ID) suffer disproportionately from substance use problems, largely because of a lack of empirical evidence to inform prevention and treatment efforts for them. Although available research could inform future research efforts, studies are scattered across disciplines with the last review synthesizing findings written more than five years ago. To consider more recent findings with earlier works, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar were searched and produced 37 peer-reviewed texts across multiple disciplines, 15 from 2006 or later. While the prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug use in this population are low, the risk of having a substance-related problem among ID substance users is comparatively high. Gaps in the research and population subgroups that warrant special attention are identified, such as individuals with borderline and mild ID, individuals with co-occurring mental illness, and individuals who are incarcerated. Compared with substance abusers without ID, ID substance abusers are less likely to receive substance abuse treatment or remain in treatment. Research is needed to better gauge the magnitude of substance use problems, identify prevention strategies, and specify treatment components that meet the unique needs of individuals with ID.

  2. Best practice in workplace hazardous substances management.

    PubMed

    Winder, C

    1995-09-01

    Chemical-induced injury and disease remains a significant problem in workers in industry. As a result of this problem, a number of national and international initiatives have recommended the development of conventions, regulations, and codes of practice to attempt to deal with the problems of hazardous substances at work. Within Australia, workplace hazardous substances regulations are in development which will impose legal obligations and responsibilities on the suppliers of hazardous substances and on the employers who use them. At the same time, internationally consistent ISO standards are in use, or are being developed, for quality systems, environmental management, and occupational health and safety. These standards outline a model for the management of quality, environment, or safety, and the processes involved are applicable to the management of hazardous substances. This process includes: obtaining commitment from senior management; instituting consultative mechanisms; developing a hazardous substances policy; identifying components of the hazardous substances management program; resourcing, implementing, and reviewing the program; and integrating the program into the organisation's strategic plan. Only by blending in a specific management program for hazardous substances into the overall planning of an organization will they be managed effectively and efficiently.

  3. Substance abuse treatment services for pregnant women: psychosocial and behavioral approaches.

    PubMed

    Haug, Nancy A; Duffy, Megan; McCaul, Mary E

    2014-06-01

    Women who use tobacco, alcohol and drugs during pregnancy are at increased risk of maternal and fetal morbidity. Universal screening using empirically validated approaches can improve identification of substance-using pregnant women and facilitate comprehensive assessment of treatment needs. There is strong evidence for effectiveness of psychosocial and behavioral substance abuse treatments across a range of intensities and levels of care. In addition to addressing substance use, services for co-occurring psychiatric disorders, trauma exposure, and prenatal care are important components of coordinated systems of care. More research on and greater access to evidence-based interventions is needed for this underserved population.

  4. Effects of Supplemental Levels of Bazhen on Growth Performances, Serum Traits, Immunity, Meat Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Taiwan Country Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Tu-Fa; Lin, Kou-Joong; Yang, Ling-Ling; Chen, Lih-Geeng

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and sixty Taiwan country chickens (d-old chicks) were randomly assigned into four groups with four replicates and equal sex. Basal diets were supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% of Bazhen powder, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine complex. The study was conducted for 14 wks. Experimental results indicated that Bazhen supplement did not influence feed intake, body weight gain and feed:gain ratio. Compared with control group, the percentage of serum HDL (high-density lipoprotein) linearly increased (p<0.03) and that of VLDL+LDL (very low-density+low-density lipoprotein) linearly decreased (p<0.03) in Bazhen supplemented groups, that 2% Bazhen was significantly different with control group (p<0.05). Chickens fed diets containing 2% Bazhen displayed reduced (p<0.05) serum GOT (glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase) levels. The IgG, γ-globulin levels and PHA (phytohemagglutinin) skin challenge results in 1% Bazhan supplemented group were higher (p<0.05) than in the control group, the SRBC (sheep red blood cell) and ND (newcastle disease) titers in Bazhen supplemented groups were linear higher (p<0.05) than in the control group. The liver catalase activity and the capacity of scavenging DPPH (α-α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) radical were linearly increased (p<0.03) in Bazhen supplemented groups, and the 1 and 2% groups were different from the control group (p<0.05). Liver TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) levels in all Bazhen supplemented groups and total glutathione level in the 2% group were reduced (p<0.05) compared to the control group and displayed a linear response (p<0.05). The TBA (thiobarbituric acid) and pH value of the breast muscle after 24 h post-mortem in the Bazhen supplemented groups was linear lower (p<0.05) than in the control group. Results from this study demonstrated that Bazhen supplement in chicken had several beneficial effects, including increased SRBC and ND titers, HDL and IgG, γ-globulin levels, PHA skin challenge

  5. Developmental cascades: Linking adolescent substance use, affiliation with substance use promoting peers, and academic achievement to adult substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Moira; Handley, Elizabeth; Chassin, Laurie; Bountress, Kaitlin

    2010-01-01

    Using a high-risk community sample (N = 405), the current study examined developmental cascades among substance use, affiliation with substance use promoting peers, and academic achievement over an 18-year period and tested whether these pathways mediated the influence of parental alcoholism on adult alcohol and drug use disorders. Results showed that the influence of parental alcoholism on adult drug disorders was mediated by developmental cascades across all three domains, whereas the influence of parental alcoholism on adult alcohol disorders was mediated through affiliation with substance use promoting peers and persistence in binge drinking. Adolescent drug use had more implications for adult outcomes than did adolescent alcohol use, which was less likely to spill over into other domains of functioning. Findings indicated that adolescent risk factors had indirect rather than unique effects on adult substance use disorders, suggesting that adolescent risk is not immutable and is largely mediated by later influences. PMID:20883589

  6. Accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Francisca; Nadal, Martí; Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Fàbrega, Francesc; Domingo, José L; Barceló, Damià; Farré, Marinella

    2013-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are environmental pollutants with an important bioaccumulation potential. However, their metabolism and distribution in humans are not well studied. In this study, the concentrations of 21 PFASs were analyzed in 99 samples of autopsy tissues (brain, liver, lung, bone, and kidney) from subjects who had been living in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). The samples were analyzed by solvent extraction and online purification by turbulent flow and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The occurrence of PFASs was confirmed in all human tissues. Although PFASs accumulation followed particular trends depending on the specific tissue, some similarities were found. In kidney and lung, perfluorobutanoic acid was the most frequent compound, and at highest concentrations (median values: 263 and 807ng/g in kidney and lung, respectively). In liver and brain, perfluorohexanoic acid showed the maximum levels (median: 68.3 and 141ng/g, respectively), while perfluorooctanoic acid was the most contributively in bone (median: 20.9ng/g). Lung tissues accumulated the highest concentration of PFASs. However, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid were more prevalent in liver and bone, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the accumulation of different PFASs in samples of various human tissues from the same subjects is here reported for the very first time. The current results may be of high importance for the validation of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models, which are being developed for humans. However, further studies on the distribution of the same compounds in the human body are still required.

  7. Legacy and Emerging Perfluoroalkyl Substances Are ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are being replaced by short-chain PFASs and fluorinated alternatives. For ten legacy PFASs and seven recently discovered perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acids (PFECAs), we report (1) their occurrence in the Cape Fear River (CFR) watershed, (2) their fate in water treatment processes, and (3) their adsorbability on powdered activated carbon (PAC). In the headwater region of the CFR basin, PFECAs were not detected in raw water of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP), but concentrations of legacy PFASs were high. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s lifetime health advisory level (70 ng/L) for perfluorooctanesulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was exceeded on 57 of 127 sampling days. In raw water of a DWTP downstream of a PFAS manufacturer, the mean concentration of perfluoro-2-propoxypropanoic acid (PFPrOPrA), a replacement for PFOA, was 631 ng/L (n = 37). Six other PFECAs were detected, with three exhibiting chromatographic peak areas up to 15 times that of PFPrOPrA. At this DWTP, PFECA removal by coagulation, ozonation, biofiltration, and disinfection was negligible. The adsorbability of PFASs on PAC increased with increasing chain length. Replacing one CF2 group with an ether oxygen decreased the affinity of PFASs for PAC, while replacing additional CF2 groups did not lead to further affinity changes. The USEPA’s recently completed Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 3 (UCMR3) p

  8. Survey Highlights Differences In Medicaid Coverage For Substance Use Treatment And Opioid Use Disorder Medications

    PubMed Central

    Grogan, Colleen M.; Andrews, Christina; Abraham, Amanda; Humphreys, Keith; Pollack, Harold A.; Smith, Bikki Tran; Friedmann, Peter D.

    2017-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act requires state Medicaid programs to cover substance use disorder treatment for their Medicaid expansion population but allows states to decide which individual services are reimbursable. To examine how states have defined substance use disorder benefit packages, we used data from 2013–14 that we collected as part of an ongoing nationwide survey of state Medicaid programs. Our findings highlight important state-level differences in coverage for substance use disorder treatment and opioid use disorder medications across the United States. Many states did not cover all levels of care required for effective substance use disorder treatment or medications required for effective opioid use disorder treatment as defined by American Society of Addiction Medicine criteria, which could result in lack of access to needed services for low-income populations. PMID:27920318

  9. Neurobiology of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aditi; Morrow, Jonathan D

    2016-07-01

    There are many facets of the neurobiology of substance use that are distinct in adolescence as compared with adulthood. The adolescent brain is subject to intense subcortical reward processes, but is left with an immature prefrontal control system that is often unable to resist the pull of potentially exciting activities like substance use, even when fully aware of the dangers involved. Peer influences serve only to magnify these effects and foster more sensation-seeking, risky behavior. The unique aspects of neurobiology should be taken into consideration when designing prevention programs and clinical interventions for adolescent substance use disorders.

  10. Investigating widely available substances as vaginal microbicides.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Microbicides to protect women from HIV are urgently needed. Several potential pharmaceutical microbicides are now undergoing obligatory clinical trials to check safety, acceptability and efficacy before approval for use. Microbicides may have side-effects and, paradoxically, their use may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Several widely available substances have been suggested as microbicides, including substances with a low pH such as lemon juice, vinegar, soft drinks and lactobacillus dairy products. Because of the potential for harm it is important that these substances are tested before their use is widely promoted. After small scale safety and acceptability studies, their promotion needs to be evaluated as a communication intervention.

  11. A human model for assessing comedogenic substances.

    PubMed

    Mills, O H; Kligman, A M

    1982-11-01

    Substances that are moderately to strongly comedogenic in the rabbit ear model test have been found to be capable of inducing comedones in the human model described in this report. The test substances are applied under occlusion for one month to the upper part of the backs of young adult, black men who have large follicles. The degree of follicular hyperkeratosis is assessed by a noninvasive "follicular biopsy" techniques, employing a fast-setting cyanoacrylate glue to remove the follicular contents. The rabbit model is more sensitive than the human. Substances that are weakly comedogenic in the rabbit are probably safe for human use with the possible exception of acne-prone persons.

  12. Alcohol Outlets and Substance Use among High Schoolers

    PubMed Central

    Milam, Adam J.; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have considered the potential role of the built environment in increasing adolescent substance use. The current study explored the relationship between alcohol outlets, a potential malleable component of the neighborhood environment, and adolescent behavioral outcomes. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between alcohol outlet density, perceived alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana availability (ATOD), perception of substance use as a problem at the school, and self-reported ATOD use. Data come from Maryland Safe and Supportive Schools (MDS3) Initiative, a statewide project focused on measuring and improving school climate. The sample includes 25,308 adolescents from 58 high schools (9th–12th grade) across 12 counties. Multi-level path models indicated a positive relationship between the count of alcohol outlets and perceived availability of ATOD among girls but not boys. Perceived availability was associated with increased ATOD use at both the individual- and school-level, as well as other students’ ATOD use. Findings provide support for the potential role of the built environment in adolescent risk for substance use, particularly among girls. PMID:27574339

  13. Restructuring public mental health and substance abuse service systems.

    PubMed

    Godbole, A; Temkin, T; Cradock, C

    1998-01-01

    The authors originally circulated the concepts in this proposal during May 1995. The purpose was to support an open, public dialogue regarding the restructuring of the mental health and substance abuse services in Illinois in anticipation of Medicaid funding changes. Restructuring mental health and substance abuse service systems should follow certain key principles. These principles are applicable to other states, particularly those large in territory and population. The authors propose the temporary use of multiple managed care companies serving as administrative services only (ASO) organizations, each of whom would have responsibility for a given geographic portion of a state. The role of the ASOs would be to organize providers into networks on a regional basis and transfer managed care expertise in financing and clinical management to the relevant state departments and provider groups. Changes in the service delivery system would be phased in over time with reorganization of key components of the system during each phase. Where the provision of mental health, substance abuse, and social services is split among multiple state agencies, these agencies would be merged to achieve unified funding and administrative efficiency. Patients and advocacy organizations would play a key role in overseeing and shaping system restructuring at all levels, including a governmental board reporting to the governor, overseeing ASO organizations' operations and assuring quality and access at the provider level. The authors propose funding of public behavioral health services through use of a tiered, integrated funding model.

  14. Social stress, economic hardship, and psychological distress as predictors of sustained abstinence from substance use after treatment.

    PubMed

    Wahler, Elizabeth A; Otis, Melanie D

    2014-11-01

    Social characteristics associated with disadvantage, such as racial/ethnic minority status, female gender, and low socioeconomic status (SES), are often associated with increased psychological distress and substance use disorders. This project tests a conceptual model derived from Pearlin's social stress theory for predicting abstinence from substance use between baseline and 1-year follow-up in secondary data from a large statewide sample of Kentucky substance abuse treatment participants (N = 1,123). Racial minority status, employment, and higher education level were predictive of substance use at follow-up, while female gender was predictive of abstinence. Limitations, implications for practice, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  15. The Notion of Substance in Physical Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanzandt, Joseph David

    The thesis explores the philosophical consequences of adopting the view that the principle of non-contradiction, the principle of sufficient reason, and the monistic notion of substance are more closely linked than most modern and contemporary philosophers have supposed. This thesis is then applied to show the connections between the metaphysical views of Spinoza and the view of nature of Albert Einstein. The first chapter is an historical overview of the principles of sufficient reason and non-contradiction, and the notion of substance, followed by a presentation of the reasons that led the author to conclude that the usual treatment of these concepts requires revision. These reasons are based upon substantial cause theory, developed in the 1970s by Richard Cole. The second and third chapters are an interpretation of Book 1 of Spinoza's Ethics from the viewpoint presented in the first chapter. The implicit role of the principles of non-contradiction and sufficient reason in Spinoza's argument is drawn out through an examination of his definitions, axioms and propositions. The third and fourth chapters are an interpretation and criticism of Immanuel Kant. It is first shown that the common dismissal of Kant's philosophy based upon the discovery of non-Euclidean geometries and the denial of strict causality among some physical events is not well founded; ways in which Kant's framework can accommodate these problems are proposed. It is then argued that Kant's criticism of traditional metaphysics is not conclusive. In particular, Kant's arguments against the possibility of an ontological argument are examined and criticisms of his arguments are presented. The sixth and seventh chapters contain an historical account of the development of physics in the 20th century to illustrate the strong tendency toward unification found in science. It is suggested that this natural tendency to seek ever higher levels of unification is evidence that the principle of sufficient reason

  16. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review.

