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Sample records for acidic class iii

  1. Srchi13, a novel early nodulin from Sesbania rostrata, is related to acidic class III chitinases.

    PubMed Central

    Goormachtig, S; Lievens, S; Van de Velde, W; Van Montagu, M; Holsters, M

    1998-01-01

    On the tropical legume Sesbania rostrata, stem-borne nodules develop after inoculation of adventitious root primordia with the microsymbiont Azorhizobium caulinodans. A cDNA clone, Srchi13, with homology to acidic class III chitinase genes, corresponds to an early nodulin gene with transiently induced expression during nodule ontogeny. Srchi13 transcripts accumulated strongly 2 days after inoculation, decreased from day 7 onward, and disappeared in mature nodules. Induction was dependent on Nod factor-producing bacteria. Srchi13 was expressed around infection pockets, in infection centra, around the developing nodule and its vascular bundles, and in uninfected cells of the central tissue. The specific and transient transcript accumulation together with the lipochitooligosaccharide degradation activity of the recombinant protein hint at a role of Srchi13 in normal nodule ontogeny by limiting the action of Nod factors. PMID:9634579

  2. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month. PMID:27052290

  3. Rheological and molecular weight comparisons of approved hyaluronic acid products - preliminary standards for establishing class III medical device equivalence.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Gavin J C; Daley, Michael J; Toledo-Velasquez, David

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid of various molecular weights has been in use for the treatment of osteoarthritis knee pain for decades. Worldwide, these products are regulated as either as drugs or devices and in some countries as both. In the US, this class of products is regulated as Class III medical devices, which places specific regulatory requirements on developers of these materials under a Pre-Market Approval process, typically requiring data from prospective randomized controlled clinical studies. In 1984 pharmaceutical manufacturers became able to file an Abbreviated New Drug Application for approval of a generic drug, thus establishing standards for demonstrating equivalence to an existing chemical entity. Recently, the first biosimilar, or 'generic biologic', was approved. Biosimilars are biological products that are approved by the FDA because they are 'highly similar' to a reference product, and have been shown to have no clinically meaningful differences from the reference product. For devices, Class II medical devices have a pathway for declaring equivalence to an existing product by filing a 510 k application for FDA clearance. However, until recently no equivalent regulatory pathway was available to Class III devices. In this paper, we consider the critical mechanical performance parameters for intra-articular hyaluronic products to demonstrate indistinguishable characteristics. Analogous to the aforementioned pathways that allow for a demonstration of equivalence, we examine these parameters for an existing, marketed device and compare molecular weight and rheological properties of multiple batches of a similar product. We propose that this establishes a scientific rationale for establishing Class III medical device equivalence.

  4. Abundant class III acidic chitinase homologue in tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed serves as the major storage protein.

    PubMed

    Rao, Devavratha H; Gowda, Lalitha R

    2008-03-26

    The phyla Leguminosae contains protease inhibitors, lectins, chitinases, and glycohydrolases as major defense proteins in their seeds. Electrophoretic analysis of the seed proteins of tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.), an agri-waste material, indicated the unusual presence of two major proteins comparable to overexpression of recombinant proteins. These proteins were identified by amino-terminal analysis to be (1) Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor and (2) class III endochitinase (34000 Da). These two proteins were purified to apparent homogeneity by a single-step chitin bead affinity chromatography and characterized. The Kunitz inhibitor was specific toward inhibiting trypsin with a stoichiometry of 1:1. The 33000 +/- 1000 Da protein, accounting for >50% of the total seed protein, is an acidic glycoprotein exhibiting a very low endotype hydrolytic activity toward chitin derivatives. SDS-PAGE followed by densitometry of tamarind seed germination indicates the disappearance of the chitinase with the concomitant appearance of a cysteine endopeptidase. On the basis of its abundance, accumulation without any pathogenesis-related stimulus, temporal regulation, amino acid composition, and very low enzyme activity, this 34000 Da protein designated "tamarinin" physiologically serves as the major storage protein.

  5. Functional characterization of a class III acid endochitinase from the traps of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus, Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Rottloff, Sandy; Stieber, Regina; Maischak, Heiko; Turini, Florian G; Heubl, Günther; Mithöfer, Axel

    2011-08-01

    Carnivory in plants is an adaptation strategy to nutrient-poor environments and soils. Carnivorous plants obtain some additional mineral nutrients by trapping and digesting prey; the genus Nepenthes is helped by its specialized pitcher traps. To make the nutrients available, the caught prey needs to be digested, a process that requires the concerted activity of several hydrolytic enzymes. To identify and investigate the various enzymes involved in this process, fluid from Nepenthes traps has been analysed in detail. In this study, a novel type of Nepenthes endochitinase was identified in the digestion fluid of closed pitchers. The encoding endochitinase genes have been cloned from eight different Nepenthes species. Among these, the deduced amino acid sequence similarity was at least 94.9%. The corresponding cDNA from N. rafflesiana was heterologously expressed, and the purified protein, NrChit1, was biochemically characterized. The enzyme, classified as a class III acid endochitinase belonging to family 18 of the glycoside hydrolases, is secreted into the pitcher fluid very probably due to the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide. Transcriptome analyses using real-time PCR indicated that the presence of prey in the pitcher up-regulates the endochitinase gene not only in the glands, which are responsible for enzyme secretion, but at an even higher level, in the glands' surrounding tissue. These results suggest that in the pitchers' tissues, the endochitinase as well as other proteins from the pitcher fluid might fulfil a different, primary function as pathogenesis-related proteins.

  6. Functional characterization of a class III acid endochitinase from the traps of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus, Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Rottloff, Sandy; Stieber, Regina; Maischak, Heiko; Turini, Florian G; Heubl, Günther; Mithöfer, Axel

    2011-08-01

    Carnivory in plants is an adaptation strategy to nutrient-poor environments and soils. Carnivorous plants obtain some additional mineral nutrients by trapping and digesting prey; the genus Nepenthes is helped by its specialized pitcher traps. To make the nutrients available, the caught prey needs to be digested, a process that requires the concerted activity of several hydrolytic enzymes. To identify and investigate the various enzymes involved in this process, fluid from Nepenthes traps has been analysed in detail. In this study, a novel type of Nepenthes endochitinase was identified in the digestion fluid of closed pitchers. The encoding endochitinase genes have been cloned from eight different Nepenthes species. Among these, the deduced amino acid sequence similarity was at least 94.9%. The corresponding cDNA from N. rafflesiana was heterologously expressed, and the purified protein, NrChit1, was biochemically characterized. The enzyme, classified as a class III acid endochitinase belonging to family 18 of the glycoside hydrolases, is secreted into the pitcher fluid very probably due to the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide. Transcriptome analyses using real-time PCR indicated that the presence of prey in the pitcher up-regulates the endochitinase gene not only in the glands, which are responsible for enzyme secretion, but at an even higher level, in the glands' surrounding tissue. These results suggest that in the pitchers' tissues, the endochitinase as well as other proteins from the pitcher fluid might fulfil a different, primary function as pathogenesis-related proteins. PMID:21633084

  7. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Yelampalli, M R; Rachala, M R

    2012-01-01

    Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the jaw bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate appliance from the various current options available for early intervention in developing class III malocclusion through two case reports.

  8. A Novel Class of Plant Type III Polyketide Synthase Involved in Orsellinic Acid Biosynthesis from Rhododendron dauricum

    PubMed Central

    Taura, Futoshi; Iijima, Miu; Yamanaka, Eriko; Takahashi, Hironobu; Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Saeki, Haruna; Morimoto, Satoshi; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Kurosaki, Fumiya; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Rhododendron dauricum L. produces daurichromenic acid, the anti-HIV meroterpenoid consisting of sesquiterpene and orsellinic acid (OSA) moieties. To characterize the enzyme responsible for OSA biosynthesis, a cDNA encoding a novel polyketide synthase (PKS), orcinol synthase (ORS), was cloned from young leaves of R. dauricum. The primary structure of ORS shared relatively low identities to those of PKSs from other plants, and the active site of ORS had a unique amino acid composition. The bacterially expressed, recombinant ORS accepted acetyl-CoA as the preferable starter substrate, and produced orcinol as the major reaction product, along with four minor products including OSA. The ORS identified in this study is the first plant PKS that generates acetate-derived aromatic tetraketides, such as orcinol and OSA. Interestingly, OSA production was clearly enhanced in the presence of Cannabis sativa olivetolic acid cyclase, suggesting that the ORS is involved in OSA biosynthesis together with an unidentified cyclase in R. dauricum. PMID:27729920

  9. Evolution of Class III treatment in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Ngan, Peter; Moon, Won

    2015-07-01

    Angle, Tweed, and Moyers classified Class III malocclusions into 3 types: pseudo, dentoalveolar, and skeletal. Clinicians have been trying to identify the best timing to intercept a Class III malocclusion that develops as early as the deciduous dentition. With microimplants as skeletal anchorage, orthopedic growth modification became more effective, and it also increased the scope of camouflage orthodontic treatment for patients who were not eligible for orthognathic surgery. However, orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery remains the only option for patients with a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion or a craniofacial anomaly. Distraction osteogenesis can now be performed intraorally at an earlier age. The surgery-first approach can minimize the length of time that the malocclusion needs to worsen before orthognathic surgery. Finally, the use of computed tomography scans for 3-dimensional diagnosis and treatment planning together with advances in imaging technology can improve the accuracy of surgical movements and the esthetic outcomes for these patients.

  10. Extraoral traction and class III treatment.

    PubMed

    Cozzani, G

    1981-12-01

    True Class III malocclusions are difficult to treat because they reflect basal bone discrepancies and there are many limitations to conventional treatment mechanisms. For example, Class III elastics may adversely affect the inclination of the occlusal plane and bite depth. On the other hand, extraoral appliances can be used advantageously. One important application is to move a retrognathically positioned maxilla forward orthopedically by means of the facial mask of Delaire. In addition, extraoral appliances placed against the lower incisor segment can also be used to retract the mandibular incisors and control bite depth during the retraction procedure.

  11. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  12. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  13. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  14. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  15. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  16. ScChi, Encoding an Acidic Class III Chitinase of Sugarcane, Confers Positive Responses to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping; Fu, Zhiwei; Yang, Yuting; Guo, Jinlong; Wang, Shanshan; Que, Youxiong

    2014-01-01

    Chitinases (EC 3.2.2.14), expressed during the plant-pathogen interaction, are associated with plant defense against pathogens. In the present study, a positive correlation between chitinase activity and sugarcane smut resistance was found. ScChi (GenBank accession no. KF664180), a Class III chitinase gene, encoded a 31.37 kDa polypeptide, was cloned and identified. Subcellular localization revealed ScChi targeting to the nucleus, cytoplasm and the plasma membrane. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results showed that ScChi was highly expressed in leaf and stem epidermal tissues. The ScChi transcript was both higher and maintained longer in the resistance cultivar during challenge with Sporisorium scitamineum. The ScChi also showed an obvious induction of transcription after treatment with SA (salicylic acid), H2O2, MeJA (methyl jasmonate), ABA (abscisic acid), NaCl, CuCl2, PEG (polyethylene glycol) and low temperature (4 °C). The expression levels of ScChi and six immunity associated marker genes were upregulated by the transient overexpression of ScChi. Besides, histochemical assay of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves overexpressing pCAMBIA 1301-ScChi exhibited deep DAB (3,3′-diaminobenzidinesolution) staining color and high conductivity, indicating the high level of H2O2 accumulation. These results suggest a close relationship between the expression of ScChi and plant immunity. In conclusion, the positive responses of ScChi to the biotic and abiotic stimuli reveal that this gene is a stress-related gene of sugarcane. PMID:24552874

  17. [Early treatment of Class III malocclusion].

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Michel; Philip, Camille; Salvadori, André

    2011-09-01

    Optimum treatment timing for orthodontic problems continues to be one of the more controversial topics in orthodontics. Especially regarding the correction of Class III malocclusion, there is little consensus as to proper timing or methods for correcting these problems. The orthopedic approach for growth modification is usually limited to children with growth remaining subjected to non hereditary pattern. If the skeletal malocclusion is within the range of an orthodontic treatment, fixed orthodontic appliances with dentoalveolar compensation mechanism can achieve a normal occlusion. Otherwise in patients with a severe skeletal discrepancy, it will be necessary to consider a combined surgical and orthodontic approach. The purpose of this study was to describe treatment planning according to the age and to the initial diagnosis. The management of skeletal Class III malocclusion is still a challenge to orthodontists especially because of relapse due to the late growth of the mandible.

  18. Treatment of Class III with Facemask Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pattanaik, Snigdha; Mishra, Sumita

    2016-01-01

    Class III malocclusion is one of the most difficult problems to treat in the mixed dentition. It has a multifactorial etiology involving both genetic and environmental causes. The dental and skeletal effects of maxillary protraction with a facemask are well documented in several studies. Although treatment in the late mixed or early permanent dentition can be successful, results are generally better in the deciduous or early mixed dentition. The following case shows early treatment of a young patient with severe sagittal and transverse discrepancy of the maxilla and mandible, using a facemask. PMID:26925273

  19. AUTOCLASS III - AUTOMATIC CLASS DISCOVERY FROM DATA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, P. C.

    1994-01-01

    The program AUTOCLASS III, Automatic Class Discovery from Data, uses Bayesian probability theory to provide a simple and extensible approach to problems such as classification and general mixture separation. Its theoretical basis is free from ad hoc quantities, and in particular free of any measures which alter the data to suit the needs of the program. As a result, the elementary classification model used lends itself easily to extensions. The standard approach to classification in much of artificial intelligence and statistical pattern recognition research involves partitioning of the data into separate subsets, known as classes. AUTOCLASS III uses the Bayesian approach in which classes are described by probability distributions over the attributes of the objects, specified by a model function and its parameters. The calculation of the probability of each object's membership in each class provides a more intuitive classification than absolute partitioning techniques. AUTOCLASS III is applicable to most data sets consisting of independent instances, each described by a fixed length vector of attribute values. An attribute value may be a number, one of a set of attribute specific symbols, or omitted. The user specifies a class probability distribution function by associating attribute sets with supplied likelihood function terms. AUTOCLASS then searches in the space of class numbers and parameters for the maximally probable combination. It returns the set of class probability function parameters, and the class membership probabilities for each data instance. AUTOCLASS III is written in Common Lisp, and is designed to be platform independent. This program has been successfully run on Symbolics and Explorer Lisp machines. It has been successfully used with the following implementations of Common LISP on the Sun: Franz Allegro CL, Lucid Common Lisp, and Austin Kyoto Common Lisp and similar UNIX platforms; under the Lucid Common Lisp implementations on VAX/VMS v5

  20. 25 CFR 522.12 - Revocation of class III gaming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of class III gaming. 522.12 Section 522.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.12 Revocation of class...

  1. 25 CFR 522.12 - Revocation of class III gaming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Revocation of class III gaming. 522.12 Section 522.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.12 Revocation of class...

  2. 25 CFR 522.12 - Revocation of class III gaming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Revocation of class III gaming. 522.12 Section 522.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.12 Revocation of class...

  3. 25 CFR 522.12 - Revocation of class III gaming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Revocation of class III gaming. 522.12 Section 522.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.12 Revocation of class...

  4. 25 CFR 522.12 - Revocation of class III gaming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Revocation of class III gaming. 522.12 Section 522.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.12 Revocation of class...

  5. Expansion/Facemask Treatment of an Adult Class III Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Gregory W.; Kravitz, Neal D.

    2014-01-01

    The orthodontic treatment of class III malocclusion with a maxillary deficiency is often treated with maxillary protraction with or without expansion. Skeletal and dental changes have been documented which have combined for the protraction of the maxilla and the correction of the class III malocclusion. Concerning the ideal time to treat a developing class III malocclusion, studies have reported that, although early treatment may be the most effective, face mask therapy can provide a viable option for older children as well. But what about young adults? Can the skeletal and dental changes seen in expansion/facemask therapy in children and adolescents be demonstrated in this age group as well, possibly eliminating the need for orthodontic dental camouflage treatment or orthognathic surgery? A case report is presented of an adult class III malocclusion with a Class III skeletal pattern and maxillary retrusion. Treatment was with nonextraction, comprehensive edgewise mechanics with slow maxillary expansion with a bonded expander and protraction facemask. PMID:24715991

  6. Pseudo-Class III treatment with reverse traction: case report.

    PubMed

    dos Santos-Pinto, A; Paulin, R F; Melo, A C

    2001-01-01

    The pseudo-Class III can be defined as a functional reflex of an anterior positioning of the mandible, an acquired muscular position that simulates a mesiocclusion. The diagnosis and treatment plan of this condition must be based on a cephalometric evaluation that provides information about the relative contributions of the skeletal and dental components to the malocclusion. There is still great controversies about when is the best moment to start the Class III treatment. The purpose of this article is to describe a case report in which a Class III patient was successfully treated with reverse traction. PMID:11497006

  7. Archform Comparisons between Skeletal Class II and III Malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, JiuHui; Xu, TianMin; Li, CuiYing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2) and Skeletal Class III (SC3) malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group) and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of the facial axis of the clinical crown)and WALA points (the most prominent point on the soft-tissue ridge)were employed to produce dental and basal bone archforms, respectively. Gained scatter diagrams of the samples were processed by nonlinear regression analysis via SPSS 17.0. The mandibular dental and basal bone intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly greater in the Skeletal Class III group compared to the Skeletal Class II group. In both groups, a moderate correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the canine region, and a high correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the molar region. The coefficient of correlation of the Skeletal Class III group was greater than the Skeletal Class II group. Fourth degree, even order power functions were used as best-fit functions to fit the scatter plots. The radius of curvature was larger in Skeletal Class III malocclusions compared to Skeletal Class II malocclusions (rWALA3>rWALA2>rFA3>rFA2). In conclusion, mandibular dental and basal intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly different between the two groups. Compared with Skeletal Class II subjects, the mandibular archform was more flat for Skeletal Class III subjects. PMID:24971597

  8. Exclusion of Class III malocclusion candidate loci in Brazilian families.

    PubMed

    Cruz, R M; Hartsfield, J K; Falcão-Alencar, G; Koller, D L; Pereira, R W; Mah, J; Ferrari, I; Oliveira, S F

    2011-10-01

    The role played by genetic components in the etiology of the Class III phenotype, a class of dental malocclusion, is not yet understood. Regions that may be related to the development of Class III malocclusion have been suggested previously. The aim of this study was to search for genetic linkage with 6 microsatellite markers (D1S234, D4S3038, D6S1689, D7S503, D10S1483, and D19S566), near previously proposed candidate regions for Class III. We performed a two-point parametric linkage analysis for 42 affected individuals from 10 Brazilian families with a positive Class III malocclusion segregation. Analysis of our data indicated that there was no evidence for linkage of any of the 6 microsatellite markers to a Class III locus at = zero, with data supporting exclusion for 5 of the 6 markers evaluated. The present work reinforces that Class III is likely to demonstrate locus heterogeneity, and there is a dependency of the genetic background of the population in linkage studies.

  9. Non-surgical treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Romina M; Shah, Adit P; Diyora, Shamil D; Rathva, Vandana J

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of skeletal class III malocclusion has a mean of 3% in the Caucasian population, 5% in African-American adolescents and about 14% in the Asian population. In India, the incidence of class III malocclusion is reported to be 3.4%. A patient having class III malocclusion shows findings ranging from edge-to-edge bite to large reverse overjet, with extreme variations of underlying skeletal jaw bases and craniofacial form. This is a case report of a 20-year-old man having skeletal class III malocclusion with concave profile, anterior crossbite and a negative overjet of 3 mm treated non-surgically with extraction of only one lower left first premolar. PMID:24722711

  10. Early treatment protocol for skeletal Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Oltramari-Navarro, Paula Vanessa Pedron; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Conti, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; Navarro, Ricardo de Lima; de Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues; Fernandes, Leandra Sant'Anna Ferreira Parron

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal Class III malocclusion, with its unpredictable and unfavorable nature, has been characterized by a growth pattern with doubtful prognosis regarding orthodontic mechanics, even when performed early. For a long time, Class III malocclusion was regarded as a synonym of mandibular prognathism, regardless of the affected skeletal structures. Mandibular growth, essentially determined by genetic factors, could barely be controlled by early orthodontic interventions. Therefore, the treatment choice was to wait for the patient to grow, and then make an orthodontic intervention associated with an orthognathic surgery. Maxillary involvement in the etiology of Class III malocclusion was conclusive to change orthodontic therapeutics. Maxillary intramembranous growth has a better response to orthopedic treatment, based on growth control and redirection, thus contributing for early intervention success. In several cases, excellent results have been achieved with rapid maxillary expansion and protraction. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the treatment of a patient with Class III malocclusion, whose treatment planning comprised two phases: interceptive (mechanical orthopedic appliances) and comprehensive (fixed orthodontic appliance). The results of this case showed that Class III malocclusion should be intercepted as early as possible to permit growth redirection, mainly when the maxilla is the primary etiologic factor or dental and/or functional factors are involved. Diagnosis, treatment planning and prognosis depend on patient age, growth potential and severity of malocclusion. Early intervention, adequate indication of appliances, and patient compliance are key factors for good outcomes.

  11. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming... GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.10 Individually owned class II and class...

  12. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming... GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.10 Individually owned class II and class...

  13. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming... GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.10 Individually owned class II and class...

  14. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming... GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.10 Individually owned class II and class...

  15. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming... GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.10 Individually owned class II and class...

  16. Nebraska School Facilities: Educational Adequacy of Class III School District Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidner, John M., Sr.

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, a replication of the Pool study was conducted. This study, however, focused on the school systems classified as Class III districts. Nebraska has 252 Class III districts. Compared with Class II (21), Class IV (1), and Class V(1) districts, the Class III districts offer a wide array of school settings, from urban to extremely rural, and…

  17. Ortho-surgical management of skeletal Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rahul Kumar; Tikku, Tripti; Khanna, Rohit; Gupta, Hemant; Srivastava, Kamna; Verma, Sneh Lata

    2015-01-01

    Class III malocclusions are considered to be one of the most difficult problems to treat. Establishment of the treatment plan is based on the efficacy and thoughtful application by the clinician and easy acceptance by the patient. We are presenting a case report of an adult male patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion who was treated by orthosurgical approach in Department of Orthodontics in collaboration with Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. The treatment was complete with a positive overbite and acceptable occlusion and satisfactory facial esthetics using a combination approach. PMID:26668466

  18. 25 CFR 291.4 - What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.4 What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures contain? A proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures must include the following information: (a)...

  19. 25 CFR 522.8 - Publication of class III ordinance and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.8 Publication of class III ordinance and approval. The Chairman shall publish a class III tribal gaming... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Publication of class III ordinance and approval....

  20. 25 CFR 522.8 - Publication of class III ordinance and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.8 Publication of class III ordinance and approval. The Chairman shall publish a class III tribal gaming... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publication of class III ordinance and approval....

  1. 25 CFR 291.4 - What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.4 What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures contain? A proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures must include the following information: (a)...

  2. 25 CFR 291.4 - What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.4 What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures contain? A proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures must include the following information: (a)...

  3. 25 CFR 291.4 - What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.4 What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures contain? A proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures must include the following information: (a)...

  4. 25 CFR 522.8 - Publication of class III ordinance and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.8 Publication of class III ordinance and approval. The Chairman shall publish a class III tribal gaming... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Publication of class III ordinance and approval....

  5. 25 CFR 522.8 - Publication of class III ordinance and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.8 Publication of class III ordinance and approval. The Chairman shall publish a class III tribal gaming... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Publication of class III ordinance and approval....

  6. 25 CFR 291.4 - What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.4 What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures contain? A proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures must include the following information: (a)...

  7. 25 CFR 522.8 - Publication of class III ordinance and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.8 Publication of class III ordinance and approval. The Chairman shall publish a class III tribal gaming... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Publication of class III ordinance and approval....

  8. 25 CFR 291.5 - Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures be filed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.5 Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures be filed? Any proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures must be filed with...

  9. 25 CFR 291.5 - Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures be filed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.5 Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures be filed? Any proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures must be filed with...

  10. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  11. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  12. Class III β-tubulin in normal and cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Marisa; Karki, Roshan; Spennato, Manuela; Pandya, Deep; He, Shiquan; Andreoli, Mirko; Fiedler, Paul; Ferlini, Cristiano

    2015-06-01

    Microtubules are polymeric structures composed of tubulin subunits. Each subunit consists of a heterodimer of α- and β-tubulin. At least seven β-tubulin isotypes, or classes, have been identified in human cells, and constitutive isotype expression appears to be tissue specific. Class III β-tubulin (βIII-tubulin) expression is normally confined to testes and tissues derived from neural cristae. However, its expression can be induced in other tissues, both normal and neoplastic, subjected to a toxic microenvironment characterized by hypoxia and poor nutrient supply. In this review, we will summarize the mechanisms underlying βIII-tubulin constitutive and induced expression. We will also illustrate its capacity to serve as a biomarker of neural commitment in normal tissues and as a pure prognostic biomarker in cancer patients.

  13. Class III treatment using facial mask: Stability after 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Adilson Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Early Class III malocclusion treatment may not have long-term stability due to mandibular growth. Although some features of this malocclusion point to a better prognosis, it is practically impossible for the orthodontist to foresee cases that require new intervention. Many patients need retreatment, whether compensatory or orthodontic-surgical. The present study reports the case of a Class III patient treated at the end of the mixed dentition with the use of a face mask followed by conventional fixed appliances. The case remains stable 10 years after treatment completion. It was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:25715726

  14. Class III treatment using facial mask: stability after 10 years.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Adilson Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Early Class III malocclusion treatment may not have long-term stability due to mandibular growth. Although some features of this malocclusion point to a better prognosis, it is practically impossible for the orthodontist to foresee cases that require new intervention. Many patients need retreatment, whether compensatory or orthodontic-surgical. The present study reports the case of a Class III patient treated at the end of the mixed dentition with the use of a face mask followed by conventional fixed appliances. The case remains stable 10 years after treatment completion. It was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  15. Orthodontics-surgical combination therapy for Class III skeletal malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, M. S.; Shetty, Nillan K.; Prasad, Rajendra B.

    2012-01-01

    The correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion with severe mandibular prognathism in an adult individual requires surgical and Othodontic combination therapy. The inter disciplinary approach is the treatment of choice in most of the skeletal malocclusions. A case report of an adult individual with Class III malocclusion, having mandibular excess in sagittal and vertical plane and treated with orthodontics,, bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and Le – Forte I osteotomy for the correction of skeletal, dental and soft tissue discrepancies is herewith presented. The surgical–orthodontic combination therapy has resulted in near–normal skeletal, dental and soft tissue relationship, with marked improvement in the facial esthetics in turn, has helped the patient to improve the self-confidence level. PMID:22557903

  16. 77 FR 48167 - Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact; Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact; Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY... the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. The Compact permits the......

  17. 25 CFR 522.7 - Disapproval of a class III ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disapproval of a class III ordinance. 522.7 Section 522.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.7 Disapproval of a class...

  18. 25 CFR 522.7 - Disapproval of a class III ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disapproval of a class III ordinance. 522.7 Section 522.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.7 Disapproval of a class...

  19. 25 CFR 522.7 - Disapproval of a class III ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disapproval of a class III ordinance. 522.7 Section 522.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.7 Disapproval of a class...

  20. 25 CFR 522.7 - Disapproval of a class III ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disapproval of a class III ordinance. 522.7 Section 522.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.7 Disapproval of a class...

  1. 25 CFR 522.7 - Disapproval of a class III ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disapproval of a class III ordinance. 522.7 Section 522.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.7 Disapproval of a class...

  2. TMJ in facial class III deformity. Condylar morphology relations

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Gonzalo; Olate, Sergio; Cantín, Mario; Vásquez, Bélgica; del Sol, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Class III dentofacial deformities (DF-III) are classified as a severe functional and esthetic anomaly. This work aims to describe the condylar morphology of subjects with DF-III and indication of correction through orthognatic surgery. A descriptive study was designed in the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile, where 14 patients were examined with conventional cephalometric studies to determine the surgical indication; then, cone beam CT images were recorded for the morphometric analyses on the coronal and axial slices, considering linear measurements in the middle, basal and anteroposterior areas. The data were analyzed with the student’s t-test, considering p < 0.05 statistically significant. The results revealed condylar size differences of less than 1 mm between the left and right condyles, considering average widths of 17.03 mm in the right condyle and 17.86 mm in the left condyle. Vertically, the observed averages were 17.17 mm in the right condyle and 17.04 mm in the left condyle; no statistical differences were observed. It can be concluded that there are no differences in the measurements when the two condyles are compared in this type of subject. PMID:25356190

  3. Early correction of a developing skeletal Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Zuisei; Kim, Yoonji; Soma, Kunimichi

    2007-05-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a Japanese girl aged 11 years 10 months who had a severe Class III malocclusion with a concave facial profile. She presented hypodivergent skeletal pattern with a -4.0-mm anterior crossbite and a deep overbite. She also had facial asymmetry attributed partly to the lateral mandibular shift to avoid incisal interferences. The treatment plan included a monoblock appliance, rapid palatal expansion, and fixed edgewise appliances at the final stage. The monoblock appliance was used to redirect the growth of the mandible to a clockwise direction and simultaneously correct the incisal relationships along with fixed edgewise appliances. Good incisal relationships were achieved, and facial esthetics was greatly improved after 28 months of treatment. Stability of the treatment result was excellent in the 3-year 9-month follow-up at the age of 18.

  4. Latent Class Analysis of Differential Item Functioning on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Mi-young Lee; Cohen, Allan S.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the use of latent class analysis for the detection of differences in item functioning on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Third Edition (PPVT-III). A two-class solution for a latent class model appeared to be defined in part by ability because Class 1 was lower in ability than Class 2 on both the PPVT-III and the…

  5. Crystal structure of class III chitinase from pomegranate provides the insight into its metal storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Taro; Zhao, Guanghua; Mikami, Bunzo

    2015-01-01

    Chitinase hydrolyzes the β-1,4-glycosidic bond in chitin. In higher plants, this enzyme has been regarded as a pathogenesis-related protein. Recently, we identified a class III chitinase, which functions as a calcium storage protein in pomegranate (Punica granatum) seed (PSC, pomegranate seed chitinase). Here, we solved a crystal structure of PSC at 1.6 Å resolution. Although its overall structure, including the structure of catalytic site and non-proline cis-peptides, was closely similar to those of other class III chitinases, PSC had some unique structural characteristics. First, there were some metal-binding sites with coordinated water molecules on the surface of PSC. Second, many unconserved aspartate residues were present in the PSC sequence which rendered the surface of PSC negatively charged. This acidic electrostatic property is in contrast to that of hevamine, well-characterized plant class III chitinase, which has rather a positively charged surface. Thus, the crystal structure provides a clue for metal association property of PSC.

  6. 76 FR 43701 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Class III Tribal State Gaming Compact Process...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... collection is currently authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0172, which expires November 30, 2011. DATES... guarantee that we will be able to do so. III. Data OMB Control Number: 1076-0172. Title: Class III...

  7. 25 CFR 291.3 - When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.3 When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to issue Class III... of Class III gaming activities; (b) The State and the Indian tribe failed to negotiate a compact...

  8. 25 CFR 291.14 - How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.14 How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to amend approved Class III...

  9. 25 CFR 291.14 - How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.14 How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to amend approved Class III...

  10. 25 CFR 291.3 - When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.3 When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to issue Class III... of Class III gaming activities; (b) The State and the Indian tribe failed to negotiate a compact...

  11. 25 CFR 291.3 - When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.3 When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to issue Class III... of Class III gaming activities; (b) The State and the Indian tribe failed to negotiate a compact...

  12. 25 CFR 291.3 - When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.3 When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to issue Class III... of Class III gaming activities; (b) The State and the Indian tribe failed to negotiate a compact...

  13. 25 CFR 291.3 - When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.3 When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to issue Class III... of Class III gaming activities; (b) The State and the Indian tribe failed to negotiate a compact...

  14. 25 CFR 291.14 - How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.14 How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to amend approved Class III...

  15. 25 CFR 291.14 - How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.14 How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to amend approved Class III...

  16. 25 CFR 291.14 - How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.14 How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to amend approved Class III...

  17. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  18. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  19. TMJ in facial class III deformity. Condyle/fossa relations

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Gonzalo; Olate, Sergio; Cantín, Mario; Vásquez, Bélgica; del Sol, Mariano; Fariña, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the joint space present in the TMJ of subjects diagnosed with Class III dentofacial deformity with an indication for orthognathic surgery. Fourteen subjects were recruited from the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. All subjects were admitted to the study after signing an informed consent and undergoing cephalometric analyses to define the severity of the deformity. Then, the joint space was analyzed, studying a cone beam CT image of the TMJ, which was evaluated in the coronal and sagittal views, defining the most anterior, median and posterior joint space (sagittal view), as well as the lateral, median and medial joint space (coronal view). The data were recorded in millimeters by an observer and data were analyzed after measuring the same parameter at three different times. A student’s t-test was used for the analyses. Differences observed in both joints were not greater than 0.2 mm with spaces between 2 mm and 1.5 mm, thereby establishing the homogeneity of the sample, which presented no significant differences between the two joint spaces (right and left). It can be concluded that the joint space is symmetrical in both condyles and that no important changes are present compared to the results indicated in the international literature. PMID:25356133

  20. PeroxiBase: a class III plant peroxidase database.

    PubMed

    Bakalovic, Nenad; Passardi, Filippo; Ioannidis, Vassilios; Cosio, Claudia; Penel, Claude; Falquet, Laurent; Dunand, Christophe

    2006-03-01

    Class III plant peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7), which are encoded by multigenic families in land plants, are involved in several important physiological and developmental processes. Their varied functions are not yet clearly determined, but their characterization will certainly lead to a better understanding of plant growth, differentiation and interaction with the environment, and hence to many exciting applications. Since there is currently no central database for plant peroxidase sequences and many plant sequences are not deposited in the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ repository or the UniProt KnowledgeBase, this prevents researchers from easily accessing all peroxidase sequences. Furthermore, gene expression data are poorly covered and annotations are inconsistent. In this rapidly moving field, there is a need for continual updating and correction of the peroxidase superfamily in plants. Moreover, consolidating information about peroxidases will allow for comparison of peroxidases between species and thus significantly help making correlations of function, structure or phylogeny. We report a new database (PeroxiBase) accessible through a web server with specific tools dedicated to facilitate query, classification and submission of peroxidase sequences. Recent developments in the field of plant peroxidase are also mentioned.

  1. Early correction of class III malocclusion with rapid maxillary expansion and face mask therapy

    PubMed Central

    Karthi, Muthukumar; Anbuselvan, Gobichettipalayam Jagatheeswaran; Kumar, Bhandari Pawan

    2013-01-01

    A case report is presented of a class III malocclusion with a class III skeletal pattern and maxillary retrusion. Patient, a 10-year-old boy was treated with an orthopedic face mask in conjunction with rapid maxillary expansion and standard pre-adjusted edgewise appliance. Treatment was completed after 3 years and proved to be stable following the active treatment. PMID:23956600

  2. 76 FR 71600 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact Process...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Class III Tribal- State Gaming... collection of information for the Class III Tribal State Gaming Compact Process. The information collection... do so. III. Data OMB Control Number: 1076-0172. Title: Class III Tribal State Gaming......

  3. The Oropharyngeal Airway in Young Adults with Skeletal Class II and Class III Deformities: A 3-D Morphometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jayaratne, Yasas Shri Nalaka; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Objectives 1) To determine the accuracy and reliability of an automated anthropometric measurement software for the oropharyngeal airway and 2) To compare the anthropometric dimensions of the oropharyngeal airway in skeletal class II and III deformity patients. Methods Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans of 62 patients with skeletal class II or III deformities were used for this study. Volumetric, linear and surface area measurements retroglossal (RG) and retropalatal (RP) compartments of the oropharyngeal airway was measured with the 3dMDVultus software. Accuracy of automated anthropometric pharyngeal airway measurements was assessed using an airway phantom. Results The software was found to be reasonably accurate for measuring dimensions of air passages. The total oropharyngeal volume was significantly greater in the skeletal class III deformity group (16.7 ± 9.04 mm3) compared with class II subjects (11.87 ± 4.01 mm3). The average surface area of both the RG and RP compartments were significantly larger in the class III deformity group. The most constricted area in the RG and RP airway was significantly larger in individuals with skeletal class III deformity. The anterior-posterior (AP) length of this constriction was significantly greater in skeletal class III individuals in both compartments, whereas the width of the constriction was not significantly different between the two groups in both compartments. The RP compartment was larger but less uniform than the RG compartment in both skeletal deformities. Conclusion Significant differences were observed in morphological characteristics of the oropharyngeal airway in individuals with skeletal class II and III deformities. This information may be valuable for surgeons in orthognathic treatment planning, especially for mandibular setback surgery that might compromise the oropharyngeal patency. PMID:26901313

  4. Civilization III and Whole-Class Play in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John K.; Probert, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This study examined an 11th grade high school class as they played the game Civilization III. Over nine class sessions students played the game in support of other activities related to several predetermined and emergent topics in U. S. history. Gameplay was whole-class oriented and involved students taking turns at the computer controlling…

  5. Detection of COL III in parchment by amino acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Dorte V P; Larsen, René

    2016-01-01

    Cultural heritage parchments made from the reticular dermis of animals have been subject to studies of deterioration and conservation by amino acid analysis. The reticular dermis contains a varying mixture of collagen I and III (COL I and III). When dealing with the results of the amino acid analyses, till now the COL III content has not been taken into account. Based on the available amino acid sequences, we present a method for determining the amount of COL III in the reticular dermis of new and historical parchments calculated from the ratio of Ile/Val. We find COL III contents between 7 and 32 % in new parchments and between 0.2 and 40 % in the historical parchments. This is consistent with results in the literature. The varying content of COL III has a significant influence on the uncertainty of the amino acid analysis. Although we have not found a simple correlation between the COL III content and the degree of deterioration, our results show that this question must be taken into consideration in future studies of the chemical and physical deterioration of parchment measured by amino acid analysis and other analytical methods.

  6. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent...

  7. Pleiotropic developmental expression of HasPOU-III, a class III POU gene, in the gastropod Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Elizabeth K; Degnan, Bernard M

    2002-06-01

    HasPOU-III is expressed in multiple cell types during the first 3 days of development of the gastropod Haliotis asinina. HasPOU-III expression begins in two bilaterally symmetrical sets of cells on the ventral ectodermal surface of the trochophore larva; one set are putative foot mucous cells. After torsion, HasPOU-III transcripts transiently appear in the developing ganglia of the central nervous system. At the end of larval morphogenesis, HasPOU-III expression is initiated in dorsoposterior cells of the visceral mass, in the posterior cells of the statocyst and in the developing radular sac. These expression patterns in Haliotis, a spiralian lophotrochozoan, are similar to POU Class III genes in other bilaterians where expression occurs in secretory cells and the developing nervous system.

  8. 25 CFR 291.12 - Who will monitor and enforce tribal compliance with the Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Class III gaming procedures? 291.12 Section 291.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.12 Who will monitor and enforce tribal... regarding monitoring and enforcement of tribal compliance with the Indian tribe's Class III...

  9. 25 CFR 291.12 - Who will monitor and enforce tribal compliance with the Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Class III gaming procedures? 291.12 Section 291.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.12 Who will monitor and enforce tribal... regarding monitoring and enforcement of tribal compliance with the Indian tribe's Class III...

  10. 25 CFR 291.12 - Who will monitor and enforce tribal compliance with the Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Class III gaming procedures? 291.12 Section 291.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.12 Who will monitor and enforce tribal... regarding monitoring and enforcement of tribal compliance with the Indian tribe's Class III...

  11. 25 CFR 291.12 - Who will monitor and enforce tribal compliance with the Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Class III gaming procedures? 291.12 Section 291.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.12 Who will monitor and enforce tribal... regarding monitoring and enforcement of tribal compliance with the Indian tribe's Class III...

  12. 25 CFR 291.12 - Who will monitor and enforce tribal compliance with the Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Class III gaming procedures? 291.12 Section 291.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.12 Who will monitor and enforce tribal... regarding monitoring and enforcement of tribal compliance with the Indian tribe's Class III...

  13. The class III ribonucleotide reductase from Neisseria bacilliformis can utilize thioredoxin as a reductant

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yifeng; Funk, Michael A.; Rosado, Leonardo A.; Baek, Jiyeon; Drennan, Catherine L.; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2014-01-01

    The class III anaerobic ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) studied to date couple the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxynucleotides with the oxidation of formate to CO2. Here we report the cloning and heterologous expression of the Neisseria bacilliformis class III RNR and show that it can catalyze nucleotide reduction using the ubiquitous thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase/NADPH system. We present a structural model based on a crystal structure of the homologous Thermotoga maritima class III RNR, showing its architecture and the position of conserved residues in the active site. Phylogenetic studies suggest that this form of class III RNR is present in bacteria and archaea that carry out diverse types of anaerobic metabolism. PMID:25157154

  14. A Ferredoxin Disulfide Reductase Delivers Electrons to the Methanosarcina barkeri Class III Ribonucleotide Reductase.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yifeng; Li, Bin; Prakash, Divya; Ferry, James G; Elliott, Sean J; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2015-12-01

    Two subtypes of class III anaerobic ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) studied so far couple the reduction of ribonucleotides to the oxidation of formate, or the oxidation of NADPH via thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. Certain methanogenic archaea contain a phylogenetically distinct third subtype of class III RNR, with distinct active-site residues. Here we report the cloning and recombinant expression of the Methanosarcina barkeri class III RNR and show that the electrons required for ribonucleotide reduction can be delivered by a [4Fe-4S] protein ferredoxin disulfide reductase, and a conserved thioredoxin-like protein NrdH present in the RNR operon. The diversity of class III RNRs reflects the diversity of electron carriers used in anaerobic metabolism.

  15. Acid Hydrolysis of Trioxalatocobaltate (III) Ion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggans, P. W.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an investigation involving acid hydrolysis and using both volumetric and kinetic techniques. Presents examples of the determination of the rate constant and its variation with temperature. (GS)

  16. 40 CFR 147.1401 - State administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Injection and Mineral Production Wells, Effective Date: February 16, 1982, Amended Dates: November 12, 1983..., III, IV and V wells. 147.1401 Section 147.1401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CONTROL PROGRAMS Nebraska § 147.1401 State administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The...

  17. 40 CFR 147.1401 - State administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Injection and Mineral Production Wells, Effective Date: February 16, 1982, Amended Dates: November 12, 1983..., III, IV and V wells. 147.1401 Section 147.1401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CONTROL PROGRAMS Nebraska § 147.1401 State administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The...

  18. 40 CFR 147.1401 - State administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Injection and Mineral Production Wells, Effective Date: February 16, 1982, Amended Dates: November 12, 1983..., III, IV and V wells. 147.1401 Section 147.1401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CONTROL PROGRAMS Nebraska § 147.1401 State administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The...

  19. 40 CFR 147.1401 - State administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Injection and Mineral Production Wells, Effective Date: February 16, 1982, Amended Dates: November 12, 1983..., III, IV and V wells. 147.1401 Section 147.1401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CONTROL PROGRAMS Nebraska § 147.1401 State administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The...

  20. 40 CFR 147.1401 - State administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Injection and Mineral Production Wells, Effective Date: February 16, 1982, Amended Dates: November 12, 1983..., III, IV and V wells. 147.1401 Section 147.1401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CONTROL PROGRAMS Nebraska § 147.1401 State administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The...

  1. Treatment Options for Class III Malocclusion in Growing Patients with Emphasis on Maxillary Protraction

    PubMed Central

    Azamian, Zeinab; Shirban, Farinaz

    2016-01-01

    It is very difficult to diagnose and treat Class III malocclusion. This type of malocclusion involves a number of cranial base and maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental compensation components. In Class III malocclusion originating from mandibular prognathism, orthodontic treatment in growing patients is not a good choice and in most cases orthognathic surgery is recommended after the end of growth. Approximately 30–40% of Class III patients exhibit some degree of maxillary deficiency; therefore, devices can be used for maxillary protraction for orthodontic treatment in early mixed dentition. In cases in which dental components are primarily responsible for Class III malocclusion, early therapeutic intervention is recommended. An electronic search was conducted using the Medline database (Entrez PubMed), the Cochrane Collaboration Oral Health Group Database of Clinical Trials, Science Direct, and Scopus. In this review article, we described the treatment options for Class III malocclusion in growing patient with an emphasis on maxillary protraction. It seems that the most important factor for treatment of Class III malocclusion in growing patient is case selection. PMID:27144056

  2. Discovery of bicyclic pyrazoles as class III histone deacetylase SIRT1 and SIRT2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Eric; Larouche, Guillaume; Nguyen, Natalie; Rahil, Jubrail; Lemieux, Anne-Marie; Li, Zuomei; Fournel, Marielle; Yan, Theresa P; Landry, Anne-Julie; Lefebvre, Sylvain; Wang, James J; MacBeth, Kyle; Heise, Carla; Nguyen, Aaron; Besterman, Jeffrey M; Déziel, Robert; Wahhab, Amal

    2015-06-15

    A series of bicyclic pyrazole carboxamides was synthesized and tested for inhibitory activity against the class III deacetylase sirtuin enzymes. Moderate to low micromolar inhibitory activities were obtained against SIRT1 and SIRT2. These bicyclic pyrazole compounds represent a new class of sirtuin inhibitors with a preference for SIRT1 over SIRT2. PMID:25971769

  3. 25 CFR 522.6 - Approval requirements for class III ordinances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 522.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.6 Approval...) The tribe shall have the sole proprietary interest in and responsibility for the conduct of any...

  4. 25 CFR 522.6 - Approval requirements for class III ordinances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 522.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.6 Approval...) The tribe shall have the sole proprietary interest in and responsibility for the conduct of any...

  5. Regulation of MIR165/166 by class II and class III homeodomain leucine zipper proteins establishes leaf polarity

    PubMed Central

    Merelo, Paz; Ram, Hathi; Pia Caggiano, Monica; Ohno, Carolyn; Ott, Felix; Straub, Daniel; Graeff, Moritz; Cho, Seok Keun; Yang, Seong Wook; Wenkel, Stephan; Heisler, Marcus G.

    2016-01-01

    A defining feature of plant leaves is their flattened shape. This shape depends on an antagonism between the genes that specify adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) tissue identity; however, the molecular nature of this antagonism remains poorly understood. Class III homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factors are key mediators in the regulation of adaxial–abaxial patterning. Their expression is restricted adaxially during early development by the abaxially expressed microRNA (MIR)165/166, yet the mechanism that restricts MIR165/166 expression to abaxial leaf tissues remains unknown. Here, we show that class III and class II HD-ZIP proteins act together to repress MIR165/166 via a conserved cis-element in their promoters. Organ morphology and tissue patterning in plants, therefore, depend on a bidirectional repressive circuit involving a set of miRNAs and its targets. PMID:27698117

  6. Structural diversity and transcription of class III peroxidases from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Welinder, Karen G; Justesen, Annemarie F; Kjaersgård, Inger V H; Jensen, Rikke B; Rasmussen, Søren K; Jespersen, Hans M; Duroux, Laurent

    2002-12-01

    Understanding peroxidase function in plants is complicated by the lack of substrate specificity, the high number of genes, their diversity in structure and our limited knowledge of peroxidase gene transcription and translation. In the present study we sequenced expressed sequence tags (ESTs) encoding novel heme-containing class III peroxidases from Arabidopsis thaliana and annotated 73 full-length genes identified in the genome. In total, transcripts of 58 of these genes have now been observed. The expression of individual peroxidase genes was assessed in organ-specific EST libraries and compared to the expression of 33 peroxidase genes which we analyzed in whole plants 3, 6, 15, 35 and 59 days after sowing. Expression was assessed in root, rosette leaf, stem, cauline leaf, flower bud and cell culture tissues using the gene-specific and highly sensitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We predicted that 71 genes could yield stable proteins folded similarly to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The putative mature peroxidases derived from these genes showed 28-94% amino acid sequence identity and were all targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum by N-terminal signal peptides. In 20 peroxidases these signal peptides were followed by various N-terminal extensions of unknown function which are not present in HRP. Ten peroxidases showed a C-terminal extension indicating vacuolar targeting. We found that the majority of peroxidase genes were expressed in root. In total, class III peroxidases accounted for an impressive 2.2% of root ESTs. Rather few peroxidases showed organ specificity. Most importantly, genes expressed constitutively in all organs and genes with a preference for root represented structurally diverse peroxidases (< 70% sequence identity). Furthermore, genes appearing in tandem showed distinct expression profiles. The alignment of 73 Arabidopsis peroxidase sequences provides an easy access to the identification of orthologous peroxidases

  7. Anteroposterior condylar position: A comparative study between subjects with normal occlusion and patients with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Rodrigues, Andréia Fialho; Ribeiro, Luiz Claudio; da Silva Campos, Marcio José; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to determine and compare the anteroposterior position of the condyle in the mandibular fossa between groups of asymptomatic subjects with normal occlusion and asymptomatic subjects with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions. Material/Methods Thirty persons with normal occlusion, 30 with Class I malocclusion, 30 with Class II Division 1, and 30 with Class III had computed tomography scans of their temporomandibular joints. The anterior joint space/posterior joint space (AJS/PJS) ratio was determined for the right and left joints. The paired t test was used to analyze the AJS/PJS ratio between both sides for each group. The ANOVA test was applied to verify the differences between the groups for the measurements of the right and left sides. In case the ANOVA test confirmed significance, the Dunnett’s t test was performed to compare the groups of malocclusion with that of normal occlusion. Results The paired t test between the AJS/PJS relationships in the right and left sides showed the following p values: Class I (0.168), Class II Division 1 (0.662), Class III (0.991), and normal occlusion (0.390). The ANOVA test showed a p value of 0.445 for the comparisons of the right side and 0.040 for the left side. The Dunnett’s t test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the Class II group and the normal occlusion group (p value of 0.026) in the joints of the left side. Conclusions Bilateral symmetry and lack of condyle centralization were common characteristics among all groups. The greatest condylar decentralization was observed in the Class II group, whereas the least condylar decentralization was found in the normal occlusion group. PMID:24165809

  8. No differences in morphological characteristics between hyperplastic condyle and class III condyle.

    PubMed

    Goulart, D R; Muñoz, P; Olate, S; de Moraes, M; Fariña, R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the condylar morphology of patients with unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) and patients with a class III skeletal relationship using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). A prospective study was conducted on patients with facial asymmetry attending the division of oral and maxillofacial surgery of the study university in Chile. Fifteen patients with UCH and 15 with a class III skeletal relationship were selected. Linear measurements of the condylar processes were obtained at a scale of 1:1 using the software Ez3D Viewer Plus. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the paired t-test were used, considering P<0.05. Patients with UCH presented statistical differences between the hyperplastic condyle and non-hyperplastic condyle for anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters, condylar neck length, and ramus height. Patients with a class III skeletal relationship showed no differences between the right and left sides; the morphology of their condyles was similar to the condyles with hyperplasia and presented statistical differences when compared with the non-hyperplastic condyles (one-way ANOVA, P<0.05). The condylar morphology of UCH patients could be related to the development of a class III skeletal relationship. These findings provide an insight into the possibility of some class III patients presenting bilateral condylar hyperplasia.

