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Sample records for acidic class iii

  1. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month. PMID:27052290

  2. Five year evaluation of class III composite resin restorations in cavities pre-treated with an oxalic- or a phosphoric acid conditioner.

    PubMed

    van Dijken, J W; Olofsson, A L; Holm, C

    1999-05-01

    An oxalic acid solution has been proposed as a conditioning agent for resin composite restorations in two commercial adhesive systems. The durability of 163 class III restorations, including 12 class IV restorations, in cavities pre-treated with an oxalic acid total etch technique or an enamel etch with phosphoric acid was studied. Each of 52 patients received at least one of each of three experimental restorations. The restorations were evaluated yearly with slightly modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. After 5 years 95% of the restorations were evaluated as acceptable. Reasons for failure were the fracture of four fillings, including three class IV, secondary caries contiguous to two fillings and a non-acceptable colour match for one restoration. For eight class III restorations a fracture of the incisal tooth structure was registered. No differences were seen between the three experimental restorations. PMID:10373082

  3. Abundant class III acidic chitinase homologue in tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed serves as the major storage protein.

    PubMed

    Rao, Devavratha H; Gowda, Lalitha R

    2008-03-26

    The phyla Leguminosae contains protease inhibitors, lectins, chitinases, and glycohydrolases as major defense proteins in their seeds. Electrophoretic analysis of the seed proteins of tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.), an agri-waste material, indicated the unusual presence of two major proteins comparable to overexpression of recombinant proteins. These proteins were identified by amino-terminal analysis to be (1) Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor and (2) class III endochitinase (34000 Da). These two proteins were purified to apparent homogeneity by a single-step chitin bead affinity chromatography and characterized. The Kunitz inhibitor was specific toward inhibiting trypsin with a stoichiometry of 1:1. The 33000 +/- 1000 Da protein, accounting for >50% of the total seed protein, is an acidic glycoprotein exhibiting a very low endotype hydrolytic activity toward chitin derivatives. SDS-PAGE followed by densitometry of tamarind seed germination indicates the disappearance of the chitinase with the concomitant appearance of a cysteine endopeptidase. On the basis of its abundance, accumulation without any pathogenesis-related stimulus, temporal regulation, amino acid composition, and very low enzyme activity, this 34000 Da protein designated "tamarinin" physiologically serves as the major storage protein. PMID:18298067

  4. Mutation of Arg-115 of human class III alcohol dehydrogenase: a binding site required for formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity and fatty acid activation.

    PubMed Central

    Engeland, K; Höög, J O; Holmquist, B; Estonius, M; Jörnvall, H; Vallee, B L

    1993-01-01

    The origin of the fatty acid activation and formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity that distinguishes human class III alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) from all other alcohol dehydrogenases has been examined by site-directed mutagenesis of its Arg-115 residue. The Ala- and Asp-115 mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography and ion-exchange HPLC. The activities of the recombinant native and mutant enzymes toward ethanol are essentially identical, but mutagenesis greatly decreases the kcat/Km values for glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation. The catalytic efficiency for the Asp variant is < 0.1% that of the unmutated enzyme, due to both a higher Km and a lower kcat value. As with the native enzyme, neither mutant can oxidize methanol, be saturated by ethanol, or be inhibited by 4-methylpyrazole; i.e., they retain these class III characteristics. In contrast, however, their activation by fatty acids, another characteristic unique to class III alcohol dehydrogenase, is markedly attenuated. The Ala mutant is activated only slightly, but the Asp mutant is not activated at all. The results strongly indicate that Arg-115 in class III alcohol dehydrogenase is a component of the binding site for activating fatty acids and is critical for the binding of S-hydroxymethylglutathione in glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. PMID:8460164

  5. Functional characterization of a class III acid endochitinase from the traps of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus, Nepenthes

    PubMed Central

    Rottloff, Sandy; Stieber, Regina; Maischak, Heiko; Turini, Florian G.; Heubl, Günther; Mithöfer, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Carnivory in plants is an adaptation strategy to nutrient-poor environments and soils. Carnivorous plants obtain some additional mineral nutrients by trapping and digesting prey; the genus Nepenthes is helped by its specialized pitcher traps. To make the nutrients available, the caught prey needs to be digested, a process that requires the concerted activity of several hydrolytic enzymes. To identify and investigate the various enzymes involved in this process, fluid from Nepenthes traps has been analysed in detail. In this study, a novel type of Nepenthes endochitinase was identified in the digestion fluid of closed pitchers. The encoding endochitinase genes have been cloned from eight different Nepenthes species. Among these, the deduced amino acid sequence similarity was at least 94.9%. The corresponding cDNA from N. rafflesiana was heterologously expressed, and the purified protein, NrChit1, was biochemically characterized. The enzyme, classified as a class III acid endochitinase belonging to family 18 of the glycoside hydrolases, is secreted into the pitcher fluid very probably due to the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide. Transcriptome analyses using real-time PCR indicated that the presence of prey in the pitcher up-regulates the endochitinase gene not only in the glands, which are responsible for enzyme secretion, but at an even higher level, in the glands’ surrounding tissue. These results suggest that in the pitchers’ tissues, the endochitinase as well as other proteins from the pitcher fluid might fulfil a different, primary function as pathogenesis-related proteins. PMID:21633084

  6. Functional characterization of a class III acid endochitinase from the traps of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus, Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Rottloff, Sandy; Stieber, Regina; Maischak, Heiko; Turini, Florian G; Heubl, Günther; Mithöfer, Axel

    2011-08-01

    Carnivory in plants is an adaptation strategy to nutrient-poor environments and soils. Carnivorous plants obtain some additional mineral nutrients by trapping and digesting prey; the genus Nepenthes is helped by its specialized pitcher traps. To make the nutrients available, the caught prey needs to be digested, a process that requires the concerted activity of several hydrolytic enzymes. To identify and investigate the various enzymes involved in this process, fluid from Nepenthes traps has been analysed in detail. In this study, a novel type of Nepenthes endochitinase was identified in the digestion fluid of closed pitchers. The encoding endochitinase genes have been cloned from eight different Nepenthes species. Among these, the deduced amino acid sequence similarity was at least 94.9%. The corresponding cDNA from N. rafflesiana was heterologously expressed, and the purified protein, NrChit1, was biochemically characterized. The enzyme, classified as a class III acid endochitinase belonging to family 18 of the glycoside hydrolases, is secreted into the pitcher fluid very probably due to the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide. Transcriptome analyses using real-time PCR indicated that the presence of prey in the pitcher up-regulates the endochitinase gene not only in the glands, which are responsible for enzyme secretion, but at an even higher level, in the glands' surrounding tissue. These results suggest that in the pitchers' tissues, the endochitinase as well as other proteins from the pitcher fluid might fulfil a different, primary function as pathogenesis-related proteins. PMID:21633084

  7. Genes, genetics, and Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Xue, F; Wong, R W K; Rabie, A B M

    2010-05-01

    To present current views that are pertinent to the investigation of the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion. Class III malocclusion is thought to be a polygenic disorder that results from an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental factors. However, research on family pedigrees has indicated that Class III malocclusion might also be a monogenic dominant phenotype. Recent studies have reported that genes that encode specific growth factors or other signaling molecules are involved in condylar growth under mechanical strain. These genes, which include Indian hedgehog homolog (IHH), parathyroid-hormone like hormone (PTHLH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and variations in their levels of expression play an important role in the etiology of Class III malocclusion. In addition, genome-wide scans have revealed chromosomal loci that are associated with Class III malocclusion. It is likely that chromosomal loci 1p36, 12q23, and 12q13 harbor genes that confer susceptibility to Class III malocclusion. In a case-control association study, we identified erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 (EPB41) to be a new positional candidate gene that might be involved in susceptibility to mandibular prognathism. Most of the earlier studies on the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion have focused on the patterns of inheritance of this phenotype. Recent investigations have focused on understanding the genetic variables that affect Class III malocclusion and might provide new approaches to uncovering the genetic etiology of this phenotype. PMID:20477965

  8. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Yelampalli, M R; Rachala, M R

    2012-01-01

    Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the jaw bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate appliance from the various current options available for early intervention in developing class III malocclusion through two case reports. PMID:22565523

  9. Class III viral membrane fusion proteins

    PubMed Central

    Backovic, Marija

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Accumulating structural studies of viral fusion glycoproteins have revealed unanticipated structural relationships between unrelated virus families and allowed the grouping of these membrane fusogens into three distinct classes. Here we review the newly identified group of class III viral fusion proteins, whose members include fusion proteins from rhabdoviruses, herpesviruses and baculoviruses. While clearly related in structure, the class III viral fusion proteins exhibit distinct structural features in their architectures as well as in their membrane-interacting fusion loops, which are likely related to their virus-specific differences in cellular entry. Further study of the similarities and differences in the class III viral fusion glycoproteins may provide greater insights into protein:membrane interactions that are key to promoting efficient bilayer fusion during virus entry. PMID:19356922

  10. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  11. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  12. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  13. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  14. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  15. ScChi, Encoding an Acidic Class III Chitinase of Sugarcane, Confers Positive Responses to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping; Fu, Zhiwei; Yang, Yuting; Guo, Jinlong; Wang, Shanshan; Que, Youxiong

    2014-01-01

    Chitinases (EC 3.2.2.14), expressed during the plant-pathogen interaction, are associated with plant defense against pathogens. In the present study, a positive correlation between chitinase activity and sugarcane smut resistance was found. ScChi (GenBank accession no. KF664180), a Class III chitinase gene, encoded a 31.37 kDa polypeptide, was cloned and identified. Subcellular localization revealed ScChi targeting to the nucleus, cytoplasm and the plasma membrane. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results showed that ScChi was highly expressed in leaf and stem epidermal tissues. The ScChi transcript was both higher and maintained longer in the resistance cultivar during challenge with Sporisorium scitamineum. The ScChi also showed an obvious induction of transcription after treatment with SA (salicylic acid), H2O2, MeJA (methyl jasmonate), ABA (abscisic acid), NaCl, CuCl2, PEG (polyethylene glycol) and low temperature (4 °C). The expression levels of ScChi and six immunity associated marker genes were upregulated by the transient overexpression of ScChi. Besides, histochemical assay of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves overexpressing pCAMBIA 1301-ScChi exhibited deep DAB (3,3′-diaminobenzidinesolution) staining color and high conductivity, indicating the high level of H2O2 accumulation. These results suggest a close relationship between the expression of ScChi and plant immunity. In conclusion, the positive responses of ScChi to the biotic and abiotic stimuli reveal that this gene is a stress-related gene of sugarcane. PMID:24552874

  16. AUTOCLASS III - AUTOMATIC CLASS DISCOVERY FROM DATA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, P. C.

    1994-01-01

    The program AUTOCLASS III, Automatic Class Discovery from Data, uses Bayesian probability theory to provide a simple and extensible approach to problems such as classification and general mixture separation. Its theoretical basis is free from ad hoc quantities, and in particular free of any measures which alter the data to suit the needs of the program. As a result, the elementary classification model used lends itself easily to extensions. The standard approach to classification in much of artificial intelligence and statistical pattern recognition research involves partitioning of the data into separate subsets, known as classes. AUTOCLASS III uses the Bayesian approach in which classes are described by probability distributions over the attributes of the objects, specified by a model function and its parameters. The calculation of the probability of each object's membership in each class provides a more intuitive classification than absolute partitioning techniques. AUTOCLASS III is applicable to most data sets consisting of independent instances, each described by a fixed length vector of attribute values. An attribute value may be a number, one of a set of attribute specific symbols, or omitted. The user specifies a class probability distribution function by associating attribute sets with supplied likelihood function terms. AUTOCLASS then searches in the space of class numbers and parameters for the maximally probable combination. It returns the set of class probability function parameters, and the class membership probabilities for each data instance. AUTOCLASS III is written in Common Lisp, and is designed to be platform independent. This program has been successfully run on Symbolics and Explorer Lisp machines. It has been successfully used with the following implementations of Common LISP on the Sun: Franz Allegro CL, Lucid Common Lisp, and Austin Kyoto Common Lisp and similar UNIX platforms; under the Lucid Common Lisp implementations on VAX/VMS v5

  17. 25 CFR 522.12 - Revocation of class III gaming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of class III gaming. 522.12 Section 522.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.12 Revocation of class...

  18. ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT ALTERNATIVE TO A CLASS III SUBDIVISION MALOCCLUSION

    PubMed Central

    Janson, Guilherme; de Souza, José Eduardo Prado; Barros, Sérgio Estelita Cavalcante; Andrade, Pedro; Nakamura, Alexandre Yudi

    2009-01-01

    Class III malocclusions are considered one of the most complex and difficult orthodontic problems to diagnose and treat. Skeletal and/or dental asymmetries in patients presenting with Class III malocclusions can worsen the prognosis. Recognizing the dentoalveolar and skeletal characteristics of subdivision malocclusions and their treatment possibilities is essential for a favorable nonsurgical correction. Therefore, this article presents a nonsurgical asymmetric extraction approach to Class III subdivision malocclusion treatment which can significantly improve the occlusal and facial discrepancies. PMID:19668997

  19. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI). Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI) were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p < 0.05); significantly lower condylar volume was observed in class II subjects, respect to class I and class III (p < 0.05). In the whole sample condylar volume (699.8 ± 63.07 mm3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p < 0.01) as well as condylar surface (423.24 ± 63.03 mm2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p < 0.01) were significantly higher in males than in females. Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population. PMID:23241136

  20. Components of Adult Class III Malocclusion in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Koodaryan, Roodabeh; Rafighi, Ali; Hafezeqoran, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims Class III malocclusions are considered complex and difficult orthodontic problems to diagnose and treat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics of the craniofacial complex of adults with Class III malocclusion in an Iranian population. Materials and methods Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 50 patients with Class III malocclusion (20 males and 30 females; age range of 18-27 years) were selected on the basis of molar relationship, concave profile and an overjet of ≤ 0 mm. The standard values of 19 soft tissue measurements were determined using McNamara, Burstone and Viazis methods. Results Adults with Class III malocclusion exhibited distinct craniofacial morphologic characteristics manifested by a com-bination of retrusion of maxilla and protrusion of mandible. Conclusion The most prevalent component was mandibular prognathism, normal maxilla and LAFH on the basis of the component analysis. PMID:23230476

  1. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming... GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.10 Individually owned class II and class...

  2. The abundant class III chitinase homolog in young developing banana fruits behaves as a transient vegetative storage protein and most probably serves as an important supply of amino acids for the synthesis of ripening-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Peumans, Willy J; Proost, Paul; Swennen, Rony L; Van Damme, Els J M

    2002-10-01

    Analyses of the protein content and composition revealed dramatic changes in gene expression during in situ banana (Musa spp.) fruit formation/ripening. The total banana protein content rapidly increases during the first 60 to 70 d, but remains constant for the rest of fruit formation/ripening. During the phase of rapid protein accumulation, an inactive homolog of class III chitinases accounts for up to 40% (w/v) of the total protein. Concomitant with the arrest of net protein accumulation, the chitinase-related protein (CRP) progressively decreases and several novel proteins appear in the electropherograms. Hence, CRP behaves as a fruit-specific vegetative storage protein that accumulates during early fruit formation and serves as a source of amino acids for the synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. Analyses of individual proteins revealed that a thaumatin-like protein, a beta-1,3-glucanase, a class I chitinase, and a mannose-binding lectin are the most abundant ripening-associated proteins. Because during the ripening of prematurely harvested bananas, similar changes take place as in the in situ ripening bananas, CRP present in immature fruits is a sufficient source of amino acids for a quasi-normal synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. However, it is evident that the conversion of CRP in ripening-associated proteins takes place at an accelerated rate, especially when climacteric ripening is induced by ethylene. The present report also includes a discussion of the accumulation of the major banana allergens and the identification of suitable promoters for the production of vaccines in transgenic bananas. PMID:12376669

  3. Ortho-surgical management of skeletal Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rahul Kumar; Tikku, Tripti; Khanna, Rohit; Gupta, Hemant; Srivastava, Kamna; Verma, Sneh Lata

    2015-01-01

    Class III malocclusions are considered to be one of the most difficult problems to treat. Establishment of the treatment plan is based on the efficacy and thoughtful application by the clinician and easy acceptance by the patient. We are presenting a case report of an adult male patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion who was treated by orthosurgical approach in Department of Orthodontics in collaboration with Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. The treatment was complete with a positive overbite and acceptable occlusion and satisfactory facial esthetics using a combination approach. PMID:26668466

  4. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  5. 25 CFR 291.5 - Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures be filed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.5 Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures be filed? Any proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures must be filed with...

  6. 25 CFR 522.8 - Publication of class III ordinance and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 522.8 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.8 Publication of class III ordinance and approval. The Chairman shall publish a class III tribal...

  7. 25 CFR 291.4 - What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures contain? 291.4 Section 291.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.4 What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures contain? A proposal requesting Class...

  8. 21 CFR 807.94 - Format of a class III certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Format of a class III certification. 807.94... IMPORTERS OF DEVICES Premarket Notification Procedures § 807.94 Format of a class III certification. (a) A class III certification submitted as part of a premarket notification shall state as follows: I...

  9. Diverse functions and reactions of class III peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Shigeto, Jun; Tsutsumi, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    Higher plants contain plant-specific peroxidases (class III peroxidase; Prxs) that exist as large multigene families. Reverse genetic studies to characterize the function of each Prx have revealed that Prxs are involved in lignification, cell elongation, stress defense and seed germination. However, the underlying mechanisms associated with plant phenotypes following genetic engineering of Prx genes are not fully understood. This is because Prxs can function as catalytic enzymes that oxidize phenolic compounds while consuming hydrogen peroxide and/or as generators of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, biochemical efforts to characterize Prxs responsible for lignin polymerization have revealed specialized activities of Prxs. In conclusion, not only spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression and protein distribution, but also differentiated oxidation properties of each Prx define the function of this class of peroxidases. PMID:26542837

  10. 25 CFR 522.7 - Disapproval of a class III ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disapproval of a class III ordinance. 522.7 Section 522.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.7 Disapproval of a class...

  11. Medical devices; reclassification of three anesthesiology preamendments class III devices into class II. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2001-11-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is reclassifying three anesthesiology preamendments devices from class III (premarket approval) into class II (special controls). FDA is also identifying the special controls that the agency believes will reasonably ensure the safety and effectiveness of the devices. This reclassification is being undertaken on the agency's own initiative based on new information under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), as amended by the Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990 and the FDA Modernization Act of 1997. PMID:11776278

  12. Skeletal components of class III malocclusions and compensation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Spalj, S; Mestrovic, S; Lapter Varga, M; Slaj, M

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the skeletal characteristics of sagittal maxillary and mandibular discrepancies resulting in class III malocclusions and compensation mechanisms in one Caucasian European population (Croatian). The study sample included 107 patients (63 females and 44 males), aged between 11 and 18 years of age (mean age 14.6 +/- 2.2), with a class III malocclusion. Forty-three angular and linear measurements were assessed from the pre-treatment lateral cephalographs of each subject. anova, Tukey post hoc and t-test were used for statistical analysis. The most common differential skeletal type was mandibular prognathism with a normal maxilla (43%), followed by maxillary retrognathism with a normal mandibular position (19.6%), while the combination of maxillary retrognathism and mandibular prognathism was found to be rare (<5%). Subjects with maxillary retrognathia, appeared to also have a vertical facial pattern, suggesting a tendency towards vertical growth as a possible compensation mechanism. Those with mandibular prognathia tended to exhibit a horizontal facial growth pattern and typically included more pronounced dento-alveolar compensation, that is, proclination of maxillary and retroclination of mandibular incisors. There were no differences observed in gender, overjet or soft tissue profiles between different sagittal skeletal types. Dominant protrusive mandible in Croatians can be related to European Caucasian ancestry, where this entity is historically described as 'Habsburg jaw'. PMID:18699972

  13. TMJ in facial class III deformity. Condylar morphology relations

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Gonzalo; Olate, Sergio; Cantín, Mario; Vásquez, Bélgica; del Sol, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Class III dentofacial deformities (DF-III) are classified as a severe functional and esthetic anomaly. This work aims to describe the condylar morphology of subjects with DF-III and indication of correction through orthognatic surgery. A descriptive study was designed in the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile, where 14 patients were examined with conventional cephalometric studies to determine the surgical indication; then, cone beam CT images were recorded for the morphometric analyses on the coronal and axial slices, considering linear measurements in the middle, basal and anteroposterior areas. The data were analyzed with the student’s t-test, considering p < 0.05 statistically significant. The results revealed condylar size differences of less than 1 mm between the left and right condyles, considering average widths of 17.03 mm in the right condyle and 17.86 mm in the left condyle. Vertically, the observed averages were 17.17 mm in the right condyle and 17.04 mm in the left condyle; no statistical differences were observed. It can be concluded that there are no differences in the measurements when the two condyles are compared in this type of subject. PMID:25356190

  14. Latent Class Analysis of Differential Item Functioning on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Mi-young Lee; Cohen, Allan S.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the use of latent class analysis for the detection of differences in item functioning on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Third Edition (PPVT-III). A two-class solution for a latent class model appeared to be defined in part by ability because Class 1 was lower in ability than Class 2 on both the PPVT-III and the…

  15. Evaluation depth of the curve of Spee in class I, class II, and class III malocclusion: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Sanjna; Dinakarsamy, V.; Santhosh, S.

    2015-01-01

    Occlusal plane is an essential consideration when multiple long-span posterior restorations are designed. When restorations are added to an existing tooth arrangement characterized by rotated, tipped, or extruded teeth, excursive interferences may be incorporated, resulting in detrimental squeal. The curve of Spee, which exists in the ideal natural dentition, allows harmony to exist between the anterior tooth and condylar guidance. This curve exists in the sagittal plane and is the best viewed from a lateral aspect. It permits total posterior disclusion on mandibular protrusion, given proper anterior tooth guidance. It is unclear that whether the curve of Spee is a description of the occlusal surface of each arch separately or in maximal intercuspation. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the depth of curve of Spee between the class I, class II, class III and to investigate the relationship of depth of curve of Spee with over jet, over-bite. PMID:26015764

  16. 76 FR 43701 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Class III Tribal State Gaming Compact Process...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... collection is currently authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0172, which expires November 30, 2011. DATES... guarantee that we will be able to do so. III. Data OMB Control Number: 1076-0172. Title: Class III...

  17. 25 CFR 291.14 - How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.14 How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to amend approved Class III...

  18. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  19. Medical devices; reclassification of six cardiovascular preamendments class III devices into class II. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2001-04-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is reclassifying six cardiovascular pre amendments devices from class III (pre market approval) into class II (special controls). FDA is also identifying the special controls that the agency believes will reasonably ensure the safety and effectiveness of the devices. This reclassification is being undertaken on the agency's own initiative based on new information under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), as amended by the Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990 and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997. The agency is also revising the identification of one of the devices subject to this rule to simplify the classification regulation and is correcting a typographical error that was incorporated into the regulations. PMID:11721689

  20. Evaluation and Comparison of Intermaxillary Tooth Size Discrepancy among Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III Subjects Using Bolton’s Analysis: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, A Lakshmi; Venkatramana, V; Aryasri, A Srikanth; Katta, Anil Kumar; Santhanakrishnan, K; Maheshwari, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluation and comparison of intermaxillary tooth size discrepancy among Class I, Class II division 1, and Class III subjects using Bolton’s analysis. Materials and Methods: The pre-treatment casts were selected from the records of patients attending the Department of Orthodontics of Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai. The sample consists of 180 pre-treatment casts with both sexes evenly distributed with 60 casts in each type of malocclusion, i.e., Class I, Class II div 1, and Class III malocclusion. The sample was selected according to angles classification. All patients were Indian nationals, between the age group of 12 to 20 years and Bolton’s analysis done on all the casts. Results: Statistically no significant difference in all types of malocclusion except anterior Bolton’s discrepancy in Class III. Conclusion: Mean Bolton’s anterior ratio for angles Class III subjects was significantly greater than for Class I and Class II subjects. When Bolton’s overall ratio was compared there was no statistically significant difference among Class I, Class II div 1, and Class III malocclusions. PMID:26435619

  1. TMJ in facial class III deformity. Condyle/fossa relations.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gonzalo; Olate, Sergio; Cantín, Mario; Vásquez, Bélgica; Del Sol, Mariano; Fariña, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the joint space present in the TMJ of subjects diagnosed with Class III dentofacial deformity with an indication for orthognathic surgery. Fourteen subjects were recruited from the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. All subjects were admitted to the study after signing an informed consent and undergoing cephalometric analyses to define the severity of the deformity. Then, the joint space was analyzed, studying a cone beam CT image of the TMJ, which was evaluated in the coronal and sagittal views, defining the most anterior, median and posterior joint space (sagittal view), as well as the lateral, median and medial joint space (coronal view). The data were recorded in millimeters by an observer and data were analyzed after measuring the same parameter at three different times. A student's t-test was used for the analyses. Differences observed in both joints were not greater than 0.2 mm with spaces between 2 mm and 1.5 mm, thereby establishing the homogeneity of the sample, which presented no significant differences between the two joint spaces (right and left). It can be concluded that the joint space is symmetrical in both condyles and that no important changes are present compared to the results indicated in the international literature. PMID:25356133

  2. TMJ in facial class III deformity. Condyle/fossa relations

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Gonzalo; Olate, Sergio; Cantín, Mario; Vásquez, Bélgica; del Sol, Mariano; Fariña, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the joint space present in the TMJ of subjects diagnosed with Class III dentofacial deformity with an indication for orthognathic surgery. Fourteen subjects were recruited from the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. All subjects were admitted to the study after signing an informed consent and undergoing cephalometric analyses to define the severity of the deformity. Then, the joint space was analyzed, studying a cone beam CT image of the TMJ, which was evaluated in the coronal and sagittal views, defining the most anterior, median and posterior joint space (sagittal view), as well as the lateral, median and medial joint space (coronal view). The data were recorded in millimeters by an observer and data were analyzed after measuring the same parameter at three different times. A student’s t-test was used for the analyses. Differences observed in both joints were not greater than 0.2 mm with spaces between 2 mm and 1.5 mm, thereby establishing the homogeneity of the sample, which presented no significant differences between the two joint spaces (right and left). It can be concluded that the joint space is symmetrical in both condyles and that no important changes are present compared to the results indicated in the international literature. PMID:25356133

  3. A New Subfamily of Polyphosphate Kinase 2 (Class III PPK2) Catalyzes both Nucleoside Monophosphate Phosphorylation and Nucleoside Diphosphate Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Motomura, Kei; Hirota, Ryuichi; Okada, Mai; Ikeda, Takeshi; Ishida, Takenori

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a linear polymer of tens to hundreds of phosphate (Pi) residues linked by “high-energy” phosphoanhydride bonds as in ATP. PolyP kinases, responsible for the synthesis and utilization of polyP, are divided into two families (PPK1 and PPK2) due to differences in amino acid sequence and kinetic properties. PPK2 catalyzes preferentially polyP-driven nucleotide phosphorylation (utilization of polyP), which is important for the survival of microbial cells under conditions of stress or pathogenesis. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the PPK2 family could be divided into three subfamilies (classes I, II, and III). Class I and II PPK2s catalyze nucleoside diphosphate and nucleoside monophosphate phosphorylation, respectively. Here, we demonstrated that class III PPK2 catalyzes both nucleoside monophosphate and nucleoside diphosphate phosphorylation, thereby enabling us to synthesize ATP from AMP by a single enzyme. Moreover, class III PPK2 showed broad substrate specificity over purine and pyrimidine bases. This is the first demonstration that class III PPK2 possesses both class I and II activities. PMID:24532069

  4. 14 CFR 21.333 - Issue of export airworthiness approval tags for Class III products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issue of export airworthiness approval tags for Class III products. 21.333 Section 21.333 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Approvals § 21.333 Issue of export airworthiness approval tags for Class III products. (a) An applicant...

  5. 49 CFR 1150.34 - Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.34 Section 1150.34 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to....34 Caption summary—transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. The caption summary...

  6. 49 CFR 1150.34 - Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.34 Section 1150.34 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to....34 Caption summary—transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. The caption summary...

  7. 49 CFR 1150.34 - Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.34 Section 1150.34 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to....34 Caption summary—transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. The caption summary...

  8. 77 FR 48167 - Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact; Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact; Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between the Eastern Band of Cherokee...

  9. 49 CFR 1150.34 - Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.34 Section 1150.34 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to....34 Caption summary—transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. The caption summary...

  10. 49 CFR 1150.34 - Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.34 Section 1150.34 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to....34 Caption summary—transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. The caption summary...

  11. The Oropharyngeal Airway in Young Adults with Skeletal Class II and Class III Deformities: A 3-D Morphometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jayaratne, Yasas Shri Nalaka; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Objectives 1) To determine the accuracy and reliability of an automated anthropometric measurement software for the oropharyngeal airway and 2) To compare the anthropometric dimensions of the oropharyngeal airway in skeletal class II and III deformity patients. Methods Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans of 62 patients with skeletal class II or III deformities were used for this study. Volumetric, linear and surface area measurements retroglossal (RG) and retropalatal (RP) compartments of the oropharyngeal airway was measured with the 3dMDVultus software. Accuracy of automated anthropometric pharyngeal airway measurements was assessed using an airway phantom. Results The software was found to be reasonably accurate for measuring dimensions of air passages. The total oropharyngeal volume was significantly greater in the skeletal class III deformity group (16.7 ± 9.04 mm3) compared with class II subjects (11.87 ± 4.01 mm3). The average surface area of both the RG and RP compartments were significantly larger in the class III deformity group. The most constricted area in the RG and RP airway was significantly larger in individuals with skeletal class III deformity. The anterior-posterior (AP) length of this constriction was significantly greater in skeletal class III individuals in both compartments, whereas the width of the constriction was not significantly different between the two groups in both compartments. The RP compartment was larger but less uniform than the RG compartment in both skeletal deformities. Conclusion Significant differences were observed in morphological characteristics of the oropharyngeal airway in individuals with skeletal class II and III deformities. This information may be valuable for surgeons in orthognathic treatment planning, especially for mandibular setback surgery that might compromise the oropharyngeal patency. PMID:26901313

  12. Civilization III and Whole-Class Play in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John K.; Probert, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This study examined an 11th grade high school class as they played the game Civilization III. Over nine class sessions students played the game in support of other activities related to several predetermined and emergent topics in U. S. history. Gameplay was whole-class oriented and involved students taking turns at the computer controlling…

  13. Class III β-Tubulin Is a Component of the Mitotic Spindle in Multiple Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    Jouhilahti, Eeva-Mari; Peltonen, Sirkku; Peltonen, Juha

    2008-01-01

    The findings of this study show that Class III β-tubulin is a component of the mitotic spindle in multiple cell types. Class III β-tubulin has been widely used as a neuron-specific marker, but it has been detected also in association with breast and pancreatic cancers. In this study, we describe a novel finding of Class III β-tubulin in a subpopulation of cells in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. The findings of this study also show that Class III β-tubulin is expressed by normal mesenchymal and epithelial cells (fibroblasts and keratinocytes), two transitional cell carcinoma cell lines, and neurofibroma Schwann cells, as shown by immunolabeling and Western transfer analysis using two different Tuj-1 antibodies that are specific for Class III β-tubulin. The corresponding mRNA was detected using RT-PCR and whole human genome microarrays. Both antibodies localized Class III β-tubulin to the mitotic spindle and showed a colocalization with α-tubulin. The immunoreaction became visible in early prophase, and the most intense immunoreaction was detected during metaphase and anaphase when microtubules were connected to the kinetochores on chromosomes. Class III β-tubulin–specific immunoreaction lasted to the point when the midbody of cytokinesis became detectable. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:1113–1119, 2008) PMID:18796406

  14. Rotation of the upper first molar in Class I, II, and III patients

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Viganó, Cristiane; da Rocha, Viviane Ekerman; Junior, Laerte Ribeiro Menezes; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Ramos, Adilson Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mean rotation of the upper first molar (U1st M) in cast models from nontreated patients presenting: Class I, skeletal Class II, dental Class II, and skeletal Class III, comparing with Class I orthodontically treated patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred cast models were evaluated with five groups, composed of nontreated Class I (n = 20), dental Class II (n = 20), skeletal Class II (n = 20), skeletal Class III (n = 20), and treated Class I (n = 20). Measurements were taken from photocopies of the upper arches. The angle formed between a line crossing the mesiopalatal and the distal-buccalcusps of the U1st M and a line traced on mid palatal junction were measured in all samples. Results: One-way variance analysis showed that dental Class II group presented great mean rotation of the 1st molar (x = 78.95°, SD = 6.19) (P < 0.05), and in 85% of the patients from this group this angle was higher than 73°. Conclusions: The skeletal Class II and skeletal Class III groups showed similar mean position of the 1st molar, presenting rotation in approximately 50% of the patients. It can be concluded that upper molar rotation occurs mainly in dental Class II patients and shows higher mesial rotation angle. PMID:27011741

  15. Amphibian alcohol dehydrogenase, the major frog liver enzyme. Relationships to other forms and assessment of an early gene duplication separating vertebrate class I and class III alcohol dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Cederlund, E.; Joernvall, H. ); Peralba, J.M.; Pares, X. )

    1991-03-19

    Submammalian alcohol dehydrogenase structures can be used to evaluate the origins and functions of different types of the mammalian enzyme. Two avian forms were recently reported, and the authors now define the major amphibian alcohol dehydrogenase. The enzyme from the liver of the Green frog Rana perezi was purified, carboxymethylated, and submitted to amino acid sequence determination by peptide analysis of six different digest. The protein has a 375-residue subunit and is a class I alcohol dehydrogenase, bridging the gap toward the original separation of the classes that are observable in the human alcohol dehydrogenase system. In relation to the human class I enzyme, the amphibian protein has residue identities exactly halfway (68%) between those for the corresponding avian enzyme (74%) and the human class III enzyme (62%), suggesting an origin of the alcohol dehnydrogenase classes very early in or close to the evolution of the vertebrate line. This conclusion suggests that these enzyme classes are more universal among animals than previously realized and constitutes the first real assessment of the origin of the duplications leading to the alcohol dehydrogenase classes. In conclusion, the amphibian enzyme allows a rough positioning of the divergence of the alcohol dehydrogenase classes, shows that the class I type is widesprread in vertebrates, and functionally conforms with greater variations at the substrate-binding than the coenzyme-binding site.

  16. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent...

  17. Acid Hydrolysis of Trioxalatocobaltate (III) Ion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggans, P. W.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an investigation involving acid hydrolysis and using both volumetric and kinetic techniques. Presents examples of the determination of the rate constant and its variation with temperature. (GS)

  18. 25 CFR 291.3 - When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... III gaming procedures? 291.3 Section 291.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.3 When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to issue Class...

  19. 25 CFR 291.12 - Who will monitor and enforce tribal compliance with the Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Class III gaming procedures? 291.12 Section 291.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.12 Who will monitor and enforce tribal compliance with the Class III gaming procedures? The Indian tribe and the State may have an...

  20. S-Nitrosoglutathione is a substrate for rat alcohol dehydrogenase class III isoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Jensen, D E; Belka, G K; Du Bois, G C

    1998-04-15

    An enzyme isolated from rat liver cytosol (native molecular mass 78. 3 kDa; polypeptide molecular mass 42.5 kDa) is capable of catalysing the NADH/NADPH-dependent degradation of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). The activity utilizes 1 mol of coenzyme per mol of GSNO processed. The isolated enzyme has, as well, several characteristics that are unique to alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) class III isoenzyme: it is capable of catalysing the NAD+-dependent oxidations of octanol (insensitive to inhibition by 4-methylpyrazole), methylcrotyl alcohol (stimulated by added pentanoate) and 12-hydroxydodecanoic acid, and also the NADH/NADPH-dependent reduction of octanal. Methanol and ethanol oxidation activity is minimal. The enzyme has formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity in that it is capable of catalysing the NAD+/NADP+-dependent oxidation of S-hydroxymethylglutathione. Treatment with the arginine-specific reagent phenylglyoxal prevents the pentanoate stimulation of methylcrotyl alcohol oxidation and markedly diminishes the enzymic activity towards octanol, 12-hydroxydodecanoic acid and S-hydroxymethylglutathione; the capacity to catalyse GSNO degradation is also checked. Additionally, limited peptide sequencing indicates 100% correspondence with known ADH class III isoenzyme sequences. Kinetic studies demonstrate that GSNO is an exceptionally active substrate for this enzyme. S-Nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine and S-nitrosated human serum albumin are not substrates; the activity towards S-nitrosated glutathione mono- and di-ethyl esters is minimal. Product analysis suggests that glutathione sulphinamide is the major stable product of enzymic GSNO processing, with minor yields of GSSG and NH3; GSH, hydroxylamine, nitrite, nitrate and nitric oxide accumulations are minimal. Inclusion of GSH in the reaction mix decreases the yield of the supposed glutathione sulphinamide in favor of GSSG and hydroxylamine. PMID:9531510

  1. The class III ribonucleotide reductase from Neisseria bacilliformis can utilize thioredoxin as a reductant

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yifeng; Funk, Michael A.; Rosado, Leonardo A.; Baek, Jiyeon; Drennan, Catherine L.; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2014-01-01

    The class III anaerobic ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) studied to date couple the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxynucleotides with the oxidation of formate to CO2. Here we report the cloning and heterologous expression of the Neisseria bacilliformis class III RNR and show that it can catalyze nucleotide reduction using the ubiquitous thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase/NADPH system. We present a structural model based on a crystal structure of the homologous Thermotoga maritima class III RNR, showing its architecture and the position of conserved residues in the active site. Phylogenetic studies suggest that this form of class III RNR is present in bacteria and archaea that carry out diverse types of anaerobic metabolism. PMID:25157154

  2. Maxillary canine-first premolar bilateral transposition in a Class III patient: A case report.

    PubMed

    Potrubacz, Maciej Iancu; Tepedino, Michele; Chimenti, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    Tooth transposition is a rare dental anomaly that often represents a challenge for the clinician. The case of a girl with skeletal Class III malocclusion and concomitant maxillary canine-first premolar bilateral transposition, followed from 7 to 17 years of age, is presented. After a first phase of treatment aimed at resolving the Class III malocclusion, the transposition was maintained and the case finalized with a multibracket appliance. PMID:26280661

  3. Treatment Options for Class III Malocclusion in Growing Patients with Emphasis on Maxillary Protraction

    PubMed Central

    Azamian, Zeinab; Shirban, Farinaz

    2016-01-01

    It is very difficult to diagnose and treat Class III malocclusion. This type of malocclusion involves a number of cranial base and maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental compensation components. In Class III malocclusion originating from mandibular prognathism, orthodontic treatment in growing patients is not a good choice and in most cases orthognathic surgery is recommended after the end of growth. Approximately 30–40% of Class III patients exhibit some degree of maxillary deficiency; therefore, devices can be used for maxillary protraction for orthodontic treatment in early mixed dentition. In cases in which dental components are primarily responsible for Class III malocclusion, early therapeutic intervention is recommended. An electronic search was conducted using the Medline database (Entrez PubMed), the Cochrane Collaboration Oral Health Group Database of Clinical Trials, Science Direct, and Scopus. In this review article, we described the treatment options for Class III malocclusion in growing patient with an emphasis on maxillary protraction. It seems that the most important factor for treatment of Class III malocclusion in growing patient is case selection. PMID:27144056

  4. Discovery of bicyclic pyrazoles as class III histone deacetylase SIRT1 and SIRT2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Eric; Larouche, Guillaume; Nguyen, Natalie; Rahil, Jubrail; Lemieux, Anne-Marie; Li, Zuomei; Fournel, Marielle; Yan, Theresa P; Landry, Anne-Julie; Lefebvre, Sylvain; Wang, James J; MacBeth, Kyle; Heise, Carla; Nguyen, Aaron; Besterman, Jeffrey M; Déziel, Robert; Wahhab, Amal

    2015-06-15

    A series of bicyclic pyrazole carboxamides was synthesized and tested for inhibitory activity against the class III deacetylase sirtuin enzymes. Moderate to low micromolar inhibitory activities were obtained against SIRT1 and SIRT2. These bicyclic pyrazole compounds represent a new class of sirtuin inhibitors with a preference for SIRT1 over SIRT2. PMID:25971769

  5. 25 CFR 522.6 - Approval requirements for class III ordinances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 522.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.6 Approval...) The tribe shall have the sole proprietary interest in and responsibility for the conduct of any...

  6. 40 CFR 147.753 - Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule. 147.753 Section 147.753 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Indiana § 147.753 Existing Class I...

  7. 40 CFR 147.753 - Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule. 147.753 Section 147.753 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Indiana § 147.753 Existing Class I...

  8. Effects of difructose anhydride III (DFA III) administration on bile acids and growth of DFA III-assimilating bacterium Ruminococcus productus on rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Minamida, Kimiko; Kaneko, Maki; Ohashi, Midori; Sujaya, I Nengah; Sone, Teruo; Wada, Masaru; Yokota, Atsushi; Hara, Hiroshi; Asano, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao

    2005-06-01

    The growth of DFA III-assimilating bacteria in the intestines of rats fed 3% DFA III for 2 weeks was examined. Sixty-four percent of the DFA III intake had been assimilated on day 3 of ingestion, and almost all of the DFA III was assimilated at the end of the experiment. The DFA III-assimilating bacterium, Ruminococcus productus, in DFA III-fed rats was in the stationary state of 10(8)-10(9) cells/g dry feces within a week from 10(6) cells/g dry feces on day 1 of DFA III ingestion. The number of R. productus cells was associated with the amount of DFA III excreted in the feces. The acetic acid produced from DFA III by R. productus lowered the cecal pH to 5.8. In control-fed rats and DFA III-fed rats, 94% of secondary bile acids and 94% of primary bile acids, respectively, were accounted for in the total bile acids analyzed. DFA III ingestion increased the ratio of primary bile acids and changed the composition of fecal bile acids. In conclusion, R. productus assimilated DFA III, produced short chain fatty acids, and the cecal pH was lowered. The acidification of rat intestine perhaps inhibited secondary bile acid formation and decreased the ratio of secondary bile acids. Therefore, it is expected that DFA III may prevent colorectal cancer and be a new prebiotic candidate. PMID:16233830

  9. Structural diversity and transcription of class III peroxidases from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Welinder, Karen G; Justesen, Annemarie F; Kjaersgård, Inger V H; Jensen, Rikke B; Rasmussen, Søren K; Jespersen, Hans M; Duroux, Laurent

    2002-12-01

    Understanding peroxidase function in plants is complicated by the lack of substrate specificity, the high number of genes, their diversity in structure and our limited knowledge of peroxidase gene transcription and translation. In the present study we sequenced expressed sequence tags (ESTs) encoding novel heme-containing class III peroxidases from Arabidopsis thaliana and annotated 73 full-length genes identified in the genome. In total, transcripts of 58 of these genes have now been observed. The expression of individual peroxidase genes was assessed in organ-specific EST libraries and compared to the expression of 33 peroxidase genes which we analyzed in whole plants 3, 6, 15, 35 and 59 days after sowing. Expression was assessed in root, rosette leaf, stem, cauline leaf, flower bud and cell culture tissues using the gene-specific and highly sensitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We predicted that 71 genes could yield stable proteins folded similarly to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The putative mature peroxidases derived from these genes showed 28-94% amino acid sequence identity and were all targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum by N-terminal signal peptides. In 20 peroxidases these signal peptides were followed by various N-terminal extensions of unknown function which are not present in HRP. Ten peroxidases showed a C-terminal extension indicating vacuolar targeting. We found that the majority of peroxidase genes were expressed in root. In total, class III peroxidases accounted for an impressive 2.2% of root ESTs. Rather few peroxidases showed organ specificity. Most importantly, genes expressed constitutively in all organs and genes with a preference for root represented structurally diverse peroxidases (< 70% sequence identity). Furthermore, genes appearing in tandem showed distinct expression profiles. The alignment of 73 Arabidopsis peroxidase sequences provides an easy access to the identification of orthologous peroxidases

  10. DOE tallies Class III oil recovery field projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-25

    Here are details from midterm proposals submitted as part of the US Department of Energy's Class 3 oil recovery field demonstration candidate projects. All of the proposals emphasize dissemination of project details so that the results, if successful, can be applied widely in similar reservoirs. Project results will also be fed into a national petroleum technology transfer network. The proposals include: Gulf of Mexico, Gulf coast, offshore California, a California thermal, immiscible CO[sub 2], produced/potable water, microbial EOR, California diatomite, West Texas Spraberry field, and other Permian Basin fields.

  11. Kinetics of the reaction between Pu(III) and Fe(III) in nitric acid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Koltunov, V.S.; Zhuravleva, G.I.

    1988-01-01

    The kinetics of the reaction between Pu/sup (III)/ and Fe/sup (III)/ in an aqueous nitric acid solution in the presence of persulfate ions at a constant ionic strength of the solution was studied spectrophotometrically. It was shown that the reaction is first order with respect to the reagents; its rate is practically independent of the concentration of the H/sup +/ and S/sub 2/O/sub 8//sup 2 -/ ions and with increase in the analytical HNO/sub 3/ concentration at variable ionic strength, it first increases, and then decreases. The temperature dependence of the reaction was determined, and its thermodynamic activation parameters were calculated. A possible mechanism for the reaction between Pu/sup (III)/ and Fe/sup (III)/ was proposed.