    PubMed

    Kraanen, Fleur L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2011-04-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex offenders and nonsexual offenders and substance abuse in the normal population; 4) sex offenders' intoxication at the time of the offense; and 5) differences in intoxication at the time of the offense among different types of sex offenders. Studies will be discussed according to the method they used to assess substance abuse, i.e., file research, screening instruments or semi-structured interviews. This review shows that about half of the sex offenders has a history of substance abuse, a quarter to half of the sex offenders has a history of alcohol misuse and that about one fifth to a quarter of the sex offenders has a history of drug misuse. Furthermore, about a quarter to half of the sex offenders appeared to be intoxicated at the time of the offense. The review results in recommendations for future research. Because of the high prevalence of substance abuse in sex offenders it is advisable to routinely screen for substance abuse and, if necessary, to treat substance abuse.

  17. Parenting and children's externalizing problems in substance-abusing families.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent; Kamon, Jody; Burstein, Marcy

    2004-09-01

    This study tested associations in path models among positive and negative parenting and children's rule-breaking behavior, aggressive and oppositional behavior, and attention problems for families with a drug-dependent parent. A structural model tested relations between parenting and children's externalizing problems for 251 families with 399 children between the ages of 6 and 18, controlling for nonindependence of ratings at the family level. The model also tested potential moderators, including child age, gender, and ethnicity (White vs. other), and caregiver gender (families with a female substance-abusing caregiver vs. families with a male substance-abusing caregiver). Results indicated that caregiver ratings of monitoring predicted rule-breaking behavior and use of inconsistent discipline predicted ratings of all 3 externalizing syndromes, after controlling parenting and externalizing problems for the effects of the moderators and after controlling significant relations among types of parenting and types of externalizing problems.

  18. Management of pharmaceutical substances in the environment: Lithuanian case study.

    PubMed

    Baranauskaitė-Fedorova, Inga; Dvarionienė, Jolanta; Nikiforov, Vladimir A

    2016-09-01

    Investigation on the sources, discharges and related risks for the environment of the pharmaceutical substance (PhS) diclofenac (DCF) was performed in Lithuania, a country of the Baltic Sea region, for the first time. The investigation only refers to DCF as a PhS for human use; emissions from animal husbandry were not considered. In the first stage of the research, the main sources and pathways of DCF via substance flow analysis were identified within the country. During the second stage, DCF flows along the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in two different cities were measured in order to assess the current levels of pharmaceutical residues in the environment. Furthermore, environmental risk assessment was carried out by taking into account the parameters of consumption data and elimination rate in WWTPs. Then, the assessment of different technical and managerial removal approaches was accomplished in an environmental management model of wastewater containing PhS, based on the framework of environmental systems theory.

  19. Adolescent Substance Abuse in Mexico, Puerto Rico and The United States: Effect of Anonymous versus Confidential Survey Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, William W.; O'Brien, Megan S.; Vasquez, Marco A.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Rios-Bedoya, Carlos F.; Floyd, Leah J.

    2006-01-01

    Anonymous surveys have been widely used worldwide to describe adolescent substance use yet cannot elucidate causal drug abuse predictors. Studies in the U.S. have generally found that anonymous and confidential surveys yield comparable levels of self-reported substance use, yet the effect of survey format on youth self-report has not been…

  20. Mental Health, Substance Use, and Adaptive Coping among Social Work Students in the Aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemieux, Catherine M.; Plummer, Carol A.; Richardson, Roslyn; Simon, Cassandra E.; Ai, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined mental health symptomology, substance use, and adaptive coping among 416 social work students following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Among participants, 47% scored at or above the clinical level for depression, with 6% of students showing clinical PTSD-like symptoms, and 16.9% reporting substance use. Two thirds (66.9%)…

  1. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Resource Allocation in Rural and Frontier Conditions: The Impact of Including Organizational Readiness to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minugh, P. Allison; Janke, Susan L.; Lomuto, Nicoletta A.; Galloway, Diane K.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Rural and frontier states are significantly affected by substance abuse and poverty. The high rate of substance abuse coupled with high levels of dependence on state-funded treatment systems places a burden on rural treatment systems and makes resource allocation a central planning issue. Purpose: The goal of this study was to combine…

  2. 75 FR 76756 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... substances: Drug Schedule Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (2010) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Methamphetamine... (7370), and Methamphetamine (1105) only, the company manufactures these controlled substances in...

  3. 76 FR 35243 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (2010) I Amphetamine... controlled substances in bulk for distribution and sale to its customers for Amphetamine (1100). The...

  4. Substance use in the perinatal period

    PubMed Central

    Forray, Ariadna; Foster, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal substance use remains a major public health problem and is associated with a number of deleterious maternal and fetal effects. Polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, and can potentiate adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Tobacco is the most commonly used substance in pregnancy, followed by alcohol and illicit substances. The treatments for perinatal substance use are limited and consist mostly of behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Of these contingency management has shown the most efficacy. More recently, novel interventions such as progesterone for postpartum cocaine use have shown promise. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids in the perinatal period, their effects on maternal and fetal health and current treatments. PMID:26386836

  5. The Confusion of Molecular Particles with Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selley, N. J.

    1978-01-01

    Objects to the idea of treating molecular particles, such as molecules and atoms, as equal in kind to substances when discussing chemical reactions, thus confusing their different roles in the theory of matter. (GA)

  6. Toxic Substances; Mesityl Oxide; Final Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a final test rule establishing testing requirements under section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) for manufacturers and processors of mesityl oxide (MO; CAS No. 141-97-7).

  7. Teens Mix Prescription Opioids with Other Substances

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... least one other substance in the past year. Marijuana and alcohol were the most common (58.5% ...

  8. Treating substance abuse: partner and family approaches.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Keith; O'Farrell, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Historically, alcohol and other substance use disorders were viewed as individual-based problems that were most effectively treated by focusing on the diagnosed individual. However, in response to numerous clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy (and often superiority) of couple and family treatments for alcoholism and drug abuse, this emphasis on treating the individual has slowly given way to a greater awareness of family members' crucial roles in the etiology, maintenance, and long-term course of substance use and addictive behavior. As a result, clinicians are increasingly interested in understanding substance misuse from a systemic perspective and exploring how partner- and family-involved interventions may be used to address individuals' substance abuse.

  9. Sleep and substance use disorders: an update.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Deirdre A; Arnedt, J Todd

    2014-10-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD) are common and individuals who suffer from them are prone to relapse. One of the most common consequences of the use of and withdrawal from substances of abuse is sleep disturbance. Substances of abuse affect sleep physiology, including the neurotransmitter systems that regulate the sleep-wake system. Emerging research now highlights an interactive effect between sleep disorders and substance use. New findings in alcohol and sleep research have utilized sophisticated research designs and expanded the scope of EEG and circadian rhythm analyses. Research on marijuana and sleep has progressed with findings on the effects of marijuana withdrawal on objective and subjective measures of sleep. Treatment studies have focused primarily on sleep in alcohol use disorders. Therapies for insomnia in cannabis disorders are needed. Future research is poised to further address mechanisms of sleep disturbance in alcoholics and the effect of medical marijuana on sleep and daytime functioning.

  10. Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota

    SciTech Connect

    Hohreiter, D.W.

    1980-05-01

    The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

  11. Novel psychoactive substances: a novel clinical challenge

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher Daniel; Williams, Margaret; Shaikh, Maliha

    2013-01-01

    The recreational use of novel psychoactive substances in the UK has increased markedly within the last decade. The variety of new substances synthesised and sold as ‘legal’, often under the pretence of being ‘plant food’ or ‘bath salts’ is similarly increasing. This presents challenges to clinicians: they may be unaware of these substances or unable to identify them and their potential for complications and drug interactions. This case describes a patient who ingested a novel psychoactive substance and presented with severe agitation following a delay of several days. He experienced renal, hepatic and neurological complications requiring critical care input. Our case adds to the current repertoire of knowledge regarding the effects of ingestion of novel cathinones. PMID:23964049

  12. Communications in American Politics: Symbols without Substance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.

    1980-01-01

    Political campaigns have been more concerned with public relations than with public policy as a result of television domination. Illustrates how political speeches are dominated by symbols without substance. (CK)

  13. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Dimeff, Linda A.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2008-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a well-established treatment for individuals with multiple and severe psychosocial disorders, including those who are chronically suicidal. Because many such patients have substance use disorders (SUDs), the authors developed DBT for Substance Abusers, which incorporates concepts and modalities designed to promote abstinence and to reduce the length and adverse impact of relapses. Among these are dialectical abstinence, “clear mind,” and attachment strategies that include off-site counseling as well as active attempts to find patients who miss sessions. Several randomized clinical trials have found that DBT for Substance Abusers decreased substance abuse in patients with borderline personality disorder. The treatment also may be helpful for patients who have other severe disorders co-occurring with SUDs or who have not responded to other evidence-based SUD therapies. PMID:18497717

  14. Microcomputer for controlled substance record keeping.

    PubMed

    Stein, R L; Motta, L J; Yee, A D

    1984-01-01

    The use of a microcomputer to maintain controlled substance inventory and record keeping is described. The system maintains perpetual inventories of the central narcotic vault and proof-of-use controlled drug records outstanding at nursing stations. The computerized system has eliminated (1) the delay previously encountered in the posting of transactions from the numeric log to perpetual inventory logs and (2) the potential addition and subtraction errors inherent in a manual system. Computerizing the controlled drug record-keeping system has saved approximately 166 minutes of labor per day, a cost savings of approximately $26. The new system also helps prevent diversion of controlled substances. The computer may also be used for other tasks while not running the controlled substance program. A microcomputer is well suited to the task of controlled-substance record-keeping functions, and the cost of the system (less than $4000) can be quickly recouped in labor savings.

  15. Perfluoroalkyl substances and food allergies in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Buser, Melanie C; Scinicariello, Franco

    2016-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of organic compounds that are persistent in the environment due to their stable carbon-fluorine backbone, which is not susceptible to degradation. Research suggests these chemicals may exert an immunotoxic effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between four PFASs - perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) - with food sensitization and food allergies in adolescent participants (ages 12-19years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 and 2007-2010, respectively. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association between individual PFASs with food sensitization (defined as having at least 1 food-specific IgE level≥0.35kU/L) in NHANES 2005-2006 and food allergies (self-reported) in NHANES 2007-2010. Serum PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS were statistically significantly associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies in NHANES 2007-2010. When using IgE levels as a marker of food sensitization, we found that serum PFNA was inversely associated with food sensitization (NHANES 2005-2006). In conclusion, we found that serum levels of PFASs were associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies. Conversely, adolescents with higher serum PFNA were less likely to be sensitized to food allergens. These results, along with previous studies, warrant further investigation, such as well-designed longitudinal studies.

  16. Gender differences in substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Brady, K T; Randall, C L

    1999-06-01

    Despite the fact that the rate of substance abuse and dependence is higher among men than it is among women, the prevalence rates, especially the more recent ones, indicate that a diagnosis of substance abuse is not gender specific. From the emerging literature on gender differences over the past 25 years, male and female substance abusers are clearly not the same. Women typically begin using substances later than do men, are strongly influenced by spouses or boyfriends to use, report different reasons for maintaining the use of the substances, and enter treatment earlier in the course of their illnesses than do men. Importantly, women also have a significantly higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety, than do men, and these disorders typically predate the onset of substance-abuse problems. For women, substances such as alcohol may be used to self-medicate mood disturbances, whereas for men, this may not be true. Although these comorbid disorders might complicate treatment for women, women are, in fact, responsive to treatment and do as well as men in follow-up. Gender differences and similarities have significant treatment implications. This is especially true for the telescoping phenomenon, in which the window for intervention between progressive landmarks is shorter for women than for men. This is also true for the gender differences in physical and sexual abuse, as well as other psychiatric comorbidity that is evident in female substance abusers seeking treatment. The barriers to treatment for women are being addressed in many treatment settings to encourage more women to enter treatment, and family and couples therapy are standard therapeutic interventions. Negative consequences associated with substance abuse are different for men and women, and gender-sensitive rating instruments must be used to measure not only the severity of the problem but also to evaluate treatment efficacy. To determine whether gender

  17. Do therapist cultural characteristics influence the outcome of substance abuse treatment for Spanish-speaking adults?

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; McCabe, Brian E.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Martino, Steve; Cuzmar, Ivette Y.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Bedregal, Luis; Paris, Manuel; Szapocznik, José

    2010-01-01

    This secondary data analysis of the Clinical Trials Network’s Motivational Enhancement Therapy effectiveness trial with Spanish-speaking substance users examined whether the degree of birthplace and acculturation similarities between clients and therapists, as well as the therapists’ own level of acculturation and birthplace were related to the clients’ participation in treatment and level of substance use during outpatient substance use treatment. Sixteen therapists and their 235 clients from the larger effectiveness trial were included in the analyses for this study. Results of the multilevel regression models for client participation in substance use treatment and client days of substance use taking into account within and between therapist cultural characteristics revealed that birthplace match and acculturation similarity between each therapist and his/her clients did not predict client outcomes. Instead, therapists’ birthplace and level of acculturation independently predicted days of substance use, but not treatment participation for monolingual Spanish-speaking clients. These findings are discussed in the context of the results of the main effectiveness trial and of psychotherapy research with ethnic minority populations, in particular Hispanic minorities. PMID:20438158

  18. Oviposition-Modifying Substances for Mosquitoes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    preference may be due to the presence of oviposition pheromones or oviposition attractants and repellents in natural habitats. These oviposition -modifying...LfD-R125 421 OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR MOSQUITOES(U) 11 I CALIFORNIA UNIV RIVERSIDE DEPT OF ENTOMOLOGY Y HWANG I 91 JUL 81 DANDi?7-79-C...STANDARDS- 1963-A ." !’, -b b’, -1 I- I 1. AD__ _ _ _ * N 3 OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR MOSQUITOES Final Report Yih-Shen Hwang * July 1, 1981

  19. Oviposition-Modifying Substances for Mosquitoes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    high degree of pre- ference in selecting specific oviposition sites in the general area of their breeding sources. This preference may be due to the...7 -Ai5 419 OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR MOSQUITOES(U) /7, CALIFORNIA UNIV RIVERSIDE DEPT OF ENTOMOLOGY Y HWANGICLRSFE 91 SEP 79 DAMD7-?9-C...9026 FO63 N - . L’. ! 1111112. MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESr CHART NATIONAt BURAU Of S1ANDARDS 196J A -17 * 0) AD __ OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR

  20. Preparative isolation of aquatic humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    A useful procedure has been developed which utilizes adsorption chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography, hydrogen saturation by ion exchange, and lypholization to obtain low-ash aqueous humic substances. The preparative concentration of aquatic humic substances is done by multiple reconcentration procedures even though initial concentrations of aqueous humus may be less than 25 ??g/L. The procedure yields concentration factors of 25 000 times for both humic and fulvic acid in water.