  9. Evaluation of arch width among Class I normal occlusion, Class II Division 1, Class II Division 2, and Class III malocclusion in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dolly; Mehta, Falguni; Patel, Nimesh; Mehta, Nishit; Trivedi, Ipist; Mehta, Apexa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that there is no difference between Class I (CI) normal occlusion, Class II division 1 (CIId1) and CII division 2 (CIId2), and Class III (CIII) malocclusion with respect to arch widths, width of the maxillary and mandibular arches, gender dimorphism within groups, and gender comparisons. Materials and Methods: Samples of 40 CI subjects, 40 CIId1 subjects, 40 CIId2 subjects, and 34 CIII subjects were studied. All subjects were Indians with no history of orthodontic treatment. An analysis of variance and Duncan's test statistically compared the groups and genders. Results: CIId1 malocclusion showed the narrowest maxillary arch compared with the other types of malocclusions. CIII malocclusion showed largest mandibular arch than other types of malocclusions. Gender dimorphism is more commonly seen in CI normal occlusion than other types of malocclusions. Gender dimorphism is not observed in CIId1 group. Gender comparisons revealed arch width differences between different types of malocclusions more pronounced in males than in females. The maxillary/mandibular intermolar width difference is positive for CI normal occlusion and negative for CIId1, CIId2, and CIII malocclusions, which suggested, the presence of crossbite tendency in CII and CIII malocclusions. Conclusion: The hypothesis is rejected by the findings of this study. PMID:26604575

  10. Maxillary protraction using skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics in Skeletal Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    Ağlarcı, Cahide; Albayrak, Gayem Eroğlu; Fındık, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment of a patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion with maxillary retrognathia using skeletal anchorage devices and intermaxillary elastics. Miniplates were inserted between the mandibular lateral incisor and canine teeth on both sides in a male patient aged 14 years 5 months. Self-drilling mini-implants (1.6 mm diameter, 10 mm length) were installed between the maxillary second premolar and molar teeth, and Class III elastics were used between the miniplates and miniscrews. On treatment completion, an increase in the projection of the maxilla relative to the cranial base (2.7 mm) and significant improvement of the facial profile were observed. Slight maxillary counterclockwise (1°) and mandibular clockwise (3.3°) rotations were also observed. Maxillary protraction with skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics was effective in correcting a case of Skeletal Class III malocclusion without dentoalveolar side effects. PMID:25798416

  11. [The craniofacial architecture of class III malocclusion using the Coben analysis].

    PubMed

    Vallée-Cussac, V

    1991-01-01

    In this study, longitudinal tracings of dental and skeletal Class III malocclusion group are compared to tracings of COBEN analysis standard values. Cephalometric measurements and surimpositions illustrate the dynamic variations of Class III cranio-facial architecture for two age ranges: 8 years +/- 1 year and 16 years +/- 1 year. The Class III pathology for children 8 years +/- 1 year aged is characterized by alterations of tracings sizes and position with excessive cranio-facial components length and rotation of cranial base into a more vertical position. A growth rate deficiency in length with a variable individual adaptation is showed for cranial structures except the mandibule after growth at the age of 16 years +/- 1 year.

  12. New approach of maxillary protraction using modified C-palatal plates in Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Ki Beom; Kim, Seong-Hun; Chung, Kyu-Rhim

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary protraction is the conventional treatment for growing Class III patients with maxillary deficiency, but it has undesirable dental effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce an alternative modality of maxillary protraction in patients with dentoskeletal Class III malocclusion using a modified C-palatal plate connected with elastics to a face mask. This method improved skeletal measurements, corrected overjet, and slightly improved the profile. The patients may require definitive treatment in adolescence or adulthood. The modified C-palatal plate enables nonsurgical maxillary advancement with maximal skeletal effects and minimal dental side effects. PMID:26258067

  13. Two-phase treatment of patients with crossbite and tendency toward skeletal Class III malocclusion*

    PubMed Central

    Bayerl, Maria de Lourdes Machado

    2014-01-01

    Angle Class III malocclusion is characterized by an inadequate anteroposterior dental relationship which may or may not be accompanied by skeletal changes. In general, patients are distressed by a significantly compromised facial aspect which, when associated with a deficient middle third, encourages patients to seek treatment. This article reports a two-phase treatment carried out in a female patient aged six years and six months with a tendency towards a Class III skeletal pattern. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO). It is representative of the Discrepancy Index (DI) category, and fulfills part of the requirements for obtaining BBO Diploma. PMID:25279531

  14. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with face mask therapy and comprehensive orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Kirthika; Vijaykumar, N M; Sainath, M C

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a growing patient is crucial as it can circumvent future surgical procedures. Further, as surgery is done only at a later stage, early treatment helps to avoid the detrimental effects produced by the facial disfigurement on the patient's social life. This case report describes the treatment of a child aged 9 years 6 months who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The treatment plan involved the use of a reverse pull headgear (facemask) and multibracket appliance therapy resulting in successful correction of the malocclusion. The treatment results were highly satisfactory resulting in improved facial esthetics, a skeletal Class I with a Dental Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overjet and overbite. Thus, dentoalveolar camouflage, if done in properly selected cases, alleviates the need for surgical intervention. The patient is being monitored until the end of growth to ensure the stability of treatment results. PMID:27041912

  15. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with face mask therapy and comprehensive orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumar, Kirthika; Vijaykumar, N. M.; Sainath, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a growing patient is crucial as it can circumvent future surgical procedures. Further, as surgery is done only at a later stage, early treatment helps to avoid the detrimental effects produced by the facial disfigurement on the patient's social life. This case report describes the treatment of a child aged 9 years 6 months who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The treatment plan involved the use of a reverse pull headgear (facemask) and multibracket appliance therapy resulting in successful correction of the malocclusion. The treatment results were highly satisfactory resulting in improved facial esthetics, a skeletal Class I with a Dental Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overjet and overbite. Thus, dentoalveolar camouflage, if done in properly selected cases, alleviates the need for surgical intervention. The patient is being monitored until the end of growth to ensure the stability of treatment results. PMID:27041912

  16. Molecular characterization of fruit-specific class III peroxidase genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chii-Jeng; Chan, Yuan-Li; Shien, Chin Hui; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2015-04-01

    In this study, expression of four peroxidase genes, LePrx09, LePrx17, LePrx35 and LePrxA, was identified in immature tomato fruits, and the function in the regulation of fruit growth was characterized. Analysis of amino acid sequences revealed that these genes code for class III peroxidases, containing B, D and F conserved domains, which bind heme groups, and a buried salt bridge motif. LePrx35 and LePrxA were identified as novel peroxidase genes in Solanum lycopersicum (L.). The temporal expression patterns at various fruit growth stages revealed that LePrx35 and LePrxA were expressed only in immature green (IMG) fruits, whereas LePrx17 and LePrx09 were expressed in both immature and mature green fruits. Tissue-specific expression profiles indicated that only LePrx09 was expressed in the mesocarp but not the inner tissue of immature fruits. The effects of hormone treatments and stresses on the four genes were examined; only the expression levels of LePrx17 and LePrx09 were altered. Transcription of LePrx17 was up-regulated by jasmonic acid (JA) and pathogen infection and expression of LePrx09 was induced by ethephon, salicylic acid (SA) and JA, in particular, as well as wounding, pathogen infection and H2O2 stress. Tomato plants over-expressing LePrx09 displayed enhanced resistance to H2O2 stress, suggesting that LePrx09 may participate in the H2O2 signaling pathway to regulate fruit growth and disease resistance in tomato fruits.

  17. Solution structures of europium(III) complexes of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Latva, M.; Kankara, J.; Haapakka, K.

    1996-04-01

    Coordination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with europium(III) has been studied at different concentrations in solution using {sup 7}F{sub 0}{yields}{sup 5}D{sub 0} excitation spectroscopy and excited-state lifetime measurements. EDTA forms with Eu(III) ion three different species in equimolar solutions at room temperature. At low pH values EuEDTAH is formed and at higher pH values than 1.5 two EuEDTA{sup -} complexes, which differ from each other with one water molecule in the first coordination sphere of the Eu(III) ion, total coordination number and coordination geometry, are also formed. When the concentration of EDTA is higher than the concentration of Eu(III), an EuEDTA(EDTAH){sup 4-} species where the second EDTA is weakly coordinated to EuEDTA{sup -}, is formed. If the concentration of Eu(III) ion is higher than EDTA, the extra Eu(III) ions associate with EuEDTA{sup -} and link to one of the carboxylate groups of EDTA thus causing a shortening of the excited-state lifetime of the EuEDTA{sup -} complex.

  18. An orthopaedic approach to the treatment of Class III malocclusions in the early mixed dentition.

    PubMed

    Cozza, Paola; Marino, Alessandra; Mucedero, Manuela

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study cephalometrically the skeletal, dental and soft tissue modifications induced by a Delaire facemask and Bionator III appliance in a sample of 30 patients (17 boys and 13 girls), aged 4.1-9 years [mean 5.85 years, confidence interval (CI) 5.41-6.29], in the early mixed dentition with a skeletal Class III malocclusion caused by maxillary retrognathism (group 1) and compared with a control sample of 24 subjects (14 boys and 10 girls), aged 4-9 years (mean 5.97 years, CI 5.35-6.58) with untreated Class III malocclusions (group 2). For each patient a lateral cephalogram was taken before treatment (T0), after facemask removal (T1), and at the end of the retention period with a Bionator III (T2). Cephalometric analysis was carried out. The post-treatment cephalometric values in the treated group showed a forward displacement of the maxilla resulting in a statistically significant increase (P < 0.001) in the SNA angle, A-NPg (mm) and PNS-A (mm) linear values. There was a clockwise rotation of the mandible, with a decrease in the SNB angle and a satisfactory correction of the Class III relationship. The beneficial effects on the facial profile were confirmed by an increase in UL-EL distance and in NB--HL and NsPgs--HL angles, and by a decrease in the facial convexity angle. These findings indicate that the Delaire facemask and Bionator III treatment is effective for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusions caused by maxillary retrognathism in the early mixed dentition.

  19. Aromatic amino acids in high selectivity bismuth(III) recognition.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, Sumanta Kumar; Dey, Debarati; Sen, Souvik; Sen, Kamalika

    2013-04-21

    The three aromatic amino acids, tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine, play different physiological roles in life processes. Metal ions capable of binding these amino acids may aid in the reduction of effective concentration of these amino acids in any physiological system. Here we have studied the efficacy of some heavy metals for their complexation with these three amino acids. Bismuth has been found to bind selectively with these aromatic amino acids and this was confirmed using spectrofluorimetric, spectrophotometric and cyclic voltammetric studies. The series of heavy metals has been chosen because each of these metals remains associated with the others at very low concentration levels and Bi(III) is the least toxic amongst the other elements. So, selective recognition for Bi(III) would also mean no response for the other heavy elements if contaminants are present even at low concentration levels. The affinity towards these amino acids has been found to be in the order tryptophan < phenylalanine < tyrosine. The association constants of these amino acids have been calculated using Benesi-Hildebrand equations and the corresponding free energy change has also been calculated. The values of the association constants obtained from BH equations using absorbance values corroborate with the Stern-Volmer constants obtained from fluorimetric studies. The evidence for complexation is also supported by the results of cyclic voltammetry.

  20. Molecular characterisation of Ltchi7, a gene encoding a Class III endochitinase induced by drought stress in Lotus spp.

    PubMed

    Tapia, G; Morales-Quintana, L; Inostroza, L; Acuña, H

    2011-01-01

    Chitinases are enzymes that digest chitin molecules, present principally in insects and fungi. In plants, these enzymes play an important role in defence against pathogen attack, although they have also been described as induced by mechanical damage, ozone, heavy metals, cold, salinity, etc. Using an annealing control primer, we isolated a gene fragment whose translated sequence has high homology with a class III endochitinase. The gene, named Ltchi7, consisted of one ORF of 1005 bp, which codes for a peptide of 334 amino acids, including a deduced signal peptide of 27 amino acid that directs protein to the extracellular space. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that Ltchi7 is within a cluster that includes Sesbania rostrata, Medicago sativa and Glycine max class III endochitinases. This group is differentiated from other species of endochitinases by the presence of an additional extension in carboxy-terminal region. Moreover, in comparison with the majority of chitinases, Ltchi7 has two additional cysteine residues, which, according to 3D modelling studies, are very close. Gene expression analysis showed enhanced transcript abundance of this gene during drought stress in Lotus tenuis and Lotus japonicus, compared with growth under normal conditions. Furthermore, its expression is restricted to nodules and roots. Expression of this gene was also induced by salt stress, hydrogen peroxide and weakly with abscisic acid.

  1. Relationship between Class III malocclusion and hyoid bone displacement during swallowing: a cine-magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Hasan Suat; Gorgulu, Serkan; Karacay, Seniz; Akca, Eralp; Olmez, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The displacement of the hyoid bone (HB) is a critical biomechanical component of the swallowing function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the swallowing-induced vertical and horizontal displacements of the HB in subjects with 2 different magnitudes of skeletal Class III malocclusion, by means of real-time, balanced turbo-field-echo (B-TFE) cine-magnetic resonance imaging. Methods The study population comprised 19 patients with mild skeletal Class III malocclusion, 16 with severe skeletal Class III malocclusion, and 20 with a skeletal Class I relationship. Before the commencement of the study, all subjects underwent cephalometric analysis to identify the nature of skeletal malformations. B-TFE images were obtained for the 4 consecutive stages of deglutition as each patient swallowed 10 mL of water, and the vertical and horizontal displacements of the HB were measured at each stage. Results At all stages of swallowing, the vertical position of the HB in the severe Class III malocclusion group was significantly lower than those in the mild Class III and Class I malocclusion groups. Similarly, the horizontal displacement of the HB was found to be significantly associated with the severity of malocclusion, i.e., the degree of Class III malocclusion, while the amount of anterior displacement of the HB decreased with an increase in the severity of the Class III deformity. Conclusions Our findings indicate the existence of a relationship between the magnitude of Class III malocclusion and HB displacement during swallowing. PMID:23112950

  2. Kinetics of Fe(III)*EDTA reduction by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Harkness, J.B.L.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of ferric chelate by ascorbic acid have been determined at a typical flue-gas scrubber-system operating temperature ([approximately]55[degrees]C). The ascorbic acid reaction has the same reduction rate expression as the reduction by bisulfite ions, namely, first order with respect to the concentrations of both Fe(III)*EDTA and monoionic species of ascorbic acid. The reaction rate isnegative first order with respect to Fe(II)*EDTA concentration. In the pH range of 6--8, reduction of the hydrolyzed form of the metal chelate compound was negligible. The rate constant for the ascorbic acid reduction reaction is almost 400 times larger than that for the bisulfite reduction reaction under the same reaction conditions. There was no contribution associated with the nonionized form of ascorbic acid.

  3. Kinetics of Fe(III)*EDTA reduction by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Harkness, J.B.L.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1992-12-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of ferric chelate by ascorbic acid have been determined at a typical flue-gas scrubber-system operating temperature ({approximately}55{degrees}C). The ascorbic acid reaction has the same reduction rate expression as the reduction by bisulfite ions, namely, first order with respect to the concentrations of both Fe(III)*EDTA and monoionic species of ascorbic acid. The reaction rate isnegative first order with respect to Fe(II)*EDTA concentration. In the pH range of 6--8, reduction of the hydrolyzed form of the metal chelate compound was negligible. The rate constant for the ascorbic acid reduction reaction is almost 400 times larger than that for the bisulfite reduction reaction under the same reaction conditions. There was no contribution associated with the nonionized form of ascorbic acid.

  4. Phenotyping of human complement component C4, a class-III HLA antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Sim, E; Cross, S J

    1986-01-01

    The plasma complement protein C4 is encoded at two highly polymorphic loci, A and B, within the class-III region of the major histocompatibility complex. At least 34 different polymorphic variants of human C4 have been identified, including non-expressed or 'null' alleles. The main method of identification of C4 polymorphic allotypes is separation on the basis of charge by agarose-gel electrophoresis of plasma. On staining by immunofixation with anti-C4 antibodies, each C4 type gives three major bands, but, since individuals can have up to five allotypes, the overlapping banding pattern is difficult to interpret. We show that digestion of plasma samples with carboxypeptidase B, which removes C-terminal basic amino acids, before electrophoresis, produces a single, sharp, distinct band for each allotype and allows identification of the biochemical basis of the multiple banding pattern previously observed in C4 phenotype determination. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3103606

  5. Evolution of Class III Homeodomain–Leucine Zipper Genes in Streptophytes

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Sandra K.; Zalewski, Christopher S.; Bowman, John L.

    2006-01-01

    Land plants underwent tremendous evolutionary change following the divergence of the ancestral lineage from algal relatives. Several important developmental innovations appeared as the embryophyte clade diversified, leading to the appearance of new organs and tissue types. To understand how these changes came about, we need to identify the fundamental genetic developmental programs that are responsible for growth, patterning, and differentiation and describe how these programs were modified and elaborated through time to produce novel morphologies. Class III homeodomain–leucine zipper (class III HD–Zip) genes, identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, provide good candidates for basic land plant patterning genes. We show that these genes may have evolved in a common ancestor of land plants and their algal sister group and that the gene family has diversified as land plant lineages have diversified. Phylogenetic analysis, expression data from nonflowering lineages, and evidence from Arabidopsis and other flowering plants indicate that class III HD–Zip genes acquired new functions in sporophyte apical growth, vascular patterning and differentiation, and leaf development. Modification of expression patterns that accompanied diversification of class III HD–Zip genes likely played an important role in the evolution of land plant form. PMID:16489224

  6. Short-term and long-term treatment outcomes with Class III activator

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyo-kyung; Chong, Hyun-Jeong; An, Ki-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate short-term and long-term skeletodental outcomes of Class III activator treatment. Methods A Class III activator treatment group (AG) comprised of 22 patients (9 boys, 13 girls) was compared with a Class III control group (CG) comprised of 17 patients (6 boys, 11 girls). The total treatment period was divided into three stages; the initial stage (T1), the post-activator treatment or post-mandibular growth peak stage (T2), and the long-term follow-up stage (T3). Cephalometric changes were evaluated statistically via the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Friedman test. Results The AG exhibited significant increases in the SNA angle, ANB angle, Wits appraisal, A point-N perpendicular, Convexity of A point, and proclination of the maxillary incisors, from T1 to T2. In the long-term follow-up (T1-T3), the AG exhibited significantly greater increases in the ANB angle, Wits appraisal, and Convexity of A point than the CG. Conclusions Favorable skeletal outcomes induced during the Class III activator treatment period were generally maintained until the long-term follow-up period of the post-mandibular growth peak stage. PMID:26445717

  7. Maxillary development revisited: relevance to the orthopaedic treatment of Class III malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Delaire, J

    1997-06-01

    Normal development of the maxilla results not only from movements of its constituent skeletal units and bony apposition-resorption superficially, but also from the specific development of the antero-lateral regions. In Class III cases, correction of the skeletal dysmorphosis requires not only that the maxilla is in a correct position (in relation to the mandible) and that the correct occlusion is achieved, but also that there is good development of the exo-peri-premaxilla. This requires normalization of muscular posture (labio-mental, lingual, velo-pharyngeal) and of orofacial functions (nasal ventilation, swallowing, mastication). Postero-anterior traction using an orthopaedic mask can only accomplish part of the treatment of Class III. The action must always be complimented by other therapy aimed at correcting the underdevelopment of the antero-lateral regions. Facemask therapy is not only simple sagittal distraction, but is truly a method for treatment of Class III which is well understood and achieves excellent results. Taking into account the great diversity of anatomical forms of Class III malocclusion, it is not surprising that extra-oral postero-anterior traction gives widely varying results. The quality, however, depends principally on the method used. Orthodontists must not hesitate to call for the assistance of a surgeon each time the functional treatment is insufficient, particularly in cleft patients where the results depend more on surgical procedures, both primary and secondary, than on dentofacial orthopaedics.

  8. 78 FR 4094 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Two Class III Preamendments Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... the following two class III preamendments devices: Hip joint metal/metal semi- constrained, with a cemented acetabular component, prosthesis; and hip joint metal/metal semi-constrained, with an uncemented.... Hip Joint Metal/Metal Semi-Constrained, With a Cemented Acetabular Component, Prosthesis (21 CFR...

  9. 40 CFR 147.3011 - Plugging and abandonment of Class III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Class III uranium projects underlying or in aquifers containing up to 5,000 mg/l TDS which have... plan a plan for aquifer clean-up and monitoring which demonstrates adequate protection of surrounding... concentrations of contaminants to which aquifers must be cleaned up in order to protect surrounding USDWs....

  10. 40 CFR 147.3011 - Plugging and abandonment of Class III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Class III uranium projects underlying or in aquifers containing up to 5,000 mg/l TDS which have... plan a plan for aquifer clean-up and monitoring which demonstrates adequate protection of surrounding... concentrations of contaminants to which aquifers must be cleaned up in order to protect surrounding USDWs....

  11. 40 CFR 147.3011 - Plugging and abandonment of Class III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Class III uranium projects underlying or in aquifers containing up to 5,000 mg/l TDS which have... plan a plan for aquifer clean-up and monitoring which demonstrates adequate protection of surrounding... concentrations of contaminants to which aquifers must be cleaned up in order to protect surrounding USDWs....

  12. 40 CFR 147.3011 - Plugging and abandonment of Class III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Class III uranium projects underlying or in aquifers containing up to 5,000 mg/l TDS which have... plan a plan for aquifer clean-up and monitoring which demonstrates adequate protection of surrounding... concentrations of contaminants to which aquifers must be cleaned up in order to protect surrounding USDWs....

  13. 40 CFR 147.3011 - Plugging and abandonment of Class III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Class III uranium projects underlying or in aquifers containing up to 5,000 mg/l TDS which have... plan a plan for aquifer clean-up and monitoring which demonstrates adequate protection of surrounding... concentrations of contaminants to which aquifers must be cleaned up in order to protect surrounding USDWs....

  14. 77 FR 45370 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Class III Gaming; Tribal Revenue Allocation Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... 1076-0149, Tribal Revenue Allocation Plans authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0152, and Gaming on Trust Lands Acquired After October 17, 1988 authorized by OMB Control Number 1076- 0158. These.... Data OMB Control Number: 1076-0149. Title: Class III Gaming Procedures, 25 CFR Part 291....

  15. 77 FR 68812 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Class III Gaming; Tribal Revenue Allocation Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... collection of information for Class III Gaming Procedures authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0149, Tribal Revenue Allocation Plans authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0152, and Gaming on Trust Lands Acquired After October 17, 1988 authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0158. These information collections...

  16. Complexation and molecular modeling studies of europium(III)-gallic acid-amino acid complexes.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohamed; Khan, Imran; Coutinho, João A P

    2016-04-01

    With many metal-based drugs extensively used today in the treatment of cancer, attention has focused on the development of new coordination compounds with antitumor activity with europium(III) complexes recently introduced as novel anticancer drugs. The aim of this work is to design new Eu(III) complexes with gallic acid, an antioxida'nt phenolic compound. Gallic acid was chosen because it shows anticancer activity without harming health cells. As antioxidant, it helps to protect human cells against oxidative damage that implicated in DNA damage, cancer, and accelerated cell aging. In this work, the formation of binary and ternary complexes of Eu(III) with gallic acid, primary ligand, and amino acids alanine, leucine, isoleucine, and tryptophan was studied by glass electrode potentiometry in aqueous solution containing 0.1M NaNO3 at (298.2 ± 0.1) K. Their overall stability constants were evaluated and the concentration distributions of the complex species in solution were calculated. The protonation constants of gallic acid and amino acids were also determined at our experimental conditions and compared with those predicted by using conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) model. The geometries of Eu(III)-gallic acid complexes were characterized by the density functional theory (DFT). The spectroscopic UV-visible and photoluminescence measurements are carried out to confirm the formation of Eu(III)-gallic acid complexes in aqueous solutions.

  17. Prevalence of class III malocclusion and crossbite among children and adolescents with craniomandibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Nenad; Drinkuth, Nicole; Toll, Douglas E

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have been devoted to the causes of craniomandibular dysfunction (CMD). This investigation addressed the effect of class III malocclusion and crossbite on CMD based on a sample of 115 prepubertal and adolescent patients of both sexes. Although class III malocclusion only accounted for 12.2% of the total sample, thus, being the smallest group, the percentage of crossbite (71.4%) among these patients was disproportionately higher than among the other classes. Of the total sample, the prevalence of crossbite was 30.4%. We compared these findings to a large-scale (n=4727) study by Thilander et al. (2002), who reported a strikingly high percentage of class I patients compared to our findings (72.7% versus 27.8%) and a lower percentage of crossbite cases (8.0% versus 30.4%). In accordance with the "orthodontic risk child" concept by Grabowski et al. (2007) and Stahl et al. (2007), we conclude that class III malocclusion and crossbite are keys in the pathogenesis of CMD.

  18. Orthodontic retreatment using anchorage with miniplate to camouflage a Class III skeletal pattern.

    PubMed

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori

    2016-06-01

    This manuscript describes the treatment of a 27-year-old patient who was previously treated with two maxillary first premolar extractions. The patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion, Class III canine relationship, anterior crossbite, and a concave profile. As the patient refused orthognathic surgery, a miniplate was used on the right side of the lower arch as an anchorage unit after the extraction of mandibular first premolars, aiding the retraction of anterior teeth. At the end of treatment, anterior crossbite was corrected, in which first molars and canines were in a Class I relationship, and an excellent intercuspation was reached. Furthermore, patient's profile remarkably improved as a result of mandibular incisor retraction. A 30-month follow-up showed good stability of the results obtained. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as one of the requirements to become diplomate by the BBO. PMID:27409659

  19. Orthodontic camouflage of skeletal Class III malocclusion with miniplate: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Farret, Milton M. Benitez; Farret, Alessandro Marchiori

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Skeletal Class III malocclusion is often referred for orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery. However, with the aid of miniplates, some moderate discrepancies become feasible to be treated without surgery. Objective: To report the case of a 24-year-old man with severe skeletal Angle Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite and a consequent concave facial profile. Methods: The patient refused to undergo orthognathic surgery; therefore, orthodontic camouflage treatment with the aid of miniplates placed on the mandibular arch was proposed. Results: After 18 months of treatment, a Class I molar and canine relationship was achieved, while anterior crossbite was corrected by retraction of mandibular teeth. The consequent decrease in lower lip fullness and increased exposure of maxillary incisors at smiling resulted in a remarkable improvement of patient's facial profile, in addition to an esthetically pleasing smile, respectively. One year later, follow-up revealed good stability of results. PMID:27653269

  20. Luminescent properties of europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes with para- and ortho-ethoxybenzoic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panyushkin, V. T.; Mutuzova, M. Kh.; Shamsutdinova, M. Kh.

    2016-02-01

    The luminescent properties of europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes with para- and ortho-ethoxybenzoic acids are studied. The excitation energies of the triplet states of ligands are determined, a hypothesis is made about the efficient luminescence of europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes, the geometry of the coordination polyhedron of a europium complex is established, and the luminescence quantum yields of the complexes in solution are determined.

  1. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  2. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  3. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  4. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  5. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  6. 40 CFR 147.1850 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Oklahoma § 147.1850 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Oklahoma, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Oklahoma State Department of Health, approved by EPA pursuant to SDWA...

  7. 40 CFR 147.1850 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Oklahoma § 147.1850 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Oklahoma, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Oklahoma State Department of Health, approved by EPA pursuant to SDWA...

  8. 40 CFR 147.1850 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Oklahoma § 147.1850 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Oklahoma, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Oklahoma State Department of Health, approved by EPA pursuant to SDWA...

  9. 40 CFR 147.1850 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Oklahoma § 147.1850 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Oklahoma, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Oklahoma State Department of Health, approved by EPA pursuant to SDWA...

  10. 40 CFR 147.1601 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS New Mexico § 147.1601 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V injection wells in the State of New Mexico, except for those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the New Mexico Water Quality Control Commission, the...

  11. Two-Step Extraction of the Lower First Molar for Class III Treatment in Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Ricardo Fabris; Raveli, Taísa Barnabé; Raveli, Dirceu Barnabé

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a case report of Class III malocclusion treatment with lower first molar extraction. The 27-year-old Caucasian male patient presented a symmetric face with a straight profile, hyperdivergent growth pattern, molar and cuspid Class III relation, and an anterior crossbite as well as a mild crowding on cuspids area, in both upper and lower arches and a tendency to posterior crossbite. The treatment was performed by the use of Haas expansion appliance followed by an initial alignment and leveling of the upper and lower arches with a fixed edgewise appliance, extraction of lower teeth aiming the correction of the incisors proclination and end the treatment with a Class I molar relationship. It resulted in a significant change in the patient's profile, dentoalveolar Class III correction, upper arch expansion, leveling and alignment of the upper and lower arches, and improvement of tipping of the upper and lowers incisors. In cases of a dentoalveolar compensation in well positioned bone bases the treatment with fixed appliances is an alternative and extraction of lower teeth is considered.

  12. Two-Step Extraction of the Lower First Molar for Class III Treatment in Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Ricardo Fabris; Raveli, Taísa Barnabé; Raveli, Dirceu Barnabé

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a case report of Class III malocclusion treatment with lower first molar extraction. The 27-year-old Caucasian male patient presented a symmetric face with a straight profile, hyperdivergent growth pattern, molar and cuspid Class III relation, and an anterior crossbite as well as a mild crowding on cuspids area, in both upper and lower arches and a tendency to posterior crossbite. The treatment was performed by the use of Haas expansion appliance followed by an initial alignment and leveling of the upper and lower arches with a fixed edgewise appliance, extraction of lower teeth aiming the correction of the incisors proclination and end the treatment with a Class I molar relationship. It resulted in a significant change in the patient's profile, dentoalveolar Class III correction, upper arch expansion, leveling and alignment of the upper and lower arches, and improvement of tipping of the upper and lowers incisors. In cases of a dentoalveolar compensation in well positioned bone bases the treatment with fixed appliances is an alternative and extraction of lower teeth is considered. PMID:27699072

  13. Wear-time recording during early Class III facemask treatment using TheraMon chip technology.

    PubMed

    Stocker, Bruce; Willmann, Jan H; Wilmes, Benedict; Vasudavan, Sivabalan; Drescher, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Successful intervention in a developing Class III malocclusion with facemask protraction therapy depends on a patient's ability to adhere to the recommendations for duration of appliance wear. In this article, we report the introduction of a novel approach for tracking of the duration of application of a protraction facemask, with the incorporation of a "FaceMon" sensor (TheraMon, microelectronic system; MC Technology GmbH, Hargelsberg, Austria) to track wear time. A 9-year-old boy with a Class III malocclusion was successfully treated with a modified alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction protocol and intermittent application of a hybrid hyrax-protraction facemask combination. The average duration of wear of the facemask was measured at 10.8 hours per day. The use of an objective measuring device may have implications for the development of treatment strategies, since patient responses may be able to calibrated in relation to compliance. PMID:27585783

  14. Gap junctions enhancer combined with Vaughan Williams class III antiarrhythmic drugs, a promising antiarrhythmic method?

    PubMed

    Li, Lian-dong; Zhang, Cun-tai; Ruan, Lei; Ni, Ming-ke; Quan, Xiao-qing

    2011-01-01

    Arrhythmias is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Current antiarrhythmic drugs are limited by unsatisfactory efficacy and adverse effects such as proarrhythmias. Reentry mechanism plays an important role in persistence of arrhythmias. Reentry can only continue when reentry path-length is longer than cardiac wavelength which is equal to the product of conduction velocity (CV) and effective refractory period (ERP). Gap junctions uncoupling is associated with proarrhythmic CV slowing and transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) increasing in many cardiac diseases. Vaughan Williams class III antiarrhythmic drugs prolong ERP with an augmented TDR which is the main mechanism of the proarrhythmic effects. Gap junctions enhancer can augment CV and diminish TDR. As a result, gap junctions enhancer combined with class III drugs may be a promising antiarrhythmic method.

  15. C-orthodontic microimplant for distalization of mandibular dentition in Class III correction.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyurhim; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kook, Yoonah

    2005-01-01

    A 16-year-old male patient with a Class III malocclusion and 2 lower missing central incisors presented for treatment. The treatment plan consisted of asymmetrically distalizing the lower dentition and regaining space for lower anterior prosthetic work. C-implants were to be used as anchorage for Class III intermaxillary elastics, and two C-orthodontic microimplants (C-implants) were placed in the interdental spaces between the upper second premolars and first molars. The particular design of the C-implant head minimized gingival irritation during the orthodontic treatment. Sliding jigs were applied on the buccal for distalization of the lower posterior teeth. The correct overbite and overjet were obtained by distalizing the entire lower dentition into its proper position with C-implant anchorage, which contributed to an improvement in facial balance. It took 15 months to treat this case. The application of this new microimplant, considerations for case selection, and the sequence of treatment are presented.

  16. Correction of class III malocclusion using modified tandem appliance-two case reports.

    PubMed

    Jeevarathan, J; Koora, Kiran; Sudhakar, V; Muthu, M S; Prabhu, Rathna V

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal discrepancies in growing children can have great physical and psychological impact on their appearance. These deformities require orthopedic correction at an appropriate age to avoid future extensive management. Managing a midfacial deficiency or true mandibular prognathism is perhaps the most challenging situation for the clinician. Many orthopedic appliances like chin cup, facemask, and so on have been advocated to correct class III malocclusion. The major problems with these appliances are physical appearance, skin irritation from the anchorage pads and hence, less patient compliance. We present management of class III malocclusion in two children with modified tandem appliance (MTA), which is an intraoral appliance, with no extraoral anchorage, and has better patient compliance and cooperation.

  17. Early Treatment of Class III Malocclusion: A Boon or a Burden?

    PubMed Central

    Karra, Arjun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article presents a case of class III malocclusion, a female patient aged 8 years treated in early stage of its recognition, i.e. treated in early mixed dentition stage, utilizing orthopedic appliance for its correction, utilizing both rapid maxillary expansion and face mask approach. After the skeletal base correction as part of phase of phase I therapy, a retentive plate was given and patient was asked to report every 6 months for review and monitoring of her growth pattern and phase II treatment planning after the eruption of all permanent teeth. How to cite this article: Khan MB, Karra A. Early Treatment of Class III Malocclusion: A Boon or a Burden? Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):130-136. PMID:25356013

  18. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P; Tandon, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior cross bite and retrognathic maxilla at the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross bite was corrected in 3 months and the positive overjet of 4 mm after continued use of the appliance for 1 year. There was a significant improvement in profile of the patient. The use of this appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of malocclusion in a few months and encouraging favorable skeletal growth in the future. PMID:24403800

  19. Metabolism of MK-499, a class III antiarrhythmic agent, in rats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Vickers, S; Duncan, C A; Slaughter, D E; Arison, B H; Greber, T; Olah, T V; Vyas, K P

    1998-05-01

    MK-499 [(+)-N-[1'-(6-cyano-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-2(R)-naphthalenyl)-3, 4-dihydro-4(R)-hydroxyspiro(2H-1-benzopyran-2, 4'-piperidin)-6-yl]methanesulfonamide] monohydrochloride is an investigational class III antiarrhythmic agent for treatment of malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The disposition of [3H]MK-499 and [14C]MK-499 was studied in rats and dogs after oral and iv administration. MK-499 was concentrated in organs of excretion and the heart. In the rat, urinary radioactivity elimination values after iv (0.5 mg/kg) and oral (6.25 mg/kg) doses were 21 +/- 3% and 10 +/- 2%, respectively. Corresponding fecal recoveries were 68 +/- 6% and 78 +/- 7%. Similar results were found after corresponding doses of [14C]MK-499. In dogs, urine and feces accounted for 16 +/- 3% and 75 +/- 4% of recovered radioactivity after a [3H]MK-499 iv dose (0.1 mg/kg). Corresponding recoveries after an oral dose (1 mg/kg) were 12 +/- 2% and 76 +/- 3%. Biliary (0-24 hr) excretion accounted for 39 +/- 5% and 41 +/- 18% of [3H] and [14C] oral doses in rats, respectively. Dogs excreted 34% of [3H] oral dose in (0-24 hr) bile. The data indicated that a substantial amount of MK-499 was absorbed by rats and dogs. MK-499, metabolite I (formed by loss of N-substitution), and metabolite II (an acid formed by metabolic scission across the benzopyran ring) each represented 30% of rat urinary label. Rat bile contained MK-499 (10%), II (20%), and IV (10%), which was formed by carbon-4 hydroxylation of the tetralin ring. Additionally, rat bile included glutathione (V) and N-acetyl-1-cysteine (VI) conjugates of a ring-opened metabolite. Metabolite III, a positional isomer of IV, was excreted in rat urine. The major labeled species excreted in dog bile were unchanged MK-499 and its glucuronide (VII), which, respectively, represented 50% and 30% of the biliary radioactivity. MK-499 and a small amount of I represented dog urinary radioactivity. The bioavailability of MK-499 was high in dogs (100%) but

  20. Mechanistic study of the reaction of L-ascorbic acid with hexacyanometalate(III) ions of iron(III), ruthenium(III), and osmium(III) in aqueous acidic solution at elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Kagayama, Nobuyoshi; Sekiguchi, Mitsuhiro; Inada, Yasuhiro; Takagi, Hideo D.; Funahashi, Shigenobu )

    1994-04-27

    Oxidation reactions of L-ascorbic acid by three hexacyanometalate(III) ions in aqueous acidic media are studied at elevated pressures. Kinetic parameters characterizing two parallel paths involving ascorbic acid (H[sub 2]Asc) and ascorbate ion (HAsc[sup [minus

  1. Escherichia coli class Ib ribonucleotide reductase contains a dimanganese(III)-tyrosyl radical cofactor in vivo†

    PubMed Central

    Cotruvo, Joseph A.; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) converts nucleoside 5′-diphosphates to deoxynucleoside 5′-diphosphates in iron-limited and oxidative stress conditions. We have recently demonstrated in vitro that this RNR is active with both diferric-tyrosyl radical (FeIII2-Y•) and dimanganese(III)-Y• (MnIII2-Y•) cofactors in the β2 subunit, NrdF [Cotruvo J.A., Jr. and Stubbe J., Biochemistry (2010) 49, 1297–1309]. Here we demonstrate, by purification of this protein from its endogenous levels in an E. coli strain deficient in its five known iron uptake pathways and grown under iron-limited conditions, that the MnIII2-Y• cofactor is assembled in vivo. This is the first definitive determination of the active cofactor of a class Ib RNR purified from its native organism without overexpression. From 88 g of cell paste, 150 μg of NrdF was isolated with ~95% purity, with 0.2 Y•/β2, 0.9 Mn/β2, and a specific activity of 720 nmol/min/mg. In these conditions, the class Ib RNR is the primary active RNR in the cell. Our results strongly suggest that E. coli NrdF is an obligate manganese protein in vivo and that the MnIII2-Y• cofactor assembly pathway we have identified in vitro involving the flavodoxin-like protein NrdI, present inside the cell at catalytic levels, is operative in vivo. PMID:21250660

  2. Early treatment of patient with Class III skeletal and dental patterns

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Marcos Alan Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Class III skeletal pattern is characterized by disharmony between maxillary and mandibular basal bones anteroposteriorly, and might or might not be associated with dental changes. In general, facial esthetics is hindered significantly, which most of times is the reason why patients or patient's guardians seek treatment. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Diplomate recertification and revalidation. PMID:26691976

  3. Factors influencing orthodontic treatment time for non-surgical Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Bichara, Lívia Monteiro; de Aragón, Mônica Lídia Castro; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins; Normando, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To improve orthodontic treatment efficiency, orthodontists must know which variables could interfere with orthodontic treatment time. Objective: To identify variables and their effect size on orthodontic treatment time of Class III malocclusion. Material and Methods: Forty-five Class III malocclusion cases were selected from 2008 patients’ records. Clinical charts, cephalometric radiographs, and pre and posttreatment dental casts were evaluated. Age, sex, PAR index at T1 and T2, overjet, missing teeth, extractions, number of treatment phases, missed appointments, appliance breakages, and cephalometric variables SNA, SNB, ANB, Wits, SnGoGn, CoA, CoGn, IMPA, 1.PP were investigated by multiple linear regression analysis and stepwise method at p<0.05. The sample was also divided into two groups: Group 0-2 (patients who had missed two clinical appointments or less) and Group >2 (patients who missed more than 2 appointments), to detect the influence of this data on treatment time and the quality of the treatment (PAR T2). Results: Average treatment time was 30.27 months. Multiple regression analysis showed that missed appointment (R2=0.4345) and appliance breakages (R2=0.0596) are the only variables able to significantly predict treatment duration. Treatment time for patients who missed more than 2 appointments was nearly one year longer. However, no significant influence on PAR T2 was observed for those patients. Conclusion: Orthodontic treatment duration in Class III patients is mainly influenced by factors related to patient compliance. Patients who missed more appointments did not show worse orthodontic finishing, but longer treatment. No occlusal, cephalometric, or demographic variable obtained before treatment was able to give some significant prediction about treatment time in Class III patients. PMID:27812612

  4. Inheritance of craniofacial features in Colombian families with class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Otero, L; Quintero, L; Champsaur, D; Simanca, E

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The inheritance of class III malocclusion has been well documented, but the inheritance of craniofacial structures in Colombian families with this malocclusion has been not yet reported. Patients and methods The study sample of 25 families comprised 186 untreated orthodontic individuals from 8 to 60 years old. Pedigrees were drawn using Cyrillic software. Complete family histories for each proband were ascertained and the affection status of relatives was confirmed by lateral cephalograms and facial and dental photographs. Analysis of variance and odds ratio test for each parameter was performed to estimate inheritance from parents to offspring and to determine similar phenotypic features in relatives. Results The analysis of the pedigrees suggests autosomal dominant inheritance. The craniofacial characteristics that showed more resemblance between parents and offspring were middle facial height, shorter anterior cranial base and mandibular prognathism. In contrast the protrusion of upper lip and maxillary retrusion were the phenotypic features that contributed to class III in the majority of families. Conclusion Knowledge of the inheritance of craniofacial phenotypes in class III malocclusion will enable the design of new therapies to treat this malocclusion. PMID:23776347

  5. Asymmetric class III malocclusion: association with cranial base deformation and occult torticollis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Joyce T; Teng, Edward; Heller, Justin B; Kawamoto, Henry K; Bradley, James P

    2012-09-01

    The etiology of Angle class III malocclusion with facial asymmetry has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the etiology, patients with asymmetric prognathism (n = 30) from a single institution were assessed for previously undiagnosed torticollis and cranial base asymmetry. Presence of torticollis was determined by measuring restricted head movement when turning the head against a wall and cranial base tilt with upward gaze. Cranial base asymmetry was evaluated by preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography scans. Thirty-one percent of patients with prognathism presented with concurrent facial asymmetry. In patients with asymmetric prognathism, cranial base tilt was present on upward gaze in all patients; mean angle between head and wall was 31 degrees greater than that in control patients, and a 22% to 36% difference in the angle was present when comparing one side with the other. Based on these findings, all patients with asymmetric prognathism were found to be affected by torticollis. By computed tomography scan, 85% of these torticollis patients showed slight anteromedial displacement of the glenoid fossa ipsilateral to torticollis, and 73% demonstrated temporal fossa shift of 4 mm or greater. The current study demonstrates a strong association between asymmetric class III malocclusion, torticollis, and cranial base asymmetry. We conclude that undiagnosed torticollis is a likely etiology for otherwise idiopathic cranial base asymmetry and that cranial base asymmetry in turn causes facial asymmetry and malocclusion. This study highlights the importance of evaluating cranial base asymmetry and torticollis in patients with class III malocclusion to allow for earlier treatment and improved outcomes.

  6. [Effect of extraoral facemask appliance in 48 cases of malocclusion and dentofacial deformity in class III].

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Su, X

    1993-10-01

    Malocclusion and dentofacial deformity in class III is always characterized by maxillary skeletal retrusion and/or mandibular protrusion. It affects function and facial esthetics. An orthopedic mask appliance with class III extraoral traction made by the authors was applied in 48 cases from Aug. 1985 to Oct. 1991. The study population included 5 patients with deciduous dentition, 30 with permanent dentition, and 13 with mixed dentition. The second deciduous molars or permanent first molars are a class III relationship. These exhibited bilateral crossbites and negative overjet greater than 5 mm severe arch length discrepancies existed in both arches, maxillary skeletal retrusion and/or mandibular protrusion. The results of these 48 cases were very satisfactory. The relationship between maxillary and mandibular second deciduous molar or permanent first molar all showed centric occlusal position. Dentofacial orthopedics therapy is one of the most important treatments of malocclusion and dentofacial deformity. The choice of therapy and orthodontic force must follow the age and endurance of the patient. Also, exercise of the tongue muscle must be considered.

  7. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion: 10-year clinical follow-up

    PubMed Central

    de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues; OLTRAMARI-NAVARRO, Paula Vanessa Pedron; CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; NAVARRO, Ricardo de Lima; CAMACHO, José Gustavo Dala Déa

    2011-01-01

    Angle Class III malocclusion has been a challenge for researchers concerning diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. It has a prevalence of 5% in the Brazilian population, and may have a genetic or environmental etiology. This malocclusion can be classified as dentoalveolar, skeletal or functional, which will determine the prognosis. Considering these topics, the aim of this study was to describe and discuss a clinical case with functional Class III malocclusion treated by a two-stage approach (interceptive and corrective), with a long-term follow-up. In this case, the patient was treated with a chincup and an Eschler arch, used simultaneously during 14 months, followed by corrective orthodontics. It should be noticed that, in this case, initial diagnosis at the centric relation allowed visualizing the anterior teeth in an edge-to-edge relationship, thereby favoring the prognosis. After completion of the treatment, the patient was followed for a 10-year period, and stability was observed. The clinical treatment results showed that it is possible to achieve favorable outcomes with early management in functional Class III malocclusion patients. PMID:21952927

  8. Modifications of the marginal paradentium to a case of Angle Class III/1 malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Dascălu, Ionela Teodora; Tuculină, Mihaela Jana; Răescu, Mihaela; Popescu, Sanda Mihaela; Corega, Claudia; Vaida, Ligia; Bold, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Angle Class III malocclusions are not so frequently met but they raise big problems of treatment. The analyzed case represents a 14-year-old patient that came to the dental consulting room with an Angle Class III malocclusion determined by the excess of the somatotropic pituitary hormone and a gingival hyperplasia more emphasized at the level of inferior frontal teeth. The patient followed a fixed appliance treatment, the straight-wire technique. All along the treatment and after it, the hyperplasia and the gingival inflammation not only maintained but they even got worse. Thus, an improper hygiene associated with a severe Angle Class III malocclusion maintains and aggravates the gingivitis. The histological and immunohistochemical study of the gingiva revealed important epithelial modifications that led to an epithelial hypertrophy with a tendency toward acanthosis and to severe epithelial erosions. An inflammatory chronic process (rich in lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages full of angiogenesis vessels) and an intense reaction of the fibroblastic cells appeared in the gingival corium. PMID:24322040

  9. Application of autologous periosteal cells for the regeneration of class III furcation defects in Beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jun; Wu, Xiaohong; Lin, Minkui; Doan, Nghiem; Xiao, Yin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing of class III furcation defects following transplantation of autogenous periosteal cells combined with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). Periosteal cells obtained from Beagle dogs’ periosteum explant cultures, were inoculated onto the surface of β-TCP. Class III furcation defects were created in the mandibular premolars. Three experimental groups were used to test the defects’ healing: group A, β-TCP seeded with periosteal cells were transplanted into the defects; group B, β-TCP alone was used for defect filling; and group C, the defect was without filling materials. Twelve weeks post surgery, the tissue samples were collected for histology, immunohistology and X-ray examination. It was found that both the length of newly formed periodontal ligament and the area of newly formed alveolar bone in group A, were significantly increased compared with both group B and C. Furthermore, both the proportion of newly formed periodontal ligament and newly formed alveolar bone in group A were much higher than those of group B and C. The quantity of cementum and its percentage in the defects (group A) were also significantly higher than those of group C. These results indicate that autogenous periosteal cells combined with β-TCP application can improve periodontal tissue regeneration in class III furcation defects. PMID:20582491

  10. Management of an Adult with Spaced Dentition, Class III Malocclusion and Open-bite Tendency

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Demet; Taner, Tulin Ugur

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to present the orthodontic treatment of an adult with spaced dentition, Class III malocclusion, and open-bite tendency. A 28.4-year-old adult woman was concerned about the unesthetic appearance of her spaced dentition localized at both upper and lower arches while smiling. She had a mild tongue thrust, hypertropic upper frenum, and mild speech difficulty while pronouncing “s”. Her profile was straight with prominent lips. Molar relationship was Class III on both sides. Anterior teeth were in an end-to-end relationship. Lower dental midline was deviated to the left side. Cephalometric analysis revealed a skeletal Class III relationship with hyperdivergent facial pattern. The treatment plan included myotherapeutic exercises for the tongue thrust habit and a diagnostic set-up for closure of diastemas. A strict retention protocol was followed combined with gingivoplasty, fiberotomy, and frenectomy procedures. All spaces were closed successfully, adequate overbite and overjet relationships were obtained, and tongue thrust habit and speech difficulty while pronouncing “s” were eliminated. Clinical and cephalometric results indicated the maintenance of the treatment outcome at 6-months post-retention period. PMID:21228963

  11. Class III β-tubulin, a novel biomarker in the human melanocyte lineage.

    PubMed

    Locher, Heiko; de Rooij, Karien E; de Groot, John C M J; van Doorn, Remco; Gruis, Nelleke A; Löwik, Clemens W G M; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M; Frijns, Johan H M; Huisman, Margriet A

    2013-01-01

    It is generally thought that class III β-tubulin expression is limited to cells of the neural lineage and is therefore often used to identify neurons amongst other cell types, both in vivo and in vitro. Melanocytes are derived from the neural crest and share both morphological features and functional characteristics with peripheral neurons. Here, we show that these similarities extend to class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) expression, and that human melanocytes express this protein both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, we studied the expression of class III β-tubulin in two murine melanogenic cell lines and show that expression of this protein starts as melanoblasts mature into melanocytes. Melanin bleaching experiments revealed close proximity between melanin and TUBB3 proteins. In vitro stimulation of primary human melanocytes by α-MSH indicated separate regulatory mechanisms for melanogenesis and to TUBB3 expression. Together, these observations imply that human melanocytes express TUBB3 and that this protein should be recognized as a wider marker for multiple neural crest-derived cells.