  12. Palladium(III)-catalyzed fluorination of arylboronic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mazzotti, Anthony R; Campbell, Michael G; Tang, Pingping; Murphy, Jennifer M; Ritter, Tobias

    2013-09-25

    A practical, palladium-catalyzed synthesis of aryl fluorides from arylboronic acid derivatives is presented. The reaction is operationally simple and amenable to multigram-scale synthesis. Evaluation of the reaction mechanism suggests a single-electron-transfer pathway, involving a Pd(III) intermediate that has been isolated and characterized. PMID:24040932

  13. Maxillary protraction using skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics in Skeletal Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    Ağlarcı, Cahide; Albayrak, Gayem Eroğlu; Fındık, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment of a patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion with maxillary retrognathia using skeletal anchorage devices and intermaxillary elastics. Miniplates were inserted between the mandibular lateral incisor and canine teeth on both sides in a male patient aged 14 years 5 months. Self-drilling mini-implants (1.6 mm diameter, 10 mm length) were installed between the maxillary second premolar and molar teeth, and Class III elastics were used between the miniplates and miniscrews. On treatment completion, an increase in the projection of the maxilla relative to the cranial base (2.7 mm) and significant improvement of the facial profile were observed. Slight maxillary counterclockwise (1°) and mandibular clockwise (3.3°) rotations were also observed. Maxillary protraction with skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics was effective in correcting a case of Skeletal Class III malocclusion without dentoalveolar side effects. PMID:25798416

  14. Pressure from the lips and the tongue in children with class III malocclusion*

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Wen-hua; Su, Ji-mei; Ye, Xiao-wei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To discuss possible relationships between class III malocclusion and perioral forces by measuring the pressure from the lips and the tongue of children with class III malocclusion. Methods: Thirty-one children with class III malocclusion were investigated and their perioral forces were measured at rest and during swallowing under natural head position by a custom-made miniperioral force computer measuring system. Results: The resting pressures exerted on the labial side and palatine side of the upper left incisor, as well as the labial side and lingual side of the lower left incisor, were 0 g/cm2, 0 g/cm2, 0.57 g/cm2 and 0.23 g/cm2, respectively. Correspondingly, the swallowing forces were 2.87 g/cm2, 5.97 g/cm2, 4.09 g/cm2 and 7.89 g/cm2, respectively. No statistical difference between muscular pressure and gender existed. During swallowing, the lingual forces were significantly higher than the labial forces (P<0.01), however, at rest there was no significantly different force between these two sides. Compared to the normal occlusion patients, children with class III malocclusion had lower perioral forces. The upper labial resting forces (P<0.01), the lower labial resting forces (P<0.05) and all the swallowing pressures from the lips and the tongue (P<0.01) showed statistical differences between the two different occlusion conditions. Meanwhile, no significant difference was found for the resting pressure from the tongue between class III malocclusion and normal occlusion. Conclusion: Patients with class III malocclusion have lower perioral forces and this muscle hypofunction may be secondary to the spatial relations of the jaws. The findings support the spatial matrix hypothesis. PMID:17542055

  15. Two-phase treatment of patients with crossbite and tendency toward skeletal Class III malocclusion*

    PubMed Central

    Bayerl, Maria de Lourdes Machado

    2014-01-01

    Angle Class III malocclusion is characterized by an inadequate anteroposterior dental relationship which may or may not be accompanied by skeletal changes. In general, patients are distressed by a significantly compromised facial aspect which, when associated with a deficient middle third, encourages patients to seek treatment. This article reports a two-phase treatment carried out in a female patient aged six years and six months with a tendency towards a Class III skeletal pattern. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO). It is representative of the Discrepancy Index (DI) category, and fulfills part of the requirements for obtaining BBO Diploma. PMID:25279531

  16. New approach of maxillary protraction using modified C-palatal plates in Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Ki Beom; Kim, Seong-Hun; Chung, Kyu-Rhim

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary protraction is the conventional treatment for growing Class III patients with maxillary deficiency, but it has undesirable dental effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce an alternative modality of maxillary protraction in patients with dentoskeletal Class III malocclusion using a modified C-palatal plate connected with elastics to a face mask. This method improved skeletal measurements, corrected overjet, and slightly improved the profile. The patients may require definitive treatment in adolescence or adulthood. The modified C-palatal plate enables nonsurgical maxillary advancement with maximal skeletal effects and minimal dental side effects. PMID:26258067

  17. Phenotypic Diversity in Caucasian Adults with Moderate to Severe Class III Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Uribe, Lina M.; Vela, Kaci C.; Kummet, Colleen; Dawson, Deborah V.; Southard, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Class III malocclusion is characterized by a composite of dento-skeletal patterns that lead to the forward positioning of the mandibular teeth in relation to the maxillary teeth and a concave profile. Environmental and genetic factors are associated with this condition, which affects 1% of the US population and imposes significant esthetic and functional burdens on affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to capture the phenotypic variation present in a large sample of white adults with Class III malocclusion by using multivariate reduction methods. METHODS Sixty-three lateral cephalometric variables were measured from pre-treatment records of 292 Class II Caucasian adults (126 males, 166 females; ages 16-57 years). Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to capture the phenotypic variation and identify the most homogeneous groups of individuals to reduce genetic heterogeneity. RESULTS Principal component analysis resulted in 6 principal components that accounted for 81.2% of the variation. The first three components represented variations in mandibular horizontal and vertical position, maxillary horizontal position, and mandibular incisor angulation, respectively. The cluster model identified 5 distinct subphenotypes of Class III malocclusion. CONCLUSIONS A spectrum of phenotypic definitions was obtained replicating results of previous studies and supporting the validity of these phenotypic measures in future research of genetic and environmental etiology of Class III malocclusion. PMID:23810043

  18. Molecular characterization of fruit-specific class III peroxidase genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chii-Jeng; Chan, Yuan-Li; Shien, Chin Hui; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2015-04-01

    In this study, expression of four peroxidase genes, LePrx09, LePrx17, LePrx35 and LePrxA, was identified in immature tomato fruits, and the function in the regulation of fruit growth was characterized. Analysis of amino acid sequences revealed that these genes code for class III peroxidases, containing B, D and F conserved domains, which bind heme groups, and a buried salt bridge motif. LePrx35 and LePrxA were identified as novel peroxidase genes in Solanum lycopersicum (L.). The temporal expression patterns at various fruit growth stages revealed that LePrx35 and LePrxA were expressed only in immature green (IMG) fruits, whereas LePrx17 and LePrx09 were expressed in both immature and mature green fruits. Tissue-specific expression profiles indicated that only LePrx09 was expressed in the mesocarp but not the inner tissue of immature fruits. The effects of hormone treatments and stresses on the four genes were examined; only the expression levels of LePrx17 and LePrx09 were altered. Transcription of LePrx17 was up-regulated by jasmonic acid (JA) and pathogen infection and expression of LePrx09 was induced by ethephon, salicylic acid (SA) and JA, in particular, as well as wounding, pathogen infection and H2O2 stress. Tomato plants over-expressing LePrx09 displayed enhanced resistance to H2O2 stress, suggesting that LePrx09 may participate in the H2O2 signaling pathway to regulate fruit growth and disease resistance in tomato fruits. PMID:25703772

  19. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with face mask therapy and comprehensive orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumar, Kirthika; Vijaykumar, N. M.; Sainath, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a growing patient is crucial as it can circumvent future surgical procedures. Further, as surgery is done only at a later stage, early treatment helps to avoid the detrimental effects produced by the facial disfigurement on the patient's social life. This case report describes the treatment of a child aged 9 years 6 months who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The treatment plan involved the use of a reverse pull headgear (facemask) and multibracket appliance therapy resulting in successful correction of the malocclusion. The treatment results were highly satisfactory resulting in improved facial esthetics, a skeletal Class I with a Dental Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overjet and overbite. Thus, dentoalveolar camouflage, if done in properly selected cases, alleviates the need for surgical intervention. The patient is being monitored until the end of growth to ensure the stability of treatment results. PMID:27041912

  20. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with face mask therapy and comprehensive orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Kirthika; Vijaykumar, N M; Sainath, M C

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a growing patient is crucial as it can circumvent future surgical procedures. Further, as surgery is done only at a later stage, early treatment helps to avoid the detrimental effects produced by the facial disfigurement on the patient's social life. This case report describes the treatment of a child aged 9 years 6 months who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The treatment plan involved the use of a reverse pull headgear (facemask) and multibracket appliance therapy resulting in successful correction of the malocclusion. The treatment results were highly satisfactory resulting in improved facial esthetics, a skeletal Class I with a Dental Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overjet and overbite. Thus, dentoalveolar camouflage, if done in properly selected cases, alleviates the need for surgical intervention. The patient is being monitored until the end of growth to ensure the stability of treatment results. PMID:27041912

  1. Kinetics of Fe(III)*EDTA reduction by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Harkness, J.B.L.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of ferric chelate by ascorbic acid have been determined at a typical flue-gas scrubber-system operating temperature ([approximately]55[degrees]C). The ascorbic acid reaction has the same reduction rate expression as the reduction by bisulfite ions, namely, first order with respect to the concentrations of both Fe(III)*EDTA and monoionic species of ascorbic acid. The reaction rate isnegative first order with respect to Fe(II)*EDTA concentration. In the pH range of 6--8, reduction of the hydrolyzed form of the metal chelate compound was negligible. The rate constant for the ascorbic acid reduction reaction is almost 400 times larger than that for the bisulfite reduction reaction under the same reaction conditions. There was no contribution associated with the nonionized form of ascorbic acid.

  2. Kinetics of Fe(III)*EDTA reduction by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Harkness, J.B.L.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1992-12-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of ferric chelate by ascorbic acid have been determined at a typical flue-gas scrubber-system operating temperature ({approximately}55{degrees}C). The ascorbic acid reaction has the same reduction rate expression as the reduction by bisulfite ions, namely, first order with respect to the concentrations of both Fe(III)*EDTA and monoionic species of ascorbic acid. The reaction rate isnegative first order with respect to Fe(II)*EDTA concentration. In the pH range of 6--8, reduction of the hydrolyzed form of the metal chelate compound was negligible. The rate constant for the ascorbic acid reduction reaction is almost 400 times larger than that for the bisulfite reduction reaction under the same reaction conditions. There was no contribution associated with the nonionized form of ascorbic acid.

  3. Complexation and molecular modeling studies of europium(III)-gallic acid-amino acid complexes.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohamed; Khan, Imran; Coutinho, João A P

    2016-04-01

    With many metal-based drugs extensively used today in the treatment of cancer, attention has focused on the development of new coordination compounds with antitumor activity with europium(III) complexes recently introduced as novel anticancer drugs. The aim of this work is to design new Eu(III) complexes with gallic acid, an antioxida'nt phenolic compound. Gallic acid was chosen because it shows anticancer activity without harming health cells. As antioxidant, it helps to protect human cells against oxidative damage that implicated in DNA damage, cancer, and accelerated cell aging. In this work, the formation of binary and ternary complexes of Eu(III) with gallic acid, primary ligand, and amino acids alanine, leucine, isoleucine, and tryptophan was studied by glass electrode potentiometry in aqueous solution containing 0.1M NaNO3 at (298.2±0.1) K. Their overall stability constants were evaluated and the concentration distributions of the complex species in solution were calculated. The protonation constants of gallic acid and amino acids were also determined at our experimental conditions and compared with those predicted by using conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) model. The geometries of Eu(III)-gallic acid complexes were characterized by the density functional theory (DFT). The spectroscopic UV-visible and photoluminescence measurements are carried out to confirm the formation of Eu(III)-gallic acid complexes in aqueous solutions. PMID:26827296

  4. Relationship between Class III malocclusion and hyoid bone displacement during swallowing: a cine-magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Hasan Suat; Gorgulu, Serkan; Karacay, Seniz; Akca, Eralp; Olmez, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The displacement of the hyoid bone (HB) is a critical biomechanical component of the swallowing function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the swallowing-induced vertical and horizontal displacements of the HB in subjects with 2 different magnitudes of skeletal Class III malocclusion, by means of real-time, balanced turbo-field-echo (B-TFE) cine-magnetic resonance imaging. Methods The study population comprised 19 patients with mild skeletal Class III malocclusion, 16 with severe skeletal Class III malocclusion, and 20 with a skeletal Class I relationship. Before the commencement of the study, all subjects underwent cephalometric analysis to identify the nature of skeletal malformations. B-TFE images were obtained for the 4 consecutive stages of deglutition as each patient swallowed 10 mL of water, and the vertical and horizontal displacements of the HB were measured at each stage. Results At all stages of swallowing, the vertical position of the HB in the severe Class III malocclusion group was significantly lower than those in the mild Class III and Class I malocclusion groups. Similarly, the horizontal displacement of the HB was found to be significantly associated with the severity of malocclusion, i.e., the degree of Class III malocclusion, while the amount of anterior displacement of the HB decreased with an increase in the severity of the Class III deformity. Conclusions Our findings indicate the existence of a relationship between the magnitude of Class III malocclusion and HB displacement during swallowing. PMID:23112950

  5. 40 CFR 147.3014 - Construction requirements for Class III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction requirements for Class III wells. 147.3014 Section 147.3014 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Lands of the Navajo, Ute Mountain Ute,...

  6. 77 FR 45370 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Class III Gaming; Tribal Revenue Allocation Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... 1076-0149, Tribal Revenue Allocation Plans authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0152, and Gaming on Trust Lands Acquired After October 17, 1988 authorized by OMB Control Number 1076- 0158. These.... Data OMB Control Number: 1076-0149. Title: Class III Gaming Procedures, 25 CFR Part 291....

  7. 77 FR 68812 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Class III Gaming; Tribal Revenue Allocation Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... collection of information for Class III Gaming Procedures authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0149, Tribal Revenue Allocation Plans authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0152, and Gaming on Trust Lands Acquired After October 17, 1988 authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0158. These information collections...

  8. 40 CFR 147.3011 - Plugging and abandonment of Class III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Class III uranium projects underlying or in aquifers containing up to 5,000 mg/l TDS which have... plan a plan for aquifer clean-up and monitoring which demonstrates adequate protection of surrounding... concentrations of contaminants to which aquifers must be cleaned up in order to protect surrounding USDWs....

  9. 40 CFR 147.3011 - Plugging and abandonment of Class III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Class III uranium projects underlying or in aquifers containing up to 5,000 mg/l TDS which have... plan a plan for aquifer clean-up and monitoring which demonstrates adequate protection of surrounding... concentrations of contaminants to which aquifers must be cleaned up in order to protect surrounding USDWs....

  10. 40 CFR 147.3011 - Plugging and abandonment of Class III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Class III uranium projects underlying or in aquifers containing up to 5,000 mg/l TDS which have... plan a plan for aquifer clean-up and monitoring which demonstrates adequate protection of surrounding... concentrations of contaminants to which aquifers must be cleaned up in order to protect surrounding USDWs....

  11. 40 CFR 147.3011 - Plugging and abandonment of Class III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Class III uranium projects underlying or in aquifers containing up to 5,000 mg/l TDS which have... plan a plan for aquifer clean-up and monitoring which demonstrates adequate protection of surrounding... concentrations of contaminants to which aquifers must be cleaned up in order to protect surrounding USDWs....

  12. 40 CFR 147.3011 - Plugging and abandonment of Class III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Class III uranium projects underlying or in aquifers containing up to 5,000 mg/l TDS which have... plan a plan for aquifer clean-up and monitoring which demonstrates adequate protection of surrounding... concentrations of contaminants to which aquifers must be cleaned up in order to protect surrounding USDWs....

  13. 43 CFR 3108.2-4 - Conversion of unpatented oil placer mining claims: Class III reinstatements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... officer on all production removed or sold from the oil placer mining claim, including all royalty on... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conversion of unpatented oil placer mining... oil placer mining claims: Class III reinstatements. (a) For any unpatented oil placer mining...

  14. 40 CFR 144.28 - Requirements for Class I, II, and III wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for Class I, II, and III wells authorized by rule. 144.28 Section 144.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Authorization of Underground Injection by Rule §...

  15. 40 CFR 144.28 - Requirements for Class I, II, and III wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for Class I, II, and III wells authorized by rule. 144.28 Section 144.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Authorization of Underground Injection by Rule §...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1401 - State administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells. 147.1401 Section 147.1401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Nebraska § 147.1401...

  17. 40 CFR 147.1401 - State administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells. 147.1401 Section 147.1401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Nebraska § 147.1401...

  18. 43 CFR 3108.2-4 - Conversion of unpatented oil placer mining claims: Class III reinstatements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conversion of unpatented oil placer mining... (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Relinquishment, Termination, Cancellation § 3108.2-4 Conversion of unpatented oil placer mining claims: Class III reinstatements. (a) For any unpatented oil placer mining...

  19. 43 CFR 3108.2-4 - Conversion of unpatented oil placer mining claims: Class III reinstatements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conversion of unpatented oil placer mining... (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Relinquishment, Termination, Cancellation § 3108.2-4 Conversion of unpatented oil placer mining claims: Class III reinstatements. (a) For any unpatented oil placer mining...

  20. 43 CFR 3108.2-4 - Conversion of unpatented oil placer mining claims: Class III reinstatements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conversion of unpatented oil placer mining... (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Relinquishment, Termination, Cancellation § 3108.2-4 Conversion of unpatented oil placer mining claims: Class III reinstatements. (a) For any unpatented oil placer mining...

  1. 40 CFR 147.1401 - State administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells. 147.1401 Section 147.1401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Nebraska § 147.1401...

  2. 40 CFR 147.1401 - State administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells. 147.1401 Section 147.1401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Nebraska § 147.1401...

  3. 40 CFR 147.1401 - State administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells. 147.1401 Section 147.1401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Nebraska § 147.1401...

  4. Orthodontic retreatment using anchorage with miniplate to camouflage a Class III skeletal pattern

    PubMed Central

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This manuscript describes the treatment of a 27-year-old patient who was previously treated with two maxillary first premolar extractions. The patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion, Class III canine relationship, anterior crossbite, and a concave profile. As the patient refused orthognathic surgery, a miniplate was used on the right side of the lower arch as an anchorage unit after the extraction of mandibular first premolars, aiding the retraction of anterior teeth. At the end of treatment, anterior crossbite was corrected, in which first molars and canines were in a Class I relationship, and an excellent intercuspation was reached. Furthermore, patient's profile remarkably improved as a result of mandibular incisor retraction. A 30-month follow-up showed good stability of the results obtained. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as one of the requirements to become diplomate by the BBO. PMID:27409659

  5. Orthodontic retreatment using anchorage with miniplate to camouflage a Class III skeletal pattern.

    PubMed

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori

    2016-06-01

    This manuscript describes the treatment of a 27-year-old patient who was previously treated with two maxillary first premolar extractions. The patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion, Class III canine relationship, anterior crossbite, and a concave profile. As the patient refused orthognathic surgery, a miniplate was used on the right side of the lower arch as an anchorage unit after the extraction of mandibular first premolars, aiding the retraction of anterior teeth. At the end of treatment, anterior crossbite was corrected, in which first molars and canines were in a Class I relationship, and an excellent intercuspation was reached. Furthermore, patient's profile remarkably improved as a result of mandibular incisor retraction. A 30-month follow-up showed good stability of the results obtained. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as one of the requirements to become diplomate by the BBO. PMID:27409659

  6. Data on HLA class I/II profile in Brazilian pemphigus patients.

    PubMed

    Franco Brochado, Maria José; Nascimento, Daniela Francisca; Saloum Deghaide, Neifi Hassan; Donadi, Eduardo Antonio; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2016-09-01

    Pemphigus are blistering autoimmune diseases related with genetic and environmental factors. Here we describe HLA genotyping in pemphigus patients. First, we review the HLA class I/II data on pemphigus reported in Brazilian samples and then present the HLA class I (-A, -B, -C) and class II (-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1) alleles related to susceptibility/resistance to pemphigus by comparing 86 patients with pemphigus foliaceus, 83 patients with pemphigus vulgaris, and 1592 controls from the northeastern region of the state of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The data presented here are related to the manuscript "Differential HLA class I and class II associations in Pemphigus Foliaceus and Pemphigus Vulgaris patients from a prevalent Southeastern Brazilian region" Brochado et al. (2016) [1]. PMID:27331116

  7. Luminescent properties of europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes with para- and ortho-ethoxybenzoic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panyushkin, V. T.; Mutuzova, M. Kh.; Shamsutdinova, M. Kh.

    2016-02-01

    The luminescent properties of europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes with para- and ortho-ethoxybenzoic acids are studied. The excitation energies of the triplet states of ligands are determined, a hypothesis is made about the efficient luminescence of europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes, the geometry of the coordination polyhedron of a europium complex is established, and the luminescence quantum yields of the complexes in solution are determined.

  8. 40 CFR 147.1850 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Oklahoma § 147.1850 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Oklahoma, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Oklahoma State Department of Health, approved by EPA pursuant to SDWA...

  9. 40 CFR 147.1850 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Oklahoma § 147.1850 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Oklahoma, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Oklahoma State Department of Health, approved by EPA pursuant to SDWA...

  10. 40 CFR 147.1850 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Oklahoma § 147.1850 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Oklahoma, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Oklahoma State Department of Health, approved by EPA pursuant to SDWA...

  11. 40 CFR 147.1850 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Oklahoma § 147.1850 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Oklahoma, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Oklahoma State Department of Health, approved by EPA pursuant to SDWA...

  12. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  13. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  14. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  15. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  16. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  17. 49 CFR 1150.32 - Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.32 Section 1150.32 Transportation Other Regulations Relating.... 10901 § 1150.32 Procedures and relevant dates—transactions that involve creation of Class III...

  18. 49 CFR 1150.32 - Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.32 Section 1150.32 Transportation Other Regulations Relating.... 10901 § 1150.32 Procedures and relevant dates—transactions that involve creation of Class III...

  19. 49 CFR 1150.32 - Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.32 Section 1150.32 Transportation Other Regulations Relating.... 10901 § 1150.32 Procedures and relevant dates—transactions that involve creation of Class III...

  20. 76 FR 71600 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact Process...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Class III Tribal- State Gaming... collection of information for the Class III Tribal State Gaming Compact Process. The information collection....eop.gov . Please send a copy of your comments to Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian...

  1. 40 CFR 147.1601 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS New Mexico § 147.1601 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V injection wells in the State of New Mexico, except for those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the New Mexico Water Quality Control Commission, the...

  2. 40 CFR 147.1601 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS New Mexico § 147.1601 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V injection wells in the State of New Mexico, except for those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the New Mexico Water Quality Control Commission, the...

  3. 40 CFR 147.1601 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS New Mexico § 147.1601 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V injection wells in the State of New Mexico, except for those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the New Mexico Water Quality Control Commission, the...

  4. 40 CFR 147.1601 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS New Mexico § 147.1601 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V injection wells in the State of New Mexico, except for those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the New Mexico Water Quality Control Commission, the...

  5. 49 CFR 1150.32 - Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.32 Section 1150.32 Transportation Other Regulations Relating.... 10901 § 1150.32 Procedures and relevant dates—transactions that involve creation of Class III...

  6. 49 CFR 1150.32 - Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.32 Section 1150.32 Transportation Other Regulations Relating.... 10901 § 1150.32 Procedures and relevant dates—transactions that involve creation of Class III...

  7. 40 CFR 147.1601 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS New Mexico § 147.1601 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V injection wells in the State of New Mexico, except for those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the New Mexico Water Quality Control Commission, the...

  8. Intramolecular deactivation processes in complexes of salicylic acid or glycolic acid with Eu(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuke, S.; Marmodée, B.; Eidner, S.; Schilde, U.; Kumke, M. U.

    2010-04-01

    The complexation of Eu(III) by 2-hydroxy benzoic acid (2HB) or glycolic acid (GL) was investigated using steady-state and time-resolved laser spectroscopy. Experiments were carried out in H 2O as well as in D 2O in the temperature range of 80KIII) luminescence spectra and luminescence decay times were evaluated with respect to the temperature dependence of (i) the luminescence decay time τ, (ii) the energy of the D→F transition, (iii) the width of the D→F transition, and (iv) the asymmetry ratio calculated from the luminescence intensities of the D→F and D→F transition, respectively. The differences in ligand-related luminescence quenching are discussed. Based on the temperature dependence of the luminescence decay times an activation energy for the ligand-specific non-radiative deactivation in Eu(III)-2HB or Eu(III)-GL complexes was determined. It is stressed that ligand-specific quenching processes (other than OH quenching induced by water molecules) need to be determined and considered in detail, in order to extract speciation-relevant information from luminescence data (e.g., estimation of the number of water molecules nO in the first coordination sphere of Eu(III)). In case of 2HB, conclusions drawn from the evaluation of the Eu(III) luminescence are compared with results of a X-ray structure analysis.

  9. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P; Tandon, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior cross bite and retrognathic maxilla at the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross bite was corrected in 3 months and the positive overjet of 4 mm after continued use of the appliance for 1 year. There was a significant improvement in profile of the patient. The use of this appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of malocclusion in a few months and encouraging favorable skeletal growth in the future. PMID:24403800

  10. Wear-time recording during early Class III facemask treatment using TheraMon chip technology.

    PubMed

    Stocker, Bruce; Willmann, Jan H; Wilmes, Benedict; Vasudavan, Sivabalan; Drescher, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Successful intervention in a developing Class III malocclusion with facemask protraction therapy depends on a patient's ability to adhere to the recommendations for duration of appliance wear. In this article, we report the introduction of a novel approach for tracking of the duration of application of a protraction facemask, with the incorporation of a "FaceMon" sensor (TheraMon, microelectronic system; MC Technology GmbH, Hargelsberg, Austria) to track wear time. A 9-year-old boy with a Class III malocclusion was successfully treated with a modified alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction protocol and intermittent application of a hybrid hyrax-protraction facemask combination. The average duration of wear of the facemask was measured at 10.8 hours per day. The use of an objective measuring device may have implications for the development of treatment strategies, since patient responses may be able to calibrated in relation to compliance. PMID:27585783

  11. The intricate regulation and complex functions of the Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase Vps34.

    PubMed

    Backer, Jonathan M

    2016-08-01

    The Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase Vps34 (vacuolar protein sorting 34) plays important roles in endocytic trafficking, macroautophagy, phagocytosis, cytokinesis and nutrient sensing. Recent studies have provided exciting new insights into the structure and regulation of this lipid kinase, and new cellular functions for Vps34 have emerged. This review critically examines the wealth of new data on this important enzyme, and attempts to integrate these findings with current models of Vps34 signalling. PMID:27470591

  12. Early treatment of patient with Class III skeletal and dental patterns.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Marcos Alan Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Class III skeletal pattern is characterized by disharmony between maxillary and mandibular basal bones anteroposteriorly, and might or might not be associated with dental changes. In general, facial esthetics is hindered significantly, which most of times is the reason why patients or patient's guardians seek treatment. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Diplomate recertification and revalidation. PMID:26691976

  13. Directional force treatment for an adult with Class III malocclusion and open bite.

    PubMed

    Lima, Carlos Eduardo O; Lima, Marcia T O

    2006-06-01

    The orthodontic treatment of an adult patient with a Class III malocclusion and an anterior overbite is presented. Successful treatment required a differential diagnosis, specific planning, and careful control of the force systems to correct the disharmony in the vertical and horizontal dimensions. Fundamental to the successful treatment was the direction of the force applied to the teeth with a J-hook headgear. This directional force application made it possible to successfully correct the malocclusion without undesirable sequelae. PMID:16769501

  14. [Improvement on the making process of double splints before orthognathic surgery of skeletal Class III].

    PubMed

    Shi, Han; Zhao, Ning; Chen, Yang-Xi

    2008-04-01

    The conventional methods on making double splints in presurgery of skeletal Class III were complicated. To find an easy method for the improvement of the production of splints and simplify the making process, 17 severe skeletal Class III patients accepted bimaxillary surgery after making double splints were used. According to visual treatment objective (VTO) forecasting on the lateral cephalometric radiograph of ending presurgical orthodontics and analyzing study models, the surgical methods were designed, the mobile osteotomy bone volume was estimated and the maxillary abnormity was classified. For the patients with right midline and without adjusting their occlusion plane, use the single model method (antedisplace maxillary model twice) or double models method (antedisplace maxillary model firstly, and then retrodisplace mandibular model) to make the double splints which guided the fixtion of bimaxillary surgery through their parallel models and simple articulators. The making process of the double splints was simplified and improved, and the postsurgery effects of all patients were satisfied. Therefore, for making the double splints of skeletal Class III bimaxillary surgery, utilizing the proper method on the basis of the specific abnormal conditions of patients can simplify the production process and get twice the result with half the effort. PMID:18605470

  15. Orthodontic and orthopaedic changes associated with treatment in subjects with Class III malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Kama, Jalen Devecioğlu; Ozer, Törün; Baran, Sedat

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cephalometric changes in subjects with Class III malocclusions after rapid palatal expansion (RPE) and facemask treatment. The 30 subjects presented with developing Class III malocclusions. The treatment group comprised 15 patients (eight girls and seven boys, mean age 11 years 6 months) who had undergone RPE and facemask therapy. The control group consisted of nine girls and six boys with a mean age of 11 years 8 months. Radiographs were take at the same time intervals for both groups, and the average treatment time was 15 months. A Wilcoxon test was used to determine significant differences before and after treatment, and a Mann-Whitney U-test to analyse differences between the treatment and control groups. In the sagittal plane, significant changes were observed in both groups. In the treatment group, the following dimensions increased significantly: A perpendicular to FHp (P < 0.001), ANS-PNS (P < 0.01), 6 perpendicular to FHp (P < 0.05); in the control group Go-Gn (P < 0.05) increased significantly. In the treatment group, SN/Go-Gn and SN/ANS-PNS had higher values and this finding was significant (P < 0.05). Managing developing Class III malocclusions with RPE and maxillary protraction presents favourable results, such as vertical and sagittal displacement of point A. PMID:16772318

  16. Transparent aligners: An invisible approach to correct mild skeletal class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Yezdani, A Arif

    2015-04-01

    This case report highlights the treatment of a mild skeletal class III malocclusion with an invisible thermoplastic retainer. A 15-year-old female patient presented with a mild skeletal class III malocclusion with a retrognathic maxilla, orthognathic mandible, a low mandibular plane angle with Angle's class III malocclusion with maxillary lateral incisors in anterior cross-bite with crowding of maxillary anteriors, imbricated and rotated mandibular incisors and deep bite. Accurate upper and lower impressions and a bite registration were taken with polyvinyl siloxane rubber base impression material. This was then sent to the lab for the processing of a series of ClearPath aligners. The ClearPath virtual set-up sent from the lab provided the treatment plan and interproximal reduction estimation complete with posttreatment results. This enabled the clinician to actively participate in the treatment plan and provide the necessary suggestions. The ClearPath three-dimensional aligner was found to have effectively corrected the anterior cross-bite and crowding of the maxillary anteriors. PMID:26015738

  17. Inheritance of craniofacial features in Colombian families with class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Otero, L; Quintero, L; Champsaur, D; Simanca, E

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The inheritance of class III malocclusion has been well documented, but the inheritance of craniofacial structures in Colombian families with this malocclusion has been not yet reported. Patients and methods The study sample of 25 families comprised 186 untreated orthodontic individuals from 8 to 60 years old. Pedigrees were drawn using Cyrillic software. Complete family histories for each proband were ascertained and the affection status of relatives was confirmed by lateral cephalograms and facial and dental photographs. Analysis of variance and odds ratio test for each parameter was performed to estimate inheritance from parents to offspring and to determine similar phenotypic features in relatives. Results The analysis of the pedigrees suggests autosomal dominant inheritance. The craniofacial characteristics that showed more resemblance between parents and offspring were middle facial height, shorter anterior cranial base and mandibular prognathism. In contrast the protrusion of upper lip and maxillary retrusion were the phenotypic features that contributed to class III in the majority of families. Conclusion Knowledge of the inheritance of craniofacial phenotypes in class III malocclusion will enable the design of new therapies to treat this malocclusion. PMID:23776347

  18. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2,5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2,5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part...

  19. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...

  20. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...

  1. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part...

  2. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...

  3. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...

  4. Molecular cloning of class III chitinase gene from Avicennia marina and its expression analysis in response to cadmium and lead stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ying; Wang, You-Shao; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    Mangrove species have high tolerance to heavy metal pollution. Chitinases have been widely reported as defense proteins in response to heavy metal stress in terrestrial plants. In this study, a full-length cDNA sequence encoding an acidic and basic class III chitinase (AmCHI III) was cloned by using RT-PCR and RACE methods in Avicennia marina. AmCHI III mRNA expression in leaf of A. marina were investigated under Cd, Pb stresses on using real-time quantitative PCR. The deduced AmCHI III protein consists of 302 amino acids, including a signal putative peptide region, and a catalytic domain. Homology modeling of the catalytic domain revealed a typical molecular structure of class III plant chitinases. Results further demonstrated that the regulation of AmCHI III mRNA expression in leaves was strongly dependent on Cd, Pb stresses. AmCHI III mRNA expressions were significantly increased in response to Cd, Pb, and peaked at 7 days Cd-exposure, 7 days Pb-exposure, respectively. AmCHI III mRNA expression exhibited more sensitive to Pb stress than Cd stress. This work was the first time cloing chitinase from A. marina, and it brought evidence on chitinase gene involving in heavy metals (Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) resistance or detoxification in plants. Further studies including the promoter and upstream regulation, gene over-expression and the response of mangrove chitinases to other stresses will shed more light on the role of chitinase in mangrove plants. PMID:26044930

  5. Degradation, Promoter Recruitment and Transactivation Mediated by the Extreme N-Terminus of MHC Class II Transactivator CIITA Isoform III

    PubMed Central

    Ethier, Sylvain; Gaudreau, Luc; Steimle, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Multiple relationships between ubiquitin-proteasome mediated protein turnover and transcriptional activation have been well documented, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. One way to induce degradation is via ubiquitination of the N-terminal α-amino group of proteins. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transactivator CIITA is the master regulator of MHC class II gene expression and we found earlier that CIITA is a short-lived protein. Using stable and transient transfections of different CIITA constructs into HEK-293 and HeLa cell lines, we show here that the extreme N-terminal end of CIITA isoform III induces both rapid degradation and transactivation. It is essential that this sequence resides at the N-terminal end of the protein since blocking of the N-terminal end with an epitope-tag stabilizes the protein and reduces transactivation potential. The first ten amino acids of CIITA isoform III act as a portable degron and transactivation sequence when transferred as N-terminal extension to truncated CIITA constructs and are also able to destabilize a heterologous protein. The same is observed with the N-terminal ends of several known N-terminal ubiquitination substrates, such as Id2, Cdt1 and MyoD. Arginine and proline residues within the N-terminal ends contribute to rapid turnover. The N-terminal end of CIITA isoform III is responsible for efficient in vivo recruitment to the HLA-DRA promoter and increased interaction with components of the transcription machinery, such as TBP, p300, p400/Domino, the 19S ATPase S8, and the MHC-II promoter binding complex RFX. These experiments reveal a novel function of free N-terminal ends of proteins in degradation-dependent transcriptional activation. PMID:26871568

  6. Degradation, Promoter Recruitment and Transactivation Mediated by the Extreme N-Terminus of MHC Class II Transactivator CIITA Isoform III.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Yves B; Leon Machado, Jorge A; Ethier, Sylvain; Gaudreau, Luc; Steimle, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Multiple relationships between ubiquitin-proteasome mediated protein turnover and transcriptional activation have been well documented, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. One way to induce degradation is via ubiquitination of the N-terminal α-amino group of proteins. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transactivator CIITA is the master regulator of MHC class II gene expression and we found earlier that CIITA is a short-lived protein. Using stable and transient transfections of different CIITA constructs into HEK-293 and HeLa cell lines, we show here that the extreme N-terminal end of CIITA isoform III induces both rapid degradation and transactivation. It is essential that this sequence resides at the N-terminal end of the protein since blocking of the N-terminal end with an epitope-tag stabilizes the protein and reduces transactivation potential. The first ten amino acids of CIITA isoform III act as a portable degron and transactivation sequence when transferred as N-terminal extension to truncated CIITA constructs and are also able to destabilize a heterologous protein. The same is observed with the N-terminal ends of several known N-terminal ubiquitination substrates, such as Id2, Cdt1 and MyoD. Arginine and proline residues within the N-terminal ends contribute to rapid turnover. The N-terminal end of CIITA isoform III is responsible for efficient in vivo recruitment to the HLA-DRA promoter and increased interaction with components of the transcription machinery, such as TBP, p300, p400/Domino, the 19S ATPase S8, and the MHC-II promoter binding complex RFX. These experiments reveal a novel function of free N-terminal ends of proteins in degradation-dependent transcriptional activation. PMID:26871568

  7. Bacillus subtilis class Ib ribonucleotide reductase is a dimanganese(III)-tyrosyl radical enzyme.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Stubbe, Joanne

    2011-06-28

    Bacillus subtilis class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the conversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides, providing the building blocks for DNA replication and repair. It is composed of two proteins: α (NrdE) and β (NrdF). β contains the metallo-cofactor, essential for the initiation of the reduction process. The RNR genes are organized within the nrdI-nrdE-nrdF-ymaB operon. Each protein has been cloned, expressed, and purified from Escherichia coli. As isolated, recombinant NrdF (rNrdF) contained a diferric-tyrosyl radical [Fe(III)(2)-Y(•)] cofactor. Alternatively, this cluster could be self-assembled from apo-rNrdF, Fe(II), and O(2). Apo-rNrdF loaded using 4 Mn(II)/β(2), O(2), and reduced NrdI (a flavodoxin) can form a dimanganese(III)-Y(•) [Mn(III)(2)-Y(•)] cofactor. In the presence of rNrdE, ATP, and CDP, Mn(III)(2)-Y(•) and Fe(III)(2)-Y(•) rNrdF generate dCDP at rates of 132 and 10 nmol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively (both normalized for 1 Y(•)/β(2)). To determine the endogenous cofactor of NrdF in B. subtilis, the entire operon was placed behind a Pspank(hy) promoter and integrated into the B. subtilis genome at the amyE site. All four genes were induced in cells grown in Luria-Bertani medium, with levels of NrdE and NrdF elevated 35-fold relative to that of the wild-type strain. NrdE and NrdF were copurified in a 1:1 ratio from this engineered B. subtilis. The visible, EPR, and atomic absorption spectra of the purified NrdENrdF complex (eNrdF) exhibited characteristics of a Mn(III)(2)-Y(•) center with 2 Mn/β(2) and 0.5 Y(•)/β(2) and an activity of 318-363 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) (normalized for 1 Y(•)/β(2)). These data strongly suggest that the B. subtilis class Ib RNR is a Mn(III)(2)-Y(•) enzyme. PMID:21561096

  8. Diagnosis and conservative treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite and asymmetric maxillary crowding.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Linda L Y; Chang, Chris H; Roberts, W Eugene

    2016-04-01

    A man, aged 28 years 9 months, came for an orthodontic consultation for a skeletal Class III malocclusion (ANB angle, -3°) with a modest asymmetric Class II and Class III molar relationship, complicated by an anterior crossbite, a deepbite, and 12 mm of asymmetric maxillary crowding. Despite the severity of the malocclusion (Discrepancy Index, 37), the patient desired noninvasive camouflage treatment. The 3-Ring diagnosis showed that treatment without extractions or orthognathic surgery was a viable approach. Arch length analysis indicated that differential interproximal enamel reduction could resolve the crowding and midline discrepancy, but a miniscrew in the infrazygomatic crest was needed to retract the right buccal segment. The patient accepted the complex, staged treatment plan with the understanding that it would require about 3.5 years. Fixed appliance treatment with passive self-ligating brackets, early light short elastics, bite turbos, interproximal enamel reduction, and infrazygomatic crest retraction opened the vertical dimension of the occlusion, improved the ANB angle by 2°, and achieved excellent alignment, as evidenced by a Cast Radiograph Evaluation score of 28 and a Pink and White dental esthetic score of 3. PMID:27021460

  9. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Relationship with Metabolic Syndrome in Class III Obesity Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, A.; Pereira, S. E.; Saboya, C. J.; Ramalho, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Obesity is represented mainly by abdominal obesity and insulin resistance (IR), both present in most individuals diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MS). IR is the key risk factor in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Objective. To relate NAFLD to MS in class III obese individuals. Methodology. A descriptive cross-sectional study with class III obese individuals, aged ≥ 20–60 years. Blood pressure measurement, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood glucose, insulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides data were obtained. HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance) calculation was carried out with a cutoff value of 2.71 for IR evaluation. The diagnosis of NAFLD was performed by liver biopsy and the diagnosis of MS was performed in accordance with the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEPATP III). Results. Of the 50 individuals evaluated, 86% were women and BMI means were 45.4 ± 3.6 Kg/m2. The overall individuals had NAFLD, 70% steatosis, and 30% steatohepatitis. The diagnosis of MS occurred in 56% but showed no significant association with NAFLD (P = 0.254). Triglycerides (178 ± 65.5 mg/dL) and insulin (28.2 ± 22.6 mcU/mL) mean values were significantly higher in steatohepatitis (P = 0.002 and P = 0.042, resp.) compared to individuals with steatosis. IR was confirmed in 76% and showed a relationship with NAFLD severity. Conclusion. NAFLD was not related to MS; however, MS components, evaluated in isolation, as well as IR, were related to the presence and severity of NAFLD. PMID:26120587

  10. 40 CFR 147.303 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.303 Section 147.303 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  11. 40 CFR 147.1153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1153 Section 147.1153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  12. 40 CFR 147.2153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.2153 Section 147.2153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  13. 40 CFR 147.1153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1153 Section 147.1153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  14. 40 CFR 147.253 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.253 Section 147.253 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  15. 40 CFR 147.1453 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1453 Section 147.1453 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1953 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1953 Section 147.1953 Protection of... enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection...

  17. 40 CFR 147.253 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.253 Section 147.253 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  18. 40 CFR 147.2153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.2153 Section 147.2153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  19. 40 CFR 147.903 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.903 Section 147.903 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  20. 40 CFR 147.1353 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1353 Section 147.1353 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  1. 40 CFR 147.303 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.303 Section 147.303 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  2. 40 CFR 147.103 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.103 Section 147.103 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  3. 40 CFR 147.1653 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1653 Section 147.1653 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  4. 40 CFR 147.1453 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1453 Section 147.1453 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  5. 40 CFR 147.1353 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1353 Section 147.1353 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  6. 40 CFR 147.1653 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1653 Section 147.1653 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  7. 40 CFR 147.253 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.253 Section 147.253 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  8. 40 CFR 147.1653 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1653 Section 147.1653 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  9. 40 CFR 147.103 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.103 Section 147.103 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  10. 40 CFR 147.103 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.103 Section 147.103 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  11. 40 CFR 147.103 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.103 Section 147.103 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  12. 40 CFR 147.1353 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1353 Section 147.1353 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  13. 40 CFR 147.2153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.2153 Section 147.2153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  14. 40 CFR 147.1353 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1353 Section 147.1353 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  15. 40 CFR 147.1453 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1453 Section 147.1453 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1653 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1653 Section 147.1653 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  17. 40 CFR 147.303 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.303 Section 147.303 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  18. 40 CFR 147.1453 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1453 Section 147.1453 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  19. 40 CFR 147.2153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.2153 Section 147.2153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  20. 40 CFR 147.253 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.253 Section 147.253 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  1. 40 CFR 147.903 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.903 Section 147.903 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  2. 40 CFR 147.1353 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1353 Section 147.1353 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  3. 40 CFR 147.103 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.103 Section 147.103 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  4. 40 CFR 147.903 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.903 Section 147.903 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  5. 40 CFR 147.1953 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1953 Section 147.1953 Protection of... enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection...

  6. 40 CFR 147.1953 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1953 Section 147.1953 Protection of... enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection...

  7. 40 CFR 147.1153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1153 Section 147.1153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  8. 40 CFR 147.303 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.303 Section 147.303 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  9. 40 CFR 147.903 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.903 Section 147.903 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  10. 40 CFR 147.1953 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1953 Section 147.1953 Protection of... enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection...

  11. 40 CFR 147.1153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1153 Section 147.1153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  12. 40 CFR 147.903 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.903 Section 147.903 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  13. 40 CFR 147.1653 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1653 Section 147.1653 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  14. 40 CFR 147.1953 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1953 Section 147.1953 Protection of... enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection...

  15. 40 CFR 147.1453 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1453 Section 147.1453 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1153 Section 147.1153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  17. 40 CFR 147.303 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.303 Section 147.303 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  18. 40 CFR 147.253 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.253 Section 147.253 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  19. 40 CFR 147.2153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.2153 Section 147.2153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  20. Orthodontic retreatment of a Class III patient with significant midline asymmetry and bilateral posterior crossbite

    PubMed Central

    Brunetto, Ademir R.

    2015-01-01

    Posterior crossbite might cause serious long-term functional problems if not early treated. Nevertheless, in older patients, treatment might include palatal expansion in order to correct such malocclusion. In view of the above, this article aims at reporting late correction of bilateral posterior crossbite associated with Angle Class III malocclusion, right subdivision, with consequent midline shift (good skeletal pattern). The case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO), with DI equal to or greater than 10, as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:25741833

  1. Orthodontic retreatment of a Class III patient with significant midline asymmetry and bilateral posterior crossbite.

    PubMed

    Brunetto, Ademir R

    2015-01-01

    Posterior crossbite might cause serious long-term functional problems if not early treated. Nevertheless, in older patients, treatment might include palatal expansion in order to correct such malocclusion. In view of the above, this article aims at reporting late correction of bilateral posterior crossbite associated with Angle Class III malocclusion, right subdivision, with consequent midline shift (good skeletal pattern). The case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO), with DI equal to or greater than 10, as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:25741833

  2. Distalization of the mandibular dentition with a ramal plate for skeletal Class III malocclusion correction.

    PubMed

    Kook, Yoon-Ah; Park, Jae Hyun; Bayome, Mohamed; Kim, Sungkon; Han, Eugene; Kim, Chang Hyen

    2016-08-01

    The retromolar fossa is an anatomically suitable skeletal anchorage site. The aim of this report was to introduce a novel appliance for the correction of skeletal Class III malocclusions with mandibular dentition distalization. The placement site and the procedure of the ramal plate are described. The resulting force vectors are parallel to the functional occlusal plane leading to efficient molar distalization. This approach is demonstrated with 2 adult patients who refused a surgical treatment option. This ramal plate may be indicated for total arch distalization for nonextraction and nonsurgical cases. PMID:27476370

  3. Selectivity enhancement of Arsenazo(III) reagent towards heavier lanthanides using polyaminocarboxylic acids: A spectrophotometric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matharu, Komal; Mittal, Susheel K.; Ashok Kumar, S. K.; Sahoo, Suban K.

    2015-06-01

    A new study has been conducted to quantify lanthanide(III) ions using Arsenazo III-polyaminocarboxylic acid (PACA) system. The study disclosed two different analytically important information: (i) λmax of lanthanide-Arsenazo III complexes for lighter lanthanides like Ce(III) and Nd(III) did not shift from its original position on addition of PACA and (ii) for heavier lanthanides like Dy(III), Tm(III) and Lu(III) a new λmax at 538 nm was observed, while wavelengths at 610 nm and 654 nm were disappeared in presence of ethylenediaminetertracetic acid (EDTA) and trans-1,2-Diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N‧,N‧-tetraacetic acid (DCTA), further the intensity of peak decreased with increase in lanthanide(III) ion concentration. Effect of ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N‧,N‧-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine-N,N‧,N‧-triacetic acid (EDTA-OH) on Arsenzo(III)-Ln(III) complex is very weak and there is no analytically importance of such interaction. Moreover, this work confirms that Nd(III) and heavy lanthanides can be successfully determined with high accuracy in the working range of concentration of these metal ions.

  4. New polymorphic microsatellite markers in the human MHC class III region.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaka, Y; Makino, S; Nakajima, K; Tomizawa, M; Oka, A; Bahram, S; Kulski, J K; Tamiya, G; Inoko, H

    2001-05-01

    The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region spanning approximately 760 kb is characterized by a remarkably high gene density with 59 expressed genes (one gene every 12.9 kb). Recently, susceptibility loci to numerous diseases, such as Graves disease, Crohn disease, and SLE have been suggested to be localized to this region, as assessed by associations mainly with genetic polymorphisms of TNF and TNF-linked microsatellite loci. However, it has been difficult to precisely localize these susceptibility loci to a single gene due to a paucity to date of polymorphic markers in the HLA class III region. To facilitate disease mapping within this region, we have analyzed 2 approximately 5 bases short tandem repeats (microsatellites) in this region. A total of 297 microsatellites were identified from the genomic sequence, consisting of 69 di-, 62 tri-, 107 tetra-, and 59 penta-nucleotide repeats. It was noted that among them as many as 17 microsatellites were located within the coding sequence of expressed genes (NOTCH4, PBX2, RAGE, G16, LPAAT, PPT2, TNXB, P450-CYP21B, G9a, HSP70-2, HSP70-1, HSP-hom, MuTSH5 and BAT2). Eight microsatellite repeats were collected as polymorphic markers due to their high number of alleles (11.9 on average) as well as their high polymorphic content value (PIC) (0.63). By combining the 38 and the 22 polymorphic microsatellites we have previously collected in the HLA class I and class II regions, respectively, we have now established a total of 68 novel genetic markers which are uniformly interspersed with a high density of one every 63.3 kb throughout the HLA region. This collection of polymorphic microsatellites will enable us to search for the location of any disease susceptible loci within the HLA region by association analysis. PMID:11556964

  5. Study of Class I and Class III Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Synthases with Substrates Containing a Modified Side Chain.

    PubMed

    Jia, Kaimin; Cao, Ruikai; Hua, Duy H; Li, Ping

    2016-04-11

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are carbon and energy storage polymers produced by a variety of microbial organisms under nutrient-limited conditions. They have been considered as an environmentally friendly alternative to oil-based plastics due to their renewability, versatility, and biodegradability. PHA synthase (PhaC) plays a central role in PHA biosynthesis, in which its activity and substrate specificity are major factors in determining the productivity and properties of the produced polymers. However, the effects of modifying the substrate side chain are not well understood because of the difficulty to accessing the desired analogues. In this report, a series of 3-(R)-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A (HACoA) analogues were synthesized and tested with class I synthases from Chromobacterium sp. USM2 (PhaCCs and A479S-PhaCCs) and Caulobacter crescentus (PhaCCc) as well as class III synthase from Allochromatium vinosum (PhaECAv). It was found that, while different PHA synthases displayed distinct preference with regard to the length of the alkyl side chains, they could withstand moderate side chain modifications such as terminal unsaturated bonds and the azide group. Specifically, the specific activity of PhaCCs toward propynyl analogue (HHxyCoA) was only 5-fold less than that toward the classical substrate HBCoA. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of PhaECAv toward azide analogue (HABCoA) was determined to be 2.86 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), which was 6.2% of the value of HBCoA (4.62 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) measured in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). These side chain modifications may be employed to introduce new material functions to PHAs as well as to study PHA biogenesis via click-chemistry, in which the latter remains unknown and is important for metabolic engineering to produce PHAs economically. PMID:26974339

  6. 40 CFR 147.2650 - State-administered program-Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Puerto Rico § 147.2650 State-administered program—Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells. The Underground Injection Control Program for all classes of wells in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, other than those on Indian lands, is the program administered by Puerto Rico's Environmental Quality Board...