  1. The influence of general identity disturbance on reports of lifetime substance use disorders and related outcomes among sexual minority adults with a history of substance use.

    PubMed

    Talley, Amelia E; Tomko, Rachel L; Littlefield, Andrew K; Trull, Timothy J; Sher, Kenneth J

    2011-09-01

    Previous research has shown that sexual minority (i.e., nonheterosexual) individuals report increased problematic substance use involvement, compared with their sexual majority counterparts. We hypothesize that feelings of an unstable sense of self (i.e., identity disturbance) may potentially drive problematic substance use. The purpose of the current study is to examine identity disturbance among sexual minorities as a potential explanatory mechanism of increased sexual minority lifetime rates of substance dependence. Measures of identity disturbance and three indicators of sexual orientation from lifetime female (n = 16,629) and male (n = 13,553) alcohol/illicit drug users in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were examined. Findings generally showed that the increased prevalence of alcohol dependence, illicit drug dependence, and combined alcohol/illicit drug dependence as well as a younger age of alcohol use initiation among sexual minority women was associated with elevated levels of identity disturbance. The results were consistent with a mediational role for identity disturbance in explaining the association between sexual minority status and substance dependence and were generally replicated among male sexual minority respondents. The current research suggests that identity disturbance, a predictor of substance use, may contribute to heightened risk for substance dependence among certain subgroups of sexual minority individuals.

  2. Humic substance formation during wastewater infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L. ); Hildmann-Smed, R.; Filip, Z.K. , Langen . Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene); Jenssen, P.D. . Centre for Soil and Environmental Research)

    1991-01-01

    Soil infiltration of wastewater effluents is a widely practiced method of treatment and disposal/reuse throughout the world. Renovation of the wastewater results from a wide variety of complex physicochemical and biological processes. One set of processes is speculated to involve the accumulation of organic matter by filtration and sorption followed by formation of humic substances. This humic substance formation can effect the performance of soil treatment systems by contributing to soil pore clogging and reduction in hydraulic capacity, and by yielding reactive substances and an enhancement of purification processes. While there has been a wealth of research into the nature and genesis of humic substances in terrestrial environments, there has been limited research of humic substance formation during soil infiltration of wastewater. The purpose of the research reported herein was to determine if humic substances can form under conditions typical of those present during wastewater infiltration into natural soil systems. This work was conducted during 1989 to 1990 as a collaborative effort between the Centre for Soil and Environmental Research, located in Aas, Norway and the Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene located in Langen, West Germany. 11 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Religion, Acculturation, and Incarceration: Determinants of Substance Use among Hispanic Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Benjamin J.; Becerra, Monideepa B.; Gerdine, Miryam C.; Banta, Jim E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The influence of religion, acculturation, and incarceration on substance abuse has been studied, though predominantly among adolescents. Little research exists on how such factors influence substance use among Hispanic adults. The objective of this study was to assess key determinants of substance use among Hispanic adults. Methods. Public access 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was utilized. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted while accounting for complex survey design to obtain population-weighted estimates. Receiver operator curve analysis was used to evaluate the relative contribution of each variable. Results. Importance of religious influence in life and Spanish language interview were associated with lower odds of substance use, while history of incarceration increased the likelihood of substance use among Hispanic adults. Other factors associated with lower odds were increasing age, being female, and currently married. Other factors associated with increased odds were high school graduate and some college in addition to living above the 200% federal poverty level. Discussion. Results from this study add to the limited body of the literature on determinants of substance use among Hispanic adults. Health education measures should target acculturated Hispanic adults and those with incarceration history to reduce substance use. PMID:25214855

  4. School disrepair and substance use among regular and alternative high school students

    PubMed Central

    Black, David; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Gunning, Melissa; Sussman, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Background The physical environment influences adolescent health behavior and personal development. This paper examines the relationship between level of school disrepair and substance use among students attending regular (RHS) and alternative (AHS) high schools. Methods Data were collected from students (N=7,058) participating in two randomized controlled trials of a school-based substance abuse prevention program implemented across the United States. Students provided substance use and demographic information on a self-reported survey. Data for the physical disrepair of schools were collected from individual rater observations of each school environment. We hypothesized that school disrepair would be positively associated with substance use controlling for individual characteristics and an SES proxy. Multilevel mixed modeling was used to test the hypothesized association and accounted for students nested within schools. Results Findings indicated that students attending AHS with greater school disrepair were more likely to report the use of marijuana and other illicit drugs (i.e., cocaine, heroin). Students attending RHS with greater school disrepair were less likely to report smoking cigarettes. Conclusions Differences in findings between RHS and AHS students are discussed, and implications for substance use prevention programming are offered. Students attending AHS with greater school disrepair may require more substance abuse prevention programming, particularly to prevent illicit substance use. PMID:20618621

  5. The Geography of Normative Climates: An Application to Adolescent Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Thrash, Courtney R; Warner, Tara D

    2016-08-01

    The existing research on risk factors for adolescent substance use highlights the importance of peers' direct influence on risky behaviors, yet two key limitations persist. First, there is considerably less attention to the ways in which peers shape overall (e.g., school-level) normative climates of attitudes and expectations about substance use, and, second, the role of the broader geographic contexts in which these climates are embedded is essentially neglected. In light of shifting trends in geographic differences in adolescent substance use, the current study uses data from the 2007 Nebraska Risk and Protective Factor Student Survey (n = 26,647; 80 % non-Hispanic White; 51 % female) to (a) explore whether geographic context shapes the character (permissiveness) and consistency (homogeneity) of normative climates and (b) examine the consequences (effects) of such climates on adolescent substance use risk across the rural-urban continuum. Normative climates are a consistent predictor of substance use, yet the geographic context in which schools are located matters for both the nature and influence of these climates, and the patterns differ between normative climates about alcohol and marijuana. These findings illustrate that school normative climates do indeed matter for substance use behavior, and the ways in which they do depend on their broader, geographic context. Thus, future research on youth's substance use should be attuned to these more nuanced distinctions.

  6. Adolescent Substance Use with Friends: Moderating and Mediating Effects of Parental Monitoring and Peer Activity Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Kiesner, Jeff; Poulin, François; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of using substances with friends on future individual use was examined in the context of parental monitoring rules and the ecology of peer activities. A one-year longitudinal study design included a combined sample of North Italian and French Canadian adolescents (N = 285, 53% girls, M = 14.25 years). Data analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling and multiple regression analyses. As expected, the covariation between parental monitoring and adolescent substance use was mediated by “co-use” with friends. Moreover, the relation between substance use with friends and individual substance use was moderated by parental monitoring rules and the peer activity context. Specifically, the relation between substance co-use with friends and individual substance use was stronger when the level of parental monitoring rules was low and when friends spent their time together primarily in unstructured contexts such as on the street or in park settings. These findings underline the importance of adults’ use of rules to monitor adolescents prone to substance use, and the role of context in facilitating or reducing peer influence. PMID:21165170

  7. Nature and Utilization of Civil Commitment for Substance Abuse in the United States.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Paul P; Pinals, Debra A; Stayton, Taylor; Sanders, Kellie; Blumberg, Lester

    2015-09-01

    Substance abuse is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Although civil commitment has been used to address substance abuse for more than a century, little is known today about the nature and use of substance-related commitment laws in the United States. We examined statutes between July 2010 and October 2012 from all 50 states and the District of Columbia for provisions authorizing civil commitment of adults for substance abuse and recorded the criteria and evidentiary standard for commitment and the location and the maximum duration of commitment orders. High-level state representatives evaluated these data and provided information on the use of commitment. Thirty-three states have statutory provisions for the civil commitment of persons because of substance abuse. The application of these statutes ranged from a few commitment cases to thousands annually. Although dangerousness was the most common basis for commitment, many states permitted it in other contexts. The maximum duration of treatment ranged from less than 1 month to more than 1 year for both initial and subsequent civil commitment orders. These findings show wide variability in the nature and application of civil commitment statutes for substance abuse in the United States. Such diversity reflects a lack of consensus on the role that civil commitment should play in managing substance abuse and the problems associated with it.

  8. Searching for interactive effects in the etiology of early-onset substance use.

    PubMed

    Legrand, L N; McGue, M; Iacono, W G

    1999-11-01

    This study sought to expand the modest literature investigating gene x environment interactions in the prediction of substance use. Our sample consisted of 591 male twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study. Their relative genetic risk was estimated from their parents' substance-related diagnoses and their environmental risk from their affiliations at age 11 with social groups likely to either encourage or discourage substance use. At age 14, the boys' own substance use was assessed. We hypothesized both main effects and an interaction between our genetic- and environmental-risk variables in the prediction of substance use by this young age. We further theorized that the boys' inherited risk might take the form of temperament, specifically externalizing tendencies. Using regression analyses and biometrical modeling, we corroborated earlier research by finding evidence for a significant interactive effect in the etiology of substance use. Our results suggest that low levels of environmental risk may buffer against the potentially unfavorable effects of high familial risk; however, when environmental risk is high, the degree of familial risk is consequential. We were not able to support our second hypothesis; rather, temperament predicted substance use only through shared environmental factors.

  9. Comparing humic substance and protein compound effects on the bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances by Daphnia magna in water.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinghui; Dai, Zhineng; Rabearisoa, Andry Harinaina; Zhao, Pujun; Jiang, Xiaoman

    2015-01-01

    The influence of humic substances and protein compounds on the bioaccumulation of six types of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Daphnia magna was compared. The humic substances included humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA), the protein compounds included chicken egg albumin (albumin) and peptone, and the PFASs included perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid, and perfluorododecanoic acid. Four concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 20 mg L(-1)) of the four dissolved organic matter (DOM) types were investigated. At the 1 mg L(-1) level, HA and albumin enhanced all tested PFAS bioaccumulation, whereas FA and peptone only enhanced the bioaccumulation of shorter-chain PFASs (PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA). However, all four DOM types decreased all tested PFAS bioaccumulation at the 20 mg L(-1) level, and the decreasing ratios of bioaccumulation factors caused by FA, HA, albumin, and peptone were 1-49%, 23-77%, 17-58%, and 8-56%, respectively compared with those without DOM. This is because DOM not only reduced the bioavailable concentrations and uptake rates of PFASs but also lowered the elimination rates of PFASs in D. magna, and these opposite effects would change with different DOM types and concentrations. Although the partition coefficients (L kg(-1)) of PFASs between HA and water (10(4.21)-10(4.98)) were much lower than those between albumin and water (10(4.92)-10(5.86)), their effects on PFAS bioaccumulation were comparable. This study suggests that although PFASs are a type of proteinophilic compounds, humic substances also have important effects on their bioavailability and bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms.

  10. Substance abuse treatment participation and employment outcomes for public disability beneficiaries with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Debra L

    2007-07-01

    Quantitative research methods are used to examine the interaction among public disability benefit receipt, substance abuse, participation in substance abuse treatment, and employment among US adults. Using cross-sectional data from the 2002 and 2003 Survey on Drug Abuse and Health, the results demonstrate that disability beneficiaries who have substance use disorders are more likely to access treatment than persons with substance use disorders who are not beneficiaries. Results could not confirm, however, that those beneficiaries who access treatment are more likely to return to employment than those who do not access treatment.

  11. Stimulation and inhibition of gastrointestinal propulsion induced by substance P and substance K in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, P.

    1985-01-01

    Substance P and substance K (neurokinin A) (dose range: 0.08-80 nmol kg-1) were tested for their effects on gastrointestinal propulsion in the rat. The peptides were given by intraperitoneal injection concurrently with the intragastric administration of a test meal containing charcoal and 51Cr. Examination 3 min after the test meal showed that high doses of substance P (greater than 0.74 nmol kg-1) and substance K (greater than 8.8 nmol kg-1) inhibited gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit. This inhibitory effect was changed to a stimulant effect by pretreatment of the rats with atropine (3.5 mumol kg-1). Guanethidine pretreatment (67 mumol kg-1) revealed a facilitatory effect of low doses of the two tachykinins (about 1 nmol kg-1) on gastrointestinal propulsion. Examination 15 min after the test meal demonstrated that substance P (greater than 0.74 nmol kg-1) dose-dependently enhanced gastrointestinal propulsion, an effect that was also seen after atropine pretreatment. Low doses of substance K (about 1 nmol kg-1) also stimulated gastrointestinal propulsion but this effect was abolished by atropine. In addition, atropine pretreatment revealed a stimulant effect of high doses of substance K (88 nmol kg-1) on gastric emptying. These results show that the effects of substance P and substance K on gastrointestinal propulsion vary with dose and time and involve, at least partly, activation of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:2413940

  12. Chemical substances and contact allergy--244 substances ranked according to allergenic potency.

    PubMed

    Schlede, E; Aberer, W; Fuchs, T; Gerner, I; Lessmann, H; Maurer, T; Rossbacher, R; Stropp, G; Wagner, E; Kayser, D

    2003-12-01

    From 1985 to 2001 a group consisting of thirty experts including dermatologists from universities, representatives from the chemical industry and from regulatory authorities elaborated and consequently decided on the potency ranking of chemicals with contact allergenic properties. These chemicals were defined either as synthetic chemicals or as chemicals identified as ingredients in natural products. On 244 substances clinical and experimental data on humans and results of animal tests as documented in the scientific literature were carefully collected and evaluated. This careful evaluation and assessment of these chemicals clearly demonstrate that ranking of substances according to their allergenic potency is possible and justified. It was decided to rank the most potent contact allergens in Category A of substances having significant allergenic properties. Substances with a solid-based indication of a contact allergenic potential and substances with the capacity of cross-reactions were listed in Category B and substances with insignificant or questionable allergenic effects were listed in Category C. An assessment of these compiled data is published here. Three Appendices give a comprehensive overview of the 98 substances listed in Category A, the 77 substances listed in Category B and the 69 substances listed in Category C.