  12. Transparent aligners: An invisible approach to correct mild skeletal class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Yezdani, A. Arif

    2015-01-01

    This case report highlights the treatment of a mild skeletal class III malocclusion with an invisible thermoplastic retainer. A 15-year-old female patient presented with a mild skeletal class III malocclusion with a retrognathic maxilla, orthognathic mandible, a low mandibular plane angle with Angle's class III malocclusion with maxillary lateral incisors in anterior cross-bite with crowding of maxillary anteriors, imbricated and rotated mandibular incisors and deep bite. Accurate upper and lower impressions and a bite registration were taken with polyvinyl siloxane rubber base impression material. This was then sent to the lab for the processing of a series of ClearPath aligners. The ClearPath virtual set-up sent from the lab provided the treatment plan and interproximal reduction estimation complete with posttreatment results. This enabled the clinician to actively participate in the treatment plan and provide the necessary suggestions. The ClearPath three-dimensional aligner was found to have effectively corrected the anterior cross-bite and crowding of the maxillary anteriors. PMID:26015738

  13. Nonsurgical treatment of adult open bite using edgewise appliance combined with high-pull headgear and class III elastics.

    PubMed

    Saito, Isao; Yamaki, Masaki; Hanada, Kooji

    2005-03-01

    This case report describes the effect of a combination of high-pull headgear and Class III elastics on the nonsurgical treatment of an adult open bite. The 19-year 1-month-old Japanese female presented with the anterior open bite of 4.0 mm and mild crowding. She had a skeletal Class II but a Class III molar relationship due to a severe proclination of the mandibular dental arch. Unilateral congenital missing premolars caused a discrepancy between the facial and dental midline. After extraction of two premolars and the impacted mandibular third molars, nonsurgical therapy was performed using the standard edgewise appliance combined with a high-pull headgear and Class III elastics. The successful treatment outcome and stability of the final occlusion indicates that a combination of high-pull headgear and Class III elastics is one of the effective devices in the nonsurgical treatment of open bite and, is especially helpful in uprighting the mandibular dental arch.

  14. Isolation of a gene encoding for a class III peroxidase in female flower of Corylus avellana L.

    PubMed

    Beltramo, Chiara; Torello Marinoni, Daniela; Perrone, Irene; Botta, Roberto

    2012-04-01

    Hazelnut is a monoecious species characterized by mid-winter blooming and sporophytic incompatibility. The molecular mechanisms at the basis of the female flower development and of the pollen-stigma interaction are little known, although pollination in this species is a critical factor to ensure good yield. Differential display technique was used to study genes expressed during the female flower development, comparing styles before emergence from the bud and styles at full bloom. The full-length cDNA clone, designated CavPrx (Corylus avellana peroxidase) and isolated in mature styles, was characterized as a sequence encoding for a 330 amino acids protein, containing all the conserved features of class III peroxidases. CavPrx resulted expressed only in styles, with a peak in mature styles pollinated with compatible pollen. Class III peroxidases are expressed in several different plant tissue types and are involved in a broad spectrum of physiological processes. Until now, four peroxidases expressed in the stigma were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana and Senecio squalidus: they were assumed to be possibly involved in pollen-pistil interaction, pollen tube penetration/growth and/or in defence against pathogens. CavPrx is the first gene for a floral peroxidase isolated in hazelnut and its expression pattern suggests a possible role in the pollination process.

  15. Photochemical transformation of an iron(III)-arsenite complex in acidic aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Pozdnyakov, Ivan P; Ding, Wei; Xu, Jing; Chen, Long; Wu, Feng; Grivin, Vjacheslav P; Plyusnin, Victor F

    2016-03-01

    Surface complexation between arsenious acid anions (As(III)) and ferric (hydr)oxides in water is important for the transformation and transfer of inorganic arsenic species. The mechanisms of formation and the photochemistry of dissolved Fe(III)-As(III) complexes in acidic aqueous solution are still unclear. Here, the photooxidation of As(III) in the presence of Fe(III) ions in acidic media has been investigated by laser flash and steady-state photolysis. At low arsenite concentrations (<1 mM), As(III) is oxidized by the ˙OH radical generated by photolysis of the FeOH(2+) complex. At higher arsenite concentrations (>10 mM), photoactive Fe(III)-As(III) complexes are formed (ϕ≈ 0.012). At all arsenite concentrations, a white FeAsO4 colloid is formed during As(III) photolysis in the presence of Fe(III) ions. Solid Fe(III)-As(III) complexes have been prepared and characterized, and the photochemical transformation of As(III) into As(V) in solid Fe(III)-As(III) complexes has been confirmed. These findings are important for a better understanding of the evolution of As(III) species under environmental conditions and should provide guidance for detoxification of As(III)-polluted water systems.

  16. Base of the skull morphology and Class III malocclusion in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Tinano, Mariana Maciel; Martins, Milene Aparecida Torres Saar; Bendo, Cristiane Baccin; Mazzieiro, Ênio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the morphological differences in the base of the skull of individuals with cleft lip and palate and Class III malocclusion in comparison to control groups with Class I and Class III malocclusion. METHODS: A total of 89 individuals (males and females) aged between 5 and 27 years old (Class I, n = 32; Class III, n = 29; and Class III individuals with unilateral cleft lip and palate, n = 28) attending PUC-MG Dental Center and Cleft Lip/Palate Care Center of Baleia Hospital and PUC-MG (CENTRARE) were selected. Linear and angular measurements of the base of the skull, maxilla and mandible were performed and assessed by a single calibrated examiner by means of cephalometric radiographs. Statistical analysis involved ANCOVA and Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: No significant differences with regard to the base of the skull were found between the control group (Class I) and individuals with cleft lip and palate (P > 0.017). The cleft lip/palate group differed from the Class III group only with regard to CI.Sp.Ba (P = 0.015). Individuals with cleft lip and palate had a significantly shorter maxillary length (Co-A) in comparison to the control group (P < 0.001). No significant differences were found in the mandible (Co-Gn) of the control group and individuals with cleft lip and palate (P = 1.000). CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that there are no significant differences in the base of the skull of individuals Class I or Class III and individuals with cleft lip and palate and Class III malocclusion. PMID:25741829

  17. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...

  18. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...

  19. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2,5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2,5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part...

  20. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part...

  1. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...

  2. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...

  3. Molecular cloning of class III chitinase gene from Avicennia marina and its expression analysis in response to cadmium and lead stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ying; Wang, You-Shao; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    Mangrove species have high tolerance to heavy metal pollution. Chitinases have been widely reported as defense proteins in response to heavy metal stress in terrestrial plants. In this study, a full-length cDNA sequence encoding an acidic and basic class III chitinase (AmCHI III) was cloned by using RT-PCR and RACE methods in Avicennia marina. AmCHI III mRNA expression in leaf of A. marina were investigated under Cd, Pb stresses on using real-time quantitative PCR. The deduced AmCHI III protein consists of 302 amino acids, including a signal putative peptide region, and a catalytic domain. Homology modeling of the catalytic domain revealed a typical molecular structure of class III plant chitinases. Results further demonstrated that the regulation of AmCHI III mRNA expression in leaves was strongly dependent on Cd, Pb stresses. AmCHI III mRNA expressions were significantly increased in response to Cd, Pb, and peaked at 7 days Cd-exposure, 7 days Pb-exposure, respectively. AmCHI III mRNA expression exhibited more sensitive to Pb stress than Cd stress. This work was the first time cloing chitinase from A. marina, and it brought evidence on chitinase gene involving in heavy metals (Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) resistance or detoxification in plants. Further studies including the promoter and upstream regulation, gene over-expression and the response of mangrove chitinases to other stresses will shed more light on the role of chitinase in mangrove plants.

  4. Molecular cloning of class III chitinase gene from Avicennia marina and its expression analysis in response to cadmium and lead stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ying; Wang, You-Shao; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    Mangrove species have high tolerance to heavy metal pollution. Chitinases have been widely reported as defense proteins in response to heavy metal stress in terrestrial plants. In this study, a full-length cDNA sequence encoding an acidic and basic class III chitinase (AmCHI III) was cloned by using RT-PCR and RACE methods in Avicennia marina. AmCHI III mRNA expression in leaf of A. marina were investigated under Cd, Pb stresses on using real-time quantitative PCR. The deduced AmCHI III protein consists of 302 amino acids, including a signal putative peptide region, and a catalytic domain. Homology modeling of the catalytic domain revealed a typical molecular structure of class III plant chitinases. Results further demonstrated that the regulation of AmCHI III mRNA expression in leaves was strongly dependent on Cd, Pb stresses. AmCHI III mRNA expressions were significantly increased in response to Cd, Pb, and peaked at 7 days Cd-exposure, 7 days Pb-exposure, respectively. AmCHI III mRNA expression exhibited more sensitive to Pb stress than Cd stress. This work was the first time cloing chitinase from A. marina, and it brought evidence on chitinase gene involving in heavy metals (Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) resistance or detoxification in plants. Further studies including the promoter and upstream regulation, gene over-expression and the response of mangrove chitinases to other stresses will shed more light on the role of chitinase in mangrove plants. PMID:26044930

  5. Diagnosis and conservative treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite and asymmetric maxillary crowding.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Linda L Y; Chang, Chris H; Roberts, W Eugene

    2016-04-01

    A man, aged 28 years 9 months, came for an orthodontic consultation for a skeletal Class III malocclusion (ANB angle, -3°) with a modest asymmetric Class II and Class III molar relationship, complicated by an anterior crossbite, a deepbite, and 12 mm of asymmetric maxillary crowding. Despite the severity of the malocclusion (Discrepancy Index, 37), the patient desired noninvasive camouflage treatment. The 3-Ring diagnosis showed that treatment without extractions or orthognathic surgery was a viable approach. Arch length analysis indicated that differential interproximal enamel reduction could resolve the crowding and midline discrepancy, but a miniscrew in the infrazygomatic crest was needed to retract the right buccal segment. The patient accepted the complex, staged treatment plan with the understanding that it would require about 3.5 years. Fixed appliance treatment with passive self-ligating brackets, early light short elastics, bite turbos, interproximal enamel reduction, and infrazygomatic crest retraction opened the vertical dimension of the occlusion, improved the ANB angle by 2°, and achieved excellent alignment, as evidenced by a Cast Radiograph Evaluation score of 28 and a Pink and White dental esthetic score of 3. PMID:27021460

  6. Surface-active agents from the group of polyoxyethylated glycerol esters of fatty acids. Part III. Surface activity and solubilizing properties of the products of oxyethylation of lard (Adeps suillus, F.P. VIII) in the equilibrium system in relation to lipophilic therapeutic agents (class II and III of BCS).

    PubMed

    Nachajski, Michał J; Piotrowska, Jowita B; Kołodziejczyk, Michał K; Lukosek, Marek; Zgoda, Marian M

    2013-01-01

    Research was conducted into the solubilization processes of diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen in equilibrium conditions in the environment of aqueous solutions of oxyethylated lard's fractions (Adeps suillus, Polish Pharmacopoeia VIII). The determined thermodynamic (cmc, deltaGm(0)) and hydrodynamic (R0, R(obs), omega, M(eta)) parameters characterizing the micelle of the solubilizer and the adduct demonstrate that lipophilic therapeutic agents are adsorbed in a palisade structure of the micelle due to a topologically created so-called "lipophilic adsorption pocket". This shows that the hydrophilicity of the micelle and the adsorption layer decreases at the phase boundary, which is confirmed by the calculated values of coefficients A(m) and r x (a). The results obtained indicate the possibility of making use of the class of non-ionic surfactants which are not ksenobiotics for the modification of the profile of solid oral dosage forms with lipophilic therapeutic agents from the II class of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS).

  7. 40 CFR 147.1050 - State-administered program-Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the OFR in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... CONTROL PROGRAMS Maryland § 147.1050 State-administered program—Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Maryland, except those wells on Indian...

  8. 40 CFR 147.1050 - State-administered program-Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the OFR in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... CONTROL PROGRAMS Maryland § 147.1050 State-administered program—Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Maryland, except those wells on Indian...

  9. 40 CFR 147.1050 - State-administered program-Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the OFR in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... CONTROL PROGRAMS Maryland § 147.1050 State-administered program—Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Maryland, except those wells on Indian...

  10. 40 CFR 147.1050 - State-administered program-Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the OFR in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... CONTROL PROGRAMS Maryland § 147.1050 State-administered program—Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Maryland, except those wells on Indian...

  11. 40 CFR 147.1050 - State-administered program-Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the OFR in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... CONTROL PROGRAMS Maryland § 147.1050 State-administered program—Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Maryland, except those wells on Indian...

  12. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Relationship with Metabolic Syndrome in Class III Obesity Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, A.; Pereira, S. E.; Saboya, C. J.; Ramalho, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Obesity is represented mainly by abdominal obesity and insulin resistance (IR), both present in most individuals diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MS). IR is the key risk factor in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Objective. To relate NAFLD to MS in class III obese individuals. Methodology. A descriptive cross-sectional study with class III obese individuals, aged ≥ 20–60 years. Blood pressure measurement, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood glucose, insulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides data were obtained. HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance) calculation was carried out with a cutoff value of 2.71 for IR evaluation. The diagnosis of NAFLD was performed by liver biopsy and the diagnosis of MS was performed in accordance with the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEPATP III). Results. Of the 50 individuals evaluated, 86% were women and BMI means were 45.4 ± 3.6 Kg/m2. The overall individuals had NAFLD, 70% steatosis, and 30% steatohepatitis. The diagnosis of MS occurred in 56% but showed no significant association with NAFLD (P = 0.254). Triglycerides (178 ± 65.5 mg/dL) and insulin (28.2 ± 22.6 mcU/mL) mean values were significantly higher in steatohepatitis (P = 0.002 and P = 0.042, resp.) compared to individuals with steatosis. IR was confirmed in 76% and showed a relationship with NAFLD severity. Conclusion. NAFLD was not related to MS; however, MS components, evaluated in isolation, as well as IR, were related to the presence and severity of NAFLD. PMID:26120587

  13. 40 CFR 147.1453 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1453 Section 147.1453 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  14. 40 CFR 147.103 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.103 Section 147.103 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  15. 40 CFR 147.2153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.2153 Section 147.2153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1653 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1653 Section 147.1653 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  17. 40 CFR 147.303 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.303 Section 147.303 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  18. 40 CFR 147.1653 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1653 Section 147.1653 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  19. 40 CFR 147.903 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.903 Section 147.903 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  20. 40 CFR 147.103 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.103 Section 147.103 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  1. 40 CFR 147.2153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.2153 Section 147.2153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  2. 40 CFR 147.1453 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1453 Section 147.1453 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  3. 40 CFR 147.1653 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1653 Section 147.1653 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  4. 40 CFR 147.253 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.253 Section 147.253 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  5. 40 CFR 147.103 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.103 Section 147.103 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  6. 40 CFR 147.1153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1153 Section 147.1153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  7. 40 CFR 147.1153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1153 Section 147.1153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  8. 40 CFR 147.303 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.303 Section 147.303 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  9. 40 CFR 147.903 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.903 Section 147.903 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  10. 40 CFR 147.103 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.103 Section 147.103 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  11. 40 CFR 147.1453 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1453 Section 147.1453 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  12. 40 CFR 147.253 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.253 Section 147.253 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  13. 40 CFR 147.1153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1153 Section 147.1153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  14. 40 CFR 147.903 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.903 Section 147.903 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  15. 40 CFR 147.253 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.253 Section 147.253 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1453 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1453 Section 147.1453 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  17. 40 CFR 147.1353 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1353 Section 147.1353 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  18. 40 CFR 147.303 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.303 Section 147.303 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  19. 40 CFR 147.103 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.103 Section 147.103 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  20. 40 CFR 147.1953 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1953 Section 147.1953 Protection of... enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection...

  1. 40 CFR 147.2153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.2153 Section 147.2153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  2. 40 CFR 147.253 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.253 Section 147.253 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  3. 40 CFR 147.2153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.2153 Section 147.2153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  4. 40 CFR 147.1953 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1953 Section 147.1953 Protection of... enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection...

  5. 40 CFR 147.1953 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1953 Section 147.1953 Protection of... enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection...

  6. 40 CFR 147.2153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.2153 Section 147.2153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  7. 40 CFR 147.1353 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1353 Section 147.1353 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  8. 40 CFR 147.1953 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1953 Section 147.1953 Protection of... enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection...

  9. 40 CFR 147.903 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.903 Section 147.903 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  10. 40 CFR 147.1653 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1653 Section 147.1653 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  11. 40 CFR 147.903 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.903 Section 147.903 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  12. 40 CFR 147.1353 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1353 Section 147.1353 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  13. 40 CFR 147.1153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1153 Section 147.1153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  14. 40 CFR 147.303 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.303 Section 147.303 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  15. 40 CFR 147.1653 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1653 Section 147.1653 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  16. 40 CFR 147.303 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.303 Section 147.303 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  17. 40 CFR 147.253 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.253 Section 147.253 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  18. 40 CFR 147.1453 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1453 Section 147.1453 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  19. 40 CFR 147.1953 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1953 Section 147.1953 Protection of... enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection...

  20. 40 CFR 147.1153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1153 Section 147.1153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  1. 40 CFR 147.1353 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1353 Section 147.1353 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  2. 40 CFR 147.1353 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1353 Section 147.1353 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  3. Orthodontic retreatment of a Class III patient with significant midline asymmetry and bilateral posterior crossbite

    PubMed Central

    Brunetto, Ademir R.

    2015-01-01

    Posterior crossbite might cause serious long-term functional problems if not early treated. Nevertheless, in older patients, treatment might include palatal expansion in order to correct such malocclusion. In view of the above, this article aims at reporting late correction of bilateral posterior crossbite associated with Angle Class III malocclusion, right subdivision, with consequent midline shift (good skeletal pattern). The case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO), with DI equal to or greater than 10, as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:25741833

  4. A combined surgical and orthodontic treatment of Class III furcations. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Mayer, T; Basdra, E K

    1997-04-01

    Oral hygiene in furcation defects of upper molars is difficult to achieve. In this case report, a combined surgical and orthodontic treatment procedure is presented to facilitate access and plaque control in furcation areas of upper molars with class-III furcation defects. After endodontic treatment and root resection in an upper 1st molar, the remaining mesiobuccal and palatal roots were separated and aligned orthodontically within the dental arch, as one-rooted teeth. The new morphological position of the roots greatly facilitated oral hygiene and may offer a better long-term prognosis. PMID:9144045

  5. Distalization of the mandibular dentition with a ramal plate for skeletal Class III malocclusion correction.

    PubMed

    Kook, Yoon-Ah; Park, Jae Hyun; Bayome, Mohamed; Kim, Sungkon; Han, Eugene; Kim, Chang Hyen

    2016-08-01

    The retromolar fossa is an anatomically suitable skeletal anchorage site. The aim of this report was to introduce a novel appliance for the correction of skeletal Class III malocclusions with mandibular dentition distalization. The placement site and the procedure of the ramal plate are described. The resulting force vectors are parallel to the functional occlusal plane leading to efficient molar distalization. This approach is demonstrated with 2 adult patients who refused a surgical treatment option. This ramal plate may be indicated for total arch distalization for nonextraction and nonsurgical cases. PMID:27476370

  6. The biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS): class III drugs - better candidates for BA/BE waiver?

    PubMed

    Blume, H H; Schug, B S

    1999-12-01

    Current guidelines (CPMP Note for Guidance in Europe and FDA Guidance for Industry in the USA) consider a waiver of bioavailability/bioequivalence studies for immediate release dosage forms of highly soluble, highly permeable drug substances (Class I according to the BCS). In this paper, a waiver of BA/BE studies is being proposed also for Class III compounds (high solubility and low permeability) in fast dissolving products without excipients which may modify gastro-intestinal transit or membrane permeation. This type of drug substance may be an even better candidate for a waiver as, in this case, bioavailability will not so much depend on the formulation characteristics, as on drug substance properties (e.g. permeability).

  7. Extraction of gallium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by trioctylammonium-based mixed ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, Shoichi; Okai, Miho; Yoshimoto, Yuki; Kudo, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    The extractabilities of aluminium(III), gallium(III), and indium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions were investigated using a mixture of two protic ionic liquids, trioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([TOAH][NTf(2)]) and trioctylammonium nitrate ([TOAH][NO(3)]). At a HCl concentration of 4 mol L(-1) or more, gallium(III) was nearly quantitatively extracted and the extractability order was Ga > Al > In. The extractability of gallium(III) increased with increasing [TOAH][NO(3)] content in the mixed ionic liquid. The extracted gallium(III) was quantitatively stripped with aqueous nitric acid solutions. The separation and recovery of gallium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions containing excess indium(III) was demonstrated using the mixed ionic liquid.

  8. Reduction of Cr (VI) by organic acids in the presence of Al (III).

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Lan, Yeqing; Wang, Bo; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-09-15

    The effects of Al (III) on the reduction of Cr (VI) by three α-hydroxy acids, tartaric, malic and citric acids, were investigated through batch experiments at pH from 2.5 to 4.0 and temperatures from 25 °C to 35 °C. These reactions could be described as pseudo-zero-order with respect to Cr (VI) when the concentrations of α-hydroxy acids were greatly in excess. The transformation rates of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) in the presence of Al (III) without light were in the decreasing order of tartaric acid>malic acid>citric acid. This order suggested that the two α-hydroxyl groups in tartaric acid could play an important role in the reduction of Cr (VI) by organic acids. The possible mechanism was that the formed complex between organic acids and Al (III) significantly enhanced the reductivity of α-hydroxy acids and further led to the more complicated Cr (VI)-tartaric acid-Al (III) cyclic ester which greatly accelerated the reduction rate. The Cr (VI) reduction reaction rate increased with the decrease of pH but with the increase of Al (III) concentration, tartaric acid concentration, and temperature. As the pH decreased, the increase of [H(+)] led to an increase in {Al(III)H₂Tar₂}(+), the most active species, and thus the enhanced reduction rate.

  9. Selectivity enhancement of Arsenazo(III) reagent towards heavier lanthanides using polyaminocarboxylic acids: A spectrophotometric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matharu, Komal; Mittal, Susheel K.; Ashok Kumar, S. K.; Sahoo, Suban K.

    2015-06-01

    A new study has been conducted to quantify lanthanide(III) ions using Arsenazo III-polyaminocarboxylic acid (PACA) system. The study disclosed two different analytically important information: (i) λmax of lanthanide-Arsenazo III complexes for lighter lanthanides like Ce(III) and Nd(III) did not shift from its original position on addition of PACA and (ii) for heavier lanthanides like Dy(III), Tm(III) and Lu(III) a new λmax at 538 nm was observed, while wavelengths at 610 nm and 654 nm were disappeared in presence of ethylenediaminetertracetic acid (EDTA) and trans-1,2-Diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N‧,N‧-tetraacetic acid (DCTA), further the intensity of peak decreased with increase in lanthanide(III) ion concentration. Effect of ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N‧,N‧-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine-N,N‧,N‧-triacetic acid (EDTA-OH) on Arsenzo(III)-Ln(III) complex is very weak and there is no analytically importance of such interaction. Moreover, this work confirms that Nd(III) and heavy lanthanides can be successfully determined with high accuracy in the working range of concentration of these metal ions.

  10. Study of Class I and Class III Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Synthases with Substrates Containing a Modified Side Chain.

    PubMed

    Jia, Kaimin; Cao, Ruikai; Hua, Duy H; Li, Ping

    2016-04-11

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are carbon and energy storage polymers produced by a variety of microbial organisms under nutrient-limited conditions. They have been considered as an environmentally friendly alternative to oil-based plastics due to their renewability, versatility, and biodegradability. PHA synthase (PhaC) plays a central role in PHA biosynthesis, in which its activity and substrate specificity are major factors in determining the productivity and properties of the produced polymers. However, the effects of modifying the substrate side chain are not well understood because of the difficulty to accessing the desired analogues. In this report, a series of 3-(R)-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A (HACoA) analogues were synthesized and tested with class I synthases from Chromobacterium sp. USM2 (PhaCCs and A479S-PhaCCs) and Caulobacter crescentus (PhaCCc) as well as class III synthase from Allochromatium vinosum (PhaECAv). It was found that, while different PHA synthases displayed distinct preference with regard to the length of the alkyl side chains, they could withstand moderate side chain modifications such as terminal unsaturated bonds and the azide group. Specifically, the specific activity of PhaCCs toward propynyl analogue (HHxyCoA) was only 5-fold less than that toward the classical substrate HBCoA. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of PhaECAv toward azide analogue (HABCoA) was determined to be 2.86 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), which was 6.2% of the value of HBCoA (4.62 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) measured in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). These side chain modifications may be employed to introduce new material functions to PHAs as well as to study PHA biogenesis via click-chemistry, in which the latter remains unknown and is important for metabolic engineering to produce PHAs economically. PMID:26974339

  11. ASSESSMENT OF TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDER AND OCCLUSION IN TREATED CLASS III MALOCCLUSION PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Valle-Corotti, Karyna; Pinzan, Arnaldo; do Valle, Caio Vinícius Martins; Nahás, Ana Carla Raphaelli; Corotti, Mauro Vinícius

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in individuals submitted to either orthodontic or ortho-surgical Class III malocclusion treatment and to assess the influence of occlusal aspects on TMD severity. Material and methods: The sample consisted of 50 individuals divided into two groups, according to the type of treatment (orthodontic or orthodontic with orthognathic surgery). The presence of signs and symptoms of TMD was evaluated by an anamnestic questionnaire and a clinical examination, including TMJ and muscle palpation, active mandibular range of motion, joint noises and occlusal examination. Results: Based on the anamnestic questionnaire, 48% had no TMD, 42% had mild TMD and 10% had moderate TMD. The presence and severity of TMD did not show any relationship with the type of orthodontic treatment (p>0.05). The chi-square test showed a positive association (p<0.05) between TMD and non-working side occlusal interferences. Conclusion: Based on the methodology used and the results obtained, it may be concluded that Class III orthodontic treatment was not associated with the presence of TMD signs and symptoms and the non-working side contacts can be occlusal factors of risk. There was no significant difference in TMD prevalence between the studied groups (orthodontically treated patients and patients treated with orthodontics followed by orthognathic surgery). PMID:19089112

  12. Exploration of the new class of layered III-VI Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekarek, Thomas; Miotkowski, I.; Ramdas, A. K.

    2014-03-01

    We have explored a new class of quasi-two-dimensional III-VI Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) exhibiting a wide range of magnetic behavior. Several are good candidates for potential device applications. In In1-xMnxSe, we found a remarkably large thermal hysteresis (Delta T is approximately 200 K) extending up to room temperature. This is an important material because a typical thermal hysteresis in most materials has a Delta T approximately 20 K occurring well below room temperature. The thermal hysteresis is also seen in transport measurements for In1-xMnxSe. To date, we have found good agreement between experiment and theory for the 1st three III-VI DMS systems (In1-xMnxSe, In1-xMnxS, and Ga1-xMnxS). Ga1-xFexSe is unique amount the III-VI DMS exhibiting substantial magnetic anisotropy. In Ga1-xMnxS, we have found a spin glass transition and critical exponents (γ = 4.0, β = 0.8, and δ = 5.5) that are in agreement with the theory. We surprisingly found that the spin glass transition in the 2-D IIIVI DMS similar to spin glass in 3-D II-VI DMS. [This research was supported by the UNF Terry Presidential Professorship, a Purdue University Academic Reinvestment Program and by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant Nos. DMR-07-06593 and DMR-04-05082.

  13. Semi-longitudinal Study of the Mcnamara Cephalometric Triangle in Class II and Class III Subjects Grouped by Cervical Vertebrae Maturation Stage.

    PubMed

    Arriola-Guillén, Luis E; Fitzcarrald, Fernando D; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to compare the McNamara cephalometric triangle values in untreated normodivergent Class II and Class III malocclusion subjects of Latin American origin grouped by cervical vertebrae maturation stage to an untreated Class I malocclusion normodivergent control group. The study was conducted on a sample of 610 pretreatment lateral cephalograms (250 male, 360 female), examined and grouped according to their anteroposterior skeletal relationship (Class I, II or III), cervical vertebrae maturation stage (Pre Pubertal Peak P1 = CS1 and CS2, Pubertal Peak P2= CS3 and CS4, and Post Pubertal Peak P3 = CS5 and CS6) and sex. Co-A, Co-Gn and ENA-Me were measured in each lateral cephalogram. ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests were performed to determine differences between the groups. The results showed that in males, the greatest maxillary and mandibular dimensional increases occurred during the P3 stage (CS5 to CS6), while in females, they occurred in the P2 stage (CS3 to CS4). The Co-A and Co-Gn showed significant differences between the malocclusion classes (p<0.05). The maxillary lengths in Class II subjects and the mandibular lengths in Class III subjects were already higher at the beginning of the period evaluated (P1). A worsening trend for the Class II and III malocclusions was identified during the period evaluated. Finally, changes in the McNamara cephalometric triangle values were markedly different in the three normodivergent skeletal malocclusion classes. In these Latin American subjects the pubertal growth spurt occurred at different times with respect to the Caucasian and Asian norms.

  14. Ytterbium (III) Luminescence in m-Methylbenzoic Acid-Containing Compounds.

    PubMed

    Kalinovskaya, I V; Zadorozhnaya, A N

    2015-05-01

    Complex compounds of ytterbium(III) with m-methylbenzoic acid and nitrogen-containing ligands luminescent in near infrared range have been synthesized. Spectral luminescence characteristics of heteroligand compounds of ytterbium(III) have been investigated. It has been established that ytterbium (III) m-methylbenzoate with 1,10-phenanthroline is characterized by the highest luminescence intensity.

  15. Skeletal Class III malocclusion with unilateral congenitally missing maxillary incisor treated by maxillary protractor and edgewise appliances.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Masako; Fukuoka, Hayato; Miyazawa, Ken; Goto, Shigemi

    2010-03-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a 10-year-old female patient with a combination of Angle Class III malocclusion, a missing maxillary right lateral incisor, a supernumerary tooth with a short root on the lingual side of the maxillary incisor, a skeletal Class III jaw base relationship caused by a diminutive maxilla, and retroposition of the maxilla. We chose to close the space of the missing tooth, as well as the space created by extraction of the maxillary lateral incisor, by forward movement of the canine and premolars using a maxillary protractor with edgewise appliances. As a result, both the maxillary premolars and the molars were moved mesially, and a Class II molar relationship with tight interdigitation was achieved. Our results suggest that the combination of maxillary protractor and nontorque brackets was effective not only for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion, but also for forward movement of the maxillary posterior teeth.

  16. Dentofacial effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction: A controlled study of consecutively treated Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    De Clerck, Hugo; Cevidanes, Lucia; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In this cephalometric investigation, we analyzed the treatment effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) with miniplates in the maxilla and mandible connected by Class III elastics in patients with Class III malocclusion. Methods The treated sample consisted of 21 Class III patients consecutively treated with the BAMP protocol before the pubertal growth spurt (mean age, 11.10 ± 1.8 years) and reevaluated after BAMP therapy, about 1 year later. The treated group was compared with a matched control group of 18 untreated Class III subjects. Significant differences between the treated and control groups were assessed with independent-sample t tests (P<0.05). Results Sagittal measurements of the maxilla showed highly significant improvements during active treatment (about 4 mm more than the untreated controls), with significant protraction effects at orbitale and pterygomaxillare. Significant improvements of overjet and molar relationship were recorded, as well as in the mandibular skeletal measures at Point B and pogonion. Vertical skeletal changes and modifications in incisor inclination were negligible, except for a significant proclination of the mandibular incisors in the treated group. Significant soft-tissue changes reflected the underlying skeletal modifications. Conclusions Compared with growth of the untreated Class III subjects, the BAMP protocol induced an average increment on skeletal and soft-tissue advancement of maxillary structures of about 4 mm, and favorable mandibular changes exceeded 2 mm. PMID:21055597

  17. Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) derivatives with dithiocarbamates derived from α-amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Anita; Sengupta, Soumitra K.; Pandey, Om P.

    2006-06-01

    Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes with dithiocarbamates have been synthesized by the reactions of lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) chloride with barium dithiocarbamate and complexes of type [LnCl(L)H 2O] n have been obtained (where Ln = La(III) or Pr(III); L = barium salt of dithiocarbamate derived from glycine, L-leucine, L-valine, DL-alanine). The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, electronic absorption and fluorescence, infrared, far infrared, 1H NMR spectral studies. The presence of coordinated water molecule is inferred from thermogravimetric analysis which indicates the loss of one water molecule at 150-170 °C. The oscillator strength, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter, stimulated emission cross-section, etc. have been obtained for different transitions of Pr 3+.

  18. Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) derivatives with dithiocarbamates derived from alpha-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Rai, Anita; Sengupta, Soumitra K; Pandey, Om P

    2006-06-01

    Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes with dithiocarbamates have been synthesized by the reactions of lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) chloride with barium dithiocarbamate and complexes of type [LnCl(L)H2O]n have been obtained (where Ln=La(III) or Pr(III); L=barium salt of dithiocarbamate derived from glycine, L-leucine, L-valine, DL-alanine). The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, electronic absorption and fluorescence, infrared, far infrared, 1H NMR spectral studies. The presence of coordinated water molecule is inferred from thermogravimetric analysis which indicates the loss of one water molecule at 150-170 degrees C. The oscillator strength, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter, stimulated emission cross-section, etc. have been obtained for different transitions of Pr3+.

  19. Complex networks for data-driven medicine: the case of Class III dentoskeletal disharmony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scala, A.; Auconi, P.; Scazzocchio, M.; Caldarelli, G.; McNamara, JA; Franchi, L.

    2014-11-01

    In the last decade, the availability of innovative algorithms derived from complexity theory has inspired the development of highly detailed models in various fields, including physics, biology, ecology, economy, and medicine. Due to the availability of novel and ever more sophisticated diagnostic procedures, all biomedical disciplines face the problem of using the increasing amount of information concerning each patient to improve diagnosis and prevention. In particular, in the discipline of orthodontics the current diagnostic approach based on clinical and radiographic data is problematic due to the complexity of craniofacial features and to the numerous interacting co-dependent skeletal and dentoalveolar components. In this study, we demonstrate the capability of computational methods such as network analysis and module detection to extract organizing principles in 70 patients with excessive mandibular skeletal protrusion with underbite, a condition known in orthodontics as Class III malocclusion. Our results could possibly constitute a template framework for organising the increasing amount of medical data available for patients’ diagnosis.

  20. Prosthetic rehabilitation of severe Siebert's Class III defect with modified Andrews bridge system.

    PubMed

    Rathee, Manu; Sikka, Neha; Jindal, Sahil; Kaushik, Ashutosh

    2015-03-01

    Prosthetic dentistry involves the replacement of missing and contiguous tissues with artificial substitutes to restore and maintain the oral functions, appearance, and health of the patient. The treatment of edentulous areas with ridge defects poses a challenging task for the dentist. Management of such cases involves a wide range of treatment options comprising mainly of surgical interventions and non surgical techniques such as use of removable, fixed or fixed- removable partial dentures. But each treatment plan undertaken should be customized according to patient needs. A variety of factors such as quality and quantity of existing contiguous hard and soft tissues, systemic condition and economic status of the patient play an important role in treatment planning, clinical outcome and prognosis. This case report presents the restoration of a Seibert's Class III ridge defect by an economical modification of Andrews Bridge in a 32 Year old patient. PMID:25821362

  1. Prosthetic rehabilitation of severe Siebert's Class III defect with modified Andrews bridge system.

    PubMed

    Rathee, Manu; Sikka, Neha; Jindal, Sahil; Kaushik, Ashutosh

    2015-03-01

    Prosthetic dentistry involves the replacement of missing and contiguous tissues with artificial substitutes to restore and maintain the oral functions, appearance, and health of the patient. The treatment of edentulous areas with ridge defects poses a challenging task for the dentist. Management of such cases involves a wide range of treatment options comprising mainly of surgical interventions and non surgical techniques such as use of removable, fixed or fixed- removable partial dentures. But each treatment plan undertaken should be customized according to patient needs. A variety of factors such as quality and quantity of existing contiguous hard and soft tissues, systemic condition and economic status of the patient play an important role in treatment planning, clinical outcome and prognosis. This case report presents the restoration of a Seibert's Class III ridge defect by an economical modification of Andrews Bridge in a 32 Year old patient.

  2. Prosthetic rehabilitation of severe Siebert's Class III defect with modified Andrews bridge system

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Manu; Sikka, Neha; Jindal, Sahil; Kaushik, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic dentistry involves the replacement of missing and contiguous tissues with artificial substitutes to restore and maintain the oral functions, appearance, and health of the patient. The treatment of edentulous areas with ridge defects poses a challenging task for the dentist. Management of such cases involves a wide range of treatment options comprising mainly of surgical interventions and non surgical techniques such as use of removable, fixed or fixed- removable partial dentures. But each treatment plan undertaken should be customized according to patient needs. A variety of factors such as quality and quantity of existing contiguous hard and soft tissues, systemic condition and economic status of the patient play an important role in treatment planning, clinical outcome and prognosis. This case report presents the restoration of a Seibert's Class III ridge defect by an economical modification of Andrews Bridge in a 32 Year old patient. PMID:25821362

  3. Localisation of deformations of the midfacial complex in subjects with class III malocclusions employing thin-plate spline analysis

    PubMed Central

    SINGH, G. D.; McNAMARA JR, J. A.; LOZANOFF, S.

    1997-01-01

    This study determines deformations of the midface that contribute to a class III appearance, employing thin-plate spline analysis. A total of 135 lateral cephalographs of prepubertal children of European-American descent with either class III malocclusions or a class I molar occlusion were compared. The cephalographs were traced and checked, and 7 homologous landmarks of the midface were identified and digitised. The data sets were scaled to an equivalent size and subjected to Procrustes analysis. These statistical tests indicated significant differences (P<0.05) between the averaged class I and class III morphologies. Thin-plate spline analysis indicated that both affine and nonaffine transformations contribute towards the total spline for the averaged midfacial configuration. For nonaffine transformations, partial warp 3 had the highest magnitude, indicating the large scale deformations of the midfacial configuration. These deformations affected the palatal landmarks, and were associated with compression of the midfacial complex in the anteroposterior plane predominantly. Partial warp 4 produced some vertical compression of the posterior aspect of the midfacial complex whereas partial warps 1 and 2 indicated localised shape changes of the maxillary alveolus region. Large spatial-scale deformations therefore affect the midfacial complex in an anteroposterior axis, in combination with vertical compression and localised distortions. These deformations may represent a developmental diminution of the palatal complex anteroposteriorly that, allied with vertical shortening of midfacial height posteriorly, results in class III malocclusions with a retrusive midfacial profile. PMID:9449078

  4. [Cephalometric deciding factors in the early treatment of Class III malocclusion].

    PubMed

    Raberin, Monique; Morgon, Laurent; Gay-Brevet, Karine

    2007-06-01

    Many authors recommend early treatment for patients with Class III malocclusions in order to make their appearance more acceptable and also to re-channel the growth of basal bone into a normal pattern. However, the long-term effects and the stability of the results of this type of treatment have not been studied extensively. In the best interests of our patients, it would behoove us to know when early intervention is indicated and in what circumstances a strategy of watchful waiting and postponement of definitive treatment until the end of the growth period would be preferable. This retrospective study of a population of 30 patients from six to nine years old with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusions offers information on results obtained in early interceptive treatment, the potential for relapse, and the cephalometric criteria upon which a determination of the probable success or failure of treatment at this precocious stage can be made. A one-year treatment period began with rapid palatal expansion and was completed with alignment of the upper arch with a full-bonded appliance on the upper arch that was followed by orthopedic force delivered through an antero-posterior Delaire type facemask. In an evaluation eight years after the close of this early treatment, patients were separated into two groups, one of orthopedic success and the other of orthopedic failure. The inclination of the upper incisors proved to have descriptive value: the cases determined to be failures showed more inclination, a sign of early compensation. This meant that labio-version of upper incisors could be considered a predictive sign of relapse of an early treatment result. By means of a multiple regression analysis, we were able to discern three cephalometric components whose positive or negative readings would help to predict the probable prognosis for the success or failure of early treatment. PMID:17580063

  5. [Cephalometric deciding factors in the early treatment of Class III malocclusion].

    PubMed

    Raberin, Monique; Morgon, Laurent; Gay-Brevet, Karine

    2007-06-01

    Many authors recommend early treatment for patients with Class III malocclusions in order to make their appearance more acceptable and also to re-channel the growth of basal bone into a normal pattern. However, the long-term effects and the stability of the results of this type of treatment have not been studied extensively. In the best interests of our patients, it would behoove us to know when early intervention is indicated and in what circumstances a strategy of watchful waiting and postponement of definitive treatment until the end of the growth period would be preferable. This retrospective study of a population of 30 patients from six to nine years old with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusions offers information on results obtained in early interceptive treatment, the potential for relapse, and the cephalometric criteria upon which a determination of the probable success or failure of treatment at this precocious stage can be made. A one-year treatment period began with rapid palatal expansion and was completed with alignment of the upper arch with a full-bonded appliance on the upper arch that was followed by orthopedic force delivered through an antero-posterior Delaire type facemask. In an evaluation eight years after the close of this early treatment, patients were separated into two groups, one of orthopedic success and the other of orthopedic failure. The inclination of the upper incisors proved to have descriptive value: the cases determined to be failures showed more inclination, a sign of early compensation. This meant that labio-version of upper incisors could be considered a predictive sign of relapse of an early treatment result. By means of a multiple regression analysis, we were able to discern three cephalometric components whose positive or negative readings would help to predict the probable prognosis for the success or failure of early treatment.

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a class of mitochondrially-targeted gadolinium(III) agents.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Daniel E; Aitken, Jade B; de Jonge, Martin D; Issa, Fatiah; Harris, Hugh H; Rendina, Louis M

    2014-12-01

    A structure-activity relationship study of a library of novel bifunctional Gd(III) complexes covalently linked to arylphosphonium cations is reported. Such complexes have been designed for potential application in binary cancer therapies such as neutron capture therapy and photon activation therapy. A positive correlation was found between lipophilicity and cytotoxicity of the complexes. Mitochondria uptake was determined by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and Gd uptake was determined by means of quantification using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging. A negative correlation between lipophilicity and tumour selectivity of the Gd(III) complexes was demonstrated. This study highlights the delicate balance required to minimise in vitro cytotoxicity and optimise in vitro tumour selectivity and mitochondrial localisation for this new class of mitochondrially-targeted binary therapy agents. We also report the highest in vitro tumour selectivity for any Gd agent reported to date, with a T/N (tumour/normal cell) ratio of up to 23.5±6.6.

  7. Apelin-13 impedes foam cell formation by activating Class III PI3K/Beclin-1-mediated autophagic pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Feng; Lv, Yun-Cheng; Zhang, Min; Xie, Wei; Tan, Yu-Lin; Gong, Duo; Cheng, Hai-Peng; Liu, Dan; Li, Liang; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Xi-Long; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2015-10-30

    Apelin-13, an adipokine, promotes cholesterol efflux in macrophages with antiatherosclerotic effect. Autophagy, an evolutionarily ancient response to cellular stress, has been involved in atherosclerosis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether apelin-13 regulates macrophage foam cell cholesterol metabolism through autophagy, and also explore the underlying mechanisms. Here, we revealed that apelin-13 decreased lipid accumulation in THP-1 derived macrophages through markedly enhancing cholesterol efflux. Our study further demonstrated that apelin-13 induced autophagy via activation of Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Beclin-1. Inhibition of Class III PI3K and Beclin-1 suppressed the stimulatory effects of apelin-13 on autophagy activity. The present study concluded that apelin-13 reduces lipid accumulation of foam cells by activating autophagy via Class III PI3K/Beclin-1 pathway. Therefore, our results provide brand new insight about apelin-13 inhibiting foam cell formation and highlight autophagy as a promising therapeutic target in atherosclerosis.

  8. The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, B.D.; Ma, J.; Marzocchi, M.P.; Schiodt, C.B.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Smulevich, G.; Welinder, K.G.; Zhang, J.

    1999-03-23

    Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values both at room temperature and 20 K are . reported, together with EPR spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species co-exists with 6- and 5-cHS heroes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the presently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling maybe necessary for the QS state.

  9. The quantum mixed-spin heme state of barley peroxidase: A paradigm for class III peroxidases.

    PubMed Central

    Howes, B D; Schiodt, C B; Welinder, K G; Marzocchi, M P; Ma, J G; Zhang, J; Shelnutt, J A; Smulevich, G

    1999-01-01

    Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values, at both room temperature and 20 K, are reported, together with electron paramagnetic resonance spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species coexists with 6- and 5-cHS hemes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the currently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling may be necessary for the QS state. PMID:10388773

  10. Long maximal incremental tests accurately assess aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men.

    PubMed

    Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Capodaglio, Paolo; Brunani, Amelia; Fanari, Paolo; Salvadori, Alberto; Malatesta, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare two different maximal incremental tests with different time durations [a maximal incremental ramp test with a short time duration (8-12 min) (STest) and a maximal incremental test with a longer time duration (20-25 min) (LTest)] to investigate whether an LTest accurately assesses aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men. Twenty obese men (BMI≥35 kg.m-2) without secondary pathologies (mean±SE; 36.7±1.9 yr; 41.8±0.7 kg*m-2) completed an STest (warm-up: 40 W; increment: 20 W*min-1) and an LTest [warm-up: 20% of the peak power output (PPO) reached during the STest; increment: 10% PPO every 5 min until 70% PPO was reached or until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.0, followed by 15 W.min-1 until exhaustion] on a cycle-ergometer to assess the peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] and peak heart rate (HRpeak) of each test. There were no significant differences in [Formula: see text] (STest: 3.1±0.1 L*min-1; LTest: 3.0±0.1 L*min-1) and HRpeak (STest: 174±4 bpm; LTest: 173±4 bpm) between the two tests. Bland-Altman plot analyses showed good agreement and Pearson product-moment and intra-class correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between [Formula: see text] (r=0.81 for both; p≤0.001) and HRpeak (r=0.95 for both; p≤0.001) during both tests. [Formula: see text] and HRpeak assessments were not compromised by test duration in class II and III obese men. Therefore, we suggest that the LTest is a feasible test that accurately assesses aerobic fitness and may allow for the exercise intensity prescription and individualization that will lead to improved therapeutic approaches in treating obesity and severe obesity.

  11. Intrinsic acidity of aluminum, chromium (III) and iron (III) μ 3-hydroxo functional groups from ab initio electronic structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustad, James R.; Dixon, David A.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2000-05-01

    Density functional calculations are performed on M 3(OH) 7(H 2O) 62+ and M 3O(OH) 6(H 2O) 6+ clusters for MAl, Cr(III), and Fe(III), allowing determination of the relative acidities of the μ 3-hydroxo and aquo functional groups. Contrary to previous predictions and rationalizations, Fe 3OH and Al 3OH groups have nearly the same intrinsic acidity, while Cr 3OH groups are significantly more acidic. The gas-phase acidity of the Fe 3OH site is in good agreement with the value predicted by the molecular mechanics model previously used to estimate the relative acidities of surface sites on iron oxides. [ J. R. Rustad et al. (1996)Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60, 1563]. Acidities of aquo functional groups were also computed for Al and Cr. The AlOH 2 site is more acidic than the Al 3OH site, whereas the Cr 3OH site is more acidic than the CrOH 2 site. These findings predict that the surface charging behavior of chromium oxides/oxyhydroxides should be distinguishable from their Fe, Al counterparts. The calculations also provide insight into why the lepidocrocite/boehmite polymorph is not observed for CrOOH.