  7. Structural homology between lymphocyte receptors for high endothelium and class III extracellular matrix receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Gallatin, W M; Wayner, E A; Hoffman, P A; St John, T; Butcher, E C; Carter, W G

    1989-01-01

    We have identified extensive structural homology between one type of heterotypic adhesion receptor (HAR) involved in lymphocyte interactions with high endothelium in lymphoid organs and a collagen-binding protein, termed class III extracellular matrix receptor (ECMRIII), expressed on most nucleated cell types. Both receptors have been described as heterogeneous 90-kDa transmembrane glycoproteins, referred to here as gp90. Monoclonal anti-HAR antibodies, Hermes-1 and Hutch-1, and monoclonal anti-ECMRIII antibodies, P1G12 and P3H9, were utilized to compare the two receptors. (i) All these monoclonal antibodies immunoprecipitated major gp90 components as well as uncharacterized additional higher molecular mass antigens of 120-200 kDa in human and macaque fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (ii) Competitive binding analyses with the antibodies identified distinct epitopes present on gp90. (iii) Enzymatic and chemical digestions generated identical peptide fragments from all the antigens in human and macaque fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (iv) Sequential immunoprecipitation with P1G12 followed by the other monoclonal antibodies indicated that all gp90 species reactive with Hermes-1 and Hutch-1 also expressed the P1G12 defined epitope. In reciprocal experiments, Hermes-1 and Hutch-1 immunoprecipitation did not completely remove all P1G12-reactive gp90 from cellular extracts. One inference from these data would be that gp90 is serologically heterogeneous, encompassing HARs as a major subset of this broadly expressed class of molecules. Images PMID:2471973

  8. Influence of morphological parameters on the development of gingival recession in class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Warmuz, Justyna; Jagielak, Maciej; Botzenhart, Ute; Seeliger, Julia; Gedrange, Tomasz; Dominiak, Marzena

    2016-07-01

    Cephalometric analysis, including both basic cranio- and gnathometric measurements and detailed evaluation of the construction of skeletal, muscular and mucosal systems combined with estimation of the risk of recession's occurrence, can be used to determine the direction of therapy and ensure appropriate aesthetic-functional effects of treatment. The objective of the present study was to compare the influence of the chosen morphologic parameters on the development of gingival recession in the front part of the jaw in patients with Angle class III. The research material was based on the medical documentation of 1800 patients. Sixty generally healthy patients qualified for the research with prognathism. On the basis of the side-head cephalograms, measurements were carried out to describe the bone structure in the front section of the lower jaw. The lower incisor teeth set-up was also analyzed. Gum recession of the lower incisor teeth was assessed on the basis of the inside-mouth photos of the patients with class III malocclusion. The occurrence of recession in a further 4 patients resulted from such a positioning of the lower teeth. In patients in the first group, treated with complex ortho-surgical treatment, the lower incisor teeth were adjusted much more vertically in the alveola and, thus, recession occurred only in one patient. Complex orthodontic-surgical therapy contributes to recession development to a lesser degree than the sham treatment and makes it a safe alternative therapy in patients with high diathesis for occurrence or progression of an existing recession. PMID:26162503

  9. Regulation of human class I alcohol dehydrogenases by bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Langhi, Cédric; Pedraz-Cuesta, Elena; Haro, Diego; Marrero, Pedro F.; Rodríguez, Joan C.

    2013-01-01

    Class I alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH1s) are the rate-limiting enzymes for ethanol and vitamin A (retinol) metabolism in the liver. Because previous studies have shown that human ADH1 enzymes may participate in bile acid metabolism, we investigated whether the bile acid-activated nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates ADH1 genes. In human hepatocytes, both the endogenous FXR ligand chenodeoxycholic acid and synthetic FXR-specific agonist GW4064 increased ADH1 mRNA, protein, and activity. Moreover, overexpression of a constitutively active form of FXR induced ADH1A and ADH1B expression, whereas silencing of FXR abolished the effects of FXR agonists on ADH1 expression and activity. Transient transfection studies and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed functional FXR response elements in the ADH1A and ADH1B proximal promoters, thus indicating that both genes are direct targets of FXR. These findings provide the first evidence for direct connection of bile acid signaling and alcohol metabolism. PMID:23772048

  10. Expression and distribution of the class III ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes in the retina

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Saima; Plafker, Kendra S.; Aston, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Mounting evidence implicates chronic oxidative stress as a significant pathogenic factor in the development and progression of retinopathies, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The age-dependent toxic accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins, lipids, and DNA in susceptible cells of the retina arises, at least in part, from a decreased capacity to eliminate these damaged biomolecules. The goal of this study was to determine the expression patterns and function of class III ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (UbcM3, UBE2E2, and UbcM2) in the retina. These enzymes have been implicated in the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of oxidatively damaged and misfolded proteins. Methods Complementary western blotting and immunohistochemistry was performed with specific antibodies to determine the retinal cell expression pattern of each enzyme. Additional analyses using antibodies raised against UbcM2 were performed to determine the relative levels of the enzyme in lysates derived from various mouse organs as compared to the retina. An established light-damage model of oxidative stress-induced retinal degeneration was used to determine alterations in the susceptibility of mice harboring a single intact allele of UbcM2. Ubiquitin charging and auto-ubiquitylation assays were done to assess the catalytic state of UbcM2 following photo-oxidative stress. Results Expression of the class III ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes in the retina, from highest to lowest, is UbcM2>UbcM3>UBE2E2. In addition to being the most robustly expressed, UbcM2 is further distinguished by its expression in photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells. UbcM2 is expressed in most mouse tissues analyzed and is most abundant in the retina. Studies using a bright-light-damage model of acute oxidative stress in mice harboring a single disrupted allele of UbcM2 revealed that a 58% reduction in enzyme levels did not increase the susceptibility of photoreceptors to acute photo

  11. Amino acids of the Murchison meteorite. III - Seven carbon acyclic primary alpha-amino alkanoic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, John R.; Pizzarello, Sandra

    1986-01-01

    All of the eighteen possible seven-carbon acyclic primary alpha-amino alkanoic acids have been positively identified in a hot-water extract of the Murchison meteorite by the combined use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, ion exchange chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography. None of these amino acids has previously been found in meteorites or in any other natural material. They range in concentration from less than or equal to 0.5 to 5.3 nmol/g. Configuration assignments were made for 2-amino-3,4-dimethylpentanoic acid and allo-2-amino-3,4-dimethylpentanoic acid and the diasteromer ratio was determined. Fifty-five amino acids have now been positively identified in the Murchison meteorite, 36 of which are unknown in terrestrial materials. This unique suite of amino acids is characterized by the occurrence of all structural isomers within the two major classes of amino acids represented, by the predominance of branched chain isomers, and by an exponential decline in amount with increasing carbon chain length within homologous series. These characteristics of the Murchison amino acids are suggestive of synthesis before incorporation into a parent body.

  12. Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) derivatives with dithiocarbamates derived from α-amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Anita; Sengupta, Soumitra K.; Pandey, Om P.

    2006-06-01

    Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes with dithiocarbamates have been synthesized by the reactions of lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) chloride with barium dithiocarbamate and complexes of type [LnCl(L)H 2O] n have been obtained (where Ln = La(III) or Pr(III); L = barium salt of dithiocarbamate derived from glycine, L-leucine, L-valine, DL-alanine). The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, electronic absorption and fluorescence, infrared, far infrared, 1H NMR spectral studies. The presence of coordinated water molecule is inferred from thermogravimetric analysis which indicates the loss of one water molecule at 150-170 °C. The oscillator strength, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter, stimulated emission cross-section, etc. have been obtained for different transitions of Pr 3+.

  13. Treatment of Class III malocclusion in a young adult patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kiran, B H Jyothi; Kumar, Prashanth; Ravi, S; Shivalinga, B M; Bhagyalaxmi; Pradeep; Kudagi, Vishal

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the treatment of a young adult male with a concave profile, skeletal class III malocclusion because of a prognathic mandible and proclined upper incisors. The therapy included stages: 1. Pre-surgical orthodontics involving leveling and aligning of upper and lower arches, protraction of lower molars and retraction of upper incisors; 2. Surgical phase involving BSSO with mandibular setback and 3. Post-surgical orthodontics for finishing and detailing. The treatment lasted 23 months and improved facial esthetics significantly The treatment resulted in a functional occlusion with a lack of lateral cuspid guidance that could be accepted considering the difficulty of the case. Over jet and overbite are within norms. PMID:23094557

  14. Prosthetic rehabilitation of severe Siebert's Class III defect with modified Andrews bridge system.

    PubMed

    Rathee, Manu; Sikka, Neha; Jindal, Sahil; Kaushik, Ashutosh

    2015-03-01

    Prosthetic dentistry involves the replacement of missing and contiguous tissues with artificial substitutes to restore and maintain the oral functions, appearance, and health of the patient. The treatment of edentulous areas with ridge defects poses a challenging task for the dentist. Management of such cases involves a wide range of treatment options comprising mainly of surgical interventions and non surgical techniques such as use of removable, fixed or fixed- removable partial dentures. But each treatment plan undertaken should be customized according to patient needs. A variety of factors such as quality and quantity of existing contiguous hard and soft tissues, systemic condition and economic status of the patient play an important role in treatment planning, clinical outcome and prognosis. This case report presents the restoration of a Seibert's Class III ridge defect by an economical modification of Andrews Bridge in a 32 Year old patient. PMID:25821362

  15. Complex networks for data-driven medicine: the case of Class III dentoskeletal disharmony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scala, A.; Auconi, P.; Scazzocchio, M.; Caldarelli, G.; McNamara, JA; Franchi, L.

    2014-11-01

    In the last decade, the availability of innovative algorithms derived from complexity theory has inspired the development of highly detailed models in various fields, including physics, biology, ecology, economy, and medicine. Due to the availability of novel and ever more sophisticated diagnostic procedures, all biomedical disciplines face the problem of using the increasing amount of information concerning each patient to improve diagnosis and prevention. In particular, in the discipline of orthodontics the current diagnostic approach based on clinical and radiographic data is problematic due to the complexity of craniofacial features and to the numerous interacting co-dependent skeletal and dentoalveolar components. In this study, we demonstrate the capability of computational methods such as network analysis and module detection to extract organizing principles in 70 patients with excessive mandibular skeletal protrusion with underbite, a condition known in orthodontics as Class III malocclusion. Our results could possibly constitute a template framework for organising the increasing amount of medical data available for patients’ diagnosis.

  16. SEGMENTAL LEFORT I OSTEOTOMY FOR TREATMENT OF A CLASS III MALOCCLUSION WITH TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Janson, Marcos; Janson, Guilherme; Sant'Ana, Eduardo; Nakamura, Alexandre; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the case of a 19-year-old young man with Class III malocclusion and posterior crossbite with concerns about temporomandibular disorder (TMD), esthetics and functional problems. Surgical-orthodontic treatment was carried out by decompensation of the mandibular incisors and segmentation of the maxilla in 4 pieces, which allowed expansion and advancement. Remission of the signs and symptoms occurred after surgical-orthodontic intervention. The maxillary dental arch presented normal transverse dimension. Satisfactory static and functional occlusion and esthetic results were achieved and remained stable. Three years after the surgical-orthodontic treatment, no TMD sign or symptom was observed and the occlusal results had not changed. When vertical or horizontal movements of the maxilla in the presence of moderate maxillary constriction are necessary, segmental LeFort I osteotomy can be an important part of treatment planning. PMID:19089265

  17. Establishing the customized occlusal plane in systemized surgical treatment objectives of class III.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-Hak; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Yang, Sang-Duck; Choi, Jin-Young

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a new approach for establishing the customized occlusal plane for an individual patient in systemized surgical treatment objective of class III cases. After the correction of incisor inclination to occlusal planes (U1-MxOP and L1-MnOP), the intermaxillary relationship can be established with normal overbite/overjet and maximum intercuspation. The anterior limits of the maxilla and the mandible can be positioned according to A to N perpendicular, Frankfort horizontal (FH) to AB plane angle, and upper incisor display. The vertical level of the upper first molar can then be determined in relation to the Y plane (an imaginary arch drawn using the distance between the lower incisor edge point and the rotation center point of the condylar head as a radius) and a triangle projected by the upper and lower limits of the FH to the occlusal plane (FH-OP triangle). Soft-tissue facial balance can be checked with the lip/chin projection in relation to the true vertical line at subnasale and the lower third facial height ratio. Appropriate superior impaction of the posterior part of the maxilla in relation to the Y plane and FH-OP triangle in case 1 produced significant improvement of the facial profile and occlusion. However, case 2 showed that the amount of superior impaction of the posterior part of the maxilla was not enough to produce a significant setback of the mandible and retraction of the lip and chin. The systemized surgical treatment objective flowchart that could set the customized occlusal plane for an individual patient might provide a useful guideline for obtaining optimal aesthetics and functional occlusion in class III cases. PMID:21959417

  18. Class III malocclusion: the post-retention findings following a non-extraction treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Battagel, J M; Orton, H S

    1993-02-01

    A retrospective, cephalometric study was made of a group of 28 successfully treated, Class III, Skeletal III children, who were considered suitable for orthodontic correction of their malocclusions. All had undergone non-extraction therapy, involving a combination of upper incisor proclination and headgear to an intact mandibular dentition and were available for review at least 2 years after all treatment and retention had ceased. Only girls over the age of 16 years and boys above 18 years of age at the post-retention recall were included. Data were examined at the beginning and end of active treatment, and at least two years out of retention. Where differences between the sexes were apparent, data for each sex were given separately. Where no significant differences were seen, data were pooled. Overjet correction was achieved by a combination of upper and lower incisor movement with no alteration in overbite. This was accompanied by a downward and backward repositioning of the mandible, redirecting, rather than restricting mandibular growth. Post-retention, demonstrable skeletal development occurred in both male and female faces. Normal patterns of facial growth reasserted themselves, reversing many treatment effects. The mandible reverted to a more horizontal direction of development, but because no growth restriction had occurred during treatment, no 'catch-up' growth of the lower jaw could be shown. Mandibular growth exceeded that of the maxilla, and since upper and lower incisor inclinations remained unaltered, both overbite and overjet reduced. Reflecting the underlying growth pattern, the lips became more retrusive. PMID:8436196

  19. 40 CFR 147.2101 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and all wells on Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS South Dakota § 147.2101 EPA-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V..., including those on Indian lands, and for Class II wells on Indian lands in the state of South Dakota is... program for Class I, III, IV and V wells on all lands in South Dakota, including Indian lands, and...

  20. 40 CFR 147.2101 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and all wells on Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS South Dakota § 147.2101 EPA-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V..., including those on Indian lands, and for Class II wells on Indian lands in the state of South Dakota is... program for Class I, III, IV and V wells on all lands in South Dakota, including Indian lands, and...

  1. 40 CFR 147.2101 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and all wells on Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS South Dakota § 147.2101 EPA-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V..., including those on Indian lands, and for Class II wells on Indian lands in the state of South Dakota is... program for Class I, III, IV and V wells on all lands in South Dakota, including Indian lands, and...

  2. 40 CFR 147.2101 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and all wells on Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS South Dakota § 147.2101 EPA-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V..., including those on Indian lands, and for Class II wells on Indian lands in the state of South Dakota is... program for Class I, III, IV and V wells on all lands in South Dakota, including Indian lands, and...

  3. Orthodontic decompensation and correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion with gradual dentoalveolar remodeling in a growing patient.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bin; Zhao, Xiao-Guang; Xiang, Lu-Sai

    2014-03-01

    An 8-year-old girl with a skeletal Class III malocclusion was treated in 2 phases. Maxillary expansion and protraction were carried out as the early intervention. However, her maxillary hypoplasia and mandibular hyperplasia deteriorated with age. The phase 2 comprehensive treatment began with proper mechanics when she was 12 years old with growth potential. In the maxillary arch, an auxiliary rectangular wire was used with a round main wire and an opening spring to create space for the impacted teeth and to bodily move the anterior teeth forward. Decompensation of mandibular incisors and correction of the Class III malocclusion were achieved by short Class III elastics with light forces and a gentle interaction between the rectangular wires and the lingual root-torque slots. The phase 2 active treatment period was 4 years 8 months. The 2-year follow-up indicated that our treatment results were quite stable. PMID:24582028

  4. The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, B.D.; Ma, J.; Marzocchi, M.P.; Schiodt, C.B.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Smulevich, G.; Welinder, K.G.; Zhang, J.

    1999-03-23

    Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values both at room temperature and 20 K are . reported, together with EPR spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species co-exists with 6- and 5-cHS heroes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the presently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling maybe necessary for the QS state.

  5. Complexation of trivalent cations (Al(III), Cr(III), Fe(III)) with two phosphonic acids in the pH range of fresh waters.

    PubMed

    Lacour, S; Deluchat, V; Bollinger, J C; Bernard Serpaud

    1998-08-01

    The complex formation constants of two phosphonic acids, HEDP and ATMP, with three trivalent metallic cations, Al(III), Cr(III) and Fe(III), have been determined by acid-base titration at 25 degrees C and constant ionic strength (0.1 mol l(-1), KNO(3)), using Martell and Motekaitis' computer programs. Species distribution curves showed that all three cations are in complex form in the pH range of fresh waters (5-9). The study of different cation/ligand ratios proved that both ligands mainly form anionic soluble complexes for systems having an excess of ligand-as protonated and unprotonated forms and especially ternary complexes with HEDP. For higher metal concentrations (excess of cation), weakly soluble species of HEDP and ATMP were formed with Al(III) and Cr(III). Two insoluble complexes with ATMP have been identified by SEM/EDAX as AlH(3)X((s)) and Cr(2)X((s)). Regarding Fe(III) species, Fe(OH)(3(s)) precipitate seems to predominate in solution. PMID:18967224

  6. Intrinsic acidity of aluminum, chromium (III) and iron (III) μ 3-hydroxo functional groups from ab initio electronic structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustad, James R.; Dixon, David A.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2000-05-01

    Density functional calculations are performed on M 3(OH) 7(H 2O) 62+ and M 3O(OH) 6(H 2O) 6+ clusters for MAl, Cr(III), and Fe(III), allowing determination of the relative acidities of the μ 3-hydroxo and aquo functional groups. Contrary to previous predictions and rationalizations, Fe 3OH and Al 3OH groups have nearly the same intrinsic acidity, while Cr 3OH groups are significantly more acidic. The gas-phase acidity of the Fe 3OH site is in good agreement with the value predicted by the molecular mechanics model previously used to estimate the relative acidities of surface sites on iron oxides. [ J. R. Rustad et al. (1996)Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60, 1563]. Acidities of aquo functional groups were also computed for Al and Cr. The AlOH 2 site is more acidic than the Al 3OH site, whereas the Cr 3OH site is more acidic than the CrOH 2 site. These findings predict that the surface charging behavior of chromium oxides/oxyhydroxides should be distinguishable from their Fe, Al counterparts. The calculations also provide insight into why the lepidocrocite/boehmite polymorph is not observed for CrOOH.

  7. Class III correction using an inter-arch spring-loaded module

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A retrospective study was conducted to determine the cephalometric changes in a group of Class III patients treated with the inter-arch spring-loaded module (CS2000®, Dynaflex, St. Ann, MO, USA). Methods Thirty Caucasian patients (15 males, 15 females) with an average pre-treatment age of 9.6 years were treated consecutively with this appliance and compared with a control group of subjects from the Bolton-Brush Study who were matched in age, gender, and craniofacial morphology to the treatment group. Lateral cephalograms were taken before treatment and after removal of the CS2000® appliance. The treatment effects of the CS2000® appliance were calculated by subtracting the changes due to growth (control group) from the treatment changes. Results All patients were improved to a Class I dental arch relationship with a positive overjet. Significant sagittal, vertical, and angular changes were found between the pre- and post-treatment radiographs. With an average treatment time of 1.3 years, the maxillary base moved forward by 0.8 mm, while the mandibular base moved backward by 2.8 mm together with improvements in the ANB and Wits measurements. The maxillary incisor moved forward by 1.3 mm and the mandibular incisor moved forward by 1.0 mm. The maxillary molar moved forward by 1.0 mm while the mandibular molar moved backward by 0.6 mm. The average overjet correction was 3.9 mm and 92% of the correction was due to skeletal contribution and 8% was due to dental contribution. The average molar correction was 5.2 mm and 69% of the correction was due to skeletal contribution and 31% was due to dental contribution. Conclusions Mild to moderate Class III malocclusion can be corrected using the inter-arch spring-loaded appliance with minimal patient compliance. The overjet correction was contributed by forward movement of the maxilla, backward and downward movement of the mandible, and proclination of the maxillary incisors. The molar relationship was

  8. Morphology of the temporomandibular joint in skeletal class iii symmetrical and asymmetrical cases: a study by cephalometric laminography.

    PubMed

    Akahane, Y; Deguchi, T; Hunt, N P

    2001-06-01

    The aetiology of asymmetric growth in the mandible is not well understood. Previous studies have indicated that the functional lateral shift of the mandible in the period of prepubertal growth may translate to a true skeletal asymmetry, exclusively in skeletal Class III malocclusion. This asymmetry develops more characteristic features during the pubertal and post-pubertal growth periods. Early correction of a functional lateral shift of the mandible is recommended. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the morphology of the temporomandibular joints and asymmetry in skeletal Class III malocclusion in adult female patients. Cephalometric and laminographic findings in 36 asymmetric skeletal Class III patients with a lateral shift of mandible (group 3) were compared to those of 25 symmetric skeletal Class I patients (group 1) and the same number of symmetric skeletal Class III malocclusions (group 2). All the patients had received no orthodontic treatment. The results showed that the TMJ of the side to which the mandible shifted showed a significantly narrower and shorter shape of the condyle head, smaller superior condylar space, and steeper eminence than those of the unshifted side. PMID:11395526

  9. Adsorption of Cr(III) from acidic solutions by crop straw derived biochars.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jingjian; Jiang, Jun; Xu, Renkou

    2013-10-01

    Cr(III) adsorption by biochars generated from peanut, soybean, canola and rice straws is investigated with batch methods. Adsorption of Cr(III) increased as pH rose from 2.5 to 5.0. Adsorption of Cr(III) led to peak position shifts in the FTIR-PAS spectra of the biochars and made zeta potential values less negative, suggesting the formation of surface complexes between Cr3+ and functional groups on the biochars. The adsorption capacity of Cr(III) followed the order: peanut straw char > soybean straw char > canola straw char > rice straw char, which was consistent with the content of acidic functional groups on the biochars. The increase in Cr3+ hydrolysis as the pH rose was one of the main reasons for the increased adsorption of Cr(III) by the biochars at higher pH values. Cr(III) can be adsorbed by the biochars through electrostatic attraction between negative surfaces and Cr3+, but the relative contribution of electrostatic adsorption was less than 5%. Therefore, Cr(III) was mainly adsorbed by the biochars through specific adsorption. The Langumir and Freundlich equations fitted the adsorption isotherms well and can therefore be used to describe the adsorption behavior of Cr(III) by the crop straw biochars. The crop straw biochars have great adsorption capacities for Cr(III) under acidic conditions and can be used as adsorbents to remove Cr(III) from acidic wastewaters. PMID:24494481

  10. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    PubMed Central

    Florián-Vargas, Karla; Honores, Marcos J. Carruitero; Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively) from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted. PMID:27275616

  11. Complexation of Am(III) and Nd(III) by 1,10-Phenanthroline-2,9-Dicarboxylic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Nilsson, Mikael; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Hancock, Robert D.; Nash, Ken L.

    2013-01-01

    The complexant 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid (PDA) is a planar tetradentate ligand that is more preorganized for metal complexation than its unconstrained analogue ethylendiiminodiacetic acid (EDDA). Furthermore, the backbone nitrogen atoms of PDA are aromatic, hence are softer than the aliphatic amines of EDDA. It has been hypothesized that PDA will selectively bond to trivalent actinides over lanthanides. In this report, the results of spectrophotometric studies of the complexation of Nd(III) and Am(III) by PDA are reported. Because the complexes are moderately stable, it was necessary to conduct these titrations using competitive equilibrium methods, competitive cation omplexing between PDA and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, and competition between ligand protonation and complex formation. Stability constants and ligand protonation constants were determined at 0.1 mol/L ionic strength and at 0.5 mol/L ionic strength nitrate media at 21 ± 1 C. The stability constants are lower than those predicted from first principles and speciation calculations indicate that Am(III) selectivity over Nd(III) is less than that exhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline.

  12. Adsorption behavior of antimony(III) oxyanions on magnetite surface in aqueous organic acid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Vinit K.; Bera, Santanu; Narasimhan, S. V.; Velmurugan, S.

    2013-02-01

    Antimony(III) adsorption is observed on magnetite (Fe3O4) surface under acidic and reducing condition through surface hydroxyl (SOH) groups bonding on Fe3O4 surface. Desorption of adsorbed Sb(III) is observed from Fe3O4 surface along with iron release in organic acid at 85 °C after 5 h of experiment. Tartaric acid (TA) shows minimum Sb(III) adsorption on Fe3O4 among the organic acid studied. The reason is TA having two sets of adjacent functional groups viz. Odbnd Csbnd OH and Csbnd OH which are responsible for the formation of five-membered bidendate chelate with Sb(III). Other oxyanions, cations or complexing agents along with TA influences the Sb(III) adsorption on Fe3O4. The surface of magnetite is modified by the addition of fatty acids viz. Lauric acid, benzoic acid to bind the Ssbnd OH groups present on the surface. This results in delaying the process of adsorption without changing the quantity of saturation adsorption of Sb(III) on Fe3O4 surface.

  13. Involvement of a Membrane-Bound Class III Adenylate Cyclase in Regulation of Anaerobic Respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Charania, M.; Brockman, K.; Zhang, Yang; Banerjee, A.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Saffarini, Daad

    2009-07-01

    Unlike other bacteria that use FNR to regulate anaerobic respiration, S. oneidensis MR-1 uses the cAMP receptor protein, CRP, for this purpose. Three putative genes, cyaA, cyaB, and cyaC, predicted to encode class I, class IV, and class III adenylate cyclases respectively, have been identified in the genome sequence of this bacterium. Functional validation through complementation of an E. coli cya mutant confirmed that these genes encode proteins with adenylate cyclase activities. Chromosomal deletion of either cyaA or cyaB did not affect anaerobic respiration with fumarate, DMSO, or Fe(III), whereas the deletion of cyaC caused deficiencies in respiration with DMSO and Fe(III), and to a lesser extent with fumarate. A phenotype similar to that of a crp mutant, which lacks the ability to grow anaerobically with DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III), was obtained when both cyaA and cyaC were deleted. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the crp and the cyaC mutants revealed the involvement of both genes in the regulation of key respiratory pathways such as DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III) reduction. Additionally, several genes associated with plasmid replication, flagella biosynthesis, and electron transport, were differentially expressed in the cyaC mutant, but not in the crp mutant. Our results indicated that CyaC plays a major role in regulating anaerobic respiration, and may contribute to additional signaling pathways independent of CRP.

  14. Involvement of a Membrane-Bound Class III Adenylate Cyclase in Regulation of Anaerobic Respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Charania, M.; Brockman, K. L.; Zhang, Y.; Banerjee, A.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Saffarini, Daad

    2009-07-01

    Unlike other bacteria that use FNR to regulate anaerobic respiration, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 uses the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) for this purpose. Three putative genes, cyaA, cyaB, and cyaC, predicted to encode class I, class IV, and class III adenylate cyclases, respectively, have been identified in the genome sequence of this bacterium. Functional validation through complementation of an Escherichia coli cya mutant confirmed that these genes encode proteins with adenylate cyclase activities. Chromosomal deletion of either cyaA or cyaB did not affect anaerobic respiration with fumarate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or Fe(III), whereas deletion of cyaC caused deficiencies in respiration with DMSO and Fe(III) and, to a lesser extent, with fumarate. A phenotype similar to that of a crp mutant, which lacks the ability to grow anaerobically with DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III), was obtained when both cyaA and cyaC were deleted. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the crp and cyaC mutants revealed the involvement of both genes in the regulation of key respiratory pathways, such as DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III) reduction. Additionally, several genes associated with plasmid replication, flagellum biosynthesis, and electron transport were differentially expressed in the cyaC mutant but not in the crp mutant. Our results indicated that CyaC plays a major role in regulating anaerobic respiration and may contribute to additional signaling pathways independent of CRP.

  15. Luminescent and triboluminescent properties of europium(III) complex with cinnamic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinovskaya, I. V.; Mirochnik, A. G.; Nagornyi, I. G.

    2014-10-01

    An intensely emitting crystalline europium(III) complex with cinnamic acid [Eu(Cin)3] n and exhibiting triboluminescent properties is synthesized. It is established that the measured photo- and triboluminescence spectra are identical for the above polymeric non-centrosymmetric complex and are determined by the characteristic f-f luminescence of the europium(III) ion.

  16. 49 CFR 1150.33 - Information to be contained in notice-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provision or agreement, which may be filed with the Board under 49 CFR 1104.14(a) and will be kept confidential without need for the filing of an accompanying motion for a protective order under 49 CFR 1104.14... that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.33 Section 1150.33 Transportation Other...

  17. 49 CFR 1150.33 - Information to be contained in notice-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provision or agreement, which may be filed with the Board under 49 CFR 1104.14(a) and will be kept confidential without need for the filing of an accompanying motion for a protective order under 49 CFR 1104.14... that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.33 Section 1150.33 Transportation Other...

  18. 40 CFR 147.1751 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells. 147.1751 Section 147.1751 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota §...

  19. 40 CFR 147.1751 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells. 147.1751 Section 147.1751 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota §...

  20. 40 CFR 147.2200 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials that are incorporated by reference... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION... administered by the Railroad Commission of Texas. A program revision application for Class III brine...

  1. 40 CFR 147.2200 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials that are incorporated by reference... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION... administered by the Railroad Commission of Texas. A program revision application for Class III brine...

  2. 40 CFR 147.2200 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials that are incorporated by reference... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION... administered by the Railroad Commission of Texas. A program revision application for Class III brine...

  3. 40 CFR 147.2200 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials that are incorporated by reference... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION... administered by the Railroad Commission of Texas. A program revision application for Class III brine...

  4. 40 CFR 147.2200 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials that are incorporated by reference... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION... administered by the Railroad Commission of Texas. A program revision application for Class III brine...

  5. Class III PI3K regulates organismal glucose homeostasis by providing negative feedback on hepatic insulin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Nemazanyy, Ivan; Montagnac, Guillaume; Russell, Ryan C.; Morzyglod, Lucille; Burnol, Anne-Françoise; Guan, Kun-Liang; Pende, Mario; Panasyuk, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    Defective hepatic insulin receptor (IR) signalling is a pathogenic manifestation of metabolic disorders including obesity and diabetes. The endo/lysosomal trafficking system may coordinate insulin action and nutrient homeostasis by endocytosis of IR and the autophagic control of intracellular nutrient levels. Here we show that class III PI3K—a master regulator of endocytosis, endosomal sorting and autophagy—provides negative feedback on hepatic insulin signalling. The ultraviolet radiation resistance-associated gene protein (UVRAG)-associated class III PI3K complex interacts with IR and is stimulated by insulin treatment. Acute and chronic depletion of hepatic Vps15, the regulatory subunit of class III PI3K, increases insulin sensitivity and Akt signalling, an effect that requires functional IR. This is reflected by FoxO1-dependent transcriptional defects and blunted gluconeogenesis in Vps15 mutant cells. On depletion of Vps15, the metabolic syndrome in genetic and diet-induced models of insulin resistance and diabetes is alleviated. Thus, feedback regulation of IR trafficking and function by class III PI3K may be a therapeutic target in metabolic conditions of insulin resistance. PMID:26387534

  6. 40 CFR 147.1751 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells. 147.1751 Section 147.1751 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota §...

  7. 40 CFR 147.1751 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells. 147.1751 Section 147.1751 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota §...

  8. 49 CFR 1150.33 - Information to be contained in notice-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... filed with the Board under 49 CFR 1104.14(a) and will be kept confidential without need for the filing of an accompanying motion for a protective order under 49 CFR 1104.14(b)): (i) The existence of that... that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.33 Section 1150.33 Transportation Other...

  9. 40 CFR 147.1751 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells. 147.1751 Section 147.1751 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota §...

  10. 40 CFR 147.1803 - Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule-maximum injection pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule-maximum injection pressure. 147.1803 Section 147.1803 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Ohio...

  11. 40 CFR 147.1803 - Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule-maximum injection pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule-maximum injection pressure. 147.1803 Section 147.1803 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Ohio...

  12. Ordering promoter binding of class III transcription factors TFIIIC1 and TFIIIC2.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, N; Berk, A J

    1988-01-01

    The separation of the mammalian class III transcription factor TFIIIC into two functional components, termed TFIIIC1 and TFIIIC2, enabled an analysis of their functions in transcription initiation. Template competition assays were used to define the order with which these factors interact in vitro to form stable preinitiation complexes on the adenovirus VAI and Drosophila melanogaster tRNA(Arg) genes. The interaction between these genes and TFIIIC2, the factor that binds with high affinity to the B block, was both necessary and sufficient for template commitment. When either the VAI or tRNA(Arg) gene was preincubated with TFIIIC2 alone, transcription of a second gene added subsequently was excluded, indicating that TFIIIC2 bound stably to the first template. Furthermore, the interaction between TFIIIC2 and these genes must occur prior to that of TFIIIC1 or TFIIIB. Once TFIIIC2 was bound, TFIIIC1 could bind to the tRNA(Arg) and VAI genes, although its interaction with the VAI gene was less stable than that with the tRNA(Arg) gene. TFIIIB activity bound stably to the complex of both genes with TFIIIC2. These results demonstrate that TFIIIC2 is the first transcription factor to bind to these genes and that TFIIIB and TFIIIC1 can then interact in either order to form a preinitiation complex. Images PMID:3145406

  13. A vacuolar class III peroxidase and the metabolism of anticancer indole alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Patrícia; Figueiredo, Raquel; Ros Barceló, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Plants possess a unique metabolic diversity commonly designated as secondary metabolism, of which the anticancer alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus are among the most studied. Recently, in a classical function-to-protein-to-gene approach, we have characterized the main class III peroxidase (Prx) expressed in C. roseus leaves, CrPrx1, implicated in a key biosynthetic step of the anticancer alkaloids. We have shown the vacuolar sorting determination of CrPrx1 using GFP fusions and we have obtained further evidence supporting the role of this enzyme in alkaloid biosynthesis, indicating the potential of CrPrx1 as a molecular tool for the manipulation of alkaloid metabolism. Here, we discuss how plant cells may regulate Prx reactions. In fact, Prxs form a large multigenic family whose members accept a broad range of substrates and, in their two subcellular localizations, the cell wall and the vacuole, Prxs co-locate with a large variety of secondary metabolites which can be accepted as substrates. How then, are Prx reactions regulated? Localization data obtained in our lab suggest that arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and Prxs may be associated in membrane microdomains, evocative of lipid rafts. Whether plasma membrane and/or tonoplast microcompartmentation involve AGPs and Prxs and whether this enables metabolic channeling determining Prx substrate selection are challenging questions ahead. PMID:19704535

  14. Class III myosins shape the auditory hair bundles by limiting microvilli and stereocilia growth.

    PubMed

    Lelli, Andrea; Michel, Vincent; Boutet de Monvel, Jacques; Cortese, Matteo; Bosch-Grau, Montserrat; Aghaie, Asadollah; Perfettini, Isabelle; Dupont, Typhaine; Avan, Paul; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Petit, Christine

    2016-01-18

    The precise architecture of hair bundles, the arrays of mechanosensitive microvilli-like stereocilia crowning the auditory hair cells, is essential to hearing. Myosin IIIa, defective in the late-onset deafness form DFNB30, has been proposed to transport espin-1 to the tips of stereocilia, thereby promoting their elongation. We show that Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) mice lacking myosin IIIa and myosin IIIb are profoundly deaf, whereas Myo3a-cKO Myo3b(-/-) mice lacking myosin IIIb and losing myosin IIIa postnatally have normal hearing. Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) cochlear hair bundles display robust mechanoelectrical transduction currents with normal kinetics but show severe embryonic abnormalities whose features rapidly change. These include abnormally tall and numerous microvilli or stereocilia, ungraded stereocilia bundles, and bundle rounding and closure. Surprisingly, espin-1 is properly targeted to Myo3a(-/-)Myo3b(-/-) stereocilia tips. Our results uncover the critical role that class III myosins play redundantly in hair-bundle morphogenesis; they unexpectedly limit the elongation of stereocilia and of subsequently regressing microvilli, thus contributing to the early hair bundle shaping. PMID:26754646

  15. [Limiting factors in the class III camouflage treatment: a potential protocol].

    PubMed

    Chaques Asensi, José

    2016-06-01

    The Class III skeletal malocclusion has been traditionally treated with a combined approach of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery or with a strategy of orthodontic camouflage. Some severe cases can be identified as ideal candidates for a surgical treatment whereas some others can be handled with orthodontics alone, with a reasonable expectation of an acceptable result. However, the problem remains for the borderline patient. In fact, limited information is available in the literature regarding the identification of the factors that can help in establishing the limits for one treatment modality or the other. Furthermore, the quantification of some of these factors, for practical purposes, is practically missing or very seldom suggested. Therefore, the decision making process remains a subjective reflection based on the "good clinical sense" of the orthodontist or just reduced to an "educated guess". In order to add some information, hopefully useful in deciding the most suitable treatment option for the individual patient, we propose a clinical protocol based on four different factors. Namely: the skeletal discrepancy, the occlusal discrepancy, the periodontal condition and facial aesthetics. For each one of these factors several parameters will be evaluated and, for some of them, an attempt to provide some reference numerical values will be made. Finally, clinical examples will be presented to illustrate the concepts discussed and the treatment alternatives, final treatment plan and treatment outcome will be analyzed for each one of them. PMID:27358006

  16. Impact of physical activity and fitness in class II and III obese individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baillot, A; Audet, M; Baillargeon, J P; Dionne, I J; Valiquette, L; Rosa-Fortin, M M; Abou Chakra, C N; Comeau, E; Langlois, M F

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to appraise current knowledge on the impact of physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) on the health of class II and III obese subjects and bariatric surgery (BS) patients. All original studies were searched using four databases (Medline®, Scopus®, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected studies assessing the impact of PA or PF on specific health outcomes (anthropometric parameters, body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, PF, wellness) in adults with a body mass index ≥35 kg m(-2) or in BS patients. Conclusions were drawn based on a rating system of evidence. From 3,170 papers identified, 40 papers met the inclusion criteria. The vast majority of studies were recently carried out with a predominance of women. Less than one-third of these studies were experimental and only three of them were of high quality. Each study reported at least one beneficial effect of PA or PF. However, a lack of high-quality studies and heterogeneity in designs prevented us from finding high levels of evidence. In conclusion, although results support the importance of PA and PF to improve the health of this population, higher-quality trials are required to strengthen evidence-based recommendations. PMID:24712685

  17. Fluorescent complexes of nucleic acids/8-hydroxyquinoline/lanthanum(III) and the fluorometry of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Zhi Huang; Ke An Li; Shen Yang Tong

    1996-07-01

    The ternary fluorescent complexes of nucleic acids/8-hydroxyquinoline/lanthanum (III) were studied. Nucleic acids in the study involve natured and thermally denatured calf thymus DNA, fish sperm DNA and yeast RNA. In the range of PH 8.0-8.4 (controlled by NH{sub 3}-NH{sub 4}Cl buffer) ternary fluorescent complexes are formed which emit at 485.0 nm for calf thymus DNA and at 480.0 nm for fish sperm DNA when excited at 265.0 nm. Based on the fluorescence reactions sensitive fluorometric methods for nucleic acids were proposed. Using optimal conditions, the calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.4 --3.6 {mu}g{sup .}ml{sup -1} for calf thymus DNA, 0.4 -- 4.0 {mu}g{sup .}ml{sup -1} for fish sperm DNA and 0.4 --4.0{mu}g{sup .}ml{sup -1} for yeast RNA, respectively. Five synthetic samples were determined with satisfaction.

  18. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Vacuolar Class III Peroxidase Involved in the Metabolism of Anticancer Alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus1[C

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Maria Manuela R.; Hilliou, Frederique; Duarte, Patrícia; Pereira, Luís Gustavo; Almeida, Iolanda; Leech, Mark; Memelink, Johan; Barceló, Alfonso Ros; Sottomayor, Mariana

    2008-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus produces low levels of two dimeric terpenoid indole alkaloids, vinblastine and vincristine, which are widely used in cancer chemotherapy. The dimerization reaction leading to α-3′,4′-anhydrovinblastine is a key regulatory step for the production of the anticancer alkaloids in planta and has potential application in the industrial production of two semisynthetic derivatives also used as anticancer drugs. In this work, we report the cloning, characterization, and subcellular localization of an enzyme with anhydrovinblastine synthase activity identified as the major class III peroxidase present in C. roseus leaves and named CrPrx1. The deduced amino acid sequence corresponds to a polypeptide of 363 amino acids including an N-terminal signal peptide showing the secretory nature of CrPrx1. CrPrx1 has a two-intron structure and is present as a single gene copy. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that CrPrx1 belongs to an evolutionary branch of vacuolar class III peroxidases whose members seem to have been recruited for different functions during evolution. Expression of a green fluorescent protein-CrPrx1 fusion confirmed the vacuolar localization of this peroxidase, the exact subcellular localization of the alkaloid monomeric precursors and dimeric products. Expression data further supports the role of CrPrx1 in α-3′,4′-anhydrovinblastine biosynthesis, indicating the potential of CrPrx1 as a target to increase alkaloid levels in the plant. PMID:18065566

  19. Effect of desferrioxamine B and Suwannee River fulvic acid on Fe(III) release and Cr(III) desorption from goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Angela G.; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A.; Dubbin, William E.

    2016-04-01

    Siderophores are biogenic chelating ligands that facilitate the solubilisation of Fe(III) and form stable complexes with a range of contaminant metals and therefore may significantly affect their biogeochemical cycling. Desferrioxamine B (DFOB) is a trihydroxamate siderophore that acts synergistically with fulvic acid and low molecular weight organic ligands to release Fe from Fe(III) oxides. We report the results of batch dissolution experiments in which we determine the rates of Cr(III) desorption and Fe(III) release from Cr(III)-treated synthetic goethite as influenced by DFOB, by fulvic acid, and by the two compounds in combination. We observed that adsorbed Cr(III) at 3% surface coverage significantly reduced Fe(III) release from goethite for all combinations of DFOB and fulvic acid. When DFOB (270 μM) was the only ligand present, dissolved Fe(III) and Cr(III) increased approximately 1000-fold and 16-fold, respectively, as compared to the ligand-free system, a difference we attribute to the slow rate of water exchange of Cr(III). Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) acts synergistically with DFOB by (i) reducing the goethite surface charge leading to increased HDFOB+ surface excess and by (ii) forming aqueous Fe(III)-SRFA species whose Fe(III) is subsequently removed by DFOB to yield aqueous Fe(III)-DFOB complexes. These observations shed new light on the synergistic relationship between DFOB and fulvic acid and reveal the mechanisms of Fe(III) acquisition available to plants and micro-organisms in Cr(III) contaminated environments.

  20. Medical Devices; hematology and pathology devices; reclassification of automated blood cell separator device operating by filtration principle from class III to class II. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2003-02-28

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is reclassifying the automated blood cell separator (ABCS) device operating by filtration principle, intended for routine collection of blood and blood components, from class III to class II (special controls). The special control requirement for this device is an annual report with emphasis on adverse reactions to be filed by the manufacturer for a minimum of 3 years. The agency is taking this action in response to a petition submitted under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) as amended by the Medical Device Amendments of 1976 (the 1976 amendments), the Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990 (the SMDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA). The agency is reclassifying the automated blood cell separator devices operating by filtration principle into class II (special controls) because special controls, in addition to general controls, are capable of providing a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:12617085

  1. Geometric and Electronic Structure of the Mn(IV)Fe(III) Cofactor in Class Ic Ribonucleotide Reductase: Correlation to the Class Ia Binuclear Non-Heme Iron Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Yeonju; Jiang, Wei; Dassama, Laura M.K.; Park, Kiyoung; Bell, Caleb B.; Liu, Lei V.; Wong, Shaun D.; Saito, Makina; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Seto, Makoto; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Alp, E. Ercan; Zhao, Jiyong; Bollinger, J Martin; Krebs, Carsten; Solomon, Edward I.