  13. Predictors of Change in Substance Abuse Status in Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Mehrazmay, Alireza; Karambakhsh, Alireza; Salesi, Mahmood; Heydari, Mostafa; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Military service is a stressful task that influences the life style of army personnel. Several factors can make soldiers less capable of coping with stressful events; so they may try to start drug abuse or increase in the amount or diversity of substance abuse. Understanding factors responsible for this misbehavior among soldiers is crucial for their commanders to modify these factors. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the predictors of change in substance abuse status in soldiers. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional research was conducted to evaluate the substance abuse status among Iranian soldiers in 2010. The target population was the soldiers who had spent at least 3 months of their military service. Cluster sampling was done from army service garrisons in 12 provinces in Iran. A total of 3960 soldiers were selected with different levels of education and age. Data gathering was done with demographic questionnaires, Texas Christian university (TCU) drug screen II and ASI questionnaire (fifth edition). Four types of dependent variables were defined: “improvement”, “without change”, “deterioration”, and “severe deterioration”. Backward ordinal regression analysis was done and P values, OR, and SE were calculated by SPSS19 software. Results: Totally, 6.7% of soldiers improved, 82% remained without change, 6.1% deteriorated, and 5.2% severely deteriorated with regard to their substance abuse. Modifiable predictors were distance from home lower than 200 km (OR =1.54), bad relationship with commanders (OR = 1.88), service place dissatisfaction (OR = 1.39), and always feeling lonely (OR = 1.83). Non-modifiable factors were alcohol use within family and friends (P = 0.000); psychiatric drug use history (OR = 1.72); suicidal attempt history (OR = 1.31); divorce, separation, and extramarital contact (P = 0.001); unemployment (P = 0.019); leisure time dissatisfaction (P = 0.004); living alone (OR = 2.43); and substance abuse

  14. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to

  15. The Relationship Between Controlled Substances and Violence.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Emma E; Choksy, Seema; Wintemute, Garen J

    2016-01-01

    A causal relationship between controlled substances and firearm violence has been widely assumed in the United States, and federal law prohibits individuals who are "unlawful users of or addicted to any controlled substance" from purchasing or possessing firearms (68 FR 3750. 2003. Codified at 27 CFR §478.11). However, the law does a poor job of defining "unlawful users," resulting in recent calls for a revised, actionable definition. Such a definition should be informed by research evidence, but to date the epidemiologic research on the relationship between controlled substances and violence has not been comprehensively reviewed. The initial goal of this review was to summarize the best available evidence on the relationship between controlled substances and firearm violence, but only 1 study specific to firearm violence was identified. We therefore reviewed studies of this relationship using broader measures of interpersonal violence and suicide, all of which included but were not limited to firearm violence, and measures of illicit firearm carrying. Prospective longitudinal studies (n = 22) from 1990 to 2014 were identified by using searches of online databases and citation tracking. Information was extracted from each study by using a standardized protocol. Quality of evidence was independently assessed by 2 reviewers. Aggregate measures of controlled substance use were associated with increased interpersonal violence and suicide, but evidence regarding the relationship between specific substances and violence was mixed. Involvement in illegal drug sales was consistently associated with interpersonal violence. To effectively revise extant federal law and delineate appropriate prohibiting criteria, more research is needed to understand the relationship between controlled substances and firearm violence.

  16. Smoking, alcohol, and substance use and rates of quitting during pregnancy: is it hard to quit?

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Ahmet Bulent; Uslu Yuvaci, Hilal; Yazici, Esra; Halimoglu Caliskan, Ebru; Cevrioglu, Arif Serhan; Erol, Atila

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol and substance use is a major health challenge in Turkey, as it is worldwide. Recently, there has been a rapid increase in the number of females using substances and although usage tends to reduce during pregnancy, it is of critical importance to determine its exact level as substance use negatively impacts on the health of both the mother and infant. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of smoking, alcohol, and substance use, and quitting rates during pregnancy. Method This study was conducted on pregnant females in Sakarya, Turkey. A total of 1,082 consecutively presenting females who agreed to participate in the study were evaluated. The study team prepared a sociodemographic data form and adapted the “Introduction” section, derived from the Addiction Profile Index, to cover substance use during pregnancy. Results The substances most frequently used by pregnant females in their previous pregnancies and current pregnancies were cigarettes/tobacco products (11% and 11.8%, respectively), alcohol (0.6% and 0.4%, respectively), and rarely, synthetic cannabinoids (0.3% and 0.2%, respectively). Daily tobacco smokers continued to smoke during pregnancy, with a rate of 42.5%. Based on research into predictors of smoking (cigarettes) in pregnancy, a correlation was found between lifetime smoking and smoking during a previous pregnancy. A similar link was found with respect to alcohol. Conclusion Cigarettes are the most frequently used substance in pregnancy, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and synthetic cannabinoids, also considered to be risky substances. A high incidence of smoking regularly during pregnancy was found in daily smokers. It is recommended that physicians should sensitively ask pregnant females presenting at clinics about all forms of substance use, including alcohol and synthetic cannabinoids, and to include such questions in their routine enquiries. PMID:27785104

  17. Reward-Related Attentional Bias and Adolescent Substance Use: A Prognostic Relationship?

    PubMed Central

    van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E.; de Jong, Peter J.; Ostafin, Brian D.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2015-01-01

    Current cognitive-motivational addiction theories propose that prioritizing appetitive, reward-related information (attentional bias) plays a vital role in substance abuse behavior. Previous cross-sectional research has shown that adolescent substance use is related to reward-related attentional biases. The present study was designed to extend these findings by testing whether these reward biases have predictive value for adolescent substance use at three-year follow-up. Participants (N = 657, mean age = 16.2 yrs at baseline) were a sub-sample of Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a large longitudinal community cohort study. We used a spatial orienting task as a behavioral index of appetitive-related attentional processes at baseline and a substance use questionnaire at both baseline and three years follow-up. Bivariate correlational analyses showed that enhanced attentional engagement with cues that predicted potential reward and nonpunishment was positively associated with substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis) three years later. However, reward bias was not predictive of changes in substance use. A post-hoc analysis in a selection of adolescents who started using illicit drugs (other than cannabis) in the follow-up period demonstrated that stronger baseline attentional engagement toward cues of nonpunishment was related to a higher level of illicit drug use three years later. The finding that reward bias was not predictive for the increase in substance use in adolescents who already started using substances at baseline, but did show prognostic value in adolescents who initiated drug use in between baseline and follow-up suggests that appetitive bias might be especially important in the initiation stages of adolescent substance use. PMID:25816295

  18. Reviewing the Association between the History of Parental Substance Abuse and the Rate of Child Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoubi-Doust, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Substance abuse is a social, and health problem in Middle Eastern countries such as Iran. One of its most devastating effects is domestic violence against children. This study examined the association between the history of parental substance abuse, and rate of child abuse in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods This was a case-control study. The study population included all parents with high school children in Ahwaz within the academic year 2012-2013. The sample size was 384 people in two groups; with a history of substance abuse (case group) and no history of substance abuse (control group). Multi-stage cluster random sampling method was used through the Cochran formula. The data collection tools included a Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) (Bernstein, 1995), a demographic questionnaire, Duncan Socioeconomic Index (DSI), and a researcher-made questionnaire for the history of substance abuse. For data analysis, statistical indicators such as percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, and correlation and regression analysis were used. Findings Data analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation among parents with a history of substance abuse and domestic violence toward children. Mean and standard deviation of the violence level in families with normal parents were 61.34 ± 16.88, and in families with a history of substance abuse were 98.99 ± 32.07. Therefore, the test results showed that there was a significant difference between normal families and families with history of substance abuse and violence toward children (P < 0.001, t = 8.60). Conclusion Based on the findings, the history of domestic violence and parental substance abuse (physical and emotional abuse, emotional and physical neglect) had a significant positive correlation with their behavior toward their children. After matching the two groups we found that the most common types of violence against children by their parents were, respectively, emotional violence (r = 58

  19. [Consumption of dependency-producing substances in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Torres de Galvis, Y; Murrelle, L

    1989-12-01

    In 1987 a study was made of the consumption of dependency-producing substances in the urban population of Colombia. For this purpose the prevalence survey method was applied to a representative sample of 2,800 individuals between the ages of 12 and 64. The descriptive analysis was supplemented by the exploration of causal associations and measurement of the strength of such associations by means of the prevalence ratio coupled with calculation of the degree of statistical significance. The study included three substances whose consumption is socially accepted--alcohol, tobacco, and tranquilizers--and another three considered to be illicit--basuco (coca-paste), cocaine, and marijuana. Alcohol and tobacco were the two drugs most used by both sexes (560 and 297 per 1,000 subjects studied, respectively). Tranquilizers, the only one of the drugs in the study that was used more by women, ranked third (60 per 1,000). Reported in much smaller proportions were marijuana (11 per 1,000), basuco (6 per 1,000), and cocaine (3 per 1,000). It may be noted that the consumption of basuco has recently reached a level double that of cocaine. Analysis of the use and abuse of these substances by age, marital status, socioeconomic situation, and other variables indicates that the prevalence of consumption is higher in the medium age groups, that unmarried persons are at excess risk compared with those who are married, that men from the upper classes tend to use cocaine and marijuana, and that both sexes in the lower classes use basuco as the drug of preference. Differences in suicide rates between users and nonusers were statistically significant in the population aged 15 to 54, and it was determined that the substances of greatest risk, generally for women, were basuco and marijuana.

  20. Alcohol and substance abuse in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M

    2013-12-27

    This review focuses on alcohol and substance abuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substance abuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substance abuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes.

  1. Comparing the BDI-II and the PHQ-9 with outpatient substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Dum, Mariam; Pickren, Jason; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark B

    2008-02-01

    Because of the high co-occurrence of Axis-I mood disorders with primary substance use disorders (SUD), it is important to routinely assess substance abusers for evidence of a mood disorder. The primary goal of the present study was to examine the psychometric characteristics of two widely used self-report measures of depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II; Patient Health Questionnaire PRIME MD) with substance abusers (N=108) in an outpatient treatment setting. Using Cronbach's alpha, the reliabilities of the BDI-II and the PHQ-9 were 0.95 and 0.91, respectively. Principal component factor analyses of both measures were conducted to evaluate the relationship between a 3-factor solution (cognitive, affective, and somatic) for the BDI-II and a 1-factor solution for the PHQ-9 (depression). Both measures were correlated with severity levels of alcohol and drug use. Advantages and disadvantages of using both measures with substance abusers are discussed.

  2. Substance abuse treatment providers' explicit and implicit attitudes regarding sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Bryan N; Peavy, K Michelle; Cauce, Ana Mari

    2007-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals have been found to have elevated rates of substance use disorders when compared with heterosexuals. However, little is known about the challenges a sexual minority might face in presenting for substance use treatment. In this study, treatment providers' attitudes toward LGBT individuals were assessed among a sample of 46 substance abuse treatment counselors who provide publicly funded treatment. Participants completed both explicit measures of heterosexist bias and an implicit measure designed to assess for biases that exist at an automatic, uncontrolled level. Results indicate that treatment counselors' negative biases regarding LGBT individuals were stronger for heterosexual counselors and for those with few LGBT friends. However, biases among this sample were significantly less than in comparison samples. Findings were also related to a newly developed measure of cultural competence in working with LGBT substance users. Implications for provision of appropriate services and recommendations to treatment agencies are discussed.

  3. Urban and rural differences in the relationship between substance use and violence.

    PubMed

    Goodrum, Sarah; Wiese, H Jean; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2004-10-01

    This article examines the relationship between substance use and violence across rural-urban and Appalachian places of residence. The data come from a larger study on the health service use of 637 men who have a history of chronic substance abuse and who were incarcerated in four Kentucky prisons. The findings generally support previous research on substance use and violence but do not support Fischer's (1995) subculture theory of urbanism. Contrary to expectations, the population size of the prisoners' residence was not significantly associated with the prisoners' levels of violent victimization, violence toward others, violence toward intimate partners, or overall violence in the year prior to incarceration. Appalachian residency was also not associated with violence. Recognizing that the effect of substance use on violence perpetrated against others does not vary significantly by urban or rural residence may be helpful for designing violence prevention programs and planning law enforcement efforts.

  4. Psychological Distress, Substance Use, and Adjustment among Parents Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Kirshenbaum, Sheri B.; Pinto, Rogério M.; Kittel, Lauren; Pequegnat, Willo; Mickalian, Joanne D.; Weinhardt, Lance S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2005-01-01

    Background: Being a parent, especially a custodial parent, living with HIV was anticipated to increase psychological distress and challenges to self-care. Methods: Mental health symptoms, substance use, and health care utilization were assessed among 3,818 HIV-infected adults, including custodial parents, noncustodial parents, and nonparents, in four AIDS epicenters. Results: Custodial parents demonstrated significantly poorer medication adherence and attendance at medical appointments, but were similar to nonparents and noncustodial parents in mental health symptoms and treatment utilization for mental health and substance use problems. Noncustodial parents demonstrated the highest levels of recent substance use and substance abuse treatment. Many of the apparent psychosocial disadvantages exhibited by parents were moderated by other markers of risk, such as African-American ethnicity, lack of current employment income, and injection drug use. Conclusions: Interventions specific to the psychosocial stressors facing families living with HIV are needed. PMID:16148246

  5. Alcohol and Psychoactive Substance Use among University Students in Edirne and Related Parameters

    PubMed Central

    GÖRGÜLÜ, Yasemin; ÇAKIR, Diğdem; SÖNMEZ, Mehmet Bülent; KÖSE ÇINAR, Rugül; VARDAR, Mehmet Erdal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol and psychoactive substance use and their effects are an important issue among adolescents and young adults. Different results have been reported about the frequency of alcohol and psychoactive substance use among university students in studies conducted both in Turkey and in different places worldwide. Methods The frequency of alcohol and psychoactive substance use among Trakya University students (n=1385) and the related parameters were studied cross-sectionally using a self-reporting questionnaire. Results Alcohol was the most common substance used (30%), followed by tobacco (29.9%) and marijuana (3.1%). The frequency of alcohol and psychoactive substance use was found to be higher among males with higher amounts of pocket money, whose parents experienced more conflict in their relationship, and who belong to families with a higher education and income level. Conclusion The frequency of alcohol and psychoactive substance use among Trakya University students was found to be lower than other regions in Turkey and particularly lower than the levels reported in studies conducted in other countries. PMID:28360790