  12. Regulation of human class I alcohol dehydrogenases by bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Langhi, Cédric; Pedraz-Cuesta, Elena; Haro, Diego; Marrero, Pedro F.; Rodríguez, Joan C.

    2013-01-01

    Class I alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH1s) are the rate-limiting enzymes for ethanol and vitamin A (retinol) metabolism in the liver. Because previous studies have shown that human ADH1 enzymes may participate in bile acid metabolism, we investigated whether the bile acid-activated nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates ADH1 genes. In human hepatocytes, both the endogenous FXR ligand chenodeoxycholic acid and synthetic FXR-specific agonist GW4064 increased ADH1 mRNA, protein, and activity. Moreover, overexpression of a constitutively active form of FXR induced ADH1A and ADH1B expression, whereas silencing of FXR abolished the effects of FXR agonists on ADH1 expression and activity. Transient transfection studies and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed functional FXR response elements in the ADH1A and ADH1B proximal promoters, thus indicating that both genes are direct targets of FXR. These findings provide the first evidence for direct connection of bile acid signaling and alcohol metabolism. PMID:23772048

  13. Regulation of human class I alcohol dehydrogenases by bile acids.

    PubMed

    Langhi, Cédric; Pedraz-Cuesta, Elena; Haro, Diego; Marrero, Pedro F; Rodríguez, Joan C

    2013-09-01

    Class I alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH1s) are the rate-limiting enzymes for ethanol and vitamin A (retinol) metabolism in the liver. Because previous studies have shown that human ADH1 enzymes may participate in bile acid metabolism, we investigated whether the bile acid-activated nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates ADH1 genes. In human hepatocytes, both the endogenous FXR ligand chenodeoxycholic acid and synthetic FXR-specific agonist GW4064 increased ADH1 mRNA, protein, and activity. Moreover, overexpression of a constitutively active form of FXR induced ADH1A and ADH1B expression, whereas silencing of FXR abolished the effects of FXR agonists on ADH1 expression and activity. Transient transfection studies and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed functional FXR response elements in the ADH1A and ADH1B proximal promoters, thus indicating that both genes are direct targets of FXR. These findings provide the first evidence for direct connection of bile acid signaling and alcohol metabolism.

  14. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    PubMed Central

    Florián-Vargas, Karla; Honores, Marcos J. Carruitero; Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively) from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted. PMID:27275616

  15. Complexation of Am(III) and Nd(III) by 1,10-Phenanthroline-2,9-Dicarboxylic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Nilsson, Mikael; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Hancock, Robert D.; Nash, Ken L.

    2013-01-01

    The complexant 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid (PDA) is a planar tetradentate ligand that is more preorganized for metal complexation than its unconstrained analogue ethylendiiminodiacetic acid (EDDA). Furthermore, the backbone nitrogen atoms of PDA are aromatic, hence are softer than the aliphatic amines of EDDA. It has been hypothesized that PDA will selectively bond to trivalent actinides over lanthanides. In this report, the results of spectrophotometric studies of the complexation of Nd(III) and Am(III) by PDA are reported. Because the complexes are moderately stable, it was necessary to conduct these titrations using competitive equilibrium methods, competitive cation omplexing between PDA and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, and competition between ligand protonation and complex formation. Stability constants and ligand protonation constants were determined at 0.1 mol/L ionic strength and at 0.5 mol/L ionic strength nitrate media at 21 ± 1 C. The stability constants are lower than those predicted from first principles and speciation calculations indicate that Am(III) selectivity over Nd(III) is less than that exhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline.

  16. Involvement of a membrane-bound class III adenylate cyclase in regulation of anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Charania, M A; Brockman, K L; Zhang, Y; Banerjee, A; Pinchuk, G E; Fredrickson, J K; Beliaev, A S; Saffarini, D A

    2009-07-01

    Unlike other bacteria that use FNR to regulate anaerobic respiration, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 uses the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) for this purpose. Three putative genes, cyaA, cyaB, and cyaC, predicted to encode class I, class IV, and class III adenylate cyclases, respectively, have been identified in the genome sequence of this bacterium. Functional validation through complementation of an Escherichia coli cya mutant confirmed that these genes encode proteins with adenylate cyclase activities. Chromosomal deletion of either cyaA or cyaB did not affect anaerobic respiration with fumarate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or Fe(III), whereas deletion of cyaC caused deficiencies in respiration with DMSO and Fe(III) and, to a lesser extent, with fumarate. A phenotype similar to that of a crp mutant, which lacks the ability to grow anaerobically with DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III), was obtained when both cyaA and cyaC were deleted. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the crp and cyaC mutants revealed the involvement of both genes in the regulation of key respiratory pathways, such as DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III) reduction. Additionally, several genes associated with plasmid replication, flagellum biosynthesis, and electron transport were differentially expressed in the cyaC mutant but not in the crp mutant. Our results indicated that CyaC plays a major role in regulating anaerobic respiration and may contribute to additional signaling pathways independent of CRP.

  17. Involvement of a Membrane-Bound Class III Adenylate Cyclase in Regulation of Anaerobic Respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Charania, M.; Brockman, K. L.; Zhang, Y.; Banerjee, A.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Saffarini, Daad

    2009-07-01

    Unlike other bacteria that use FNR to regulate anaerobic respiration, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 uses the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) for this purpose. Three putative genes, cyaA, cyaB, and cyaC, predicted to encode class I, class IV, and class III adenylate cyclases, respectively, have been identified in the genome sequence of this bacterium. Functional validation through complementation of an Escherichia coli cya mutant confirmed that these genes encode proteins with adenylate cyclase activities. Chromosomal deletion of either cyaA or cyaB did not affect anaerobic respiration with fumarate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or Fe(III), whereas deletion of cyaC caused deficiencies in respiration with DMSO and Fe(III) and, to a lesser extent, with fumarate. A phenotype similar to that of a crp mutant, which lacks the ability to grow anaerobically with DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III), was obtained when both cyaA and cyaC were deleted. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the crp and cyaC mutants revealed the involvement of both genes in the regulation of key respiratory pathways, such as DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III) reduction. Additionally, several genes associated with plasmid replication, flagellum biosynthesis, and electron transport were differentially expressed in the cyaC mutant but not in the crp mutant. Our results indicated that CyaC plays a major role in regulating anaerobic respiration and may contribute to additional signaling pathways independent of CRP.

  18. Involvement of a Membrane-Bound Class III Adenylate Cyclase in Regulation of Anaerobic Respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Charania, M.; Brockman, K.; Zhang, Yang; Banerjee, A.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Saffarini, Daad

    2009-07-01

    Unlike other bacteria that use FNR to regulate anaerobic respiration, S. oneidensis MR-1 uses the cAMP receptor protein, CRP, for this purpose. Three putative genes, cyaA, cyaB, and cyaC, predicted to encode class I, class IV, and class III adenylate cyclases respectively, have been identified in the genome sequence of this bacterium. Functional validation through complementation of an E. coli cya mutant confirmed that these genes encode proteins with adenylate cyclase activities. Chromosomal deletion of either cyaA or cyaB did not affect anaerobic respiration with fumarate, DMSO, or Fe(III), whereas the deletion of cyaC caused deficiencies in respiration with DMSO and Fe(III), and to a lesser extent with fumarate. A phenotype similar to that of a crp mutant, which lacks the ability to grow anaerobically with DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III), was obtained when both cyaA and cyaC were deleted. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the crp and the cyaC mutants revealed the involvement of both genes in the regulation of key respiratory pathways such as DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III) reduction. Additionally, several genes associated with plasmid replication, flagella biosynthesis, and electron transport, were differentially expressed in the cyaC mutant, but not in the crp mutant. Our results indicated that CyaC plays a major role in regulating anaerobic respiration, and may contribute to additional signaling pathways independent of CRP.

  19. 40 CFR 147.51 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Agreement between EPA Region IV and the Alabama Department of Environment Management, signed by... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells. 147.51 Section 147.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  20. 40 CFR 147.51 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Agreement between EPA Region IV and the Alabama Department of Environment Management, signed by... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells. 147.51 Section 147.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  1. 40 CFR 147.51 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Agreement between EPA Region IV and the Alabama Department of Environment Management, signed by... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells. 147.51 Section 147.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  2. 40 CFR 147.51 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Agreement between EPA Region IV and the Alabama Department of Environment Management, signed by... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells. 147.51 Section 147.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  3. 40 CFR 147.51 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Agreement between EPA Region IV and the Alabama Department of Environment Management, signed by... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells. 147.51 Section 147.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  4. 40 CFR 147.1751 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells. 147.1751 Section 147.1751 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota §...

  5. 40 CFR 147.1751 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells. 147.1751 Section 147.1751 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota §...

  6. 49 CFR 1150.32 - Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.32 Section 1150.32 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE CERTIFICATE TO CONSTRUCT, ACQUIRE,...

  7. 40 CFR 147.1751 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells. 147.1751 Section 147.1751 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota §...

  8. 40 CFR 147.500 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures Act); (3) Florida Administrative Code, Chapter 17-3 (1982) (Water Quality Standards); (4) Florida... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION... program for Class I, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Florida, except for those on Indian lands...

  9. 40 CFR 147.500 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air and Water Pollution Control Act, Florida Statutes Annotated sections 403.011 through 403.90 (1973... Procedures Act); (3) Florida Administrative Code, Chapter 17-3 (1982) (Water Quality Standards); (4) Florida... CONTROL PROGRAMS Florida § 147.500 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV, and V wells. The...

  10. 40 CFR 147.500 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air and Water Pollution Control Act, Florida Statutes Annotated sections 403.011 through 403.90 (1973... Procedures Act); (3) Florida Administrative Code, Chapter 17-3 (1982) (Water Quality Standards); (4) Florida... CONTROL PROGRAMS Florida § 147.500 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV, and V wells. The...

  11. 40 CFR 147.500 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air and Water Pollution Control Act, Florida Statutes Annotated sections 403.011 through 403.90 (1973... Procedures Act); (3) Florida Administrative Code, Chapter 17-3 (1982) (Water Quality Standards); (4) Florida... CONTROL PROGRAMS Florida § 147.500 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV, and V wells. The...

  12. 40 CFR 147.500 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air and Water Pollution Control Act, Florida Statutes Annotated sections 403.011 through 403.90 (1973... Procedures Act); (3) Florida Administrative Code, Chapter 17-3 (1982) (Water Quality Standards); (4) Florida... CONTROL PROGRAMS Florida § 147.500 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV, and V wells. The...

  13. 40 CFR 147.251 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program in the State of California for Class I, III, IV and V wells... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the..., IV and V wells and Indian lands. 147.251 Section 147.251 Protection of Environment...

  14. Class III PI3K regulates organismal glucose homeostasis by providing negative feedback on hepatic insulin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Nemazanyy, Ivan; Montagnac, Guillaume; Russell, Ryan C.; Morzyglod, Lucille; Burnol, Anne-Françoise; Guan, Kun-Liang; Pende, Mario; Panasyuk, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    Defective hepatic insulin receptor (IR) signalling is a pathogenic manifestation of metabolic disorders including obesity and diabetes. The endo/lysosomal trafficking system may coordinate insulin action and nutrient homeostasis by endocytosis of IR and the autophagic control of intracellular nutrient levels. Here we show that class III PI3K—a master regulator of endocytosis, endosomal sorting and autophagy—provides negative feedback on hepatic insulin signalling. The ultraviolet radiation resistance-associated gene protein (UVRAG)-associated class III PI3K complex interacts with IR and is stimulated by insulin treatment. Acute and chronic depletion of hepatic Vps15, the regulatory subunit of class III PI3K, increases insulin sensitivity and Akt signalling, an effect that requires functional IR. This is reflected by FoxO1-dependent transcriptional defects and blunted gluconeogenesis in Vps15 mutant cells. On depletion of Vps15, the metabolic syndrome in genetic and diet-induced models of insulin resistance and diabetes is alleviated. Thus, feedback regulation of IR trafficking and function by class III PI3K may be a therapeutic target in metabolic conditions of insulin resistance. PMID:26387534

  15. 49 CFR 1150.32 - Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.32 Section 1150.32 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE CERTIFICATE TO CONSTRUCT, ACQUIRE,...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1751 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells. 147.1751 Section 147.1751 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota §...

  17. 40 CFR 147.1751 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells. 147.1751 Section 147.1751 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota §...

  18. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10−2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10â2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part...—Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10−2.5 Candidate Equivalent...

  19. Adsorption behavior of antimony(III) oxyanions on magnetite surface in aqueous organic acid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Vinit K.; Bera, Santanu; Narasimhan, S. V.; Velmurugan, S.

    2013-02-01

    Antimony(III) adsorption is observed on magnetite (Fe3O4) surface under acidic and reducing condition through surface hydroxyl (SOH) groups bonding on Fe3O4 surface. Desorption of adsorbed Sb(III) is observed from Fe3O4 surface along with iron release in organic acid at 85 °C after 5 h of experiment. Tartaric acid (TA) shows minimum Sb(III) adsorption on Fe3O4 among the organic acid studied. The reason is TA having two sets of adjacent functional groups viz. Odbnd Csbnd OH and Csbnd OH which are responsible for the formation of five-membered bidendate chelate with Sb(III). Other oxyanions, cations or complexing agents along with TA influences the Sb(III) adsorption on Fe3O4. The surface of magnetite is modified by the addition of fatty acids viz. Lauric acid, benzoic acid to bind the Ssbnd OH groups present on the surface. This results in delaying the process of adsorption without changing the quantity of saturation adsorption of Sb(III) on Fe3O4 surface.

  20. Extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from nitric acid solutions by di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid dissolved in kerosene.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hung-Sheng; Tsai, Teh-Hua

    2012-01-04

    The extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from a nitric acid solution using di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as an acidic extractant of organophosphorus compounds dissolved in kerosene was studied. By graphical and numerical analysis, the compositions of indium-D2EHPA complexes in organic phase and stoichiometry of the extraction reaction were examined. Nitric acid solutions with various indium concentrations at 25 °C were used to obtain the equilibrium constant of InR₃ in the organic phase. The experimental results showed that the extraction distribution ratios of indium(III) between the organic phase and the aqueous solution increased when either the pH value of the aqueous solution and/or the concentration of the organic phase extractant increased. Finally, the recovery efficiency of indium(III) in nitric acid was measured.

  1. Three-dimensional assessment of mandibular and glenoid fossa changes after bone-anchored Class III intermaxillary traction

    PubMed Central

    De Clerck, Hugo; Nguyen, Tung; de Paula, Leonardo Koerich; Cevidanes, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Conventional treatment for young Class III patients involves extraoral devices designed to either protract the maxilla or restrain mandibular growth. The use of skeletal anchorage offers a promising alternative to obtain orthopedic results with fewer dental compensations. Our aim was to evaluate 3-dimensional changes in the mandibles and the glenoid fossae of Class III patients treated with bone-anchored maxillary protraction. Methods Twenty-five consecutive skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 9 and 13 years (mean age, 11.10 ± 1.1 year) were treated with Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (2 in the infrazygomatic crests of the maxilla and 2 in the anterior mandible). The patients had cone-beam computed tomography images taken before initial loading and at the end of active treatment. Three-dimensional models were generated from these images, registered on the anterior cranial base, and analyzed by using color maps. Results Posterior displacement of the mandible at the end of treatment was observed in all subjects (posterior ramus: mean, 2.74 ± 1.36 mm; condyles: mean, 2.07 ± 1.16 mm; chin: mean, −0.13 ± 2.89 mm). Remodeling of the glenoid fossa at the anterior eminence (mean, 1.38 ± 1.03 mm) and bone resorption at the posterior wall (mean, −1.34 ± 0.6 mm) were observed in most patients. Conclusions This new treatment approach offers a promising alternative to restrain mandibular growth for Class III patients with a component of mandibular prognathism or to compensate for maxillary deficiency in patients with hypoplasia of the midface. Future studies with long-term follow-up and comparisons with facemask and chincup therapies are needed to better understand the treatment effects. PMID:22748987

  2. [Hemodynamic study of intravenous milrinone in 26 patients with NYHA class III or IV cardiac failure].

    PubMed

    Boesch, C; Dubois-Rande, J L; Pochmalicki, G; Lellouche, D; Teiger, E; Saal, J P; Cachin, J C; Mallo, C; Castaigne, A; Jan, F

    1992-11-01

    The hemodynamic effects of milrinone (WIN 47203) were studied in 26 NYHA Class III or IV patients. The compound was administered intravenously using a protocol including an initial push dose of 50 micrograms/kg in 10 min, followed by a 24 hour infusion at the dose of 0.5 microgram/kg/min. Maximal response was obtained after 15 min and persisted during the infusion: cardiac index increased from 2.08 +/- 0.36 l/min/m2 to 3.09 +/- 0.68 l/min/m2, while capillary pressure fell from 25 mmHg to 16-17 mmHg. These variations were significant (p = 0.01). Heart rate was stable. Mean peripheral blood pressure fell modestly (6%). Systemic vascular resistance fell by 30% and pulmonary vascular resistance by 20%. All these results confirmed the beneficial effect of this inotropic agent administered intravenously. The increase in ventricular premature contractions noted by many justifies the careful surveillance of these patients by monitoring.

  3. [Limiting factors in the class III camouflage treatment: a potential protocol].

    PubMed

    Chaques Asensi, José

    2016-06-01

    The Class III skeletal malocclusion has been traditionally treated with a combined approach of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery or with a strategy of orthodontic camouflage. Some severe cases can be identified as ideal candidates for a surgical treatment whereas some others can be handled with orthodontics alone, with a reasonable expectation of an acceptable result. However, the problem remains for the borderline patient. In fact, limited information is available in the literature regarding the identification of the factors that can help in establishing the limits for one treatment modality or the other. Furthermore, the quantification of some of these factors, for practical purposes, is practically missing or very seldom suggested. Therefore, the decision making process remains a subjective reflection based on the "good clinical sense" of the orthodontist or just reduced to an "educated guess". In order to add some information, hopefully useful in deciding the most suitable treatment option for the individual patient, we propose a clinical protocol based on four different factors. Namely: the skeletal discrepancy, the occlusal discrepancy, the periodontal condition and facial aesthetics. For each one of these factors several parameters will be evaluated and, for some of them, an attempt to provide some reference numerical values will be made. Finally, clinical examples will be presented to illustrate the concepts discussed and the treatment alternatives, final treatment plan and treatment outcome will be analyzed for each one of them. PMID:27358006

  4. Utilizing a restorative approach to correct an adult skeletal class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Lemongello, Gerard J

    2008-02-01

    When determining if treatment for malocclusion is indicated, the clinician must understand how the malocclusion affects the patient aesthetically, functionally, and biologically, as well as any impact of treatment. It is important to consult the patient and advise when a less invasive orthodontic treatment plan may be optimal. Once the patient is fully informed of the treatment options and desires treatment without orthodontics, a restorative/ prosthodontic approach using veneers, crowns, or fixed prosthetics can provide exceptional strength, function, and aesthetics. As in all cases, thorough evaluation and planning are essential. The decision to proceed with restorative alignment of the teeth rather than orthodontic alignment is dependent on full disclosure to the patient and the clinician's understanding of preparation design, aesthetics, and occlusion. As demonstrated in this class III case, with proper examination, diagnosis, treatment planning, and communication, excellent aesthetic, phonetic, and functional results can be achieved and maintained. As with all full-mouth restorative cases, periodic occlusal evaluation will be necessary at normal hygiene intervals.

  5. Resveratrol induces human keratinocyte damage via the activation of class III histone deacetylase, Sirt1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hee; Kim, Jin-Shang; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, You-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Human skin diseases are various and induce chronic inflammatory disorders, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and certain forms of ichthyosis. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by circumscribed, red, thickened plaques. Regulation of the balance between growth, differentiation and death is critical to keratinocytes; when altered, epidermal keratinocytes undergo hyperproliferation, abnormal differentiation and inflammatory infiltration. In the present study, we focused on the effects of resveratrol, found in red wine and peanuts, on the cell death of keratinocytes. We additionally studied the mechanism of resveratrol on Sirt1, a class III histone deacetylase, and Akt phosphorylation. Resveratrol caused apoptosis and increased Sirt1 expression in human HaCaT keratinocytes, following a decrease in the p62 protein level. Inhibition of Sirt1 by Sirt1 inhibitor restored cell viability and protein levels. Furthermore, we showed that resveratrol-induced Sirt1 blocked Akt phosphorylation. The present results indicated that resveratrol inhibited the Akt pathways by inducing Sirt1, thus leading to cell death. These data suggest that resveratrol-mediated activation of Sirt1 histone deacetylase may be a potential therapeutic target for skin diseases including psoriasis.

  6. Class III myosins shape the auditory hair bundles by limiting microvilli and stereocilia growth.

    PubMed

    Lelli, Andrea; Michel, Vincent; Boutet de Monvel, Jacques; Cortese, Matteo; Bosch-Grau, Montserrat; Aghaie, Asadollah; Perfettini, Isabelle; Dupont, Typhaine; Avan, Paul; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Petit, Christine

    2016-01-18

    The precise architecture of hair bundles, the arrays of mechanosensitive microvilli-like stereocilia crowning the auditory hair cells, is essential to hearing. Myosin IIIa, defective in the late-onset deafness form DFNB30, has been proposed to transport espin-1 to the tips of stereocilia, thereby promoting their elongation. We show that Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) mice lacking myosin IIIa and myosin IIIb are profoundly deaf, whereas Myo3a-cKO Myo3b(-/-) mice lacking myosin IIIb and losing myosin IIIa postnatally have normal hearing. Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) cochlear hair bundles display robust mechanoelectrical transduction currents with normal kinetics but show severe embryonic abnormalities whose features rapidly change. These include abnormally tall and numerous microvilli or stereocilia, ungraded stereocilia bundles, and bundle rounding and closure. Surprisingly, espin-1 is properly targeted to Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) stereocilia tips. Our results uncover the critical role that class III myosins play redundantly in hair-bundle morphogenesis; they unexpectedly limit the elongation of stereocilia and of subsequently regressing microvilli, thus contributing to the early hair bundle shaping.

  7. Class III myosins shape the auditory hair bundles by limiting microvilli and stereocilia growth

    PubMed Central

    Lelli, Andrea; Michel, Vincent; Boutet de Monvel, Jacques; Cortese, Matteo; Bosch-Grau, Montserrat; Aghaie, Asadollah; Perfettini, Isabelle; Dupont, Typhaine; Avan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The precise architecture of hair bundles, the arrays of mechanosensitive microvilli-like stereocilia crowning the auditory hair cells, is essential to hearing. Myosin IIIa, defective in the late-onset deafness form DFNB30, has been proposed to transport espin-1 to the tips of stereocilia, thereby promoting their elongation. We show that Myo3a−/−Myo3b−/− mice lacking myosin IIIa and myosin IIIb are profoundly deaf, whereas Myo3a-cKO Myo3b−/− mice lacking myosin IIIb and losing myosin IIIa postnatally have normal hearing. Myo3a−/−Myo3b−/− cochlear hair bundles display robust mechanoelectrical transduction currents with normal kinetics but show severe embryonic abnormalities whose features rapidly change. These include abnormally tall and numerous microvilli or stereocilia, ungraded stereocilia bundles, and bundle rounding and closure. Surprisingly, espin-1 is properly targeted to Myo3a−/−Myo3b−/− stereocilia tips. Our results uncover the critical role that class III myosins play redundantly in hair-bundle morphogenesis; they unexpectedly limit the elongation of stereocilia and of subsequently regressing microvilli, thus contributing to the early hair bundle shaping. PMID:26754646

  8. Class III myosins shape the auditory hair bundles by limiting microvilli and stereocilia growth.

    PubMed

    Lelli, Andrea; Michel, Vincent; Boutet de Monvel, Jacques; Cortese, Matteo; Bosch-Grau, Montserrat; Aghaie, Asadollah; Perfettini, Isabelle; Dupont, Typhaine; Avan, Paul; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Petit, Christine

    2016-01-18

    The precise architecture of hair bundles, the arrays of mechanosensitive microvilli-like stereocilia crowning the auditory hair cells, is essential to hearing. Myosin IIIa, defective in the late-onset deafness form DFNB30, has been proposed to transport espin-1 to the tips of stereocilia, thereby promoting their elongation. We show that Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) mice lacking myosin IIIa and myosin IIIb are profoundly deaf, whereas Myo3a-cKO Myo3b(-/-) mice lacking myosin IIIb and losing myosin IIIa postnatally have normal hearing. Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) cochlear hair bundles display robust mechanoelectrical transduction currents with normal kinetics but show severe embryonic abnormalities whose features rapidly change. These include abnormally tall and numerous microvilli or stereocilia, ungraded stereocilia bundles, and bundle rounding and closure. Surprisingly, espin-1 is properly targeted to Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) stereocilia tips. Our results uncover the critical role that class III myosins play redundantly in hair-bundle morphogenesis; they unexpectedly limit the elongation of stereocilia and of subsequently regressing microvilli, thus contributing to the early hair bundle shaping. PMID:26754646

  9. Cephalometric evaluation of class-III patients with chin cap and tongue guard.

    PubMed

    Danaie, S M; Salehi, P

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of chin cap therapy combined with an upper tongue guard in the early treatment of class-III malocclusion on the nasomaxillary complex and mandible. The subjects of this study consisted of 40 patients aged 5-13 years (mean age of 8.5 +/- 2). All of them possessed an anterior cross bite and/or concave profile. The mean force of chin cap was determined to be 200 g on each side for 18 h/day and the mean treatment period was 22 months. The cephalometric analyses including skeletal, dental, and soft tissue analysis were carried out before and after treatment. The analysis of the cephalometric measurements revealed a negative correlation between the combination effects of chin cap therapy upper tongue guard. This effect appeared in the early stages of treatment. It was a case-control study and Wilcoxon test was used for statistical analysis. The comparison of dependent variables revealed that skeletal effects of chin cap therapy were more than dental and soft tissue effects. Changes in the upper and lower pharyngeal spaces were not significant. A reduction of nasolabial angle occurred due to the protrusion of upper incisors. Finally, it was shown that the combination of chin cap and upper tongue guard could be more effective in the early treatment.

  10. Effect of desferrioxamine B and Suwannee River fulvic acid on Fe(III) release and Cr(III) desorption from goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Angela G.; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A.; Dubbin, William E.

    2016-04-01

    Siderophores are biogenic chelating ligands that facilitate the solubilisation of Fe(III) and form stable complexes with a range of contaminant metals and therefore may significantly affect their biogeochemical cycling. Desferrioxamine B (DFOB) is a trihydroxamate siderophore that acts synergistically with fulvic acid and low molecular weight organic ligands to release Fe from Fe(III) oxides. We report the results of batch dissolution experiments in which we determine the rates of Cr(III) desorption and Fe(III) release from Cr(III)-treated synthetic goethite as influenced by DFOB, by fulvic acid, and by the two compounds in combination. We observed that adsorbed Cr(III) at 3% surface coverage significantly reduced Fe(III) release from goethite for all combinations of DFOB and fulvic acid. When DFOB (270 μM) was the only ligand present, dissolved Fe(III) and Cr(III) increased approximately 1000-fold and 16-fold, respectively, as compared to the ligand-free system, a difference we attribute to the slow rate of water exchange of Cr(III). Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) acts synergistically with DFOB by (i) reducing the goethite surface charge leading to increased HDFOB+ surface excess and by (ii) forming aqueous Fe(III)-SRFA species whose Fe(III) is subsequently removed by DFOB to yield aqueous Fe(III)-DFOB complexes. These observations shed new light on the synergistic relationship between DFOB and fulvic acid and reveal the mechanisms of Fe(III) acquisition available to plants and micro-organisms in Cr(III) contaminated environments.

  11. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Vacuolar Class III Peroxidase Involved in the Metabolism of Anticancer Alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus1[C

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Maria Manuela R.; Hilliou, Frederique; Duarte, Patrícia; Pereira, Luís Gustavo; Almeida, Iolanda; Leech, Mark; Memelink, Johan; Barceló, Alfonso Ros; Sottomayor, Mariana

    2008-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus produces low levels of two dimeric terpenoid indole alkaloids, vinblastine and vincristine, which are widely used in cancer chemotherapy. The dimerization reaction leading to α-3′,4′-anhydrovinblastine is a key regulatory step for the production of the anticancer alkaloids in planta and has potential application in the industrial production of two semisynthetic derivatives also used as anticancer drugs. In this work, we report the cloning, characterization, and subcellular localization of an enzyme with anhydrovinblastine synthase activity identified as the major class III peroxidase present in C. roseus leaves and named CrPrx1. The deduced amino acid sequence corresponds to a polypeptide of 363 amino acids including an N-terminal signal peptide showing the secretory nature of CrPrx1. CrPrx1 has a two-intron structure and is present as a single gene copy. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that CrPrx1 belongs to an evolutionary branch of vacuolar class III peroxidases whose members seem to have been recruited for different functions during evolution. Expression of a green fluorescent protein-CrPrx1 fusion confirmed the vacuolar localization of this peroxidase, the exact subcellular localization of the alkaloid monomeric precursors and dimeric products. Expression data further supports the role of CrPrx1 in α-3′,4′-anhydrovinblastine biosynthesis, indicating the potential of CrPrx1 as a target to increase alkaloid levels in the plant. PMID:18065566

  12. Fluorescent complexes of nucleic acids/8-hydroxyquinoline/lanthanum(III) and the fluorometry of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Zhi Huang; Ke An Li; Shen Yang Tong

    1996-07-01

    The ternary fluorescent complexes of nucleic acids/8-hydroxyquinoline/lanthanum (III) were studied. Nucleic acids in the study involve natured and thermally denatured calf thymus DNA, fish sperm DNA and yeast RNA. In the range of PH 8.0-8.4 (controlled by NH{sub 3}-NH{sub 4}Cl buffer) ternary fluorescent complexes are formed which emit at 485.0 nm for calf thymus DNA and at 480.0 nm for fish sperm DNA when excited at 265.0 nm. Based on the fluorescence reactions sensitive fluorometric methods for nucleic acids were proposed. Using optimal conditions, the calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.4 --3.6 {mu}g{sup .}ml{sup -1} for calf thymus DNA, 0.4 -- 4.0 {mu}g{sup .}ml{sup -1} for fish sperm DNA and 0.4 --4.0{mu}g{sup .}ml{sup -1} for yeast RNA, respectively. Five synthetic samples were determined with satisfaction.

  13. The Class of Type III-L Solar Radio Bursts and Their Associations with Solar Energetic Proton Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffin, Robert Thomas

    2011-05-01

    The source protons of Solar Energetic particle Proton events (defined as "SEP" events for this research) not associated with the Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) shock front are thought to come from either the flare site or the reconnection region beneath the CME. The Type III-L, a new class of solar radio burst has been defined by Cane et al. (2002) and MacDowall et al. (2003) as a sub-set of the Type III burst, beginning after the onset of the soft X-ray (SXR) flare, is long lasting and extends down to at least 1 MHz. The emission source region of Type III-Ls is believed to be at the reconnection region beneath the CME or on the flanks of the CME. Past association studies between SEP events and Type III-Ls began with a biased SEP-selected sample set to see if there can be found support for the emission source region of Type III-Ls and SEPs to come from the same accelerator site at the reconnection region beneath the CME. Unlike previous studies using an SEP-selected sample, I find that when using a radio-selected sample for well-connected SEP events with a solar source in the western hemisphere, the majority of the Type III-L events are associated with SEP events, but not all, and that Type III-L events associated with M- and X- class SXR flares, do not appear to be better predictors of SEP events than do Type II bursts which are associated with the CME shock. Also, I find that the occurrence of Type II events in the radio spectra of SEPs is just as common as the occurrence of Type III-Ls. This indicates that Type III-Ls should not be used as a predictor for SEP events, that the emission source region of Type III-Ls might not be at the reconnection region beneath the CME and reduces the strength of the support found by previous SEP-Type III-L association studies, that the source protons for SEP events necessarily come from the reconnection region beneath the CME. I found that Type III-L events have no strong longitude preference, but SEP events do have a 60

  14. Geometric and electronic structure of the Mn(IV)Fe(III) cofactor in class Ic ribonucleotide reductase: correlation to the class Ia binuclear non-heme iron enzyme.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Yeonju; Jiang, Wei; Dassama, Laura M K; Park, Kiyoung; Bell, Caleb B; Liu, Lei V; Wong, Shaun D; Saito, Makina; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Seto, Makoto; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Alp, E Ercan; Zhao, Jiyong; Bollinger, J Martin; Krebs, Carsten; Solomon, Edward I

    2013-11-20

    The class Ic ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) from Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) utilizes a Mn/Fe heterobinuclear cofactor, rather than the Fe/Fe cofactor found in the β (R2) subunit of the class Ia enzymes, to react with O2. This reaction produces a stable Mn(IV)Fe(III) cofactor that initiates a radical, which transfers to the adjacent α (R1) subunit and reacts with the substrate. We have studied the Mn(IV)Fe(III) cofactor using nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) and absorption (Abs)/circular dichroism (CD)/magnetic CD (MCD)/variable temperature, variable field (VTVH) MCD spectroscopies to obtain detailed insight into its geometric/electronic structure and to correlate structure with reactivity; NRVS focuses on the Fe(III), whereas MCD reflects the spin-allowed transitions mostly on the Mn(IV). We have evaluated 18 systematically varied structures. Comparison of the simulated NRVS spectra to the experimental data shows that the cofactor has one carboxylate bridge, with Mn(IV) at the site proximal to Phe127. Abs/CD/MCD/VTVH MCD data exhibit 12 transitions that are assigned as d-d and oxo and OH(-) to metal charge-transfer (CT) transitions. Assignments are based on MCD/Abs intensity ratios, transition energies, polarizations, and derivative-shaped pseudo-A term CT transitions. Correlating these results with TD-DFT calculations defines the Mn(IV)Fe(III) cofactor as having a μ-oxo, μ-hydroxo core and a terminal hydroxo ligand on the Mn(IV). From DFT calculations, the Mn(IV) at site 1 is necessary to tune the redox potential to a value similar to that of the tyrosine radical in class Ia RNR, and the OH(-) terminal ligand on this Mn(IV) provides a high proton affinity that could gate radical translocation to the α (R1) subunit.

  15. Geometric and Electronic Structure of the Mn(IV)Fe(III) Cofactor in Class Ic Ribonucleotide Reductase: Correlation to the Class Ia Binuclear Non-Heme Iron Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Yeonju; Jiang, Wei; Dassama, Laura M.K.; Park, Kiyoung; Bell, Caleb B.; Liu, Lei V.; Wong, Shaun D.; Saito, Makina; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Seto, Makoto; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Alp, E. Ercan; Zhao, Jiyong; Bollinger, J Martin; Krebs, Carsten; Solomon, Edward I.

    2013-01-01

    The class Ic ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) from Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) utilizes a Mn/Fe hetero-binuclear cofactor, rather than the Fe/Fe cofactor found in the β (R2) subunit of the class Ia enzymes, to react with O2. This reaction produces a stable MnIVFeIII cofactor that initiates a radical, which transfers to the adjacent α (R1) subunit and reacts with the substrate. We have studied the MnIVFeIII cofactor using nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) and absorption (Abs) / circular dichroism (CD) / magnetic CD (MCD) / variable temperature, variable field (VTVH) MCD spectroscopies to obtain detailed insight into its geometric/electronic structure and to correlate structure with reactivity; NRVS focuses on the FeIII, whereas MCD reflects the spin-allowed transitions mostly on the MnIV. We have evaluated 18 systematically varied structures. Comparison of the simulated NRVS spectra to the experimental data shows that the cofactor has one carboxylate bridge, with MnIV at the site proximal to Phe127. Abs/CD/MCD/VTVH MCD data exhibit 12 transitions that are assigned as d-d, and oxo and OH− to metal charge transfer (CT) transitions. Assignments are based on MCD/Abs intensity ratios, transition energies, polarizations, and derivative-shaped pseudo-A term CT transitions. Correlating these results with TD-DFT calculations defines the MnIVFeIII cofactor as having a µ-oxo, µ-hydroxo core and a terminal hydroxo ligand on the MnIV. From DFT calculations, the MnIV at site 1 is necessary to tune the redox potential to a value similar to that of the tyrosine radical in class Ia RNR, and the OH− terminal ligand on this MnIV provides a high proton affinity that could gate radical translocation to the α (R1) subunit. PMID:24131208

  16. Lipoprotein Profiles in Class III Obese Caucasian and African American Women with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Anna E; Kasim, Nader; Tamboli, Robyn A; Gonzalez, Raul S; Antoun, Joseph; Eckert, Emily A; Marks-Shulman, Pamela A; Dunn, Julia; Wattacheril, Julia; Wallen, Taylor; Abumrad, Naji N; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride content in the liver is regulated by the uptake, production and elimination of lipoproteins, and derangements in these processes contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies show a direct relationship between intrahepatic fat and production of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) containing particles, VLDL and LDL, but little consensus exists regarding changes in lipoprotein production in the development of simple steatosis (SS) versus nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Further, ethnic variations in lipoproteins among SS and NASH are unknown as is how such variations might contribute to the differential prevalence of disease among Caucasians versus African Americans. In this study, we assessed plasma lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 70 non-diabetic class III obese females recruited from the surgical weight loss clinic. Of these, 51 females were stratified by biopsy-staged NAFLD severity (histologically normal, SS, or NASH). NASH females displayed increased circulating triglycerides and increased VLDL particle number and size relative to those with histologically normal livers, while total and large LDL concentration decreased in SS versus NASH and correlated with increased insulin resistance (via HOMA2-IR). When Caucasian women were examined alone (n = 41), VLDL and triglycerides increased between normal and SS, while total LDL and apoB100 decreased between SS and NASH along with increased insulin resistance. Compared to Caucasians with SS, African American women with SS displayed reduced triglycerides, VLDL, and small LDL and a more favorable small to large HDL ratio despite having increased BMI and HOMA2-IR. These findings suggest that ApoB100 and lipoprotein subclass particle number and size can delineate steatosis from NASH in obese Caucasian females, but should be interpreted with caution in other ethnicities as African Americans with SS display relatively improved lipoprotein profiles

  17. Role of class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase during programmed nuclear death of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Akematsu, Takahiko; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Attiq, Rizwan; Pearlman, Ronald E

    2014-02-01

    Programmed nuclear death (PND) in the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila is a novel type of autophagy that occurs during conjugation, in which only the parental somatic macronucleus is destined to die and is then eliminated from the progeny cytoplasm. Other coexisting nuclei, however, such as new micro- and macronuclei are unaffected. PND starts with condensation in the nucleus followed by apoptotic DNA fragmentation, lysosomal acidification, and final resorption. Because of the peculiarity in the process and the absence of some ATG genes in this organism, the mechanism of PND has remained unclear. In this study, we focus on the role of class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K, corresponding to yeast Vps34) in order to identify central regulators of PND. We identified the sole Tetrahymena thermophila ortholog (TtVPS34) to yeast Vps34 and human PIK3C3 (the catalytic subunit of PtdIns3K), through phylogenetic analysis, and generated the gene knockdown mutant for functional analysis. Loss of TtVPS34 activity prevents autophagosome formation on the parental macronucleus, and this nucleus escapes from the lysosomal pathway. In turn, DNA fragmentation and final resorption of the nucleus are drastically impaired. These phenotypes are similar to the situation in the ATG8Δ mutants of Tetrahymena, implying an inextricable link between TtVPS34 and TtATG8s in controlling PND as well as general macroautophagy. On the other hand, TtVPS34 does not appear responsible for the nuclear condensation and does not affect the progeny nuclear development. These results demonstrate that TtVPS34 is critically involved in the nuclear degradation events of PND in autophagosome formation rather than with an involvement in commitment to the death program.

  18. Lipoprotein Profiles in Class III Obese Caucasian and African American Women with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Anna E.; Kasim, Nader; Tamboli, Robyn A.; Gonzalez, Raul S.; Antoun, Joseph; Eckert, Emily A.; Marks-Shulman, Pamela A.; Dunn, Julia; Wattacheril, Julia; Wallen, Taylor; Abumrad, Naji N.; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride content in the liver is regulated by the uptake, production and elimination of lipoproteins, and derangements in these processes contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies show a direct relationship between intrahepatic fat and production of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) containing particles, VLDL and LDL, but little consensus exists regarding changes in lipoprotein production in the development of simple steatosis (SS) versus nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Further, ethnic variations in lipoproteins among SS and NASH are unknown as is how such variations might contribute to the differential prevalence of disease among Caucasians versus African Americans. In this study, we assessed plasma lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 70 non-diabetic class III obese females recruited from the surgical weight loss clinic. Of these, 51 females were stratified by biopsy-staged NAFLD severity (histologically normal, SS, or NASH). NASH females displayed increased circulating triglycerides and increased VLDL particle number and size relative to those with histologically normal livers, while total and large LDL concentration decreased in SS versus NASH and correlated with increased insulin resistance (via HOMA2-IR). When Caucasian women were examined alone (n = 41), VLDL and triglycerides increased between normal and SS, while total LDL and apoB100 decreased between SS and NASH along with increased insulin resistance. Compared to Caucasians with SS, African American women with SS displayed reduced triglycerides, VLDL, and small LDL and a more favorable small to large HDL ratio despite having increased BMI and HOMA2-IR. These findings suggest that ApoB100 and lipoprotein subclass particle number and size can delineate steatosis from NASH in obese Caucasian females, but should be interpreted with caution in other ethnicities as African Americans with SS display relatively improved lipoprotein profiles

  19. Asymmetric molar distalization with miniscrews to correct a severe unilateral Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiao Ling; Conley, R Scott; Wu, Tuojiang; Li, Huang

    2016-05-01

    Asymmetries are among the most challenging problems in orthodontics. Proper diagnosis is critical to discern first whether the asymmetry is dental or skeletal. If it is dental, one must then determine whether one dental arch or both are at fault. Once diagnosed, the next challenge is determining not only an appropriate treatment plan, but also the appropriate mechanics plan. This aim of this article is to present a patient with a severe asymmetry to emphasize the importance of a problem-based differential diagnosis to develop both a sound treatment plan and a mechanics plan that successfully integrates miniscrews from the start of the process. An 18-year-old woman had a Class III subdivision left malocclusion, an asymmetric lower facial third, and a deviated midline. The treatment plan consisted of asymmetric distalization of the maxillary right and mandibular left posterior dentitions to create space to resolve the deviated midlines, correct the canted occlusal plane, and obtain an ideal occlusion. Active treatment with Clarity ceramic 0.022 × 0.028-in appliances (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif), temporary anchorage devices, and a pendulum appliance lasted 22 months. The final result and the 2-year retention records demonstrate that a harmonious facial balance, an attractive smile, ideal occlusal relationships, and a stable outcome were achieved. This case report shows that with proper planning, asymmetric use of temporary anchorage devices in multiple posterior quadrants can be used to obtain molar distalization, and this approach is an effective alternative to dental extraction therapy. PMID:27131255

  20. New method for the direct determination of dissolved Fe(III) concentration in acid mine waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    To, T.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Cunningham, K.M.; Ball, J.W.; McCleskey, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    A new method for direct determination of dissolved Fe(III) in acid mine water has been developed. In most present methods, Fe(III) is determined by computing the difference between total dissolved Fe and dissolved Fe(II). For acid mine waters, frequently Fe(II) >> Fe(III); thus, accuracy and precision are considerably improved by determining Fe(III) concentration directly. The new method utilizes two selective ligands to stabilize Fe(III) and Fe(II), thereby preventing changes in Fe reduction-oxidation distribution. Complexed Fe(II) is cleanly removed using a silica-based, reversed-phase adsorbent, yielding excellent isolation of the Fe(III) complex. Iron(III) concentration is measured colorimetrically or by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The method requires inexpensive commercial reagents and simple procedures that can be used in the field. Calcium(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), AI(III), Zn(II), and Cd(II) cause insignificant colorimetric interferences for most acid mine waters. Waters containing >20 mg of Cu/L could cause a colorimetric interference and should be measured by GFAAS. Cobalt(II) and Cr(III) interfere if their molar ratios to Fe(III) exceed 24 and 5, respectively. Iron(II) interferes when its concentration exceeds the capacity of the complexing ligand (14 mg/L). Because of the GFAAS elemental specificity, only Fe(II) is a potential interferent in the GFAAS technique. The method detection limit is 2 ??g/L (40 nM) using GFAAS and 20 ??g/L (0.4 ??M) by colorimetry.A new method for direct determination of dissolved Fe(III) in acid mine water has been developed. In most present methods, Fe(III) is determined by computing the difference between total dissolved Fe and dissolved Fe(II). For acid mine waters, frequently Fe(II)???Fe(III); thus, accuracy and precision are considerably improved by determining Fe(III) concentration directly. The new method utilizes two selective ligands to stabilize Fe(III) and Fe(II), thereby preventing changes

  1. Correction of dental Class III with posterior open bite by simple biomechanics using an anterior C-tube miniplate

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo-Won; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kang, Suk-Man; Lin, Lu; Nelson, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In the correction of dental Class III molar relationship in skeletal Class II patients, uprighting of the mandibular posterior segments without opening the mandible is an important treatment objective. In the case reported herein, a C-tube miniplate fixed to the lower labial symphysis and connected with a nickel-titanium reverse-curved archwire provided effective uprighting of the lower molars, without the need of orthodontic appliances on the mandibular anteriors. Using this approach, an appropriate magnitude of force is exerted on the molars while avoiding any negative effect on the mandibular anteriors. PMID:23173121

  2. Developing skeletal Class III malocclusion treated nonsurgically with a combination of a protraction facemask and a multiloop edgewise archwire.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenhua; Ding, Yin; Feng, Xue

    2011-08-01

    For a girl, aged 12 years 3 months, with a skeletal Class III malocclusion, negative overjet, severe maxillary crowding, and hyperdivergent pattern, orthognathic surgery combined with orthodontic treatment is often the treatment of choice, because it can greatly improve the patient's facial profile and ensure the long-term stability of the results. However, because of high risks and treatment expenses, patients sometimes refuse to have surgery. We report a nonsurgical combination therapy including facemask and multiloop edgewise archwires and the outcome for a patient with a developing skeletal Class III malocclusion and a long anterior facial height. Treatment included advancement of the maxilla by orthopedic means and counterclockwise rotation of the mandibular occlusal plane by the orthodontic dentoalveolar compensation of distal en-masse movement of the mandibular dentition.

  3. Efficacy of orthopedic treatment with protraction facemask on skeletal Class III malocclusion: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cordasco, G; Matarese, G; Rustico, L; Fastuca, S; Caprioglio, A; Lindauer, S J; Nucera, R

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to estimate the efficacy of protraction facemask on the correction of Class III malocclusion in the short term. A systematic review of articles was performed using different electronic databases (PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACS, and Google Scholar). Search terms comprised 'orthopedic treatment' and 'Class III malocclusion'. The selection criteria were set in order to include in this review only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) performed treating with facemask Class III growing patients. Studies' selection, data extraction, and risk of bias's assessment were executed independently by two authors using pre-defined data forms. All pooled analyses of data were based on random effects models. A pre-specified subgroup analysis was planned to evaluate the effect of preliminary rapid palatal expansion on facemask efficacy. Three RCTs met our inclusion criteria. In total, data from 155 patients (92 treated and 63 controls) were collected. The treated group showed the following significant changes: ANB° +3.66° [95%CI (2.58, 4.74)]; SNA° +2.10 [95%CI (1.14, 3.06)]; SNB° -1.54 [95%CI (-2.13, -0.95)]; SN-palatal plane -0.82° [95%CI (-1.62, -0.02)]; and SN-mandibular plane +1.51 [95%CI (0.61, 2.41)]. Heterogeneity varied from low to moderate (mean I(2) value: 41.4 ± 20.8). Facemask is effective correcting Class III malocclusion in the short term. The skeletal modifications induced by facemask are forward displacement of maxilla, backward displacement of mandible, clockwise rotation of the mandibular plane, and counterclockwise rotation of the maxillary plane.

  4. Class III obesity and unwanted pregnancy among women with live births in New York City, 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Garbers, Samantha; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous adverse health effects for pregnant women and their newborns. Unintended pregnancy is associated with suboptimal prenatal health behaviors and adverse birth outcomes. While research has suggested a link between obesity and unintended pregnancy, the evidence has been contradictory. Research has not focused on women at the highest level of obesity, Class III (body mass index ≥40). Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data for 4,161 women in New York City with a live birth from 2004 to 2007 and complete data on pregnancy intention, height, and weight were examined. The primary outcome, having a live birth that resulted from an unwanted pregnancy (not wanted at that time or at any time in the future), was compared across 6 groups of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographic factors and stressors during pregnancy were conducted. The proportion of women reporting their pregnancy was unwanted increased with increasing BMI level to a high of 24 % among women with Class III obesity. After adjustment for confounding sociodemographic factors, women classified as Class III obese were significantly more likely than women with normal BMI to report an unwanted pregnancy [AOR = 2.81 (95 % CI: 1.41-5.60)]; this relationship held after adjusting for stressors during pregnancy. No significant association was found for women of other BMI groups. Previous analyses may have masked a relationship between BMI and unwanted pregnancy among women with Class III obesity. Further research exploring underlying mechanisms which are amenable to intervention is of critical public health importance.