    2013-01-01

    The class Ic ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) from Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) utilizes a Mn/Fe hetero-binuclear cofactor, rather than the Fe/Fe cofactor found in the β (R2) subunit of the class Ia enzymes, to react with O2. This reaction produces a stable MnIVFeIII cofactor that initiates a radical, which transfers to the adjacent α (R1) subunit and reacts with the substrate. We have studied the MnIVFeIII cofactor using nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) and absorption (Abs) / circular dichroism (CD) / magnetic CD (MCD) / variable temperature, variable field (VTVH) MCD spectroscopies to obtain detailed insight into its geometric/electronic structure and to correlate structure with reactivity; NRVS focuses on the FeIII, whereas MCD reflects the spin-allowed transitions mostly on the MnIV. We have evaluated 18 systematically varied structures. Comparison of the simulated NRVS spectra to the experimental data shows that the cofactor has one carboxylate bridge, with MnIV at the site proximal to Phe127. Abs/CD/MCD/VTVH MCD data exhibit 12 transitions that are assigned as d-d, and oxo and OH− to metal charge transfer (CT) transitions. Assignments are based on MCD/Abs intensity ratios, transition energies, polarizations, and derivative-shaped pseudo-A term CT transitions. Correlating these results with TD-DFT calculations defines the MnIVFeIII cofactor as having a µ-oxo, µ-hydroxo core and a terminal hydroxo ligand on the MnIV. From DFT calculations, the MnIV at site 1 is necessary to tune the redox potential to a value similar to that of the tyrosine radical in class Ia RNR, and the OH− terminal ligand on this MnIV provides a high proton affinity that could gate radical translocation to the α (R1) subunit. PMID:24131208

  2. MS-551 and KCB-328, two class III drugs aggravated adrenaline-induced arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Xue, YiXue; Yamada, Chikaomi; Nu Aye, Nu; Hashimoto, Keitaro

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the proarrhythmic effects of MS-551 and KCB-328, class III antiarrhythmic drugs using adrenaline-induced arrhythmia models in halothane anaesthetized, closed-chest dogs. In the control period, adrenaline, starting from a low dose of 0.25 to up to 1.0 μg/kg/50 s i.v., was injected to determine the arrhythmia inducing dose and the non-inducing dose. After MS-551 or KCB-328 administration, the adrenaline injection was repeated and the interval between the injection and the occurrence of arrhythmia (latent interval), the changes in arrhythmic ratio (as calculated by dividing the number of ventricular premature contraction by the number of the total heart rate) and the severity of arrhythmia were observed. MS-551 infusion, 1 mg/kg/30 min, decreased the heart rate (HR) by 16% (P<0.01) and prolonged the QTc interval by 20% (P<0.01). During the 30 min of MS-551 infusion, arrhythmias occurred in three out of seven dogs (torsades de pointes (TdP) type VT in one dog). After these arrhythmias disappeared, MS-551 decreased the latent interval of the adrenaline arrhythmias produced by the inducing dose (30±2 s compared with 43±3 s of the control interval, P<0.05), increased the arrhythmic ratio (P<0.05) and induced arrhythmias by non-inducing adrenaline doses (P<0.05). Effect of a new class III drug KCB-328 infusion, 0.3 mg/kg/30 min, was compared witih MS-551 using the same model. KCB-328 decreased the HR by 21% (P<0.01) and prolonged the QTc interval by 25% (P<0.01). During the 30 min of infusion, arrhythmias occurred in five out of seven dogs (TdP in two dogs). KCB-328 also decreased the latent interval of the adrenaline arrhythmias produced by the inducing doses (31±3 s compared with 49±7 s of the control period, P<0.05), but did not significantly alter the arrhythmic ratio. Adrenaline induced TdP only after MS-551 or KCB-328 was administered, i.e. after MS-551, 1 mg/kg/30 min, 3/7 versus 0/7 in the control; KCB, 0.3

  3. Lipoprotein Profiles in Class III Obese Caucasian and African American Women with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Anna E.; Kasim, Nader; Tamboli, Robyn A.; Gonzalez, Raul S.; Antoun, Joseph; Eckert, Emily A.; Marks-Shulman, Pamela A.; Dunn, Julia; Wattacheril, Julia; Wallen, Taylor; Abumrad, Naji N.; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride content in the liver is regulated by the uptake, production and elimination of lipoproteins, and derangements in these processes contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies show a direct relationship between intrahepatic fat and production of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) containing particles, VLDL and LDL, but little consensus exists regarding changes in lipoprotein production in the development of simple steatosis (SS) versus nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Further, ethnic variations in lipoproteins among SS and NASH are unknown as is how such variations might contribute to the differential prevalence of disease among Caucasians versus African Americans. In this study, we assessed plasma lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 70 non-diabetic class III obese females recruited from the surgical weight loss clinic. Of these, 51 females were stratified by biopsy-staged NAFLD severity (histologically normal, SS, or NASH). NASH females displayed increased circulating triglycerides and increased VLDL particle number and size relative to those with histologically normal livers, while total and large LDL concentration decreased in SS versus NASH and correlated with increased insulin resistance (via HOMA2-IR). When Caucasian women were examined alone (n = 41), VLDL and triglycerides increased between normal and SS, while total LDL and apoB100 decreased between SS and NASH along with increased insulin resistance. Compared to Caucasians with SS, African American women with SS displayed reduced triglycerides, VLDL, and small LDL and a more favorable small to large HDL ratio despite having increased BMI and HOMA2-IR. These findings suggest that ApoB100 and lipoprotein subclass particle number and size can delineate steatosis from NASH in obese Caucasian females, but should be interpreted with caution in other ethnicities as African Americans with SS display relatively improved lipoprotein profiles

  4. A perspective on the role of class III semaphorin signaling in central nervous system trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mecollari, Vasil; Nieuwenhuis, Bart; Verhaagen, Joost

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injury of the central nervous system (CNS) has severe impact on the patients’ quality of life and initiates many molecular and cellular changes at the site of insult. Traumatic CNS injury results in direct damage of the axons of CNS neurons, loss of myelin sheaths, destruction of the surrounding vascular architecture and initiation of an immune response. Class III semaphorins (SEMA3s) are present in the neural scar and influence a wide range of molecules and cell types in and surrounding the injured tissue. SEMA3s and their receptors, neuropilins (NRPs) and plexins (PLXNs) were initially studied because of their involvement in repulsive axon guidance. To date, SEMA3 signaling is recognized to be of crucial importance for re-vascularization, the immune response and remyelination. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss how SEMA3s modulate these processes that are all crucial components of the tissue response to injury. Most of the functions for SEMA3s are achieved through their binding partners NRPs, which are also co-receptors for a variety of other molecules implicated in the above processes. The most notable ligands are members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family and the transforming growth factor family. Therefore, a second aim is to highlight the overlapping or competing signaling pathways that are mediated through NRPs in the same processes. In conclusion, we show that the role of SEMA3s goes beyond inhibiting axonal regeneration, since they are also critical modulators of re-vascularization, the immune response and re-myelination. PMID:25386118

  5. Asymmetric molar distalization with miniscrews to correct a severe unilateral Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiao Ling; Conley, R Scott; Wu, Tuojiang; Li, Huang

    2016-05-01

    Asymmetries are among the most challenging problems in orthodontics. Proper diagnosis is critical to discern first whether the asymmetry is dental or skeletal. If it is dental, one must then determine whether one dental arch or both are at fault. Once diagnosed, the next challenge is determining not only an appropriate treatment plan, but also the appropriate mechanics plan. This aim of this article is to present a patient with a severe asymmetry to emphasize the importance of a problem-based differential diagnosis to develop both a sound treatment plan and a mechanics plan that successfully integrates miniscrews from the start of the process. An 18-year-old woman had a Class III subdivision left malocclusion, an asymmetric lower facial third, and a deviated midline. The treatment plan consisted of asymmetric distalization of the maxillary right and mandibular left posterior dentitions to create space to resolve the deviated midlines, correct the canted occlusal plane, and obtain an ideal occlusion. Active treatment with Clarity ceramic 0.022 × 0.028-in appliances (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif), temporary anchorage devices, and a pendulum appliance lasted 22 months. The final result and the 2-year retention records demonstrate that a harmonious facial balance, an attractive smile, ideal occlusal relationships, and a stable outcome were achieved. This case report shows that with proper planning, asymmetric use of temporary anchorage devices in multiple posterior quadrants can be used to obtain molar distalization, and this approach is an effective alternative to dental extraction therapy. PMID:27131255

  6. Blockade of HERG channels by the class III antiarrhythmic azimilide: mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Busch, A E; Eigenberger, B; Jurkiewicz, N K; Salata, J J; Pica, A; Suessbrich, H; Lang, F

    1998-01-01

    The class III antiarrhythmic azimilide has previously been shown to inhibit IKs and IKr in guinea-pig cardiac myocytes and IKs (minK) channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Because HERG channels underly the conductance IKr in human heart, the effects of azimilide on HERG channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes were the focus of the present study.In contrast to other well characterized HERG channel blockers, azimilide blockade was reverse use-dependent, i.e., the relative block and apparent affinity of azimilide decreased with an increase in channel activation frequency. Azimilide blocked HERG channels at 0.1 and 1 Hz with IC50 s of 1.4 μM and 5.2  μM respectively.In an envelope of tail test, HERG channel blockade increased with increasing channel activation, indicating binding of azimilide to open channels.Azimilide blockade of HERG channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes and IKr in mouse AT-1 cells was decreased under conditions of high [K+]e, whereas block of slowly activating IKs channels was not affected by changes in [K+]e.In summary, azimilide is a blocker of cardiac delayed rectifier channels, IKs and HERG. Because of the distinct effects of stimulation frequency and [K+]e on azimilide block of IKr and IKs channels, we conclude that the relative contribution of block of each of these cardiac delayed rectifier channels depends on heart frequency. [K+]e and regulatory status of the respective channels. PMID:9484850

  7. New method for the direct determination of dissolved Fe(III) concentration in acid mine waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    To, T.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Cunningham, K.M.; Ball, J.W.; McCleskey, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    A new method for direct determination of dissolved Fe(III) in acid mine water has been developed. In most present methods, Fe(III) is determined by computing the difference between total dissolved Fe and dissolved Fe(II). For acid mine waters, frequently Fe(II) >> Fe(III); thus, accuracy and precision are considerably improved by determining Fe(III) concentration directly. The new method utilizes two selective ligands to stabilize Fe(III) and Fe(II), thereby preventing changes in Fe reduction-oxidation distribution. Complexed Fe(II) is cleanly removed using a silica-based, reversed-phase adsorbent, yielding excellent isolation of the Fe(III) complex. Iron(III) concentration is measured colorimetrically or by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The method requires inexpensive commercial reagents and simple procedures that can be used in the field. Calcium(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), AI(III), Zn(II), and Cd(II) cause insignificant colorimetric interferences for most acid mine waters. Waters containing >20 mg of Cu/L could cause a colorimetric interference and should be measured by GFAAS. Cobalt(II) and Cr(III) interfere if their molar ratios to Fe(III) exceed 24 and 5, respectively. Iron(II) interferes when its concentration exceeds the capacity of the complexing ligand (14 mg/L). Because of the GFAAS elemental specificity, only Fe(II) is a potential interferent in the GFAAS technique. The method detection limit is 2 ??g/L (40 nM) using GFAAS and 20 ??g/L (0.4 ??M) by colorimetry.A new method for direct determination of dissolved Fe(III) in acid mine water has been developed. In most present methods, Fe(III) is determined by computing the difference between total dissolved Fe and dissolved Fe(II). For acid mine waters, frequently Fe(II)???Fe(III); thus, accuracy and precision are considerably improved by determining Fe(III) concentration directly. The new method utilizes two selective ligands to stabilize Fe(III) and Fe(II), thereby preventing changes

  8. Cell wall-bound cationic and anionic class III isoperoxidases of pea root: biochemical characterization and function in root growth

    PubMed Central

    Lüthje, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Cell wall isolated from pea roots was used to separate and characterize two fractions possessing class III peroxidase activity: (i) ionically bound proteins and (ii) covalently bound proteins. Modified SDS–PAGE separated peroxidase isoforms by their apparent molecular weights: four bands of 56, 46, 44, and 41kDa were found in the ionically bound fraction (iPOD) and one band (70kDa) was resolved after treatment of the cell wall with cellulase and pectinase (cPOD). Isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns for iPODs and cPODs were significantly different: five iPODs with highly cationic pI (9.5–9.2) were detected, whereas the nine cPODs were anionic with pI values between pH 3.7 and 5. iPODs and cPODs showed rather specific substrate affinity and different sensitivity to inhibitors, heat, and deglycosylation treatments. Peroxidase and oxidase activities and their IEF patterns for both fractions were determined in different zones along the root and in roots of different ages. New iPODs with pI 9.34 and 9.5 were induced with root growth, while the activity of cPODs was more related to the formation of the cell wall in non-elongating tissue. Treatment with auxin that inhibits root growth led to suppression of iPOD and induction of cPOD. A similar effect was obtained with the widely used elicitor, chitosan, which also induced cPODs with pI 5.3 and 5.7, which may be specifically related to pathogen defence. The differences reported here between biochemical properties of cPOD and iPOD and their differential induction during development and under specific treatments implicate that they are involved in specific and different physiological processes. Abbreviations:cPODcovalently bound peroxidaseDAB3,3'-diaminobenzidineDEPMPOspin-trap (5-diethoxy-phosphoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-n-oxide)EPRelectron paramagnetic resonanceHRPhorseradish peroxidaseIAAindole-3-acetic acidHRPhorseradish peroxidaseIEFisoelectric focusingiPODionically bound peroxidaseNAAnaphthalene acetic acid

  9. Correction of dental Class III with posterior open bite by simple biomechanics using an anterior C-tube miniplate

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo-Won; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kang, Suk-Man; Lin, Lu; Nelson, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In the correction of dental Class III molar relationship in skeletal Class II patients, uprighting of the mandibular posterior segments without opening the mandible is an important treatment objective. In the case reported herein, a C-tube miniplate fixed to the lower labial symphysis and connected with a nickel-titanium reverse-curved archwire provided effective uprighting of the lower molars, without the need of orthodontic appliances on the mandibular anteriors. Using this approach, an appropriate magnitude of force is exerted on the molars while avoiding any negative effect on the mandibular anteriors. PMID:23173121

  10. Extreme Dental Compensation in an Adult Skeletal Class III Malocclusion: 3-Year Follow-up of a Successfully Compromised Treatment.

    PubMed

    Estelita, Sérgio; Janson, Guilherme; Chiqueto, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Nonsurgical orthodontic treatment of a patient with severe skeletal Class III malocclusion, negative overjet, increased overbite and maxillary crowding is described Although the treatment options included an orthodontic-surgical approach, high cost of the surgical procedure was the main reason for extreme dental compensation to have been performed. Four-premolar extraction protocol associated with intermaxillary Class III elastics were used to correct the malocclusion at the expense of increasing the initial dental compensation without producing any noticeable skeletal change. Satisfactory and stable occlusion was achieved with dental and smile esthetics improvement, but the amount of facial changes was limited by the nonsurgical protocol. The clinical results and implications of compensatory treatment as well as its relevance within the patient context are discussed based on scientific evidences. PMID:26349294

  11. Effects of ionic strength and fulvic acid on adsorption of Tb(III) and Eu(III) onto clay.

    PubMed

    Poetsch, Maria; Lippold, Holger

    2016-09-01

    High salinity and natural organic matter are both known to facilitate migration of toxic or radioactive metals in geochemical systems, but little is known on their combined effect. We investigated complexation of Tb(III) and Eu(III) (as analogues for trivalent actinides) with fulvic acid and their adsorption onto a natural clay in the presence of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 up to very high ionic strengths. (160)Tb, (152)Eu and (14)C-labelled fulvic acid were employed as radiotracers, allowing investigations at very low concentrations according to probable conditions in far-field scenarios of nuclear waste repositories. A combined Kd approach (Linear Additive Model) was tested for suitability in predicting solid-liquid distribution of metals in the presence of organic matter based on the interactions in the constituent subsystems. In this analysis, it could be shown that high ionic strength does not further enhance the mobilizing potential of humic matter. A quantitative reproduction of the influence of fulvic acid failed for most systems under study. Assumptions and limitations of the model are discussed. PMID:27454893

  12. Effects of ionic strength and fulvic acid on adsorption of Tb(III) and Eu(III) onto clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poetsch, Maria; Lippold, Holger

    2016-09-01

    High salinity and natural organic matter are both known to facilitate migration of toxic or radioactive metals in geochemical systems, but little is known on their combined effect. We investigated complexation of Tb(III) and Eu(III) (as analogues for trivalent actinides) with fulvic acid and their adsorption onto a natural clay in the presence of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 up to very high ionic strengths. 160Tb, 152Eu and 14C-labelled fulvic acid were employed as radiotracers, allowing investigations at very low concentrations according to probable conditions in far-field scenarios of nuclear waste repositories. A combined Kd approach (Linear Additive Model) was tested for suitability in predicting solid-liquid distribution of metals in the presence of organic matter based on the interactions in the constituent subsystems. In this analysis, it could be shown that high ionic strength does not further enhance the mobilizing potential of humic matter. A quantitative reproduction of the influence of fulvic acid failed for most systems under study. Assumptions and limitations of the model are discussed.

  13. Presurgical orthodontic decompensation alters alveolar bone condition around mandibular incisors in adults with skeletal Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Boyang; Tang, Jun; Xiao, Ping; Ding, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study is to use cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to acquire accurate radiographic images for alveolar bone in lower incisors and the change after presurgical orthodontic treatment. Seventeen patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion, ten normal occlusion subjects, and fifteen patients treated with orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery were included. CBCT images were obtained. The labial and lingual inclinations of mandibular incisors, the thickness of alveolar bone, the vertical alveolar height and root length were measured. Alveolar bone thickness at the apex in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion was thinner than normal subjects. The vertical alveolar bone heights at labial and lingual sides in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion were both reduced compared with normal subjects, especially at the labial side. There were statistically significant correlations between lower incisor inclination and alveolar bone morphology. After orthodontics, the incisors root apex was closer to the lingual side of alveolar bone. The alveolar bone thickness at apex was not statistically changed. The vertical alveolar bone heights at the labial and lingual sides were both significantly reduced especially the lingual side after presurgical orthodontic treatment. The root length was not significantly changed. In conclusion, the alveolar bone thickness at apex is thinner and the vertical alveolar height is reduced at the labial side. Forward movement of lower incisors during presurgical orthodontic treatment can render the lower incisors root apex closer to the lingual side and the vertical alveolar height is reduced. PMID:26550202

  14. Structure of macrophage colony stimulating factor bound to FMS: Diverse signaling assemblies of class III receptor tyrosine kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Heli; Focia, Pamela J.; Shim, Ann Hye-Ryong; He, Xiaolin

    2009-06-12

    Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), through binding to its receptor FMS, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), regulates the development and function of mononuclear phagocytes, and plays important roles in innate immunity, cancer and inflammation. We report a 2.4 {angstrom} crystal structure of M-CSF bound to the first 3 domains (D1-D3) of FMS. The ligand binding mode of FMS is surprisingly different from KIT, another class III RTK, in which the major ligand-binding domain of FMS, D2, uses the CD and EF loops, but not the {beta}-sheet on the opposite side of the Ig domain as in KIT, to bind ligand. Calorimetric data indicate that M-CSF cannot dimerize FMS without receptor-receptor interactions mediated by FMS domains D4 and D5. Consistently, the structure contains only 1 FMS-D1-D3 molecule bound to a M-CSF dimer, due to a weak, hydrophilic M-CSF:FMS interface, and probably a conformational change of the M-CSF dimer in which binding to the second site is rendered unfavorable by FMS binding at the first site. The partial, intermediate complex suggests that FMS may be activated in two steps, with the initial engagement step distinct from the subsequent dimerization/activation step. Hence, the formation of signaling class III RTK complexes can be diverse, engaging various modes of ligand recognition and various mechanistic steps for dimerizing and activating receptors.

  15. ACID RAIN MITAGATION STUDY. VOLUME III: INDUSTRIAL BOILERS AND PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a 4-month study of existing industrial sources of SO2 emissions in the Acid Rain Mitigation Study (ARMS) region, including all the states east of the Mississippi River, as well as MN, IA, MO, AR, LA, ND, SD, NE, KS, OK, and TX. Study aims were to: (1) ...

  16. Luminescent properties of compounds of europium(III) with quinaldic acid and β-diketones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinovskaya, I. V.; Mirochnik, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    We have obtained luminescent complex compounds of europium(III) with quinaldic acid and β- diketones of composition Eu(Quin)2β-dic • H;2O, where Quin is the anion of quinaldic acid, and β-dic is the anion of acetylacetone (acac), benzoylacetone (bzac), or dibenzoylmethane (dbm). The spectral properties of the obtained compounds have been examined. The joint presence of quinaldic acid and β-diketone in the coordination sphere of europium(III) leads to a broadening of the absorption spectral range of the investigated complex compounds. We have found that the "anomalous" Stark structure of luminescence spectra and the luminescence quenching of complexes at 300 K are determined by the occurrence of a high-lying ligand-europium(III) charge-transfer state.

  17. Class III β-tubulin overexpression within the tumor microenvironment is a prognostic biomarker for poor overall survival in ovarian cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant carboplatin/paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Dana M.; Buza, Natalia; Glasgow, Michelle; Bellone, Stefania; Bortolomai, Ileana; Gasparrini, Sara; Cocco, Emiliano; Ratner, Elena; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Rutherford, Thomas J.; Schwartz, Peter E.; Santin, Alessandro D.

    2013-01-01

    Critics have suggested that neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by interval debulking may select for resistant clones or cancer stem cells when compared to primary cytoreduction. β-tubulins are chemotherapeutic targets of taxanes and epothilones. Class III β-tubulin overexpression has been linked to chemoresistance and hypoxia. Herein, we describe changes in class III β-tubulin in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma in response to NACT, in relationship to clinical outcome, and between patients who underwent NACT versus primary debulking; we characterize in vitro chemosensitivity to paclitaxel/patupilone of cell lines established from this patient population, and class III β-tubulin expression following repeated exposure to paclitaxel. Using immunohistochemistry, we observed among 22 paired specimens obtained before/after NACT decreased expression of class III β-tubulin following therapy within stroma (p=0.07), but not tumor (p=0.63). Poor median overall survival was predicted by high levels of class III β-tubulin in both tumor (HR 3.66 [1.11,12.05], p=0.03) and stroma (HR 4.53 [1.28,16.1], p=0.02). Class III β-tubulin expression by quantitative-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction was higher among patients who received NACT (n=12) compared to primary cytoreduction (n=14) (mean±SD fold-change: 491.2±115.9 vs 224.1±55.66, p=0.037). In vitro subculture with paclitaxel resulted in class III β-tubulin upregulation, however, cell lines that overexpressed class III β-tubulin remained sensitive to patupilone. Overexpression of class III β-tubulin in patients dispositioned to NACT may thus identify an intrinsically aggressive phenotype, and predict poor overall survival and paclitaxel resistance. Decreases in stromal expression may represent normalization of the tumor microenvironment following therapy. Epothilones warrant study for patients who have received neoadjuvant carboplatin and paclitaxel. PMID:24005572

  18. Class III β-tubulin overexpression within the tumor microenvironment is a prognostic biomarker for poor overall survival in ovarian cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant carboplatin/paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Roque, Dana M; Buza, Natalia; Glasgow, Michelle; Bellone, Stefania; Bortolomai, Ileana; Gasparrini, Sara; Cocco, Emiliano; Ratner, Elena; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Rutherford, Thomas J; Schwartz, Peter E; Santin, Alessandro D

    2014-01-01

    Critics have suggested that neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by interval debulking may select for resistant clones or cancer stem cells when compared to primary cytoreduction. β-tubulins are chemotherapeutic targets of taxanes and epothilones. Class III β-tubulin overexpression has been linked to chemoresistance and hypoxia. Herein, we describe changes in class III β-tubulin in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma in response to NACT, in relationship to clinical outcome, and between patients who underwent NACT versus primary debulking; we characterize in vitro chemosensitivity to paclitaxel/patupilone of cell lines established from this patient population, and class III β-tubulin expression following repeated exposure to paclitaxel. Using immunohistochemistry, we observed among 22 paired specimens obtained before/after NACT decreased expression of class III β-tubulin following therapy within stroma (p=0.07), but not tumor (p=0.63). Poor median overall survival was predicted by high levels of class III β-tubulin in both tumor (HR 3.66 [1.11,12.05], p=0.03) and stroma (HR 4.53 [1.28,16.1], p=0.02). Class III β-tubulin expression by quantitative-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction was higher among patients who received NACT (n=12) compared to primary cytoreduction (n=14) (mean±SD fold-change: 491.2±115.9 vs. 224.1±55.66, p=0.037). In vitro subculture with paclitaxel resulted in class III β-tubulin upregulation, however, cell lines that overexpressed class III β-tubulin remained sensitive to patupilone. Overexpression of class III β-tubulin in patients dispositioned to NACT may thus identify an intrinsically aggressive phenotype, and predict poor overall survival and paclitaxel resistance. Decreases in stromal expression may represent normalization of the tumor microenvironment following therapy. Epothilones warrant study for patients who have received neoadjuvant carboplatin and paclitaxel. PMID:24005572

  19. Ion pairing with bile salts modulates intestinal permeability and contributes to food-drug interaction of BCS class III compound trospium chloride.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Christian A; Reuss, Stefan; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

    2013-11-01

    In the current study the involvement of ion pair formation between bile salts and trospium chloride (TC), a positively charged Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class III substance, showing a decrease in bioavailability upon coadministration with food (negative food effect) was investigated. Isothermal titration calorimetry provided evidence of a reaction between TC and bile acids. An effect of ion pair formation on the apparent partition coefficient (APC) was examined using (3)H-trospium. The addition of bovine bile and bile extract porcine led to a significant increase of the APC. In vitro permeability studies of trospium were performed across Caco-2-monolayers and excised segments of rat jejunum in a modified Ussing chamber. The addition of bile acids led to an increase of trospium permeation across Caco-2-monolayers and rat excised segments by approximately a factor of 1.5. The addition of glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) was less effective than taurodeoxycholate (TDOC). In the presence of an olive oil emulsion, a complete extinction of the permeation increasing effects of bile salts was observed. Thus, although there are more bile acids in the intestine in the fed state compared to the fasted state, these are not able to form ion pairs with trospium in fed state, because they are involved in the emulsification of dietary fats. In conclusion, the formation of ion pairs between trospium and bile acids can partially explain its negative food effect. Our results are presumably transferable to other organic cations showing a negative food effect. PMID:23750707

  20. Fluorescence sensing of phosdrin pesticide by the luminescent Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-bis(coumarin-3-carboxylic acid) probes.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Belal H M; Khairy, Gasser M; Kamel, Rasha M

    2016-04-01

    Luminescence quenching of the Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-bis (coumarin-3-carboxylic acid) (Ln(III)-(CCA)2) probes has been studied in the presence of organophosphorus or organochlorine pesticides; Phosdrin (P1), Malathion (P2), Profenofos (P3), Formothion (P4), Heptachlor (P5), and Endosulfan (P6). The luminescence intensity of lanthanide complex probes Ln(III)-(CCA)2 decreases as the concentration of the Phosdrin pesticide increases, while the other investigated pesticides have no significant influence on the lanthanide fluorescent intensities. It is observed that the quenching of Eu(III) and Tb(III)-coumarin-3-carboxylic acid by Phosdrin proceeds via static quenching processes according to Stern-Volmer plot. The binding constants (K) and the thermodynamic parameters of the interaction of Ln(III)-(CCA)2 with Phosdrin have been determined. A direct method for the determination of the Phosdrin in ethanol has been developed based on the luminescence changes of the Ln(III)-(CCA)2-phosdrin ternary complexes. The detection limits of P1 were 6.28 and 1.07 μM in case of Eu(III) and Tb(III)-complex, respectively. The influence of various interfering species on the detection of P1 has been investigated to assess the analytical applicability of the method. The new method was applied to determine the Phosdrin pesticide in different types of water samples. PMID:26802539

  1. Fluorescence sensing of phosdrin pesticide by the luminescent Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-bis(coumarin-3-carboxylic acid) probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Belal H. M.; Khairy, Gasser M.; Kamel, Rasha M.

    2016-04-01

    Luminescence quenching of the Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-bis (coumarin-3-carboxylic acid) (Ln(III)-(CCA)2) probes has been studied in the presence of organophosphorus or organochlorine pesticides; Phosdrin (P1), Malathion (P2), Profenofos (P3), Formothion (P4), Heptachlor (P5), and Endosulfan (P6). The luminescence intensity of lanthanide complex probes Ln(III)-(CCA)2 decreases as the concentration of the Phosdrin pesticide increases, while the other investigated pesticides have no significant influence on the lanthanide fluorescent intensities. It is observed that the quenching of Eu(III) and Tb(III)-coumarin-3-carboxylic acid by Phosdrin proceeds via static quenching processes according to Stern-Volmer plot. The binding constants (K) and the thermodynamic parameters of the interaction of Ln(III)-(CCA)2 with Phosdrin have been determined. A direct method for the determination of the Phosdrin in ethanol has been developed based on the luminescence changes of the Ln(III)-(CCA)2-phosdrin ternary complexes. The detection limits of P1 were 6.28 and 1.07 μM in case of Eu(III) and Tb(III)-complex, respectively. The influence of various interfering species on the detection of P1 has been investigated to assess the analytical applicability of the method. The new method was applied to determine the Phosdrin pesticide in different types of water samples.

  2. 40 CFR 146.10 - Plugging and abandoning Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) The plugging and abandonment plan required in 40 CFR 144.51(o) and 144.52(a)(6) shall, in the case of... with 40 CFR 144.23(b). (c) Requirements for Class V wells. (1) Prior to abandoning a Class V well, the... violation of any primary drinking water regulation under 40 CFR part 141 or may otherwise adversely...

  3. 40 CFR 146.10 - Plugging and abandoning Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The plugging and abandonment plan required in 40 CFR 144.51(o) and 144.52(a)(6) shall, in the case of... with 40 CFR 144.23(b). (c) Requirements for Class V wells. (1) Prior to abandoning a Class V well, the... violation of any primary drinking water regulation under 40 CFR part 141 or may otherwise adversely...

  4. 40 CFR 146.10 - Plugging and abandoning Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) The plugging and abandonment plan required in 40 CFR 144.51(o) and 144.52(a)(6) shall, in the case of... with 40 CFR 144.23(b). (c) Requirements for Class V wells. (1) Prior to abandoning a Class V well, the... violation of any primary drinking water regulation under 40 CFR part 141 or may otherwise adversely...

  5. Cardiac Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Is Blocked by Monomethylarsonous Acid (III)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tianfang; Barnett, Joey V.; Camenisch, Todd D.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic exposure during embryonic development can cause ischemic heart pathologies later in adulthood which may originate from impairment in proper blood vessel formation. The arsenic-associated detrimental effects are mediated by arsenite (iAsIII) and its most toxic metabolite, monomethylarsonous acid [MMA (III)]. The impact of MMA (III) on coronary artery development has not yet been studied. The key cellular process that regulates coronary vessel development is the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). During cardiac EMT, activated epicardial progenitor cells transform to mesenchymal cells to form the cellular components of coronary vessels. Smad2/3 mediated TGFβ2 signaling, the key regulator of cardiac EMT, is disrupted by arsenite exposure. In this study, we compared the cardiac toxicity of MMA (III) with arsenite. Epicardial progenitor cells are 15 times more sensitive to MMA (III) cytotoxicity when compared with arsenite. MMA (III) caused a significant blockage in epicardial cellular transformation and invasion at doses 10 times lower than arsenite. Key EMT genes including TGFβ ligands, TβRIII, Has2, CD44, Snail1, TBX18, and MMP2 were down regulated by MMA (III) exposure. MMA (III) disrupted Smad2/3 activation at a dose 20 times lower than arsenite. Both arsenite and MMA (III) significantly inhibited Erk1/2 and Erk5 phosphorylation. Nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and Erk5 was also blocked by arsenical exposure. However, p38 activation, as well as smooth muscle differentiation, was refractory to the inhibition by the arsenicals. Collectively, these findings revealed that MMA (III) is a selective disruptor of cardiac EMT and as such may predispose to arsenic-associated cardiovascular disorders. PMID:25145660

  6. Cardiac epithelial-mesenchymal transition is blocked by monomethylarsonous acid (III).

    PubMed

    Huang, Tianfang; Barnett, Joey V; Camenisch, Todd D

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic exposure during embryonic development can cause ischemic heart pathologies later in adulthood which may originate from impairment in proper blood vessel formation. The arsenic-associated detrimental effects are mediated by arsenite (iAs(III)) and its most toxic metabolite, monomethylarsonous acid [MMA (III)]. The impact of MMA (III) on coronary artery development has not yet been studied. The key cellular process that regulates coronary vessel development is the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). During cardiac EMT, activated epicardial progenitor cells transform to mesenchymal cells to form the cellular components of coronary vessels. Smad2/3 mediated TGFβ2 signaling, the key regulator of cardiac EMT, is disrupted by arsenite exposure. In this study, we compared the cardiac toxicity of MMA (III) with arsenite. Epicardial progenitor cells are 15 times more sensitive to MMA (III) cytotoxicity when compared with arsenite. MMA (III) caused a significant blockage in epicardial cellular transformation and invasion at doses 10 times lower than arsenite. Key EMT genes including TGFβ ligands, TβRIII, Has2, CD44, Snail1, TBX18, and MMP2 were down regulated by MMA (III) exposure. MMA (III) disrupted Smad2/3 activation at a dose 20 times lower than arsenite. Both arsenite and MMA (III) significantly inhibited Erk1/2 and Erk5 phosphorylation. Nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and Erk5 was also blocked by arsenical exposure. However, p38 activation, as well as smooth muscle differentiation, was refractory to the inhibition by the arsenicals. Collectively, these findings revealed that MMA (III) is a selective disruptor of cardiac EMT and as such may predispose to arsenic-associated cardiovascular disorders. PMID:25145660

  7. Liver fatty acid-binding protein: specific mediator of the mitogenesis induced by two classes of carcinogenic peroxisome proliferators.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, S H; Sorof, S

    1994-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators (PP) are a diverse group of chemicals that induce dramatic increases in peroxisomes in rodent hepatocytes, followed by hypertrophy, hepatomegaly, alterations in lipid metabolism, mitogenesis, and finally hepatocarcinomas. Termed nongenotoxic carcinogens, they do not interact with DNA, are not mutagenic in bacterial assays, and fail to elicit many of the phenotypes associated with classic genotoxic carcinogens. We report here that the mitogenesis induced by the major PP class, the amphipathic carboxylates, and by the tetrazole-substituted acetophenones specifically requires liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) in cultured rat hepatoma cells transfected with the sense cDNA of L-FABP, in contrast to L-FABP-nonexpressing cells transfected with its antisense cDNA. The mitogenic actions of L-FABP were protein-specific, inasmuch as no other protein in the nonexpressing cells could act like L-FABP. L-FABP was previously shown not only (i) to interact covalently with metabolites of the two genotoxic carcinogens 2-acetylaminofluorene and aminoazo dyes during liver carcinogenesis, but also (ii) to bind noncovalently the two classes of PP in vitro with avidities that correlate with their abilities to elicit peroxisomal enzymatic responses, and (iii) together with unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid, to promote multiplication of the transfected hepatoma cells in culture. The convergence of the two types of genotoxic carcinogens with the two classes of PP nongenotoxic carcinogens, and also with unsaturated fatty acids, at L-FABP actions in inducing mitogenesis allows the following hypothesis. During tumor promotion of carcinogenesis in vivo, these groups of genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens act on the normal process by which L-FABP, functioning as a specific receptor of unsaturated fatty acids or their metabolites, promotes hepatocyte proliferation. Images PMID:8302856

  8. Orthodontic treatment of a transposed maxillary canine and first premolar in a young patient with Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Siviero, Laura; Perri, Alessandro; Favero, Lorenzo; Stellini, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl was referred to our clinic for evaluation of an unaesthetic dental appearance. All permanent teeth were erupted, while the deciduous maxillary right canine was retained. Cone-beam computed tomography revealed a complete transposition of the maxillary left canine and first premolar involving both the crowns and the roots. Initial cephalometric analysis showed a skeletal Class III pattern, with a slight maxillary retrusion and a compensated proclination of the upper incisors. The patient's teeth were considered to be in the correct position; therefore, we decided to attempt treatment by correcting the transposition and using only orthodontic compensation of the skeletal Class III malocclusion. After 25 months of active orthodontic treatment, the patient had a Class I molar and canine relationship on both sides, with ideal overbite and overjet values. Her profile was improved, her lips were competent, and cephalometric evaluation showed acceptable maxillary and mandibular incisor inclinations. The final panoramic radiograph showed that good root parallelism was achieved. Two-year follow-up intraoral photography showed stable results. PMID:26629478

  9. Orthodontic treatment of a transposed maxillary canine and first premolar in a young patient with Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Gracco, Antonio; Siviero, Laura; Perri, Alessandro; Favero, Lorenzo; Stellini, Edoardo

    2015-11-01

    A 12-year-old girl was referred to our clinic for evaluation of an unaesthetic dental appearance. All permanent teeth were erupted, while the deciduous maxillary right canine was retained. Cone-beam computed tomography revealed a complete transposition of the maxillary left canine and first premolar involving both the crowns and the roots. Initial cephalometric analysis showed a skeletal Class III pattern, with a slight maxillary retrusion and a compensated proclination of the upper incisors. The patient's teeth were considered to be in the correct position; therefore, we decided to attempt treatment by correcting the transposition and using only orthodontic compensation of the skeletal Class III malocclusion. After 25 months of active orthodontic treatment, the patient had a Class I molar and canine relationship on both sides, with ideal overbite and overjet values. Her profile was improved, her lips were competent, and cephalometric evaluation showed acceptable maxillary and mandibular incisor inclinations. The final panoramic radiograph showed that good root parallelism was achieved. Two-year follow-up intraoral photography showed stable results. PMID:26629478

  10. In Silico Prediction of Drug Dissolution and Absorption with variation in Intestinal pH for BCS Class II Weak Acid Drugs: Ibuprofen and Ketoprofen§

    PubMed Central

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Langguth, Peter; Garcia-Arieta, Alfredo; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2012-01-01

    The FDA Biopharmaceutical Classification System guidance allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I. Extensions of the in vivo biowaiver for a number of drugs in BCS Class III and BCS class II have been proposed, particularly, BCS class II weak acids. However, a discrepancy between the in vivo- BE results and in vitro- dissolution results for a BCS class II acids was recently observed. The objectives of this study were to determine the oral absorption of BCS class II weak acids via simulation software and to determine if the in vitro dissolution test with various dissolution media could be sufficient for in vitro bioequivalence studies of ibuprofen and ketoprofen as models of carboxylic acid drugs. The oral absorption of these BCS class II acids from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted by GastroPlus™. Ibuprofen did not satisfy the bioequivalence criteria at lower settings of intestinal pH=6.0. Further the experimental dissolution of ibuprofen tablets in the low concentration phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 (the average buffer capacity 2.2 mmol L-1/pH) was dramatically reduced compared to the dissolution in SIF (the average buffer capacity 12.6 mmol L -1/pH). Thus these predictions for oral absorption of BCS class II acids indicate that the absorption patterns largely depend on the intestinal pH and buffer strength and must be carefully considered for a bioequivalence test. Simulation software may be very useful tool to aid the selection of dissolution media that may be useful in setting an in vitro bioequivalence dissolution standard. PMID:22815122

  11. A biosynthetic pathway for a prominent class of microbiota-derived bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, A. Sloan; Fischbach, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The gut bile acid pool is millimolar in concentration, varies widely in composition among individuals, and is linked to metabolic disease and cancer. Although these molecules derive almost exclusively from the microbiota, remarkably little is known about which bacterial species and genes are responsible for their biosynthesis. Here, we report a biosynthetic pathway for the second most abundant class in the gut, iso (3β-hydroxy) bile acids, whose levels exceed 300 µM in some humans and are absent in others. We show, for the first time, that iso bile acids are produced by Ruminococcus gnavus, a far more abundant commensal than previously known producers; and that the iso bile acid pathway detoxifies deoxycholic acid, favoring the growth of the keystone genus Bacteroides. By revealing the biosynthetic genes for an abundant class of bile acids, our work sets the stage for predicting and rationally altering the composition of the bile acid pool. PMID:26192599

  12. Characteristics of Maxillary Morphology in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients Compared to Normal Subjects and Skeletal Class III Patients.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chanyuan; Yin, Ningbei; Zheng, Yilue; Song, Tao

    2015-09-01

    This study is to investigate the anatomical features of maxillae in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients with maxillary retrusion. Additionally, the dissimilarities of retruded maxillae between the UCLP patients and the skeletal class III patients were compared. Craniofacial measurements were carried out among 32 UCLP adult patients with maxillary retrusion (GC), 24 adult patients in class III (SNA < 80°, ANB < 0°) patients (GIII), and 32 normal controls (GN). The authors measured the width and length of the maxillae, as well as their relative positions to the coronal plane passing through basion. The independent sample group t test was performed, and P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. In the GC group, the anterior and posterior maxillary length (A1-P3M⊥CP and P3M-P6M⊥CP) and overall maxillary length (A1-P6M⊥CP) at the dental level, the interdental widths of the maxillae, the maxillary volume (GM), and the volume consisting of maxilla and maxillary sinus (GT) significantly reduced compared with the GN group (P < 0.05). The distances from the points on the maxillae to the coronal plane (A1⊥CP, P3M⊥CP, and P6M⊥CP) in the GC and GIII groups were smaller than those in the GN group (P < 0.05). In summary, for the UCLP patients, the decreased prominence of maxillary complex could be mainly caused by the shortened maxillary length; meanwhile, posterior position of the maxillary body may have some influence on the maxillary protrusion. While for the class III patients, maxillary retrusion was resulted from malposition and malmorphology on an equal basis. PMID:26267583

  13. The solvent extraction of Americium(III) by 2,6-bis[(diphenylphosphino)-methyl]pyridine N,P,P` trioxide from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, E.M.; Engelhardt, U.; Deere, T.P.; Rapko, B.M.; Paine, R.T.

    1997-12-31

    The liquid/liquid extractions of Am(III) from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions with chloroform solutions of 2,6-bis[(diphenylphosphino)methyl]pyridine N,P,P{prime} trioxide will be described. Americium(III) extracts well from high concentration nitric acid solutions (D>3000 at 6M nitric acid) and can be back extracted from the organic phase at 0.01M Nitric Acid. Americium(III) exhibits modest extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions (D=2.2 at 5M hydrochloric acid) and can be back extracted from the organic phase at 0.1M hydrochloric acid. The ligand dependency data suggest that two ligand molecules are coordinated to americium in the nitric acid system and three ligand molecules are coordinated to the americium in the hydrochloric acid system.

  14. Treatment Approach for Maxillary Hypoplasia in Cleft Patients: Class III Elastics with Skeletal Anchorage (Report of Two Cases)

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbin, Arezoo; Kazemian, Mozhgan; Saeedi-Pouya, Iman; Eslami, Neda; Shafaee, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Treatment of cleft lip and palate patients requires a multidisciplinary plan. These patients usually have a hypoplastic maxilla due to the prior surgical scars. Orthognathic surgery to advance the maxilla in these patients is not very efficient; therefore, orthopedic interventions during an appropriate age seems to be essential. Case Report: In this article, two cleft lip and palate patients have been treated with Class III elastics anchored to the maxillary posterior and mandibular anterior miniplates in order to induce maxillary advancement. Conclusion: Both cases showed a significant improvement in their profiles with minimal dentoalveolar compensations. A counterclockwise rotation of the mandible occurred. PMID:27602343

  15. 40 CFR 144.28 - Requirements for Class I, II, and III wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... described in table I of 40 CFR 136.3 or in appendix III of 40 CFR part 261 or by other methods that have... Federal confidentiality as specified in 40 CFR part 2. If the information is proprietary the owner or... endangerment to a USDW; or (2) Any noncompliance or malfunction of the injection system which may cause...

  16. 40 CFR 144.28 - Requirements for Class I, II, and III wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... described in table I of 40 CFR 136.3 or in appendix III of 40 CFR part 261 or by other methods that have... Federal confidentiality as specified in 40 CFR part 2. If the information is proprietary the owner or... endangerment to a USDW; or (2) Any noncompliance or malfunction of the injection system which may cause...

  17. 40 CFR 144.28 - Requirements for Class I, II, and III wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... described in table I of 40 CFR 136.3 or in appendix III of 40 CFR part 261 or by other methods that have... Federal confidentiality as specified in 40 CFR part 2. If the information is proprietary the owner or... of a surety bond, or other adequate assurance, such as a financial statement. (2) For...

  18. Integrated Computational and Experimental Protocol for Understanding Rh(III) Speciation in Hydrochloric and Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, Alex C.; Boele, Cherilynn A.; Bennett, Kevin T.; Clark, Sue B.; Wall, Nathalie; Clark, Aurora E.

    2014-12-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach has investigated the complex speciation of Rh(III) in hydrochloric and nitric acid media, as a function of acid concentration. This has relevance to the separation and isolation of Rh(III) from dissolved spent nuclear fuel, which is an emergent and attractive alternative source of platinum group metals, relative to traditional mining efforts.

  19. Human Retroviruses and AIDS. A compilation and analysis of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences: I--II; III--V

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.; Korber, B.; Wain-Hobson, S.; Smith, R.F.; Pavlakis, G.N.

    1993-12-31

    This compendium and the accompanying floppy diskettes are the result of an effort to compile and rapidly publish all relevant molecular data concerning the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and related retroviruses. The scope of the compendium and database is best summarized by the five parts that it comprises: (I) HIV and SIV Nucleotide Sequences; (II) Amino Acid Sequences; (III) Analyses; (IV) Related Sequences; and (V) Database Communications. Information within all the parts is updated at least twice in each year, which accounts for the modes of binding and pagination in the compendium.

  20. Neodymium(III) Complexes of Dialkylphosphoric and Dialkylphosphonic Acids Relevant to Liquid-Liquid Extraction Systems.

    PubMed

    Lumetta, Gregg J; Sinkov, Sergey I; Krause, Jeanette A; Sweet, Lucas E

    2016-02-15

    The complexes formed during the extraction of neodymium(III) into hydrophobic solvents containing acidic organophosphorus extractants were probed by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry, visible spectrophotometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the compound Nd(DMP)3 (1, DMP = dimethyl phosphate) revealed a polymeric arrangement in which each Nd(III) center is surrounded by six DMP oxygen atoms in a pseudo-octahedral environment. Adjacent Nd(III) ions are bridged by (MeO)2POO(-) anions, forming the polymeric network. The diffuse reflectance visible spectrum of 1 is nearly identical to that of the solid that is formed when an n-dodecane solution of di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HA) is saturated with Nd(III), indicating a similar coordination environment around the Nd center in the NdA3 solid. The visible spectrum of the HA solution fully loaded with Nd(III) is very similar to that of the NdA3 material, both displaying hypersensitive bands characteristic of an pseudo-octahedral coordination environment around Nd. These spectral characteristics persisted across a wide range of organic Nd concentrations, suggesting that the pseudo-octahedral coordination environment is maintained from dilute to saturated conditions. PMID:26815878

  1. LIPID CLASS DISTRIBUTION OF HIGHLY UNSATURATED LONG CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The very long chain highly unsaturated C28 fatty acids, octacosaheptaenoic [28:7(n-6)] and octacosaoctaenoic acid [28:8(n-3)], were found to be associated with phospholipids, obtained by fractionation of total lipid extracts into distinct lipid classes, in 4 and 6, respectively, ...

  2. TGF-{beta}-stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via the ERK signaling pathway in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eun Jee; Chun, Ji Na; Jung, Sun-Ah; Cho, Jin Won; Lee, Joon H.

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} induces aberrant expression of {beta}III in RPE cells via the ERK pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} increases O-GlcNAc modification of {beta}III in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene by TGF-{beta}. -- Abstract: The class III {beta}-tubulin isotype ({beta}{sub III}) is expressed exclusively by neurons within the normal human retina and is not present in normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in situ or in the early phase of primary cultures. However, aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin has been observed in passaged RPE cells and RPE cells with dedifferentiated morphology in pathologic epiretinal membranes from idiopathic macular pucker, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) has been implicated in dedifferentiation of RPE cells and has a critical role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases. Here, we investigated the potential effects of TGF-{beta} on the aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression and O-linked-{beta}-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNac) modification of class III {beta}-tubulin in cultured RPE cells as determined using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. TGF-{beta} also stimulated phosphorylation of ERK. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin was significantly reduced by pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that TGF-{beta} stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. These data demonstrate that mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene in response to TGF-{beta} stimulation and provide useful information

  3. Protocatechuic Acid Promoted Alachlor Degradation in Fe(III)/H2O2 Fenton System.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yaxin; Song, Fahui; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Pingping; Zhang, Lizhi

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that protocatechuic acid (PCA) can significantly promote the alachlor degradation in the Fe(III)/H2O2 Fenton oxidation system. It was found that the addition of protocatechuic acid could increase the alachlor degradation rate by 10 000 times in this Fenton oxidation system at pH = 3.6. This dramatic enhancement of alachlor degradation was attributed to the complexing and reduction abilities of protocatechuic ligand, which could form stable complexes with ferric ions to prevent their precipitation and also accelerate the Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycle to enhance the ·OH generation. Meanwhile, the Fe(III)/PCA/H2O2 system could also work well at near natural pH even in the case of PCA concentration as low as 0.1 mmol/L. More importantly, both alachlor and PCA could be effectively mineralized in this Fenton system, suggesting the environmental benignity of PCA/Fe(III)/H2O2 Fenton system. We employed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the degradation intermediates of alachlor and then proposed a possible alachlor degradation mechanism in this novel Fenton oxidation system. This study provides an efficient way to remove chloroacetanilide herbicides, and also shed new insight into the possible roles of widely existed phenolic acids in the conversion and the mineralization of organic contaminants in natural aquatic environment. PMID:26066010

  4. Menthone aryl acid hydrazones: a new class of anticonvulsants.

    PubMed

    Jain, Jainendra; Kumar, Y; Sinha, Reema; Kumar, Rajeev; Stables, James

    2011-01-01

    A series of ten compounds (Compounds J(1)-J(10)) of (±) 3-menthone aryl acid hydrazone was synthesized and characterized by thin layer chromatography and spectral analysis. Synthesized compounds were evaluated for anticonvulsant activity after intraperitoneal (i.p) administration to mice by maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) induced seizure method and minimal clonic seizure test. Minimal motor impairment was also determined for these compounds. Results obtained showed that four compounds out of ten afforded significant protection in the minimal clonic seizure screen at 6 Hz. Compound J(6), 4-Chloro-N-(2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexylidene) benzohydrazide was found to be the most active compound with MES ED(50) of 16.1 mg/kg and protective index (pI) of greater than 20, indicating that (±) 3-menthone aryl acid hydrazone possesses better and safer anticonvulsant properties than other reported menthone derivatives viz. menthone Schiff bases, menthone semicarbazides and thiosemicarbazides. PMID:21235520

  5. The natural products beauveriolide I and III: a new class of beta-amyloid-lowering compounds.

    PubMed

    Witter, Daniel P; Chen, Yanping; Rogel, Joseph K; Boldt, Grant E; Wentworth, Paul

    2009-05-25

    Attacking Alzheimer's by ACAT: The aggregation of beta-amyloid peptides, especially Abeta(42), into senile plaques is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We show that the fungal natural products beauveriolides I and III can potently decrease Abeta secretion from cells expressing human amyloid precursor protein; this offers a potential new scaffold for the development of compounds with proven bioavailability for the treatment of AD. PMID:19396893

  6. Invertebrate and Vertebrate Class III Myosins Interact with MORN Repeat-Containing Adaptor Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mecklenburg, Kirk L.; Freed, Stephanie A.; Raval, Manmeet; Quintero, Omar A.; Yengo, Christopher M.; O'Tousa, Joseph. E.