  6. Racial Identification, Racial Composition, and Substance Use Vulnerability Among African American Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Michelle L.; Gerrard, Meg; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Houlihan, Amy E.; Lorenz, Fred O.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Two studies examined racial identity (RI) as a protective factor against substance-related cognitions and substance use among Black adolescents and young adults living in high versus low percentage Black social environments. Method Using structural equation modeling techniques, Study 1 examined longer term effects of RI on substance use cognitions and behaviors among 720 Black adolescents. Study 2 examined the impact of RI and percentage Black peer environment on alcohol use among 203 Black young adults. Results Study 1 revealed that RI was prospectively associated with lower levels of perceived friends’ use and lower favorability of the substance user prototype and, in turn, lower substance willingness and use, but only among Black adolescents in predominantly White neighborhoods. These adolescents also reported greater access to substances. In Study 2, low RI Black young adults who reported predominantly White peer environments reported the highest levels of alcohol use. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of RI among Black youth and the impact of the social context on the health risk behaviors of adolescents and young adults. This research also demonstrates the utility of social psychological models, such as the prototype–willingness model, to examine mediating and moderating effects of individual differences and contextual factors on health risk cognitions and behavior. Theoretical and applied implications of the results are discussed. PMID:23088177

  7. Community and school drug prevention strategy prevalence: differential effects by setting and substance.

    PubMed

    VanderWaal, Curtis J; Powell, Lisa M; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Bao, Yanjun; Flay, Brian R

    2005-07-01

    This study used key informant interviews and student survey data in 508 U.S. communities to examine relationships between the prevalence of community and non-classroom-based school substance prevention strategies and teen substance use rates. After controlling for covariates, analyses indicated that: (1) adult-supervised after-school activities were significantly related to lower past 30-day cigarette smoking and both past 30-day alcohol use and binge drinking; (2) unsupervised after-school recreational facilities were significantly associated with both lower past 30-day cigarette smoking and current daily smoking; (3) community activities to reduce substance use were significantly related to lower binge drinking; and (4) student organizations to prevent alcohol abuse were significantly related to lower binge drinking. Communities need a broad spectrum of strategies to address variation in substance use among youth. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: Policymakers at the school, community, state, and federal levels will benefit from knowing that after-school activities for teens typically result in reliable (though often modest) reductions in substance use in this large national sample. This is a strategy that works, but the effects are likely to vary by setting, level of supervision, substance, and program implementation.

  8. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Kotthoff, Matthias; Müller, Josef; Jürling, Heinrich; Schlummer, Martin; Fiedler, Dominik

    2015-10-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are used in a wide range of products of all day life. Due to their toxicological potential, an emerging focus is directed towards their exposure to humans. This study investigated the PFAS load of consumer products in a broad perspective. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (C4, C6-C8, C10-PFSA), carboxylic acids (C4-C14-PFCA) and fluorotelomer alcohols (4:2, 6:2; 8:2 and 10:2 FTOH) were analysed in 115 random samples of consumer products including textiles (outdoor materials), carpets, cleaning and impregnating agents, leather samples, baking and sandwich papers, paper baking forms and ski waxes. PFCA and PFSA were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS, whereas FTOH were detected by GC/CI-MS. Consumer products such as cleaning agents or some baking and sandwich papers show low or negligible PFSA and PFCA contents. On the other hand, high PFAS levels were identified in ski waxes (up to about 2000 μg/kg PFOA), leather samples (up to about 200 μg/kg PFBA and 120 μg/kg PFBS), outdoor textiles (up to 19 μg/m(2) PFOA) and some other baking papers (up to 15 μg/m(2) PFOA). Moreover, some test samples like carpet and leather samples and outdoor materials exceeded the EU regulatory threshold value for PFOS (1 μg/m(2)). A diverse mixture of PFASs can be found in consumer products for all fields of daily use in varying concentrations. This study proves the importance of screening and monitoring of consumer products for PFAS loads and the necessity for an action to regulate the use of PFASs, especially PFOA, in consumer products.

  9. Current challenges and problems in the field of new psychoactive substances in Germany from a law enforcement perspective.

    PubMed

    Duffert, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, a range of so-called new psychoactive substances (NPS) have established themselves on the German recreational drug scene, causing increased concern. At the same time, a great number of Internet shops have come into existence offering these substances for sale online, ensuring a high level of availability. A number of these substances derived from pharmaceutical research which did not result in marketing authorization, presumably due to unfavourable properties. There are hardly any reliable data on long-term health damage, addictive potential, and other aspects of these scientifically unexplored substances. A number of fatal intoxications have also become known. As a rule, the mostly young consumers do not know what substance they are taking and in what concentration, thus exposing themselves to incalculable health risks and consequences. The punishability of the handling of NPS depends on the actual content: the Narcotic Drugs Act (BtMG) is applicable if a product contains narcotic drugs. If similarly effective substances are contained, which are not classified as narcotic drugs, the (penal) provisions of the Medicinal Products Act might be applicable, if the product has a pharmaceutical effect. Experience gained so far has shown that manufacturers of these intoxicating substances react immediately to inclusions in the German BtMG and put new substances on the market which are chemically similar to the known substances thus circumventing legislation. In view of the immense variety of NPS and the enormous profits derived from their sale, an end to this development is not in sight.

  10. Effect of BCAA intake during endurance exercises on fatigue substances, muscle damage substances, and energy metabolism substances.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Jeong, Woo-Seok; Lee, Ha-Yan

    2013-12-01

    The increase rate of utilization of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) by muscle is reduced to its plasma concentration during prolonged exercise leading to glycogen. BCAA supplementation would reduce the serum activities of intramuscular enzymes associated with muscle damage. To examine the effects of BCAA administration on fatigue substances (serotonin, ammonia and lactate), muscle damage substances (CK and LDH) and energy metabolism substances (FFA and glucose) after endurance exercise. Subjects (n = 26, college-aged males) were randomly divided into an experimental (n = 13, EXP) and a placebo (n = 13, CON) group. Subjects both EXP and CON performed a bout of cycle training (70% VO2max intensity) to exhaustion. Subject in the EXP were administrated BCAA (78ml/kg·w) prior to the bout of cycle exercise. Fatigue substances, muscle damage substances and energy metabolism substances were measured before ingesting BCAAs and placebos, 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, immediately after exercise, and 30 min after exercise. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measure ANCOVA, correlation and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The following results were obtained from this study; 1. In the change of fatigue substances : Serotonin in the EXP tended to decreased at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, post exercise, and recovery 30 min. Serotonin in the CON was significantly greater than the EXP at the10 min before exercise and recovery 30. Ammonia in the EXP was increased at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, and post exercise, but significantly decreased at the recovery 30min (p < 0.05). Ammonia in the CON was significantly lower than the EXP at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, and post exercise (p < 0.05). Lactate in the EXP was significantly increased at the 30 min into exercise and significantly decreased at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. Lactate in the CON was significantly lower than the EXP

  11. 48 CFR 245.7310-5 - Controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controlled substances. 245... Controlled substances. The sale of controlled substances, e.g., narcotics, stimulants, depressants, or hallucinogenic drugs, shall be subject to the following special conditions: (a) Controlled Substances. Bids...

  12. 78 FR 30330 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Title 21, Code... class of controlled substance listed in schedule II. The facility intends to import the above listed controlled substance for legitimate use. Supplies of this particular controlled substance are inadequate...

  13. Review of the Proposed "DSM-5" Substance Use Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, K. Dayle; Gill, Carman; Ray, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    The "DSM-5" Task Force has recommended a new substance use disorder to replace substance abuse and dependence. This article provides an overview of substance abuse and dependence, a description of the "DSM-5" substance use disorder, and implications and potential consequences of this change.

  14. 40 CFR 766.25 - Chemical substances for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical substances for testing. 766... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.25 Chemical substances for testing. (a) Listing of chemical substances. Chemical...

  15. 40 CFR 766.25 - Chemical substances for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemical substances for testing. 766... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.25 Chemical substances for testing. (a) Listing of chemical substances. Chemical...

  16. 40 CFR 766.25 - Chemical substances for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemical substances for testing. 766... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.25 Chemical substances for testing. (a) Listing of chemical substances. Chemical...

  17. 40 CFR 766.25 - Chemical substances for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical substances for testing. 766... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.25 Chemical substances for testing. (a) Listing of chemical substances. Chemical...

  18. 40 CFR 766.25 - Chemical substances for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemical substances for testing. 766... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.25 Chemical substances for testing. (a) Listing of chemical substances. Chemical...

  19. 48 CFR 52.223-11 - Ozone-Depleting Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...

  20. 48 CFR 52.223-11 - Ozone-Depleting Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...

  1. 48 CFR 52.223-11 - Ozone-Depleting Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...

  2. 48 CFR 52.223-11 - Ozone-Depleting Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...

  3. 48 CFR 52.223-11 - Ozone-Depleting Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...

  4. 30 CFR 56.16012 - Storage of incompatible substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of incompatible substances. 56.16012... Storage and Handling § 56.16012 Storage of incompatible substances. Chemical substances, including... substances, where such contact could cause a violent reaction or the liberation of harmful fumes or gases....

  5. 30 CFR 57.16012 - Storage of incompatible substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of incompatible substances. 57.16012... Storage and Handling § 57.16012 Storage of incompatible substances. Chemical substances, including... substances, where such contact could cause a violent reaction or the liberation of harmful fumes or gases....

  6. Adolescent Alcohol and Substance Abuse: Parent and Peer Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halebsky, Mark A.

    1987-01-01

    Researched the effects of peer and parent drug usage on substance abuse by the adolescent. Found parent usage correlated with increased adolescent usage, as did parental attitude toward illicit substance use. Supports Kandel's theory of stages of substance use. Shows adolescent substance usage is learned, in part, by modeling and imitation.…

  7. Playing video games while using or feeling the effects of substances: associations with substance use problems.

    PubMed

    Ream, Geoffrey L; Elliott, Luther C; Dunlap, Eloise

    2011-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance--referred to herein as "concurrent use"-is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabé Morán's 2002 problem video game play (PVP) measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for "drug interaction" between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use.

  8. Sustainability, substance flow management and time. Part I Temporal analysis of substance flows.

    PubMed

    Kümmerer, Klaus; Hofmeister, Sabine

    2008-09-01

    Flows of chemical substances need to be managed in a sustainable way. Sustainable development as a whole and the sustainable management of substance flows in particular are both time issues. These include the importance of the dynamics of substance flows and the way these interconnect with the use of resources, the avoidance of environmental pollution, and their effects on health and food production. Another prerequisite for the proper management of substance flows is justice within and between generations. This requires a systematic approach and a systematic analysis of the issues as well as of the actions to be taken. One tool for such a systematic approach is temporal analysis. It brings the temporal aspects of the substances themselves and of their intended use, as well as factors affecting the stakeholders, such as decision makers, producers and consumers, into focus. In the past, timing factors were rarely taken into account. Knowledge of the temporal dynamics of substance flows and their resultant outcomes, as well as of their interaction with ecological, economic and social systems, is a basic requirement for successful substance flow management. The need to include temporal aspects into substance flow management and how to do so is outlined here. Included are not only politicians but also practitioners and scientists who must explicitly take into account adequate time scales, points in time, breaks and other forms of time in planning and acting.

  9. Substance Abuse Training and Perceived Knowledge: Predictors of Perceived Preparedness to Work in Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bina, Rena; Yum, Joohee; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Sowbel, Lynda; Mollette, Angela; Jani, Jayshree; Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2008-01-01

    As frontline mental health care providers, social workers need to be prepared to confront and properly manage substance abuse issues in practice. This study examined predictors of recent master of social work (MSW) graduates' perceptions of preparedness to practice in the area of substance abuse. A cross-sectional design was used, and 232 recent…

  10. Attitude and Peer Influences on Adolescent Substance Use: The Moderating Effect of Age, Sex, and Substance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Holub, Shayla C.; Arnett, Mitzi

    2003-01-01

    Examines the importance of peer influence and personal attitudes in relation to self-reported use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana for 213 younger adolescents and 219 older adolescents. Friends' use was significantly related to substance use for both age groups, both sexes, and all substances examined. Resistance self- efficacy was…

  11. Effects of Substance Use Education Programs: Gender Differences in Student Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venuti, John Paul; Conroy, Matthew; Landis, Pamela; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study assesses the differential substance use between male and female college students through the administration of a survey of recent use of six commonly used psychoactive substances (cigarettes, chewing tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and caffeine). It investigates the situational contexts associated with use of particular substances…

  12. Beta-endorphin, but not substance-P, is increased by acute stress in humans.

    PubMed

    Schedlowski, M; Flüge, T; Richter, S; Tewes, U; Schmidt, R E; Wagner, T O

    1995-01-01

    The role of neuropeptides in the psychoneuroendocrinological stress response is largely unknown. In this study the effect of acute psychological stress on beta-endorphin and substance-P plasma concentrations was investigated and further the effect of different anxiety levels or control attributions on beta-endorphin or substance-P levels were determined. Blood samples were obtained from 47 inexperienced tandem-parachutists 2 h before, immediately after, and 1 h after a parachute jump and plasma concentrations of beta-endorphin and substance-P were analysed. Anxiety levels and control attributions were assessed by psychometric scales. Whereas substance-P concentrations seemed to be unaffected by the jump stress, there was a transient but significant increase in beta-endorphin levels immediately after jumping. However, subjects higher in state-anxiety at the point of jumping (exit) displayed higher substance-P values at all three time points compared to the "low-anxiety" jumpers. In addition, stress-induced beta-endorphin secretion was dependent on subjective control attributions.

  13. Sources of sedimentary humic substances: vascular plant debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertel, John R.; Hedges, John I.

    1985-10-01

    A modern Washington continental shelf sediment was fractionated densimetrically using either an organic solvent, CBrCl 3, or aqueous ZnCl 2. The resulting low density materials (<2.06 g/ml) account for only 1% of the sediment mass but contain 25% of the sedimentary organic carbon and 53% of the lignin. The C/N ratios (30-40) and lignin phenol yields ( Λ = 8) and compositions indicate that the low density materials are essentially pure vascular plant debris which is slightly enriched in woody ( versus nonwoody) tissues compared to the bulk sediment. The low density materials yield approximately one-third of their organic carbon as humic substances and contribute 23% and 14% of the total sedimentary humic and fulvic acids, respectively. Assuming that the lignin remaining in the sedimentary fraction is also contained in plant fragments that yield similar levels of humic substances, then 50% and 30% of the total humic and fulvic acids, respectively, arise directly from plant debris. Base-extraction of fresh and naturally degraded vascular plant materials reveals that significant levels of humic and fulvic acids are obtained using classical extraction techniques. Approximately 1-2% of the carbon from fresh woods and 10-25% from leaves and bark were isolated as humic acids and 2-4 times those levels as fulvic acids. A highly degraded hardwood yielded up to 44% of its carbon as humic and fulvic acids. The humic acids from fresh plants are generally enriched in lignin components relative to carbohydrates and recognizable biochemicals account for up to 50% of the total carbon. Humic and fulvic acids extracted directly from sedimentary plant debris could be responsible for a major fraction of the biochemical component of humic substances.