  5. Gbx2 Directly Restricts Otx2 Expression to Forebrain and Midbrain, Competing with Class III POU Factors

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Fumitaka; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Takahashi, Maiko

    2012-01-01

    Otx2 plays essential roles in rostral brain development, and its counteraction with Gbx2 has been suggested to determine the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) in vertebrates. We previously identified the FM enhancer that is conserved among vertebrates and drives Otx2 transcription in forebrain/midbrain from the early somite stage. In this study, we found that the POU homeodomain of class III POU factors (Brn1, Brn2, Brn4, and Oct6) associates with noncanonical target sequence TAATTA in the FM enhancer. MicroRNA-mediated knockdown of Brn2 and Oct6 diminished the FM enhancer activity in anterior neural progenitor cells (NPCs) differentiated from P19 cells. The class III POU factors associate with the FM enhancer in forebrain and midbrain but not in hindbrain. We also demonstrated that the Gbx2 homeodomain recognizes the same target TAATTA in the FM enhancer, and Gbx2 associates with the FM enhancer in hindbrain. Gbx2 misexpression in the anterior NPCs repressed the FM enhancer activity and inhibited Brn2 association with the enhancer, whereas Gbx2 knockdown caused ectopic Brn2 association in the posterior NPCs. These results suggest that class III POU factors and Gbx2 share the same target site, TAATTA, in the FM enhancer and that their region-specific binding restricts Otx2 expression at the MHB. PMID:22566684

  6. The Populus Class III HD ZIP transcription factor POPCORONA affects cell differentiation during secondary growth of woody stems.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Miura, Eriko; Robischon, Marcel; Martinez, Ciera; Groover, Andrew

    2011-02-28

    The developmental mechanisms regulating cell differentiation and patterning during the secondary growth of woody tissues are poorly understood. Class III HD ZIP transcription factors are evolutionarily ancient and play fundamental roles in various aspects of plant development. Here we investigate the role of a Class III HD ZIP transcription factor, POPCORONA, during secondary growth of woody stems. Transgenic Populus (poplar) trees expressing either a miRNA-resistant POPCORONA or a synthetic miRNA targeting POPCORONA were used to infer function of POPCORONA during secondary growth. Whole plant, histological, and gene expression changes were compared for transgenic and wild-type control plants. Synthetic miRNA knock down of POPCORONA results in abnormal lignification in cells of the pith, while overexpression of a miRNA-resistant POPCORONA results in delayed lignification of xylem and phloem fibers during secondary growth. POPCORONA misexpression also results in coordinated changes in expression of genes within a previously described transcriptional network regulating cell differentiation and cell wall biosynthesis, and hormone-related genes associated with fiber differentiation. POPCORONA illustrates another function of Class III HD ZIPs: regulating cell differentiation during secondary growth.

  7. Conservative treatment for a growing patient with a severe, developing skeletal Class III malocclusion and open bite.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yue; Zhu, Ping; Le, Linda; Cai, Bin

    2014-06-01

    An 8-year-old Chinese girl sought treatment for a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion and open-bite skeletal pattern. Traditionally, patients with a skeletal Class III malocclusion are treated after they have stopped growing, and then they are treated with a combined orthodontic and orthognathic surgery approach. But the risks and expenses of this treatment plan are not acceptable to all patients. This young patient was treated with facemask therapy, a maxillary expansion device, and a molar occlusal splint for maxillary developmental stimulation with control of vertical jaw growth. After the completion of orthopedic therapy, 2 × 4 technology was used to adjust molar positions. A bonded tongue crib was used in the early permanent dentition to help the patient break her bad tongue habits. Straight-wire appliances were used for 16 months to adjust the occlusal relationship. This achieved significant improvement in anterior tooth relationships and facial profile esthetics. At the 2-year posttreatment follow-up, the results were satisfactory. The success of the sagittal relationship correction between the maxilla and the mandible for a skeletal Class III malocclusion depends on the coordination of transverse and vertical relationships combined with the growth potential of each patient.

  8. Bone thickness of the infrazygomatic crest area in skeletal Class III growing patients: A computed tomographic study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyub-Soo; Choi, Hang-Moon; Choi, Dong-Soon; Jang, Insan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to investigate the bone thickness of the infrazygomatic crest area by computed tomography (CT) for placement of a miniplate as skeletal anchorage for maxillary protraction in skeletal Class III children. Materials and Methods CT images of skeletal Class III children (7 boys, 9 girls, mean age: 11.4 years) were taken parallel to the Frankfurt horizontal plane. The bone thickness of the infrazygomatic crest area was measured at 35 locations on the right and left sides, perpendicular to the bone surface. Results The bone was thickest (5.0 mm) in the upper zygomatic bone and thinnest (1.1 mm) in the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus. Generally, there was a tendency for the bone to be thicker at the superior and lateral area of the zygomatic process of the maxilla. There was no clinically significant difference in bone thickness between the right and left sides; however, it was thicker in male than in female subjects. Conclusion In the infrazygomatic crest area, the superior and lateral area of the zygomatic process of the maxilla had the most appropriate thickness for placement of a miniplate in growing skeletal Class III children with a retruded maxilla. PMID:24380065

  9. Conservative treatment for a growing patient with a severe, developing skeletal Class III malocclusion and open bite.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yue; Zhu, Ping; Le, Linda; Cai, Bin

    2014-06-01

    An 8-year-old Chinese girl sought treatment for a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion and open-bite skeletal pattern. Traditionally, patients with a skeletal Class III malocclusion are treated after they have stopped growing, and then they are treated with a combined orthodontic and orthognathic surgery approach. But the risks and expenses of this treatment plan are not acceptable to all patients. This young patient was treated with facemask therapy, a maxillary expansion device, and a molar occlusal splint for maxillary developmental stimulation with control of vertical jaw growth. After the completion of orthopedic therapy, 2 × 4 technology was used to adjust molar positions. A bonded tongue crib was used in the early permanent dentition to help the patient break her bad tongue habits. Straight-wire appliances were used for 16 months to adjust the occlusal relationship. This achieved significant improvement in anterior tooth relationships and facial profile esthetics. At the 2-year posttreatment follow-up, the results were satisfactory. The success of the sagittal relationship correction between the maxilla and the mandible for a skeletal Class III malocclusion depends on the coordination of transverse and vertical relationships combined with the growth potential of each patient. PMID:24880852

  10. Effects of ionic strength and fulvic acid on adsorption of Tb(III) and Eu(III) onto clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poetsch, Maria; Lippold, Holger

    2016-09-01

    High salinity and natural organic matter are both known to facilitate migration of toxic or radioactive metals in geochemical systems, but little is known on their combined effect. We investigated complexation of Tb(III) and Eu(III) (as analogues for trivalent actinides) with fulvic acid and their adsorption onto a natural clay in the presence of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 up to very high ionic strengths. 160Tb, 152Eu and 14C-labelled fulvic acid were employed as radiotracers, allowing investigations at very low concentrations according to probable conditions in far-field scenarios of nuclear waste repositories. A combined Kd approach (Linear Additive Model) was tested for suitability in predicting solid-liquid distribution of metals in the presence of organic matter based on the interactions in the constituent subsystems. In this analysis, it could be shown that high ionic strength does not further enhance the mobilizing potential of humic matter. A quantitative reproduction of the influence of fulvic acid failed for most systems under study. Assumptions and limitations of the model are discussed.

  11. Effects of ionic strength and fulvic acid on adsorption of Tb(III) and Eu(III) onto clay.

    PubMed

    Poetsch, Maria; Lippold, Holger

    2016-09-01

    High salinity and natural organic matter are both known to facilitate migration of toxic or radioactive metals in geochemical systems, but little is known on their combined effect. We investigated complexation of Tb(III) and Eu(III) (as analogues for trivalent actinides) with fulvic acid and their adsorption onto a natural clay in the presence of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 up to very high ionic strengths. (160)Tb, (152)Eu and (14)C-labelled fulvic acid were employed as radiotracers, allowing investigations at very low concentrations according to probable conditions in far-field scenarios of nuclear waste repositories. A combined Kd approach (Linear Additive Model) was tested for suitability in predicting solid-liquid distribution of metals in the presence of organic matter based on the interactions in the constituent subsystems. In this analysis, it could be shown that high ionic strength does not further enhance the mobilizing potential of humic matter. A quantitative reproduction of the influence of fulvic acid failed for most systems under study. Assumptions and limitations of the model are discussed. PMID:27454893

  12. UIC permitting process for class IID and Class III wells: Protection of drinking water in New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Hillenbrand, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region II, Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program regulates injection wells in the State of New York to protect drinking water; UIC regulations can be found under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Parts 124, 144, 146 and 147. Operators of solution mining injection wells (UIC Class IIIG) and produced fluid disposal wells (UIC Class IID) are required to obtain an UIC permit for authorization to inject. The permitting process requires submittal of drinking water, geologic and proposed operational data in order to assure that pressure build-up within the injection zone will not compromise confining layers and allow vertical migration of fluid into Underground Sources of Drinking Water (USDW). Additional data is required within an Area of Review (AOR), defined as an area determined by the intersection of the adjusted potentiometric surface produced by injection and a depth 50 feet below the base of the lowermost USDW, or a radius of 1/4 mile around the injection well, whichever is greater. Locations of all wells in the AOR must be identified, and completion reports and plugging reports must be submitted. Requirements are set for maximum injection pressure and flow rates, monitoring of brine properties of the injection well and monitoring of water supply wells in the AOR for possible contamination. Any noncompliance with permit requirements constitutes a violation of the Safe Drinking Water Act and is grounds for enforcement action, including possible revocation of permit. Presently four Class IID wells are authorized under permit in New York State. The Queenston sandstone, Medina sandstone, Salina B, Akron dolomite and Oriskany sandstone have been used for brine disposal; the lower Ordovician-Cambrian section is currently being considered as an injection zone. Over one hundred Class IIIG wells are authorized under permit in New York State and all have been utilized for solution mining of the Syracuse salt.

  13. Regulation of the Tumor-Suppressor Function of the Class III Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Complex by Ubiquitin and SUMO

    PubMed Central

    Reidick, Christina; El Magraoui, Fouzi; Meyer, Helmut E.; Stenmark, Harald; Platta, Harald W.

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of cancer is often associated with a dysfunction in one of the three central membrane-involution processes—autophagy, endocytosis or cytokinesis. Interestingly, all three pathways are controlled by the same central signaling module: the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-III) complex and its catalytic product, the phosphorylated lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). The activity of the catalytic subunit of the PI3K-III complex, the lipid-kinase VPS34, requires the presence of the membrane-targeting factor VPS15 as well as the adaptor protein Beclin 1. Furthermore, a growing list of regulatory proteins associates with VPS34 via Beclin 1. These accessory factors define distinct subunit compositions and thereby guide the PI3K-III complex to its different cellular and physiological roles. Here we discuss the regulation of the PI3K-III complex components by ubiquitination and SUMOylation. Especially Beclin 1 has emerged as a highly regulated protein, which can be modified with Lys11-, Lys48- or Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains catalyzed by distinct E3 ligases from the RING-, HECT-, RBR- or Cullin-type. We also point out other cross-links of these ligases with autophagy in order to discuss how these data might be merged into a general concept. PMID:25545884

  14. Binding of Eu(III) to 1,2-hydroxypyridinone-modified peptide nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Arnie R; Olatunde, Abiola O; Morrow, Janet R; Achim, Catalina

    2012-12-01

    Substitution of a nucleobase pair with a pair of 1,2-hydroxypyridinone (1,2-HOPO) ligands in the center of a 10-base-pair peptide nucleic acid (PNA) duplex provides a strong binding site for Eu(III) as evidenced by UV thermal melting curves, UV titrations, and luminescence spectroscopy. Eu(III) excitation spectra and luminescence lifetime data are consistent with Eu(III) bound to both 1,2 HOPO ligands in a PNA-HOPO duplex as the major species present in solution.

  15. Luminescent properties of compounds of europium(III) with quinaldic acid and β-diketones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinovskaya, I. V.; Mirochnik, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    We have obtained luminescent complex compounds of europium(III) with quinaldic acid and β- diketones of composition Eu(Quin)2β-dic • H;2O, where Quin is the anion of quinaldic acid, and β-dic is the anion of acetylacetone (acac), benzoylacetone (bzac), or dibenzoylmethane (dbm). The spectral properties of the obtained compounds have been examined. The joint presence of quinaldic acid and β-diketone in the coordination sphere of europium(III) leads to a broadening of the absorption spectral range of the investigated complex compounds. We have found that the "anomalous" Stark structure of luminescence spectra and the luminescence quenching of complexes at 300 K are determined by the occurrence of a high-lying ligand-europium(III) charge-transfer state.

  16. Spectroscopic studies on gallic acid and its azo derivatives and their iron(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Masoud, Mamdouh S; Ali, Alaa E; Haggag, Sawsan S; Nasr, Nessma M

    2014-01-01

    Azo gallic derivatives and their iron(III) complexes were synthesized and characterized. The stereochemistry and the mode of bonding of the complexes were achieved based on elemental analysis, UV-Vis and IR. The thermal behaviors of the complexes were studied. The effect of pH on the electronic absorption spectra of gallic acid and its azo derivatives are discussed. Different spectroscopic methods (molar ratio, straight line method, continuous variation, slope ratio and successive method) are applied for determination of stoichiometry and pK values for the complex formation of gallic acid with iron(III) in aqueous media. Iron(III) complexes of gallic acid is formed with different ratio: 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 (M:L).

  17. Mutations in the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase gene are responsible for tyrosinemia type III and hawkinsinuria.

    PubMed

    Tomoeda, K; Awata, H; Matsuura, T; Matsuda, I; Ploechl, E; Milovac, T; Boneh, A; Scott, C R; Danks, D M; Endo, F

    2000-11-01

    The enzyme 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase (HPD) catalyzes the reaction of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid to homogentisic acid in the tyrosine catabolism pathway. A deficiency in the catalytic activity of HPD may lead to tyrosinemia type III, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by elevated levels of blood tyrosine and massive excretion of tyrosine derivatives into urine. It has been postulated that hawkinsinuria, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the excretion of 'hawkinsin,' may also be a result of HPD deficiency. Hawkinsin is a sulfur amino acid identified as (2-l-cystein-S-yl, 4-dihydroxycyclohex-5-en-1-yl)acetic acid. Patients with hawkinsinuria excrete this metabolite in their urine throughout their life, although symptoms of metabolic acidosis and tyrosinemia improve in the first year of life. We performed analyses of the HPD gene in a patient with tyrosinemia type III and two unrelated patients with hawkinsinuria. A homozygous missense mutation predicting an Ala to Val change at codon 268 (A268V) in the HPD gene was found in the patient with tyrosinemia type III. A heterozygous missense mutation predicting an Ala to Thr change at codon 33 (A33T) was found in the same HPD gene in the two patients with hawkinsinuria. These findings support the hypothesis that alterations in the structure and activity of HPD are causally related to two different metabolic disorders, tyrosinemia type III and hawkinsinuria.

  18. 40 CFR 146.10 - Plugging and abandoning Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The plugging and abandonment plan required in 40 CFR 144.51(o) and 144.52(a)(6) shall, in the case of... with 40 CFR 144.23(b). (c) Requirements for Class V wells. (1) Prior to abandoning a Class V well, the... violation of any primary drinking water regulation under 40 CFR part 141 or may otherwise adversely...

  19. 40 CFR 146.10 - Plugging and abandoning Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... violation of any primary drinking water regulation under 40 CFR part 141 or may otherwise adversely affect...) The plugging and abandonment plan required in 40 CFR 144.51(o) and 144.52(a)(6) shall, in the case of... with 40 CFR 144.23(b). (c) Requirements for Class V wells. (1) Prior to abandoning a Class V well,...

  20. 40 CFR 146.10 - Plugging and abandoning Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... violation of any primary drinking water regulation under 40 CFR part 141 or may otherwise adversely affect...) The plugging and abandonment plan required in 40 CFR 144.51(o) and 144.52(a)(6) shall, in the case of... with 40 CFR 144.23(b). (c) Requirements for Class V wells. (1) Prior to abandoning a Class V well,...

  1. 40 CFR 146.10 - Plugging and abandoning Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) The plugging and abandonment plan required in 40 CFR 144.51(o) and 144.52(a)(6) shall, in the case of... with 40 CFR 144.23(b). (c) Requirements for Class V wells. (1) Prior to abandoning a Class V well, the... violation of any primary drinking water regulation under 40 CFR part 141 or may otherwise adversely...

  2. 40 CFR 146.10 - Plugging and abandoning Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) The plugging and abandonment plan required in 40 CFR 144.51(o) and 144.52(a)(6) shall, in the case of... with 40 CFR 144.23(b). (c) Requirements for Class V wells. (1) Prior to abandoning a Class V well, the... violation of any primary drinking water regulation under 40 CFR part 141 or may otherwise adversely...

  3. Fluorescence sensing of phosdrin pesticide by the luminescent Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-bis(coumarin-3-carboxylic acid) probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Belal H. M.; Khairy, Gasser M.; Kamel, Rasha M.

    2016-04-01

    Luminescence quenching of the Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-bis (coumarin-3-carboxylic acid) (Ln(III)-(CCA)2) probes has been studied in the presence of organophosphorus or organochlorine pesticides; Phosdrin (P1), Malathion (P2), Profenofos (P3), Formothion (P4), Heptachlor (P5), and Endosulfan (P6). The luminescence intensity of lanthanide complex probes Ln(III)-(CCA)2 decreases as the concentration of the Phosdrin pesticide increases, while the other investigated pesticides have no significant influence on the lanthanide fluorescent intensities. It is observed that the quenching of Eu(III) and Tb(III)-coumarin-3-carboxylic acid by Phosdrin proceeds via static quenching processes according to Stern-Volmer plot. The binding constants (K) and the thermodynamic parameters of the interaction of Ln(III)-(CCA)2 with Phosdrin have been determined. A direct method for the determination of the Phosdrin in ethanol has been developed based on the luminescence changes of the Ln(III)-(CCA)2-phosdrin ternary complexes. The detection limits of P1 were 6.28 and 1.07 μM in case of Eu(III) and Tb(III)-complex, respectively. The influence of various interfering species on the detection of P1 has been investigated to assess the analytical applicability of the method. The new method was applied to determine the Phosdrin pesticide in different types of water samples.

  4. Fluorescence sensing of phosdrin pesticide by the luminescent Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-bis(coumarin-3-carboxylic acid) probes.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Belal H M; Khairy, Gasser M; Kamel, Rasha M

    2016-04-01

    Luminescence quenching of the Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-bis (coumarin-3-carboxylic acid) (Ln(III)-(CCA)2) probes has been studied in the presence of organophosphorus or organochlorine pesticides; Phosdrin (P1), Malathion (P2), Profenofos (P3), Formothion (P4), Heptachlor (P5), and Endosulfan (P6). The luminescence intensity of lanthanide complex probes Ln(III)-(CCA)2 decreases as the concentration of the Phosdrin pesticide increases, while the other investigated pesticides have no significant influence on the lanthanide fluorescent intensities. It is observed that the quenching of Eu(III) and Tb(III)-coumarin-3-carboxylic acid by Phosdrin proceeds via static quenching processes according to Stern-Volmer plot. The binding constants (K) and the thermodynamic parameters of the interaction of Ln(III)-(CCA)2 with Phosdrin have been determined. A direct method for the determination of the Phosdrin in ethanol has been developed based on the luminescence changes of the Ln(III)-(CCA)2-phosdrin ternary complexes. The detection limits of P1 were 6.28 and 1.07 μM in case of Eu(III) and Tb(III)-complex, respectively. The influence of various interfering species on the detection of P1 has been investigated to assess the analytical applicability of the method. The new method was applied to determine the Phosdrin pesticide in different types of water samples.

  5. Ion pairing with bile salts modulates intestinal permeability and contributes to food-drug interaction of BCS class III compound trospium chloride.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Christian A; Reuss, Stefan; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

    2013-11-01

    In the current study the involvement of ion pair formation between bile salts and trospium chloride (TC), a positively charged Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class III substance, showing a decrease in bioavailability upon coadministration with food (negative food effect) was investigated. Isothermal titration calorimetry provided evidence of a reaction between TC and bile acids. An effect of ion pair formation on the apparent partition coefficient (APC) was examined using (3)H-trospium. The addition of bovine bile and bile extract porcine led to a significant increase of the APC. In vitro permeability studies of trospium were performed across Caco-2-monolayers and excised segments of rat jejunum in a modified Ussing chamber. The addition of bile acids led to an increase of trospium permeation across Caco-2-monolayers and rat excised segments by approximately a factor of 1.5. The addition of glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) was less effective than taurodeoxycholate (TDOC). In the presence of an olive oil emulsion, a complete extinction of the permeation increasing effects of bile salts was observed. Thus, although there are more bile acids in the intestine in the fed state compared to the fasted state, these are not able to form ion pairs with trospium in fed state, because they are involved in the emulsification of dietary fats. In conclusion, the formation of ion pairs between trospium and bile acids can partially explain its negative food effect. Our results are presumably transferable to other organic cations showing a negative food effect.

  6. Orthodontic treatment of a transposed maxillary canine and first premolar in a young patient with Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Siviero, Laura; Perri, Alessandro; Favero, Lorenzo; Stellini, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl was referred to our clinic for evaluation of an unaesthetic dental appearance. All permanent teeth were erupted, while the deciduous maxillary right canine was retained. Cone-beam computed tomography revealed a complete transposition of the maxillary left canine and first premolar involving both the crowns and the roots. Initial cephalometric analysis showed a skeletal Class III pattern, with a slight maxillary retrusion and a compensated proclination of the upper incisors. The patient's teeth were considered to be in the correct position; therefore, we decided to attempt treatment by correcting the transposition and using only orthodontic compensation of the skeletal Class III malocclusion. After 25 months of active orthodontic treatment, the patient had a Class I molar and canine relationship on both sides, with ideal overbite and overjet values. Her profile was improved, her lips were competent, and cephalometric evaluation showed acceptable maxillary and mandibular incisor inclinations. The final panoramic radiograph showed that good root parallelism was achieved. Two-year follow-up intraoral photography showed stable results. PMID:26629478

  7. Cardiac Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Is Blocked by Monomethylarsonous Acid (III)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tianfang; Barnett, Joey V.; Camenisch, Todd D.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic exposure during embryonic development can cause ischemic heart pathologies later in adulthood which may originate from impairment in proper blood vessel formation. The arsenic-associated detrimental effects are mediated by arsenite (iAsIII) and its most toxic metabolite, monomethylarsonous acid [MMA (III)]. The impact of MMA (III) on coronary artery development has not yet been studied. The key cellular process that regulates coronary vessel development is the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). During cardiac EMT, activated epicardial progenitor cells transform to mesenchymal cells to form the cellular components of coronary vessels. Smad2/3 mediated TGFβ2 signaling, the key regulator of cardiac EMT, is disrupted by arsenite exposure. In this study, we compared the cardiac toxicity of MMA (III) with arsenite. Epicardial progenitor cells are 15 times more sensitive to MMA (III) cytotoxicity when compared with arsenite. MMA (III) caused a significant blockage in epicardial cellular transformation and invasion at doses 10 times lower than arsenite. Key EMT genes including TGFβ ligands, TβRIII, Has2, CD44, Snail1, TBX18, and MMP2 were down regulated by MMA (III) exposure. MMA (III) disrupted Smad2/3 activation at a dose 20 times lower than arsenite. Both arsenite and MMA (III) significantly inhibited Erk1/2 and Erk5 phosphorylation. Nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and Erk5 was also blocked by arsenical exposure. However, p38 activation, as well as smooth muscle differentiation, was refractory to the inhibition by the arsenicals. Collectively, these findings revealed that MMA (III) is a selective disruptor of cardiac EMT and as such may predispose to arsenic-associated cardiovascular disorders. PMID:25145660

  8. Chemical reduction of europium(III) in hydrochloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Atanasyants, A.G.; Gurinov, Yu.S.; Sofenina, E.V.

    1988-07-10

    The authors have devised a method for use at set pH and temperature, in which the volume of hydrogen produced is recorded and samples are taken for europium(II) analysis. The solution is poured into a glass cell with a thermostatic jacket; argon is passed through a capillary tube 2 for 0.5 h before the reduction is started, with the bubbling rate determined from the change in level in a burette. This burette is also used to record the hydrogen volume. The europium(II) concentration is determined by titration with potassium dichromate by a standard method. Europium is reduced by zinc in acid solution. The zinc consumption in hydrogen production can be reduced by operating at pH 2-3, with the precipitant introduced after the reaction starts.

  9. Mechanistic investigation of food effect on disintegration and dissolution of BCS class III compound solid formulations: the importance of viscosity.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Asma; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

    2012-10-01

    A negative food effect, i.e. a decrease in bioavailability upon the co-administration of compounds together with food, has been attributed particularly with high solubility/low permeability compounds (BCS class III). Different mechanisms have been proposed including intestinal dilution leading to a lower concentration gradient across the intestinal wall as well as binding of the active pharmaceutical ingredient to food components in the intestine and thereby decreasing the fraction of the dose available for absorption. These mechanisms refer primarily to the compound and not to the dosage form. An increase in viscosity of the dissolution fluid will in particular affect the absorption of BCS type III compounds with preferential absorption in the upper small intestine if the API release is delayed from the dosage form. The present study demonstrated that the increase in viscosity of the dissolution medium, following ingestion of a solid meal, may drastically reduce disintegration and dissolution. For that purpose the viscosity of the standard FDA meal was determined and simulated by solutions of HPMC in buffer. As model formulations, three commercially available tablets containing trospium chloride, a BCS class III m-cholinoreceptor antagonist was used. Trospium chloride drug products have been described to undergo a negative food effect of more than 80% following ingestion with food. The tablets showed prolonged disintegration times and reduced dissolution rates in viscous media, which could be attributed to changes in the liquid penetration rates. The effect was particularly significant for film-coated tablets relative to uncoated dosage forms. The results show the necessity of considering media viscosity when designing in vitro models of drug release for BCS type III drug formulations.

  10. Saliva versus plasma bioequivalence of rusovastatin in humans: validation of class III drugs of the salivary excretion classification system.

    PubMed

    Idkaidek, Nasir; Arafat, Tawfiq

    2015-03-01

    Bioequivalence of rusovastatin in healthy human volunteers was done using saliva and plasma matrices in order to investigate the robustness of using saliva instead of plasma as a surrogate for bioequivalence of class III drugs according to the salivary excretion classification system (SECS). Saliva and plasma samples were collected for 72 h after oral administration of rusovastatin 40 mg to 12 healthy humans. Saliva and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis. Analysis of variance, 90 % confidence intervals, and intra-subject and inter-subject variability values of pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using Kinetica program V5. Human effective intestinal permeability was also calculated by SimCYP program V13. Rusovastatin falls into class III (high permeability/low fraction unbound to plasma proteins) and hence was subjected to salivary excretion. A correlation coefficient of 0.99 between saliva and plasma concentrations, and a saliva/plasma concentration ratio of 0.175 were observed. The 90 % confidence limits of area under the curve (AUClast) and maximum concentration (C max) showed similar trends in both saliva and plasma. On the other hand, inter- and intra-subject variability values in saliva were higher than in plasma, leading to the need for a slightly higher number of subjects to be used in saliva studies. Non-invasive saliva sampling instead of the invasive plasma sampling method can be used as a surrogate for bioequivalence of SECS class III drugs when an adequate sample size is used.

  11. Use of shape correspondence analysis to quantify skeletal changes associated with bone-anchored Class III correction

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tung; Cevidanes, Lucia; Paniagua, Beatriz; Zhu, Hongtu; Koerich, Leonardo; De Clerck, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the three-dimensional (3D) skeletal changes in the mandibles of Class III patients treated with bone-anchored maxillary protraction using shape correspondence analysis. Material and Method Twenty-five consecutive patients with skeletal Class III who were between the ages of 9 and 13 years (mean age, 11.10 ± 1.1 years) were treated using Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (two in the infrazygomatic crests of the maxilla and two in the anterior mandible). Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed for each patient before initial loading (T1) and at 1 year out (T2). From the CBCT scans, 3D models were generated, registered on the anterior cranial base, and analyzed using 3D linear distances and vectors between corresponding point-based surfaces. Results Bone-anchored traction produced anteroposterior and vertical skeletal changes in the mandible. The novel application of Shape correspondence analysis showed vectors of mean (± standard deviation) distal displacement of the posterior ramus of 3.6 ± 1.4 mm, while the chin displaced backward by 0.5 ± 3.92 mm. The lower border of the mandible at the menton region was displaced downward by 2.6 ± 1.2 mm, and the lower border at the gonial region moved downward by 3.6 ± 1.4 mm. There was a downward and backward displacement around the gonial region with a mean closure of the gonial angle by 2.1°. The condyles were displaced distally by a mean of 2.6 ± 1.5 mm, and there were three distinct patterns for displacement: 44% backward, 40% backward and downward, and 16% backward and upward. Conclusion This treatment approach induces favorable control of the mandibular growth pattern and can be used to treat patients with components of mandibular prognathism. PMID:23886012

  12. Nonsurgical correction of a Class III malocclusion in an adult by miniscrew-assisted mandibular dentition distalization.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yan; Han, Xianglong; Guo, Yongwen; Li, Jingyu; Bai, Ding

    2013-06-01

    This article reports the successful use of miniscrews in the mandible to treat a 20-year-old Mongolian woman with a chief complaint of anterior crossbite. The patient had a skeletal Class III malocclusion with a mildly protrusive mandible, an anterior crossbite, and a deviated midline. In light of the advantages for reconstruction of the occlusal plane and distal en-masse movement of the mandibular arch, we used a multiloop edgewise archwire in the initial stage. However, the maxillary incisors were in excessive labioversion accompanied by little retraction of the mandibular incisors; these results were obviously not satisfying after 4 months of multiloop edgewise archwire treatment. Two miniscrews were subsequently implanted vertically in the external oblique ridge areas of the bilateral mandibular ramus as skeletal anchorage for en-masse distalization of the mandibular dentition. During treatment, the mandibular anterior teeth were retracted about 4.0 mm without negative lingual inclinations. The movement of the mandibular first molar was almost bodily translation. The maxillary incisors maintained good inclinations by rotating their brackets 180° along with the outstanding performance of the beta-titanium wire. The patient received a harmonious facial balance, an attractive smile, and ideal occlusal relationships. The outcome was stable after 1 year of retention. Our results suggest that the application of miniscrews in the posterior area of the mandible is an effective approach for Class III camouflage treatment. This technique requires minimal compliance and is particularly useful for correcting Class III patients with mild mandibular protrusion and minor crowding. PMID:23726338

  13. 40 CFR 144.28 - Requirements for Class I, II, and III wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... described in table I of 40 CFR 136.3 or in appendix III of 40 CFR part 261 or by other methods that have... Federal confidentiality as specified in 40 CFR part 2. If the information is proprietary the owner or... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Authorization...

  14. 40 CFR 144.28 - Requirements for Class I, II, and III wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... described in table I of 40 CFR 136.3 or in appendix III of 40 CFR part 261 or by other methods that have... Federal confidentiality as specified in 40 CFR part 2. If the information is proprietary the owner or... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Authorization...

  15. 40 CFR 144.28 - Requirements for Class I, II, and III wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of a surety bond, or other adequate assurance, such as a financial statement. (2) For EPA... described in table I of 40 CFR 136.3 or in appendix III of 40 CFR part 261 or by other methods that have... Federal confidentiality as specified in 40 CFR part 2. If the information is proprietary the owner...

  16. 40 CFR 144.28 - Requirements for Class I, II, and III wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of a surety bond, or other adequate assurance, such as a financial statement. (2) For EPA... described in table I of 40 CFR 136.3 or in appendix III of 40 CFR part 261 or by other methods that have... Federal confidentiality as specified in 40 CFR part 2. If the information is proprietary the owner...

  17. 40 CFR 144.28 - Requirements for Class I, II, and III wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of a surety bond, or other adequate assurance, such as a financial statement. (2) For EPA... described in table I of 40 CFR 136.3 or in appendix III of 40 CFR part 261 or by other methods that have... Federal confidentiality as specified in 40 CFR part 2. If the information is proprietary the owner...

  18. Treatment of a maxillary central incisor with class III invasive cervical resorption and compromised ferrule: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Harris, Bryan T; Caicedo, Ricardo; Lin, Wei-Shao; Morton, Dean

    2014-05-01

    This clinical report presents the treatment of a maxillary central incisor with class III invasive cervical resorption and a compromised ferrule. Nonsurgical endodontic therapy combined with periodontal surgery was provided for debridement. Direct light-polymerizing resin-modified glass ionomer cement and a zirconia crown were used to repair the defect. Symptomatic endodontic complication was diagnosed with localized cone beam computed tomography at 6-month follow-up, and periapical microsurgery was rendered. The patient was followed-up for 30 months after treatment and had no further complications. PMID:24423455

  19. Treatment Approach for Maxillary Hypoplasia in Cleft Patients: Class III Elastics with Skeletal Anchorage (Report of Two Cases)

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbin, Arezoo; Kazemian, Mozhgan; Saeedi-Pouya, Iman; Eslami, Neda; Shafaee, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Treatment of cleft lip and palate patients requires a multidisciplinary plan. These patients usually have a hypoplastic maxilla due to the prior surgical scars. Orthognathic surgery to advance the maxilla in these patients is not very efficient; therefore, orthopedic interventions during an appropriate age seems to be essential. Case Report: In this article, two cleft lip and palate patients have been treated with Class III elastics anchored to the maxillary posterior and mandibular anterior miniplates in order to induce maxillary advancement. Conclusion: Both cases showed a significant improvement in their profiles with minimal dentoalveolar compensations. A counterclockwise rotation of the mandible occurred.

  20. Treatment Approach for Maxillary Hypoplasia in Cleft Patients: Class III Elastics with Skeletal Anchorage (Report of Two Cases)

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbin, Arezoo; Kazemian, Mozhgan; Saeedi-Pouya, Iman; Eslami, Neda; Shafaee, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Treatment of cleft lip and palate patients requires a multidisciplinary plan. These patients usually have a hypoplastic maxilla due to the prior surgical scars. Orthognathic surgery to advance the maxilla in these patients is not very efficient; therefore, orthopedic interventions during an appropriate age seems to be essential. Case Report: In this article, two cleft lip and palate patients have been treated with Class III elastics anchored to the maxillary posterior and mandibular anterior miniplates in order to induce maxillary advancement. Conclusion: Both cases showed a significant improvement in their profiles with minimal dentoalveolar compensations. A counterclockwise rotation of the mandible occurred. PMID:27602343

  1. TGF-{beta}-stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via the ERK signaling pathway in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eun Jee; Chun, Ji Na; Jung, Sun-Ah; Cho, Jin Won; Lee, Joon H.

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} induces aberrant expression of {beta}III in RPE cells via the ERK pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} increases O-GlcNAc modification of {beta}III in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene by TGF-{beta}. -- Abstract: The class III {beta}-tubulin isotype ({beta}{sub III}) is expressed exclusively by neurons within the normal human retina and is not present in normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in situ or in the early phase of primary cultures. However, aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin has been observed in passaged RPE cells and RPE cells with dedifferentiated morphology in pathologic epiretinal membranes from idiopathic macular pucker, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) has been implicated in dedifferentiation of RPE cells and has a critical role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases. Here, we investigated the potential effects of TGF-{beta} on the aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression and O-linked-{beta}-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNac) modification of class III {beta}-tubulin in cultured RPE cells as determined using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. TGF-{beta} also stimulated phosphorylation of ERK. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin was significantly reduced by pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that TGF-{beta} stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. These data demonstrate that mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene in response to TGF-{beta} stimulation and provide useful information

  2. Human Retroviruses and AIDS. A compilation and analysis of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences: I--II; III--V

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.; Korber, B.; Wain-Hobson, S.; Smith, R.F.; Pavlakis, G.N.

    1993-12-31

    This compendium and the accompanying floppy diskettes are the result of an effort to compile and rapidly publish all relevant molecular data concerning the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and related retroviruses. The scope of the compendium and database is best summarized by the five parts that it comprises: (I) HIV and SIV Nucleotide Sequences; (II) Amino Acid Sequences; (III) Analyses; (IV) Related Sequences; and (V) Database Communications. Information within all the parts is updated at least twice in each year, which accounts for the modes of binding and pagination in the compendium.

  3. Integrated Computational and Experimental Protocol for Understanding Rh(III) Speciation in Hydrochloric and Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, Alex C.; Boele, Cherilynn A.; Bennett, Kevin T.; Clark, Sue B.; Wall, Nathalie; Clark, Aurora E.

    2014-12-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach has investigated the complex speciation of Rh(III) in hydrochloric and nitric acid media, as a function of acid concentration. This has relevance to the separation and isolation of Rh(III) from dissolved spent nuclear fuel, which is an emergent and attractive alternative source of platinum group metals, relative to traditional mining efforts.

  4. Neodymium(III) Complexes of Dialkylphosphoric and Dialkylphosphonic Acids Relevant to Liquid-Liquid Extraction Systems.

    PubMed

    Lumetta, Gregg J; Sinkov, Sergey I; Krause, Jeanette A; Sweet, Lucas E

    2016-02-15

    The complexes formed during the extraction of neodymium(III) into hydrophobic solvents containing acidic organophosphorus extractants were probed by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry, visible spectrophotometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the compound Nd(DMP)3 (1, DMP = dimethyl phosphate) revealed a polymeric arrangement in which each Nd(III) center is surrounded by six DMP oxygen atoms in a pseudo-octahedral environment. Adjacent Nd(III) ions are bridged by (MeO)2POO(-) anions, forming the polymeric network. The diffuse reflectance visible spectrum of 1 is nearly identical to that of the solid that is formed when an n-dodecane solution of di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HA) is saturated with Nd(III), indicating a similar coordination environment around the Nd center in the NdA3 solid. The visible spectrum of the HA solution fully loaded with Nd(III) is very similar to that of the NdA3 material, both displaying hypersensitive bands characteristic of an pseudo-octahedral coordination environment around Nd. These spectral characteristics persisted across a wide range of organic Nd concentrations, suggesting that the pseudo-octahedral coordination environment is maintained from dilute to saturated conditions.

  5. The solvent extraction of Americium(III) by 2,6-bis[(diphenylphosphino)-methyl]pyridine N,P,P` trioxide from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, E.M.; Engelhardt, U.; Deere, T.P.; Rapko, B.M.; Paine, R.T.

    1997-12-31

    The liquid/liquid extractions of Am(III) from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions with chloroform solutions of 2,6-bis[(diphenylphosphino)methyl]pyridine N,P,P{prime} trioxide will be described. Americium(III) extracts well from high concentration nitric acid solutions (D>3000 at 6M nitric acid) and can be back extracted from the organic phase at 0.01M Nitric Acid. Americium(III) exhibits modest extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions (D=2.2 at 5M hydrochloric acid) and can be back extracted from the organic phase at 0.1M hydrochloric acid. The ligand dependency data suggest that two ligand molecules are coordinated to americium in the nitric acid system and three ligand molecules are coordinated to the americium in the hydrochloric acid system.

  6. Theoretical and spectroscopic studies of lanthanum (III) complex of 5-aminoorotic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostova, Irena; Peica, Niculina; Kiefer, Wolfgang

    2006-09-01

    The lanthanum (III) complex of 5-aminoorotic acid (HAOA) was synthesized and its structure was determined by means of elemental analysis and IR, Raman, and 1H NMR spectroscopies. Significant differences in the IR, Raman, and 1H NMR spectra of the complex were observed as compared to the spectra of the ligand. The geometry of 5-aminoorotic acid was computed and optimized with the Gaussian 03 program employing the B3PW91 and B3LYP methods with the 6-311++G and LANL2DZ basis sets, while the geometry of the La(III) complex of 5-aminoorotic acid was also calculated and optimized with B3PW91/LANL2DZ and B3LYP/LANL2DZ methods. The density functional calculations revealed that the binding mode in the complex was bidentate through the carboxylic oxygen atoms. Detailed vibrational analysis of HAOA and La(III)-AOA systems based on both the calculated and experimental spectra confirmed the suggested metal-ligand binding mode. The density functional theory (DFT) calculated geometries, harmonic vibrational wavenumbers including IR and Raman scattering activities for the ligand and its La(III) complex were in good agreement with the experimental data, a complete vibrational assignment being proposed.

  7. Potentiation of vasoconstriction and pressor response by low concentration of monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)).

    PubMed

    Lim, Kyung-Min; Shin, Yoo-Sun; Kang, Seojin; Noh, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Keunyoung; Chung, Seung-Min; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2011-09-10

    A close link between arsenic exposure and hypertension has been well-established through many epidemiological reports, yet the mechanism underlying it remains unclear. Here we report that nanomolar concentrations of monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), a toxic trivalent methylated arsenic metabolite, can potentiate agonist-induced vasoconstriction and pressor responses. In freshly isolated rat aortic ring, exposure to nanomolar MMA(III) (100-500 nM) potentiated phenylephrine (PE)-induced vasoconstriction while at higher concentrations (≥2.5 μM), suppression of vasoconstriction and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle were observed. Potentiation of agonist-induced vasoconstriction was also observed with other contractile agonists and it was retained in endothelium-denuded aortic rings, suggesting that these events are agonist-independent and smooth muscle cell dependent. Interestingly, exposure to MMA(III) resulted in increased myosin light chain phosphorylation while PE-induced Ca2+ influx was not affected, reflecting that Ca2+ sensitization is involved. In line with this, MMA(III) enhanced agonist-induced activation of small GTPase RhoA, a key contributor to Ca2+ sensitization. Of note, treatment of MMA(III) to rats induced significantly higher pressor responses in vivo, demonstrating that this event can occur in vivo indeed. We believe that RhoA-mediated Ca2+ sensitization and the resultant potentiation of vasoconstriction by MMA(III) may shed light on arsenic-associated hypertension.

  8. Electrophysiological characterization of the class III activity of sotalol and its enantiomers. New interpretation of use-dependent effects.

    PubMed

    Hafner, D; Berger, F; Borchard, U; Kullmann, A; Scherlitz, A

    1988-02-01

    1. Sotalol (Sotalex) and both its optical isomers were studied in electrophysiological experiments with respect to their class III activity of antiarrhythmic drugs. The three substances prolonged action potentials (AP) of guinea-pig papillary muscle and left atrium in concentrations greater than or equal to 3 mumol/l, whereas other AP parameters (resting potential, amplitude and upstroke velocity) remained unchanged. Similar results were observed if papillary muscles were partially depolarized by elevating the extracellular potassium concentration from 4.7 mmol/l to 10-12 mmol/l. 2. The effects of sotalol showed marked frequency dependence (0.017-2 Hz): At slow driving rates sotalol brought about an enhanced AP prolongation as measured by APD30 and APD90. 3. The results were compatible with numerical AP simulation studies on the basis of the assumption that sotalol inhibits time-dependent K-outward current. This leads to the consequence that longer control APs (at low driving rates) are prolonged more effectively by sotalol than shorter ones (at high driving rates). 4. Sotalol effects dynamically followed APD changes due to alterations of driving rate: If APD was decreased under increasing driving frequencies, AP prolongation was diminished. 5. Paired pulse experiments showed that class III activity of sotalol was preserved in premature or delayed single action potentials.

  9. Structural basis for stem cell factor–KIT signaling and activation of class III receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Heli; Chen, Xiaoyan; Focia, Pamela J; He, Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) binds to and activates the KIT receptor, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), to stimulate diverse processes including melanogenesis, gametogenesis and hematopoeisis. Dysregulation of KIT activation is associated with many cancers. We report a 2.5 Å crystal structure of the functional core of SCF bound to the extracellular ligand-binding domains of KIT. The structure reveals a ‘wrapping' SCF-recognition mode by KIT, in which KIT adopts a bent conformation to facilitate each of its first three immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains to interact with SCF. Three surface epitopes on SCF, an extended loop, the B and C helices, and the N-terminal segment, contact distinct KIT domains, with two of the epitopes undergoing large conformational changes upon receptor binding. The SCF/KIT complex reveals a unique RTK dimerization assembly, and a novel recognition mode between four-helix bundle cytokines and Ig-family receptors. It serves as a framework for understanding the activation mechanisms of class III RTKs. PMID:17255936

  10. The class III cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase structure reveals a new antenna chromophore binding site and alternative photoreduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Scheerer, Patrick; Zhang, Fan; Kalms, Jacqueline; von Stetten, David; Krauß, Norbert; Oberpichler, Inga; Lamparter, Tilman

    2015-05-01

    Photolyases are proteins with an FAD chromophore that repair UV-induced pyrimidine dimers on the DNA in a light-dependent manner. The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer class III photolyases are structurally unknown but closely related to plant cryptochromes, which serve as blue-light photoreceptors. Here we present the crystal structure of a class III photolyase termed photolyase-related protein A (PhrA) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens at 1.67-Å resolution. PhrA contains 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) as an antenna chromophore with a unique binding site and mode. Two Trp residues play pivotal roles for stabilizing MTHF by a double π-stacking sandwich. Plant cryptochrome I forms a pocket at the same site that could accommodate MTHF or a similar molecule. The PhrA structure and mutant studies showed that electrons flow during FAD photoreduction proceeds via two Trp triads. The structural studies on PhrA give a clearer picture on the evolutionary transition from photolyase to photoreceptor.

  11. Photophysics of Fe(III) complexes with fluorosalicylic acid isomers in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozdnyakov, Ivan P.; Melnikov, Alexey A.; Šípoš, Rastislav; Chekalin, Sergey V.; Šima, Jozef

    2016-09-01

    Transient absorption spectroscopy is used to study photophysical processes of 1:1 Fe(III) complexes with all four fluorosalicylic acid isomers (Fe-FSAs) in aqueous solutions. Excited states of Fe-FSAs decay to the ground electronic state with two time constants. The faster process is interpreted as internal conversion to the vibrationally hot electronic ground state and the slower one - as a combination of vibrational cooling and solvation of the ground state. The results obtained for Fe-FSAs and other previously investigated Fe(III) salicylato compounds allow us to reveal the main cause of photochemical stability of the complexes upon charge transfer band excitation.

  12. 49 CFR 232.211 - Class III brake tests-trainline continuity inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pressure is being restored, the operator of the train shall know that the air brakes function as intended... determined that the brakes on the rear car of the train apply and release in response to air pressure changes... train that has previously received a Class I brake test and that has not been off air for more than...

  13. 49 CFR 232.211 - Class III brake tests-trainline continuity inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pressure is being restored, the operator of the train shall know that the air brakes function as intended... determined that the brakes on the rear car of the train apply and release in response to air pressure changes... train that has previously received a Class I brake test and that has not been off air for more than...

  14. 49 CFR 232.211 - Class III brake tests-trainline continuity inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pressure is being restored, the operator of the train shall know that the air brakes function as intended... determined that the brakes on the rear car of the train apply and release in response to air pressure changes... train that has previously received a Class I brake test and that has not been off air for more than...

  15. 49 CFR 232.211 - Class III brake tests-trainline continuity inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pressure is being restored, the operator of the train shall know that the air brakes function as intended... determined that the brakes on the rear car of the train apply and release in response to air pressure changes... train that has previously received a Class I brake test and that has not been off air for more than...

  16. 49 CFR 232.211 - Class III brake tests-trainline continuity inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pressure is being restored, the operator of the train shall know that the air brakes function as intended... determined that the brakes on the rear car of the train apply and release in response to air pressure changes... train that has previously received a Class I brake test and that has not been off air for more than...

  17. Ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of sulfanilic acid by diperiodatocuprate(III) in aqueous alkaline medium. A kinetic and mechanistic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munavalli, D. S.; Patil, R. K.; Chimatadar, S. A.; Nandibewoor, S. T.

    2009-12-01

    The kinetics of ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of sulfanilic acid by diperiodatocuprate(III) (DPC) in alkaline medium at a constant ionic strength of (0.50 mol dm-3) has been studied spectrophoto-metrically. The reaction between sulfanilic acid and DPC in alkaline medium exhibits 1: 4 stoichiometry (sulfanilic acid: DPC). The reaction is first order with respect to [DPC] and [RuIII] and has less than unit order both in [sulfanilic acid] and [alkali]. The active species of catalyst and oxidant have been identified. Intervention of free radicals was observed in the reaction. The main products were identified by spot test and IR. Probable mechanism is proposed and discussed. The reaction constants involved in the different steps of the mechanism are calculated. The activation parameters with respect to the slow step of the mechanism are computed and discussed. Thermodynamic quantities are also determined.

  18. In silico prediction of drug dissolution and absorption with variation in intestinal pH for BCS class II weak acid drugs: ibuprofen and ketoprofen.

    PubMed

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Langguth, Peter; Garcia-Arieta, Alfredo; Amidon, Gordon L

    2012-10-01

    The FDA Biopharmaceutical Classification System guidance allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I. Extensions of the in vivo biowaiver for a number of drugs in BCS class III and BCS class II have been proposed, in particular, BCS class II weak acids. However, a discrepancy between the in vivo BE results and in vitro dissolution results for BCS class II acids was recently observed. The objectives of this study were to determine the oral absorption of BCS class II weak acids via simulation software and to determine if the in vitro dissolution test with various dissolution media could be sufficient for in vitro bioequivalence studies of ibuprofen and ketoprofen as models of carboxylic acid drugs. The oral absorption of these BCS class II acids from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted by GastroPlus™. Ibuprofen did not satisfy the bioequivalence criteria at lower settings of intestinal pH of 6.0. Further the experimental dissolution of ibuprofen tablets in a low concentration phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 (the average buffer capacity 2.2 mmol l (-1) /pH) was dramatically reduced compared with the dissolution in SIF (the average buffer capacity 12.6 mmol l (-1) /pH). Thus these predictions for the oral absorption of BCS class II acids indicate that the absorption patterns depend largely on the intestinal pH and buffer strength and must be considered carefully for a bioequivalence test. Simulation software may be a very useful tool to aid the selection of dissolution media that may be useful in setting an in vitro bioequivalence dissolution standard.