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila photoreceptors, the NINAC-encoded myosin III is found in a complex with a small, MORN-repeat containing, protein Retinophilin (RTP). Expression of these two proteins in other cell types showed NINAC myosin III behavior is altered by RTP. NINAC deletion constructs were used to map the RTP binding site within the proximal tail domain of NINAC. In vertebrates, the RTP ortholog is MORN4. Co-precipitation experiments demonstrated that human MORN4 binds to human myosin IIIA (MYO3A). In COS7 cells, MORN4 and MYO3A, but not MORN4 and MYO3B, co-localize to actin rich filopodia extensions. Deletion analysis mapped the MORN4 binding to the proximal region of the MYO3A tail domain. MYO3A dependent MORN4 tip localization suggests that MYO3A functions as a motor that transports MORN4 to the filopodia tips and MORN4 may enhance MYO3A tip localization by tethering it to the plasma membrane at the protrusion tips. These results establish conserved features of the RTP/MORN4 family: they bind within the tail domain of myosin IIIs to control their behavior. PMID:25822849

  7. Major lipid classes and their fatty acids in a parasitic nematode, Ascaridia galli.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amit; Kar, Kumkum; Ghosh, D; Dey, C; Misra, K K

    2010-04-01

    The paper presents major lipid classes and their fatty acids investigated from Ascaridia galli, a nematode parasite of country fowl. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) reveals that the percent of total lipid, neutral lipid, phospholipids, and glycolipids are 1.94, 54.39, 26.95 and 18.66, respectively. Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis shows that the saturated fatty acids are the major components in all the lipid fractions followed by monoenes and dienes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were present in low amount. Stearic acids (C(18)) were the chief components among all the fatty acids in all the lipid fractions. PMID:21526035

  8. The Class III Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Photolyase Structure Reveals a New Antenna Chromophore Binding Site and Alternative Photoreduction Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Scheerer, Patrick; Zhang, Fan; Kalms, Jacqueline; von Stetten, David; Krauß, Norbert; Oberpichler, Inga; Lamparter, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    Photolyases are proteins with an FAD chromophore that repair UV-induced pyrimidine dimers on the DNA in a light-dependent manner. The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer class III photolyases are structurally unknown but closely related to plant cryptochromes, which serve as blue-light photoreceptors. Here we present the crystal structure of a class III photolyase termed photolyase-related protein A (PhrA) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens at 1.67-Å resolution. PhrA contains 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) as an antenna chromophore with a unique binding site and mode. Two Trp residues play pivotal roles for stabilizing MTHF by a double π-stacking sandwich. Plant cryptochrome I forms a pocket at the same site that could accommodate MTHF or a similar molecule. The PhrA structure and mutant studies showed that electrons flow during FAD photoreduction proceeds via two Trp triads. The structural studies on PhrA give a clearer picture on the evolutionary transition from photolyase to photoreceptor. PMID:25784552

  9. Alterations in cytosol free calcium in horseradish roots simultaneously exposed to lanthanum(III) and acid rain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Anhua; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-04-01

    The extensive use of rare earth elements (REEs) has increased their environmental levels. REE pollution concomitant with acid rain in many agricultural regions can affect crop growth. Cytosol free calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play an important role in almost all cellular activities. However, no data have been reported regarding the role of cytosol free Ca(2+) in plant roots simultaneously exposed to REE and acid rain. In this study, the effects of exposures to lanthanum(III) and acid rain, independently and in combination, on cytosol free Ca(2+) levels, root activity, metal contents, biomass, cytosol pH and La contents in horseradish roots were investigated. The simultaneous exposures to La(III) and acid rain increased or decreased the cytosol free Ca(2+) levels, depending on the concentration of La(III), and these effects were more evident than independent exposure to La(III) or acid rain. In combined exposures, cytosol free Ca(2+) played an important role in the regulation of root activity, metal contents and biomass. These roles were closely related to La(III) dose, acid rain strength and treatment mode (independent exposure or simultaneous exposure). A low concentration of La(III) (20 mg L(-1)) could alleviate the adverse effects on the roots caused by acid rain, and the combined exposures at higher concentrations of La(III) and acid rain had synergic effects on the roots. PMID:26720810

  10. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Mark B.

    2000-10-25

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool (NDP) is southeast New Mexico is one of the nine projects selected in 1995 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for participation in the Class III Reservoir Field Demonstration Program. The goals of the DOE cost-shared Class Program are to: (1) extend economic production, (2) increase ultimate recovery, and (3) broaden information exchange and technology application. Reservoirs in the Class III Program are focused on slope-basin and deep-basin clastic depositional types.

  11. Genes Encoding Plant-Specific Class III Peroxidases Are Responsible for Increased Cold Tolerance of the brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beg Hab; Kim, Sun Young; Nam, Kyoung Hee

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that one of the brassinosteroid-insensitive mutants, bri1-9, showed increased cold tolerance compared with both wild type and BRI1-overexpressing transgenic plants, despite its severe growth retardation. This increased tolerance in bri1-9 resulted from the constitutively high expression of stress-inducible genes under normal conditions. In this report, we focused on the genes encoding class III plant peroxidases (AtPrxs) because we found that, compared with wild type, bri1-9 plants contain higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are not involved with the activation of NADPH oxidase and show an increased level of expression of a subset of genes encoding class III plant peroxidases. Treatment with a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), led to the reduction of cold resistance in bri1-9. Among 73 genes that encode AtPrxs in Arabidopsis, we selected four (AtPrx1, AtPrx22, AtPrx39, and AtPrx69) for further functional analyses in response to cold temperatures. T-DNA insertional knockout mutants showed increased sensitivity to cold stress as measured by leaf damage and ion leakage. In contrast, the overexpression of AtPrx22, AtPrx39, and AtPrx69 increased cold tolerance in the BRI1-GFP plants. Taken together, these results indicate that the appropriate expression of a particular subset of AtPrx genes and the resulting higher levels of ROS production are required for the cold tolerance. PMID:23180292

  12. Saliva versus Plasma Relative Bioavailability of Tolterodine in Humans: Validation of Class III Drugs of the Salivary Excretion Classification System.

    PubMed

    Idkaidek, N; Najib, N; Salem, I I; Najib, O

    2016-06-01

    Relative bioavailability study of tolterodine in healthy human volunteers was done using saliva and plasma matrices in order to investigate the robustness of using saliva instead of plasma as a surrogate for bioavailability and bioequivalence of class III drugs according to the salivary excretion classification system (SECS). Saliva and plasma samples were collected up to 16 h after 2 mg oral dose. Saliva and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non compartmental analysis using Kinetica program V5. Human effective intestinal permeability was optimized by SimCYP program V13. Tolterodine falls into class III (High permeability/Low fraction unbound to plasma proteins) and hence was subjected to salivary excretion. A high pearsons correlation coefficient of 0.97 between mean saliva and plasma concentrations, and saliva/plasma concentrations ratio of 0.33 were observed. In addition, correlation coefficients and saliva/plasma ratios of area under curve and maximum concentration were 0.98, 0.95 and 0.42, 0.34 respectively. On the other hand, time to reach maximum concentration was higher in saliva by 2.37 fold. In addition, inter subject variability values in saliva were slightly higher than plasma leading to need for slightly higher number of subjects to be used in saliva studies (55 vs. 48 subjects). Non-invasive saliva sampling instead of invasive plasma sampling method can be used as a surrogate for bioavailability and bioequivalence of SECS class I drugs when adequate sample size is used. PMID:27011385

  13. Regulation of Mammalian Autophagy by Class II and III PI 3-Kinases through PI3P Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Devereaux, Kelly; Ogasawara, Yuta; Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Fan; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; De Camilli, Pietro; Di Paolo, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) by Vps34, a class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), is critical for the initial steps of autophagosome (AP) biogenesis. Although Vps34 is the sole source of PI3P in budding yeast, mammalian cells can produce PI3P through alternate pathways, including direct synthesis by the class II PI3Ks; however, the physiological relevance of these alternate pathways in the context of autophagy is unknown. Here we generated Vps34 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and using a higher affinity 4x-FYVE finger PI3P-binding probe found a Vps34-independent pool of PI3P accounting for ~35% of the total amount of this lipid species by biochemical analysis. Importantly, WIPI-1, an autophagy-relevant PI3P probe, still formed some puncta upon starvation-induced autophagy in Vps34 knockout MEFs. Additional characterization of autophagy by electron microscopy as well as protein degradation assays showed that while Vps34 is important for starvation-induced autophagy there is a significant component of functional autophagy occurring in the absence of Vps34. Given these findings, class II PI3Ks (α and β isoforms) were examined as potential positive regulators of autophagy. Depletion of class II PI3Ks reduced recruitment of WIPI-1 and LC3 to AP nucleation sites and caused an accumulation of the autophagy substrate, p62, which was exacerbated upon the concomitant ablation of Vps34. Our studies indicate that while Vps34 is the main PI3P source during autophagy, class II PI3Ks also significantly contribute to PI3P generation and regulate AP biogenesis. PMID:24098492

  14. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of iron (III) complex with a quinolone family member (pipemidic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, D.; Szymanska, B.; Kovala-Demertzi, Dimitra; Wiecek, Joanna; Talik, E.; Demertzis, Mavroudis A.

    2006-12-01

    The interaction of iron (III) with pipemidic acid, Hpipem, afforded the complex [Fe (pipem) (HO)2 (H2O)]2. The new complex has been characterised by elemental analyses, infra-red, EPR and XPS spectroscopies. The monoanion, pipem, exhibits O, O ligation through the carbonyl and carboxylato oxygen atoms. Six coordinate dimer distorted octahedral configuration has been proposed for [Fe (pipem) (HO)2 (H2O)]2.

  15. Novel class of Bi(iii) hydroxamato complexes: synthesis, urease inhibitory activity and activity against H. pylori.

    PubMed

    Keogan, D M; Twamley, B; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Griffith, D M

    2016-07-01

    Reaction of Bi(NO3)3 with benzohydroxamic acid (Bha) and salicylhydroxamic acid (Sha) gives the novel Bi(iii) complexes [Bi2(Bha-1H)2(μ-Bha-1H)2(η(2)-NO3)2] () and [Bi6(CH3OH)2(η(1)-NO3)2(η(2)-NO3)(OH2)2(Sha-1H)12](NO3)2 (). X-ray crystal structure of reveals two hydroxamato coordination modes; bidentate bridging (O, O') and bidentate non-bridging (O, O') and of reveals one coordination mode; bidentate bridging (O, O'). , specifically designed to and demonstrated to inhibit the activity of urease, exhibits excellent antibacterial activity against three strains of Helicobacter pylori with MIC ≥ 16 μg mL(-1). PMID:27314129

  16. Isozyme multiplicity with anomalous dimer patterns in a class III alcohol dehydrogenase. Effects on the activity and quaternary structure of residue exchanges at "nonfunctional" sites in a native protein.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, O; Shafqat, J; Estonius, M; el-Ahmad, M; Jörnvall, H

    1996-11-19

    The isozymes of class III alcohol dehydrogenase/glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase from cod were characterized. They exhibited three unexpected properties of general interest. First, these dimeric isozymes, derived from two types of subunit (h and l, for high- and low-activity forms), were recovered from liver preparations in only the homodimeric ll and heterodimeric hl combinations. Dissociation and reassociation of the isolated hl form in vitro also resulted in lower yields of the hh than the ll homodimer, although class III subunits are usually freely associable over wide borders of divergence (human and Drosophila). The h and l primary structures show that both chain types are characteristic of class III enzymes, without large amino acid replacements at positions of known subunit interactions. Hence, the hh dimer partial restriction indicates nontraditional alterations at h-subunit interfaces. The structure provides a possible explanation, in the form of h-chain modifications that may influence the anchoring of a loop at positions of two potentially deamidative beta-aspartyl shifts at distant Asn-Gly structures. Second the ll and hl forms differ in enzymatic properties, having 5-fold different K(m) values for NAD+ at pH 8, different K(m) values for S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione (10 versus 150 microM), and different specific activities (4.5 versus 41 units/mg), with ll resembling and hl deviating from human and other class III alcohol dehydrogenases. However, functional residues lining substrate and coenzyme pockets in the known conformations of homologous forms are largely identical in the two isozymes [only minor conservative exchanges of Val/Leu116, Val/Leu203, Ile/Val224, and Ile/Val269 (numbering system of the human class I enzyme)], again indicating effects from distantly positioned h-chain replacements. Third, the two isozymes differ a surprising amount in amino acid sequence (18%, the same as the piscine/ human difference), reflecting a

  17. Oral Rehabilitation With Orthognathic Surgery After Dental Implant Placement for Class III Malocclusion With Skeletal Asymmetry and Posterior Bite Collapse.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Seigo; Nakatani, Yuya; Kawasaki, Takako; Tajima, Nobutaka; Tobita, Takayoshi; Yoshida, Noriaki; Sawase, Takashi; Asahina, Izumi

    2015-08-01

    Increasing numbers of older patients are seeking orthognathic surgery to treat jaw deformity. However, orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment is difficult in cases without occlusal vertical stop. A 55-year-old man presented with Class III malocclusion and mandibular protrusion including esthetic problems and posterior bite collapse. He underwent dental implant treatment to reconstruct an occlusal vertical stop before orthognathic surgery. His occlusal function and esthetic problems improved after surgery, and his skeletal and occlusal stability has been maintained for 6 years. Dental implant placement at appropriate positions could help to determine the position of the proximal segment at orthognathic surgery and could shorten the time required to restore esthetic and occlusal function. This case demonstrates how skeletal and dental stability can be maintained long after surgery in a patient with jaw deformity and posterior bite collapse. PMID:26035376

  18. Influence of humic acid imposed changes of ferrihydrite aggregation on microbial Fe(III) reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amstaetter, Katja; Borch, Thomas; Kappler, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    Microbial reduction of Fe(III) minerals at neutral pH is faced by the problem of electron transfer from the cells to the solid-phase electron acceptor and is thought to require either direct cell-mineral contact, the presence of Fe(III)-chelators or the presence of electron shuttles, e.g. dissolved or solid-phase humic substances (HS). In this study we investigated to which extent the ratio of Pahokee Peat Humic Acids (HA) to ferrihydrite in the presence and absence of phosphate influences rates of Fe(III) reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and the identity of the minerals formed. We found that phosphate generally decreased reduction rates by sorption to the ferrihydrite and surface site blocking. In the presence of low ferrihydrite concentrations (5 mM), the addition of HA helped to overcome this inhibiting effect by functioning as electron shuttle between cells and the ferrihydrite. In contrast, at high ferrihydrite concentrations (30 mM), the addition of HA did not lead to an increase but rather to a decrease in reduction rates. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images and ferrihydrite sedimentation behaviour suggest that the extent of ferrihydrite surface coating by HA influences the aggregation of the ferrihydrite particles and thereby their accessibility for Fe(III)-reducing bacteria. We further conclude that in presence of dissolved HA, iron reduction is stimulated through electron shuttling while in the presence of only sorbed HA, no stimulation by electron shuttling takes place. In presence of phosphate the stimulation effect did not occur until a minimum concentration of 10 mg/l of dissolved HA was reached followed by increasing Fe(III) reduction rates up to dissolved HA concentrations of approximately 240 mg/l above which the electron shuttling effect ceased. Not only Fe(III) reduction rates but also the mineral products changed in the presence of HA. Sequential extraction, XRD and 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that crystallinity and grain

  19. Novel three-dimensional position analysis of the mandibular foramen in patients with skeletal class III mandibular prognathism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon-Ho; Won, Yu-Jin; Kim, Moon-Key

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the relative position of the mandibular foramina (MnFs) in patients diagnosed with skeletal class III malocclusion. Materials and Methods Computed tomography (CT) images were collected from 85 patients. The vertical lengths of each anatomic point from the five horizontal planes passing through the MnF were measured at the coronoid process, sigmoid notch, condyle, and the gonion. The distance from the anterior ramus point to the posterior ramus point on the five horizontal planes was designated the anteroposterior horizontal distance of the ramus for each plane. The perpendicular distance from each anterior ramus point to each vertical plane through the MnF was designated the horizontal distance from the anterior ramus to the MnF. The horizontal and vertical positions were examined by regression analysis. Results Regression analysis showed the heights of the coronoid process, sigmoid notch, and condyle for the five horizontal planes were significantly related to the height of the MnF, with the highest significance associated with the MnF-mandibular plane (coefficients of determination (R2): 0.424, 0.597, and 0.604, respectively). The horizontal anteroposterior length of the ramus and the distance from the anterior ramus point to the MnF were significant by regression analysis. Conclusion The relative position of the MnF was significantly related to the vertical heights of the sigmoid notch, coronoid process, and condyle as well as to the horizontal anteroposterior length of the ascending ramus. These findings should be clinically useful for patients with skeletal class III mandibular prognathism. PMID:27358814

  20. Mechanistic basis for unexpected bioavailability enhancement of polyelectrolyte complexes incorporating BCS class III drugs and carrageenans.

    PubMed

    Heinen, C; Reuss, S; Saaler-Reinhardt, S; Langguth, P

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of λ-carrageenan to work as an absorption modifying excipient in combination with formulations of BCS class 3 substances. Trospium chloride was used as a model BCS class 3 substance. Polyelectrolyte complexes of trospium and λ-carrageenan were produced by layer-by-layer complexation. A λ-carrageenan-containing formulation was administered either in capsules size 9 to rats by gavage or directly into ligated intestinal loops of rats. Exceptionally strong variations were observed in the plasma concentrations of the rats that received λ-carrageenan compared to the control group, but enhanced plasma concentrations were observed only in some of the rats. In vitro permeability studies were performed across Caco2-monolayers and across excised segments of rat jejunum in a modified Ussing chamber to learn more about the mechanism of absorption enhancement. The complex did not show any effect in Caco2-cells, but led to a major enhancement of permeability across excised segments in modified Ussing chambers. Carrageenan did not lead to alterations of tight junctions. The bioavailability enhancing effect thus was most likely due to an interaction of the polyelectrolyte-drug complex with the mucus, which provided an intimate contact between the drug and the absorbing surface. A similar effect was also achievable with other types of carrageenan and was also transferable to other compounds. In conclusion, λ-carrageenan-drug complexes show interesting excipient-drug-epithelium interactions - however, for full utilization of the permeation enhancing potential, an intimate and reproducible contact between absorbing epithelia and the complex is needed. PMID:23958316

  1. ATCA observations of the new class of ultralong GRBs: a local proxy of popIII explosions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Ricci, Roberto; Wieringa, Mark; Bannister, Keith; Troja, Eleonora; Gendre, Bruce; Fiore, Fabrizio; Piranomonte, Silvia

    2014-10-01

    We ask for ATCA NAPA observations of ultralong GRBs, a new class of high-energy transients discovered by Swift. Our results on the ultralong event GRB130925A already demonstrated the crucial role of ATCA radio observations in constraining the nature of the stellar progenitor, likely a metal-poor Blue Supergiant (BSG). Ultralong GRBs could therefore represent the closest link ever discovered between GRBs and the rare Population III stars, which end their lives as BSGs with massive hydrogen envelope, and might offer a route to the identification of population III explosions. The requested ATCA observations will provide critical information: a) a precise position of the radio source within the host galaxy, thus allowing us to precisely pinpoint the GRB birthsite, and associate it with galactic structures (e.g. bulge vs. star forming regions); b) short to long time scales monitor of the radio afterglow which will allow us to characterize the circumburst environment, and to measure the total energy of the explosion. We request to track the evolution of the radio afterglow (5-19 GHz) from early (1-10 days) to late (~ months) times, with one observation in a very long array configuration at the earliest available time for locating the radio counterpart within 0.1 arcsec.

  2. Social class, political power, and the state: their implications in medicine--part III.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    1977-01-01

    This is the third part of an article on the distribution of power and the nature of the state in Western industrialized societies and their implications in medicine. Parts I and II were published in the preceding issue of this Journal. Part I presented a critique of contemporary theories of the Western system of power; discussed the countervailing pluralist and power of elite theories, as well as those of bureaucratic and professional control; and concluded with an examination of the Marxist theories of economic determinism, structural determinism, and corporate statism. Part II presented a Marxist theory of the role, nature, and characteristics of state intervention. Part III focuses on the mode of that intervention and the reasons for its growth, with an added analysis of the attributes of state intervention in the health sector, and of the dialectical relationship between its growth and the current fiscal crisis of the state. In all three parts, the focus is on Western European countries and on North America, with many examples and categories from the area of medicine. PMID:870557

  3. Flow injection potentiometric determination of bismuth(III) in anti-acid formulations.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, M F; Fatibello-Filho, O

    2001-06-19

    A flow injection potentiometric procedure is proposed for determining bismuth(III) in anti-acid formulations. In this work, a tubular electrode coated with an ion-pair formed between [Bi(EDTA)](-) and tricaprylylmethylammonium cation (Aliquat 336) in a poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) was constructed and used in a single channel flow injection system. The effect of membrane composition, pH and flow injection parameter over the Bi(III) tubular electrode response (slope (mV/decade)) was initially evaluated in quintuplicate in 0.5 mol l(-1) EDTA solution as carrier. The best response (-59.6+/-0.9 mV/decade) was attained with the 5% m/m ion-pair; 65% m/m o-nitrophenyl octyl ether (o-NPOE) and 30% m/m PVC in pH 6-9. The electrode showed a linear response to E (mV) versus log [Bi(EDTA)](-) in the bismuth(III) concentration range from 2.0x10(-5) to 1.0x10(-2) mol l(-1) and a useful lifetime of at least 5 months (more than 1000 determinations for each polymeric membrane). The detection limit was 1.2x10(-5) mol l(-1) and the R.S.D. was less than 2.0% for a solution containing 5.0x10(-4) mol l(-1) bismuth(III) (n=10). Several species such as Cd(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Mg(II), Cr(III) and Al(III) at 1.0x10(-3) mol l(-1) concentration in 0.5 mol l(-1) EDTA solution did not cause any interference. The frequency rate was 90 determinations per hour and the results obtained for bismuth(III) in anti-acid formulations using this flow procedure and those obtained using a spectrophotometric procedure are in agreement at the 95% confidence level. PMID:11397573

  4. Differential Effects of a Saturated and a Monounsaturated Fatty Acid on MHC Class I Antigen Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, S. R.; Mitchell, D.; Carroll, E.; Li, M.; Schneck, J.; Edidin, M.

    2009-01-01

    Lipid overload, associated with metabolic disorders, occurs when fatty acids accumulate in non-adipose tissues. Cells of these tissues use major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules to present antigen to T cells in order to eliminate pathogens. As obesity is associated with impaired immune responses, we tested the hypothesis that the early stages of lipid overload with saturated fatty acids (SFA) alters MHC class I antigen presentation. Antigen presenting cells (APC) were treated with either the saturated palmitic acid (PA), abundant in the high fat Western diet, or the monounsaturated oleic acid (OA), a component of the Mediterranean diet. PA-treatment lowered APC lysis by activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes and inhibited APC ability to stimulate naïve T cells. Inhibition of immune responses with PA was due to a significant reduction in MHC class I surface expression, inhibition in the rate of APC–T-cell conjugation, and lowering of plasma membrane F-actin levels. OA-treatment had no effect on antigen presentation and upon exposure with PA, prevented the phenotypic effects of PA. OA-treatment conferred protection against changes in antigen presentation by accumulating fatty acids into triglyceride-rich lipid droplets of APC. Our findings establish for the first time a link between the early stages of lipid overload and antigen presentation and suggest that dietary SFA could impair immunity by affecting MHC I-mediated antigen presentation; this could be prevented, paradoxically, by accumulation of triglycerides rich in monounsaturated fatty acids. PMID:18533931

  5. Differential effects of a saturated and a monounsaturated fatty acid on MHC class I antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, S R; Mitchell, D; Carroll, E; Li, M; Schneck, J; Edidin, M

    2008-07-01

    Lipid overload, associated with metabolic disorders, occurs when fatty acids accumulate in non-adipose tissues. Cells of these tissues use major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules to present antigen to T cells in order to eliminate pathogens. As obesity is associated with impaired immune responses, we tested the hypothesis that the early stages of lipid overload with saturated fatty acids (SFA) alters MHC class I antigen presentation. Antigen presenting cells (APC) were treated with either the saturated palmitic acid (PA), abundant in the high fat Western diet, or the monounsaturated oleic acid (OA), a component of the Mediterranean diet. PA-treatment lowered APC lysis by activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes and inhibited APC ability to stimulate naïve T cells. Inhibition of immune responses with PA was due to a significant reduction in MHC class I surface expression, inhibition in the rate of APC-T-cell conjugation, and lowering of plasma membrane F-actin levels. OA-treatment had no effect on antigen presentation and upon exposure with PA, prevented the phenotypic effects of PA. OA-treatment conferred protection against changes in antigen presentation by accumulating fatty acids into triglyceride-rich lipid droplets of APC. Our findings establish for the first time a link between the early stages of lipid overload and antigen presentation and suggest that dietary SFA could impair immunity by affecting MHC I-mediated antigen presentation; this could be prevented, paradoxically, by accumulation of triglycerides rich in monounsaturated fatty acids. PMID:18533931

  6. Selective production of fungal beauveriolide I or III by fermentation in amino acid-supplemented media.

    PubMed

    Namatame, Ichiji; Matsuda, Daisuke; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yuichi; Masuma, Rokuro; Kobayashi, Susumu; Omura, Satoshi

    2002-12-01

    Beauveriolides I and III, cyclic depsipeptides composed of L-Phe, L-Ala, D-Leu and (3S,4S)-3-hydroxy-4-methyloctanoic acid, and L-Phe, L-Ala, L-allo-Ile and (3S,4S)-3-hydroxy-4-methyloctanoic acid, respectively, were previously isolated from the culture broth of fungal Beauveria sp. FO-6979 as inhibitors of macrophage foam cell formation. To improve the production of these compounds by fermentation, the culture conditions were studied. The production of both beauveriolides was increased five to ten folds by fermentation in the culture media containing tryptone. Further study revealed that addition of L-Leu/L-Ile, but not D-Leu/D-allo-Ile, to the culture medium yielded a high and selective production of beauveriolide I or III. As a result, regardless of their separation difficulty due to the similar physico-chemical properties, a large amount of beauveriolide I or III was prepared from the culture broth obtained from L-Leu- or L-Ile-supplemented fermentation, respectively, by one step purification using silica gel column chromatography. PMID:12617514

  7. Microheterogeneity of antithrombin III: effect of single amino acid substitutions and relationship with functional abnormalities.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, V; Leone, G; Mastrangelo, S; Lane, D A; Girolami, A; de Moerloose, P; Sas, G; Abildgaard, U; Blajchman, M; Rodeghiero, F

    1994-02-01

    Microheterogeneity of antithrombin III (AT-III) was investigated by crossed immunoelectrofocusing (CIEF) on eleven molecular variants. A normal pattern was found in five variants while two different abnormal CIEF patterns were found in the other four and two variants, respectively. Point mutations causing a major pI change (exceeding 4.0) of the amino acid substituted lead to alterations in the overall microheterogeneity. The variants thus substituted share a first type of abnormal CIEF pattern with alterations throughout the pH range, regardless of the location of the mutation (reactive site and adjacent regions or heparin binding region). Minor amino acid pI changes in these regions do not alter the AT-III overall microheterogeneity, whatever the resulting functional defect. However, if the mutation is placed in the region around positions 404 or 429, then even minor changes of the amino acid pI seem able to alter the overall charge, leading to a second type of abnormal CIEF pattern with the main alteration at pH 4.8-4.6. Neuraminidase treatment leads to disappearance of microheterogeneity except for the variants with the Arg393 to Cys substitution. Addition of thrombin induces CIEF modifications specifically related to the functional defect. A normal formation of thrombin-antithrombin complexes induces a shift towards the more acid pH range, whereas in the variants substituted at the reactive site the CIEF pattern is substantially unaffected by thrombin; variants substituted at positions 382-384 show a maximal thrombin-induced increase of the isoforms at pI 4.8-4.6. Therefore mutant antithrombins with different functional abnormalities but sharing a common CIEF pattern were well distinguished.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8180341

  8. A stable Fe{sup III}-Fe{sup IV} replacement of tyrosyl radical in a class I ribonucleotide reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Voevodskaya, N.; Lendzian, F.; Graeslund, A. . E-mail: astrid@dbb.su.se

    2005-05-20

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) of Chlamydia trachomatis is a class I RNR enzyme composed of two homodimeric components, proteins R1 and R2. In class I RNR, R1 has the substrate binding site, whereas R2 has a diferric site and normally in its active form a stable tyrosyl free radical. C. trachomatis RNR is unusual, because its R2 component has a phenylalanine in the place of the radical carrier tyrosine. Replacing the tyrosyl radical, a paramagnetic Fe{sup III}-Fe{sup IV} species (species X, normally a transient intermediate in the process leading to radical formation) may provide the oxidation equivalent needed to start the catalytic process via long range electron transfer from the active site in R1. Here EPR spectroscopy shows that in C. trachomatis RNR, species X can become essentially stable when formed in a complete RNR (R1/R2/substrate) complex, adding further weight to the possible role of this species X in the catalytic reaction.

  9. Facial and occlusal esthetic improvements of an adult skeletal Class III malocclusion using surgical, orthodontic, and implant treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Cardoso, Mauricio; de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; Guedes, Fabio Pinto; Battilani Filho, Valter Antonio Ban; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Correa, Marcio Aurelio; Nary Filho, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this clinical report is to describe the complex treatment of an adult Class III malocclusion patient who was disappointed with the outcome of a previous oral rehabilitation. Interdisciplinary treatment planning was performed with a primary indication for implant removal because of marginal bone loss and gingival recession, followed by orthodontic and surgical procedures to correct the esthetics and skeletal malocclusion. The comprehensive treatment approach included: (1) implant removal in the area of the central incisors; (2) combined orthodontic decompensation with mesial displacement and forced extrusion of the lateral incisors; (3) extraction of the lateral incisors and placement of new implants corresponding to the central incisors, which received provisional crowns; (4) orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement to improve occlusal and facial relationships; and finally, (5) orthodontic refinement followed by definitive prosthetic rehabilitation of the maxillary central incisors and reshaping of the adjacent teeth. At the three-year follow-up, clinical and radiographic examinations showed successful replacement of the central incisors and improved skeletal and esthetic appearances. Moreover, a Class II molar relationship was obtained with an ideal overbite, overjet, and intercuspation. In conclusion, we report the successful esthetic anterior rehabilitation of a complex case in which interdisciplinary treatment planning improved facial harmony, provided gingival architecture with sufficient width and thickness, and improved smile esthetics, resulting in enhanced patient comfort and satisfaction. This clinical case report might be useful to improve facial esthetics and occlusion in patients with dentoalveolar and skeletal defects. PMID:26877982

  10. Management of the Class III malocclusion treated with maxillary expansion, facemask therapy and corrective orthodontic. A 15-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues; ALESSIO, Luiz Eduardo; de ALMEIDA-PEDRIN, Renata Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; PINZAN, Arnaldo; VIEIRA, Luiz Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    The facial growth of Class III malocclusion worsens with age, in this case, the early orthopedic treatment, providing facial balance, modifying the maxillofacial growth and development. A 7.6-year old boy presented with Class III malocclusion associated with anterior crossbite; the mandible was shifted to the right and the maxilla had a transversal deficiency. Rapid maxillary expansion followed by facemask therapy was performed, to correct the anteroposterior relationship and improve the facial profile. The patient was followed for a 15-year period, after completion of the treatment, and stability was observed. Growing patients should be monitored following their treatment, so as to prevent malocclusion relapse. PMID:25760273

  11. A new ion imprinted polymer based on Ru(III)-thiobarbituric acid complex for solid phase extraction of ruthenium(III) prior to its determination by ETAAS.

    PubMed

    Zambrzycka, Elżbieta; Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz, Beata

    2014-01-01

    A new ruthenium ion imprinted polymer was prepared from the Ru(III) 2-thiobarbituric acid complex (the template), methacrylic acid or acrylamide (the functional monomers), and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (the cross-linking agent) using 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as the radical initiator. The ion imprinted polymer was characterized and used as a selective sorbent for the solid phase extraction of Ru(III) ions. The effects of type of functional monomer, sample volume, solution pH and flow rate on the extraction efficiency were studied in the dynamic mode. Ru(III) ion was quantitatively retained on the sorbents in the pH range from 3.5 to 10, and can be eluted with 4 mol L(-1) aqueous ammonia. The affinity of Ru(III) for the ion imprinted polymer based on the acrylamide monomer is weaker than that for the polymer based on the methacrylic acid monomer, which therefore was used in interference studies and in analytical applications. Following extraction of Ru(III) ions with the imprint and their subsequent elution from the polymer with aqueous ammonia, Ru(III) was detected by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with a detection limit of 0.21 ng mL(-1). The method was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of Ru(III) in water, waste, road dust and platinum ore (CRM SARM 76) with a reproducibility (expressed as RSD) below 6.4 %. FigureThe new ion imprinted polymer was prepared and used for the separation of ruthenium from water and most complex environmental samples, such as road dust and platinum ore (CRM SARM 76) prior ETAAS determination. PMID:24966442

  12. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10−2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10â2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part...

  13. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10−2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10â2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part...

  14. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10−2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10â2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part...

  15. Intrinsic acidity of aluminum, chromium(III) and iron(III) {mu}{sub 3}-hydroxo functional groups from ab initio electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Rustad, J.R.; Dixon, D.A.; Felmy, A.R.

    2000-05-01

    Density functional calculations are performed on M{sub 3}(OH){sub 7}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}{sup 2+} and M{sub 3}O(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}{sup +} clusters for M {double_bond} Al, Cr(III), and Fe(III), allowing determination of the relative acidities of the {mu}{sub 3}-hydroxo and aquo functional groups. Contrary to previous predictions and rationalizations, {double_bond}Fe{sub 3}OH and {double_bond}Al{sub 3}OH groups have nearly the same intrinsic acidity, while {double_bond}Cr{sub 3}OH groups are significantly more acidic. The gas-phase acidity of the Fe{sub 3}OH site is in good agreement with the value predicted by the molecular mechanics model previously used to estimate the relative acidities of surface sites on iron oxides. Acidities of aquo functional groups were also computed for Al and Cr. The {double_bond}AlOH{sub 2} site is more acidic than the {double_bond}Al{sub 3}OH site, whereas the {double_bond}Cr{sub 3}OH site is more acidic than the {double_bond}CrOH{sub 2} site. These findings predict that the surface charging behavior of chromium oxides/oxyhydroxides should be distinguishable from their Fe, Al counterparts. The calculations also provide insight into why the lepidocrocite/boehmite polymorph is not observed for CrOOH.

  16. The role of class I, II and III PI 3-kinases in platelet production and activation and their implication in thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Valet, Colin; Severin, Sonia; Chicanne, Gaëtan; Laurent, Pierre Alexandre; Gaits-Iacovoni, Frédérique; Gratacap, Marie-Pierre; Payrastre, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Blood platelets play a pivotal role in haemostasis and are strongly involved in arterial thrombosis, a leading cause of death worldwide. Besides their critical role in pathophysiology, platelets represent a valuable model to investigate, both in vitro and in vivo, the biological roles of different branches of the phosphoinositide metabolism, which is highly active in platelets. While the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway has a crucial role in platelet activation, it is now well established that at least one class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is also mandatory for proper platelet functions. Except class II PI3Kγ, all other isoforms of PI3Ks (class I α, β, γ, δ; class II α, β and class III) are expressed in platelets. Class I PI3Ks have been extensively studied in different models over the past few decades and several isoforms are promising drug targets to treat cancer and immune diseases. In platelet activation, it has been shown that while class I PI3Kδ plays a minor role, class I PI3Kβ has an important function particularly in thrombus growth and stability under high shear stress conditions found in stenotic arteries. This class I PI3K is a potentially interesting target for antithrombotic strategies. The role of class I PI3Kα remains ill defined in platelets. Herein, we will discuss our recent data showing the potential impact of inhibitors of this kinase on thrombus formation. The role of class II PI3Kα and β as well as class III PI3K (Vps34) in platelet production and function is just emerging. Based on our data and those very recently published in the literature, we will discuss the impact of these three PI3K isoforms in platelet production and functions and in thrombosis. PMID:26714793

  17. Monohydroxamic acids and bridging dihydroxamic acids as chelators to ruthenium(III) and as nitric oxide donors: syntheses, speciation studies and nitric oxide releasing investigations.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Darren; Krot, Krystyna; Comiskey, Jedd; Nolan, Kevin B; Marmion, Celine J

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and spectroscopic characterisation of novel mononuclear Ru(III)(edta)(hydroxamato) complexes of general formula [Ru(H2edta)(monoha)] (where monoha = 3- or 4-NH2, 2-, 3- or 4-C1 and 3-Me-phenylhydroxamato), as well as the first example of a Ru(III)-N-aryl aromatic hydroxamate, [Ru(H2edta)(N-Me-bha)].H2O (N-Me-bha = N-methylbenzohydroxamato) are reported. Three dinuclear Ru(III) complexes with bridging dihydroxamato ligands of general formula [{Ru(H2edta)}2(mu-diha)] where diha = 2,6-pyridinedihydroxamato and 1,3- or 1,4-benzodihydroxamato, the first of their kind with Ru(III), are also described. The speciation of all of these systems (with the exception of the Ru-1,4-benzodihydroxamic acid and Ru-N-methylbenzohydroxamic systems) in aqueous solution was investigated. We previously proposed that nitrosyl abstraction from hydroxamic acids by Ru(III) involves initial formation of Ru(III)-hydroxamates. Yet, until now, no data on the rate of nitric oxide (NO) release from hydroxamic acids has been published. We now describe a UV-VIS spectroscopic study, where we monitored the decrease in the ligand-to-metal charge-transfer band of a series of Ru(III)-monohydroxamates with time, with a view to gaining an insight into the NO-releasing properties of hydroxamic acids. PMID:18399240

  18. A novel TaqI polymorphism in the coding region of the ovine TNXB gene in the MHC class III region: morphostructural and physiological influences.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Oyeyemi O; Adefenwa, Mufliat A; Agaviezor, Brilliant O; Ikeobi, Christian O N; Wheto, Matthew; Okpeku, Moses; Amusan, Samuel A; Yakubu, Abdulmojeed; De Donato, Marcos; Peters, Sunday O; Imumorin, Ikhide G

    2014-02-01

    The tenascin-XB (TNXB) gene has antiadhesive effects, functions in matrix maturation in connective tissues, and localizes to the major histocompatibility complex class III region. We hypothesized that it may influence adaptive physiological response through an effect on blood vessel function. We identified a novel g.1324 A→G polymorphism at a TaqI recognition site in a 454 bp fragment of ovine TNXB and genotyped it in 150 Nigerian sheep using PCR-RFLP. The missense mutation changes glutamic acid (GAA) to glycine (GGA). Among SNP genotypes, significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed in body weight and fore cannon bone length. Interaction effects of breed, SNP genotype, and geographic location had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on chest girth. The SNP genotype was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with physiological traits of pulse rate and skin temperature. The observed effect of this novel polymorphism may be mediated through its role in connective tissue biology, requiring further association and functional studies. PMID:23877191

  19. Electrochemical oxidation of 243Am(III) in nitric acid by a terpyridyl-derivatized electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Dares, C. J.; Lapides, A. M.; Mincher, B. J.; Meyer, T. J.

    2015-11-05

    A high surface area, tin-doped indium oxide electrode surface-derivatized with a terpyridine ligand has been applied to the oxidation of trivalent americium to Am(V) and Am(VI) in nitric acid. Potentials as low as 1.8 V vs. the saturated calomel electrode are used, 0.7 V lower than the 2.6 V potential for one-electron oxidation of Am(III) to Am(IV) in 1 M acid. This simple electrochemical procedure provides, for the first time, a method for accessing the higher oxidation states of Am in non-complexing media for developing the coordination chemistries of Am(V) and Am(VI) and, more importantly, for separation of americium from nuclear waste streams.

  20. Multiple nucleic acid cleavage modes in divergent type III CRISPR systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Graham, Shirley; Tello, Agnes; Liu, Huanting; White, Malcolm F.

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas is an RNA-guided adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and archaea from invading nucleic acids. Type III systems (Cmr, Csm) have been shown to cleave RNA targets in vitro and some are capable of transcription-dependent DNA targeting. The crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has two divergent subtypes of the type III system (Sso-IIID and a Cmr7-containing variant of Sso-IIIB). Here, we report that both the Sso-IIID and Sso-IIIB complexes cleave cognate RNA targets with a ruler mechanism and 6 or 12 nt spacing that relates to the organization of the Cas7 backbone. This backbone-mediated cleavage activity thus appears universal for the type III systems. The Sso-IIIB complex is also known to possess a distinct ‘UA’ cleavage mode. The predominant activity observed in vitro depends on the relative molar concentration of protein and target RNA. The Sso-IIID complex can cleave plasmid DNA targets in vitro, generating linear DNA products with an activity that is dependent on both the cyclase and HD nuclease domains of the Cas10 subunit, suggesting a role for both nuclease active sites in the degradation of double-stranded DNA targets. PMID:26801642

  1. 40 CFR 147.2101 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and all wells on Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and all wells on Indian lands. 147.2101 Section 147.2101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS...

  2. Dance-based exercise program in rheumatoid arthritis. Feasibility in individuals with American College of Rheumatology functional class III disease.

    PubMed

    Noreau, L; Moffet, H; Drolet, M; Parent, E

    1997-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that aerobic exercise training is beneficial to prevent physical deconditioning in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without inducing adverse effects on individual's joints and general health. After significant results in individuals with RA (Functional Class I and II), the present study was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of a modified dance-based exercise program to improve the physical fitness and psychological state of persons with RA (Class III). Ten (10) female subjects (mean age, 54 +/- 10 years) participated in an eight-week exercise program (twice weekly). Health status, use of medication, joint pain and swelling, cardiorespiratory fitness, activity of daily living, and psychological state were assessed before and after the training program. A high level of participation has been maintained by the participants (mean = 14.8/16 sessions). Most of them were able to perform a maximal exercise test on treadmill and reached 90% of the predicted heart rate at maximal exercise. No significant gain in aerobic power was observed for the group as a whole, but four subjects showed improvements of between 10% and 20% of their cardiorespiratory fitness. Positive changes in depression, anxiety, fatigue, and tension were observed after the eight-week exercise program. No deleterious effect on the health status was observed. These findings provide some evidences as to the feasibility of submitting individuals with RA to a modified dance-exercise program. Further studies, however, are required to determine the long-term effect of weight-bearing exercise on the health status of individuals with RA. PMID:9129516

  3. pH-Responsive Fe(III)-Gallic Acid Nanoparticles for In Vivo Photoacoustic-Imaging-Guided Photothermal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianfeng; Cheng, Ming; Wang, Yong; Wen, Ling; Chen, Ling; Li, Zhen; Wu, Yongyou; Gao, Mingyuan; Chai, Zhifang

    2016-04-01

    pH-responsive biocompatible Fe(III)-gallic acid nanoparticles with strong near-infrared absorbance are very stable in mild acidic conditions, but easily decomposed in neutral conditions, which enables the nanoparticles to be stable in a tumor and easily metabolized in other organs, thus providing a safe nanoplatform for in vivo photoacoustic imaging/photothermal therapy theranostic applications. PMID:26845393

  4. Determination of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) in ferric chloride-hydrochloric acid leaching media by ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, L.K.; Dutrizac, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    An analytical method has been developed to determine arsenic(V) in ferric chloride-hydrochloric acid leaching media using ion chromatography with conductivity detection. Oxidation of As(III) by aqua regia allows arsenic(III) to be determined by difference. The method involves a preseparation of trace quantities of arsenic from the relatively large concentrations of ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid prior to the ion chromatography measurement. Iron(III) is separated by passing through a hydrogen-form cation exchange column, and arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) are then eluted with water. The effect of the concentration of acid in this separation is discussed. The effluent collected from the cation exchange column is evaporated to remove the hydrochloric acid. The accuracy and precision of the method were determined from the analysis of various synthetic solutions and are discussed; an accuracy of +/-4% was obtained even at arsenic(V) concentrations as low as 10 ppm. The extent of oxidation of arsenic(III) in acidic ferric chloride solution and the reduction of arsenic(V) in acidic ferrous chloride solution were measured. The results obtained by ion chromatography are compared to the values realized using colorimetry after the preseparation step. 13 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Redox behavior of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) in the presence of nitrilotriacetic acid: A surrogate study for An(I\\T)/AD(III) redox behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.; Francis, A.; Nankawa, T.; Ohnuki, T.

    2010-07-01

    Using cyclic voltammetry, we investigated the redox behavior of Ce(IV)/Ce(III), which is a surrogate for An(IV)/An(III) (An=actinides), in a solution of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at 25 C. The cyclic voltammogram of Ce in a 0.1 M NTA solution at pH 6 showed a reversible one-electron redox reaction for Ce(IV)/Ce(III) at 0.51 V vs. Ag/AgCl. This redox potential was much lower than that obtained in 1 M nitric acid, indicating that Ce(IV) was preferentially stabilized by complexation with NTA. The redox potential in the NTA solution was independent of the Ce concentration from 2 to 20 mM, NTA concentration from 5 to 200 mM and pH between 3 and 7. These results indicated that no polymerization and no additional coordination of NTA and OH{sup -} to the Ce(III)-NTA complex took place during the redox reaction. As the speciation calculation of Ce(III) in the NTA solution showed that the predominant species was Ce{sup III}(nta){sub 2}{sup 3-} (H{sub 3}nta = NTA), the redox reaction of the Ce-NTA complex was expressed by the following: Ce{sup IV}(nta){sub 2}{sup 2-} +e{sup -} Ce{sup III}(nta){sub 2}{sup 3-}. The logarithm of the stability constant of Ce{sup IV}(nta){sub 2}{sup 2-} was calculated to be 38.6 {+-} 0.8 for I = 0 from the redox potential shift of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) in the NTA solution. The value was in good accordance with the stability constant of the Np{sup IV}(nta){sub 2}{sup 2-} complex, demonstrating that the aqueous coordination chemistry of Ce(IV) with NTA is quite similar to that of An(IV). These results strongly suggest that a negative shift of the Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox potential in the NTA solution should make Pu(IV) more stable than Pu(III) even in a reducing environment.