  14. Oral health of substance-dependent individuals: impact of specific substances.

    PubMed

    D'Amore, Meredith M; Cheng, Debbie M; Kressin, Nancy R; Jones, Judith; Samet, Jeffrey H; Winter, Michael; Kim, Theresa W; Saitz, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Little is known about how different types of substances affect oral health. Our objective was to examine the respective effects of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, and marijuana on oral health in substance-dependent persons. Using self-reported data from 563 substance-dependent individuals, we found that most reported unsatisfactory oral health, with their most recent dental visit more than 1 year ago. In multivariable logistic regressions, none of the substance types were significantly associated with oral health status. However, opioid use was significantly related to a worse overall oral health rating compared to 1 year ago. These findings highlight the poor oral health of individuals with substance dependence and the need to address declining oral health among opioid users. General health and specialty addiction care providers should be aware of oral health problems among these patients. In addition, engagement into addiction and medical care may be facilitated by addressing oral health concerns.

  15. A global survey of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface soils in remote and urban environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The heightened attention placed on perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) over the past decades has led to their detection in many environmental and biological compartments. A detailed understanding of PFAS levels in these compartments is an important step towards ...

  16. Demographic differences in substance use problems among juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ching-hua; Kingree, J B; Thompson, Martie

    2007-01-01

    This article presents two studies that used community-based, national samples of adolescents to compare demographic differences between delinquent and nondelinquent respondents. Results indicated that ethnic differences in alcohol problems were similar in the delinquent and nondelinquent groups, with whites reporting higher levels of alcohol problems. In contrast, age differences were smaller among delinquents than nondelinquents, which pointed to a heightened risk for both alcohol and marijuana problems among younger delinquents. Future research can explore biological and psychosocial factors that increase risk for substance problems among younger delinquents.

  17. Social functioning and internalized stigma in individuals diagnosed with substance use disorder.

    PubMed

    Can, Ganime; Tanrıverdi, Derya

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this descriptive study was to determine social functioning and internalized stigma in individuals with substance use disorder. The study sample consisted of 105 patients diagnosed with substance use disorder according to the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria. A Descriptive Information Form, Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMI) and Social Functioning Scale (SFS) were used for data collection. Average total SFS score of the patients was 103.25±25.09 points, indicating an intermediate level of social functioning. Average total ISMI score of patients was 2.92±0.48 points, reflecting a high level of internalized stigma. A negative significant association was observed between the internalized stigma levels and social functioning of patients. These results suggest that rehabilitation of substance users should include counseling services in order to reduce internal perception of stigma and improve their social functioning.

  18. Novel psychoactive substances of interest for psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Schifano, Fabrizio; Orsolini, Laura; Duccio Papanti, G; Corkery, John M

    2015-01-01

    Novel psychoactive substances include synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone derivatives, psychedelic phenethylamines, novel stimulants, synthetic opioids, tryptamine derivatives, phencyclidine-like dissociatives, piperazines, GABA-A/B receptor agonists, a range of prescribed medications, psychoactive plants/herbs, and a large series of performance and image enhancing drugs. Users are typically attracted by these substances due to their intense psychoactive effects and likely lack of detection in routine drug screenings. This paper aims at providing psychiatrists with updated knowledge of the clinical pharmacology and psychopathological consequences of the use of these substances. Indeed, these drugs act on a range of neurotransmitter pathways/receptors whose imbalance has been associated with psychopathological conditions, including dopamine, cannabinoid CB1, GABA-A/B, 5-HT2A, glutamate, and k opioid receptors. An overall approach in terms of clinical management is briefly discussed. PMID:25655145

  19. Occupational turnover intentions among substance abuse counselors

    PubMed Central

    Rothrauff, Tanja C.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Bride, Brian E.; Roman, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of occupational turnover intention (OcTI) among substance abuse counselors. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 929 counselors working in 225 private substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs across the U.S. Hierarchical multiple regression models were conducted to assess predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of OcTI. OcTI scores were relatively low on a 7-point scale, indicating that very few counselors definitely intended to leave the SAT field. Age, certification, positive perceptions of procedural and distributive justice, and hospital-based status negatively predicted OcTI. Counselors’ substance use disorder impacted history moderated the association between organizational commitment and OcTI. Organizational turnover intention partially mediated the link between organizational commitment and OcTI. Workforce stability might be achieved by promoting perceptions of advantages to working in a particular treatment program, organizational commitment, showing appreciation for counselors’ work, and valuing employees from diverse backgrounds. PMID:20947285

  20. Liver abnormalities in drug and substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Pateria, Puraskar; de Boer, Bastiaan; MacQuillan, Gerry

    2013-08-01

    Drug and substance abuse remains a major medical problem. Alcohol use, abuse and dependence are highly prevalent conditions. Alcohol related liver disease can present as simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. Paracetamol hepatotoxicity secondary to accidental or deliberate overdose is another common problem. While the adverse cardiovascular, neurological, renal and psychiatric consequences of various illicit substance abuses are widely studied and publicized, less attention has been directed towards possible hepatotoxic effects. Illicit drug abuse can cause a range of liver abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic derangement of liver function tests to fulminant hepatic failure. This article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, investigations, management and prognostic factors of alcohol related liver disease and paracetamol hepatotoxicity as well as the current knowledge pertaining to hepatotoxicity of the more commonly used illicit substances including cannabis, amphetamine type stimulants, cocaine, khat chewing and complementary and alternate medicine.

  1. Sociocultural perspective of substance use in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H K

    1996-01-01

    The present communication focuses on a sociocultural perspective of substance use in a pluralistic and diverse culture. India has a history of use of plant products, viz., cannabis, opium, and home-brewed alcoholic beverages, within a defined sociocultural framework over five millennium. Cross sectional epidemiological studies in the field of substance use in different parts of India show that certain social groups are more "vulnerable" to substance use. Caste, religion, and local customs and traditions play a significant role in the choice of drugs, their consumption, and their control in rural/semiurban populations. The intercultural barriers are diminishing in urban populations, and even alien drugs like heroin have been introduced. The social and cultural implications of the traditional vis-a-vis the altering drug use scene are discussed at length.

  2. An integral approach to substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Amodia, Diana S; Cano, Carol; Eliason, Michele J

    2005-12-01

    There is a pressing need in the substance abuse field for more comprehensive models of etiology and treatment that address the complex issues of addiction, including the biological, social, cultural, spiritual and developmental needs of individuals and groups. This article presents a theoretical framework for an integral approach to substance abuse that expands on the existing biopsychosocial model. One contribution of the model is an integrated approach to spirituality from a cross-cultural perspective. This integral approach examines substance abuse etiology and treatment from a four-quadrant perspective adapted from the work of Ken Wilber, and incorporates concepts from integrative medicine and transpersonal psychology/psychiatry. Implications of the model are explored.

  3. [Is substance abuse among physicians a problem?].

    PubMed

    Akvardar, Yildiz; Türkcan, Ahmet; Cakmak, Duran

    2002-01-01

    In today's medical community, there is growing concern about substance use among physicians, not only because of their own health, but also because of the potential adverse effects on their clinical practices. Physicians affect public health both by treatment and preventive studies and as role models. Prevalence data concerning substance abuse are generally lacking. There is no consensus on the rates of substance abuse being higher among physicians than among the general public. Physicians are less likely to smoke cigarettes and use illicit substances (like marijuana, cocaine and heroin) and more likely to use alcohol and two types of prescription medications--benzodiazepines and minor opioids--compared with their age groups. Doctors are at special risk of developing addiction problems owing to the strain of medical practice, erosion of the taboo against injecting and using opiates, and particularly access to supplies. The most common precipitating factors mentioned are physical pain and illness, usually chronic, with family tragedy such as death of a wife or child next. The third most common factor is an addicted wife. Stress, overwork and marital problems are also mentioned. No data were found about physicians' substance use in Turkey. This article generally aims to review the knowledge on the prevalence of substance use among physicians, the drug of choice, the development of dependence, the treatment and prognosis and to discuss the importance of this issue by evaluating three cases treated at the Alcohol and Drug Addiction Treatment and Research Center (AMATEM), Bakirköy State Hospital for Mental and Neurological Diseases.

  4. Risk management of undesirable substances in feed following updated risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Verstraete, Frans

    2013-08-01

    Directive 2002/32/EC of 7 May 2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed is the framework for the EU action on undesirable substances in feed. This framework Directive provides: ⁎that products intended for animal feed may enter for use in the Union from third countries, be put into circulation and/or used in the Union only if they are sound, genuine and of merchantable quality and therefore when correctly used do not represent any danger to human health, animal health or to the environment or could adversely affect livestock production. ⁎that in order to protect animal and public health and the environment, maximum levels for specific undesirable substances shall be established where necessary. ⁎for mandatory consultation of a scientific body (EFSA) for all provisions which may have an effect upon public health or animal health or on the environment. ⁎that products intended for animal feed containing levels of an undesirable substance that exceed the established maximum level may not be mixed for dilution purposes with the same, or other, products intended for animal feed and may not be used for the production of compound feed. Based on the provisions and principles laid down in this framework Directive, maximum levels for a whole range of undesirable substances have been established at EU level. During the discussions in view of the adoption of Directive 2002/32/EC, the European Commission made the commitment to review all existing provisions on undesirable substances on the basis of updated scientific risk assessments. Following requests of the European Commission, the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has completed a series of 30 risk assessments undertaken over the last 5 years on undesirable substances in animal feed reviewing the possible risks for animal and human health due to the presence of these substances in animal feed. EU legislation

  5. Effects of a medium chain triglyceride oil mixture and alpha-lipoic acid diet on body composition, antioxidant status, and plasma lipid levels in the Golden Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Wollin, Stephanie D; Wang, Yanwen; Kubow, Stan; Jones, Peter J H

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALP) versus a medium chain triglyceride oil mixture (MCTo), which was designed to increase energy expenditure and to improve lipid profiles containing medium chain triglycerides, phytosterols, and omega-3 fatty acids in the form of flaxseed oil. A total of 48 hamsters were fed a) hypercholesterolemic (HC) control, b) HC MCTo, c) HC ALP, or d) HC MCTo/ALP diet for 4 weeks. No differences were observed on food intake, body weight, total body water, lean and fat mass, and tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). ALP alone had no effect on total cholesterol (TC); however, MCTo feeding increased TC with (P < 0.03) and without (P < 0.003) ALP when compared with control. ALP increased HDL levels compared with control (P < 0.04) and MCTo/ALP (P < 0.007) groups. MCTo, with (P < 0.0001) or without (P < 0.006) ALP, increased non-HDL cholesterol levels versus control. The non-HDL:HDL cholesterol ratio was decreased by ALP compared with MCTo (45%) and MCTo/ALP (68%) (P < 0.0001), a similar trend was seen when compared with the HC control (22%) group (P < 0.14). Triglyceride levels were not altered by any dietary treatment. Liver and heart tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) was increased (P < 0.05) by all three treatments when compared with control. Both tissues showed an increase (P < 0.05) in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) when fed ALP as compared with other treatments. Hamsters fed ALP had a lower (P < 0.05) GSH/GSSG ratio compared with other treatment groups. In conclusion, MCTo feeding does not elicit beneficial effects on circulating plasma lipids and measures of body composition. In addition, our results do not clearly support an improvement in oxidative status through supplementation of ALP. However, our results do support the existence of beneficial effects of ALP on circulating lipoprotein content in the hamster.

  6. 76 FR 36557 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... Abuse and Mental Health Services, Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  7. 78 FR 15961 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National Advisory Council; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance... below). Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for...

  8. 75 FR 16487 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT.... Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's CSAT National Advisory...

  9. 75 FR 16488 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT.... Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's CSAT National Advisory...

  10. 76 FR 20994 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  11. Leaf-closing substance in Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Sohtome, Yoshihiro; Tokunaga, Takashi; Ueda, Katsuhiro; Yamamura, Shosuke; Ueda, Minoru

    2002-01-01

    Potassium (2R,3R)-2,3,4-trihydroxy-2-methylbutanoate (1) was identified as a leaf-closing substance in the nyctinastic plant, Leucaena leucocephala. Compound 1 showed strong leaf-closing activity toward L. leucocephala and was not effective against other nyctinastic plants. The potassium ion was indispensable for the bioactivity of 1. Compound 1 gradually lost its bioactivity because of the exchange of the counter cation during isolation. A leaf-opening substance was also observed in the same plant.

  12. Integrated Care for Pediatric Substance Abuse.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Rebecca P; Hilt, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Integrated care is a way to improve the prevention, identification, and treatment of mental health difficulties, including substance abuse, in pediatric care. The pediatrician's access, expertise in typical development, focus on prevention, and alignment with patients and families can allow successful screening, early intervention, and referral to treatment. Successful integrated substance abuse care for youth is challenged by current reimbursement systems, information exchange, and provider role adjustment issues, but these are being addressed as comfort with this care form and resources to support its development grow.

  13. Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of hazardous substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojan, M.; Damian, V.; Fleaca, C.; Vasile, T.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we report spectral measurements of some relatively common substances but from the hazardous category (possibly to be used like explosives or their manipulation is dangerous) in view to create a database with spectra of such substances. THz transmission spectra of some pure materials and mixed ones are also introduced. The measurements were performed using a Time-Domain system that work in the range of 0.2-4.5 THz. We develop our algorithm to obtain maximum information from the measurement and to minimize the errors.

  14. Identifying the substance abuser in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Bell, K

    1992-01-01

    Illicit drugs are used regularly by 14.5 million Americans. By identifying patients who abuse substances, the nurse will be better able to provide for the treatment interventions needed and omit ineffective treatment interventions. The patient will benefit by receiving timely and appropriate care. To identify substance abusers, the nurse must know effects of commonly abused drugs, their routes of administration, withdrawal signs, and the physical assessments that should be performed. The most common drugs abused are narcotics, depressants, antidepressants, anti-anxiety drugs, stimulants, hallucinogens, and marijuana.