  19. The interaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III) in the presence of citrate as studied by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Senpei; Bai, Guangling; Chen, Lingli; Shen, Qun; Diao, Xianmin; Zhao, Guanghua

    2014-08-15

    Under physiological conditions, exogenous chelators such as polyphenols might interact with non-protein bound ferric complexes, such as Fe(III)-citrate. Additionally, Fe(III) and citrate are widely distributed in various fruits and vegetables which are also rich in phenolic acids. In this study, we focus on the interaction between phenolic acids (gallic acid, methyl gallate and protocatechuic acid) and Fe(III) in the presence of excessive citrate by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) for thermodynamic studies, and stopped-flow absorption spectrometry for fast kinetic studies. Results reveal that all of these three phenolic acids can bind to the Fe(III) with the same stoichiometry (3:1). Moreover, the binding constants of these three compounds with Fe(III) are greatly dependent on ligand structure, and are much higher than that of Fe(III)-citrate. Based on their stoichiometry and superhigh binding constants, it is most likely that these three phenolic acids can displace the citrate to bind with one iron(III) ion to form a stable octahedral geometric structure, albeit at different rates. These findings shed light on the interaction between phenolic acids and Fe(III) in the presence of citrate under either physiological conditions or in a food system.

  20. Genetic analysis of multicase families of visceral leishmaniasis in northeastern Brazil: no major role for class II or class III regions of HLA.

    PubMed

    Peacock, C S; Sanjeevi, C B; Shaw, M-A; Collins, A; Campbell, R D; March, R; Silveira, F; Costa, J; Coste, C H; Nascimento, M D; Siddiqui, R; Shaw, J J; Blackwell, J M

    2002-09-01

    Familial aggregation, high relative risk to siblings, and segregation analysis, suggest genetic control of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Class II gene effects in mice, and high circulating tumour necrosis factor alpha in humans, provide reasons to target HLA. Fifteen polymorphic markers across 1.03 Mb (DQB1 to TNFa) were genotyped (87 multicase families; 638 individuals). Model-based parametric analyses using single-point combined segregation and linkage in COMDS, or multi-point linkage in ALLEGRO, failed to detect linkage. Model-free nonparametric affected sibling pair (SPLINK) or NPL(all) score (ALLEGRO) analyses also failed to detect linkage. Information content mapping confirmed sufficient marker information to detect linkage. Analysis of simulated data sets demonstrated that these families had 100% power to detect NPL(all) scores of 5 to 6 (>LOD4; P < 0.00001) over the range (7% to 61%) of age-related penetrances for a disease susceptibility gene. The extended transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) showed no consistent allelic associations between disease and the 15 loci. TDT also failed to detect significant associations between extended haplotypes and disease, consistent with failure to detect significant linkage disequilibrium across the region. Linkage disequilibrium between adjacent groups of markers (HLADQ/DR; 82-1/82-3/-238bpTNFA; LTA/62/TNFa) was not accompanied by significant global haplotype TDT associations with disease. The data suggest that class II/III regions of HLA do not contain major disease gene(s) for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

  1. Cephalometric effects of face mask/expansion therapy in Class III children: a comparison of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Kapust, A J; Sinclair, P M; Turley, P K

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue effects of face mask/expansion therapy and to examine the effect of age on treatment response. Pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric radiographs from 63 subjects (4 to 13 years) who had a Class III malocclusion were analyzed. Serial cephalometric tracings of 32 subjects with Class I occlusion made at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 years were used as controls. Landmarks were digitized on each tracing and treatment effects were measured by using cranial base and maxillary superimposition techniques. Annual rate differences were compared with t tests for the combined treated group (N = 63) and between stratified treated groups (4 to 7 years N = 15, 7 to 10 years N = 32, 10 to 14 years N = 16). The treated group (N = 63) demonstrated significant (p < 0.001) hard and soft tissue changes that resulted from treatment. Skeletal change was primarily a result of anterior and vertical movement of the maxillae. Mandibular position was directed in a downward and backward vector. Orthodontic changes contributed to the correction, and soft tissue effects resulted in a more convex profile. Minimal significant differences were observed between age groups when comparing angular and linear measurements alone. However, when analyzing the algebraic sum of treatment effects (Johnston analysis), significantly (p < 0.01) greater differences were observed in apical base change (ABCH) and total molar correction (6/6) in the younger age groups. This study demonstrates that face mask/expansion therapy produces dentofacial changes that combine to improve the Class III malocclusion. Although early treatment may be most effective, face mask therapy can provide a viable option for older children as well.

  2. Regulation of Mammalian Autophagy by Class II and III PI 3-Kinases through PI3P Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Devereaux, Kelly; Ogasawara, Yuta; Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Fan; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; De Camilli, Pietro; Di Paolo, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) by Vps34, a class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), is critical for the initial steps of autophagosome (AP) biogenesis. Although Vps34 is the sole source of PI3P in budding yeast, mammalian cells can produce PI3P through alternate pathways, including direct synthesis by the class II PI3Ks; however, the physiological relevance of these alternate pathways in the context of autophagy is unknown. Here we generated Vps34 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and using a higher affinity 4x-FYVE finger PI3P-binding probe found a Vps34-independent pool of PI3P accounting for ~35% of the total amount of this lipid species by biochemical analysis. Importantly, WIPI-1, an autophagy-relevant PI3P probe, still formed some puncta upon starvation-induced autophagy in Vps34 knockout MEFs. Additional characterization of autophagy by electron microscopy as well as protein degradation assays showed that while Vps34 is important for starvation-induced autophagy there is a significant component of functional autophagy occurring in the absence of Vps34. Given these findings, class II PI3Ks (α and β isoforms) were examined as potential positive regulators of autophagy. Depletion of class II PI3Ks reduced recruitment of WIPI-1 and LC3 to AP nucleation sites and caused an accumulation of the autophagy substrate, p62, which was exacerbated upon the concomitant ablation of Vps34. Our studies indicate that while Vps34 is the main PI3P source during autophagy, class II PI3Ks also significantly contribute to PI3P generation and regulate AP biogenesis. PMID:24098492

  3. A biosynthetic pathway for a prominent class of microbiota-derived bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, A. Sloan; Fischbach, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The gut bile acid pool is millimolar in concentration, varies widely in composition among individuals, and is linked to metabolic disease and cancer. Although these molecules derive almost exclusively from the microbiota, remarkably little is known about which bacterial species and genes are responsible for their biosynthesis. Here, we report a biosynthetic pathway for the second most abundant class in the gut, iso (3β-hydroxy) bile acids, whose levels exceed 300 µM in some humans and are absent in others. We show, for the first time, that iso bile acids are produced by Ruminococcus gnavus, a far more abundant commensal than previously known producers; and that the iso bile acid pathway detoxifies deoxycholic acid, favoring the growth of the keystone genus Bacteroides. By revealing the biosynthetic genes for an abundant class of bile acids, our work sets the stage for predicting and rationally altering the composition of the bile acid pool. PMID:26192599

  4. Activated human T cells accomplish MHC class II expression through T cell-specific occupation of class II transactivator promoter III.

    PubMed

    Holling, Tjadine M; van der Stoep, Nienke; Quinten, Edwin; van den Elsen, Peter J

    2002-01-15

    Activated human T cells express HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP on their surface, but the regulation and functioning of MHC class II molecules in T lymphocytes are poorly understood. Because the MHC class II transactivator (CIITA) is essential for MHC class II expression, we have investigated transcriptional activation of CIITA in activated T cells. In this study, we show that in human activated CD4(+) T cells, CIITA promoter III (CIITA-PIII) drives the expression of CIITA. The in vivo genomic footprint analysis revealed activated T cell-specific occupation of CIITA-PIII. Subsequent EMSA analysis of several promoter regions showed differences in banding pattern among activated T cells, naive T cells, primary B cells, and Raji B cells. Activating response element (ARE)-1 is shown to interact with the acute myeloid leukemia 2 transcription factor in nuclear extracts derived from both T and B cells. Interestingly, the acute myeloid leukemia 3 transcription factor was bound in nuclear extracts of T cells only. The ARE-2 sequence is able to bind CREB/activating transcription factor family members in both T and B cells. In addition, a yet unidentified Ets family member was found to interact with site C in activated T cells, whereas in B cells site C was bound by PU.1 and Pip/IFN regulatory factor 4/IFN consensus sequence binding protein for activated T cells. In Jurkat T cells, both ARE-1 and ARE-2 are crucial for CIITA-PIII activity, similar to Raji B cells. The differential banding pattern in in vivo genomic footprinting and transcription factor binding at the ARE-1 and site C between T cells and B cells probably reflects differences in CIITA-PIII activation pathways employed by these cell types. PMID:11777970

  5. Genes Encoding Plant-Specific Class III Peroxidases Are Responsible for Increased Cold Tolerance of the brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beg Hab; Kim, Sun Young; Nam, Kyoung Hee

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that one of the brassinosteroid-insensitive mutants, bri1-9, showed increased cold tolerance compared with both wild type and BRI1-overexpressing transgenic plants, despite its severe growth retardation. This increased tolerance in bri1-9 resulted from the constitutively high expression of stress-inducible genes under normal conditions. In this report, we focused on the genes encoding class III plant peroxidases (AtPrxs) because we found that, compared with wild type, bri1-9 plants contain higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are not involved with the activation of NADPH oxidase and show an increased level of expression of a subset of genes encoding class III plant peroxidases. Treatment with a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), led to the reduction of cold resistance in bri1-9. Among 73 genes that encode AtPrxs in Arabidopsis, we selected four (AtPrx1, AtPrx22, AtPrx39, and AtPrx69) for further functional analyses in response to cold temperatures. T-DNA insertional knockout mutants showed increased sensitivity to cold stress as measured by leaf damage and ion leakage. In contrast, the overexpression of AtPrx22, AtPrx39, and AtPrx69 increased cold tolerance in the BRI1-GFP plants. Taken together, these results indicate that the appropriate expression of a particular subset of AtPrx genes and the resulting higher levels of ROS production are required for the cold tolerance. PMID:23180292

  6. Alterations in cytosol free calcium in horseradish roots simultaneously exposed to lanthanum(III) and acid rain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Anhua; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-04-01

    The extensive use of rare earth elements (REEs) has increased their environmental levels. REE pollution concomitant with acid rain in many agricultural regions can affect crop growth. Cytosol free calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play an important role in almost all cellular activities. However, no data have been reported regarding the role of cytosol free Ca(2+) in plant roots simultaneously exposed to REE and acid rain. In this study, the effects of exposures to lanthanum(III) and acid rain, independently and in combination, on cytosol free Ca(2+) levels, root activity, metal contents, biomass, cytosol pH and La contents in horseradish roots were investigated. The simultaneous exposures to La(III) and acid rain increased or decreased the cytosol free Ca(2+) levels, depending on the concentration of La(III), and these effects were more evident than independent exposure to La(III) or acid rain. In combined exposures, cytosol free Ca(2+) played an important role in the regulation of root activity, metal contents and biomass. These roles were closely related to La(III) dose, acid rain strength and treatment mode (independent exposure or simultaneous exposure). A low concentration of La(III) (20 mg L(-1)) could alleviate the adverse effects on the roots caused by acid rain, and the combined exposures at higher concentrations of La(III) and acid rain had synergic effects on the roots. PMID:26720810

  7. Alterations in cytosol free calcium in horseradish roots simultaneously exposed to lanthanum(III) and acid rain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Anhua; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-04-01

    The extensive use of rare earth elements (REEs) has increased their environmental levels. REE pollution concomitant with acid rain in many agricultural regions can affect crop growth. Cytosol free calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play an important role in almost all cellular activities. However, no data have been reported regarding the role of cytosol free Ca(2+) in plant roots simultaneously exposed to REE and acid rain. In this study, the effects of exposures to lanthanum(III) and acid rain, independently and in combination, on cytosol free Ca(2+) levels, root activity, metal contents, biomass, cytosol pH and La contents in horseradish roots were investigated. The simultaneous exposures to La(III) and acid rain increased or decreased the cytosol free Ca(2+) levels, depending on the concentration of La(III), and these effects were more evident than independent exposure to La(III) or acid rain. In combined exposures, cytosol free Ca(2+) played an important role in the regulation of root activity, metal contents and biomass. These roles were closely related to La(III) dose, acid rain strength and treatment mode (independent exposure or simultaneous exposure). A low concentration of La(III) (20 mg L(-1)) could alleviate the adverse effects on the roots caused by acid rain, and the combined exposures at higher concentrations of La(III) and acid rain had synergic effects on the roots.

  8. LIPID CLASS DISTRIBUTION OF HIGHLY UNSATURATED LONG CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The very long chain highly unsaturated C28 fatty acids, octacosaheptaenoic [28:7(n-6)] and octacosaoctaenoic acid [28:8(n-3)], were found to be associated with phospholipids, obtained by fractionation of total lipid extracts into distinct lipid classes, in 4 and 6, respectively, ...

  9. The "manganese(III)-containing" purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes is an iron enzyme.

    PubMed

    Hefler, S K; Averill, B A

    1987-08-14

    An improved purification of the purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes has been developed, and the properties of the enzyme have been reexamined. Contrary to previous reports, (e.g., Y. Sugiura, et al., J. Biol. Chem., 256, 10664-10670 (1981) ), the enzyme contains two moles of iron and insignificant amounts of manganese. The specific activity of the iron-containing preparations is ca. 14 times higher than that reported previously for the purported "Mn(III)" enzyme. The sweet potato purple acid phosphatase does indeed bind manganese, but it can be removed by dialysis with no changes in specific activity or spectral properties.

  10. Deuterium NMR study of amino acid coordination to chromium(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Green, C.A.; Place, H.; Willett, R.D.; Legg, J.I.

    1986-12-17

    A series of bis(ethylenediamine)Cr(III)-amino acid complexes, synthesized with deuterium-labeled alanine, glycine, homoserine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, serine, and threonine, was characterized by /sup 2/H NMR spectroscopy. The spectra show that these bidentate-coordinated amino acid complexes decompose via monodentate species. In addition, the diastereomeric isomers of alanine and leucine can be distinguished in the spectra. This was confirmed by the isolation of one of the L-leucine isomers. The bis(1,3-propanediamine)Cr(III) complexes of glycine and alanine were also synthesized, and the NMR spectra of these complexes and ..cap alpha..-cis-(Cr(ethylenediaminediacetate)(glycinate)) show changes due to variation in the ligand complement. The crystal structure of ..cap alpha..-cis(Cr(ethylenediaminediacetate)(glycinate)) x 2H/sub 2/O (CrO/sub 6/N/sub 3/C/sub 8/H/sub 14/ x 2H/sub 2/O) was determined and supports the NMR observations. This complex crystallizes in the space group P2/sub 1//c of the monoclinic crystal system with a = 8.9231 (19) A, b = 10.1889 (22) A, c = 15.4180 (30) A, ..beta.. = 102.657 (17)/sup 0/, and Z = 4. An improved method for the synthesis of bis(diamine)Cr(III)-amino acid complexes is also reported. 24 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

  11. Isozyme multiplicity with anomalous dimer patterns in a class III alcohol dehydrogenase. Effects on the activity and quaternary structure of residue exchanges at "nonfunctional" sites in a native protein.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, O; Shafqat, J; Estonius, M; el-Ahmad, M; Jörnvall, H

    1996-11-19

    The isozymes of class III alcohol dehydrogenase/glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase from cod were characterized. They exhibited three unexpected properties of general interest. First, these dimeric isozymes, derived from two types of subunit (h and l, for high- and low-activity forms), were recovered from liver preparations in only the homodimeric ll and heterodimeric hl combinations. Dissociation and reassociation of the isolated hl form in vitro also resulted in lower yields of the hh than the ll homodimer, although class III subunits are usually freely associable over wide borders of divergence (human and Drosophila). The h and l primary structures show that both chain types are characteristic of class III enzymes, without large amino acid replacements at positions of known subunit interactions. Hence, the hh dimer partial restriction indicates nontraditional alterations at h-subunit interfaces. The structure provides a possible explanation, in the form of h-chain modifications that may influence the anchoring of a loop at positions of two potentially deamidative beta-aspartyl shifts at distant Asn-Gly structures. Second the ll and hl forms differ in enzymatic properties, having 5-fold different K(m) values for NAD+ at pH 8, different K(m) values for S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione (10 versus 150 microM), and different specific activities (4.5 versus 41 units/mg), with ll resembling and hl deviating from human and other class III alcohol dehydrogenases. However, functional residues lining substrate and coenzyme pockets in the known conformations of homologous forms are largely identical in the two isozymes [only minor conservative exchanges of Val/Leu116, Val/Leu203, Ile/Val224, and Ile/Val269 (numbering system of the human class I enzyme)], again indicating effects from distantly positioned h-chain replacements. Third, the two isozymes differ a surprising amount in amino acid sequence (18%, the same as the piscine/ human difference), reflecting a

  12. Combined rapid maxillary expansion and protraction facemask in the treatment of Class III malocclusions in growing children: a prospective long-term study.

    PubMed

    Williams, M D; Sarver, D M; Sadowsky, P L; Bradley, E

    1997-12-01

    A prospective study of 28 growing children (mean age of 8 years 3 months) with Class III malocclusions was consecutively treated using rapid maxillary expansion and maxillary protraction. All patients were treated from a negative overjet to a positive overjet and from a Class III dental malocclusion to a Class I dental relationship. For each patient, a lateral cephalogram was taken before treatment (T1), immediately posttreatment (T2), and after an observation period (T3) averaging 2 years 5 months. Using analysis of variance, the cephalograms were analyzed to determine skeletal and dental changes resulting from treatment. Long-term changes (2 years 5 month observation period) were also evaluated. Results showed that immediately posttreatment, the maxilla moved anteriorly a mean of 1.54 mm and Sella-Nasion-A point increased 0.87 degree. The maxillary teeth moved anteriorly 2.73 mm and proclined 5.23 degrees, while the mandible rotated in a downward and backward direction. Long-term, the anterior position of the maxilla was maintained, but some of the Class III correction was lost because of mandibular growth. Comparison of this study's results to Riolo's longitudinal Class I data showed that, overall, rapid palatal expansion and maxillary protraction produced a small orthopedic effect with a moderate dentoalveolar effect which together contributed to the correction of the Class III malocclusion.

  13. Induction of apoptosis by gallic acid in human stomach cancer KATO III and colon adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, K; Kataoka, T; Hayashi, T; Hasegawa, M; Ishi, Y; Hibasami, H

    2000-01-01

    Antitumor effects of gallic acid on human stomach cancer KATO III cells and human colon adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells were investigated. The exposures of KATO III and COLO 205 cells to gallic acid led to both growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis. Morphological changes showing apoptotic bodies were observed in both the cell lines treated with gallic acid. The fragmentations by gallic acid of DNA to oligonucleosomal-sized fragments, that are characteristics of apoptosis, were observed to be concentration- and time-dependent. These findings suggest that growth inhibitions by gallic acid of KATO III cells and COLO 205 cells result from the apoptosis induced by gallic acid. Thus, gallic acid might be a candidate drug for digestive gut cancer treatment to overcome the resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:11032918

  14. Novel three-dimensional position analysis of the mandibular foramen in patients with skeletal class III mandibular prognathism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon-Ho; Won, Yu-Jin; Kim, Moon-Key

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the relative position of the mandibular foramina (MnFs) in patients diagnosed with skeletal class III malocclusion. Materials and Methods Computed tomography (CT) images were collected from 85 patients. The vertical lengths of each anatomic point from the five horizontal planes passing through the MnF were measured at the coronoid process, sigmoid notch, condyle, and the gonion. The distance from the anterior ramus point to the posterior ramus point on the five horizontal planes was designated the anteroposterior horizontal distance of the ramus for each plane. The perpendicular distance from each anterior ramus point to each vertical plane through the MnF was designated the horizontal distance from the anterior ramus to the MnF. The horizontal and vertical positions were examined by regression analysis. Results Regression analysis showed the heights of the coronoid process, sigmoid notch, and condyle for the five horizontal planes were significantly related to the height of the MnF, with the highest significance associated with the MnF-mandibular plane (coefficients of determination (R2): 0.424, 0.597, and 0.604, respectively). The horizontal anteroposterior length of the ramus and the distance from the anterior ramus point to the MnF were significant by regression analysis. Conclusion The relative position of the MnF was significantly related to the vertical heights of the sigmoid notch, coronoid process, and condyle as well as to the horizontal anteroposterior length of the ascending ramus. These findings should be clinically useful for patients with skeletal class III mandibular prognathism. PMID:27358814

  15. Diruthenium(II,III) tetramidates as a new class of oxygenation catalysts.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Leslie; Cao, Zhi; Fanwick, Phillip E; Ren, Tong

    2012-01-14

    Two new diruthenium(II,III) tetramidate compounds, Ru(2)(NHOCC(CH(3))(2))(4)Cl (1) and Ru(2)(NHOCCH(2)CH(3))(4)Cl (2) have been prepared and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. The activity of promoting sulfide oxygenation using simple oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) was studied. A UV-kinetics study indicated that the initial rates of 1 and 2 are comparable to the previously studied diruthenium tetracarboxylates in promoting TBHP oxygenation of methyl phenyl sulfide (MPS). Using excess oxidant and CH(3)CN as the solvent, organic sulfides MPS and diphenyl sulfide (PPS) were oxidized using 1 mol% of the catalytic species. Compound 1 is more effective than 2 in converting sulfides to sulfoxide under the same conditions. Fast conversion was achieved when the reactions were carried out in the solvent-free conditions, and the major oxidation product was the sulfoxide. The electronic structure of the title compounds was studied with DFT calculations to gain an understanding of the activation of peroxy reagents.

  16. The Oxidation of Ascorbic Acid by Hexacyanoferrate(III) Ion in Acidic Aqueous Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Luis J. A.; da Costa, J. Barbosa

    1988-01-01

    Describes a kinetic and mechanistic investigation of ascorbic acid by a substitution-inert complex in acidic medium suitable for the undergraduate level. Discusses obtaining the second order rate constant for the rate determining step at a given temperature and comparison with the value predicted on the basis of the Marcus cross-relation. (CW)

  17. Freezing temperatures of aqueous iron(III) sulfate solutions and crystallization of a new acidic water-rich sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennings, E.; Zürner, P.; Schmidt, H.; Voigt, W.

    2013-09-01

    An important question concerning the possibility of life under martian conditions is the existence of liquid water at low temperatures. On the martian surface, the existence of iron(III) sulfate is expected. The influence of iron(III) sulfate salt on ice deposits in respect to the formation of liquid salt brines was not investigated in the past. In this contribution, the investigation of the phase diagram of the system iron(III) sulfate-water and the influence of sulfuric acid to this system are presented. A new crystalline acidic iron(III) sulfate hydrate has been found in the ternary system iron(III) sulfate-water-sulfuric acid, which represents the most water-rich iron salt phase ever detected.

  18. Conserved 33-kb haplotype in the MHC class III region regulates chronic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yau, Anthony C Y; Tuncel, Jonatan; Haag, Sabrina; Norin, Ulrika; Houtman, Miranda; Padyukov, Leonid; Holmdahl, Rikard

    2016-06-28

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed many genetic loci associated with complex autoimmune diseases. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the MHC gene HLA-DRB1 is the strongest candidate predicting disease development. It has been suggested that other immune-regulating genes in the MHC contribute to the disease risk, but this contribution has been difficult to show because of the strong linkage disequilibrium within the MHC. We isolated genomic regions in the form of congenic fragments in rats to test whether there are additional susceptibility loci in the MHC. By both congenic mapping in inbred strains and SNP typing in wild rats, we identified a conserved, 33-kb large haplotype Ltab-Ncr3 in the MHC-III region, which regulates the onset, severity, and chronicity of arthritis. The Ltab-Ncr3 haplotype consists of five polymorphic immunoregulatory genes: Lta (lymphotoxin-α), Tnf, Ltb (lymphotoxin-β), Lst1 (leukocyte-specific transcript 1), and Ncr3 (natural cytotoxicity-triggering receptor 3). Significant correlation in the expression of the Ltab-Ncr3 genes suggests that interaction of these genes may be important in keeping these genes clustered together as a conserved haplotype. We studied the arthritis association and the spliceo-transcriptome of four different Ltab-Ncr3 haplotypes and showed that higher Ltb and Ncr3 expression, lower Lst1 expression, and the expression of a shorter splice variant of Lst1 correlate with reduced arthritis severity in rats. Interestingly, patients with mild RA also showed higher NCR3 expression and lower LST1 expression than patients with severe RA. These data demonstrate the importance of a conserved haplotype in the regulation of complex diseases such as arthritis. PMID:27303036

  19. Facial and occlusal esthetic improvements of an adult skeletal Class III malocclusion using surgical, orthodontic, and implant treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Cardoso, Mauricio; de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; Guedes, Fabio Pinto; Battilani Filho, Valter Antonio Ban; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Correa, Marcio Aurelio; Nary Filho, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this clinical report is to describe the complex treatment of an adult Class III malocclusion patient who was disappointed with the outcome of a previous oral rehabilitation. Interdisciplinary treatment planning was performed with a primary indication for implant removal because of marginal bone loss and gingival recession, followed by orthodontic and surgical procedures to correct the esthetics and skeletal malocclusion. The comprehensive treatment approach included: (1) implant removal in the area of the central incisors; (2) combined orthodontic decompensation with mesial displacement and forced extrusion of the lateral incisors; (3) extraction of the lateral incisors and placement of new implants corresponding to the central incisors, which received provisional crowns; (4) orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement to improve occlusal and facial relationships; and finally, (5) orthodontic refinement followed by definitive prosthetic rehabilitation of the maxillary central incisors and reshaping of the adjacent teeth. At the three-year follow-up, clinical and radiographic examinations showed successful replacement of the central incisors and improved skeletal and esthetic appearances. Moreover, a Class II molar relationship was obtained with an ideal overbite, overjet, and intercuspation. In conclusion, we report the successful esthetic anterior rehabilitation of a complex case in which interdisciplinary treatment planning improved facial harmony, provided gingival architecture with sufficient width and thickness, and improved smile esthetics, resulting in enhanced patient comfort and satisfaction. This clinical case report might be useful to improve facial esthetics and occlusion in patients with dentoalveolar and skeletal defects. PMID:26877982

  20. A stable Fe{sup III}-Fe{sup IV} replacement of tyrosyl radical in a class I ribonucleotide reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Voevodskaya, N.; Lendzian, F.; Graeslund, A. . E-mail: astrid@dbb.su.se

    2005-05-20

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) of Chlamydia trachomatis is a class I RNR enzyme composed of two homodimeric components, proteins R1 and R2. In class I RNR, R1 has the substrate binding site, whereas R2 has a diferric site and normally in its active form a stable tyrosyl free radical. C. trachomatis RNR is unusual, because its R2 component has a phenylalanine in the place of the radical carrier tyrosine. Replacing the tyrosyl radical, a paramagnetic Fe{sup III}-Fe{sup IV} species (species X, normally a transient intermediate in the process leading to radical formation) may provide the oxidation equivalent needed to start the catalytic process via long range electron transfer from the active site in R1. Here EPR spectroscopy shows that in C. trachomatis RNR, species X can become essentially stable when formed in a complete RNR (R1/R2/substrate) complex, adding further weight to the possible role of this species X in the catalytic reaction.

  1. Perfluorooctanoic acid degradation in the presence of Fe(III) under natural sunlight.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dandan; Xiu, Zongming; Liu, Fei; Wu, Gang; Adamson, Dave; Newell, Charles; Vikesland, Peter; Tsai, Ah-Lim; Alvarez, Pedro J

    2013-11-15

    Due to the high bond dissociation energy (BDE) of CF bonds (116 kcal/mol), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a highly recalcitrant pollutant. Herein, we demonstrate a novel method to decompose PFOA in the presence of sunlight and ferric iron (Fe(III)). Under such conditions, 97.8 ± 1.7% of 50 μM PFOA decomposed within 28 days into shorter-chain intermediates and fluoride (F(-)), with an overall defluorination extent of 12.7 ± 0.5%. No PFOA was removed under visible light, indicating that UV radiation is required for PFOA decomposition. Spectroscopic analysis indicates that the decomposition reaction is likely initiated by electron-transfer from PFOA to Fe(III), forming Fe(II) and an unstable organic carboxyl radical. An alternative mechanism for the formation of this organic radical involves hydroxyl radicals, detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The observation that PFOA can be degraded by Fe(III) under solar irradiation provides mechanistic insight into a possibly overlooked natural attenuation process. Because Fe(III) is abundant in natural waters and sunlight is essentially free, this work represents a potentially important step toward the development of simple and inexpensive remediation strategies for PFOA-contaminated water.

  2. Management of the Class III malocclusion treated with maxillary expansion, facemask therapy and corrective orthodontic. A 15-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues; ALESSIO, Luiz Eduardo; de ALMEIDA-PEDRIN, Renata Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; PINZAN, Arnaldo; VIEIRA, Luiz Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    The facial growth of Class III malocclusion worsens with age, in this case, the early orthopedic treatment, providing facial balance, modifying the maxillofacial growth and development. A 7.6-year old boy presented with Class III malocclusion associated with anterior crossbite; the mandible was shifted to the right and the maxilla had a transversal deficiency. Rapid maxillary expansion followed by facemask therapy was performed, to correct the anteroposterior relationship and improve the facial profile. The patient was followed for a 15-year period, after completion of the treatment, and stability was observed. Growing patients should be monitored following their treatment, so as to prevent malocclusion relapse. PMID:25760273

  3. Microheterogeneity of antithrombin III: effect of single amino acid substitutions and relationship with functional abnormalities.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, V; Leone, G; Mastrangelo, S; Lane, D A; Girolami, A; de Moerloose, P; Sas, G; Abildgaard, U; Blajchman, M; Rodeghiero, F

    1994-02-01

    Microheterogeneity of antithrombin III (AT-III) was investigated by crossed immunoelectrofocusing (CIEF) on eleven molecular variants. A normal pattern was found in five variants while two different abnormal CIEF patterns were found in the other four and two variants, respectively. Point mutations causing a major pI change (exceeding 4.0) of the amino acid substituted lead to alterations in the overall microheterogeneity. The variants thus substituted share a first type of abnormal CIEF pattern with alterations throughout the pH range, regardless of the location of the mutation (reactive site and adjacent regions or heparin binding region). Minor amino acid pI changes in these regions do not alter the AT-III overall microheterogeneity, whatever the resulting functional defect. However, if the mutation is placed in the region around positions 404 or 429, then even minor changes of the amino acid pI seem able to alter the overall charge, leading to a second type of abnormal CIEF pattern with the main alteration at pH 4.8-4.6. Neuraminidase treatment leads to disappearance of microheterogeneity except for the variants with the Arg393 to Cys substitution. Addition of thrombin induces CIEF modifications specifically related to the functional defect. A normal formation of thrombin-antithrombin complexes induces a shift towards the more acid pH range, whereas in the variants substituted at the reactive site the CIEF pattern is substantially unaffected by thrombin; variants substituted at positions 382-384 show a maximal thrombin-induced increase of the isoforms at pI 4.8-4.6. Therefore mutant antithrombins with different functional abnormalities but sharing a common CIEF pattern were well distinguished.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8180341

  4. Long-term effects of Class III treatment with rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy followed by fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Westwood, Patricia Vetlesen; McNamara, James A; Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Sarver, David M

    2003-03-01

    In this cephalometric investigation, we compared the long-term effects of an initial phase of rapid maxillary expansion and facemask (RME/FM) therapy followed by comprehensive edgewise therapy with the effects of growth in untreated, matched controls. The treated sample consisted of 34 patients who underwent RME/FM treatment before the pubertal growth spurt (average age, 8 years 3 months at the beginning of treatment). At the final observation period (average age, 14 years 10 months), all patients were in decelerative growth phases as determined by the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method. After the first 10 months of active treatment, significant favorable changes in both the maxillary and the mandibular skeletal components were noted. The forward movement of the maxilla was 1.8 mm greater than in the controls, mandibular projection was reduced by almost 3 mm, and the relative sagittal intermaxillary discrepancy improved by 4.3 mm, as measured by the Wits appraisal. During the posttreatment period, the treated and untreated Class III subjects generally grew similarly, although the skeletal relationship of the maxilla to the mandible remained unchanged in the RME/FM group, whereas the controls had an increased skeletal discrepancy of 3.0 mm. Over the long term, there was a slightly greater increase in midfacial length (1.6 mm) in the treatment group than in the controls. Similarly, the distance from Point A to nasion perpendicular decreased by 1.2 mm in the treated group. The overall increase in mandibular length was 2.4 mm less in the RME/FM group than in the controls, and mandibular projection relative to nasion perpendicular was 3.0 mm less in the treated group. The change in the Wits appraisal was substantial between groups (6.1 mm), with an improvement in the intermaxillary relationship in the treated group (3.4 mm); the Wits appraisal worsened (-2.7 mm) in the untreated controls. No clinically significant differences were observed between the groups in

  5. DMPS-arsenic challenge test. II. Modulation of arsenic species, including monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), excreted in human urine.

    PubMed

    Aposhian, H V; Zheng, B; Aposhian, M M; Le, X C; Cebrian, M E; Cullen, W; Zakharyan, R A; Ma, M; Dart, R C; Cheng, Z; Andrewes, P; Yip, L; O'Malley, G F; Maiorino, R M; Van Voorhies, W; Healy, S M; Titcomb, A

    2000-05-15

    The administration of sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate (DMPS) to humans chronically exposed to inorganic arsenic in their drinking water resulted in the increased urinary excretion of arsenic, the appearance and identification of monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) in their urine, and a large decrease in the concentration and percentage of urinary dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). This is the first time that MMA(III) has been detected in the urine. In vitro biochemical experiments were then designed and performed to understand the urinary appearance of MMA(III) and decrease of DMA. The DMPS-MMA(III) complex was not active as a substrate for the MMA(III) methyltransferase. The experimental results support the hypothesis that DMPS competes with endogenous ligands for MMA(III), forming a DMPS-MMA complex that is readily excreted in the urine and points out the need for studying the biochemical toxicology of MMA(III). It should be emphasized that MMA(III) was excreted in the urine only after DMPS administration. The results of these studies raise many questions about the potential central role of MMA(III) in the toxicity of inorganic arsenic and to the potential involvement of MMA(III) in the little-understood etiology of hyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation, and cancer that can result from chronic inorganic arsenic exposure.

  6. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10−2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10â2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part...

  7. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10−2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10â2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part...

  8. Kinetics of formation and dissociation of aquocobalt(III) complexes with some carboxylic acids in acid perchlorate solution.

    PubMed

    Davies, Geoffrey

    2007-06-21

    The rates of formation and dissociation of monocarboxylic complexes of aquocobalt(III) cations with propionic, malonic, and 2-ethylmalonic acids have been measured with the stopped-flow method over a range of concentrations and temperatures in acid perchlorate media at an ionic strength 3.0 M. Although the rate constants for reactions of CoOHaq2+ with neutral ligands cover only a small range, indicating a dissociative mechanism, the associated activation parameters change cooperatively. These variations are discussed in terms of differences in the structure, proton distribution, and rates of water loss in the ion-pair precursors for the different ligands. Similar activation enthalpies of dissociation indicate a common mode of coordination, and the positive activation entropies for dissociation are consistent with a neutral leaving group.

  9. Sorption of arsenate and arsenite anions by iron(III)-poly(hydroxamic acid) complex.

    PubMed

    Haron, M J; Wan Yunus, W M; Yong, N L; Tokunaga, S

    1999-12-01

    Iron(III)-poly(hydroxamic acid) resin complex has been studied for its sorption abilities with respect to arsenate and arsenite anions from an aqueous solution. The complex was found effective in removing the arsenate anion in the pH range of 2.0 to 5.5. The maximum sorption capacity was found to be 1.15 mmol/g. The sorption selectivity showed that arsenate sorption was not affected by chloride, nitrate and sulphate. The resin was tested and found effective for removal of arsenic ions from industrial wastewater samples.

  10. Comparative biochemical characterization of peroxidases (class III) tightly bound to the maize root cell walls and modulation of the enzyme properties as a result of covalent binding.

    PubMed

    Hadži-Tašković Šukalović, Vesna; Vuletić, Mirjana; Marković, Ksenija; Cvetić Antić, Tijana; Vučinić, Željko

    2015-01-01

    Comparative biochemical characterization of class III peroxidase activity tightly bound to the cell walls of maize roots was performed. Ionically bound proteins were solubilized from isolated walls by salt washing, and the remaining covalently bound peroxidases were released, either by enzymatic digestion or by a novel alkaline extraction procedure that released covalently bound alkali-resistant peroxidase enzyme. Solubilized fractions, as well as the salt-washed cell wall fragments containing covalently bound proteins, were analyzed for peroxidase activity. Peroxidative and oxidative activities indicated that peroxidase enzymes were predominately associated with walls by ionic interactions, and this fraction differs from the covalently bound one according to molecular weight, isozyme patterns, and biochemical parameters. The effect of covalent binding was evaluated by comparison of the catalytic properties of the enzyme bound to the salt-washed cell wall fragments with the corresponding solubilized and released enzyme. Higher thermal stability, improved resistance to KCN, increased susceptibility to H2O2, stimulated capacity of wall-bound enzyme to oxidize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) as well as the difference in kinetic parameters between free and bound enzymes point to conformational changes due to covalent binding. Differences in biochemical properties of ionically and covalently bound peroxidases, as well as the modulation of the enzyme properties as a result of covalent binding to the walls, indicate that these two fractions of apoplastic peroxidases play different roles.

  11. Immobilization of As(III) in soil and groundwater using a new class of polysaccharide stabilized Fe-Mn oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    An, Byungryul; Zhao, Dongye

    2012-04-15

    A new class of stabilized Fe-Mn binary oxide nanoparticles was prepared with a water-soluble starch or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a stabilizer. The nanoparticles were characterized and tested with respect to sorption of As(III) and As(V) from water and for immobilization of As(III) in soil. While arsenic sorption capacities were comparable for bare, or stabilized Fe-Mn nanoparticles, particle stabilization enabled the nanoparticles to be delivered into soil for in situ immobilization of arsenite. High As(III) sorption capacity was observed over a broad pH range of 5-9. Column breakthrough tests demonstrated soil mobility of CMC-stabilized nanoparticles. Once delivered, the nanoparticles remain virtually immobile in soil under typical groundwater conditions, serving as a fixed sink for arsenic. When an As(III)-laden soil was treated with CMC-stabilized Fe-Mn at an Fe-to-As molar ratio of 6.5-39, the water leachable arsenic was reduced by 91-96%, and the TCLP leachability was reduced by 94-98%. Column elution tests of an As(III)-laden soil indicated that application of CMC-stabilized Fe-Mn transferred nearly all water-soluble As(III) to the nanoparticle phase. Consequently, As(III) is immobilized as the nanoparticles are immobilized in the soil. The nanoparticle amendment was able to reduce the TCLP leachability of As(III) remaining in the soil bed by 78%.

  12. An orthodontic/orthopedic correction of the Class III malocclusion in young patients with a modified RPE appliance and a facemask.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyun; Cruz, Claudia; Alexander, R G

    2010-01-01

    Orthopedic appliances such as palatal expanders and facemasks have been successfully used for young patients with Class III malocclusions. A modified rapid palatal expansion (RPE) appliance in conjunction with a facemask can be used for correction of transverse and sagittal discrepancies in the initial phase of treatment for these patients.

  13. Preliminary acute and subchronic toxicity studies of GLG-V-13, a novel class III antiarrhythmic agent, in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, C L; Chandra, S A; Kim, S; Sangiah, S; Chen, H; Roder, J D; Qualls, C W; Garrison, G L; Cowell, R L; Berlin, K D; Scherlag, B J; Lazzara, R

    2000-01-01

    The acute and subchronic toxic effects of GLG-V-13 (3-[4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoyl]-7-isopropyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nona ne dihydroperchlorate, CAS 155029-33-7), a novel class III with some class Ib antiarrhythmic activity, were investigated in mice. The estimated LD50 for GLG-V-13 given orally were 419 mg/kg for male mice and 383 mg/kg for female mice, respectively. The acute toxic signs appeared to be of the central nervous system in origin. Four groups of mice (15 per sex, group and dose) were fed daily with diets containing GLG-V-13 for 90 consecutive days. The equivalent daily doses were 0, 22, 50 and 121 mg/kg/day and 0, 27, 60 and 136 mg/kg/day for male and female mice, respectively. All of the mice survived. Food consumption was decreased. However, mean body weight and body weight gain were not significantly changed. Gross pathological changes, especially in the lungs and liver, were found in the middle and high dose groups. Consistent increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and decreased mean corpuscular hemoglobin were observed in all dose groups. Hepatocellular necrosis was found in both male and female mice treated with the drug and was dose-dependent. Marked vacuolation of the X zone in the adrenal gland with mild to moderate deposition of ceroid pigments (brown degeneration) was observed in female mice. Lesions in the kidneys and adrenal glands may be a possible reason for changes in serum sodium and potassium ions concentrations leading to an increase in water intake. A significant reduction in cholesterol in the high dose group may be a favorable pharmacological effect of GLG-V-13. The data from the 90-day subchronic toxicity studies indicate that GLG-V-13 appears to have limited systemic toxicity potential.

  14. [Molecular evidences of non-ADH pathway in alcohol metabolism and Class III alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH3)].

    PubMed

    Haseba, Takeshi

    2014-06-01

    Class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1), a key enzyme of alcohol metabolism, contributes around 70% to the systemic alcohol metabolism and also to the acceleration of the metabolism due to chronic alcohol consumption by increasing its liver content, if the liver damage or disease is not apparent. However, the contribution of ADH1 to alcohol metabolism decreases in case of acute alcohol poisoning or chronic alcohol consumption inducing liver damage or disease. On the contrary, non-ADH pathway, which is independent of ADH1, increases the contribution to alcohol metabolism in these cases, by complementing the reduced role of ADH1. The molecular substantiality of non-ADH pathway has been still unknown in spite of the long and hot controversy between two candidates of microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS) and catalase. This research history suggests the existence of other candidates. Among ADH isozymes, Class III (ADH3) has the highest Km for ethanol and the highest resistance to pyrazole reagents of specific ADH inhibitors. This ADH3 was demonstrated to increase the contribution to alcohol metabolism in vivo dose-dependently, therefore, is a potent candidate of non-ADH pathway. Moreover, ADH3 is considered to increase the contribution to alcohol metabolism in case of alcoholic liver diseases, because the enzyme content increases in damaged tissues with increased hydrophobicity or the activity of the liver correlates with the accumulated alcohol consumptions of patients with alcoholic liver diseases. Such adaptation of ADH3 to alcohol metabolism in these pathological conditions makes patients possible to keep drinking a lot in spite of decrease of ADH1 activity and develops alcoholism seriously.

  15. Redox behavior of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) in the presence of nitrilotriacetic acid: A surrogate study for An(I\\T)/AD(III) redox behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.; Francis, A.; Nankawa, T.; Ohnuki, T.

    2010-07-01

    Using cyclic voltammetry, we investigated the redox behavior of Ce(IV)/Ce(III), which is a surrogate for An(IV)/An(III) (An=actinides), in a solution of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at 25 C. The cyclic voltammogram of Ce in a 0.1 M NTA solution at pH 6 showed a reversible one-electron redox reaction for Ce(IV)/Ce(III) at 0.51 V vs. Ag/AgCl. This redox potential was much lower than that obtained in 1 M nitric acid, indicating that Ce(IV) was preferentially stabilized by complexation with NTA. The redox potential in the NTA solution was independent of the Ce concentration from 2 to 20 mM, NTA concentration from 5 to 200 mM and pH between 3 and 7. These results indicated that no polymerization and no additional coordination of NTA and OH{sup -} to the Ce(III)-NTA complex took place during the redox reaction. As the speciation calculation of Ce(III) in the NTA solution showed that the predominant species was Ce{sup III}(nta){sub 2}{sup 3-} (H{sub 3}nta = NTA), the redox reaction of the Ce-NTA complex was expressed by the following: Ce{sup IV}(nta){sub 2}{sup 2-} +e{sup -} Ce{sup III}(nta){sub 2}{sup 3-}. The logarithm of the stability constant of Ce{sup IV}(nta){sub 2}{sup 2-} was calculated to be 38.6 {+-} 0.8 for I = 0 from the redox potential shift of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) in the NTA solution. The value was in good accordance with the stability constant of the Np{sup IV}(nta){sub 2}{sup 2-} complex, demonstrating that the aqueous coordination chemistry of Ce(IV) with NTA is quite similar to that of An(IV). These results strongly suggest that a negative shift of the Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox potential in the NTA solution should make Pu(IV) more stable than Pu(III) even in a reducing environment.

  16. Multiple nucleic acid cleavage modes in divergent type III CRISPR systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Graham, Shirley; Tello, Agnes; Liu, Huanting; White, Malcolm F.

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas is an RNA-guided adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and archaea from invading nucleic acids. Type III systems (Cmr, Csm) have been shown to cleave RNA targets in vitro and some are capable of transcription-dependent DNA targeting. The crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has two divergent subtypes of the type III system (Sso-IIID and a Cmr7-containing variant of Sso-IIIB). Here, we report that both the Sso-IIID and Sso-IIIB complexes cleave cognate RNA targets with a ruler mechanism and 6 or 12 nt spacing that relates to the organization of the Cas7 backbone. This backbone-mediated cleavage activity thus appears universal for the type III systems. The Sso-IIIB complex is also known to possess a distinct ‘UA’ cleavage mode. The predominant activity observed in vitro depends on the relative molar concentration of protein and target RNA. The Sso-IIID complex can cleave plasmid DNA targets in vitro, generating linear DNA products with an activity that is dependent on both the cyclase and HD nuclease domains of the Cas10 subunit, suggesting a role for both nuclease active sites in the degradation of double-stranded DNA targets. PMID:26801642

  17. Electrochemical oxidation of 243Am(III) in nitric acid by a terpyridyl-derivatized electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Dares, C. J.; Lapides, A. M.; Mincher, B. J.; Meyer, T. J.

    2015-11-05

    A high surface area, tin-doped indium oxide electrode surface-derivatized with a terpyridine ligand has been applied to the oxidation of trivalent americium to Am(V) and Am(VI) in nitric acid. Potentials as low as 1.8 V vs. the saturated calomel electrode are used, 0.7 V lower than the 2.6 V potential for one-electron oxidation of Am(III) to Am(IV) in 1 M acid. This simple electrochemical procedure provides, for the first time, a method for accessing the higher oxidation states of Am in non-complexing media for developing the coordination chemistries of Am(V) and Am(VI) and, more importantly, for separation of americium from nuclear waste streams.

  18. Systematic analysis of maize class III peroxidase gene family reveals a conserved subfamily involved in abiotic stress response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Qianqian; Zhao, Yang; Han, Guomin; Zhu, Suwen

    2015-07-15

    Class III peroxidases (PRXs) are plant-specific enzymes that play key roles in the responses to biotic and abiotic stress during plant growth and development. In this study, we identified 119 nonredundant PRX genes (designated ZmPRXs). These PRX genes were divided into 18 groups based on their phylogenetic relationships. We performed systematic bioinformatics analysis of the PRX genes, including analysis of gene structures, conserved motifs, phylogenetic relationships and gene expression profiles. The ZmPRXs are unevenly distributed on the 10 maize chromosomes. In addition, these genes have undergone 16 segmental duplication and 12 tandem duplication events, indicating that both segmental and tandem duplication were the main contributors to the expansion of the maize PRX family. Ka/Ks analysis suggested that most duplicated ZmPRXs experienced purifying selection, with limited functional divergence during the duplication events, and comparative analysis among maize, sorghum and rice revealed that there were independent duplication events besides the whole-genome duplication of the maize genome. Furthermore, microarray analysis indicated that most highly expressed genes might play significant roles in root. We examined the expression of five candidate ZmPRXs under H2O2, SA, NaCl and PEG stress conditions using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), revealing differential expression patterns. This study provides useful information for further functional analysis of the PRX gene family in maize.

  19. Biochemical characterization of a recombinant plant class III chitinase from the pitcher of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata.

    PubMed

    Ishisaki, Kana; Arai, Sachiko; Hamada, Tatsuro; Honda, Yuji

    2012-11-01

    A class III chitinase belonging to the GH18 family from Nepenthes alata (NaCHIT3) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme exhibited hydrolytic activity toward colloidal chitin, ethylene glycol chitin, and (GlcNAc)(n) (n=5 and 6). The enzyme hydrolyzed the fourth glycosidic linkage from the non-reducing end of (GlcNAc)(6). The anomeric form of the products indicated it was a retaining enzyme. The colloidal chitin hydrolytic reaction displayed high activity between pH 3.9 and 6.9, but the pH optimum of the (GlcNAc)(6) hydrolytic reaction was 3.9 at 37 °C. The optimal temperature for activity was 65 °C in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 3.9). The pH optima of NaCHIT3 and NaCHIT1 might be related to their roles in chitin degradation in the pitcher fluid.

  20. [Correlations between the occlusal plane angle and the risk of relapse after surgical orthodontic treatment of Angle Class III anomalies].

    PubMed

    Popescu, M; Dincă, O; Bucur, A

    2010-01-01

    An important criterion in the diagnostic and therapeutic assessment of severe true mandibular prognathia (characterized by excessive growth of the mandible and hiperdivergent facial growth pattern) is the orientation of the occlusal plane compared with the facial benchmark represented by the Frankfurt horizontal line. This is because orthognatic surgery in this pathology (sagittal bilateral osteotomy) envisages not only the shortening of the mandible, but also the counterclockwise rotation of the mandible to restore facial and dento-alveolar harmony in the three planes (sagittal, transverse, vertical). The aim of the study is the analysis of the evolution of the maxillo-mandibular complex in relation to the occlusal plane after orthognatic surgery (sagittal osteotomy of the mandible and bilateral Le Fort I of the maxilla), in a group of 15 patients with a mean age 22+3 years diagnosed with skeletal class III malocclusion, hiperdivergent facial pattern, initial average value of the occlusal plane angle 130+0.60. t test applied for comparative statistical analysis for the linear and angular parameters considered in four therapeutic stages (initial presurgical, post surgical, one year post surgical) show statistically significant changes in parameters related to the mandibular length and rotation, without significant variations one year after the surgical phase.