  6. Linking Microbial Dynamics and Physicochemical Processes in High-temperature Acidic Fe(III)- Mineralizing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inskeep, W.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial activity is responsible for the mineralization of Fe(III)-oxides in high-temperature chemotrophic communities that flourish within oxygenated zones of low pH (2.5 - 4) geothermal outflow channels (Yellowstone National Park, WY). High-temperature Fe(II)-oxidizing communities contain several lineages of Archaea, and are excellent model systems for studying microbial interactions and spatiotemporal dynamics across geochemical gradients. We hypothesize that acidic Fe(III)-oxide mats form as a result of constant interaction among primary colonizers including Hydrogenobaculum spp. (Aquificales) and Metallosphaera spp. (Sulfolobales), and subsequent colonization by archaeal heterotrophs, which vary in abundance as a function of oxygen, pH and temperature. We are integrating a complementary suite of geochemical, stable isotope, genomic, proteomic and modeling analyses to study the role of microorganisms in Fe(III)-oxide mat development, and to elucidate the primary microbial interactions that are coupled with key abiotic events. Curated de novo assemblies of major phylotypes are being used to analyze additional -omics datasets from these microbial mats. Hydrogenobaculum spp. (Aquificales) are the dominant bacterial population(s) present, and predominate during early mat development (< 30 d). Other Sulfolobales populations known to oxidize Fe(II) and fix carbon dioxide (e.g., Metallosphaera spp.) represent a secondary stage of mat development (e.g., 14 - 30 d). Hydrogenobaculum filaments appear to promote the nucleation and subsequent mineralization of Fe(III)-oxides, which likely affect the growth and turnover rates of these organisms. Other heterotrophs colonize Fe(III)-oxide mats during succession (> 30 d), including novel lineages of Archaea and representatives within the Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota and Nanoarchaeota. In situ oxygen consumption rates show that steep gradients occur within the top 1 mm of mat surface, and which correlate with

  7. A method for establishing class III medical device equivalence: sodium hyaluronate (GenVisc 850) for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Doros, Gheorghe; Lavin, Philip T; Daley, Michael; Miller, Larry E

    2016-01-01

    Although the concept of equivalence for drugs (generics) and biologics (biosimilars) has been readily adopted, the concept of equivalence or indistinguishable characteristics for class III medical devices has yet to be specifically addressed regarding a defined regulatory approval process in the US. In September 2015, GenVisc 850® (sodium hyaluronate), a hyaluronic acid approved for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) based upon indistinguishable characteristics in comparison to an approved branded hyaluronic acid (Supartz®/Supartz FX™). The purpose of this paper is to review the methodology and report the main outcomes used to demonstrate clinical comparability of GenVisc 850 with Supartz/Supartz FX. The FDA approval was collectively attained using prospectively defined methods for preclinical, physical, and chemical testing, as well as noninferiority in clinical performance comparisons. Evidence from five randomized controlled studies of Supartz/Supartz FX vs saline control injections (used for Supartz approval), two randomized controlled trials of GenVisc 850 vs saline control injections, and one randomized controlled study of GenVisc 850 vs Supartz/Supartz FX provided evidence of safety for GenVisc 850. Efficacy was further assessed based on assessment of the same Supartz studies and three prospectively identified GenVisc 850 studies. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to demonstrate that the clinical efficacy of GenVisc 850 was noninferior to Supartz/Supartz FX and superior to saline control. Overall, safety of GenVisc 850 was similar to that of Supartz/Supartz FX and saline control injections, while efficacy of GenVisc 850 was noninferior to that of Supartz/Supartz FX and superior to saline control injections. PMID:27471412

  8. A method for establishing class III medical device equivalence: sodium hyaluronate (GenVisc 850) for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Doros, Gheorghe; Lavin, Philip T; Daley, Michael; Miller, Larry E

    2016-01-01

    Although the concept of equivalence for drugs (generics) and biologics (biosimilars) has been readily adopted, the concept of equivalence or indistinguishable characteristics for class III medical devices has yet to be specifically addressed regarding a defined regulatory approval process in the US. In September 2015, GenVisc 850® (sodium hyaluronate), a hyaluronic acid approved for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) based upon indistinguishable characteristics in comparison to an approved branded hyaluronic acid (Supartz®/Supartz FX™). The purpose of this paper is to review the methodology and report the main outcomes used to demonstrate clinical comparability of GenVisc 850 with Supartz/Supartz FX. The FDA approval was collectively attained using prospectively defined methods for preclinical, physical, and chemical testing, as well as noninferiority in clinical performance comparisons. Evidence from five randomized controlled studies of Supartz/Supartz FX vs saline control injections (used for Supartz approval), two randomized controlled trials of GenVisc 850 vs saline control injections, and one randomized controlled study of GenVisc 850 vs Supartz/Supartz FX provided evidence of safety for GenVisc 850. Efficacy was further assessed based on assessment of the same Supartz studies and three prospectively identified GenVisc 850 studies. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to demonstrate that the clinical efficacy of GenVisc 850 was noninferior to Supartz/Supartz FX and superior to saline control. Overall, safety of GenVisc 850 was similar to that of Supartz/Supartz FX and saline control injections, while efficacy of GenVisc 850 was noninferior to that of Supartz/Supartz FX and superior to saline control injections. PMID:27471412

  9. Features of separation on polymeric reversed phase for two classes of higher saturated fatty acids esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deineka, V. I.; Lapshova, M. S.; Zakharenko, E. V.; Deineka, L. A.

    2013-11-01

    The principles of sorption on polymeric reversed phase (PRP) YMS C30 for members of the two classes of esters formed by higher saturated fatty acids, i.e., lutein diesters ( I) and triacylglycerols ( II), are investigated. It is shown that the logarithm of the retention factor increases nonlinearly with an increase of the length of the acid radical, although the retention on PRP is higher in the case of I and lower in the case of II, compared to their retention on traditional monomeric reversed phase (MRP) Kromasil-100 5C18; however, the equivalence of the contributions to the retention of I that correspond to an identical change in acids, does not depend on the length of the hydrocarbon radical of the second acid. It is noted that the Van't Hoff plot for PRP contains a curve break, indicating a change in the retention mechanism upon a rise in temperature.

  10. PCSK1 rs6232 Is Associated with Childhood and Adult Class III Obesity in the Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; León-Mimila, Paola; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Liceaga-Fuentes, Adriana E.; Campos-Pérez, Francisco J.; López-Contreras, Blanca E.; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; del Río-Navarro, Blanca E.; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Background Common variants rs6232 and rs6235 in the PCSK1 gene have been associated with obesity in European populations. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of these variants to obesity and related traits in Mexican children and adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Rs6232 and rs6235 were genotyped in 2382 individuals, 1206 children and 1176 adults. Minor allele frequencies were 0.78% for rs6232 and 19.99% for rs6235. Rs6232 was significantly associated with childhood obesity and adult class III obesity (OR = 3.01 95%CI 1.64–5.53; P = 4×10−4 in the combined analysis). In addition, this SNP was significantly associated with lower fasting glucose levels (P = 0.01) and with increased insulin levels and HOMA-B (P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively) only in non-obese children. In contrast, rs6235 showed no significant association with obesity or with glucose homeostasis parameters in any group. Conclusion/Significance Although rs6232 is rare in the Mexican population, it should be considered as an important risk factor for extreme forms of obesity. PMID:22737226

  11. Class III Restoration of Anterior Primary Teeth: In Vitro Retention Comparison of Conventional, Modified and Air-abrasion Treated Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Asl Aminabadi, Naser; Najafpour, Ebrahim; Erfanparast, Leila; Samiei, Mohammad; Haghifar, Monireh; Sighari Deljavan, Alireza; Jamali, Zahra; Pournaghi Azar, Fatemeh; Shokravi, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Anterior esthetic restoration is challenging in pediatric dentistry, due to limited durability and poor retention of the restoration.This study assessed the effect of air abrasion on tensile failure load of composite class III restorations using different preparation techniques. Materials and methods. 100 extracted human anterior primary teeth were divided, based on the preparation methods, into four groups each consisting of 25 subjects : conventional (A), labial surface bevel (B), conventional + air abrasion (C), and labial surface bevel + air abrasion (D). After restoring cavities, tensile failure load of samples was measured in Newton by Universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm per minute. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests using SPSS software. Results. There were statistically significant differences between groups A and C (P = 0.003), groups A and B (P & 0.001), groups A and D (P & 0.001), groups B and C (P = 0.028), groups B and D (P = 0.027), and also groups C and D (P& 0.001). Group D demonstrated the highest mean tensile failure load. Conclusion. Labial surface bevel treated by air abrasion showed significantly more retention of composite restoration. PMID:25093052

  12. Class III-specific HDAC inhibitor Tenovin-6 induces apoptosis, suppresses migration and eliminates cancer stem cells in uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wei; Zhou, Jingfeng; Jin, Bei; Pan, Jingxuan

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular malignancy in adults. Despite improvements in surgical, radiation and chemotherapy treatments, the overall survival of UM and prognosis remain poor. In the present study, we hypothesized that Sirtuin 1 and 2 (SIRT1/2), class III histone deacetylases (HDACs), were critical in controlling the destiny of bulk tumor cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs) of UM. We testified this hypothesis in four lines of UM cells (92.1, Mel 270, Omm 1 and Omm 2.3). Our results showed that inhibition of SIRT1/2 by Tenovin-6 induced apoptosis in UM cells by activating the expression of tumor suppressor genes such as p53 and elevating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Tenovin-6 inhibited the growth of UM cells. Tenovin-6 and vinblastine was synergistic in inducing apoptosis of UM cell line 92.1 and Mel 270. Furthermore, Tenovin-6 eliminated cancer stem cells in 92.1 and Mel 270 cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that Tenovin-6 may be a promising agent to kill UM bulk tumor cells and CSCs. PMID:26940009

  13. First-principles prediction of a new class of photovoltaic materials: I-III-IV2-V4 phosphides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jiahong; Lin, Shiyuan; Fan, Guanghan; Yao, Guangrui; Zhao, Yu-Jun

    2012-09-01

    A new class of quaternary I-III-IV2-V4, including CuAlGe2P4, CuGaGe2P4, CuAlSn2P4, and CuGaSn2P4 are studied by density functional theory and beyond for potential photovoltaic application. We found that CuAlGe2P4 and CuGaGe2P4 have a ground state of kesterite (KS) structure, while CuAlSn2P4 and CuGaSn2P4 are nearly energetically degenerated for KS and stannite structures. Interestingly, the band gaps of all the studied quaternary compounds are predicted to be in the range of 1.1-1.7 eV by the hybrid functional calculation and Δ-sol approach [M. K.Y. Chan and G. Ceder, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 196403 (2010)]. In particular, CuAlSn2P4 in KS structure is predicted to be a potential high-efficiency photovoltaic material since it contains no rare or toxic elements with a direct gap around 1.52 eV.

  14. Should class III drugs be initiated in hospital to prevent drug-induced torsade de pointes arrhythmias?

    PubMed Central

    Verduyn, S.C.; Winckels, S.K.G.; Gorgels, A.P.M.; Doevendans, P.A.; Vos, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives In the US, the FDA requires in-hospital institution of class III drugs. This study retrospectively assessed whether these criteria, which differ markedly from the Dutch exclusion criteria, could predict sotalol-induced torsade de pointes arrhythmias (TdP). Method Oral sotalol effect in a control group (50 patients, 62±12 years, 23 men, 27 women) was compared with five patients developing TdP (75±5years, all women), using known and new (JTU area measured in lead V2) risk parameters. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was the most common indication for sotalol treatment. Results At baseline the strict US regulations would have identified four of five TdP patients on the basis of individual K+ levels, creatinine clearance and QTc. However, 7 of 49 controls would also have been excluded, although they did not develop documented TdP in the >2 years follow-up. Sotalol slightly increased QTc (361±34 to 387±33ms) in controls, due to heart rate reduction. In the TdP group, sotalol dramatically increased QTc (467±33 to 626±52 ms, +35%, p<0.05) accompanied by deep negative TU waves and an increased JTU area and all could be identified as risk patients. Conclusion Patients developing TdP on oral sotalol can be identified using the FDA risk criteria and hospitalisation may therefore be appropriate. A European prospective study is required to investigate the costs, sensitivity and specificity of this strategy. PMID:25696183

  15. Biochemical characterization of a recombinant plant class III chitinase from the pitcher of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata.

    PubMed

    Ishisaki, Kana; Arai, Sachiko; Hamada, Tatsuro; Honda, Yuji

    2012-11-01

    A class III chitinase belonging to the GH18 family from Nepenthes alata (NaCHIT3) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme exhibited hydrolytic activity toward colloidal chitin, ethylene glycol chitin, and (GlcNAc)(n) (n=5 and 6). The enzyme hydrolyzed the fourth glycosidic linkage from the non-reducing end of (GlcNAc)(6). The anomeric form of the products indicated it was a retaining enzyme. The colloidal chitin hydrolytic reaction displayed high activity between pH 3.9 and 6.9, but the pH optimum of the (GlcNAc)(6) hydrolytic reaction was 3.9 at 37 °C. The optimal temperature for activity was 65 °C in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 3.9). The pH optima of NaCHIT3 and NaCHIT1 might be related to their roles in chitin degradation in the pitcher fluid. PMID:23026711

  16. Subcellular Relocalization and Positive Selection Play Key Roles in the Retention of Duplicate Genes of Populus Class III Peroxidase Family.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lin-Ling; Liu, Yan-Jing; Liu, Hai-Jing; Qian, Ting-Ting; Qi, Li-Wang; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Zeng, Qing-Yin

    2014-06-16

    Gene duplication is the primary source of new genes and novel functions. Over the course of evolution, many duplicate genes lose their function and are eventually removed by deletion. However, some duplicates have persisted and evolved diverse functions. A particular challenge is to understand how this diversity arises and whether positive selection plays a role. In this study, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of the class III peroxidase (PRX) genes from the Populus trichocarpa genome. PRXs are plant-specific enzymes that play important roles in cell wall metabolism and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. We found that two large tandem-arrayed clusters of PRXs evolved from an ancestral cell wall type PRX to vacuole type, followed by tandem duplications and subsequent functional specification. Substitution models identified seven positively selected sites in the vacuole PRXs. These positively selected sites showed significant effects on the biochemical functions of the enzymes. We also found that positive selection acts more frequently on residues adjacent to, rather than directly at, a critical active site of the enzyme, and on flexible regions rather than on rigid structural elements of the protein. Our study provides new insights into the adaptive molecular evolution of plant enzyme families. PMID:24934172

  17. Investigation of metal binding sites on soil fulvic acid using Eu(III) luminescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, T.H.; Moon, H. ); Park, Y.J.; Park, K.K. )

    1994-11-01

    The [sup 7]F[sub 0] [yields] [sup 5]D[sub 0] excitation spectra of Eu(III) complexed with soil fulvic acid (FA) were acquired over a range of solution pH (2.9-7.8) and FA concentrations (800-3200 mg L[sup [minus]1]) using a pulsed tunable dye laser system. The broad asymmetric excitation spectra were well-fitted to a sum of two conventional Lorentzian-shaped curves, revealing the existence of two types of carboxylate moieties for the binding of metal ions on FA which formed 1:1 (EuL[sup 2+]; L = carboxylate) and 1:2 complexes (EuL[sub 2][sup +]). The weaker binding species, EuL[sup 2+], seemed to be quite abundant and showed a rapid increase as the pH was raised from 2.9 to 6.3, but it was susceptible to hydrolysis at pH higher than 7 while the stronger binding species, EuL[sub 2][sup +], showed only a modest growth with an increase in pH. By contrast, on a more flexible synthetic linear polymer, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(vinylbenzoic acid) (PVBA) as model polymers, EuL[sub 2][sup +] was seen as the dominant species except in acidic media. 28 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exhibits Deficient Biofilm Formation in the Absence of Class II and III Ribonucleotide Reductases Due to Hindered Anaerobic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Anna; Pedraz, Lucas; Astola, Josep; Torrents, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lung infections by the ubiquitous and extremely adaptable opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa correlate with the formation of a biofilm, where bacteria grow in association with an extracellular matrix and display a wide range of changes in gene expression and metabolism. This leads to increased resistance to physical stress and antibiotic therapies, while enhancing cell-to-cell communication. Oxygen diffusion through the complex biofilm structure generates an oxygen concentration gradient, leading to the appearance of anaerobic microenvironments. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are a family of highly sophisticated enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the deoxyribonucleotides, and they constitute the only de novo pathway for the formation of the building blocks needed for DNA synthesis and repair. P. aeruginosa is one of the few bacteria encoding all three known RNR classes (Ia, II, and III). Class Ia RNRs are oxygen dependent, class II are oxygen independent, and class III are oxygen sensitive. A tight control of RNR activity is essential for anaerobic growth and therefore for biofilm development. In this work we explored the role of the different RNR classes in biofilm formation under aerobic and anaerobic initial conditions and using static and continuous-flow biofilm models. We demonstrated the importance of class II and III RNR for proper cell division in biofilm development and maturation. We also determined that these classes are transcriptionally induced during biofilm formation and under anaerobic conditions. The molecular mechanism of their anaerobic regulation was also studied, finding that the Anr/Dnr system is responsible for class II RNR induction. These data can be integrated with previous knowledge about biofilms in a model where these structures are understood as a set of layers determined by oxygen concentration and contain cells with different RNR expression profiles, bringing us a step closer to the understanding of this

  19. DFT calculations, spectroscopic, thermal analysis and biological activity of Sm(III) and Tb(III) complexes with 2-aminobenzoic and 2-amino-5-chloro-benzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Essawy, Amr A; Afifi, Manal A; Moustafa, H; El-Medani, S M

    2014-10-15

    The complexes of Sm(III) and Tb(III) with 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid, AA) and 2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid (5-chloroanthranilic acid, AACl) were synthesized and characterized based on elemental analysis, IR and mass spectroscopy. The data are in accordance with 1:3 [Metal]:[Ligand] ratio. On the basis of the IR analysis, it was found that the metals were coordinated to bidentate anthranilic acid via the ionised oxygen of the carboxylate group and to the nitrogen of amino group. While in 5-chloroanthranilic acid, the metals were coordinated oxidatively to the bidentate carboxylate group without bonding to amino group; accordingly, a chlorine-affected coordination and reactivity-diversity was emphasized. Thermal analyses (TGA) and biological activity of the complexes were also investigated. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p)_ level of theory have been carried out to investigate the equilibrium geometry of the ligand. The optimized geometry parameters of the complexes were evaluated using SDDALL basis set. Moreover, total energy, energy of HOMO and LUMO and Mullikan atomic charges were calculated. In addition, dipole moment and orientation have been performed and discussed. PMID:24835942

  20. Recognition of Nucleoside Monophosphate Substrates by Haemophilus influenzae Class C Acid Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD+ utilization pathway by dephosphorylating NMN to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases, which are nonspecific 5′-, 3′-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with NMN, 5′-AMP, 3′-AMP, and 2′-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, which explains the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, which is consistent with observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5′- and 3′-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme’s direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5′ substrates in an anti conformation and 3′ substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B and C acid phosphatases share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition. PMID:20934434

  1. Recognition of Nucleoside Monophosphate Substrates by Haemophilus influenzae Class C Acid Phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J.

    2010-12-08

    The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD{sup +} utilization pathway by dephosphorylating nicotinamide mononucleotide to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs), which are nonspecific 5{prime},3{prime}-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with nicotinamide mononucleotide, 5{prime}-AMP, 3{prime}-AMP, and 2{prime}-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and the hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and the phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, explaining the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, consistent with an observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5{prime}-nucleotides and 3{prime}-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme's direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5{prime} substrates in an anti conformation and 3{prime} substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B acid phosphatases and CCAPs share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition.

  2. Recognition of nucleoside monophosphate substrates by Haemophilus influenzae class C acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P; Reilly, Thomas J; Calcutt, Michael J; Tanner, John J

    2010-12-10

    The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD(+) utilization pathway by dephosphorylating nicotinamide mononucleotide to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs), which are nonspecific 5',3'-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with nicotinamide mononucleotide, 5'-AMP, 3'-AMP, and 2'-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and the hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and the phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, explaining the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, consistent with an observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5'-nucleotides and 3'-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme's direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5' substrates in an anti conformation and 3' substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B acid phosphatases and CCAPs share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition. PMID:20934434

  3. Domain structures and molecular evolution of class I and class II major histocompatibility gene complex (MHC) products deduced from amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Koji

    1984-12-01

    Domain structures of class I and class II MHC products were analyzed from a viewpoint of amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies. Alignment statistics revealed that class I (transplantation) antigen H chains consist of four mutually homologous domains, and that class II (HLA-DR) antigen β and α chains are both composed of three mutually homologous ones. The N-terminal three and two domains of class I and class II (both β and α) gene products, respectively, all of which being ˜90 residues long, were concluded to be homologous to β2-microglobulin (β2M). The membraneembedded C-terminal shorter domains of these MHC products were also found to be homologous to one another and to the third domain of class I H chains. Class I H chains were found to be more closely related to class II α chains than to class II β chains. Based on these findings, an exon duplication history from a common ancestral gene encoding a β2M-like primodial protein of one-domain-length up to the contemporary MHC products was proposed.

  4. Simultaneous determination of chromium(III), aluminum(III), and iron(II) in tannery sludge acid extracts by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.; Passino, R.; Tiravanti, G. ); Rotunno, T.; Palmisano, F.; Zambonin, P.G. )

    1991-07-01

    A new chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cr(III), Al(III), and Fe(III) or Fe(II) has been developed. The method is based on precolumn formation of stable metal-8-hydroxyquinoline chelates, their separation on a C-18 reversed-phase column by HPLC, and their UV-vis detection at 400 nm. The experimental conditions giving the highest chelate yields resulted: pH 4.2; T = 90C; reaction time 30 min; reaction mixture composition methanol (66.7%)/acetonitrile (13.3%)/water (20%) (v/v/v) plus 10 mM 8-hydroxyquinoline. The mobile-phase composition giving the best resolution of Cr(III)- and Al(III)-8-hydroxyquinoline chromatographic peaks has been optimized by the simplex algorithm: acetonitrile (13.5%)/methanol (29%)/0.1 acetate buffer pH 6.8 (13.5%) (v/v/v) plus 100 mM 8-hydroxyquinoline. The method has been applied to synthetic solutions as well as, after sample pretreatment on XAD-7 resin, to real sulfuric acid extracts of tannery sludges. As for this latter matrix, additional information on Cr and Fe oxidation states has been obtained, combining the proposed method with atomic absorption spectroscopy and ion chromatography.

  5. Oxidation of formic acid on platinum surfaces decorated with cobalt(III) macrocyclic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevanović, S.; Babić-Samardžija, K.; Sovilj, S. P.; Tripković, A.; Jovanović, V. M.

    2009-09-01

    Platinum electrode decorated with three different mixed-ligand cobalt(III) complexes of the general formula [Co(Rdtc)cyclam](ClO4)2 [cyclam = 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane, Rdtc- = morpholine-(Morphdtc), piperidine-(Pipdtc), and 4-methylpiperidine-(4-Mepipdtc) dithiocarbamates, respectively] was used to study oxidation of formic acid in acidic solution. The complexes were adsorbed on differently prepared Pt surfaces, at open circuit potential. The preliminary results show increased catalytic activity of Pt for formic acid oxidation with complex ion adsorbed on the polycrystalline surfaces. The increase in catalytic activity depends on the structure of the complex applied and follows the order of metal-coordinated bidentate ligand as Morphdtc > Pipdtc > 4-Mepipdtc. Based on IR and NMR data, the main characteristics of the Rdtc ligands do not vary dramatically, but high symmetry of the corresponding complexes decreases in the same order. Accordingly, the complexes are distinctively more mobile, causing chemical interactions to occur on the surface with appreciable speed and enhanced selectivity. The effect of the complexes on catalytic activity presumably depends on structural changes on Pt surfaces caused by their adsorption.

  6. Preparation and characterization of Fe(III)-loaded iminodiacetic acid modified GMA grafted nonwoven fabric adsorbent for anion adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavaklı, Pınar Akkaş; Kavaklı, Cengiz; Güven, Olgun

    2014-01-01

    An Fe(III)-loaded chelating fabric with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) functional groups was prepared by radiation induced graft polymerization of an epoxy group containing monomer, glycidyl methacrylate, onto a nonwoven fabric made of polypropylene coated by polyethylene (PE/PP) and subsequent Fe(III) loading. Grafting conditions were optimized, and GMA grafted polymer was modified with iminodiacetic acid in isopropyl alcohol/water at 80 °C. In order to prepare the polymeric ligand exchanger (PLE) for the removal of phosphate, IDA fabrics were loaded with Fe(III) ions. Fe(III) loading capacity of IDA fabric was determined to be 2.83 mmol Fe(III)/g of polymer. For removal of phosphate anion, adsorption experiments were performed in batch mode at different pH (2-9) and phosphate concentrations. It was found that phosphate adsorption by the Fe(III)-loaded IDA fabric is maximum at pH 2.00. The effect of initial concentration of phosphate on the adsorption behaviour of Fe(III)-loaded IDA nonwoven fabric was determined at low phosphate concentrations (0.5-25 ppm) and at high phosphate concentrations (50-1000 ppm).

  7. Atomistic details of the Catalytic Mechanism of Fe(III)-Zn(II) Purple Acid Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Alberto, Marta E; Marino, Tiziana; Ramos, Maria J; Russo, Nino

    2010-08-10

    In the present work, we performed a theoretical investigation of the reaction mechanism of the Fe(III)-Zn(II) purple acid phosphatase from red kidney beans (rkbPAP), using the hybrid density functional theory and employing different exchange-correlation potentials. Characterization of the transition states and intermediates involved and the potential energy profiles for the reaction in different environments (gas phase, protein environment, and water) are reported. Our results show that the Fe(III)-Zn(II)PAP catalyzes the hydrolysis of methylphosphate via direct attack by a bridging metals-coordinated hydroxide leading to the cleavage of the ester bond. From our study emerges that the rate-limiting step of the reaction is the nucleophilic attack followed by the less energetically demanding release of the leaving group. Furthermore, we provide insights into some important points of contention concerning the precatalytic complex and the substrate coordination mode into the active site prior to hydrolysis. In particular: (i) Two models of enzyme-substrate with different orientations of the substrate into the active site were tested to evaluate the possible roles played by the conserved histidine residues (His 202 and His 296); (ii) Different protonation states of the substrate were taken into account in order to reproduce different pH values and to verify its influence on the catalytic efficiency and on the substrate binding mode; (iii) The metals role in each step of the catalytic mechanism was elucidated. We were also able to ascertain that the activation of the leaving group by the protonated His 296 is decisive to reach an optimal catalytic efficiency, while the bond scission without activation requires higher energy to occur. PMID:26613496

  8. Transcriptome analysis of various flower and silique development stages indicates a set of class III peroxidase genes potentially involved in pod shattering in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant class III peroxidases exist as a large multigenic family involved in numerous functions suggesting a functional specialization of each gene. However, few genes have been linked with a specific function. Consequently total peroxidase activity is still used in numerous studies although its relevance is questionable. Transcriptome analysis seems to be a promising tool to overcome the difficulties associated with the study of this family. Nevertheless available microarrays are not completely reliable for this purpose. We therefore used a macroarray dedicated to the 73 class III peroxidase genes of A. thaliana to identify genes potentially involved in flower and fruit development. Results The observed increase of total peroxidase activity during development was actually correlated with the induction of only a few class III peroxidase genes which supports the existence of a functional specialization of these proteins. We identified peroxidase genes that are predominantly expressed in one development stage and are probable components of the complex gene networks involved in the reproductive phase. An attempt has been made to gain insight into plausible functions of these genes by collecting and analyzing the expression data of different studies in plants. Peroxidase activity was additionally observed in situ in the silique dehiscence zone known to be involved in pod shattering. Because treatment with a peroxidase inhibitor delayed pod shattering, we subsequently studied mutants of transcription factors (TF) controlling this mechanism. Three peroxidases genes -AtPrx13, AtPrx30 and AtPrx55- were altered by the TFs involved in pod shatter. Conclusions Our data illustrated the problems caused by linking only an increase in total peroxidase activity to any specific development stage or function. The activity or involvement of specific class III peroxidase genes needs to be assessed. Several genes identified in our study had not been linked to any particular

  9. Evaluation of soft and hard tissue changes after bimaxillary surgery in class III orthognathic surgery and aesthetic consideration

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi, Mehrangiz; Ghassemi, Alireza; Showkatbakhsh, Rahman; Ahmad, Syed Sayeed; Shadab, Mohammad; Modabber, Ali; Jamilian, Abdolreza

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate hard and soft tissue change after bimaxillary surgery in class III patients by focusing on sella, nasion, A point (SNA) and sella, nasion, B point (SNB) angle and aesthetic outcome. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 96 skeletal Class III patients (42 women, 54 men) with a mean age of 25 years with standard deviation (SD) of 8.4. The youngest patient was 16-years-old and the oldest 51-years-old at the time of surgery. In total, seven skeletal parameters, eight soft tissue parameters, and two dental parameters were evaluated on the cephalograms. Result: At the beginning of the treatment 49 Patients had SNA between 80° and 84°, 34 had SNA of less than 80° and 13 had SNA of more than 84°. Post surgically, 25 patients had SNA of 78°–84°, 19 had SNA less than 78° and 52 patients had SNA of more than 84°. Out of 96 patients 22 had SNB of 78°–82° before surgery, 16 had less than 78° and 58 had SNA of more than 84°. Postoperatively, we measured SNB of 78°–80° in 42, less than 78° in 18 and of more than 82° in 36 patients. The inclination of the maxilla relative to the cranial base changed from 7.2° (SD = 4)–8° (SD = 5.1) and the mandible changed from 35.7° (SD = 6.6) to 36° (SD = 6.3) postoperatively which was not significant. The distance from upper lip to E-line increased by 2.6 mm (SD = 3.9) after surgery (P < 0.001), while, the lower lip distance to E-line decreased slightly by 0.9 mm (SD = 3.2) (P < 0.01). Nasolabial angle was decreased by 9.5° (SD = 9.4) after surgery (P < 0.001). The nose prominence also decreased from 18.2 mm (SD = 3.5) –16.5 mm (SD = 3.3). Conclusion: Although in many cases we did not have a SNA angle or SNB angle in normal range but a good aesthetic outcome have been observed. Consequently our study showed that soft tissue change and aesthetic aspects should be considered in surgical planning and achieving SNA angle or SNB angle of norm range should not be the

  10. Oleanolic Acid Induces the Type III Secretion System of Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dousheng; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xuejiao; Yang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt, can naturally infect a wide range of host plants. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a major virulence determinant in this bacterium. Studies have shown that plant-derived compounds are able to inhibit or induce the T3SS in some plant pathogenic bacteria, though no specific T3SS inhibitor or inducer has yet been identified in R. solanacearum. In this study, a total of 50 different compounds were screened and almost half of them (22 of 50) significantly inhibited or induced the T3SS expression of R. solanacearum. Based on the strong induction activity on T3SS, the T3SS inducer oleanolic acid (OA) was chosen for further study. We found that OA induced the expression of T3SS through the HrpG-HrpB pathway. Some type III effector genes were induced in T3SS inducing medium supplemented with OA. In addition, OA targeted only the T3SS and did not affect other virulence determinants. Finally, we observed that induction of T3SS by OA accelerated disease progress on tobacco. Overall our results suggest that plant-derived compounds are an abundant source of R. solanacearum T3SS regulators, which could prove useful as tools to interrogate the regulation of this key virulence pathway. PMID:26732647

  11. Reductions in knee joint forces with weight loss are attenuated by gait adaptations in class III obesity.

    PubMed

    DeVita, Paul; Rider, Patrick; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2016-03-01

    A consensus exists that high knee joint forces are a precursor to knee osteoarthritis and weight loss reduces these forces. Because large weight loss also leads to increased step length and walking velocity, knee contact forces may be reduced less than predicted by the magnitude of weight loss. The purpose was to determine the effects of weight loss on knee muscle and joint loads during walking in Class III obese adults. We determined through motion capture, force platform measures and biomechanical modeling the effects of weight loss produced by gastric bypass surgery over one year on knee muscle and joint loads during walking at a standard, controlled velocity and at self-selected walking velocities. Weight loss equaling 412N or 34% of initial body weight reduced maximum knee compressive force by 824N or 67% of initial body weight when walking at the controlled velocity. These changes represent a 2:1 reduction in knee force relative to weight loss when walking velocity is constrained to the baseline value. However, behavioral adaptations including increased stride length and walking velocity in the self-selected velocity condition attenuated this effect by ∼50% leading to a 392N or 32% initial body weight reduction in compressive force in the knee joint. Thus, unconstrained walking elicited approximately 1:1 ratio of reduction in knee force relative to weight loss and is more indicative of walking behavior than the standard velocity condition. In conclusion, massive weight loss produces dramatic reductions in knee forces during walking but when patients stride out and walk faster, these favorable reductions become substantially attenuated. PMID:26979878

  12. The ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP Pathways Display Synergistic Interactions in Regulating Floral Meristem Activities

    PubMed Central

    Landau, Udi; Asis, Lior; Eshed Williams, Leor

    2015-01-01

    In angiosperms, the production of flowers marks the beginning of the reproductive phase. At the emergence of flower primordia on the flanks of the inflorescence meristem, the WUSCHEL (WUS) gene, which encodes a homeodomain transcription factor starts to be expressed and establishes de novo stem cell population, founder of the floral meristem (FM). Similarly to the shoot apical meristem a precise spatial and temporal expression pattern of WUS is required and maintained through strict regulation by multiple regulatory inputs to maintain stem cell homeostasis. However, following the formation of a genetically determined fixed number of floral organs, this homeostasis is shifted towards organogenesis and the FM is terminated. In here we performed a genetic study to test how a reduction in ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP pathways affects floral meristem activity and flower development. We revealed strong synergistic phenotypes of extra flower number, supernumerary whorls, total loss of determinacy and extreme enlargement of the meristem as compared to any double mutant combination indicating that the three pathways, CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII distinctively regulate meristem activity and that they act in parallel. Our findings yield several new insights into stem cell-driven development. We demonstrate the crucial requirement for coupling floral meristem termination with carpel formation to ensure successful reproduction in plants. We also show how regulation of meristem size and alternation in spatial structure of the meristem serve as a mechanism to determine flower organogenesis. We propose that the loss of FM determinacy due to the reduction in CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII activity is genetically separable from the AGAMOUS core mechanism of meristem termination. PMID:25946150

  13. Cell wall-bound cationic and anionic class III isoperoxidases of pea root: biochemical characterization and function in root growth.

    PubMed

    Kukavica, Biljana M; Veljovicc-Jovanovicc, Sonja D; Menckhoff, Ljiljana; Lüthje, Sabine

    2012-07-01

    Cell wall isolated from pea roots was used to separate and characterize two fractions possessing class III peroxidase activity: (i) ionically bound proteins and (ii) covalently bound proteins. Modified SDS-PAGE separated peroxidase isoforms by their apparent molecular weights: four bands of 56, 46, 44, and 41kDa were found in the ionically bound fraction (iPOD) and one band (70kDa) was resolved after treatment of the cell wall with cellulase and pectinase (cPOD). Isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns for iPODs and cPODs were significantly different: five iPODs with highly cationic pI (9.5-9.2) were detected, whereas the nine cPODs were anionic with pI values between pH 3.7 and 5. iPODs and cPODs showed rather specific substrate affinity and different sensitivity to inhibitors, heat, and deglycosylation treatments. Peroxidase and oxidase activities and their IEF patterns for both fractions were determined in different zones along the root and in roots of different ages. New iPODs with pI 9.34 and 9.5 were induced with root growth, while the activity of cPODs was more related to the formation of the cell wall in non-elongating tissue. Treatment with auxin that inhibits root growth led to suppression of iPOD and induction of cPOD. A similar effect was obtained with the widely used elicitor, chitosan, which also induced cPODs with pI 5.3 and 5.7, which may be specifically related to pathogen defence. The differences reported here between biochemical properties of cPOD and iPOD and their differential induction during development and under specific treatments implicate that they are involved in specific and different physiological processes. PMID:22760472

  14. Differential regulation of meristem size, morphology and organization by the ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Tali; Candela, Héctor; Landau, Udi; Asis, Lior; Zelinger, Einat; Carles, Cristel C.; Williams, Leor Eshed

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The shoot apical meristem (SAM) of angiosperm plants is a small, highly organized structure that gives rise to all above-ground organs. The SAM is divided into three functional domains: the central zone (CZ) at the SAM tip harbors the self-renewing pluripotent stem cells and the organizing center, providing daughter cells that are continuously displaced into the interior rib zone (RZ) or the surrounding peripheral zone (PZ), from which organ primordia are initiated. Despite the constant flow of cells from the CZ into the RZ or PZ, and cell recruitment for primordium formation, a stable balance is maintained between the distinct cell populations in the SAM. Here we combined an in-depth phenotypic analysis with a comparative RNA-Seq approach to characterize meristems from selected combinations of clavata3 (clv3), jabba-1D (jba-1D) and erecta (er) mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that CLV3 restricts meristem expansion along the apical-basal axis, whereas class III HD-ZIP and ER pathways restrict meristem expansion laterally, but in distinct and possibly perpendicular orientations. Our k-means analysis reveals that clv3, jba-1D/+ and er lead to meristem enlargement by affecting different aspects of meristem function; for example, clv3 displays an increase in the stem cell population, whereas jba-1D/+ er exhibits an increase in mitotic activity and in the meristematic cell population. Our analyses demonstrate that a combined genetic and mRNA-Seq comparative approach provides a precise and sensitive method to identify cell type-specific transcriptomes in a small structure, such as the SAM. PMID:26989178

  15. High levels of class III β-tubulin expression are associated with aggressive tumor features in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    LEBOK, PATRICK; ÖZTÜRK, MELIKE; HEILENKÖTTER, UWE; JAENICKE, FRITZ; MÜLLER, VOLKMAR; PALUCHOWSKI, PETER; GEIST, STEFAN; WILKE, CHRISTIAN; BURANDT, EICKE; LEBEAU, ANNETTE; WILCZAK, WALDEMAR; KRECH, TILL; SIMON, RONALD; SAUTER, GUIDO; QUAAS, ALEXANDER

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of class III β-tubulin (TUBB3), a factor that confers dynamic properties to microtubules, is a candidate biomarker for resistance to microtubule-targeting chemotherapeutics in breast and other types of solid cancer. Discrepant results from previous studies, with respect to the association of TUBB3 expression levels with breast cancer phenotype and patient prognosis, prompted the present study to investigate TUBB3 expression in a large cohort of breast cancer cases, with available clinical follow-up data. A preexisting breast cancer prognosis tissue microarray, containing a single 0.6 mm tissue core from each of 2,197 individual patients with breast cancer, was analyzed for TUBB3 expression by immunohistochemistry. The results of the present study revealed that TUBB3 expression was less frequent in lobular breast cancer cases (34%), compared with that of cancer cases of alternative histologies, including breast cancer of no special type (60%; P<0.0001). High TUBB3 positivity was associated with high tumor grade (P<0.0001), negativity for estrogen (P<0.0001) and progesterone receptors (P<0.004), as well as the presence of human epidermal growth factor 2 amplification (P<0.0001) and a triple-negative phenotype (P<0.0001). TUBB3 overexpression was additionally associated with reduced patient survival if all breast cancer cases of any histology were jointly analyzed (P=0.0088); however this link was not evident in the subset of breast cancer cases of no special type, or in a multivariate analysis including the established prognostic factors of tumor stage, grade and nodal stage. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that TUBB3 overexpression was associated with adverse features of breast cancer, and that TUBB3 may possess a distinct role in lobular breast cancer cases, compared with alternative histological subtypes. The results of the present study do not support a clinically relevant role for TUBB3 as a prognostic marker in breast cancer. PMID

  16. Differential regulation of meristem size, morphology and organization by the ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP pathways.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Tali; Candela, Héctor; Landau, Udi; Asis, Lior; Zelinger, Einat; Carles, Cristel C; Williams, Leor Eshed

    2016-05-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) of angiosperm plants is a small, highly organized structure that gives rise to all above-ground organs. The SAM is divided into three functional domains: the central zone (CZ) at the SAM tip harbors the self-renewing pluripotent stem cells and the organizing center, providing daughter cells that are continuously displaced into the interior rib zone (RZ) or the surrounding peripheral zone (PZ), from which organ primordia are initiated. Despite the constant flow of cells from the CZ into the RZ or PZ, and cell recruitment for primordium formation, a stable balance is maintained between the distinct cell populations in the SAM. Here we combined an in-depth phenotypic analysis with a comparative RNA-Seq approach to characterize meristems from selected combinations of clavata3 (clv3), jabba-1D (jba-1D) and erecta (er) mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana We demonstrate that CLV3 restricts meristem expansion along the apical-basal axis, whereas class III HD-ZIP and ER pathways restrict meristem expansion laterally, but in distinct and possibly perpendicular orientations. Our k-means analysis reveals that clv3, jba-1D/+ and er lead to meristem enlargement by affecting different aspects of meristem function; for example, clv3 displays an increase in the stem cell population, whereas jba-1D/+ er exhibits an increase in mitotic activity and in the meristematic cell population. Our analyses demonstrate that a combined genetic and mRNA-Seq comparative approach provides a precise and sensitive method to identify cell type-specific transcriptomes in a small structure, such as the SAM. PMID:26989178

  17. The endoplasmic reticulum is a target organelle for trivalent dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup III})-induced cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Naranmandura, Hua; Xu, Shi; Koike, Shota; Pan, Li Qiang; Chen, Bin; Wang, Yan Wei; Rehman, Kanwal; Wu, Bin; Chen, Zhe; Suzuki, Noriyuki

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of present study was to characterize the endoplasmic reticulum stress and generation of ROS in rat liver RLC-16 cells by exposing to trivalent dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}) and compared with that of trivalent arsenite (iAs{sup III}) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}). Protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) phosphorylation was significantly induced in cells exposed to DMA{sup III}, while there was no change in phosphorylated PERK (P-PERK) detected in cells after exposure to iAs{sup III} or MMA{sup III}. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after DMA{sup III} exposure was found to take place specifically in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), while previous reports showed that ROS was generated in mitochondria following exposure to MMA{sup III}. Meanwhile, cycloheximide (CHX) which is an inhibitor of protein biosynthesis strongly inhibited the DMA{sup III}-induced intracellular ROS generation in the ER and the phosphorylation of PERK, suggesting the induction of ER stress probably occurs through the inhibition of the protein folding process. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) mRNA were induced by all three arsenic species, however, evidence suggested that they might be induced by different pathways in the case of iAs{sup III} and MMA{sup III}. In addition, ER resident molecular chaperone glucose-regulated protein78 (GRP78) was not affected by trivalent arsenicals, while it was induced in positive control only at high concentration (Thapsigargin;Tg), suggesting the GRP78 is less sensitive to low levels of ER stress. In summary, our findings demonstrate that the endoplasmic reticulum is a target organelle for DMA{sup III}-induced cytotoxicity. Highlights: ►ER is a target organelle for trivalent DMA{sup III}-induced cytotoxicity. ►Generation of ROS in ER can be induced specially by trivalent DMA{sup III}. ►ER-stress and generation of ROS are caused by the increase in

  18. Cp*Rh(iii)-catalyzed electrophilic amination of arylboronic acids with azo compounds for synthesis of arylhydrazides.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yan-Fung; Chan, Chun-Ming; Zhou, Zhongyuan; Yu, Wing-Yiu

    2016-07-12

    A [Cp*Rh(iii)]-catalyzed electrophilic amination of arylboronic acids with diethyl azodicarboxylate (DEAD) was developed, and arylhydrazides were produced in excellent yields and selectivity. The analogous amination with the arylazocarboxylates afforded the corresponding N,N-diarylhydrazides. The electrophilic amination of arylboronic acids with azocarboxylates proceeds readily under mild conditions with excellent functional group tolerance. Up to 99% yields were obtained. Preliminary mechanistic studies revealed that prior formation of an arylrhodium(iii) intermediate for the azo coupling reaction can be ruled out. PMID:27339710

  19. Structure and luminescent property of complexes of aryl carboxylic acid-functionalized polystyrene with Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Baojiao; Shi, Nan; Qiao, Zongwen

    2015-11-01

    Via polymer reactions, naphthoic acid (NA) and benzoic acid (BA) were bonded onto the side chains of polystyrene (PS), respectively, and two aryl carboxylic acid-functionalized polystyrenes, PSNA and PSBA, were obtained. Using PSNA and PSBA as macromolecule ligands and Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions as central ions, various luminescent binary polymer-rare earth complexes were prepared. At the same time, with 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) and 4,4'-bipyridine (Bipy) as small-molecule co-ligands, various ternary polymer-rare earth complexes were also prepared. On the basis of characterizing PSNA, PSBA and complexes, the relationship between structure and luminescent property for these prepared complexes were mainly investigated. The study results show that the macromolecule ligands PSNA and PSBA, or the bonded NA and BA ligands, can strongly sensitize the fluorescence emissions of Eu(3+) ion or Tb(3+) ion, but the sensitization effect is strongly dependent on the structure of the ligands and the property of the central ions, namely it is strongly dependent on the matching degree of energy levels. The fluorescence emission of the binary complex PS-(NA)3-Eu(III) is stronger than that PS-(BA)3-Eu(III), indicating ligand NA has stronger sensitization action for Eu(3+) ion than ligand BA; the binary complex PS-(BA)3-Tb(III) emit strong characteristic fluorescence of Tb(3+) ion, displaying that ligand BA can strongly sensitize Tb(3+) ion, whereas the binary complex PS-(NA)3-Tb(III) nearly does not emit the characteristic fluorescence of Tb(3+) ion, showing that ligand NA does not sensitize Tb(3+) ion. The fluorescence intensity of the ternary complexes is much stronger than that of the binary complexes in the same series. PMID:26086996

  20. Enumeration and Characterization of Iron(III)-Reducing Microbial Communities from Acidic Subsurface Sediments Contaminated with Uranium(VI)

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Lainie; North, Nadia N.; Dollhopf, Sherry L.; Balkwill, David L.; Kostka, Joel E.

    2003-01-01

    Iron(III)-reducing bacteria have been demonstrated to rapidly catalyze the reduction and immobilization of uranium(VI) from contaminated subsurface sediments. Thus, these organisms may aid in the development of bioremediation strategies for uranium contamination, which is prevalent in acidic subsurface sediments at U.S. government facilities. Iron(III)-reducing enrichment cultures were initiated from pristine and contaminated (high in uranium, nitrate; low pH) subsurface sediments at pH 7 and pH 4 to 5. Enumeration of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria yielded cell counts of up to 240 cells ml−1 for the contaminated and background sediments at both pHs with a range of different carbon sources (glycerol, acetate, lactate, and glucose). In enrichments where nitrate contamination was removed from the sediment by washing, MPN counts of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria increased substantially. Sediments of lower pH typically yielded lower counts of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in lactate- and acetate-amended enrichments, but higher counts were observed when glucose was used as an electron donor in acidic enrichments. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences extracted from the highest positive MPN dilutions revealed that the predominant members of Fe(III)-reducing consortia from background sediments were closely related to members of the Geobacteraceae family, whereas a recently characterized Fe(III) reducer (Anaeromyxobacter sp.) and organisms not previously shown to reduce Fe(III) (Paenibacillus and Brevibacillus spp.) predominated in the Fe(III)-reducing consortia of contaminated sediments. Analysis of enrichment cultures by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) strongly supported the cloning and sequencing results. Dominant members of the Fe(III)-reducing consortia were observed to be stable over several enrichment culture transfers by T-RFLP in conjunction with measurements of Fe(III) reduction activity and carbon substrate utilization. Enrichment

  1. Selective colorimetric detection of Cr(iii) and Cr(vi) using gallic acid capped gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chen; Wu, Genhua; Wang, Zhuqing; Ren, Wenzhi; Zhang, Yujie; Shen, Zheyu; Li, Tianhua; Wu, Aiguo

    2016-05-28

    A colorimetric assay is proposed for the selective detection of Cr(iii) and Cr(vi) via the aggregation-induced color change of gallic acid capped gold nanoparticles (GA-AuNPs). The AuNPs are characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR). To detect Cr(iii) and Cr(vi) coexisting in a sample, citrate and thiosulfate were applied to mask Cr(vi) for the detection of Cr(iii), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA) was applied to mask Cr(iii) for the detection of Cr(vi). At optimized experimental conditions, the selectivity of these AuNPs-based detection systems is excellent for Cr(iii) and/or Cr(vi) compared with other types of metal ions. The limit of detections (LODs) of a mixture of Cr(iii) and Cr(vi), Cr(iii) and Cr(vi) by eye vision are 1.5, 1.5 and 2 μM, respectively, and those by UV-vis spectroscopy are 0.05, 0.1 and 0.1 μM, respectively. The minimum detectable concentrations for Cr(iii) or Cr(vi) are all below the guideline value set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The applicability of the AuNPs-based colorimetric sensor is also validated by the detection of Cr(iii) and Cr(vi) in electroplating wastewater and real water samples with high recoveries. PMID:26606324

  2. Targeting kinases with anilinopyrimidines: discovery of N-phenyl-N’-[4-(pyrimidin-4-ylamino)phenyl]urea derivatives as selective inhibitors of class III receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Gandin, Valentina; Ferrarese, Alessandro; Dalla Via, Martina; Marzano, Cristina; Chilin, Adriana; Marzaro, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Kinase inhibitors are attractive drugs/drug candidates for the treatment of cancer. The most recent literature has highlighted the importance of multi target kinase inhibitors, although a correct balance between specificity and non-specificity is required. In this view, the discovery of multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitors with subfamily selectivity is a challenging goal. Herein we present the synthesis and the preliminary kinase profiling of a set of novel 4-anilinopyrimidines. Among the synthesized compounds, the N-phenyl-N’-[4-(pyrimidin-4-ylamino)phenyl]urea derivatives selectively targeted some members of class III receptor tyrosine kinase family. Starting from the structure of hit compound 19 we synthesized a further compound with an improved affinity toward the class III receptor tyrosine kinase members and endowed with a promising antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo in a murine solid tumor model. Molecular modeling simulations were used in order to rationalize the behavior of the title compounds. PMID:26568452

  3. Treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion using face mask therapy with alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Anand Ramchandra; Kumari, N Retna; Vadakkepuriyal, Kannan; Santhkumar, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Class III malocclusion is very common malocclusion and can be due to maxillary retrusion, mandibular prognathism, or combination. Ellis and McNamara found a combination of maxillary retrusion and mandibular protrusion to be the most common skeletal relationship (30%). The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. Reverse pull head gear combined with maxillary expansion can effectively correct skeletal Class III malocclusion due to maxillary deficiency in growing patient. An eight-year-old female patient with chief complaint of prognathic mandible and anterior crossbite was successfully treated in duration of 5 months with facemask and expansion therapy based on Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol. PMID:26381639

  4. Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft in Combination with a Tunnel Technique for the Treatment of Miller Class II and III Gingival Recessions in Mandibular Incisors: Clinical and Esthetic Results.