  15. A Substance Flow Model for Global Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccari, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    A system-based substance flow model (SFM) for phosphorus is developed based on the global phosphorus substance flow analysis (SFA) of Cordell et al (2009). The model is based strictly on mass balance considerations. It predicts the sensitivity of phosphorus consumption to various interventions intended to conserve reserves, as well as interactions among these efforts, allowing a comparison of their impacts on phosphorus demand. The interventions include control of phosphorus losses from soil erosion, food production and food waste, or phosphorus recycling such as from animal manure or human waste.

  16. Substance misuse prevention as corporate social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Radacsi, Gergely; Hardi, Peter

    2014-03-01

    All sectors of society should be involved in reducing substance misuse, including businesses. However, the business sector is typically involved only to the extent that their products compel them to be (e.g., alcohol producers promoting responsible alcohol consumption). This article examines why business participation has been limited and how embedding prevention within a framework of health promotion could increase participation. It reviews both Hungarian and international cases, concluding that although corporate social responsibility (CSR) offers a framework to approach substance misuse reduction, a different perception of the role of the business sector is necessary to make it viable.

  17. Neighborhood Context and Substance Use Disorders: A Comparative Analysis of Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Kristine M.; Alegría, Margarita; Chen, Chih-Nan

    2012-01-01

    Background There is evidence that ethnic/racial minorities are conferred differential risk for substance use problems based on where they live. Despite a burgeoning of research focusing on the role of neighborhood characteristics on health, limited findings are available on substance use. Our study uses nationally representative data (N= 13, 837) to examine: (1) What neighborhood characteristics are associated with risk of substance use disorders?; (2) Do the associations between neighborhood characteristics and substance use disorders remain after adjusting for individual-level factors?; and (3) Do neighborhood characteristics associated with substance use disorders differ by race/ethnicity after adjusting for individual-level factors? Methods Data were drawn from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES-Geocode file) with 836 Census tracts. Analyses included African Americans, Asians, Caribbean Blacks, Latinos, and non-Latino whites. Separate logistic regression models were fitted for any past-year substance use disorder, alcohol use disorder, and drug use disorder. Results Living in more affluent and residentially unstable census tracts was associated with decreased risk of past-year substance use disorder, even after adjusting for individual-level factors. However, when we investigated the interaction of race/ethnicity and census latent factors with past-year substance use disorders, we found different associations for the different racial/ethnic groups. We also found different associations between neighborhood affluence, residential instability and any past-year substance use and alcohol disorders by nativity. Conclusions Characteristics of the environment might represent differential risk for substance disorders depending on a person’s ethnicity/race and nativity status. PMID:22699095

  18. Radioactive substances in tap water.

    PubMed

    Atsuumi, Ryo; Endo, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Akihiko; Kannotou, Yasumitu; Nakada, Masahiro; Yabuuchi, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A 9.0 magnitude (M) earthquake with an epicenter off the Sanriku coast occurred at 14: 46 on March 11, 2011. TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1 NPP) was struck by the earthquake and its resulting tsunami. Consequently a critical nuclear disaster developed, as a large quantity of radioactive materials was released due to a hydrogen blast. On March 16(th), 2011, radioiodine and radioactive cesium were detected at levels of 177 Bq/kg and 58 Bq/kg, respectively, in tap water in Fukushima city (about 62km northwest of TEPCO F-1 NPP). On March 20th, radioiodine was detected in tap water at a level of 965 Bq/kg, which is over the value-index of restrictions on food and drink intake (radioiodine 300 Bq/kg (infant intake 100 Bq/kg)) designated by the Nuclear Safety Commission. Therefore, intake restriction measures were taken regarding drinking water. After that, although the all intake restrictions were lifted, in order to confirm the safety of tap water, an inspection system was established to monitor all tap water in the prefecture. This system has confirmed that there has been no detection of radioiodine or radioactive cesium in tap water in the prefecture since May 5(th), 2011. Furthermore, radioactive strontium ((89) Sr, (90)Sr) and plutonium ((238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu) in tap water and the raw water supply were measured. As a result, (89) Sr, (238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu were undetectable and although (90)Sr was detected, its committed effective dose of 0.00017 mSv was much lower than the yearly 0.1 mSv of the World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality. In addition, the results did not show any deviations from past inspection results.

  19. Playing Video Games While Using or Feeling the Effects of Substances: Associations with Substance Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Geoffrey L.; Elliott, Luther C.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance—referred to herein as “concurrent use”—is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabé Morán’s 2002 problem video game play (PVP) measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for “drug interaction” between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use. PMID:22073023

  20. Social Goals Impact Adolescent Substance Use through Influencing Adolescents' Connectedness to Their Schools.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Samuel N; Colder, Craig R

    2017-03-17

    Although developmental models of risk behavior highlight the role of school connectedness in the etiology of adolescent substance use, no studies to our knowledge have assessed longitudinal mediational models examining how adolescents form bonds to their school, and how the quality of those bonds relate to substance use. To address this gap, the current study used four waves of data, spanning ages 11-16 (grades 5-11), to examine the association between individual differences in agentic (Dominance/Power) and communal (Nurturance/Affiliation) social goals and school connectedness, and in turn, whether levels of school connectedness are associated with substance use. The community sample (N = 387, 55% female) was assessed annually and included non-Hispanic Caucasian (83.1%), African American (9.1%), Hispanic (2.1%), and Asian (1.0%), as well as youth of mixed ethnicity (4.7%). The results supported a mediational pathway whereby agentic goals were associated with low levels of school connectedness, which, in turn, were associated with high levels of substance use. Counter to our hypotheses, no association was found between communal goals and school connectedness. These findings provided initial evidence for the important role social goals play in shaping an adolescent's connectedness to their school and risk for substance use.

  1. Participation of substance P distribution in the cytokine production of rheumatoid synovium.

    PubMed

    Komuro, H; Tanabe, T; Ogushi, M; Takemura, S; Toda, Y; Morimoto, T; Akagi, S; Ogawa, R

    2000-06-01

    Abstract Based on findings which suggested the involvement of the neuropeptide substance P in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we investigated the mechanism of synovial pannus formation in RA, and examined the interaction between the cytokine production of synovial tissues and the concentration of substance P in the cartilage-pannus junction (CPJ). The CPJ and other peripheral synovial tissues were separately obtained from each part of the synovium from the knee joints of seven RA patients. The concentrations of substance P and the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in the CPJ and peripheral synovial tissues were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In addition, synovial cells were isolated from the CPJ and peripheral synovial tissues and treated with substance P or neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist to analyze the changes in cytokine production. The substance P levels were 211.2 and 50.5 pg/mg protein in the CPJ and the peripheral synovium, respectively. The IL-1β and IL-6 levels in the CPJ were 24.6 and 12.8 pg/mg protein, respectively. In the peripheral synovium, these levels were 4.3 and 2.5 pg/mg protein, respectively. In the CPJ, the IL-1β and IL-6 levels in tissue containing a high concentration of substance P (>200 pg/mg protein) were 39.4 and 21.6 pg/mg protein, respectively, and those in tissue containing a low concentration of substance P (≤200 pg/mg protein) were 11.6 and 5.1 pg/mg protein, respectively. Synovial cells from the CPJ produced higher levels of IL-1β and IL-6 than those from peripheral tissues. In addition, treatment of the cells with an NK-1 antagonist significantly reduced the production of these cytokines by the synovial cells. The theory that substance P plays a role in the pathogenesis of RA via the upregulation of cytokine production should be considered in further studies on the immunomodulatory properties of substance P in arthritis.

  2. Substance Abuse Intensive Outpatient Programs: Assessing the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Dennis; Braude, Lisa; Dougherty, Richard H.; Daniels, Allen S.; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Substance abuse intensive outpatient programs (IOPs) are direct services for people with substance use disorders or co-occurring mental and substance use disorders who do not require medical detoxification or 24-hour supervision. IOPs are alternatives to inpatient and residential treatment. They are designed to establish psychosocial supports and facilitate relapse management and coping strategies. This article assesses their evidence base. Methods Authors searched major databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress, the Educational Resources Information Center, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. They identified 12 individual studies and one review published between 1995 and 2012. They chose from three levels of research evidence (high, moderate, and low) based on benchmarks for the number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of service effectiveness. Results Based on the quality of trials, diversity of settings, and consistency of outcomes, the level of evidence for IOP research was considered high. Multiple randomized trials and naturalistic analyses compared IOPs with inpatient or residential care; these types of services had comparable outcomes. All studies reported substantial reductions in alcohol and drug use between baseline and follow-up. However, substantial variability in the operationalization of IOPs and outcome measures was apparent. Conclusions IOPs are an important part of the continuum of care for alcohol and drug use disorders. They are as effective as inpatient treatment for most individuals seeking care. Public and commercial health plans should consider IOP treatment as a covered health benefit. Standardization of the elements included in IOPs may improve their quality and effectiveness. PMID:24445620

  3. Evaluation of a Training to Reduce Provider Bias Toward Pregnant Patients With Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    SEYBOLD, DARA; CALHOUN, BYRON; BURGESS, DENISE; LEWIS, TAMMI; GILBERT, KELLY; CASTO, ANGIE

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is not to present a scientific or systematic study, but to provide an initial framework for designing a training workshop to enhance health practitioners’ (nurses, social workers, physicians, etc.) knowledge regarding substance abuse treatment and to decrease their bias toward substance-abusing women, particularly pregnant women in rural communities. We incorporated the 4 Transdisciplinary Foundations from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Competencies Model, with specific competencies targeted that related to provider bias. After the conference, 52 of the 70 participants completed a questionnaire to self-assess knowledge level and confidence in skill related to substance abuse management. Participant mean scores were statistically significantly higher following the conference than 1 week prior ( p < .001) in the area of “gender difference with substance abuse,” moving from an average of 2.6 to 4.5 on a 5-point Likert scale. Our conference was successful in increasing attendees’ knowledge about gender difference and substance abuse among pregnant patients. PMID:26207103

  4. Psychotic symptoms, self-harm and violence in individuals with schizophrenia and substance misuse problems.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Gillian; Eisner, Emily; Davies, Gabriel; Coupe, Nia; Barrowclough, Christine

    2013-12-01

    When schizophrenia is combined with substance misuse, rates are consistently higher. However research findings on the relationship between violence, self-harm and schizophrenia are inconclusive. This study aimed to examine links between specific psychotic symptoms, substance misuse and violence in people dually diagnosed with schizophrenia and substance misuse. Presence and frequency of violence to self and others were examined in relation to the type and severity of psychotic symptoms and level of substance use over a 24 month period in 327 people with schizophrenia and substance misuse problems. 32.3% had an incident of violence to others during the study period and 28.6% had a self-harm/suicide incident. 39 (11.9%) participants reported command hallucinations (CH) and 157 (48.0%) had threat control override symptoms (TCOS). Presence of TCOS and presence of CH were not associated with violence to others but were both associated with self-harm. Different command hallucination sub-types were associated with different types of violence. Delusional and hallucination severity and distress were mainly associated with self-harm. These findings suggest that specific symptoms are related to different outcomes, particularly in relation to self-harm, and these effects remain even after substance use is controlled for. This has important implications for assessment and treatment of this group.

  5. Substance abuse screening and brief intervention for adolescents in primary care.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Sarah; Shrier, Lydia A

    2014-10-01

    Adolescent substance use is common and is associated with serious mental, physical, and social risks, warranting systematic screening in the primary care setting. It is important for clinicians to become familiar with Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT), including administration of validated screening tools to identify level of risk associated with substance use and application of appropriate brief interventions. Positive reinforcement and brief advice is indicated for those adolescents with no or minimal risk for a substance use disorder. Providing a brief intervention using motivational interviewing strategies with subsequent close clinical follow-up is warranted when an adolescent meets criteria for a mild to moderate substance use disorder. Referral to treatment is recommended in cases of severe substance use. Immediate action, including breaking confidentiality, may be necessary when an adolescent's behavior raises acute safety concerns. Making time to interview adolescents alone is essential. It is also important to review the limitations of confidentiality with patients and parents/guardians and offer them strategies to discuss sensitive issues with their adolescents. Available resources for adolescents, parents/guardians, and clinicians regarding the risks of adolescent substance use and evidence-based treatment options can be used to support implementation of SBIRT in adolescent primary care.

  6. Substance misuse prevention: addressing anhedonia.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Anhedonia refers to the inability of experiencing pleasure in positive life events. It has been conceptualized as a stable yet malleable characteristic and is associated with hypoactivity in the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic systems. Very recently, it has been posited as an etiologic factor associated with drug addiction onset, escalation, and relapse. Prevention programming could be developed to counteract the harmful impact of anhedonia, so as to minimize its impact on drug misuse. Remedial efforts are those that either (1) permit the individual to tolerate low levels of pleasure without resorting to drug misuse or other maladaptive behaviors that may unhealthily besot pleasure (for example, through normalization, structuring time, or meditation) or (2) counteract anhedonia by enhancing ones capability to experience pleasure (for example, behavioral activation, positive psychology, pharmacotherapy, or pursuit of positive addictions). School-based activities could be developed that can be completed by individuals, small workgroups, or the whole classroom. The concept of anhedonia is described in this chapter, and possible prevention strategies that might be utilized in schools as well as other contexts are discussed.