  1. PCSK1 rs6232 Is Associated with Childhood and Adult Class III Obesity in the Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; León-Mimila, Paola; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Liceaga-Fuentes, Adriana E.; Campos-Pérez, Francisco J.; López-Contreras, Blanca E.; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; del Río-Navarro, Blanca E.; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Background Common variants rs6232 and rs6235 in the PCSK1 gene have been associated with obesity in European populations. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of these variants to obesity and related traits in Mexican children and adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Rs6232 and rs6235 were genotyped in 2382 individuals, 1206 children and 1176 adults. Minor allele frequencies were 0.78% for rs6232 and 19.99% for rs6235. Rs6232 was significantly associated with childhood obesity and adult class III obesity (OR = 3.01 95%CI 1.64–5.53; P = 4×10−4 in the combined analysis). In addition, this SNP was significantly associated with lower fasting glucose levels (P = 0.01) and with increased insulin levels and HOMA-B (P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively) only in non-obese children. In contrast, rs6235 showed no significant association with obesity or with glucose homeostasis parameters in any group. Conclusion/Significance Although rs6232 is rare in the Mexican population, it should be considered as an important risk factor for extreme forms of obesity. PMID:22737226

  2. EGCG-mediated autophagy flux has a neuroprotection effect via a class III histone deacetylase in primary neuron cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju-Hee; Moon, Ji-Hong; Kim, Sung-Wook; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Nazim, Uddin MD; Lee, You-Jin; Seol, Jae-Won; Park, Sang-Youel

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases caused by aggregated misfolded prion protein (PrP) are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders that occur in both humans and animals. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has preventive effects on prion disease; however, the mechanisms related to preventing prion diseases are unclear. We investigated whether EGCG, the main polyphenol in green tea, prevents neuron cell damage induced by the human prion protein. We also studied the neuroprotective mechanisms and proper signals mediated by EGCG. The results showed that EGCG protects the neuronal cells against human prion protein-induced damage through inhibiting Bax and cytochrome c translocation and autophagic pathways by increasing LC3-II and reducing and blocking p62 by using ATG5 small interfering (si) RNA and autophagy inhibitors. We further demonstrated that the neuroprotective effects of EGCG were exhibited by a class III histone deacetylase; sirt1 activation and the neuroprotective effects attenuated by sirt1 inactivation using sirt1 siRNA and sirtinol. We demonstrated that EGCG activated the autophagic pathways by inducing sirt1, and had protective effects against human prion protein-induced neuronal cell toxicity. These results suggest that EGCG may be a therapeutic agent for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders including prion diseases. PMID:25991666

  3. Linking Microbial Dynamics and Physicochemical Processes in High-temperature Acidic Fe(III)- Mineralizing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inskeep, W.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial activity is responsible for the mineralization of Fe(III)-oxides in high-temperature chemotrophic communities that flourish within oxygenated zones of low pH (2.5 - 4) geothermal outflow channels (Yellowstone National Park, WY). High-temperature Fe(II)-oxidizing communities contain several lineages of Archaea, and are excellent model systems for studying microbial interactions and spatiotemporal dynamics across geochemical gradients. We hypothesize that acidic Fe(III)-oxide mats form as a result of constant interaction among primary colonizers including Hydrogenobaculum spp. (Aquificales) and Metallosphaera spp. (Sulfolobales), and subsequent colonization by archaeal heterotrophs, which vary in abundance as a function of oxygen, pH and temperature. We are integrating a complementary suite of geochemical, stable isotope, genomic, proteomic and modeling analyses to study the role of microorganisms in Fe(III)-oxide mat development, and to elucidate the primary microbial interactions that are coupled with key abiotic events. Curated de novo assemblies of major phylotypes are being used to analyze additional -omics datasets from these microbial mats. Hydrogenobaculum spp. (Aquificales) are the dominant bacterial population(s) present, and predominate during early mat development (< 30 d). Other Sulfolobales populations known to oxidize Fe(II) and fix carbon dioxide (e.g., Metallosphaera spp.) represent a secondary stage of mat development (e.g., 14 - 30 d). Hydrogenobaculum filaments appear to promote the nucleation and subsequent mineralization of Fe(III)-oxides, which likely affect the growth and turnover rates of these organisms. Other heterotrophs colonize Fe(III)-oxide mats during succession (> 30 d), including novel lineages of Archaea and representatives within the Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota and Nanoarchaeota. In situ oxygen consumption rates show that steep gradients occur within the top 1 mm of mat surface, and which correlate with

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exhibits Deficient Biofilm Formation in the Absence of Class II and III Ribonucleotide Reductases Due to Hindered Anaerobic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Anna; Pedraz, Lucas; Astola, Josep; Torrents, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lung infections by the ubiquitous and extremely adaptable opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa correlate with the formation of a biofilm, where bacteria grow in association with an extracellular matrix and display a wide range of changes in gene expression and metabolism. This leads to increased resistance to physical stress and antibiotic therapies, while enhancing cell-to-cell communication. Oxygen diffusion through the complex biofilm structure generates an oxygen concentration gradient, leading to the appearance of anaerobic microenvironments. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are a family of highly sophisticated enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the deoxyribonucleotides, and they constitute the only de novo pathway for the formation of the building blocks needed for DNA synthesis and repair. P. aeruginosa is one of the few bacteria encoding all three known RNR classes (Ia, II, and III). Class Ia RNRs are oxygen dependent, class II are oxygen independent, and class III are oxygen sensitive. A tight control of RNR activity is essential for anaerobic growth and therefore for biofilm development. In this work we explored the role of the different RNR classes in biofilm formation under aerobic and anaerobic initial conditions and using static and continuous-flow biofilm models. We demonstrated the importance of class II and III RNR for proper cell division in biofilm development and maturation. We also determined that these classes are transcriptionally induced during biofilm formation and under anaerobic conditions. The molecular mechanism of their anaerobic regulation was also studied, finding that the Anr/Dnr system is responsible for class II RNR induction. These data can be integrated with previous knowledge about biofilms in a model where these structures are understood as a set of layers determined by oxygen concentration and contain cells with different RNR expression profiles, bringing us a step closer to the understanding of this

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exhibits Deficient Biofilm Formation in the Absence of Class II and III Ribonucleotide Reductases Due to Hindered Anaerobic Growth.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Anna; Pedraz, Lucas; Astola, Josep; Torrents, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lung infections by the ubiquitous and extremely adaptable opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa correlate with the formation of a biofilm, where bacteria grow in association with an extracellular matrix and display a wide range of changes in gene expression and metabolism. This leads to increased resistance to physical stress and antibiotic therapies, while enhancing cell-to-cell communication. Oxygen diffusion through the complex biofilm structure generates an oxygen concentration gradient, leading to the appearance of anaerobic microenvironments. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are a family of highly sophisticated enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the deoxyribonucleotides, and they constitute the only de novo pathway for the formation of the building blocks needed for DNA synthesis and repair. P. aeruginosa is one of the few bacteria encoding all three known RNR classes (Ia, II, and III). Class Ia RNRs are oxygen dependent, class II are oxygen independent, and class III are oxygen sensitive. A tight control of RNR activity is essential for anaerobic growth and therefore for biofilm development. In this work we explored the role of the different RNR classes in biofilm formation under aerobic and anaerobic initial conditions and using static and continuous-flow biofilm models. We demonstrated the importance of class II and III RNR for proper cell division in biofilm development and maturation. We also determined that these classes are transcriptionally induced during biofilm formation and under anaerobic conditions. The molecular mechanism of their anaerobic regulation was also studied, finding that the Anr/Dnr system is responsible for class II RNR induction. These data can be integrated with previous knowledge about biofilms in a model where these structures are understood as a set of layers determined by oxygen concentration and contain cells with different RNR expression profiles, bringing us a step closer to the understanding of this

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exhibits Deficient Biofilm Formation in the Absence of Class II and III Ribonucleotide Reductases Due to Hindered Anaerobic Growth.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Anna; Pedraz, Lucas; Astola, Josep; Torrents, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lung infections by the ubiquitous and extremely adaptable opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa correlate with the formation of a biofilm, where bacteria grow in association with an extracellular matrix and display a wide range of changes in gene expression and metabolism. This leads to increased resistance to physical stress and antibiotic therapies, while enhancing cell-to-cell communication. Oxygen diffusion through the complex biofilm structure generates an oxygen concentration gradient, leading to the appearance of anaerobic microenvironments. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are a family of highly sophisticated enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the deoxyribonucleotides, and they constitute the only de novo pathway for the formation of the building blocks needed for DNA synthesis and repair. P. aeruginosa is one of the few bacteria encoding all three known RNR classes (Ia, II, and III). Class Ia RNRs are oxygen dependent, class II are oxygen independent, and class III are oxygen sensitive. A tight control of RNR activity is essential for anaerobic growth and therefore for biofilm development. In this work we explored the role of the different RNR classes in biofilm formation under aerobic and anaerobic initial conditions and using static and continuous-flow biofilm models. We demonstrated the importance of class II and III RNR for proper cell division in biofilm development and maturation. We also determined that these classes are transcriptionally induced during biofilm formation and under anaerobic conditions. The molecular mechanism of their anaerobic regulation was also studied, finding that the Anr/Dnr system is responsible for class II RNR induction. These data can be integrated with previous knowledge about biofilms in a model where these structures are understood as a set of layers determined by oxygen concentration and contain cells with different RNR expression profiles, bringing us a step closer to the understanding of this

  7. A method for establishing class III medical device equivalence: sodium hyaluronate (GenVisc 850) for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Doros, Gheorghe; Lavin, Philip T; Daley, Michael; Miller, Larry E

    2016-01-01

    Although the concept of equivalence for drugs (generics) and biologics (biosimilars) has been readily adopted, the concept of equivalence or indistinguishable characteristics for class III medical devices has yet to be specifically addressed regarding a defined regulatory approval process in the US. In September 2015, GenVisc 850® (sodium hyaluronate), a hyaluronic acid approved for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) based upon indistinguishable characteristics in comparison to an approved branded hyaluronic acid (Supartz®/Supartz FX™). The purpose of this paper is to review the methodology and report the main outcomes used to demonstrate clinical comparability of GenVisc 850 with Supartz/Supartz FX. The FDA approval was collectively attained using prospectively defined methods for preclinical, physical, and chemical testing, as well as noninferiority in clinical performance comparisons. Evidence from five randomized controlled studies of Supartz/Supartz FX vs saline control injections (used for Supartz approval), two randomized controlled trials of GenVisc 850 vs saline control injections, and one randomized controlled study of GenVisc 850 vs Supartz/Supartz FX provided evidence of safety for GenVisc 850. Efficacy was further assessed based on assessment of the same Supartz studies and three prospectively identified GenVisc 850 studies. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to demonstrate that the clinical efficacy of GenVisc 850 was noninferior to Supartz/Supartz FX and superior to saline control. Overall, safety of GenVisc 850 was similar to that of Supartz/Supartz FX and saline control injections, while efficacy of GenVisc 850 was noninferior to that of Supartz/Supartz FX and superior to saline control injections. PMID:27471412

  8. A method for establishing class III medical device equivalence: sodium hyaluronate (GenVisc 850) for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Doros, Gheorghe; Lavin, Philip T; Daley, Michael; Miller, Larry E

    2016-01-01

    Although the concept of equivalence for drugs (generics) and biologics (biosimilars) has been readily adopted, the concept of equivalence or indistinguishable characteristics for class III medical devices has yet to be specifically addressed regarding a defined regulatory approval process in the US. In September 2015, GenVisc 850® (sodium hyaluronate), a hyaluronic acid approved for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) based upon indistinguishable characteristics in comparison to an approved branded hyaluronic acid (Supartz®/Supartz FX™). The purpose of this paper is to review the methodology and report the main outcomes used to demonstrate clinical comparability of GenVisc 850 with Supartz/Supartz FX. The FDA approval was collectively attained using prospectively defined methods for preclinical, physical, and chemical testing, as well as noninferiority in clinical performance comparisons. Evidence from five randomized controlled studies of Supartz/Supartz FX vs saline control injections (used for Supartz approval), two randomized controlled trials of GenVisc 850 vs saline control injections, and one randomized controlled study of GenVisc 850 vs Supartz/Supartz FX provided evidence of safety for GenVisc 850. Efficacy was further assessed based on assessment of the same Supartz studies and three prospectively identified GenVisc 850 studies. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to demonstrate that the clinical efficacy of GenVisc 850 was noninferior to Supartz/Supartz FX and superior to saline control. Overall, safety of GenVisc 850 was similar to that of Supartz/Supartz FX and saline control injections, while efficacy of GenVisc 850 was noninferior to that of Supartz/Supartz FX and superior to saline control injections. PMID:27471412

  9. Cofactor specificity motifs and the induced fit mechanism in class I ketol-acid reductoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Cahn, Jackson K B; Brinkmann-Chen, Sabine; Spatzal, Thomas; Wiig, Jared A; Buller, Andrew R; Einsle, Oliver; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W; Arnold, Frances H

    2015-06-15

    Although most sequenced members of the industrially important ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI) family are class I enzymes, structural studies to date have focused primarily on the class II KARIs, which arose through domain duplication. In the present study, we present five new crystal structures of class I KARIs. These include the first structure of a KARI with a six-residue β2αB (cofactor specificity determining) loop and an NADPH phosphate-binding geometry distinct from that of the seven- and 12-residue loops. We also present the first structures of naturally occurring KARIs that utilize NADH as cofactor. These results show insertions in the specificity loops that confounded previous attempts to classify them according to loop length. Lastly, we explore the conformational changes that occur in class I KARIs upon binding of cofactor and metal ions. The class I KARI structures indicate that the active sites close upon binding NAD(P)H, similar to what is observed in the class II KARIs of rice and spinach and different from the opening of the active site observed in the class II KARI of Escherichia coli. This conformational change involves a decrease in the bending of the helix that runs between the domains and a rearrangement of the nicotinamide-binding site.

  10. Synthesis and luminescence properties of two novel lanthanide (III) perchlorate complexes with bis(benzoylmethyl) sulfoxide and benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Xian; Chai, Wen-Juan; Sun, Xiao-Jun; Ren, Tie; Shi, Xiao-Yan

    2010-07-01

    Two novel ternary rare earth complexes of Tb(III) and Dy(III) perchlorates with bis(benzoylmethyl) sulfoxide (L) and benzoic acid (L') had been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, coordination titration analysis, molar conductivity, IR, TG-DSC, (1)HNMR and UV spectra. The results indicated that the composition of these complexes was REL(5)L'(ClO(4))(2) x nH(2)O (RE = Tb(III), Dy(III); L = C(6)H(5)COCH(2)SOCH(2)COC(6)H(5), L' = C(6)H(5)COO; n = 6,8). The fluorescence spectra illustrated that the ternary rare earth complexes presented stronger fluorescence intensities, longer lifetimes and higher fluorescence quantum efficiencies than the binary rare earth complexes REL(5) x (ClO(4))(3) x 2 H(2)O. After the introduction of the second ligand benzoic acid group, the relative fluorescence emission intensities and fluorescence lifetimes of the ternary complexes REL(5)L'(ClO(4))(2) x nH(2)O (RE = Tb(III), Dy(III)) enhanced more obviously than the binary complexes. This indicated that the presence of both organic ligands bis(benzoylmethyl) sulfoxide and the second ligand benzoic acid could sensitize fluorescence intensities of rare earth ions, and the introduction of benzoic acid group was resulted in the enhancement of the fluorescence properties of the ternary rare earth complexes. The phosphorescence spectra were also discussed.

  11. Uptake and catabolism of modified LDL in scavenger-receptor class A type I/II knock-out mice.

    PubMed Central

    Van Berkel, T J; Van Velzen, A; Kruijt, J K; Suzuki, H; Kodama, T

    1998-01-01

    The liver is the major organ responsible for the uptake of modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from the blood circulation, with endothelial and Kupffer cells as major cellular uptake sites. Scavenger-receptors, which include various classes, are held responsible for this uptake. Mice deficient in scavenger-receptor class A types I and II were created and the fate of acetylated LDL (Ac-LDL) in vivo and its interaction with liver endothelial, Kupffer and peritoneal macrophages was characterized. Surprisingly, the decay in vivo (t12 < 2 min), tissue distribution and liver uptake (at 5 min it was 77.4 +/- 4.6% of the injected dose) of Ac-LDL in the knock-out mice were not significantly different from control mice (t12 < 2 min and liver uptake 79.1 +/- 4.6% of the injected dose). A separation of mice liver cells into parenchymal, endothelial and Kupffer cells 10 min after injection of Ac-LDL indicated that in both control and knock-out mice the liver endothelial cells were responsible for more than 70% of the liver uptake. Both in control and knock-out mice, preinjection of polyinosinic acid (poly I, 200 microg) completely blocked the liver uptake, indicating that both in control and knock-out mice the scavenger-receptors are sensitive to poly I. Preinjection of suboptimal poly I concentrations (20 and 50 microg) provided evidence that the serum decay and liver uptake of Ac-LDL is more readily inhibited in the knock-out mice as compared with the control mice, indicating less efficient removal of Ac-LDL in vivo in the knock-out mice under these conditions. Studies in vitro with isolated liver endothelial and Kupffer cells from knock-out mice indicate that the cell association of Ac-LDL during 2 h at 37 degrees C is 50 and 53% of the control, respectively, whereas the degradation reaches values of 58 and 63%. For peritoneal macrophages from knock-out mice the cell association of Ac-LDL was identical to the control mice whereas the Ac-LDL degradation in cells from the

  12. Biowaiver extension potential to BCS Class III high solubility-low permeability drugs: bridging evidence for metformin immediate-release tablet.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-Ling; Yu, Lawrence X; Lee, Hwei-Ling; Yang, Chyun-Yu; Lue, Chang-Sha; Chou, Chen-Hsi

    2004-07-01

    The biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) allows biowaiver for rapid dissolving immediate-release (IR) products of Class I drugs (high solubility and high permeability). The possibility of extending biowaivers to Class III high solubility and low permeability drugs is currently under scrutiny. In vivo bioequivalence data of different formulations of Class III drugs would support such an extension. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the bioequivalence of two marketed IR tablet products of a Class III drug, metformin hydrochloride, that are rapidly dissolving and have similar in vitro dissolution profiles. The effect of race on the systemic exposure of metformin was also explored. A randomized, open-label, two-period crossover study was conducted in 12 healthy Chinese male volunteers. Each subject received a single-dose of 500 mg of each product after an overnight fasting. The plasma concentrations of metformin were followed for 24 h. No significant formulation effect was found for the bioequivalence metrics: areas under concentration-time curve (AUC0-t, AUC0-infinity) and maximal concentration (Cmax). The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of means were found within the acceptance range of 80-125% for the log-transformed data. Based on these results, it was concluded that the two IR products are bioequivalent. The pharmacokinetic parameters of metformin in Chinese for both products were similar and were in good agreement with those reported for metformin IR tablets in other ethnic populations. This study serves as an example for supporting biowaiver for BCS Class III drugs.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of various flower and silique development stages indicates a set of class III peroxidase genes potentially involved in pod shattering in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant class III peroxidases exist as a large multigenic family involved in numerous functions suggesting a functional specialization of each gene. However, few genes have been linked with a specific function. Consequently total peroxidase activity is still used in numerous studies although its relevance is questionable. Transcriptome analysis seems to be a promising tool to overcome the difficulties associated with the study of this family. Nevertheless available microarrays are not completely reliable for this purpose. We therefore used a macroarray dedicated to the 73 class III peroxidase genes of A. thaliana to identify genes potentially involved in flower and fruit development. Results The observed increase of total peroxidase activity during development was actually correlated with the induction of only a few class III peroxidase genes which supports the existence of a functional specialization of these proteins. We identified peroxidase genes that are predominantly expressed in one development stage and are probable components of the complex gene networks involved in the reproductive phase. An attempt has been made to gain insight into plausible functions of these genes by collecting and analyzing the expression data of different studies in plants. Peroxidase activity was additionally observed in situ in the silique dehiscence zone known to be involved in pod shattering. Because treatment with a peroxidase inhibitor delayed pod shattering, we subsequently studied mutants of transcription factors (TF) controlling this mechanism. Three peroxidases genes -AtPrx13, AtPrx30 and AtPrx55- were altered by the TFs involved in pod shatter. Conclusions Our data illustrated the problems caused by linking only an increase in total peroxidase activity to any specific development stage or function. The activity or involvement of specific class III peroxidase genes needs to be assessed. Several genes identified in our study had not been linked to any particular

  14. Rh(III)-catalyzed decarboxylative ortho-heteroarylation of aromatic carboxylic acids by using the carboxylic acid as a traceless directing group.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xurong; Sun, Denan; You, Qiulin; Cheng, Yangyang; Lan, Jingbo; You, Jingsong

    2015-04-01

    Highly selective decarboxylative ortho-heteroarylation of aromatic carboxylic acids with various heteroarenes has been developed through Rh(III)-catalyzed two-fold C-H activation, which exhibits a wide substrate scope of both aromatic carboxylic acids and heteroarenes. The use of naturally occurring carboxylic acid as the directing group avoids troublesome extra steps for installation and removal of an external directing group.

  15. Genetic Variation on the BAT1-NFKBIL1-LTA Region of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class III Associates with Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Marchesani, Marja; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Mäntylä, Päivi; Paju, Susanna; Buhlin, Kåre; Suominen, Anna L.; Contreras, Johanna; Knuuttila, Matti; Hernandez, Marcela; Huumonen, Sisko; Nieminen, Markku S.; Perola, Markus; Sinisalo, Juha; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Pussinen, Pirkko J.

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a multifactorial etiology. We investigated whether human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphisms (6p21.3) are associated with periodontal parameters. Parogene 1 population samples (n = 169) were analyzed with 13,245 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MHC region. Eighteen selected SNPs (P ≤ 0.001) were replicated in Parogene 2 population samples (n = 339) and the Health 2000 Survey (n = 1,420). All subjects had a detailed clinical and radiographic oral health examination. Serum lymphotoxin-α (LTA) concentrations were measured in the Parogene populations, and the protein was detected in inflamed periodontal tissue. In the Parogene 1 population, 10 SNPs were associated with periodontal parameters. The strongest associations emerged from the parameters bleeding on probing (BOP) and a probing pocket depth (PPD) of ≥6 mm with the genes BAT1, NFKBIL1, and LTA. Six SNPs, rs11796, rs3130059, rs2239527, rs2071591, rs909253, and rs1041981 (r2, ≥0.92), constituted a risk haplotype. In the Parogene 1 population, the haplotype had the strongest association with the parameter BOP, a PPD of ≥6 mm, and severe periodontitis with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 2.63 (2.21 to 3.20), 2.90 (2.37 to 3.52), and 3.10 (1.63 to 5.98), respectively. These results were replicated in the other two populations. High serum LTA concentrations in the Parogene population were associated with the periodontitis risk alleles of the LTA SNPs (rs909253 and rs1041981) of the haplotype. In addition, the protein was expressed in inflamed gingival connective tissue. We identified a novel BAT1-NFKBIL1-LTA haplotype as a significant contributor to the risk of periodontitis. The genetic polymorphisms in the MHC class III region may be functionally important in periodontitis susceptibility. PMID:24566624

  16. High levels of class III β-tubulin expression are associated with aggressive tumor features in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    LEBOK, PATRICK; ÖZTÜRK, MELIKE; HEILENKÖTTER, UWE; JAENICKE, FRITZ; MÜLLER, VOLKMAR; PALUCHOWSKI, PETER; GEIST, STEFAN; WILKE, CHRISTIAN; BURANDT, EICKE; LEBEAU, ANNETTE; WILCZAK, WALDEMAR; KRECH, TILL; SIMON, RONALD; SAUTER, GUIDO; QUAAS, ALEXANDER

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of class III β-tubulin (TUBB3), a factor that confers dynamic properties to microtubules, is a candidate biomarker for resistance to microtubule-targeting chemotherapeutics in breast and other types of solid cancer. Discrepant results from previous studies, with respect to the association of TUBB3 expression levels with breast cancer phenotype and patient prognosis, prompted the present study to investigate TUBB3 expression in a large cohort of breast cancer cases, with available clinical follow-up data. A preexisting breast cancer prognosis tissue microarray, containing a single 0.6 mm tissue core from each of 2,197 individual patients with breast cancer, was analyzed for TUBB3 expression by immunohistochemistry. The results of the present study revealed that TUBB3 expression was less frequent in lobular breast cancer cases (34%), compared with that of cancer cases of alternative histologies, including breast cancer of no special type (60%; P<0.0001). High TUBB3 positivity was associated with high tumor grade (P<0.0001), negativity for estrogen (P<0.0001) and progesterone receptors (P<0.004), as well as the presence of human epidermal growth factor 2 amplification (P<0.0001) and a triple-negative phenotype (P<0.0001). TUBB3 overexpression was additionally associated with reduced patient survival if all breast cancer cases of any histology were jointly analyzed (P=0.0088); however this link was not evident in the subset of breast cancer cases of no special type, or in a multivariate analysis including the established prognostic factors of tumor stage, grade and nodal stage. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that TUBB3 overexpression was associated with adverse features of breast cancer, and that TUBB3 may possess a distinct role in lobular breast cancer cases, compared with alternative histological subtypes. The results of the present study do not support a clinically relevant role for TUBB3 as a prognostic marker in breast cancer. PMID

  17. Cell wall-bound cationic and anionic class III isoperoxidases of pea root: biochemical characterization and function in root growth.

    PubMed

    Kukavica, Biljana M; Veljovicc-Jovanovicc, Sonja D; Menckhoff, Ljiljana; Lüthje, Sabine

    2012-07-01

    Cell wall isolated from pea roots was used to separate and characterize two fractions possessing class III peroxidase activity: (i) ionically bound proteins and (ii) covalently bound proteins. Modified SDS-PAGE separated peroxidase isoforms by their apparent molecular weights: four bands of 56, 46, 44, and 41kDa were found in the ionically bound fraction (iPOD) and one band (70kDa) was resolved after treatment of the cell wall with cellulase and pectinase (cPOD). Isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns for iPODs and cPODs were significantly different: five iPODs with highly cationic pI (9.5-9.2) were detected, whereas the nine cPODs were anionic with pI values between pH 3.7 and 5. iPODs and cPODs showed rather specific substrate affinity and different sensitivity to inhibitors, heat, and deglycosylation treatments. Peroxidase and oxidase activities and their IEF patterns for both fractions were determined in different zones along the root and in roots of different ages. New iPODs with pI 9.34 and 9.5 were induced with root growth, while the activity of cPODs was more related to the formation of the cell wall in non-elongating tissue. Treatment with auxin that inhibits root growth led to suppression of iPOD and induction of cPOD. A similar effect was obtained with the widely used elicitor, chitosan, which also induced cPODs with pI 5.3 and 5.7, which may be specifically related to pathogen defence. The differences reported here between biochemical properties of cPOD and iPOD and their differential induction during development and under specific treatments implicate that they are involved in specific and different physiological processes. PMID:22760472

  18. A review of the literature on the prevalence of Class III malocclusion and the mandibular prognathic growth hypotheses.

    PubMed

    van Vuuren, C

    1991-03-01

    From this review of the literature it appears that we may draw the following conclusions. The incidence of Class III malocclusions is at most 4.2% (Goose et al. 1957, Ast et al. 1965; Knowles 1966, Thylander and Myrberg 1973). The development of various condyle growth hypotheses have lead us to believe that the condyle behaves in a rather unique manner. The condyle does not appear to be an epiphysis, neither does it behave the same as the cranium. It is a unique cartilaginous structure that cannot grow against intermittent or continuous forces (Copray 1985). The cybernetic model as proposed by Petrovic and co workers (1977) that eloquently describes the condyle to be stimulated by a cybernetic switch that connects to the periodontal ligament also does not seem to have much validity. It appears that the lateral pterygoid muscle and the temporo-mandibular condylar frenum have been ascribed capabilities that do not comply to the results of condylotomy studies. Gorette-Nicaise, Awn, and Dhem (1983) as well as the study by Whetten, and Johnston (1985) have shown that neither the absence of the lateral pterygoid muscle nor the physical volumetric expansion of the airway increases condylar growth. It appears that increase in the pressure applied to the condyle could decrease condyle cell proliferation (Armstrong 1961; Thilander 1963; 1965: Janzen and Bluher 1965; Graber 1969; Petrovic 1972; Graber and Muller 1974; Graber 1975;) with resulting growth attenuation. Accordingly, condylar growth is controlled by physical restraint, the absence which leads to incremental growht. The presence of mechanical pressure of adequate duration and magnitude, thus, should limit growth of the young actively growing condyle. PMID:1843780

  19. Differential regulation of meristem size, morphology and organization by the ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Tali; Candela, Héctor; Landau, Udi; Asis, Lior; Zelinger, Einat; Carles, Cristel C.; Williams, Leor Eshed

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The shoot apical meristem (SAM) of angiosperm plants is a small, highly organized structure that gives rise to all above-ground organs. The SAM is divided into three functional domains: the central zone (CZ) at the SAM tip harbors the self-renewing pluripotent stem cells and the organizing center, providing daughter cells that are continuously displaced into the interior rib zone (RZ) or the surrounding peripheral zone (PZ), from which organ primordia are initiated. Despite the constant flow of cells from the CZ into the RZ or PZ, and cell recruitment for primordium formation, a stable balance is maintained between the distinct cell populations in the SAM. Here we combined an in-depth phenotypic analysis with a comparative RNA-Seq approach to characterize meristems from selected combinations of clavata3 (clv3), jabba-1D (jba-1D) and erecta (er) mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that CLV3 restricts meristem expansion along the apical-basal axis, whereas class III HD-ZIP and ER pathways restrict meristem expansion laterally, but in distinct and possibly perpendicular orientations. Our k-means analysis reveals that clv3, jba-1D/+ and er lead to meristem enlargement by affecting different aspects of meristem function; for example, clv3 displays an increase in the stem cell population, whereas jba-1D/+ er exhibits an increase in mitotic activity and in the meristematic cell population. Our analyses demonstrate that a combined genetic and mRNA-Seq comparative approach provides a precise and sensitive method to identify cell type-specific transcriptomes in a small structure, such as the SAM. PMID:26989178

  20. The ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP Pathways Display Synergistic Interactions in Regulating Floral Meristem Activities

    PubMed Central

    Landau, Udi; Asis, Lior; Eshed Williams, Leor

    2015-01-01

    In angiosperms, the production of flowers marks the beginning of the reproductive phase. At the emergence of flower primordia on the flanks of the inflorescence meristem, the WUSCHEL (WUS) gene, which encodes a homeodomain transcription factor starts to be expressed and establishes de novo stem cell population, founder of the floral meristem (FM). Similarly to the shoot apical meristem a precise spatial and temporal expression pattern of WUS is required and maintained through strict regulation by multiple regulatory inputs to maintain stem cell homeostasis. However, following the formation of a genetically determined fixed number of floral organs, this homeostasis is shifted towards organogenesis and the FM is terminated. In here we performed a genetic study to test how a reduction in ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP pathways affects floral meristem activity and flower development. We revealed strong synergistic phenotypes of extra flower number, supernumerary whorls, total loss of determinacy and extreme enlargement of the meristem as compared to any double mutant combination indicating that the three pathways, CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII distinctively regulate meristem activity and that they act in parallel. Our findings yield several new insights into stem cell-driven development. We demonstrate the crucial requirement for coupling floral meristem termination with carpel formation to ensure successful reproduction in plants. We also show how regulation of meristem size and alternation in spatial structure of the meristem serve as a mechanism to determine flower organogenesis. We propose that the loss of FM determinacy due to the reduction in CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII activity is genetically separable from the AGAMOUS core mechanism of meristem termination. PMID:25946150

  1. Oxidation of formic acid on platinum surfaces decorated with cobalt(III) macrocyclic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevanović, S.; Babić-Samardžija, K.; Sovilj, S. P.; Tripković, A.; Jovanović, V. M.

    2009-09-01

    Platinum electrode decorated with three different mixed-ligand cobalt(III) complexes of the general formula [Co(Rdtc)cyclam](ClO4)2 [cyclam = 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane, Rdtc- = morpholine-(Morphdtc), piperidine-(Pipdtc), and 4-methylpiperidine-(4-Mepipdtc) dithiocarbamates, respectively] was used to study oxidation of formic acid in acidic solution. The complexes were adsorbed on differently prepared Pt surfaces, at open circuit potential. The preliminary results show increased catalytic activity of Pt for formic acid oxidation with complex ion adsorbed on the polycrystalline surfaces. The increase in catalytic activity depends on the structure of the complex applied and follows the order of metal-coordinated bidentate ligand as Morphdtc > Pipdtc > 4-Mepipdtc. Based on IR and NMR data, the main characteristics of the Rdtc ligands do not vary dramatically, but high symmetry of the corresponding complexes decreases in the same order. Accordingly, the complexes are distinctively more mobile, causing chemical interactions to occur on the surface with appreciable speed and enhanced selectivity. The effect of the complexes on catalytic activity presumably depends on structural changes on Pt surfaces caused by their adsorption.

  2. Preparation and characterization of Fe(III)-loaded iminodiacetic acid modified GMA grafted nonwoven fabric adsorbent for anion adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavaklı, Pınar Akkaş; Kavaklı, Cengiz; Güven, Olgun

    2014-01-01

    An Fe(III)-loaded chelating fabric with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) functional groups was prepared by radiation induced graft polymerization of an epoxy group containing monomer, glycidyl methacrylate, onto a nonwoven fabric made of polypropylene coated by polyethylene (PE/PP) and subsequent Fe(III) loading. Grafting conditions were optimized, and GMA grafted polymer was modified with iminodiacetic acid in isopropyl alcohol/water at 80 °C. In order to prepare the polymeric ligand exchanger (PLE) for the removal of phosphate, IDA fabrics were loaded with Fe(III) ions. Fe(III) loading capacity of IDA fabric was determined to be 2.83 mmol Fe(III)/g of polymer. For removal of phosphate anion, adsorption experiments were performed in batch mode at different pH (2-9) and phosphate concentrations. It was found that phosphate adsorption by the Fe(III)-loaded IDA fabric is maximum at pH 2.00. The effect of initial concentration of phosphate on the adsorption behaviour of Fe(III)-loaded IDA nonwoven fabric was determined at low phosphate concentrations (0.5-25 ppm) and at high phosphate concentrations (50-1000 ppm).

  3. Atomistic details of the Catalytic Mechanism of Fe(III)-Zn(II) Purple Acid Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Alberto, Marta E; Marino, Tiziana; Ramos, Maria J; Russo, Nino

    2010-08-10

    In the present work, we performed a theoretical investigation of the reaction mechanism of the Fe(III)-Zn(II) purple acid phosphatase from red kidney beans (rkbPAP), using the hybrid density functional theory and employing different exchange-correlation potentials. Characterization of the transition states and intermediates involved and the potential energy profiles for the reaction in different environments (gas phase, protein environment, and water) are reported. Our results show that the Fe(III)-Zn(II)PAP catalyzes the hydrolysis of methylphosphate via direct attack by a bridging metals-coordinated hydroxide leading to the cleavage of the ester bond. From our study emerges that the rate-limiting step of the reaction is the nucleophilic attack followed by the less energetically demanding release of the leaving group. Furthermore, we provide insights into some important points of contention concerning the precatalytic complex and the substrate coordination mode into the active site prior to hydrolysis. In particular: (i) Two models of enzyme-substrate with different orientations of the substrate into the active site were tested to evaluate the possible roles played by the conserved histidine residues (His 202 and His 296); (ii) Different protonation states of the substrate were taken into account in order to reproduce different pH values and to verify its influence on the catalytic efficiency and on the substrate binding mode; (iii) The metals role in each step of the catalytic mechanism was elucidated. We were also able to ascertain that the activation of the leaving group by the protonated His 296 is decisive to reach an optimal catalytic efficiency, while the bond scission without activation requires higher energy to occur. PMID:26613496

  4. Features of separation on polymeric reversed phase for two classes of higher saturated fatty acids esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deineka, V. I.; Lapshova, M. S.; Zakharenko, E. V.; Deineka, L. A.

    2013-11-01

    The principles of sorption on polymeric reversed phase (PRP) YMS C30 for members of the two classes of esters formed by higher saturated fatty acids, i.e., lutein diesters ( I) and triacylglycerols ( II), are investigated. It is shown that the logarithm of the retention factor increases nonlinearly with an increase of the length of the acid radical, although the retention on PRP is higher in the case of I and lower in the case of II, compared to their retention on traditional monomeric reversed phase (MRP) Kromasil-100 5C18; however, the equivalence of the contributions to the retention of I that correspond to an identical change in acids, does not depend on the length of the hydrocarbon radical of the second acid. It is noted that the Van't Hoff plot for PRP contains a curve break, indicating a change in the retention mechanism upon a rise in temperature.

  5. Oleanolic Acid Induces the Type III Secretion System of Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dousheng; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xuejiao; Yang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt, can naturally infect a wide range of host plants. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a major virulence determinant in this bacterium. Studies have shown that plant-derived compounds are able to inhibit or induce the T3SS in some plant pathogenic bacteria, though no specific T3SS inhibitor or inducer has yet been identified in R. solanacearum. In this study, a total of 50 different compounds were screened and almost half of them (22 of 50) significantly inhibited or induced the T3SS expression of R. solanacearum. Based on the strong induction activity on T3SS, the T3SS inducer oleanolic acid (OA) was chosen for further study. We found that OA induced the expression of T3SS through the HrpG-HrpB pathway. Some type III effector genes were induced in T3SS inducing medium supplemented with OA. In addition, OA targeted only the T3SS and did not affect other virulence determinants. Finally, we observed that induction of T3SS by OA accelerated disease progress on tobacco. Overall our results suggest that plant-derived compounds are an abundant source of R. solanacearum T3SS regulators, which could prove useful as tools to interrogate the regulation of this key virulence pathway. PMID:26732647

  6. Oleanolic Acid Induces the Type III Secretion System of Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dousheng; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xuejiao; Yang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt, can naturally infect a wide range of host plants. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a major virulence determinant in this bacterium. Studies have shown that plant-derived compounds are able to inhibit or induce the T3SS in some plant pathogenic bacteria, though no specific T3SS inhibitor or inducer has yet been identified in R. solanacearum. In this study, a total of 50 different compounds were screened and almost half of them (22 of 50) significantly inhibited or induced the T3SS expression of R. solanacearum. Based on the strong induction activity on T3SS, the T3SS inducer oleanolic acid (OA) was chosen for further study. We found that OA induced the expression of T3SS through the HrpG-HrpB pathway. Some type III effector genes were induced in T3SS inducing medium supplemented with OA. In addition, OA targeted only the T3SS and did not affect other virulence determinants. Finally, we observed that induction of T3SS by OA accelerated disease progress on tobacco. Overall our results suggest that plant-derived compounds are an abundant source of R. solanacearum T3SS regulators, which could prove useful as tools to interrogate the regulation of this key virulence pathway. PMID:26732647

  7. The endoplasmic reticulum is a target organelle for trivalent dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup III})-induced cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Naranmandura, Hua; Xu, Shi; Koike, Shota; Pan, Li Qiang; Chen, Bin; Wang, Yan Wei; Rehman, Kanwal; Wu, Bin; Chen, Zhe; Suzuki, Noriyuki

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of present study was to characterize the endoplasmic reticulum stress and generation of ROS in rat liver RLC-16 cells by exposing to trivalent dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}) and compared with that of trivalent arsenite (iAs{sup III}) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}). Protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) phosphorylation was significantly induced in cells exposed to DMA{sup III}, while there was no change in phosphorylated PERK (P-PERK) detected in cells after exposure to iAs{sup III} or MMA{sup III}. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after DMA{sup III} exposure was found to take place specifically in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), while previous reports showed that ROS was generated in mitochondria following exposure to MMA{sup III}. Meanwhile, cycloheximide (CHX) which is an inhibitor of protein biosynthesis strongly inhibited the DMA{sup III}-induced intracellular ROS generation in the ER and the phosphorylation of PERK, suggesting the induction of ER stress probably occurs through the inhibition of the protein folding process. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) mRNA were induced by all three arsenic species, however, evidence suggested that they might be induced by different pathways in the case of iAs{sup III} and MMA{sup III}. In addition, ER resident molecular chaperone glucose-regulated protein78 (GRP78) was not affected by trivalent arsenicals, while it was induced in positive control only at high concentration (Thapsigargin;Tg), suggesting the GRP78 is less sensitive to low levels of ER stress. In summary, our findings demonstrate that the endoplasmic reticulum is a target organelle for DMA{sup III}-induced cytotoxicity. Highlights: ►ER is a target organelle for trivalent DMA{sup III}-induced cytotoxicity. ►Generation of ROS in ER can be induced specially by trivalent DMA{sup III}. ►ER-stress and generation of ROS are caused by the increase in

  8. Recognition of Nucleoside Monophosphate Substrates by Haemophilus influenzae Class C Acid Phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J.

    2010-12-08

    The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD{sup +} utilization pathway by dephosphorylating nicotinamide mononucleotide to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs), which are nonspecific 5{prime},3{prime}-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with nicotinamide mononucleotide, 5{prime}-AMP, 3{prime}-AMP, and 2{prime}-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and the hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and the phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, explaining the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, consistent with an observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5{prime}-nucleotides and 3{prime}-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme's direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5{prime} substrates in an anti conformation and 3{prime} substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B acid phosphatases and CCAPs share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition.

  9. Recognition of nucleoside monophosphate substrates by Haemophilus influenzae class C acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P; Reilly, Thomas J; Calcutt, Michael J; Tanner, John J

    2010-12-10

    The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD(+) utilization pathway by dephosphorylating nicotinamide mononucleotide to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs), which are nonspecific 5',3'-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with nicotinamide mononucleotide, 5'-AMP, 3'-AMP, and 2'-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and the hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and the phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, explaining the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, consistent with an observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5'-nucleotides and 3'-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme's direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5' substrates in an anti conformation and 3' substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B acid phosphatases and CCAPs share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition. PMID:20934434

  10. The Hybrid Hyrax Distalizer, a new all-in-one appliance for rapid palatal expansion, early class III treatment and upper molar distalization.

    PubMed

    Wilmes, Benedict; Ludwig, Björn; Katyal, Vandana; Nienkemper, Manuel; Rein, Anna; Drescher, Dieter

    2014-09-01

    Growing class III patients with maxillary deficiency may be treated with a maxillary protraction facemask. Because the force generated by this appliance is applied to the teeth, the inevitable mesial migration of the dentition can result in anterior crowding, incisor proclination and a possible need for subsequent extraction therapy. The Hybrid Hyrax appliance, anchored on mini-implants in the anterior palate, can be used to overcome these side-effects during the facemask therapy. In some class III cases, there is also a need for subsequent distalization after the orthopaedic treatment. In this paper, clinical application of the Hybrid Hyrax Distalizer is described, facilitating both orthopaedic advancement of the maxilla and simultaneous orthodontic distalization of the maxillary molars.

  11. Targeting kinases with anilinopyrimidines: discovery of N-phenyl-N’-[4-(pyrimidin-4-ylamino)phenyl]urea derivatives as selective inhibitors of class III receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Gandin, Valentina; Ferrarese, Alessandro; Dalla Via, Martina; Marzano, Cristina; Chilin, Adriana; Marzaro, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Kinase inhibitors are attractive drugs/drug candidates for the treatment of cancer. The most recent literature has highlighted the importance of multi target kinase inhibitors, although a correct balance between specificity and non-specificity is required. In this view, the discovery of multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitors with subfamily selectivity is a challenging goal. Herein we present the synthesis and the preliminary kinase profiling of a set of novel 4-anilinopyrimidines. Among the synthesized compounds, the N-phenyl-N’-[4-(pyrimidin-4-ylamino)phenyl]urea derivatives selectively targeted some members of class III receptor tyrosine kinase family. Starting from the structure of hit compound 19 we synthesized a further compound with an improved affinity toward the class III receptor tyrosine kinase members and endowed with a promising antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo in a murine solid tumor model. Molecular modeling simulations were used in order to rationalize the behavior of the title compounds. PMID:26568452

  12. Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft in Combination with a Tunnel Technique for the Treatment of Miller Class II and III Gingival Recessions in Mandibular Incisors: Clinical and Esthetic Results.

    PubMed

    Nart, Jose; Valles, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    There is limited evidence regarding the effect of the subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) on root coverage in the mandibular anterior region. A sample of 15 Miller Class II and III recessions were treated in 15 patients using a SCTG with a tunnel technique. After a mean follow-up of 20.53 months, the mean percentage of root coverage was 83.25% for all treated recessions. Furthermore, a statistically significant increase of keratinized tissue was observed at the end of the evaluation period (2.66 mm; P = .001). The combination of tunnel technique and SCTG should be considered a treatment option to obtain root coverage in mandibular incisors with Class II and III recession defects. PMID:27333018

  13. Domain structures and molecular evolution of class I and class II major histocompatibility gene complex (MHC) products deduced from amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Koji

    1984-12-01

    Domain structures of class I and class II MHC products were analyzed from a viewpoint of amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies. Alignment statistics revealed that class I (transplantation) antigen H chains consist of four mutually homologous domains, and that class II (HLA-DR) antigen β and α chains are both composed of three mutually homologous ones. The N-terminal three and two domains of class I and class II (both β and α) gene products, respectively, all of which being ˜90 residues long, were concluded to be homologous to β2-microglobulin (β2M). The membraneembedded C-terminal shorter domains of these MHC products were also found to be homologous to one another and to the third domain of class I H chains. Class I H chains were found to be more closely related to class II α chains than to class II β chains. Based on these findings, an exon duplication history from a common ancestral gene encoding a β2M-like primodial protein of one-domain-length up to the contemporary MHC products was proposed.

  14. Expression, purification and crystallization of class C acid phosphatases from Francisella tularensis and Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harkewal; Felts, Richard L.; Ma, Li; Malinski, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Tanner, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Class C nonspecific acid phosphatases are bacterial enzymes that are secreted across the cytoplasmic membrane and hydrolyze a variety of phosphomono­esters at acidic pH. These enzymes are of interest for the development of improved vaccines and clinical diagnostic methods. In one case, the category A pathogen Francisella tularensis, the class C phosphatase plays a role in bacterial fitness. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization methods for the class C acid phosphatases from F. tularensis and Pasteurella multocida are reported. Crystals of the F. tularensis enzyme diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2221, with one enzyme molecule in the asymmetric unit. Crystals of the P. multocida enzyme diffracted to 1.85 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2, with three molecules in the asymmetric unit. Diffraction patterns from crystals of the P. multocida enzyme exhibited multiple interpenetrating reciprocal-space lattices, indicating epitaxial twinning. Despite this aberrance, autoindexing was robust and the data could be satisfactorily processed to 1.85 Å resolution using MOSFLM and SCALA. PMID:19255471

  15. Oxidized or acetylated low density lipoproteins are rapidly cleared by the liver in mice with disruption of the scavenger receptor class A type I/II gene.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, W; Lougheed, M; Suzuki, H; Buchan, A; Kodama, T; Steinbrecher, U P

    1997-01-01

    Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) and acetyl LDL are recognized by the scavenger receptor class A type I/II (SR-AI/II) on macrophages and liver endothelial cells. Several investigators have suggested that there are additional receptors specific for oxidized LDL, but characterization of these alternate receptors for oxidized LDL and evaluation of their quantitative importance in uptake of oxidized LDL has been difficult because of overlapping ligand specificity with SR-AI/II. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of SR-AI/II in the removal of modified LDL from the bloodstream in vivo. The clearance rate of oxidized LDL from plasma in normal mice was very rapid, and > 90% of injected dose was removed from the blood within 5 min. Clearance rates of oxidized LDL were equally high in SR-AI/II knockout mice, indicating that this receptor is not required for removal of oxidized LDL from plasma. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the clearance rate of acetyl LDL in wild-type and SR-AI/II knockout animals. The plasma clearance of radioiodinated acetyl LDL was almost fully blocked by a 50-fold excess of unlabeled acetyl LDL, but the latter only inhibited oxidized LDL clearance by approximately 5%. Both modified LDLs were cleared mostly by the liver, and there was no difference in the tissue distribution of modified LDL in control and knockout mice. Studies in isolated nonparenchymal liver cells showed that Kupffer cells accounted for most of the uptake of oxidized LDL. Extensively oxidized LDL and LDL modified by exposure to fatty acid peroxidation products were efficient competitors for the uptake of labeled oxidized LDL by SR-AI/II-deficient Kupffer cells, while acetyl LDL and malondialdehyde-modified LDL were relatively poor competitors. PMID:9218499

  16. Enumeration and Characterization of Iron(III)-Reducing Microbial Communities from Acidic Subsurface Sediments Contaminated with Uranium(VI)

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Lainie; North, Nadia N.; Dollhopf, Sherry L.; Balkwill, David L.; Kostka, Joel E.