    PubMed

    Nart, Jose; Valles, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    There is limited evidence regarding the effect of the subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) on root coverage in the mandibular anterior region. A sample of 15 Miller Class II and III recessions were treated in 15 patients using a SCTG with a tunnel technique. After a mean follow-up of 20.53 months, the mean percentage of root coverage was 83.25% for all treated recessions. Furthermore, a statistically significant increase of keratinized tissue was observed at the end of the evaluation period (2.66 mm; P = .001). The combination of tunnel technique and SCTG should be considered a treatment option to obtain root coverage in mandibular incisors with Class II and III recession defects. PMID:27333018

  5. Cloning, purification and crystallization of Bacillus anthracis class C acid phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Felts, Richard L.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J.

    2006-07-01

    Crystallization of a surface-localized acid phosphatase from Bacillus anthracis is reported. Flash annealing increased the high-resolution limit of usable data from 1.8 to 1.6 Å. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallization studies of a recombinant class C acid phosphatase from the Category A pathogen Bacillus anthracis are reported. Large diffraction-quality crystals were grown in the presence of HEPES and Jeffamine ED-2001 at pH 7.0. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.4, b = 90.1, c = 104.2 Å. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain two protein molecules with a solvent content of 38%. Two native data sets were collected from the same crystal before and after flash-annealing. The first data set had a mosaicity of 1.6° and a high-resolution limit of 1.8 Å. After flash-annealing, the apparent mosaicity decreased to 0.9° and the high-resolution limit of usable data increased to 1.6 Å. This crystal form is currently being used to determine the structure of B. anthracis class C acid phosphatase with experimental phasing techniques.

  6. First fluorescence spectroscopic investigation of Am(III) complexation with an organic carboxylic ligand, pyromellitic acid.

    PubMed

    Barkleit, Astrid; Geipel, Gerhard; Acker, Margret; Taut, Steffen; Bernhard, Gert

    2011-01-01

    For the first time Am(III) complexation with a small organic ligand could be identified and characterized with time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) at room temperature and trace metal concentration. With pyromellitic acid (1,2,4,5-benzene-tetracarboxylic acid, BTC) as ligand spectroscopic characteristics for the Am-BTC complex system were determined at pH 5.0, an ionic strength of 0.1 M (NaClO4) and room temperature. The fluorescence lifetimes were determined to be 23.2±2.2 ns for Am3+(aq) and 27.2±1.2 ns for the Am-BTC 1:1 complex; the emission maximum for the 5D1-(7)F1 transition is 691 nm for both species. The complex stability constant for the Am-BTC 1:1 complex was calculated to be logβ110=5.42±0.16. PMID:20943431

  7. The Fe(III) and Ga(III) coordination chemistry of 3-(1-hydroxymethylidene) and 3-(1-hydroxydecylidene)-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine-2,4-dione: Novel tetramic acid degradation products of homoserine lactone bacterial quorum sensing molecules

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Ariel A.; Hahn, Tobias; Davis, Nicole; Lowery, Colin A.; Struss, Anjali K.; Janda, Kim D.; Böttger, Lars H.; Matzanke, Berthold F.; Carrano, Carl J.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria use small diffusible molecules to exchange information in a process called quorum sensing (QS). An important class of quorum sensing molecules used by Gram-negative bacteria is the family of N-acylhomoserine lactones (HSL). It was recently discovered that a degradation product of the QS molecule 3-oxo-C12-homoserine lactone, the tetramic acid 3-(1-hydroxydecylidene)-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine-2,4-dione, is a potent antibacterial agent, thus implying roles for QS outside of simply communication. Because these tetramic acids also appear to bind iron with appreciable affinity it was suggested that metal binding might contribute to their biological activity. Here, using a variety of spectroscopic tools, we describe the coordination chemistry of both the methylidene and decylidene tetramic acid derivatives with Fe(III) and Ga(III) and discuss the potential biological significance of such metal binding. PMID:22178671

  8. Structural basis of the inhibition of class C acid phosphatases by adenosine 5;#8242;-phosphorothioate

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Harkewal; Reilly, Thomas J.; Tanner, John J.

    2012-01-20

    The inhibition of phosphatases by adenosine 5'-phosphorothioate (AMPS) was first reported in the late 1960s; however, the structural basis for the inhibition has remained unknown. Here, it is shown that AMPS is a submicromolar inhibitor of class C acid phosphatases, a group of bacterial outer membrane enzymes belonging to the haloacid dehalogenase structural superfamily. Furthermore, the 1.35-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the inhibited recombinant Haemophilus influenzae class C acid phosphatase was determined; this is the first structure of a phosphatase complexed with AMPS. The conformation of AMPS is identical to that of the substrate 5'-AMP, except that steric factors force a rotation of the thiophosphoryl out of the normal phosphoryl-binding pocket. This conformation is catalytically nonproductive, because the P atom is not positioned optimally for nucleophilic attack by Asp64, and the O atom of the scissile O-P bond is too far from the Asp (Asp66) that protonates the leaving group. The structure of 5'-AMP complexed with the Asp64 {yields} Asn mutant enzyme was also determined at 1.35-{angstrom} resolution. This mutation induces the substrate to adopt the same nonproductive binding mode that is observed in the AMPS complex. In this case, electrostatic considerations, rather than steric factors, underlie the movement of the phosphoryl. The structures not only provide an explanation for the inhibition by AMPS, but also highlight the precise steric and electrostatic requirements of phosphoryl recognition by class C acid phosphatases. Moreover, the structure of the Asp64 {yields} Asn mutant illustrates how a seemingly innocuous mutation can cause an unexpected structural change.

  9. Synthesis and utilization of chitin humic acid hybrid as sorbent for Cr(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santosa, Sri Juari; Siswanta, Dwi; Sudiono, Sri; Sehol, Muhamad

    2007-11-01

    New types of hybrid material have been synthesized by using four different methods of immobilization of humic acid (HA) on chitin. The most stable hybrid material toward the change of medium acidity was then utilized as sorbent for Cr(III). The HA was extracted from peat soil of Gambut District, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, using the recommended procedure of International Humic Substances Society (IHSS), while the chitin was isolated from crab shell waste through deproteination using 3.5% (w/v) NaOH and followed by removal of inorganic impurities using 1 M HCl. The four methods of immobilization of HA on chitin were (i) Method A: chitin powder (4 g) was gently poured into the stirred solution of 0.4 g HA in 40 mL of 0.01 M NaOH. After overnight stirring, the solid was separated, washed with water, and dried in oven at 70 °C. (ii) Method B: gelatinous chitin (40 g) in 250 mL of 0.5 M HCl was reacted with HA (4 g) in 500 mL of 0.5 M NaOH and aged for 24 h. The product was washed with water and dried. (iii) Method C: HA powder (0.5 g) was mixed with the stirred gel of chitin (2.5 g) in 60 mL of CaCl 2 saturated methanol and the mixture was then washed with the mixed solution of 25 mL of 2 M sodium citrate and ethylene glycol 1:1. The solid was separated, washed with water, and dried. (iv) Method D: the solution of HA (0.056 g) in 10 mL of 0.01 M NaOH was reacted with the gel of chitin (0.2 g) in 10 mL of CaCl 2 saturated methanol. After 24 h stirring, the solid was separated from the reaction medium, washed with the mixed solution of 2 M sodium citrate and ethylene glycol 1:1, and followed by washing with water and drying. Parameters investigated in this study consisted of the stability test of the immobilized HA, as well as the rate constant ( k1), capacity ( b), and energy ( E) of sorption as well as the rate constant of desorption ( k-1). The k1 and k-1 were determined according to a kinetic model of first order sorption reaching equilibrium, while the b and E

  10. Cone-beam computed tomography based evaluation of rotational patterns of dentofacial structures in skeletal Class III deformity with mandibular asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyeong-Seok; An, Ki-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess rotational patterns of dentofacial structures according to different vertical skeletal patterns by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and analyze their influence on menton deviation in skeletal Class III deformity with mandibular asymmetry. Methods The control group consisted of 30 young adults (15 men, 15 women) without any severe skeletal deformity. The asymmetry group included 55 adults (28 men, 27 women) with skeletal Class III deformity and at least 3-mm menton deviation from the midsagittal plane; it was divided into the hyperdivergent and hypodivergent subgroups using a mandibular plane angle cutoff of 35°. Fourteen rotational variables of the dental arches and mandible were measured and compared among the groups. Correlations between menton deviation and the other variables were evaluated. Results The asymmetry group showed significantly larger measurements of roll and yaw in the mandible than the control group. The hypodivergent subgroup showed significant differences in maxillary posterior measurements of yaw (p < 0.01) and maxillary anterior shift (p < 0.05) compared with the hyperdivergent subgroup. All the mandibular measurements had significant correlations with menton deviation (p < 0.01). Most measurements of roll were positively correlated with one another (p < 0.01). Measurements of yaw and roll in the posterior regions were also positively correlated (p < 0.05). Conclusions Menton deviation in skeletal Class III deformity with mandibular asymmetry is influenced by rotation of mandibular posterior dentofacial structures. The rotational patterns vary slightly according to the vertical skeletal pattern. PMID:26258061

  11. Evolution of HLA class II molecules: Allelic and amino acid site variability across populations.

    PubMed Central

    Salamon, H; Klitz, W; Easteal, S; Gao, X; Erlich, H A; Fernandez-Viña, M; Trachtenberg, E A; McWeeney, S K; Nelson, M P; Thomson, G

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the highly polymorphic beta1 domains of the HLA class II molecules encoded by the DRB1, DQB1, and DPB1 loci reveals contrasting levels of diversity at the allele and amino acid site levels. Statistics of allele frequency distributions, based on Watterson's homozygosity statistic F, reveal distinct evolutionary patterns for these loci in ethnically diverse samples (26 populations for DQB1 and DRB1 and 14 for DPB1). When examined over all populations, the DQB1 locus allelic variation exhibits striking balanced polymorphism (P < 10(-4)), DRB1 shows some evidence of balancing selection (P < 0.06), and while there is overall very little evidence for selection of DPB1 allele frequencies, there is a trend in the direction of balancing selection (P < 0.08). In contrast, at the amino acid level all three loci show strong evidence of balancing selection at some sites. Averaged over polymorphic amino acid sites, DQB1 and DPB1 show similar deviation from neutrality expectations, and both exhibit more balanced polymorphic amino acid sites than DRB1. Across ethnic groups, polymorphisms at many codons show evidence for balancing selection, yet data consistent with directional selection were observed at other codons. Both antigen-binding pocket- and non-pocket-forming amino acid sites show overall deviation from neutrality for all three loci. Only in the case of DRB1 was there a significant difference between pocket- and non-pocket-forming amino acid sites. Our findings indicate that balancing selection at the MHC occurs at the level of polymorphic amino acid residues, and that in many cases this selection is consistent across populations. PMID:10224269

  12. Influence of phenolic acids on indole acetic acid production and on the type III secretion system gene transcription in food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05.

    PubMed

    Myszka, Kamila; Schmidt, Marcin T; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Leja, Katarzyna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate the reduction capability of phenolic acids (ferulic, chlorogenic, gallic, and p-coumaric acids) on indole acetic acid synthesis by food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05. Specific genetic primer for the type III secretion system (TTSS) in P. fluorescens KM05 was designed and the influence of phenolic acids on its expression was investigated. In the work the ferulic and chlorogenic acids at the concentration of 0.02 and 0.04 μg/ml affected on bacterial growth pattern and the signal molecules production. The phenolic acids, that were appreciable effective against P. fluorescens KM05 indole acetic acid production, significantly suppressed TTSS gene. PMID:24994472

  13. Molecular analysis of two cDNA clones encoding acidic class I chitinase in maize.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, S; Kriz, A L; Widholm, J M

    1994-01-01

    The cloning and analysis of two different cDNA clones encoding putative maize (Zea mays L.) chitinases obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cDNA library screening is described. The cDNA library was made from poly(A)+ RNA from leaves challenged with mercuric chloride for 2 d. The two clones, pCh2 and pCh11, appear to encode class I chitinase isoforms with cysteine-rich domains (not found in pCh11 due to the incomplete sequence) and proline-/glycine-rich or proline-rich hinge domains, respectively. The pCh11 clone resembles a previously reported maize seed chitinase; however, the deduced proteins were found to have acidic isoelectric points. Analysis of all monocot chitinase sequences available to date shows that not all class I chitinases possess the basic isoelectric points usually found in dicotyledonous plants and that monocot class II chitinases do not necessarily exhibit acidic isoelectric points. Based on sequence analysis, the pCh2 protein is apparently synthesized as a precursor polypeptide with a signal peptide. Although these two clones belong to class I chitinases, they share only about 70% amino acid homology in the catalytic domain region. Southern blot analysis showed that pCh2 may be encoded by a small gene family, whereas pCh11 was single copy. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that these genes are differentially regulated by mercuric chloride treatment. Mercuric chloride treatment caused rapid induction of pCh2 from 6 to 48 h, whereas pCh11 responded only slightly to the same treatment. During seed germination, embryos constitutively expressed both chitinase genes and the phytohormone abscisic acid had no effect on the expression. The fungus Aspergillus flavus was able to induce both genes to comparable levels in aleurone layers and embryos but not in endosperm tissue. Maize callus growth on the same plate with A. flavus for 1 week showed induction of the transcripts corresponding to pCh2 but not to pCh11. These studies indicate that

  14. Luminescence properties of compounds of europium(III) with quinaldic acid and phosphor-containing neutral ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinovskaya, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    Luminescent complex mixed-ligand compounds of europium(III) with quinaldic acid and phosphor- containing neutral ligands have been obtained. Their composition and structure have been determined. The thermal and spectral-luminescent properties of the obtained complex mixed-ligand compounds of europium( III) have been studied. It is shown that, during thermolysis, a water molecule and neutral ligand are detached in two stages with endothermic effects. It is established that quinaldinate ion is coordinated to europium(III) ion in a bidentate fashion. The Stark structure of the 5 D 0-7 F j ( j = 0, 1, 2) transitions in low-temperature luminescence spectra of complex compounds of europium(III) has been analyzed.

  15. Liquid-liquid extraction separation of iron (III) with 2-ethyl hexyl phosphonic acid mono 2-ethyl hexyl ester.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, J; Dhadke, P M

    1997-07-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction separation of iron(III) with 2-ethyl hexyl phosphonic acid mono 2-ethyl hexyl ester (PC-88A) in toluene has been studied. Quantitative extraction of iron(III) with 5 x 10(-3) M PC-88A in toluene is observed in the pH range 0.75-2.5. From the extracted complex species in the organic phase iron(III) was stripped with 1-4 M HNO(3), 1.5-4 M H(2)SO(4) and 1.5-4 M HCl, and later determined spectrophotometrically by thiocyanate method. Separation of iron(III) was carried out with some of the first transition metals in binary and multicomponent mixtures. This method was extended for the determination of iron in real samples. PMID:18966864

  16. Hydrophobic amino acids as a new class of kinetic inhibitors for gas hydrate formation.

    PubMed

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Lee, Bo Ram; Park, Da-Hye; Han, Kunwoo; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2013-01-01

    As the foundation of energy industry moves towards gas, flow assurance technology preventing pipelines from hydrate blockages becomes increasingly significant. However, the principle of hydrate inhibition is still poorly understood. Here, we examined natural hydrophobic amino acids as novel kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs), and investigated hydrate inhibition phenomena by using them as a model system. Amino acids with lower hydrophobicity were found to be better KHIs to delay nucleation and retard growth, working by disrupting the water hydrogen bond network, while those with higher hydrophobicity strengthened the local water structure. It was found that perturbation of the water structure around KHIs plays a critical role in hydrate inhibition. This suggestion of a new class of KHIs will aid development of KHIs with enhanced biodegradability, and the present findings will accelerate the improved control of hydrate formation for natural gas exploitation and the utilization of hydrates as next-generation gas capture media. PMID:23938301

  17. Hydrophobic amino acids as a new class of kinetic inhibitors for gas hydrate formation

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Lee, Bo Ram; Park, Da-Hye; Han, Kunwoo; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2013-01-01

    As the foundation of energy industry moves towards gas, flow assurance technology preventing pipelines from hydrate blockages becomes increasingly significant. However, the principle of hydrate inhibition is still poorly understood. Here, we examined natural hydrophobic amino acids as novel kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs), and investigated hydrate inhibition phenomena by using them as a model system. Amino acids with lower hydrophobicity were found to be better KHIs to delay nucleation and retard growth, working by disrupting the water hydrogen bond network, while those with higher hydrophobicity strengthened the local water structure. It was found that perturbation of the water structure around KHIs plays a critical role in hydrate inhibition. This suggestion of a new class of KHIs will aid development of KHIs with enhanced biodegradability, and the present findings will accelerate the improved control of hydrate formation for natural gas exploitation and the utilization of hydrates as next-generation gas capture media. PMID:23938301

  18. Hydrophobic amino acids as a new class of kinetic inhibitors for gas hydrate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Lee, Bo Ram; Park, Da-Hye; Han, Kunwoo; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2013-08-01

    As the foundation of energy industry moves towards gas, flow assurance technology preventing pipelines from hydrate blockages becomes increasingly significant. However, the principle of hydrate inhibition is still poorly understood. Here, we examined natural hydrophobic amino acids as novel kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs), and investigated hydrate inhibition phenomena by using them as a model system. Amino acids with lower hydrophobicity were found to be better KHIs to delay nucleation and retard growth, working by disrupting the water hydrogen bond network, while those with higher hydrophobicity strengthened the local water structure. It was found that perturbation of the water structure around KHIs plays a critical role in hydrate inhibition. This suggestion of a new class of KHIs will aid development of KHIs with enhanced biodegradability, and the present findings will accelerate the improved control of hydrate formation for natural gas exploitation and the utilization of hydrates as next-generation gas capture media.

  19. IK independent class III actions of MS-551 compared with sematilide and dofetilide during reperfusion in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Komori, S.; Li, B.; Tamura, K.; Hashimoto, K.

    1996-01-01

    1. The antiarrhythmic and haemodynamic effects of three class III antiarrhythmic drugs, MS-551, sematilide and dofetilide, were examined in the coronary artery, ligation-reperfusion model of pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rats, a species deficient in functional cardiac IK. MS-551 is a non-selective potassium channel blocker, while both sematilide and dofetilide are selective delayed rectifier potassium (K) channel (IK) blockers. 2. Before coronary ligation, 3 and 10 mg kg-1 MS-551 decreased the heart rate by 6% (P < 0.01) and 12% (P < 0.01), and increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) by 14% (P < 0.05) and 33% (P < 0.01), respectively. Sematilide at 10 and 30 mg kg-1 also decreased the heart rate by 4% (P < 0.01) and 9% (P < 0.01), respectively, and the higher dose of 30 mg kg-1 decreased MAP by 29% (P < 0.01). Dofetilide, 1 mg kg-1, decreased the heart rate (P < 0.01), but had no significant effect on MAP. 3. The QT interval was increased by 10% (P < 0.01) and 31% (P < 0.01), when 3 and 10 mg kg-1 MS-551 were given. Sematilide and dofetilide had no effect on the QT interval. 4. Immediately after reperfusion, lethal ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced in 80% of the saline group. MS-551 at 3 and 10 mg kg-1, reduced the incidence of lethal VF to 50% and 20% (P < 0.05). Neither dofetilide 1 mg kg-1 nor sematilide (10 and 30 mg kg-1) decreased the incidence of lethal VF (70%, 80% and 50%, respectively). None of the three drugs had any effect on the occurrence of reperfusion-induced VT or the total incidence of VF. However, 10 mg kg-1 MS-551 delayed the onset of reperfusion-induced VF (27 +/- 5 s compared with 12 +/- 2 s of the control group, P < 0.05). 5. In conclusion, in rats which are deficient in cardiac IK MS-551 prolonged the QT interval and reduced the incidence of sustained VF after reperfusion. Blockade of channels other than IK might participate in the defibrillatory effect of MS-551. Sematilide and dofetilide, which are selective IK blockers, did not

  20. Fluorescence quenching and bonding properties of some hydroxamic acid derivatives by iron(III) and manganese(II).

    PubMed

    Senthilnithy, R; De Costa, M D P; Gunawardhana, H D

    2009-01-01

    Spectrophotometric investigations of highly fluorescent metal chelating molecules are of relevance due to their potential application in novel, selective fluorescence-based sensors. Benzene and naphthalene chromophores are highly fluorescent while hydroxamic acids are widely used as ligands for complexation of transition metals. In order to develop fluorescence probes, several phenyl derivatives of N-phenylbenzohydroxamic acid and an aminodihydroxamic acid linked with a naphthalene chromophore were synthesized and their selective ionophoric properties towards iron(III) and manganese(II) ions were investigated using fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. Both methods confirm the formation of 1:1 and 1:2 complexes for iron(III) and a 1:1 complex for manganese(II). The complex that is formed depends on the concentration of the ligand and pH of the medium. The amino dihydroxamic acid exhibits a prominent selectivity towards iron(III) with a two-step 1:1 and 1:2 quenching mechanism at pH 3 and towards manganese(II) with a 1:1 quenching mechanism at a probe concentration of 1 x 10(-5) mol dm(-3) at pH 9.5 The logarithm of overall formation constants of 1:1 and 1:2 complexes of iron(III) were estimated as 3.30 and 9.05, respectively. PMID:18800360

  1. Raman spectroscopy of the system iron(III)-sulfuric acid-water: an approach to Tinto River's (Spain) hydrogeochemistry.

    PubMed

    Sobron, P; Rull, F; Sobron, F; Sanz, A; Medina, J; Nielsen, C J

    2007-12-15

    Acid mine drainage is formed when pyrite (FeS(2)) is exposed and reacts with air and water to form sulfuric acid and dissolved iron. Tinto River (Huelva, Spain) is an example of this phenomenon. In this study, Raman spectroscopy has been used to investigate the speciation of the system iron(III)-sulfuric acid-water as an approach to Tinto River's aqueous solutions. The molalities of sulfuric acid (0.09 mol/kg) and iron(III) (0.01-1.5 mol/kg) were chosen to mimic the concentration of the species in Tinto River waters. Raman spectra of the solutions reveal a strong iron(III)-sulfate inner-sphere interaction through the nu(1) sulfate band at 981 cm(-1) and its shoulder at 1005 cm(-1). Iron(III)-sulfate interaction may also be facilitated by hydrogen bonds and monitored in the Raman spectra through the symmetric stretching band of bisulfate at 1052 cm(-1) and a shoulder at 1040 cm(-1). Other bands in the low-frequency region of the Raman spectra are attributed to the hydrogen-bonded complexes formation as well. PMID:17869164

  2. Ionic Strength Effect on the Rate of Reduction of Hexacyanoferrate (III) by Ascorbic Acid: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Kenneth W.; Olson, June A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a physical chemistry experiment that allows students to test the effect of ionic strength on the rates of a reaction between ions. The reduction of hexacyanoferrate III by ascorbic acid is detailed. Comparisons with the iodine clock reaction are made. (CS)

  3. Functional and computational analysis of amino acid patterns predictive of type III secretion system substrates in Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial type III secretion systems (T3SSs) deliver proteins called effectors into eukaryotic cells. Although N-terminal amino acid sequences are required for translocation, the mechanism of substrate recognition by the T3SS is unknown. Almost all actively deployed T3SS substrates in the plant path...

  4. Inhibition of iron corrosion in sulfuric acid at elevated temperatures by bismuth(III) compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, K.; Nishihara, H.; Aramaki, K.

    1997-09-01

    Inhibition effects of bismuth(III) chloride (BiCl{sub 3}), bismuth(III) iodide (BiI{sub 3}), and a mixture of BiI{sub 3} and benzyl thiocyanate (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 2}SCN or BTC) on corrosion of iron (Fe) in 0.5 M sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) at elevated temperatures were investigated using polarization measurements. The film formed on the Fe surface was analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Because the anodic process of Fe corrosion was not suppressed, BiCl{sub 3} was an ineffective inhibitor at > 70 C. Since the anodic process was inhibited by specific adsorption of I{sup {minus}}, BiI{sub 3} at 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M was highly efficient for inhibition of Fe corrosion in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 90 C. The synergistic inhibitory effect of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M BiI{sub 3} and 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M BTC resulted in a significantly high inhibitor efficiency (I{sub eff}) of 99.1% for Fe corrosion in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 90 C. The cathodic process was suppressed by covering most of the surface with metallic bismuth (Bi). The anodic process was inhibited by coverage with the oxidative addition product of BTC at small spots uncoated with the Bi layer.

  5. Synergistic selective extraction of actinides(III) over lanthanides from nitric acid using new aromatic diorganyldithiophosphinic acids and neutral organophosphorus compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Modolo, G.; Odoj, R.

    1999-01-01

    New aromatic dithiophosphinic acids (R{sub 2}PSSH) with R = C{sub 6}H{sub 5{sup {minus}}}, ClC{sub 6}H{sub 4{sup {minus}}}, FC{sub 6}H{sub 4{sup {minus}}} and CH{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 4{sup {minus}}} were synthesized, characterized and tested as potential separating agents for trivalent actinides over lanthanides. The extraction of Am(III), Eu(III) and other lanthanides was carried out from nitric acid medium with mixtures of R{sub 2}PSSHs and neutral organophosphorus compounds. There was no detectable extraction when R{sub 2}PSSHs were used alone as extractants for either Am(III) or Eu(III) (D{sub Am,Eu} < 10{sup {minus}3}) under the experimental conditions used in this study. High separation factors (D{sub Am}/D{sub Eu} > 20) with D{sub Am} > 1 were achieved in the nitric acid range 0.1--1 mol/L by means of a synergistic mixture of bis(chlorophenyl)dithiophosphinic acid + tributylphosphate (TBP), trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or tributylphosphine oxide (TBPO). The high radiation resistance (up to 10{sup 6} Gy absorbed {gamma}-doses) of the extractants was also demonstrated.

  6. Retention Mechanisms of Citric Acid in Ternary Kaolinite-Fe(III)-Citrate Acid Systems Using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. These findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils.

  7. Retention Mechanisms of Citric Acid in Ternary Kaolinite-Fe(III)-Citrate Acid Systems Using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. These findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils. PMID:27212680

  8. Retention Mechanisms of Citric Acid in Ternary Kaolinite-Fe(III)-Citrate Acid Systems Using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. These findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils. PMID:27212680

  9. HLA class II DR-DQ amino acids and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Application of the haplotype method

    SciTech Connect

    Valdes, A.M.; McWeeney, S.; Thomson, G.

    1997-03-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) HLA class III DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 data from four populations (Norwegian, Sardinian, Mexican American, and Taiwanese) have been analyzed to detect the amino acids involved in the disease process. The combination of sites DRB1 No. 67 and 86; DQA1 No. 47; and DQB1 No. 9, 26, 57, and 70 predicts the IDDM component in these four populations, when the results and criteria of the haplotype method for amino acids, developed in the companion paper in this issue of the journal, are used. The following sites, either individually, or in various combinations, previously have been suggested as IDDM components: DRB1 No. 57, 70, 71, and 86; DQA1 No. 52; and DQB1 No. 13, 45, and 57 (DQB1 No. 13 and 45 correlates 100% with DQB1 No. 9 and 26). We propose that DQA1 No. 47 is a better predictor of IDDM than is the previously suggested DQA1 No. 52, and we add DRB1 No. 67 and DQB1 No. 70 to the HLA DR-DQ IDDM amino acids. We do not claim to have identified all HLA DR-DQ amino acids - or highly correlated sites - involved in IDDM. The frequencies and predisposing/protective effects of the haplotypes defined by these seven sites have been compared, and the effects on IDDM are consistent across the populations. The strongest susceptible effects came from haplotypes DRB1*0301/DQA1*0501/ DQB1*0201 and DRB1*0401-5-7-8/DQA1*0301/DQB1*0302. The number of strong protective haplotypes observed was larger than the number of susceptible ones; some of the predisposing haplotypes were present in only one or two populations. Although the sites under consideration do not necessarily have a functional involvement in IDDM, they should be highly associated with such sites and should prove to be useful in risk assessment. 48 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Association between Class III Obesity (BMI of 40–59 kg/m2) and Mortality: A Pooled Analysis of 20 Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Cari M.; Flint, Alan J.; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Bernstein, Leslie; Brotzman, Michelle; MacInnis, Robert J.; Moore, Steven C.; Robien, Kim; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Singh, Pramil N.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Adami, Hans Olov; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Buring, Julie E.; Freedman, D. Michal; Fraser, Gary E.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaziano, John Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Håkansson, Niclas; Hoppin, Jane A.; Hu, Frank B.; Koenig, Karen; Linet, Martha S.; Park, Yikyung; Patel, Alpa V.; Purdue, Mark P.; Schairer, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D.; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Hartge, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of class III obesity (body mass index [BMI]≥40 kg/m2) has increased dramatically in several countries and currently affects 6% of adults in the US, with uncertain impact on the risks of illness and death. Using data from a large pooled study, we evaluated the risk of death, overall and due to a wide range of causes, and years of life expectancy lost associated with class III obesity. Methods and Findings In a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies from the United States, Sweden, and Australia, we estimated sex- and age-adjusted total and cause-specific mortality rates (deaths per 100,000 persons per year) and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for adults, aged 19–83 y at baseline, classified as obese class III (BMI 40.0–59.9 kg/m2) compared with those classified as normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2). Participants reporting ever smoking cigarettes or a history of chronic disease (heart disease, cancer, stroke, or emphysema) on baseline questionnaires were excluded. Among 9,564 class III obesity participants, mortality rates were 856.0 in men and 663.0 in women during the study period (1976–2009). Among 304,011 normal-weight participants, rates were 346.7 and 280.5 in men and women, respectively. Deaths from heart disease contributed largely to the excess rates in the class III obesity group (rate differences = 238.9 and 132.8 in men and women, respectively), followed by deaths from cancer (rate differences = 36.7 and 62.3 in men and women, respectively) and diabetes (rate differences = 51.2 and 29.2 in men and women, respectively). Within the class III obesity range, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for total deaths and deaths due to heart disease, cancer, diabetes, nephritis/nephrotic syndrome/nephrosis, chronic lower respiratory disease, and influenza/pneumonia increased with increasing BMI. Compared with normal-weight BMI, a BMI of 40–44.9, 45–49.9, 50–54.9, and 55–59.9 kg/m2 was associated with an

  11. Circulating nucleic acids: a new class of physiological mobile genetic elements

    PubMed Central

    Mittra, Indraneel

    2015-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements play a major role in shaping biotic genomes and bringing about evolutionary transformations. Herein, a new class of mobile genetic elements is proposed in the form of circulating nucleic acids (CNAs) derived from the billions of cells that die in the body every day due to normal physiology and that act intra-corporeally. A recent study shows that CNAs can freely enter into healthy cells, integrate into their genomes by a unique mechanism and cause damage to their DNA. Being ubiquitous and continuously arising, CNA-induced DNA damage may be the underlying cause of ageing, ageing-related disabilities and the ultimate demise of the organism. Thus, DNA seems to act in the paradoxical roles of both preserver and destroyer of life. This new class of mobile genetic element may be relevant not only to multi-cellular organisms with established circulatory systems, but also to other multi-cellular organisms in which intra-corporeal mobility of nucleic acids may be mediated via the medium of extra-cellular fluid. PMID:26664710

  12. Characterization of a Unique Class C Acid Phosphatase from Clostridium perfringens▿

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Thomas J.; Chance, Deborah L.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J.; Felts, Richard L.; Waller, Stephen C.; Henzl, Michael T.; Mawhinney, Thomas P.; Ganjam, Irene K.; Fales, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive anaerobe and a pathogen of medical importance. The detection of acid phosphatase activity is a powerful diagnostic indicator of the presence of C. perfringens among anaerobic isolates; however, characterization of the enzyme has not previously been reported. Provided here are details of the characterization of a soluble recombinant form of this cell-associated enzyme. The denatured enzyme was ∼31 kDa and a homodimer in solution. It catalyzed the hydrolysis of several substrates, including para-nitrophenyl phosphate, 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate, and 3′ and 5′ nucleoside monophosphates at pH 6. Calculated Kms ranged from 0.2 to 0.6 mM with maximum velocity ranging from 0.8 to 1.6 μmol of Pi/s/mg. Activity was enhanced in the presence of some divalent cations but diminished in the presence of others. Wild-type enzyme was detected in all clinical C. perfringens isolates tested and found to be cell associated. The described enzyme belongs to nonspecific acid phosphatase class C but is devoid of lipid modification commonly attributed to this class. PMID:19363079

  13. Spectrophotometric method for the determination of sorbic acid in various food samples with iron(III) and 2-thiobarbituric acid as reagents.

    PubMed

    Lau, O W; Luk, S F; Lam, R K

    1989-02-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of sorbic acid in various food samples based on the oxidation of sorbic acid by iron(III) at 100 degrees C to malonaldehyde, which then reacts with 2-thiobarbituric acid to form a reddish brown product. The optimum experimental conditions for colour development have been assessed. Absorbance measurements were made at 529 nm in the presence of 0.4% m/V citric acid. The calibration graph was linear for 0-6 micrograms ml-1 of sorbic acid with a slope of 0.131 A micrograms-1 ml. The recoveries of sorbic acid at concentrations of 164-557 micrograms ml-1 ranged from 96 to 103%. The relative standard deviations of ten replicate determinations of sorbic acid in a synthetic cream soda sample spiked with 573 micrograms ml-1 of sorbic acid and in an onion juice sample containing 82 micrograms ml-1 of sorbic acid were 1.6 and 1.9%, respectively. Interferences from several common food additives can be minimised by extracting sorbic acid with diethyl ether and then back-extracting the acid with sodium hydrogen carbonate. The method has been applied successfully to the determination of sorbic acid in a wide range of food samples including beverages, cake, cake mate, garlic bread sprinkle, onion juice, oyster flavoured sauce and grenadine syrup. PMID:2712320

  14. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system

    DOEpatents

    Balazs, G.B.; Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Nelson, N.; Steward, G.A.

    1999-06-15

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO[sub 2]. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement. 2 figs.

  15. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system

    DOEpatents

    Balazs, G. Bryan; Chiba, Zoher; Lewis, Patricia R.; Nelson, Norvell; Steward, G. Anthony

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO.sub.2. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement.

  16. Benzyl and Methyl Fatty Hydroxamic Acids Based on Palm Kernel Oil as Chelating Agent for Liquid-Liquid Iron(III) Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Haron, Md Jelas; Jahangirian, Hossein; Silong, Sidik; Yusof, Nor Azah; Kassim, Anuar; Rafiee-Moghaddam, Roshanak; Mahdavi, Behnam; Peyda, Mazyar; Abdollahi, Yadollah; Amin, Jamileh

    2012-01-01

    Liquid-liquid iron(III) extraction was investigated using benzyl fatty hydroxamic acids (BFHAs) and methyl fatty hydroxamic acids (MFHAs) as chelating agents through the formation of iron(III) methyl fatty hydroxamate (Fe-MFHs) or iron(III) benzyl fatty hydroxamate (Fe-BFHs) in the organic phase. The results obtained under optimized conditions, showed that the chelating agents in hexane extract iron(III) at pH 1.9 were realized effectively with a high percentage of extraction (97.2% and 98.1% for MFHAs and BFHAs, respectively). The presence of a large amount of Mg(II), Ni(II), Al(III), Mn(II) and Co(II) ions did affect the iron(III) extraction. Finally stripping studies for recovering iron(III) from organic phase (Fe-MFHs or Fe-BFHs dissolved in hexane) were carried out at various concentrations of HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4. The results showed that the desired acid for recovery of iron(III) was 5 M HCl and quantitative recovery of iron(III) was achieved from Fe(III)-MFHs and Fe(III)-BFHs solutions in hexane containing 5 mg/L of Fe(III). PMID:22408444

  17. Chemical sporulation and germination: cytoprotective nanocoating of individual mammalian cells with a degradable tannic acid-FeIII complex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juno; Cho, Hyeoncheol; Choi, Jinsu; Kim, Doyeon; Hong, Daewha; Park, Ji Hun; Yang, Sung Ho; Choi, Insung S

    2015-12-01

    Individual mammalian cells were coated with cytoprotective and degradable films by cytocompatible processes maintaining the cell viability. Three types of mammalian cells (HeLa, NIH 3T3, and Jurkat cells) were coated with a metal-organic complex of tannic acid (TA) and ferric ion, and the TA-Fe(III) nanocoat effectively protected the coated mammalian cells against UV-C irradiation and a toxic compound. More importantly, the cell proliferation was controlled by programmed formation and degradation of the TA-Fe(III) nanocoat, mimicking the sporulation and germination processes found in nature. PMID:26528931

  18. Exposure to monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}) leads to altered selenoprotein synthesis in a primary human lung cell model

    SciTech Connect

    Meno, Sarah R.; Nelson, Rebecca; Hintze, Korry J.; Self, William T.

    2009-09-01

    Monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}), a trivalent metabolite of arsenic, is highly cytotoxic and recent cell culture studies suggest that it might act as a carcinogen. The general consensus of studies indicates that the cytotoxicity of MMA{sup III} is a result of increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A longstanding relationship between arsenic and selenium metabolism has led to the use of selenium as a supplement in arsenic exposed populations, however the impact of organic arsenicals (methylated metabolites) on selenium metabolism is still poorly understood. In this study we determined the impact of exposure to MMA{sup III} on the regulation of expression of TrxR1 and its activity using a primary lung fibroblast line, WI-38. The promoter region of the gene encoding the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) contains an antioxidant responsive element (ARE) that has been shown to be activated in the presence of electrophilic compounds. Results from radiolabeled selenoproteins indicate that exposure to low concentrations of MMA{sup III} resulted in increased synthesis of TrxR1 in WI-38 cells, and lower incorporation of selenium into other selenoproteins. MMA{sup III} treatment led to increased mRNA encoding TrxR1 in WI-38 cells, while lower levels of mRNA coding for cellular glutathione peroxidase (cGpx) were detected in exposed cells. Luciferase activity of TrxR1 promoter fusions increased with addition of MMA{sup III}, as did expression of a rat quinone reductase (QR) promoter fusion construct. However, MMA{sup III} induction of the TRX1 promoter fusion was abrogated when the ARE was mutated, suggesting that this regulation is mediated via the ARE. These results indicate that MMA{sup III} alters the expression of selenoproteins based on a selective induction of TrxR1, and this response to exposure to organic arsenicals that requires the ARE element.

  19. Strategic camouflage treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion (mandibular prognathism) using bone-borne rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular anterior subapical osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yu-Jin; Lin, Lu; Kim, Seong-Hun; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Nelson, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    This case report presents the camouflage treatment that successfully improved the facial profile of a patient with a skeletal Class III malocclusion using bone-borne rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular anterior subapical osteotomy. The patient was an 18-year-old woman with chief complaints of crooked teeth and a protruded jaw. Camouflage treatment was chosen because she rejected orthognathic surgery under general anesthesia. A hybrid type of bone-borne rapid maxillary expander with palatal mini-implants was used to correct the transverse discrepancy, and a mandibular anterior subapical osteotomy was conducted to achieve proper overjet with normal incisal inclination and to improve her lip and chin profile. As a result, a Class I occlusion with a favorable inclination of the anterior teeth and a good esthetic profile was achieved with no adverse effects. Therefore, the hybrid type of bone-borne rapid maxillary expander and a mandibular anterior subapical osteotomy can be considered effective camouflage treatment of a skeletal Class III malocclusion, providing improved inclination of the dentition and lip profile. PMID:26718385

  20. Differential Utilization of TATA Box-binding Protein (TBP) and TBP-related Factor 1 (TRF1) at Different Classes of RNA Polymerase III Promoters*

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Neha; Hung, Ko-Hsuan; Kang, Jin Joo; Barakat, Nermeen H.; Stumph, William E.

    2013-01-01

    In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, RNA polymerase III transcription was found to be dependent not upon the canonical TATA box-binding protein (TBP) but instead upon the TBP-related factor 1 (TRF1) (Takada, S., Lis, J. T., Zhou, S., and Tjian, R. (2000) Cell 101, 459–469). Here we confirm that transcription of fly tRNA genes requires TRF1. However, we unexpectedly find that U6 snRNA gene promoters are occupied primarily by TBP in cells and that knockdown of TBP, but not TRF1, inhibits U6 transcription in cells. Moreover, U6 transcription in vitro effectively utilizes TBP, whereas TBP cannot substitute for TRF1 to promote tRNA transcription in vitro. Thus, in fruit flies, different classes of RNA polymerase III promoters differentially utilize TBP and TRF1 for the initiation of transcription. PMID:23955442

  1. Phosphatidic acid is a major phospholipid class in reproductive organs of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Yunus, Ian Sofian; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Liu, Yu-chi; Lin, Ying-Chen; Wenk, Markus R; Nakamura, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids are the crucial components of biological membranes and signal transduction. Among different tissues, flower phospholipids are one of the least characterized features of plant lipidome. Here, we report that floral reproductive organs of Arabidopsis thaliana contain high levels of phosphatidic acid (PA), a known lipid second messenger. By using floral homeotic mutants enriched with specific floral organs, lipidomics study showed increased levels of PA species in ap3-3 mutant with enriched pistils. Accompanied gene expression study for 7 diacylglycerol kinases and 11 PA phosphatases revealed distinct floral organ specificity, suggesting an active phosphorylation/dephosphorylation between PA and diacylglycerol in flowers. Our results suggest that PA is a major phospholipid class in floral reproductive organs of A. thaliana. PMID:26179579

  2. Increased carotid intima-media thickness and reduced distensibility in human class III obesity: independent and differential influences of adiposity and blood pressure on the vasculature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Xiao L; Michell, Danielle; Lee, Sabrina; Skilton, Michael R; Nair, Rajesh; Dixon, John B; Dart, Anthony M; Chin-Dusting, Jaye

    2013-01-01

    Carotid intima-media-thickness (cIMT) and carotid distensibility (distensibility), structural and functional properties of carotid arteries respectively, are early markers, as well as strong predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The characteristic of these two parameters in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2) (Class III obesity), however, are largely unknown. The present study was designed to document cIMT and distensibility in this population and to relate these to other factors with established association with CVD in obesity. The study included 96 subjects (65 with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2) and 31, age- and gender-matched, with BMI of 18.5 to 30.0 kg/m(2)). cIMT and distensibility were measured by non-invasive high resolution ultrasonography, circulatory CD133(+)/KDR(+) angiogenic cells and endothelial microparticles (EMP) by flow cytometry, and plasma levels of adipokines, growth factors and cytokines by Luminex immunoassay kits. The study results demonstrated increased cIMT (0.62±0.11 mm vs. 0.54±0.08 mm, P = 0.0002) and reduced distensibility (22.52±10.79 10(-3)kpa(-1)vs. 29.91±12.37 10(-3)kpa(-1), P<0.05) in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2). Both cIMT and distensibility were significantly associated with traditional CVD risk factors, adiposity/adipokines and inflammatory markers but had no association with circulating angiogenic cells. We also demonstrated, for the first time, elevated plasma EMP levels in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2). In conclusion, cIMT is increased and distensibility reduced in Class III obesity with the changes predominantly related to conventional CVD risk factors present in this condition, demonstrating that both cIMT and distensibility remain as CVD markers in Class III obesity. PMID:23342053

  3. Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Reduced Distensibility in Human Class III Obesity: Independent and Differential Influences of Adiposity and Blood Pressure on the Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Xiao L.; Michell, Danielle; Lee, Sabrina; Skilton, Michael R.; Nair, Rajesh; Dixon, John B.; Dart, Anthony M.; Chin-Dusting, Jaye

    2013-01-01

    Carotid intima-media-thickness (cIMT) and carotid distensibility (distensibility), structural and functional properties of carotid arteries respectively, are early markers, as well as strong predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The characteristic of these two parameters in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m2 (Class III obesity), however, are largely unknown. The present study was designed to document cIMT and distensibility in this population and to relate these to other factors with established association with CVD in obesity. The study included 96 subjects (65 with BMI>40.0 kg/m2 and 31, age- and gender-matched, with BMI of 18.5 to 30.0 kg/m2). cIMT and distensibility were measured by non-invasive high resolution ultrasonography, circulatory CD133+/KDR+ angiogenic cells and endothelial microparticles (EMP) by flow cytometry, and plasma levels of adipokines, growth factors and cytokines by Luminex immunoassay kits. The study results demonstrated increased cIMT (0.62±0.11 mm vs. 0.54±0.08 mm, P = 0.0002) and reduced distensibility (22.52±10.79 10−3kpa−1 vs. 29.91±12.37 10−3kpa−1, P<0.05) in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m2. Both cIMT and distensibility were significantly associated with traditional CVD risk factors, adiposity/adipokines and inflammatory markers but had no association with circulating angiogenic cells. We also demonstrated, for the first time, elevated plasma EMP levels in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m2. In conclusion, cIMT is increased and distensibility reduced in Class III obesity with the changes predominantly related to conventional CVD risk factors present in this condition, demonstrating that both cIMT and distensibility remain as CVD markers in Class III obesity. PMID:23342053

  4. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Assessment of Lower Facial Asymmetry in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate and Non-Cleft Patients with Class III Skeletal Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yifan; Chen, Gui; Fu, Zhen; Ma, Lian; Li, Weiran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), both the condylar-fossa relationships and the mandibular and condylar asymmetries between unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients and non-cleft patients with class III skeletal relationship, and to investigate the factors of asymmetry contributing to chin deviation. Methods The UCLP and non-cleft groups consisted of 30 and 40 subjects, respectively, in mixed dentition with class III skeletal relationships. Condylar-fossa relationships and the dimensional and positional asymmetries of the condyles and mandibles were examined using CBCT. Intra-group differences were compared between two sides in both groups using a paired t-test. Furthermore, correlations between each measurement and chin deviation were assessed. Results It was observed that 90% of UCLP and 67.5% of non-cleft subjects had both condyles centered, and no significant asymmetry was found. The axial angle and the condylar center distances to the midsagittal plane were significantly greater on the cleft side than on the non-cleft side (P=0.001 and P=0.028, respectively) and were positively correlated with chin deviation in the UCLP group. Except for a larger gonial angle on the cleft side, the two groups presented with consistent asymmetries showing shorter mandibular bodies and total mandibular lengths on the cleft (deviated) side. The average chin deviation was 1.63 mm to the cleft side, and the average absolute chin deviation was significantly greater in the UCLP group than in the non-cleft group (P=0.037). Conclusion Compared with non-cleft subjects with similar class III skeletal relationships, the subjects with UCLP showed more severe lower facial asymmetry. The subjects with UCLP presented with more asymmetrical positions and rotations of the condyles on axial slices, which were positively correlated with chin deviation. PMID:26237311

  5. Improving protein fold recognition and structural class prediction accuracies using physicochemical properties of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Raicar, Gaurav; Saini, Harsh; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Lal, Sunil; Sharma, Alok

    2016-08-01

    Predicting the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of a protein is an important task in the field of bioinformatics and biological sciences. However, directly predicting the 3-D structure from the primary structure is hard to achieve. Therefore, predicting the fold or structural class of a protein sequence is generally used as an intermediate step in determining the protein's 3-D structure. For protein fold recognition (PFR) and structural class prediction (SCP), two steps are required - feature extraction step and classification step. Feature extraction techniques generally utilize syntactical-based information, evolutionary-based information and physicochemical-based information to extract features. In this study, we explore the importance of utilizing the physicochemical properties of amino acids for improving PFR and SCP accuracies. For this, we propose a Forward Consecutive Search (FCS) scheme which aims to strategically select physicochemical attributes that will supplement the existing feature extraction techniques for PFR and SCP. An exhaustive search is conducted on all the existing 544 physicochemical attributes using the proposed FCS scheme and a subset of physicochemical attributes is identified. Features extracted from these selected attributes are then combined with existing syntactical-based and evolutionary-based features, to show an improvement in the recognition and prediction performance on benchmark datasets. PMID:27164998

  6. Light-Induced Changes in Fatty Acid Profiles of Specific Lipid Classes in Several Freshwater Phytoplankton Species

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, Alexander; Piepho, Maike; Harwood, John L.; Guschina, Irina A.; Arts, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    We tested the influence of two light intensities [40 and 300 μmol PAR / (m2s)] on the fatty acid composition of three distinct lipid classes in four freshwater phytoplankton species. We chose species of different taxonomic classes in order to detect potentially similar reaction characteristics that might also be present in natural phytoplankton communities. From samples of the bacillariophyte Asterionella formosa, the chrysophyte Chromulina sp., the cryptophyte Cryptomonas ovata and the zygnematophyte Cosmarium botrytis we first separated glycolipids (monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol), phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylserine) as well as non-polar lipids (triacylglycerols), before analyzing the fatty acid composition of each lipid class. High variation in the fatty acid composition existed among different species. Individual fatty acid compositions differed in their reaction to changing light intensities in the four species. Although no generalizations could be made for species across taxonomic classes, individual species showed clear but small responses in their ecologically-relevant omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in terms of proportions and of per tissue carbon quotas. Knowledge on how lipids like fatty acids change with environmental or culture conditions is of great interest in ecological food web studies, aquaculture, and biotechnology, since algal lipids are the most important sources of omega-3 long-chain PUFA for aquatic and terrestrial consumers, including humans. PMID:27014290

  7. Primary failure of eruption combined with bilateral transmigration of mandibular canines, transposition, torus palatinus, and class III incisor relationship: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Elhag, Salma Babiker Idris; Abdulghani, Ashraf Sidig Idris

    2015-01-01

    Eruption disorders are numerous varying from delayed to complete failure of eruption. Primary failure of eruption (PFE) is a rare condition that involves arrested eruption of teeth with the absence of local or general contributory factors. Another rare and clinically challenging phenomenon is canine transmigration which is the intra-osseous movement of impacted canines across the midline. This report presents the first case of combined failure of eruption of multiple teeth with bilateral mandibular canine transmigration, transposition of upper canine and the first premolar, torus palatinus, and class III incisor relationship in a 33-year-old asymptomatic and nonsyndromic female patient. PMID:26929701

  8. Primary failure of eruption combined with bilateral transmigration of mandibular canines, transposition, torus palatinus, and class III incisor relationship: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Elhag, Salma Babiker Idris; Abdulghani, Ashraf Sidig Idris

    2015-01-01

    Eruption disorders are numerous varying from delayed to complete failure of eruption. Primary failure of eruption (PFE) is a rare condition that involves arrested eruption of teeth with the absence of local or general contributory factors. Another rare and clinically challenging phenomenon is canine transmigration which is the intra-osseous movement of impacted canines across the midline. This report presents the first case of combined failure of eruption of multiple teeth with bilateral mandibular canine transmigration, transposition of upper canine and the first premolar, torus palatinus, and class III incisor relationship in a 33-year-old asymptomatic and nonsyndromic female patient. PMID:26929701

  9. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  10. Youth Transition into the Labour Market. The Class of '89: Initial Survey of Level III (Grade 12) High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Dennis B.; Spain, William H.