  7. Latent Growth Trajectories of Substance Use among Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Spears, Gwendolyn V.; Stein, Judith A.; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    We examine changes among adolescent girls in substance use during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Three separate latent growth curve analyses assessed the impact of psychosocial, behavioral, and sociodemographic factors on resumption of or change in use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. The Vulnerable Populations Model for Research and Clinical Practice (Flaskerud & Winslow, 1998) provided the theoretical foundation for this study. This is a secondary analysis of data from a sample of 305 ethnic minority females (245 Latina, 60 African-American), aged 13–18 years, who were pregnant at baseline and were participating in an HIV prevention study conducted in inner-city alternative schools in Los Angeles County. Data collected at four time points captured changes in substance use from pregnancy through the postpartum period. Baseline predictors included ethnicity/race, partner substance use, childhood abuse history, religiosity, acculturation, depressive symptoms, length of gestation at baseline, and prior substance use. Common predictors of greater resumption and/or greater level of use included greater history of use prior to pregnancy, partner substance use, childhood abuse, and a longer time since childbirth. African Americans were more likely to be smoking at baseline when they were still pregnant and to use marijuana postpartum; Latinas were more likely to use alcohol over the course of pregnancy and postpartum. Other variables exerted an influence on specific substances. For instance, religiosity impacted cigarette and alcohol use. Findings may assist prenatal care providers to identify and counsel pregnant adolescents at risk for perinatal substance use and to prevent resumption or initiation of substance use following childbirth. PMID:20565158

  8. Prenatal cocaine exposure, illicit-substance use and stress and craving processes during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Sarah W.; Lacadie, Cheryl M.; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with increased rates of illicit-substance use during adolescence. In addition, both PCE and illicit-substance use are associated with alterations in cortico-striato-limbic neurocircuitry, development of which is ongoing throughout adolescence. However, the relationship between illicit-substance use, PCE and functional neural responses has not previously been assessed concurrently. Methods Sixty-eight adolescents were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study of childhood and adolescent development. All participants had been followed since birth. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired during presentation of personalized stressful, favorite-food and neutral/relaxing imagery scripts and compared between 46 PCE and 22 non-prenatally-drug-exposed (NDE) adolescents with and without lifetime illicit-substance use initiation. Data were analyzed using multi-level ANOVAs (pFWE<.05). Results There was a significant three-way interaction between illicit-substance use, PCE status and cue condition on neural responses within primarily cortical brain regions, including regions of the left and right insula. Among PCE versus NDE adolescents, illicit-substance use was associated with decreased subcortical and increased cortical activity during the favorite-food condition, whereas the opposite pattern of activation was observed during the neutral/relaxing condition. Among PCE versus NDE adolescents, illicit-substance use during stress processing was associated with decreased activity in cortical and subcortical regions including amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Neural activity within cortico-striato-limbic regions was significantly negatively associated with subjective ratings of anxiety and craving among illicit-substance users, but not among non-users. Conclusions These findings suggest different neural substrates of experimentation with illicit drugs between adolescents with and

  9. Religiosity as a moderator of the relation between sensation seeking and substance use for college-aged individuals.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Todd; Conner, Bradley T

    2015-03-01

    Substance use has been identified as a major problem on college campuses across the country, with excessive use often leading to unintended and unwanted negative health outcomes. Sensation seeking has been shown to be a consistent predictor of engagement in various health risk behaviors, including substance use. Religiosity has been shown to negatively predict substance use. However, there is mixed evidence on the relations among these risk and protective factors. This may be due to the operational definitions of religiosity in previous research. The current study investigated religiosity as a moderator of the relation between sensation seeking and substance use using robust measures of religiosity. The primary hypotheses were (a) sensation seeking would be positively associated with higher levels of heavy episodic drinking and marijuana use; (b) religiosity would be negatively associated with higher levels of substance use; and (c) religiosity would moderate the relation between sensation seeking and substance use such that, when religiosity was high, there would be no association between sensation seeking and substance use, but at low and moderate levels of religiosity, there would be a positive association between them. Religiosity was a significant moderator of the relation between risk seeking and marijuana use (p < .01), but it was less effective as a moderator between sensation seeking and heavy episodic drinking. Religiosity appears to have a stronger buffering effect for illegal drug use compared with alcohol use, perhaps in part because of the relative acceptance of alcohol consumption across major U.S. religious orientations.

  10. Patterns of Substance Use among HIV-Positive Adults Over 50: Implications for Treatment and Medication Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Starks, Tyrel J.; Millar, Brett M.; Boonrai, Kailip; Marcotte, David

    2014-01-01

    Background The population of older adults living with HIV is increasing in the United States. Despite an increased focus on the health of HIV-positive older adults, knowledge about their substance use, a primary risk factor for HIV medication non-adherence, and the association between use, problems associated with use, and adherence behavior, is limited. Methods Data were collected from 557 HIV-positive adults aged 50 and older in the New York City area via telephone interview. Participants reported the number of days in the past month on which they missed any doses of HIV medication as well as the number of days they used alcohol, marijuana, cocaine/crack, opiates, amyl nitrite (poppers), and other drugs. The severity of substance use associated problems was assessed using the DAST-10 and AUDIT-C. Results The sample included gay/bisexual (40.4%) and heterosexual (28.1%) men as well as lesbian/bisexual (4.9%) and heterosexual (26.7%) women. Latent class analyses identified four distinct patterns of substance use: Exclusive Alcohol Use; Alcohol and Marijuana; Alcohol and Cocaine/Crack; and Multiple-Substance Use. Variability in the number of missed HIV medication days and perceptions of substance use associated problems were observed across classes, with poorest adherence reported in the Alcohol and Cocaine/Crack class, followed by the Multiple-Substance Use class. These two classes also reported the greatest perceived impairment from substance use. Conclusions Patterns of recent substance use were associated with varying levels of HIV medication adherence and perceived substance use impairment, indicating that substance type matters when considering the health of older adults living with HIV, and that multiple-substance use needs to be addressed by interventions aimed at improving medication adherence. PMID:24745475

  11. 49 CFR 172.323 - Infectious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Infectious substances. 172.323 Section 172.323 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  12. 49 CFR 172.323 - Infectious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Infectious substances. 172.323 Section 172.323 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  13. 49 CFR 172.323 - Infectious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Infectious substances. 172.323 Section 172.323 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  14. 49 CFR 172.323 - Infectious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Infectious substances. 172.323 Section 172.323 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  15. Public perceptions of behavioral and substance addictions.

    PubMed

    Lang, Brent; Rosenberg, Harold

    2017-02-01

    Most of the research on public perceptions of people with addictive disorders has focused on alcohol and illicit drugs, rather than addiction to behavioral activities. To expand the range of addictive behaviors and types of perceptions studied, we designed the present study to assess the lay public's definitions of and willingness to affiliate with people described as addicted to 1 of 2 specific behaviors (i.e., pornography or gambling) or 1 of 3 specific substances (i.e., alcohol, marijuana, or heroin). A nationwide convenience sample (N = 612) of American adults completed online questionnaires during the summer of 2015. Participants rated heroin as more addictive than the other drugs and behaviors and, despite differences among the conditions, were generally unwilling to affiliate with an individual addicted to any of the 2 behaviors or 3 substances. When asked to rate different potential indications of addiction, participants endorsed behavioral signs of impaired control and physiological and psychological dependence as more indicative of all 5 types of addiction than desire to use the substance or engage in the addictive behavior. Despite recent efforts to increase public knowledge about addictive disorders, members of the public continue to endorse some attitudes indicative of stigmatization toward people with selected substance and behavioral addictions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Cocaine Babies: Florida's Substance-Exposed Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpring, Jayme

    This report is designed to provide Florida's school personnel with assistance in working with students prenatally exposed to cocaine or other toxic substances. The report offers background data, practical strategies for teaching and learning, and resources for networking. The first chapter outlines statistics on the incidence of the problem of…

  17. Program Evaluation Strategies for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, William B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in program evaluation for substance abuse prevention efforts. Included in this review is a discussion of approaches to process, outcome, and impact evaluation. Evaluation designs are reviewed with attention given to topics such as recruitment and retention of sites and participants, defining interventions,…

  18. Lichen substances prevent lichens from nutrient deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Willenbruch, Karen; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The dibenzofuran usnic acid, a widespread cortical secondary metabolite produced by lichen-forming fungi, was shown to promote the intracellular uptake of Cu(2+) in two epiphytic lichens, Evernia mesomorpha and Ramalina menziesii, from acidic, nutrient-poor bark. Higher Cu(2+) uptake in the former, which produces the depside divaricatic acid in addition to usnic acid, suggests that this depside promotes Cu(2+) uptake. Since Cu(2+) is one of the rarest micronutrients, promotion of Cu(2+) uptake by lichen substances may be crucial for the studied lichens to survive in their nutrient-poor habitats. In contrast, study of the uptake of other metals in E. mesomorpha revealed that the intracellular uptake of Mn(2+), which regularly exceeds potentially toxic concentrations in leachates of acidic tree bark, was partially inhibited by the lichen substances produced by this species. Inhibition of Mn(2+) uptake by lichen substances previously has been demonstrated in lichens. The uptake of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), which fail to reach toxic concentrations in acidic bark at unpolluted sites, although they are more common than Cu(2+), was not affected by lichen substances of E. mesomorpha.

  19. A Community Education Approach to Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL. Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

    Alcohol and drug abuse not only affect the individual, but the entire community. No single person or organization alone is capable of, nor responsible for solving the substance abuse problem. It is now important that schools establish partnerships with the community to develop and implement appropriate programs to foster healthy adolescent…

  20. Family Medicine Curriculum Guide to Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liepman, Michael R., Ed.; And Others

    This curriculum guide on substance abuse is intended for teachers of family medicine. Comments, learning objectives, teaching hints, and evaluations of knowledge are provided for each area in all chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on the pharmacology of commonly abused drugs including depressants, opioids, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and…

  1. Infants Make Quantity Discriminations for Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J.; Christie, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 ("N" = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they…

  2. Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…

  3. 24 CFR 21.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Controlled substance. 21.610 Section 21.610 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.610...

  4. Screening for substance abuse in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jimerson, Steven D; Musick, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    Several states have proposed laws that urine drug screening be performed as a part of qualifying for public assistance. At least one state (Florida) has passed such a law, and several other states are considering similar laws. The Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth created a committee to study laws and policies regarding the use of illegal drugs while pregnant. To get a better understanding of drug screening and pregnancy, 151 consecutive obstetrical patients receiving Medicaid were screened at their initial obstetrical visit by verbal and written questionnaire's concerning the use of alcohol, nicotine, and other illicit\\dangerous drugs; in addition a urine drug screen for the use of illicit or dangerous drugs was performed. The patient histories regarding the use of dangerous or illicit substances was reviewed and compared with the urine drug screens performed at the same visit. The authors note that when studied the incidence of substance abuse has been similar in patient population receiving public assistance and patient populations with traditional insurance. Oklahoma is one of 13 states with laws requiring mandatory reporting of substance abuse in pregnancy or the exposure of the newborn to illicit substances.

  5. Detecting explosive substances by the IR spectrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuula, J.; Rinta, Heikki J.; Pölönen, I.; Puupponen, H.-H.; Haukkamäki, Marko; Teräväinen, T.

    2014-05-01

    Fast and safe detection methods of explosive substances are needed both before and after actualized explosions. This article presents an experiment of the detection of three selected explosives by the ATR FTIR spectrometer and by three different IR hyperspectral imaging devices. The IR spectrometers give accurate analyzing results, whereas hyperspectral imagers can detect and analyze desired samples without touching the unidentified target at all. In the controlled explosion experiment TNT, dynamite and PENO were at first analyzed as pure substances with the ATR FTIR spectrometer and with VNIR, SWIR and MWIR cameras. After three controlled explosions also the residues of TNT, dynamite and PENO were analyzed with the same IR devices. The experiments were performed in arctic outdoor conditions and the residues were collected on ten different surfaces. In the measurements the spectra of all three explosives were received as pure substances with all four IR devices. Also the explosion residues of TNT were found on cotton with the IR spectrometer and with VNIR, SWIR and MWIR hyperspectral imagers. All measurements were made directly on the test materials which had been placed on the explosion site and were collected for the analysis after each blast. Measurements were made with the IR spectrometer also on diluted sample. Although further tests are suggested, the results indicate that the IR spectrography is a potential detection method for explosive subjects, both as pure substances and as post-blast residues.

  6. Multiple Substance Use Disorders in Juvenile Detainees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Gary M.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the 6-month prevalence of multiple substance use disorders (SUDs) among juvenile detainees by demographic subgroups (sex, race/ethnicity, age). Method: Participants were a randomly selected sample of 1,829 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic detainees (1,172 males, 657 females, aged 10 to 18). Patterns and…

  7. 24 CFR 21.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled substance. 21.610 Section 21.610 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.610...

  8. Resources: Substances and Alcohol Abuse Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biakeddy, Eddie; Yazzie, Arnold D.

    To assist schools and community organizations in implementing the 1984 Navajo Nation Education Policy on Substance and Alcohol Abuse, the Monitoring-Evaluation and Technical Assistance office has identified resources, materials, and operational programs that should be helpful in the development of programs to prevent and combat the enormous…

  9. A cytotoxic substance from Sangre de Grado.

    PubMed

    Itokawa, H; Ichihara, Y; Mochizuki, M; Enomori, T; Morita, H; Shirota, O; Inamatsu, M; Takeya, K

    1991-04-01

    Taspine has been isolated as a cytotoxic substance from Sangre de Grado, sap of Croton palanostigma (Euphorbiaceae), by bioassay guided fractionation. The cytotoxicity (IC50) of taspine was found to be 0.39 microgram/ml against KB cells and 0.17 microgram/ml against V-79 cells.

  10. Substance Use of Creatively Talented Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Barbara; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 22 writers, 27 artists, and 12 musicians compared their substance use (caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, hallucinogens, cocaine, tranquilizers, stimulants, and narcotics) with that of a control group. In general, no significant intergroup differences were found. Older participants used marijuana less than younger participants.…

  11. 21 CFR 70.11 - Related substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... considered to have additive toxic effects. (b) Food additives may also cause pharmacological or biological... chemicals may also cause pharmacological or biological effects similar or related to such effects caused by... General Provisions § 70.11 Related substances. (a) Different color additives may cause similar or...

  12. Pharmacy informatics in controlled substances research.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Ling; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Na, Paul J; Leff, Michelle; Contoreggi, Carlo

    2008-11-06

    Pharmacies have become essential components in support of clinical research. Their operations become highly complex when preponderance of prescriptions is composed of controlled substances. Application of informatics will result in more efficient operations. We present the Pharmacy Information Management System (PIMS) that includes a set of decision support systems to address the pharmacy challenges and is integrated into our electronic health record system.

  13. 21 CFR 70.11 - Related substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Related substances. 70.11 Section 70.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES... pharmacological or biological effects, and, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, those that do so will...

  14. 21 CFR 70.11 - Related substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Related substances. 70.11 Section 70.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES... pharmacological or biological effects, and, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, those that do so will...

  15. Substance Abuse among Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are a growing population that confronts multiple disadvantages from social and environmental determinants of health. In particular, the 7-8 million people in the U.S. with an intellectual disability (ID) suffer disproportionately from substance use problems, largely because of a lack of empirical evidence to inform…

  16. Would Controlled Substance Status Affect Steroid Trafficking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Virginia S.

    1987-01-01

    Loss of control over the use of anabolic steriods had prompted the federal government to take steps to stem the black market manufacture and distribution of these drugs. However, these steps are likely to stop short of bestowing controlled substance status on steriods. (Author/CB)

  17. 31 CFR 20.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Controlled substance. 20.610 Section 20.610 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.610 Controlled...

  18. 31 CFR 20.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Controlled substance. 20.610 Section 20.610 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.610 Controlled...

  19. 31 CFR 20.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Controlled substance. 20.610 Section 20.610 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.610 Controlled...

  20. 31 CFR 20.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Controlled substance. 20.610 Section 20.610 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.610 Controlled...