    2003-01-01

    Iron(III)-reducing bacteria have been demonstrated to rapidly catalyze the reduction and immobilization of uranium(VI) from contaminated subsurface sediments. Thus, these organisms may aid in the development of bioremediation strategies for uranium contamination, which is prevalent in acidic subsurface sediments at U.S. government facilities. Iron(III)-reducing enrichment cultures were initiated from pristine and contaminated (high in uranium, nitrate; low pH) subsurface sediments at pH 7 and pH 4 to 5. Enumeration of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria yielded cell counts of up to 240 cells ml−1 for the contaminated and background sediments at both pHs with a range of different carbon sources (glycerol, acetate, lactate, and glucose). In enrichments where nitrate contamination was removed from the sediment by washing, MPN counts of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria increased substantially. Sediments of lower pH typically yielded lower counts of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in lactate- and acetate-amended enrichments, but higher counts were observed when glucose was used as an electron donor in acidic enrichments. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences extracted from the highest positive MPN dilutions revealed that the predominant members of Fe(III)-reducing consortia from background sediments were closely related to members of the Geobacteraceae family, whereas a recently characterized Fe(III) reducer (Anaeromyxobacter sp.) and organisms not previously shown to reduce Fe(III) (Paenibacillus and Brevibacillus spp.) predominated in the Fe(III)-reducing consortia of contaminated sediments. Analysis of enrichment cultures by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) strongly supported the cloning and sequencing results. Dominant members of the Fe(III)-reducing consortia were observed to be stable over several enrichment culture transfers by T-RFLP in conjunction with measurements of Fe(III) reduction activity and carbon substrate utilization. Enrichment

  17. Comparison of WIAT, DAB-2, and WISC-III Scores of Students Assessed for Exceptional Class Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emens, Rebecca; Sapp, Gary L.; Dorsey, Jeannene; Kohler, Maxie

    Scores on the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT), the Diagnostic Achievement Battery (DAB-2) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III), were compared for 58 students assessed for placement in exceptional education. Primary questions concerned (a) the relationships among WIAT, DAB-2, and WISC-III scores, (b) similarities…

  18. Cone-beam computed tomography based evaluation of rotational patterns of dentofacial structures in skeletal Class III deformity with mandibular asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyeong-Seok; An, Ki-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess rotational patterns of dentofacial structures according to different vertical skeletal patterns by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and analyze their influence on menton deviation in skeletal Class III deformity with mandibular asymmetry. Methods The control group consisted of 30 young adults (15 men, 15 women) without any severe skeletal deformity. The asymmetry group included 55 adults (28 men, 27 women) with skeletal Class III deformity and at least 3-mm menton deviation from the midsagittal plane; it was divided into the hyperdivergent and hypodivergent subgroups using a mandibular plane angle cutoff of 35°. Fourteen rotational variables of the dental arches and mandible were measured and compared among the groups. Correlations between menton deviation and the other variables were evaluated. Results The asymmetry group showed significantly larger measurements of roll and yaw in the mandible than the control group. The hypodivergent subgroup showed significant differences in maxillary posterior measurements of yaw (p < 0.01) and maxillary anterior shift (p < 0.05) compared with the hyperdivergent subgroup. All the mandibular measurements had significant correlations with menton deviation (p < 0.01). Most measurements of roll were positively correlated with one another (p < 0.01). Measurements of yaw and roll in the posterior regions were also positively correlated (p < 0.05). Conclusions Menton deviation in skeletal Class III deformity with mandibular asymmetry is influenced by rotation of mandibular posterior dentofacial structures. The rotational patterns vary slightly according to the vertical skeletal pattern. PMID:26258061

  19. Electrochemiluminescence of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid)aluminum(III) in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Muegge, Brian D; Brooks, Sean; Richter, Mark M

    2003-03-01

    The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid)aluminum(III) in aqueous solution is reported. ECL is generated by complexing aluminum ions with the chelating agent 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQS) to form Al(HQS)3, followed by oxidation in the presence of tri-n-propylamine (TPrA). The ECL intensity peaks a potential corresponding to oxidation of both TPrA and Al(HQS)3, and the ECL emission spectrum (lambda(max) = 499 nm) matches the photoluminescence emission spectrum, indicating that the emission is from a Al(HQS)3* excited state. ECL efficiencies (phi(ecl), photons generated per redox event) of 0.002 using Ru(bpy)3(2+) (phi(ecl) = 1) as relative standard. Conditions for ECL emission were optimized and used to generate a calibration curve that was linear over the 7 x 10(-6)-4 x 10(-4) M (5-281 mg/L (ppm)) range with a theoretical limit of detection of 1 ppm. The ECL of several metal ions other than aluminum with HQS and effects on Al(HQS)3 ECL were also examined.

  20. The Fe(III) and Ga(III) coordination chemistry of 3-(1-hydroxymethylidene) and 3-(1-hydroxydecylidene)-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine-2,4-dione: Novel tetramic acid degradation products of homoserine lactone bacterial quorum sensing molecules

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Ariel A.; Hahn, Tobias; Davis, Nicole; Lowery, Colin A.; Struss, Anjali K.; Janda, Kim D.; Böttger, Lars H.; Matzanke, Berthold F.; Carrano, Carl J.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria use small diffusible molecules to exchange information in a process called quorum sensing (QS). An important class of quorum sensing molecules used by Gram-negative bacteria is the family of N-acylhomoserine lactones (HSL). It was recently discovered that a degradation product of the QS molecule 3-oxo-C12-homoserine lactone, the tetramic acid 3-(1-hydroxydecylidene)-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine-2,4-dione, is a potent antibacterial agent, thus implying roles for QS outside of simply communication. Because these tetramic acids also appear to bind iron with appreciable affinity it was suggested that metal binding might contribute to their biological activity. Here, using a variety of spectroscopic tools, we describe the coordination chemistry of both the methylidene and decylidene tetramic acid derivatives with Fe(III) and Ga(III) and discuss the potential biological significance of such metal binding. PMID:22178671

  1. The Fe(III) and Ga(III) coordination chemistry of 3-(1-hydroxymethylidene) and 3-(1-hydroxydecylidene)-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine-2,4-dione: novel tetramic acid degradation products of homoserine lactone bacterial quorum sensing molecules.

    PubMed

    Romano, Ariel A; Hahn, Tobias; Davis, Nicole; Lowery, Colin A; Struss, Anjali K; Janda, Kim D; Böttger, Lars H; Matzanke, Berthold F; Carrano, Carl J

    2012-02-01

    Bacteria use small diffusible molecules to exchange information in a process called quorum sensing (QS). An important class of quorum sensing molecules used by Gram-negative bacteria is the family of N-acylhomoserine lactones (HSL). It was recently discovered that a degradation product of the QS molecule 3-oxo-C(12)-homoserine lactone, the tetramic acid 3-(1-hydroxydecylidene)-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine-2,4-dione, is a potent antibacterial agent, thus implying roles for QS outside of simply communication. Because these tetramic acids also appear to bind iron with appreciable affinity it was suggested that metal binding might contribute to their biological activity. Here, using a variety of spectroscopic tools, we describe the coordination chemistry of both the methylidene and decylidene tetramic acid derivatives with Fe(III) and Ga(III) and discuss the potential biological significance of such metal binding.

  2. The Fe(III) and Ga(III) coordination chemistry of 3-(1-hydroxymethylidene) and 3-(1-hydroxydecylidene)-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine-2,4-dione: novel tetramic acid degradation products of homoserine lactone bacterial quorum sensing molecules.

    PubMed

    Romano, Ariel A; Hahn, Tobias; Davis, Nicole; Lowery, Colin A; Struss, Anjali K; Janda, Kim D; Böttger, Lars H; Matzanke, Berthold F; Carrano, Carl J

    2012-02-01

    Bacteria use small diffusible molecules to exchange information in a process called quorum sensing (QS). An important class of quorum sensing molecules used by Gram-negative bacteria is the family of N-acylhomoserine lactones (HSL). It was recently discovered that a degradation product of the QS molecule 3-oxo-C(12)-homoserine lactone, the tetramic acid 3-(1-hydroxydecylidene)-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine-2,4-dione, is a potent antibacterial agent, thus implying roles for QS outside of simply communication. Because these tetramic acids also appear to bind iron with appreciable affinity it was suggested that metal binding might contribute to their biological activity. Here, using a variety of spectroscopic tools, we describe the coordination chemistry of both the methylidene and decylidene tetramic acid derivatives with Fe(III) and Ga(III) and discuss the potential biological significance of such metal binding. PMID:22178671

  3. Chitin-humic acid hybrid as adsorbent for Cr(III) in effluent of tannery wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santosa, Sri Juari; Siswanta, Dwi; Sudiono, Sri; Utarianingrum, Ratna

    2008-09-01

    Adsorption of Cr(III) from both synthetic and real samples of tannery wastewater treatment's effluent on chitin-humic acid (chitin-HA) hybrid has been carried out. Rate constant and capacity of adsorption of Cr(III) from the synthetic sample were investigated and removal of Cr(III) from the real sample was tested at optimum medium acidity equivalent to pH 3.5. Characterization using Fourier transform infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed that both sbnd COO - and N-acetyl originated from respectively humic acid (HA) and chitin were involved on the adsorption of Cr(III), and hence the Freundlich's multilayer and multi-energy adsorption model was more applicable to treat the adsorption data than the Langmuir's monolayer and mono-energy model. The quantification of adsorption capacity and rate constant using Freundlich isotherm model and first order adsorption reaching equilibrium yielded values of 6.84 × 10 -4 mol g -1 (35.57 mg g -1) and 1.70 × 10 -2 min -1, respectively. Removal test for the real wastewater treatment's effluent showed that the maximum amount of Cr(III) could be removed by 1 g of chitin-HA hybrid was 2.08 × 10 -4 mol or equivalent to 10.82 mg.

  4. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THREE CLASSES OF BACTERIAL NON-SPECIFIC ACID PHOSPHATASES AND ARCHAEAL PHOSPHOESTERASES: EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    U. Gandhi, Neha; B. Chandra, Sathees

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Bacterial nonspecific acid phosphohydrolases (NSAPs) or phosphatases are group of enzymes secreted as soluble periplasmic proteins or retained as membrane bound lipoproteins that are usually able to dephosphorylate a broad array of structurally unrelated organic phosphoesters (nucleotides, sugar phosphates, phytic acid etc.) to acquire inorganic phosphate (Pi) and organic byproducts. They exhibit optimal catalytic activity at acidic to neutral pH values. On the basis of amino acid sequence relatedness, phosphatase are grouped into different molecular families namely Class A, Class B and Class C acid phosphatase respectively. Results and discussion: In this article out of thirty three sequences, twenty six belonging to each of the three classes of bacterial acid phosphatase and seven belonging to archaeal phosphoesterases were analyzed using various tools of bioinformatics. Phylogenetic analysis, dot plot comparisons and motif analysis were done to identify a number of similarities and differences between three classes of bacterial acid phosphatases and archaeal phosphoesterases. In this research we have attempted to decipher evolutionary relationship between three classes of bacterial acid phosphatase and archaeal phosphoesterases using bioinformatics approach. PMID:23322973

  5. Luminescence properties of compounds of europium(III) with quinaldic acid and phosphor-containing neutral ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinovskaya, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    Luminescent complex mixed-ligand compounds of europium(III) with quinaldic acid and phosphor- containing neutral ligands have been obtained. Their composition and structure have been determined. The thermal and spectral-luminescent properties of the obtained complex mixed-ligand compounds of europium( III) have been studied. It is shown that, during thermolysis, a water molecule and neutral ligand are detached in two stages with endothermic effects. It is established that quinaldinate ion is coordinated to europium(III) ion in a bidentate fashion. The Stark structure of the 5 D 0-7 F j ( j = 0, 1, 2) transitions in low-temperature luminescence spectra of complex compounds of europium(III) has been analyzed.

  6. The novel pterostilbene derivative ANK-199 induces autophagic cell death through regulating PI3 kinase class III/beclin 1/Atg‑related proteins in cisplatin‑resistant CAR human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Min-Tsang; Chen, Hao-Ping; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Wu, Tian-Shung; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Huang, Li-Jiau; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2014-08-01

    Pterostilbene is an effective chemopreventive agent against multiple types of cancer cells. A novel pterostilbene derivative, ANK-199, was designed and synthesized by our group. Its antitumor activity and mechanism in cisplatin-resistant CAR human oral cancer cells were investigated in this study. Our results show that ANK-199 has an extremely low toxicity in normal oral cell lines. The formation of autophagic vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) was observed in the ANK-199-treated CAR cells by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and acridine orange (AO) staining, suggesting that ANK-199 is able to induce autophagic cell death in CAR cells. Neither DNA fragmentation nor DNA condensation was observed, which means that ANK-199-induced cell death is not triggered by apoptosis. In accordance with morphological observation, 3-MA, a specific inhibitor of PI3K kinase class III, can inhibit the autophagic vesicle formation induced by ANK-199. In addition, ANK-199 is also able to enhance the protein levels of autophagic proteins, Atg complex, beclin 1, PI3K class III and LC3-II, and mRNA expression of autophagic genes Atg7, Atg12, beclin 1 and LC3-II in the ANK-199-treated CAR cells. A molecular signaling pathway induced by ANK-199 was therefore summarized. Results presented in this study show that ANK-199 may become a novel therapeutic reagent for the treatment of oral cancer in the near future (patent pending).

  7. Functional and computational analysis of amino acid patterns predictive of type III secretion system substrates in Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial type III secretion systems (T3SSs) deliver proteins called effectors into eukaryotic cells. Although N-terminal amino acid sequences are required for translocation, the mechanism of substrate recognition by the T3SS is unknown. Almost all actively deployed T3SS substrates in the plant path...

  8. Ionic Strength Effect on the Rate of Reduction of Hexacyanoferrate (III) by Ascorbic Acid: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Kenneth W.; Olson, June A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a physical chemistry experiment that allows students to test the effect of ionic strength on the rates of a reaction between ions. The reduction of hexacyanoferrate III by ascorbic acid is detailed. Comparisons with the iodine clock reaction are made. (CS)

  9. In vivo correction with recombinant adenovirus of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase deficiencies in strain III mice.

    PubMed

    Kubo, S; Kiwaki, K; Awata, H; Katoh, H; Kanegae, Y; Saito, I; Yamamoto, T; Miyazaki, J; Matsuda, I; Endo, F

    1997-01-01

    Tyrosinemia type 3, caused by a genetic deficiency of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase (HPD) in tyrosine catabolism, is characterized by convulsion, ataxia, and mental retardation. The III mouse is a model of tyrosinemia type 3. HPD activity and protein are defective in the liver and its blood tyrosine levels are elevated, the range being between 1,100 and 1,656 microM. We constructed a recombinant adenoviral vector bearing the human HPD cDNA (AdexCAGhHPD), which is expressed under the control of a potent CAG promoter. III mice were injected with 1.0 x 10(8) to 1.0 x 10(9) pfu of AdexCAGhHPD through the tail vein. When 3.0 x 10(8) - 1.0 x 10(9) pfu were injected, blood tyrosine levels decreased within 3 hr, reached a normal range (under 300 microM), and remained at a low level for 2-6 weeks. Hepatic HPD activities also increased as early as 3 hr after the injection of 5.0 x 10(8) pfu, reached the levels comparable to the control mice in 3-7 days, and then decreased, and correlated well to blood tyrosine. Hepatic HPD expression was confirmed by Northern blot and immunoblot analyses. Histology revealed no difference (gross or microscopic) between the liver injected with AdexCAGhHPD and the control. No significant changes in blood tyrosine levels were noted after the second injection of 5.0 x 10(8) pfu of AdexCAGhHPD. Thus, the intravenous administration of the adenoviral vector bearing a foreign gene seems suitable for transient, early gene transfer into the liver.

  10. Influence of phenolic acids on indole acetic acid production and on the type III secretion system gene transcription in food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05.

    PubMed

    Myszka, Kamila; Schmidt, Marcin T; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Leja, Katarzyna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate the reduction capability of phenolic acids (ferulic, chlorogenic, gallic, and p-coumaric acids) on indole acetic acid synthesis by food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05. Specific genetic primer for the type III secretion system (TTSS) in P. fluorescens KM05 was designed and the influence of phenolic acids on its expression was investigated. In the work the ferulic and chlorogenic acids at the concentration of 0.02 and 0.04 μg/ml affected on bacterial growth pattern and the signal molecules production. The phenolic acids, that were appreciable effective against P. fluorescens KM05 indole acetic acid production, significantly suppressed TTSS gene.

  11. Specific chiral sensing of amino acids using induced circularly polarized luminescence of bis(diimine)dicarboxylic acid europium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Okutani, Kazuhiro; Nozaki, Koichi; Iwamura, Munetaka

    2014-06-01

    The circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) from [Eu(pda)2](-) (pda = 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid) and [Eu(bda)2](-) (bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid) in aqueous solutions containing various amino acids was investigated. The europium(III) complexes exhibited bright-red luminescence assignable to the f-f transition of the Eu(III) ion when irradiated with UV light. Although the luminescence was not circularly polarized in the solid state or in aqueous solutions, in accordance with the achiral crystal structure, the complexes exhibited detectable induced CPL (iCPL) in aqueous solutions containing chiral amino acids. In the presence of L-pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid, both [Eu(pda)2](-) and [Eu(bda)2](-) showed similar iCPL intensity (glum ∼ 0.03 for the (5)D0 → (7)F1 transition at 1 mol·dm(-3) of the amino acid). On the other hand, in the presence of L-histidine or L-arginine, [Eu(pda)2](-) exhibited intense CPL (glum ∼ 0.08 for the (5)D0 → (7)F1 transition at 0.10 mol·dm(-3) of the amino acid), whereas quite weak CPL was observed for [Eu(bda)2](-) under the same conditions (glum < 0.01). On the basis of analysis of the iCPL intensities in the presence of 12 amino acids, [Eu(pda)2](-) was found to be a good chiral CPL probe with high sensitivity (about 10(-2) mol·dm(-3)) and high selectivity for L-histidine at pH 3 and for L-arginine at pH 7. The mechanism of iCPL was evaluated by analysis of the fine structures in the luminescence spectra and the amino acid concentration dependence of glum. For the [Eu(pda)2](-)-histidine/arginine systems, the europium(III) complexes possess coordination structures similar to that in the crystal with slight distortion to form a chiral structure due to specific interaction with two zwitterionic amino acids. This mechanism was in stark contrast to that of the europium(III) complex-pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid system in which one amino acid coordinates to the Eu(III) ion to yield an achiral coordination

  12. Retention Mechanisms of Citric Acid in Ternary Kaolinite-Fe(III)-Citrate Acid Systems Using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. These findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils.

  13. Retention Mechanisms of Citric Acid in Ternary Kaolinite-Fe(III)-Citrate Acid Systems Using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. These findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils. PMID:27212680

  14. Cloning, purification and crystallization of Bacillus anthracis class C acid phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Felts, Richard L.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J.

    2006-07-01

    Crystallization of a surface-localized acid phosphatase from Bacillus anthracis is reported. Flash annealing increased the high-resolution limit of usable data from 1.8 to 1.6 Å. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallization studies of a recombinant class C acid phosphatase from the Category A pathogen Bacillus anthracis are reported. Large diffraction-quality crystals were grown in the presence of HEPES and Jeffamine ED-2001 at pH 7.0. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.4, b = 90.1, c = 104.2 Å. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain two protein molecules with a solvent content of 38%. Two native data sets were collected from the same crystal before and after flash-annealing. The first data set had a mosaicity of 1.6° and a high-resolution limit of 1.8 Å. After flash-annealing, the apparent mosaicity decreased to 0.9° and the high-resolution limit of usable data increased to 1.6 Å. This crystal form is currently being used to determine the structure of B. anthracis class C acid phosphatase with experimental phasing techniques.

  15. Chiral Sensing of Various Amino Acids Using Induced Circularly Polarized Luminescence from Europium(III) Complexes of Phenanthroline Dicarboxylic Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Taka-Aki; Nozaki, Koichi; Iwamura, Munetaka

    2016-09-01

    Circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) was observed from [Eu(dppda)2 ](-) (dppda=4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid) and [Eu(pzpda)2 ](-) (pzpda=pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]phenanthroline-7,10-dicarboxylic acid) in aqueous solutions containing various amino acids. The selectivity of these complexes towards amino acids enabled them to be used as chiral sensors and their behavior was compared with that of [Eu(pda)2 ](-) (pda=1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid). As these Eu(III) complexes have achiral D2d structures under ordinary conditions, there were no CPL signals in the emission assigned to f-f transitions. However, when the solutions contained particular amino acids they exhibited detectable CPL signals with glum values of about 0.1 (glum =CPL/2 TL; TL=total luminescence). On examining 13 amino acids with these three Eu(III) complexes, it was found that whether an amino acid induced a detectable CPL depended on the Eu(III) complex ligands. For example, when ornithine was used as a chiral agent, only [Eu(dppda)2 ](-) exhibited intense CPL in aqueous solutions of 10(-2)  mol dm(-3) . Steep amino acid concentration dependence suggested that CPL in [Eu(dppda)2 ](-) and [Eu(pzpda)2 ](-) was induced by the association of four or more amino acid molecules, whereas CPL in [Eu(pda)2 ](-) was induced by association of two arginine molecules.

  16. Chiral Sensing of Various Amino Acids Using Induced Circularly Polarized Luminescence from Europium(III) Complexes of Phenanthroline Dicarboxylic Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Taka-Aki; Nozaki, Koichi; Iwamura, Munetaka

    2016-09-01

    Circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) was observed from [Eu(dppda)2 ](-) (dppda=4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid) and [Eu(pzpda)2 ](-) (pzpda=pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]phenanthroline-7,10-dicarboxylic acid) in aqueous solutions containing various amino acids. The selectivity of these complexes towards amino acids enabled them to be used as chiral sensors and their behavior was compared with that of [Eu(pda)2 ](-) (pda=1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid). As these Eu(III) complexes have achiral D2d structures under ordinary conditions, there were no CPL signals in the emission assigned to f-f transitions. However, when the solutions contained particular amino acids they exhibited detectable CPL signals with glum values of about 0.1 (glum =CPL/2 TL; TL=total luminescence). On examining 13 amino acids with these three Eu(III) complexes, it was found that whether an amino acid induced a detectable CPL depended on the Eu(III) complex ligands. For example, when ornithine was used as a chiral agent, only [Eu(dppda)2 ](-) exhibited intense CPL in aqueous solutions of 10(-2)  mol dm(-3) . Steep amino acid concentration dependence suggested that CPL in [Eu(dppda)2 ](-) and [Eu(pzpda)2 ](-) was induced by the association of four or more amino acid molecules, whereas CPL in [Eu(pda)2 ](-) was induced by association of two arginine molecules. PMID:27380553

  17. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system

    DOEpatents

    Balazs, G.B.; Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Nelson, N.; Steward, G.A.

    1999-06-15

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO[sub 2]. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement. 2 figs.

  18. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system

    DOEpatents

    Balazs, G. Bryan; Chiba, Zoher; Lewis, Patricia R.; Nelson, Norvell; Steward, G. Anthony

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO.sub.2. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement.

  19. Structural basis of the inhibition of class C acid phosphatases by adenosine 5;#8242;-phosphorothioate

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Harkewal; Reilly, Thomas J.; Tanner, John J.

    2012-01-20

    The inhibition of phosphatases by adenosine 5'-phosphorothioate (AMPS) was first reported in the late 1960s; however, the structural basis for the inhibition has remained unknown. Here, it is shown that AMPS is a submicromolar inhibitor of class C acid phosphatases, a group of bacterial outer membrane enzymes belonging to the haloacid dehalogenase structural superfamily. Furthermore, the 1.35-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the inhibited recombinant Haemophilus influenzae class C acid phosphatase was determined; this is the first structure of a phosphatase complexed with AMPS. The conformation of AMPS is identical to that of the substrate 5'-AMP, except that steric factors force a rotation of the thiophosphoryl out of the normal phosphoryl-binding pocket. This conformation is catalytically nonproductive, because the P atom is not positioned optimally for nucleophilic attack by Asp64, and the O atom of the scissile O-P bond is too far from the Asp (Asp66) that protonates the leaving group. The structure of 5'-AMP complexed with the Asp64 {yields} Asn mutant enzyme was also determined at 1.35-{angstrom} resolution. This mutation induces the substrate to adopt the same nonproductive binding mode that is observed in the AMPS complex. In this case, electrostatic considerations, rather than steric factors, underlie the movement of the phosphoryl. The structures not only provide an explanation for the inhibition by AMPS, but also highlight the precise steric and electrostatic requirements of phosphoryl recognition by class C acid phosphatases. Moreover, the structure of the Asp64 {yields} Asn mutant illustrates how a seemingly innocuous mutation can cause an unexpected structural change.

  20. 40 CFR 147.301 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV, V wells and Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EPA-administered wells in Colorado other than Class II wells on the lands of the Ute Mountain Ute consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional... in Colorado, including Indian lands, except for Class II wells on lands of the Ute Mountain Ute,...

  1. 40 CFR 147.301 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV, V wells and Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EPA-administered wells in Colorado other than Class II wells on the lands of the Ute Mountain Ute consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional... in Colorado, including Indian lands, except for Class II wells on lands of the Ute Mountain Ute,...

  2. Hydrophobic amino acids as a new class of kinetic inhibitors for gas hydrate formation

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Lee, Bo Ram; Park, Da-Hye; Han, Kunwoo; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2013-01-01

    As the foundation of energy industry moves towards gas, flow assurance technology preventing pipelines from hydrate blockages becomes increasingly significant. However, the principle of hydrate inhibition is still poorly understood. Here, we examined natural hydrophobic amino acids as novel kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs), and investigated hydrate inhibition phenomena by using them as a model system. Amino acids with lower hydrophobicity were found to be better KHIs to delay nucleation and retard growth, working by disrupting the water hydrogen bond network, while those with higher hydrophobicity strengthened the local water structure. It was found that perturbation of the water structure around KHIs plays a critical role in hydrate inhibition. This suggestion of a new class of KHIs will aid development of KHIs with enhanced biodegradability, and the present findings will accelerate the improved control of hydrate formation for natural gas exploitation and the utilization of hydrates as next-generation gas capture media. PMID:23938301

  3. Hydrophobic amino acids as a new class of kinetic inhibitors for gas hydrate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Lee, Bo Ram; Park, Da-Hye; Han, Kunwoo; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2013-08-01

    As the foundation of energy industry moves towards gas, flow assurance technology preventing pipelines from hydrate blockages becomes increasingly significant. However, the principle of hydrate inhibition is still poorly understood. Here, we examined natural hydrophobic amino acids as novel kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs), and investigated hydrate inhibition phenomena by using them as a model system. Amino acids with lower hydrophobicity were found to be better KHIs to delay nucleation and retard growth, working by disrupting the water hydrogen bond network, while those with higher hydrophobicity strengthened the local water structure. It was found that perturbation of the water structure around KHIs plays a critical role in hydrate inhibition. This suggestion of a new class of KHIs will aid development of KHIs with enhanced biodegradability, and the present findings will accelerate the improved control of hydrate formation for natural gas exploitation and the utilization of hydrates as next-generation gas capture media.

  4. The activity of class I, II, III and IV of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Laniewska-Dunaj, Magdalena; Jelski, Wojciech; Orywal, Karolina; Kochanowicz, Jan; Rutkowski, Robert; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2013-07-01

    The brain being highly sensitive to the action of alcohol is potentially susceptible to its carcinogenic effects. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are the main enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism, which leads to the generation of carcinogenic acetaldehyde. Human brain tissue contains various ADH isoenzymes and possess also ALDH activity. The purpose of this study was to compare the capacity for ethanol metabolism measured by ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity in cancer tissues and healthy brain cells. The samples were taken from 62 brain cancer patients (36 glioblastoma, 26 meningioma). For the measurement of the activity of class I and II ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity, the fluorometric methods were used. The total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by the photometric method. The total activity of ADH, and activity of class I ADH were significantly higher in cancer cells than in healthy tissues. The other tested classes of ADH and ALDH did not show statistically significant differences of activity in cancer and in normal cells. Analysis of the enzymes activity did not show significant differences depending on the location of the tumor. The differences in the activity of total alcohol dehydrogenase, and class I isoenzyme between cancer tissues and healthy brain cells might be a factor for metabolic changes and disturbances in low mature cancer cells and additionally might be a reason for higher level of acetaldehyde which can intensify the carcinogenesis.

  5. Arabidopsis class I and class II TCP transcription factors regulate jasmonic acid metabolism and leaf development antagonistically.

    PubMed

    Danisman, Selahattin; van der Wal, Froukje; Dhondt, Stijn; Waites, Richard; de Folter, Stefan; Bimbo, Andrea; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Muino, Jose M; Cutri, Lucas; Dornelas, Marcelo C; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H

    2012-08-01

    TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) transcription factors control developmental processes in plants. The 24 TCP transcription factors encoded in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome are divided into two classes, class I and class II TCPs, which are proposed to act antagonistically. We performed a detailed phenotypic analysis of the class I tcp20 mutant, showing an increase in leaf pavement cell sizes in 10-d-old seedlings. Subsequently, a glucocorticoid receptor induction assay was performed, aiming to identify potential target genes of the TCP20 protein during leaf development. The LIPOXYGENASE2 (LOX2) and class I TCP9 genes were identified as TCP20 targets, and binding of TCP20 to their regulatory sequences could be confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses. LOX2 encodes for a jasmonate biosynthesis gene, which is also targeted by class II TCP proteins that are under the control of the microRNA JAGGED AND WAVY (JAW), although in an antagonistic manner. Mutation of TCP9, the second identified TCP20 target, resulted in increased pavement cell sizes during early leaf developmental stages. Analysis of senescence in the single tcp9 and tcp20 mutants and the tcp9tcp20 double mutants showed an earlier onset of this process in comparison with wild-type control plants in the double mutant only. Both the cell size and senescence phenotypes are opposite to the known class II TCP mutant phenotype in JAW plants. Altogether, these results point to an antagonistic function of class I and class II TCP proteins in the control of leaf development via the jasmonate signaling pathway. PMID:22718775

  6. Exposure to monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}) leads to altered selenoprotein synthesis in a primary human lung cell model

    SciTech Connect

    Meno, Sarah R.; Nelson, Rebecca; Hintze, Korry J.; Self, William T.

    2009-09-01

    Monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}), a trivalent metabolite of arsenic, is highly cytotoxic and recent cell culture studies suggest that it might act as a carcinogen. The general consensus of studies indicates that the cytotoxicity of MMA{sup III} is a result of increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A longstanding relationship between arsenic and selenium metabolism has led to the use of selenium as a supplement in arsenic exposed populations, however the impact of organic arsenicals (methylated metabolites) on selenium metabolism is still poorly understood. In this study we determined the impact of exposure to MMA{sup III} on the regulation of expression of TrxR1 and its activity using a primary lung fibroblast line, WI-38. The promoter region of the gene encoding the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) contains an antioxidant responsive element (ARE) that has been shown to be activated in the presence of electrophilic compounds. Results from radiolabeled selenoproteins indicate that exposure to low concentrations of MMA{sup III} resulted in increased synthesis of TrxR1 in WI-38 cells, and lower incorporation of selenium into other selenoproteins. MMA{sup III} treatment led to increased mRNA encoding TrxR1 in WI-38 cells, while lower levels of mRNA coding for cellular glutathione peroxidase (cGpx) were detected in exposed cells. Luciferase activity of TrxR1 promoter fusions increased with addition of MMA{sup III}, as did expression of a rat quinone reductase (QR) promoter fusion construct. However, MMA{sup III} induction of the TRX1 promoter fusion was abrogated when the ARE was mutated, suggesting that this regulation is mediated via the ARE. These results indicate that MMA{sup III} alters the expression of selenoproteins based on a selective induction of TrxR1, and this response to exposure to organic arsenicals that requires the ARE element.

  7. Lead detoxification activities of a class of novel DMSA--amino acid conjugates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanxia; Wang, Yuji; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Hu, Xiaomin; Hou, Baoguang; Peng, Li; Zheng, Meiqing; Wu, Jianhui; Peng, Shiqi

    2011-06-20

    The coupling of the 1-carboxyl of DMSA with l-amino acids led to a class of novel 1-(carbonyl-l-amino-acid)-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acids (DMSA--amino acid conjugates, DMSA-Gly, -Ser, -Val, -Leu, -Ile, -Asn, -Asp, -Gln, -Glu, -Met, -Phe, and -Trp). In the in vivo evaluation of Pb-loaded mice, 0.4 mmol/kg of the conjugates effectively decreased the Pb levels of the femur, brain, kidney, liver, and blood, greatly enhanced urination, and increased the Pb levels of both urine and feces, while causing no redistributions of Pb to the other organs, especially to the brain. With respect to lowering the bone and brain Pb, DMSA-Ile, -Asn, -Gln, and -Met were more effective than DMSA. This benefit was attributed to their high transmembrane ability. In contrast to Pb, the essential metals such as Fe, Cu, Zn, and Ca of the treated mice were not affected by the administration of the conjugates. Silico molecular modeling predicted that the conjugates had little hepatotoxicity, except possibly for DMSA-Phe.

  8. Justicidin A-induced autophagy flux enhances apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells via class III PI3K and Atg5 pathway.

    PubMed

    Won, Shen-Jeu; Yen, Cheng-Hsin; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Wu, Shan-Ying; Lan, Sheng-Hui; Jiang-Shieh, Ya-Fen; Lin, Chun-Nan; Su, Chun-Li

    2015-04-01

    Our previous reports showed that justicidin A (JA), a novel and pure arylnaphthalide lignan isolated from Justicia procumbens, induces apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells and hepatocellular carcinoma cells, leading to the suppression of both tumor cell growth in NOD-SCID mice. Here, we reveal that JA induces autophagy in human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells by conversion of autophagic marker LC3-I to LC3-II. Furthermore, LC3 puncta and autophagic vesicle formation, and SQSTM1/p62 suppression were observed. Administration of autophagy inhibitor (bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine) and transfection of a tandem fluorescent-tagged LC3 (mRFP-GFP) reporter plasmid (ptfLC3) demonstrated that JA induces autophagy flux in HT-29 cells. Expression of LC3, SQSTM1, Beclin 1, and nuclear DNA double-strand breaks (representing apoptosis) were also detected in the tumor tissue of HT-29 cells transplanted into NOD-SCID mice orally administrated with JA. In addition, the expression of autophagy signaling pathway-related molecules p-PDK1, p-mTOR, p-p70S6k/p-RPS6KB2 was decreased, whereas that of class III PI3K, Beclin 1, Atg5-Atg12, and mitochondrial BNIP3 was increased in response to JA. Pre-treatment of the cells with class III PI3K inhibitor 3-methyladenine or Atg5 shRNA attenuated JA-induced LC3-II expression and LC3 puncta formation, indicating the involvement of class III PI3K and Atg5. A novel mechanism was demonstrated in the anticancer compound JA; pre-treatment with 3-methyladenine or Atg5 shRNA blocked JA-induced suppression in cell growth and colony formation, respectively, via inhibition of apoptosis. In contrast, administration of apoptosis inhibitor Z-VAD did not affect JA-induced autophagy. Our data suggest the chemotherapeutic potential of JA for treatment of human colorectal cancer.

  9. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Assessment of Lower Facial Asymmetry in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate and Non-Cleft Patients with Class III Skeletal Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yifan; Chen, Gui; Fu, Zhen; Ma, Lian; Li, Weiran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), both the condylar-fossa relationships and the mandibular and condylar asymmetries between unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients and non-cleft patients with class III skeletal relationship, and to investigate the factors of asymmetry contributing to chin deviation. Methods The UCLP and non-cleft groups consisted of 30 and 40 subjects, respectively, in mixed dentition with class III skeletal relationships. Condylar-fossa relationships and the dimensional and positional asymmetries of the condyles and mandibles were examined using CBCT. Intra-group differences were compared between two sides in both groups using a paired t-test. Furthermore, correlations between each measurement and chin deviation were assessed. Results It was observed that 90% of UCLP and 67.5% of non-cleft subjects had both condyles centered, and no significant asymmetry was found. The axial angle and the condylar center distances to the midsagittal plane were significantly greater on the cleft side than on the non-cleft side (P=0.001 and P=0.028, respectively) and were positively correlated with chin deviation in the UCLP group. Except for a larger gonial angle on the cleft side, the two groups presented with consistent asymmetries showing shorter mandibular bodies and total mandibular lengths on the cleft (deviated) side. The average chin deviation was 1.63 mm to the cleft side, and the average absolute chin deviation was significantly greater in the UCLP group than in the non-cleft group (P=0.037). Conclusion Compared with non-cleft subjects with similar class III skeletal relationships, the subjects with UCLP showed more severe lower facial asymmetry. The subjects with UCLP presented with more asymmetrical positions and rotations of the condyles on axial slices, which were positively correlated with chin deviation. PMID:26237311

  10. Increased carotid intima-media thickness and reduced distensibility in human class III obesity: independent and differential influences of adiposity and blood pressure on the vasculature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Xiao L; Michell, Danielle; Lee, Sabrina; Skilton, Michael R; Nair, Rajesh; Dixon, John B; Dart, Anthony M; Chin-Dusting, Jaye

    2013-01-01

    Carotid intima-media-thickness (cIMT) and carotid distensibility (distensibility), structural and functional properties of carotid arteries respectively, are early markers, as well as strong predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The characteristic of these two parameters in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2) (Class III obesity), however, are largely unknown. The present study was designed to document cIMT and distensibility in this population and to relate these to other factors with established association with CVD in obesity. The study included 96 subjects (65 with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2) and 31, age- and gender-matched, with BMI of 18.5 to 30.0 kg/m(2)). cIMT and distensibility were measured by non-invasive high resolution ultrasonography, circulatory CD133(+)/KDR(+) angiogenic cells and endothelial microparticles (EMP) by flow cytometry, and plasma levels of adipokines, growth factors and cytokines by Luminex immunoassay kits. The study results demonstrated increased cIMT (0.62±0.11 mm vs. 0.54±0.08 mm, P = 0.0002) and reduced distensibility (22.52±10.79 10(-3)kpa(-1)vs. 29.91±12.37 10(-3)kpa(-1), P<0.05) in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2). Both cIMT and distensibility were significantly associated with traditional CVD risk factors, adiposity/adipokines and inflammatory markers but had no association with circulating angiogenic cells. We also demonstrated, for the first time, elevated plasma EMP levels in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2). In conclusion, cIMT is increased and distensibility reduced in Class III obesity with the changes predominantly related to conventional CVD risk factors present in this condition, demonstrating that both cIMT and distensibility remain as CVD markers in Class III obesity. PMID:23342053

  11. Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Reduced Distensibility in Human Class III Obesity: Independent and Differential Influences of Adiposity and Blood Pressure on the Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Xiao L.; Michell, Danielle; Lee, Sabrina; Skilton, Michael R.; Nair, Rajesh; Dixon, John B.; Dart, Anthony M.; Chin-Dusting, Jaye

    2013-01-01

    Carotid intima-media-thickness (cIMT) and carotid distensibility (distensibility), structural and functional properties of carotid arteries respectively, are early markers, as well as strong predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The characteristic of these two parameters in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m2 (Class III obesity), however, are largely unknown. The present study was designed to document cIMT and distensibility in this population and to relate these to other factors with established association with CVD in obesity. The study included 96 subjects (65 with BMI>40.0 kg/m2 and 31, age- and gender-matched, with BMI of 18.5 to 30.0 kg/m2). cIMT and distensibility were measured by non-invasive high resolution ultrasonography, circulatory CD133+/KDR+ angiogenic cells and endothelial microparticles (EMP) by flow cytometry, and plasma levels of adipokines, growth factors and cytokines by Luminex immunoassay kits. The study results demonstrated increased cIMT (0.62±0.11 mm vs. 0.54±0.08 mm, P = 0.0002) and reduced distensibility (22.52±10.79 10−3kpa−1 vs. 29.91±12.37 10−3kpa−1, P<0.05) in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m2. Both cIMT and distensibility were significantly associated with traditional CVD risk factors, adiposity/adipokines and inflammatory markers but had no association with circulating angiogenic cells. We also demonstrated, for the first time, elevated plasma EMP levels in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m2. In conclusion, cIMT is increased and distensibility reduced in Class III obesity with the changes predominantly related to conventional CVD risk factors present in this condition, demonstrating that both cIMT and distensibility remain as CVD markers in Class III obesity. PMID:23342053

  12. Increased carotid intima-media thickness and reduced distensibility in human class III obesity: independent and differential influences of adiposity and blood pressure on the vasculature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Xiao L; Michell, Danielle; Lee, Sabrina; Skilton, Michael R; Nair, Rajesh; Dixon, John B; Dart, Anthony M; Chin-Dusting, Jaye

    2013-01-01

    Carotid intima-media-thickness (cIMT) and carotid distensibility (distensibility), structural and functional properties of carotid arteries respectively, are early markers, as well as strong predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The characteristic of these two parameters in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2) (Class III obesity), however, are largely unknown. The present study was designed to document cIMT and distensibility in this population and to relate these to other factors with established association with CVD in obesity. The study included 96 subjects (65 with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2) and 31, age- and gender-matched, with BMI of 18.5 to 30.0 kg/m(2)). cIMT and distensibility were measured by non-invasive high resolution ultrasonography, circulatory CD133(+)/KDR(+) angiogenic cells and endothelial microparticles (EMP) by flow cytometry, and plasma levels of adipokines, growth factors and cytokines by Luminex immunoassay kits. The study results demonstrated increased cIMT (0.62±0.11 mm vs. 0.54±0.08 mm, P = 0.0002) and reduced distensibility (22.52±10.79 10(-3)kpa(-1)vs. 29.91±12.37 10(-3)kpa(-1), P<0.05) in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2). Both cIMT and distensibility were significantly associated with traditional CVD risk factors, adiposity/adipokines and inflammatory markers but had no association with circulating angiogenic cells. We also demonstrated, for the first time, elevated plasma EMP levels in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2). In conclusion, cIMT is increased and distensibility reduced in Class III obesity with the changes predominantly related to conventional CVD risk factors present in this condition, demonstrating that both cIMT and distensibility remain as CVD markers in Class III obesity.

  13. Circulating nucleic acids: a new class of physiological mobile genetic elements

    PubMed Central

    Mittra, Indraneel

    2015-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements play a major role in shaping biotic genomes and bringing about evolutionary transformations. Herein, a new class of mobile genetic elements is proposed in the form of circulating nucleic acids (CNAs) derived from the billions of cells that die in the body every day due to normal physiology and that act intra-corporeally. A recent study shows that CNAs can freely enter into healthy cells, integrate into their genomes by a unique mechanism and cause damage to their DNA. Being ubiquitous and continuously arising, CNA-induced DNA damage may be the underlying cause of ageing, ageing-related disabilities and the ultimate demise of the organism. Thus, DNA seems to act in the paradoxical roles of both preserver and destroyer of life. This new class of mobile genetic element may be relevant not only to multi-cellular organisms with established circulatory systems, but also to other multi-cellular organisms in which intra-corporeal mobility of nucleic acids may be mediated via the medium of extra-cellular fluid. PMID:26664710

  14. Periodontal regeneration in class III furcation defects of beagle dogs using guided tissue regenerative therapy with platelet-derived growth factor.

    PubMed

    Park, J B; Matsuura, M; Han, K Y; Norderyd, O; Lin, W L; Genco, R J; Cho, M I

    1995-06-01

    We developed an effective regenerative therapy, referred to as platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-modulated guided tissue regenerative (GTR) therapy (P-GTR), capable of achieving periodontal regeneration of horizontal (Class III) furcation defects in the beagle dog. To determine its efficacy, repair and regeneration of horizontal furcation defects by P-GTR therapy and GTR therapy were compared. Chronically inflamed horizontal furcation defects were created around the second (P2) and fourth mandibular premolars (P4). After demineralization of the root surfaces with citric acid, the surfaces of left P2 and P4 were treated with PDGF-BB (P-GTR therapy) and those of contralateral teeth were treated with vehicle only (GTR therapy). Periodontal membranes were placed and retained 0.5 mm above the cemento-enamel junction for both groups. The mucoperiosteal flap was sutured in a coronal position and plaque control was achieved by daily irrigation with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate. At 5, 8, and 11 weeks, two animals each were sacrificed by perfusion with 2.5% glutaraldehyde through the carotid arteries, and the lesions were sliced mesio-distally, demineralized, dehydrated, and embedded. Periodontal healing and regeneration after GTR and P-GTR therapy were compared by histomorphometric as well as morphological analysis. Morphometric analysis for each time period was performed on the pooled samples of P2 and P4. Five weeks after both therapies, the lesions were filled primarily by tissue-free area, epithelium, inflamed tissue, and a small amount of newly formed fibrous connective tissue. At 8 and 11 weeks after P-GTR therapy, there was a statistically greater amount of bone and periodontal ligament formed in the lesions. The newly formed bone filled 80% of the lesion at 8 weeks and 87% at 11 weeks with P-GTR therapy, compared to 14% of the lesion at 8 weeks and 60% at 11 weeks with GTR therapy. Also, with P-GTR therapy there was less epithelium and tissue-free area, less

  15. Youth Transition into the Labour Market. The Class of '89: Initial Survey of Level III (Grade 12) High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Dennis B.; Spain, William H.

    The Transition of Youth into the Labour Market is a developmental study of youth as they make the difficult transition into the labor market of Newfoundland and Labrador. The project consists of two parallel yet interrelated studies, one focusing on the full cohort of over 9000 Level III high school students at the end of the 1988-89 school year,…

  16. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  17. Early orthodontic intervention followed by fixed appliance therapy in a patient with a severe Class III malocclusion and cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, He; Deng, Feng; Wang, Huaqiao; Huang, Qianqian; Zhang, Yi

    2013-11-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a girl, age 11 years 10 months, with a cleft lip and palate and a postsurgical scar. The clinical examination showed a concave profile, a retrusive maxilla, an asymmetric face, severe dental crowding, a Class III dental relationship, and a complete dental crossbite. Maxillary expansion and distraction, chincap, and high-pull headgear were used to moderate the skeletal discrepancy. These approaches, combined with tooth extraction and fixed orthodontic appliances, finally established a functional and esthetic occlusal relationship, normal overjet and overbite, and a well-balanced facial appearance.

  18. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid by peroxidase: involvement of reduced peroxidase and compound III with superoxide as a product.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M; Morrison, W L; Milham, P J

    1982-08-31

    Kinetic and spectral data establish that peroxidase may oxidize indole-3-acetic acid by either of two pathways depending on the enzyme/substrate ratio. When relatively low enzyme/substrate ratios are employed, the oxidation proceeds through a reduced peroxidase in equilibrium compound III shuttle. Conversely, peroxidase operates through the conventionally accepted pathway involving native enzyme and compounds I and II only when high enzyme/substrate ratios are used. Compound III, a specific oxidase, constitutes the dominant steady-state form of peroxidase when the reduced peroxidase in equilibrium compound III shuttle is operational. Activation of this shuttle also produces a flux of superoxide anion radical at the expense of molecular oxygen. Thus, important biological consequences may follow activation of this shuttle under physiological conditions.

  19. Structural basis for assembly of the Mn(IV)/Fe(III) cofactor in the class Ic ribonucleotide reductase from Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Dassama, Laura M K; Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, J Martin; Rosenzweig, Amy C; Boal, Amie K

    2013-09-17

    The class Ic ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) from Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) employs a Mn(IV)/Fe(III) cofactor in each monomer of its β2 subunit to initiate nucleotide reduction. The cofactor forms by reaction of Mn(II)/Fe(II)-β2 with O2. Previously, in vitro cofactor assembly from apo β2 and divalent metal ions produced a mixture of two forms, with Mn at site 1 (Mn(IV)/Fe(III)) or site 2 (Fe(III)/Mn(IV)), of which the more active Mn(IV)/Fe(III) product predominates. Here we have addressed the basis for metal site selectivity by determining X-ray crystal structures of apo, Mn(II), and Mn(II)/Fe(II) complexes of Ct β2. A structure obtained anaerobically with equimolar Mn(II), Fe(II), and apoprotein reveals exclusive incorporation of Mn(II) at site 1 and Fe(II) at site 2, in contrast to the more modest site selectivity achieved previously. Site specificity is controlled thermodynamically by the apoprotein structure, as only minor adjustments of ligands occur upon metal binding. Additional structures imply that, by itself, Mn(II) binds in either site. Together, the structures are consistent with a model for in vitro cofactor assembly in which Fe(II) specificity for site 2 drives assembly of the appropriately configured heterobimetallic center, provided that Fe(II) is substoichiometric. This model suggests that use of a Mn(IV)/Fe(III) cofactor in vivo could be an adaptation to Fe(II) limitation. A 1.8 Å resolution model of the Mn(II)/Fe(II)-β2 complex reveals additional structural determinants for activation of the cofactor, including a proposed site for side-on (η(2)) addition of O2 to Fe(II) and a short (3.2 Å) Mn(II)-Fe(II) interionic distance, promoting formation of the Mn(IV)/Fe(IV) activation intermediate.

  20. Application for Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-08-05

    The NTS is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. NNSA/NSO is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and NSTec is the Management & Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The U10C Disposal Site is located in the northwest corner of Area 9 at the NTS (Figure 1) and is located in a subsidence crater created by two underground nuclear events, one in October 1962 and another in April 1964. The disposal site opened in 1971 for the disposal of rubbish, refuse, pathological waste, asbestos-containing material, and industrial solid waste. A Notice of Intent form to operate the disposal site as a Class II site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 26, 1994, and was acknowledged in a letter to the DOE on February 8, 1994. It operated as a state of Nevada Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS) until it closed on October 5, 1995, for retrofit as a Class III SWDS. The retrofit consisted of the installation of a minimum four-foot compacted soil layer to segregate the different waste types and function as a liner to inhibit leachate and water flow into the lower waste zone. Five neutron monitoring tubes were installed in this layer to monitor possible leachate production and water activity. Upon acceptance of the installed barrier and approval of an Operating Plan by NDEP/BFF, the site reopened in January 1996 as a Class III SWDS for the disposal of industrial solid waste and other inert waste.