    The Transition of Youth into the Labour Market is a developmental study of youth as they make the difficult transition into the labor market of Newfoundland and Labrador. The project consists of two parallel yet interrelated studies, one focusing on the full cohort of over 9000 Level III high school students at the end of the 1988-89 school year,…

  11. Colorimetric detection of Bi (III) in water and drug samples using pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid modified silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Somayeh; Khayatian, Gholamreza

    2015-09-01

    A new selective, simple, fast and sensitive method is developed for sensing assay of Bi (III) using pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid or dipicolinic acid (DPA) modified silver nanoparticles (DPA-AgNPs). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by reducing silver nitrate (AgNO3) with sodium borohydride (NaBH4) in the presence of DPA. Bismuth detection is based on color change of nanoparticle solution from yellow to red that is induced in the presence of Bi (III). Aggregation of DPA-AgNPs has been confirmed with UV-vis absorption spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Under the optimized conditions, a good linear relationship (correlation coefficient r = 0.995) is obtained between the absorbance ratio (A525/A390) and the concentration of Bi (III) in the 0.40-8.00 μM range. This colorimetric probe allows Bi (III) to be rapidly quantified with a 0.01 μM limit of detection. The present method successfully applied to determine bismuth in real water and drug samples. Recoveries of water samples were in the range of 91.2-99.6%.

  12. Colorimetric detection of Bi (III) in water and drug samples using pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid modified silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Somayeh; Khayatian, Gholamreza

    2015-09-01

    A new selective, simple, fast and sensitive method is developed for sensing assay of Bi (III) using pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid or dipicolinic acid (DPA) modified silver nanoparticles (DPA-AgNPs). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by reducing silver nitrate (AgNO3) with sodium borohydride (NaBH4) in the presence of DPA. Bismuth detection is based on color change of nanoparticle solution from yellow to red that is induced in the presence of Bi (III). Aggregation of DPA-AgNPs has been confirmed with UV-vis absorption spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Under the optimized conditions, a good linear relationship (correlation coefficient r=0.995) is obtained between the absorbance ratio (A525/A390) and the concentration of Bi (III) in the 0.40-8.00 μM range. This colorimetric probe allows Bi (III) to be rapidly quantified with a 0.01 μM limit of detection. The present method successfully applied to determine bismuth in real water and drug samples. Recoveries of water samples were in the range of 91.2-99.6%. PMID:25919329

  13. Chemical sporulation and germination: cytoprotective nanocoating of individual mammalian cells with a degradable tannic acid-FeIII complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Juno; Cho, Hyeoncheol; Choi, Jinsu; Kim, Doyeon; Hong, Daewha; Park, Ji Hun; Yang, Sung Ho; Choi, Insung S.

    2015-11-01

    Individual mammalian cells were coated with cytoprotective and degradable films by cytocompatible processes maintaining the cell viability. Three types of mammalian cells (HeLa, NIH 3T3, and Jurkat cells) were coated with a metal-organic complex of tannic acid (TA) and ferric ion, and the TA-FeIII nanocoat effectively protected the coated mammalian cells against UV-C irradiation and a toxic compound. More importantly, the cell proliferation was controlled by programmed formation and degradation of the TA-FeIII nanocoat, mimicking the sporulation and germination processes found in nature.Individual mammalian cells were coated with cytoprotective and degradable films by cytocompatible processes maintaining the cell viability. Three types of mammalian cells (HeLa, NIH 3T3, and Jurkat cells) were coated with a metal-organic complex of tannic acid (TA) and ferric ion, and the TA-FeIII nanocoat effectively protected the coated mammalian cells against UV-C irradiation and a toxic compound. More importantly, the cell proliferation was controlled by programmed formation and degradation of the TA-FeIII nanocoat, mimicking the sporulation and germination processes found in nature. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, LSCM images, and SEM and TEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05573c

  14. Electrochemical oxidation of ²⁴³Am(III) in nitric acid by a terpyridyl-derivatized electrode.

    PubMed

    Dares, Christopher J; Lapides, Alexander M; Mincher, Bruce J; Meyer, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Selective oxidation of trivalent americium (Am) could facilitate its separation from lanthanides in nuclear waste streams. Here, we report the application of a high-surface-area, tin-doped indium oxide electrode surface-derivatized with a terpyridine ligand to the oxidation of Am(III) to Am(V) and Am(VI) in nitric acid. Potentials as low as 1.8 volts (V) versus the saturated calomel electrode were applied, 0.7 V lower than the 2.6 V potential for one-electron oxidation of Am(III) to Am(IV) in 1 molar acid. This simple electrochemical procedure provides a method to access the higher oxidation states of Am in noncomplexing media for the study of the associated coordination chemistry and, more important, for more efficient separation protocols. PMID:26542564

  15. Type III Secretion System Genes of Dickeya dadantii 3937 Are Induced by Plant Phenolic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shihui; Peng, Quan; San Francisco, Michael; Wang, Yongjun; Zeng, Quan; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2008-01-01

    Background Dickeya dadantii is a broad-host range phytopathogen. D. dadantii 3937 (Ech3937) possesses a type III secretion system (T3SS), a major virulence factor secretion system in many Gram-negative pathogens of plants and animals. In Ech3937, the T3SS is regulated by two major regulatory pathways, HrpX/HrpY-HrpS-HrpL and GacS/GacA-rsmB-RsmA pathways. Although the plant apoplast environment, low pH, low temperature, and absence of complex nitrogen sources in media have been associated with the induction of T3SS genes of phytobacteria, no specific inducer has yet been identified. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we identified two novel plant phenolic compounds, o-coumaric acid (OCA) and t-cinnamic acid (TCA), that induced the expression of T3SS genes dspE (a T3SS effector), hrpA (a structural protein of the T3SS pilus), and hrpN (a T3SS harpin) in vitro. Assays by qRT-PCR showed higher amounts of mRNA of hrpL (a T3SS alternative sigma factor) and rsmB (an untranslated regulatory RNA), but not hrpS (a σ54-enhancer binding protein) of Ech3937 when these two plant compounds were supplemented into minimal medium (MM). However, promoter activity assays using flow cytometry showed similar promoter activities of hrpN in rsmB mutant Ech148 grown in MM and MM supplemented with these phenolic compounds. Compared with MM alone, only slightly higher promoter activities of hrpL were observed in bacterial cells grown in MM supplemented with OCA/TCA. Conclusion/Significance The induction of T3SS expression by OCA and TCA is moderated through the rsmB-RsmA pathway. This is the first report of plant phenolic compounds that induce the expression T3SS genes of plant pathogenic bacteria. PMID:18698421

  16. Direct transfer of starter substrates from type I fatty acid synthase to type III polyketide synthases in phenolic lipid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Miyanaga, Akimasa; Funa, Nobutaka; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2008-01-22

    Alkylresorcinols and alkylpyrones, which have a polar aromatic ring and a hydrophobic alkyl chain, are phenolic lipids found in plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the Gram-negative bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, phenolic lipids in the membrane of dormant cysts are essential for encystment. The aromatic moieties of the phenolic lipids in A. vinelandii are synthesized by two type III polyketide synthases (PKSs), ArsB and ArsC, which are encoded by the ars operon. However, details of the synthesis of hydrophobic acyl chains, which might serve as starter substrates for the type III polyketide synthases (PKSs), were unknown. Here, we show that two type I fatty acid synthases (FASs), ArsA and ArsD, which are members of the ars operon, are responsible for the biosynthesis of C(22)-C(26) fatty acids from malonyl-CoA. In vivo and in vitro reconstitution of phenolic lipid synthesis systems with the Ars enzymes suggested that the C(22)-C(26) fatty acids produced by ArsA and ArsD remained attached to the ACP domain of ArsA and were transferred hand-to-hand to the active-site cysteine residues of ArsB and ArsC. The type III PKSs then used the fatty acids as starter substrates and carried out two or three extensions with malonyl-CoA to yield the phenolic lipids. The phenolic lipids in A. vinelandii were thus found to be synthesized solely from malonyl-CoA by the four members of the ars operon. This is the first demonstration that a type I FAS interacts directly with a type III PKS through substrate transfer. PMID:18199837

  17. Application for Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-08-05

    The NTS is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. NNSA/NSO is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and NSTec is the Management & Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The U10C Disposal Site is located in the northwest corner of Area 9 at the NTS (Figure 1) and is located in a subsidence crater created by two underground nuclear events, one in October 1962 and another in April 1964. The disposal site opened in 1971 for the disposal of rubbish, refuse, pathological waste, asbestos-containing material, and industrial solid waste. A Notice of Intent form to operate the disposal site as a Class II site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 26, 1994, and was acknowledged in a letter to the DOE on February 8, 1994. It operated as a state of Nevada Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS) until it closed on October 5, 1995, for retrofit as a Class III SWDS. The retrofit consisted of the installation of a minimum four-foot compacted soil layer to segregate the different waste types and function as a liner to inhibit leachate and water flow into the lower waste zone. Five neutron monitoring tubes were installed in this layer to monitor possible leachate production and water activity. Upon acceptance of the installed barrier and approval of an Operating Plan by NDEP/BFF, the site reopened in January 1996 as a Class III SWDS for the disposal of industrial solid waste and other inert waste.

  18. Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation-inducing factor by a hybrid type I fatty acid-type III polyketide synthase.

    PubMed

    Austin, Michael B; Saito, Tamao; Bowman, Marianne E; Haydock, Stephen; Kato, Atsushi; Moore, Bradley S; Kay, Robert R; Noel, Joseph P

    2006-09-01

    Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are well known to modulate formation of distinct communal cell types from identical Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas, but DIF biosynthesis remains obscure. We report complimentary in vivo and in vitro experiments identifying one of two approximately 3,000-residue D. discoideum proteins, termed 'steely', as responsible for biosynthesis of the DIF acylphloroglucinol scaffold. Steely proteins possess six catalytic domains homologous to metazoan type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) but feature an iterative type III polyketide synthase (PKS) in place of the expected FAS C-terminal thioesterase used to off load fatty acid products. This new domain arrangement likely facilitates covalent transfer of steely N-terminal acyl products directly to the C-terminal type III PKS active sites, which catalyze both iterative polyketide extension and cyclization. The crystal structure of a steely C-terminal domain confirms conservation of the homodimeric type III PKS fold. These findings suggest new bioengineering strategies for expanding the scope of fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis. PMID:16906151

  19. Amino acid residues required for fast Na(+)-channel inactivation: charge neutralizations and deletions in the III-IV linker.

    PubMed Central

    Patton, D E; West, J W; Catterall, W A; Goldin, A L

    1992-01-01

    The cytoplasmic linker connecting domains III and IV of the voltage-gated Na+ channel is thought to be involved in fast inactivation. This linker is highly conserved among the various Na+ channels that have been cloned. In the rat brain IIA Na+ channel, it consists of 53 amino acids of which 15 are charged. To investigate the role of this linker in inactivation, we mutated all 15 of the charged residues in various combinations. All but one of these mutants expressed functional channels, and all of these inactivated with kinetics similar to the wild-type channel. We then constructed a series of deletion mutations that span the III-IV linker to determine if any region of the linker is essential for fast inactivation. Deletion of the first 10 amino acids completely eliminated fast inactivation in the channel, whereas deletion of the last 10 amino acids had no substantial effect on inactivation. These results demonstrate that some residues in the amino end of the III-IV linker are critical for fast Na(+)-channel inactivation, but that the highly conserved positively charged and paired negatively charged residues are not essential. PMID:1332059

  20. Enhanced acetohydroxy acid synthase III activity in an ilvH mutant of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Ricca, E; Limauro, D; Lago, C T; de Felice, M

    1988-01-01

    The acetohydroxy acid synthase III isozyme, which catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthesis of isoleucine, leucine, and valine in Escherichia coli K-12, is composed of two subunits, the ilvI and ilvH gene products. A missense mutation in ilvH (ilvH612), which reduced the sensitivity of the enzyme to the end product inhibition by valine, also increased its specific activity and lowered the Km for alpha-acetolactate synthesis. The mutation increased the sensitivity of acetohydroxy acid synthase III to dialysis and heat treatment and reduced the requirement for thiamine pyrophosphate addition to the assay mixture for activity. A strain carrying the ilvH612 mutation grew better than a homologous ilvH+ strain in the presence of leucine. The data indicate that this is a consequence of a more active acetohydroxy acid synthase III isozyme rather than the result of an alteration of the leucine-mediated repression of the ilvIH operon. PMID:3053650

  1. Retention mechanisms of citric acid in ternary kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate acid systems using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-05-23

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L-3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/ormore » coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤ 0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. In conclusion, these findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils.« less

  2. Ditopic CMPO-pillar[5]arenes as unique receptors for efficient separation of americium(III) and europium(III).

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuyu; Yuan, Xiangyang; Wu, Lei; Peng, Zhiyong; Feng, Wen; Liu, Ning; Xu, Dingguo; Li, Shoujian; Sengupta, Arijit; Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Yuan, Lihua

    2015-03-11

    A unique host-guest recognition process involving a new class of homoditopic CMPO-pillar[5]arenes and lanthanides was revealed to proceed in a stepwise manner, and correlated with the efficient separation of americium(III) and europium(III) under acidic feed conditions. PMID:25671799

  3. Fulvic acid complexation of Eu(III) and Cm(III) at elevated temperatures studied by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Daniel R; Skerencak-Frech, Andrej; Gast, Michael; Panak, Petra J

    2014-11-01

    The interaction of Eu(III) and Cm(III) with three different aquatic fulvic acids (FA) was studied as a function of the temperature (T = 20-80 °C) in 0.1 M NaCl solution by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy. The speciation of both trivalent metal ions was determined by peak deconvolution of the recorded fluorescence spectra. For each studied metal ion-FA system only one complexed species is formed under the given experimental conditions. The stability constants at 20, 40, 60 and 80 °C (log β'(T)) were determined according to the charge neutralization model. The log β' (20 °C) for the different FAs show similar values (log β(20 °C) = 5.60-6.29). The stability constants increase continuously with increasing temperature by approximately 0.3-1.0 orders of magnitude. The reaction enthalpies and entropies are derived from the integrated Van't Hoff equation. The results show that all investigated complexation reactions are endothermic and entropy-driven. PMID:25207846

  4. The class III anti-arrhythmic agent, amiodarone, inhibits voltage-dependent K(+) channels in rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongliang; Kim, Han Sol; Kim, Hye Won; Shin, Sung Eun; Jung, Won-Kyo; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Han, Eun-Taek; Hong, Seok-Ho; Firth, Amy L; Bae, Young Min; Choi, Il-Whan; Park, Won Sun

    2016-07-01

    We examined the inhibitory effect of amiodarone, a class III anti-arrhythmic agent, on voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) currents in freshly isolated rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells, using a whole-cell patch clamp technique. Amiodarone inhibited Kv currents in a concentration-dependent manner, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 3.9 ± 1.44 μM and a Hill coefficient of 0.45 ± 0.14. Amiodarone did not have a significant effect on the steady-state activation of Kv channels, but shifted the inactivation current toward a more negative potential. Application of consecutive pulses progressively augmented the amiodarone-induced Kv channel inhibition. Another class III anti-arrhythmic agent, dofetilide, did not inhibit the Kv current or change the inhibitory effect of amiodarone on Kv channels. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that amiodarone inhibits Kv currents in a concentration- and state-dependent manner. PMID:27030392

  5. The Effects of Maxillary Protraction with or without Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Age Factors in Treating Class III Malocclusion: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Qu, Hong-Chen; Yu, Mo; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of 12 studies to examine whether maxillary protraction face mask associated with rapid maxillary expansion (FM/RME) could be an effective treatment for Class III malocclusion and to evaluate the effect of timing on treatment response. Patients with a maxillary deficiency who were treated with FM with or without RME were compared with those who had an untreated Class III malocclusion. In both treatment groups, forward displacement of the maxilla and skeletal changes were found to be statistically significant. In addition, posterior rotation of the mandible and increased facial height were more evident in the FM group compared with the control group. However, no significant differences were observed between the early treatment groups and late treatment groups. The results indicated that both FM/RME and FM therapy produced favorable skeletal changes for correcting anterior crossbite, and the curative time was not affected by the presence of deciduous teeth, early mixed dentition or late mixed dentition in the patient. PMID:26068221

  6. NnSR1, a class III non-S-RNase specifically induced in Nicotiana alata under phosphate deficiency, is localized in endoplasmic reticulum compartments.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Hernán; Floyd, Brice; Morriss, Stephanie C; Bassham, Diane; MacIntosh, Gustavo C; Goldraij, Ariel

    2015-07-01

    A combined strategy of phosphate (Pi) remobilization from internal and external RNA sources seems to be conserved in plants exposed to Pi starvation. Thus far, the only ribonucleases (RNases) reported to be induced in Nicotiana alata undergoing Pi deprivation are extracellular S-like RNase NE and NnSR1. NnSR1 is a class III non S-RNase of unknown subcellular location. Here, we examine the hypothesis that NnSR1 is an intracellular RNase derived from the self-incompatibility system with specific expression in self-incompatible Nicotiana alata. NnSR1 was not induced in self-compatible Nicotiana species exposed to Pi deprivation. NnSR1 conjugated with a fluorescent protein and transiently expressed in Arabidopsis protoplasts and Nicotiana leaves showed that the fusion protein co-localized with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker. Subcellular fractionation by ultracentrifugation of roots exposed to Pi deprivation revealed that the native NnSR1 migrated in parallel with the BiP protein, a typical ER marker. To our knowledge, NnSR1 is the first class III RNase reported to be localized in ER compartments. The induction of NnSR1 was detected earlier than the extracellular RNase NE, suggesting that intracellular RNA may be the first source of Pi used by the cell under Pi stress. PMID:26025538

  7. Two-Stage Mucogingival Surgery with Free Gingival Autograft and Biomend Membrane and Coronally Advanced Flap in Treatment of Class III Millers Recession

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Renny

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Gingival recession is an apical shift of the gingival margin with exposure of the root surface. This migration of the marginal tissue leads to esthetic concerns, dentin hypersensitivity, root caries, and cervical wear. It is, paradoxically, a common finding in patients with a high standard of oral hygiene, as well as in periodontally untreated populations with poor oral hygiene. Changing the topography of the marginal soft tissue in order to facilitate plaque control is a common indication for root coverage procedures and forms a major aspect of periodontal plastic surgeries. The regeneration of a new connective tissue attachment to denuded root surface is by allowing the selective coronal regrowth of periodontal ligament cells while excluding the gingival tissues from the root during wound healing by means of a barrier membrane. Case Presentation. This case reports a two-stage surgical technique for treatment of Miller's class III defect using free gingival autograft and type I absorbable collagen membrane (BioMend®, Zimmer Dental, USA)§. Conclusions. The 6-month follow-up of the case showed a significant increase in attached gingiva suggesting it as a predictable alternative in the treatment of Millers class III defects. PMID:27525131

  8. Use of cephalometric analysis for implant placement in a patient with an edentulous maxilla with a severe Class III intermaxillary relationship.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Yasunori

    2004-01-01

    A patient with a totally edentulous maxilla and a seVere Class III intermaxillary relationship in the anterior region was treated by implants. In the mandible, there were 10 teeth between the second premolars. The inclination and width of the maxillary anterior residual bone were measured on cephalometric X-ray film obtained before treatment. The results of cephalometric analysis did not support clockwise rotation of the mandible or lingual angling of the maxillary anterior teeth by use of prosthesis to improve the Class III relationship. Ten implants were simultaneously placed in the maxilla. Then, a maxillary temporary full bridge was seated after reduction of the crown lengths of the mandibular anterior teeth. An apically positioned flap operation was performed to eliminate periodontal pockets and to obtain clinically suitable crown lengths of the mandibular anterior teeth. A noncemented, screw-retained maxillary full bridge and a conventional mandibular full bridge were placed. Postoperative cephalometric analysis showed that the outcome was clinically acceptable. The patient has been satisfied for more than 5 years since placement of the implant prostheses. PMID:15008449

  9. Two-Stage Mucogingival Surgery with Free Gingival Autograft and Biomend Membrane and Coronally Advanced Flap in Treatment of Class III Millers Recession.

    PubMed

    Rath, Avita; Varma, Smrithi; Paul, Renny

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Gingival recession is an apical shift of the gingival margin with exposure of the root surface. This migration of the marginal tissue leads to esthetic concerns, dentin hypersensitivity, root caries, and cervical wear. It is, paradoxically, a common finding in patients with a high standard of oral hygiene, as well as in periodontally untreated populations with poor oral hygiene. Changing the topography of the marginal soft tissue in order to facilitate plaque control is a common indication for root coverage procedures and forms a major aspect of periodontal plastic surgeries. The regeneration of a new connective tissue attachment to denuded root surface is by allowing the selective coronal regrowth of periodontal ligament cells while excluding the gingival tissues from the root during wound healing by means of a barrier membrane. Case Presentation. This case reports a two-stage surgical technique for treatment of Miller's class III defect using free gingival autograft and type I absorbable collagen membrane (BioMend®, Zimmer Dental, USA)(§). Conclusions. The 6-month follow-up of the case showed a significant increase in attached gingiva suggesting it as a predictable alternative in the treatment of Millers class III defects. PMID:27525131

  10. The PI3K class III complex promotes axon pruning by downregulating a Ptc-derived signal via endosome-lysosomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Issman-Zecharya, Noa; Schuldiner, Oren

    2014-11-24

    Developmental axon pruning is essential for wiring the mature nervous system, but its regulation remains poorly understood. Here we show that the endosomal-lysosomal pathway regulates developmental pruning of Drosophila mushroom body γ neurons. We demonstrate that the UV radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG) functions together with all core components of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class III (PI3K-cIII) complex to promote pruning via the endocytic pathway. By studying several PI(3)P binding proteins, we found that Hrs, a subunit of the ESCRT-0 complex, required for multivesicular body (MVB) maturation, is essential for normal pruning progression. Thus, we hypothesized the existence of an inhibitory signal that needs to be downregulated. Finally, our data suggest that the Hedgehog receptor, Patched, is the source of this inhibitory signal likely functioning in a Smo-independent manner. Taken together, our in vivo study demonstrates that the PI3K-cIII complex is essential for downregulating Patched via the endosomal-lysosomal pathway to execute axon pruning. PMID:25458013

  11. Coordination chemistry and hydrolysis of Fe(III) in a peat humic acid studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Torbjörn; Persson, Per

    2010-01-01

    The speciation of iron (Fe) in soils, sediments and surface waters is highly dependent on chemical interactions with natural organic matter (NOM). However, the molecular structure and hydrolysis of the Fe species formed in association with NOM is still poorly described. In this study extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was used to determine the coordination chemistry and hydrolysis of Fe(III) in solution of a peat humic acid (5010-49,200 μg Fe g -1 dry weight, pH 3.0-7.2). Data were analyzed by both conventional EXAFS data fitting and by wavelet transforms in order to facilitate the identification of the nature of backscattering atoms. Our results show that Fe occurs predominantly in the oxidized form as ferric ions and that the speciation varies with pH and Fe concentration. At low Fe concentrations (5010-9920 μg g -1; pH 3.0-7.2) mononuclear Fe(III)-NOM complexes completely dominates the speciation. The determined bond distances for the Fe(III)-NOM complexes are similar to distances obtained for Fe(III) complexed by desferrioxamine B and oxalate indicating the formation of a five-membered chelate ring structure. At higher Fe concentrations (49,200 μg g -1; pH 4.2-6.9) we detect a mixture of mononuclear Fe(III)-NOM complexes and polymeric Fe(III) (hydr)oxides with an increasing amount of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides at higher pH. However, even at pH 6.9 and a Fe concentration of 49,200 μg g -1 our data indicates that a substantial amount of the total Fe (>50%) is in the form of organic complexes. Thus, in environments with significant amounts of organic matter organic Fe complexes will be of great importance for the geochemistry of Fe. Furthermore, the formation of five-membered chelate ring structures is in line with the strong complexation and limited hydrolytic polymerization of Fe(III) in our samples and also agrees with EXAFS derived structures of Fe(III) in organic soils.

  12. The effect of implant placement in patients with either Kennedy class II and III on oral health-related quality of life: a prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    van Eekeren, P J A; Aartman, I H A; Tahmaseb, A; Wismeijer, D

    2016-04-01

    There is little evidence of the effect of implants restored with fixed partial dentures on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in partially edentulous Kennedy class II and III patients. The aim of this study was to determine the change in OHRQoL in Kennedy classification II and III patients treated with a two-implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis (FDP). Kennedy class II and III patients received dental implants and an FDP. Oral health-related quality of life was measured by administration of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14NL) questionnaire at intake (T1), 2 weeks after surgery (T2) and after 1 year of loading (T3). The mean OHIP score at T1 was 6·5 ± 1·2, 2·4 ± 1·0 at T2, and 0·9 ± 0·3 at T3. There was a statistically significant difference between T1 and T2 (P = 0·002) and T1 and T3 (P < 0·001) but not between T2 and T3 (P = 0·407). The OHIP score in Kennedy II patients decreased from 4·8 ± 3·2 at T1 to 1·5 ± 2·0 at T2 and 1·1 ± 1·8 at T3, and that in Kennedy III patients decreased from 8·9 ± 9·6 at T1 to 3·6 ± 8·9 at T2 and 0·8 ± 2·2 at T3. There were no statistically significant differences in the reductions in Kennedy II and III patients. Oral health-related quality of life changed positively in patients treated with implants and an FDP in both groups. There was no change in OHRQoL between the times of implant placement and FDP placement. PMID:26599422

  13. Unusual Mn(III/IV)4 Cubane and Mn(III)16M4 (M = Ca, Sr) Looplike Clusters from the Use of Dimethylarsinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Chakov, Nicole E; Thuijs, Annaliese E; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Rheingold, Arnold L; Abboud, Khalil A; Christou, George

    2016-09-01

    Three complexes are reported from the initial use of dimethylarsinic acid (Me2AsO2H) in Mn(III/IV) cluster chemistry, [Mn4O4(O2AsMe2)6] (3; 2Mn(III), 2Mn(IV)), and [Mn16X4O8(O2CPh)16(Me2AsO2)24] (X = Ca(2+) (4) or Sr(2+) (5); 16Mn(III)). They were obtained from reactions with [Mn12O12(O2CR)16(H2O)4] (R = Me, Ph) either without (3) or with (4 and 5) the addition of X(2+) salts. Complex 3 contains a [Mn4O4](6+) cubane, whereas isostructural 4 and 5 contain a planar loop structure comprising four Mn4 asymmetric "butterfly" units linked by alternating anti,anti μ-O2AsMe2 and {X2(O2AsMe2)(O2CPh)2} units. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility (χM) data were collected on dried microcrystalline samples of 3-5 in the 5.0-300 K range in a 0.1 T (1000 G) direct-current (dc) magnetic field. Data for 3 were fit to the appropriate Van Vleck equation (using the [Formula: see text] = -2JŜi·Ŝj convention) for a cubane of virtual C2v symmetry, giving J33 = 0.0(1) cm(-1), J34 = -3.4(4) cm(-1), J44 = -9.8(2) cm(-1), and g = 1.99(1), where the Jij subscripts refer to the oxidation states of the interacting Mn atoms. The ground state thus consists of two coupled Mn(IV) and two essentially noninteracting Mn(III). For 4 and 5, low-lying excited states from the high nuclearity and weak couplings prevent fits of dc magnetization data, but in-phase alternating current susceptibility χ'MT data down to 1.8 K indicate them to possess S = 4 ground states, if considered single Mn16 units. If instead they are treated as tetramers of weakly coupled Mn4 units, then each of the latter has an S = 2 ground state. Complexes 4 and 5 also exhibit very weak out-of-phase χ″M signals characteristic of slow relaxation, and magnetization versus dc field scans on a single crystal of 4·15MeCN at T ≥ 0.04 K showed hysteresis loops but with unusual features suggesting the magnetization relaxation barrier consists of more than one contribution. PMID:27504743

  14. Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid sclerotherapy for Goligher Grades II and III hemorrhoids: Results from a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Hidenori; Hada, Takenori; Ishiyama, Gentaro; Ono, Yoshito; Watanabe, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To show that aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) sclerotherapy has a high success rate for Grade II and III hemorrhoids. METHODS: This study was based on the clinical data of 604 patients with hemorrhoids who underwent ALTA sclerotherapy between January 2009 and February 2015. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of this treatment for Grades II and III hemorrhoids. Preoperative and postoperative symptoms, complications and success rate were all assessed retrospectively. Follow-up consisted of a simple questionnaire, physical examination and an anoscopy. Patients were followed-up at one day, one week, two weeks, one month, one year, two years, three years, four years and five years after the ALTA sclerotherapy. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-nine patients were diagnosed with Grade II hemorrhoids and 435 patients were diagnosed with Grade III hemorrhoids. The one year, three year and five year cumulative success rates of ALTA sclerotherapy for Grades II and III hemorrhoids were 95.9% and 93.1%; 89.3% and 83.7%; and 89.3% and 78.2%, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the cumulative success rates after ALTA sclerotherapy between Grades II and III hemorrhoids (P = 0.09). There were forty-seven post-operative complications (low grade fever; anal pain; urinary retention; rectal ulcer; and others). No serious or life-threatening complications occurred and all cases improved through conservative treatment. At univariate analysis there were no predictive factors of failure. CONCLUSION: ALTA sclerotherapy has had a high success rate for Grade II and III hemorrhoids during five years of post-operative treatment. However, additional studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this ALTA sclerotherapy in the management of hemorrhoidal disease. PMID:27458504

  15. Characteristics and prevalence within serogroup O4 of a J96-like clonal group of uropathogenic Escherichia coli O4:H5 containing the class I and class III alleles of papG.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, J R; Stapleton, A E; Russo, T A; Scheutz, F; Brown, J J; Maslow, J N

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of a geographically dispersed clonal group of Escherichia coli O4:H5 that includes prototypic uropathogenic strain J96 prompted us to determine the prevalence of J96-like strains within serogroup O4 and to further assess the characteristics of such strains. We used O:K:H;F serotyping, PCR-based genomic fingerprinting, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), and PCR detection of the three papG alleles and of the cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (cnf1) and aerobactin (aer) gene sequences to characterize the 15 O4 strains among 336 E. coli isolates from three clinical collections (187 from mixed-source bacteremia, 75 from urosepsis, and 74 from acute cystitis). J96-like strains constituted approximately half of the O4 strains, or 2% of the total population. In contrast to other O4 strains, the J96-like strains characteristically exhibited specific group III capsular antigens, the H5 flagellar and F13 fimbrial antigens, a distinctive PCR genomic fingerprint, the class III papG allele (plus, in 50% of strains, the enigmatic class I papG allele), and cnf1 but lacked aer. A subset of these strains was remarkably homogeneous with respect to all these characteristics and exhibited a distinctive PFGE fingerprint and MLEE pattern. These findings clarify the epidemiological relevance of J96 as a model extraintestinal pathogen, provide further evidence of the class I papG allele outside of strain J96, and offer insights into the evolution of E. coli serogroup O4. PMID:9169745

  16. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is Initiated by the FabY Class of β-Ketoacyl Acyl Carrier Protein Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yanqiu; Sachdeva, Meena; Leeds, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    The prototypical type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway in bacteria utilizes two distinct classes of β-ketoacyl synthase (KAS) domains to assemble long-chain fatty acids, the KASIII domain for initiation and the KASI/II domain for elongation. The central role of FAS in bacterial viability and virulence has stimulated significant effort toward developing KAS inhibitors, particularly against the KASIII domain of the β-acetoacetyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase FabH. Herein, we show that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa does not utilize a FabH ortholog but rather a new class of divergent KAS I/II enzymes to initiate the FAS pathway. When a P. aeruginosa cosmid library was used to rescue growth in a fabH downregulated strain of Escherichia coli, a single unannotated open reading frame, PA5174, complemented fabH depletion. While deletion of all four KASIII domain-encoding genes in the same P. aeruginosa strain resulted in a wild-type growth phenotype, deletion of PA5174 alone specifically attenuated growth due to a defect in de novo FAS. Siderophore secretion and quorum-sensing signaling, particularly in the rhl and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) systems, was significantly muted in the absence of PA5174. The defect could be repaired by intergeneric complementation with E. coli fabH. Characterization of recombinant PA5174 confirmed a preference for short-chain acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) substrates, supporting the identification of PA5174 as the predominant enzyme catalyzing the condensation of acetyl coenzyme A with malonyl-ACP in P. aeruginosa. The identification of the functional role for PA5174 in FAS defines the new FabY class of β-ketoacyl synthase KASI/II domain condensation enzymes. PMID:22753059

  17. Redox reactions of Pu(IV) and Pu(III) in the presence of acetohydroxamic acid in HNO(3) solutions.

    PubMed

    Tkac, Peter; Precek, Martin; Paulenova, Alena

    2009-12-21

    The reduction of Pu(IV) in the presence of acetohydroxamic acid (HAHA) was monitored by vis-NIR spectroscopy. All experiments were performed under low HAHA/Pu(IV) ratios, where only the Pu(IV)-monoacetohydroxamate complex and Pu uncomplexed with HAHA were present in relevant concentrations. Time dependent concentrations of all absorbing species were resolved using molar extinction coefficients for Pu(IV), Pu(III), and the Pu(AHA)(3+) complex by deconvolution of spectra. From fitting of the experimental data by rate equations integrated by a numeric method three reactions were proposed to describe a mechanism responsible for the reduction and oxidation of plutonium in the presence of HAHA and HNO(3). Decomposition of Pu(AHA)(3+) follows a second order reaction mechanism with respect to its own concentration and leads to the formation of Pu(III). At low HAHA concentrations, a two-electron reduction of uncomplexed Pu(IV) with HAHA also occurs. Formed Pu(III) is unstable and slowly reoxidizes back to Pu(IV), which, at the point when all HAHA is decomposed, can be catalyzed by the presence of nitrous acid. PMID:19904974

  18. Chemiluminescence detection of amino acids, peptides, and proteins using tris-2,2 prime -bipyridine ruthenium(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Li He; Cox, K.A.; Danielson, N.D. )

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of using the tris-2-2{prime}-bipyridine ruthenium(III) chemiluminescent (CL) reaction for the detection of amino acids, peptides, and proteins has been studied. Detection limits of the amino acids as determined by flow injection analysis (FIA) ranged from 20 pmol of proline to 50 nmol of asparagine. In general, amino acids containing secondary amine groups yielded the strongest responses. A reaction mechanism for Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 3+} chemiluminescence of aliphatic amines has been proposed. Studies of peptide molecules and poly-prolines showed that the peptide bond barely contributes to the detection signals. The separation of hydroxyproline and proline in synthetic collagen by HPLC with Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 3+} chemiluminescence detection has been shown to be possible.

  19. The First-in-Class Potassium-Competitive Acid Blocker, Vonoprazan Fumarate: Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Echizen, Hirotoshi

    2016-04-01

    Vonoprazan fumarate (Takecab) is a first-in-class potassium-competitive acid blocker that has been available in the market in Japan since February 2015. Vonoprazan is administered orally at 20 mg once daily for the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcer, at 20 and 10 mg once daily for the treatment and secondary prevention of reflux esophagitis, respectively, at 10 mg once daily for the secondary prevention of low-dose aspirin- or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced peptic ulcer, and at 20 mg twice daily in combination with clarithromycin and amoxicillin for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. It inhibits H(+),K(+)-ATPase activities in a reversible and potassium-competitive manner with a potency of inhibition approximately 350 times higher than the proton pump inhibitor, lansoprazole. Vonoprazan is absorbed rapidly and reaches maximum plasma concentration at 1.5-2.0 h after oral administration. Food has minimal effect on its intestinal absorption. Oral bioavailability in humans remains unknown. The plasma protein binding of vonoprazan is 80% in healthy subjects. It distributes extensively into tissues with a mean apparent volume of distribution of 1050 L. Being a base with pKa of 9.6 and with acid-resistant properties, vonoprazan is highly concentrated in the acidic canaliculi of the gastric parietal cells and elicited an acid suppression effect for longer than 24 h after the administration of 20 mg. The mean apparent terminal half-life of the drug is approximately 7.7 h in healthy adults. Vonoprazan is metabolized to inactive metabolites mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 and to some extent by CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and SULT2A1. A mass balance study showed that 59 and 8% of the orally administered radioactivity was recovered in urine as metabolites and in an unchanged form, respectively, indicating extensive metabolism. Genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19 may influence drug exposure but only to a clinically insignificant extent (15-29%), according to the

  20. Four Amino Acid Changes in HIV-2 Protease Confer Class-Wide Sensitivity to Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert A.; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protease is essential for retroviral replication, and protease inhibitors (PI) are important for treating HIV infection. HIV-2 exhibits intrinsic resistance to most FDA-approved HIV-1 PI, retaining clinically useful susceptibility only to lopinavir, darunavir, and saquinavir. The mechanisms for this resistance are unclear; although HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases share just 38 to 49% sequence identity, all critical structural features of proteases are conserved. Structural studies have implicated four amino acids in the ligand-binding pocket (positions 32, 47, 76, and 82). We constructed HIV-2ROD9 molecular clones encoding the corresponding wild-type HIV-1 amino acids (I32V, V47I, M76L, and I82V) either individually or together (clone PRΔ4) and compared the phenotypic sensitivities (50% effective concentration [EC50]) of mutant and wild-type viruses to nine FDA-approved PI. Single amino acid replacements I32V, V47I, and M76L increased the susceptibility of HIV-2 to multiple PI, but no single change conferred class-wide sensitivity. In contrast, clone PRΔ4 showed PI susceptibility equivalent to or greater than that of HIV-1 for all PI. We also compared crystallographic structures of wild-type HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases complexed with amprenavir and darunavir to models of the PRΔ4 enzyme. These models suggest that the amprenavir sensitivity of PRΔ4 is attributable to stabilizing enzyme-inhibitor interactions in the P2 and P2′ pockets of the protease dimer. Together, our results show that the combination of four amino acid changes in HIV-2 protease confer a pattern of PI susceptibility comparable to that of HIV-1, providing a structural rationale for intrinsic HIV-2 PI resistance and resolving long-standing questions regarding the determinants of differential PI susceptibility in HIV-1 and HIV-2. IMPORTANCE Proteases are essential for retroviral replication, and HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases share a great deal of structural similarity. However, only three of nine

  1. A radar survey of M- and X-class asteroids. III. Insights into their composition, hydration state, & structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, Michael K.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Nolan, Michael C.; Howell, Ellen S.; Springmann, Alessondra; Giorgini, Jon D.; Warner, Brian D.; Harris, Alan W.; Stephens, Robert; Merline, William J.; Rivkin, Andrew; Benner, Lance A. M.; Coley, Dan; Clark, Beth Ellen; Ockert-Bell, Maureen; Magri, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Using the S-band radar at Arecibo Observatory, we observed thirteen X/M-class asteroids; nine were previously undetected and four were re-observed, bringing the total number of Tholen X/M-class asteroids observed with radar to 29. Of these 29M-class asteroids, 13 are also W-class, defined as M-class objects that also display a 3-μm absorption feature which is often interpreted as the signature of hydrated minerals (Jones, T.D., Lebofsky, L.A., Lewis, J.S., Marley, M.S. [1990]. Icarus 88, 172-192; Rivkin, A.S., Howell, E.S., Britt, D.T., Lebofsky, L.A., Nolan, M.C., Branston, D.D. [1995]. Icarus 117, 90-100; Rivkin, A.S., Howell, E.S., Lebofsky, L.A., Clark, B.E., Britt, D.T. [2000]. Icarus 145, 351-368). Consistent with our previous work (Shepard, M.K. et al. [2008]. Icarus 195, 184-205; Shepard, M.K., Harris, A.W., Taylor, P.A., Clark, B.E., Ockert-Bell, M., Nolan, M.C., Howell, E.S., Magri, C., Giorgini, J.D., Benner, L.A.M. [2011]. Icarus 215, 547-551), we find that 38% of our sample (11 of 29) have radar albedos consistent with metal-dominated compositions. With the exception of 83 Beatrix and 572 Rebekka, the remaining objects have radar albedos significantly higher than the mean S- or C-class asteroid (Magri, C., Nolan, M.C., Ostro, S.J., Giorgini, J.D. [2007]. Icarus 186, 126-151). Seven of the eleven high-radar-albedo asteroids, or 64%, also display a 3-μm absorption feature (W-class) which is thought to be inconsistent with the formation of a metal dominated asteroid. We suggest that the hydration absorption could be a secondary feature caused by low-velocity collisions with hydrated asteroids, such as CI or CM analogs, and subsequent implantation of the hydrated minerals into the upper regolith. There is recent evidence for this process on Vesta (Reddy, V. et al. [2012]. Icarus 221, 544-559; McCord, T.B. et al. [2012]. Nature 491, 83-86; Prettyman, T.H. et al. [2012]. Science 338, 242-246; Denevi, B.W. et al. [2012]. Science 338, 246-249). Eleven

  2. Effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids on photo-degradation of phenanthrene catalyzed by Fe(III)-smectite under visible light.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hanzhong; Chen, Hongxia; Nulaji, Gulimire; Li, Xiyou; Wang, Chuanyi

    2015-11-01

    The photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is potentially an important process for its transformation and fate on contaminated soil surfaces. In this study, phenanthrene is employed as a model to explore PAH photodegradation with the assistance of Fe(III)-smectite under visible-light while focusing on roles played by five low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs), i.e., malic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and nitrilotriacetic acid. Our results show that oxalic acid is most effective in promoting the photodegradation of phenanthrene, while only a slight increase in the rate of phenanthrene photodegradation is observed in the presence of malic acid. Electron paramagnetic resonance experiments confirm the formation of CO2(-) radicals in the presence of malic and oxalic acid, which provides strong evidence for generating OH and subsequent photoreaction pathways. The presence of EDTA or nitrilotriacetic acid significantly inhibits both Fe(II) formation and phenanthrene photodegradation because these organic anions tend to chelate with Fe(III), leading to decreases in the electron-accepting potential of Fe(III)-smectite and a weakened interaction between phenanthrene and Fe(III)-smectite. These observations provide valuable insights into the transformation and fate of PAHs in the natural soil environment and demonstrate the potential for using some LMWOAs as additives for the remediation of contaminated soil. PMID:26091867

  3. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p < 0.01) and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4–2.2; p < 0.01). Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg) compared to short-term (7.2 kg) and intermediate-term (8.0 kg) interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01), without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II

  4. [Investigation of the effect of functional treatment in skeletal Class III cases on the profile facial esthetics].

    PubMed

    Altuğ, Z; Erdem, D; Rübendüz, M

    1990-04-01

    In this study, effects of chin-cap therapy on profile facial esthetics were investigated. 30 patients indicating skeletal and dental Cl III anomalies were divided into two groups. The first group, including 21 patients with the average age of 11 was treated by chin-cap therapy, average treatment time being 0.7 years. This group involved 10 females and 11 males. The second group involved 9 persons, 5 females and 4 males, with the average age of 9.7, average control period being 2 years. The investigation was carried out on the 60 lateral cephalometric films taken from both groups. 2 angular and 9 soft tissue cephalometric measurements were made on each film. The comparisons between the groups indicated that the treatment affected the soft tissue measurements positively. PMID:2101659

  5. A novel tridentate bis(phosphinic acid)phosphine oxide based europium(III)-selective Nafion membrane luminescent sensor.

    PubMed

    Sainz-Gonzalo, F J; Popovici, C; Casimiro, M; Raya-Barón, A; López-Ortiz, F; Fernández, I; Fernández-Sánchez, J F; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A

    2013-10-21

    A new europium(III) membrane luminescent sensor based on a new tridentate bis(phosphinic acid)phosphine oxide (3) system has been developed. The synthesis of this new ligand is described and its full characterization by NMR, IR and elemental analyses is provided. The luminescent complex formed between europium(III) chloride and ligand 3 was evaluated in solution, observing that its spectroscopic and chemical characteristics are excellent for measuring in polymer inclusion membranes. Included in a Nafion membrane, all the parameters (ligand and ionic additives) that can affect the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensing membrane as well as the instrumental conditions were carefully optimized. The best luminescence signal (λexc = 229.06 nm and λem = 616.02 nm) was exhibited by the sensing film having a Nafion : ligand composition of 262.3 : 0.6 mg mL(-1). The membrane sensor showed a short response time (t95 = 5.0 ± 0.2 min) and an optimum working pH of 5.0 (25 mM acetate buffer solution). The membrane sensor manifested a good selectivity toward europium(III) ions with respect to other trivalent metals (iron, chromium and aluminium) and lanthanide(III) ions (lanthanum, samarium, terbium and ytterbium), although a small positive interference of terbium(III) ions was observed. It provided a linear range from 1.9 × 10(-8) to 5.0 × 10(-6) M with a very low detection limit (5.8 × 10(-9) M) and sensitivity (8.57 × 10(-7) a.u. per M). The applicability of this sensing film has been demonstrated by analyzing different kinds of spiked water samples obtaining recovery percentages of 95-97%. PMID:23967443

  6. The mechanisms of detoxification of As(III), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and As(V) in the microalga Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Pantoja Munoz, L; Purchase, D; Jones, H; Raab, A; Urgast, D; Feldmann, J; Garelick, H

    2016-06-01

    The response of Chlorella vulgaris when challenged by As(III), As(V) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was assessed through experiments on adsorption, efflux and speciation of arsenic (reduction, oxidation, methylation and chelation with glutathione/phytochelatin [GSH/PC]). Our study indicates that at high concentrations of phosphate (1.62mM of HPO4(2-)), upon exposure to As(V), cells are able to shift towards methylation of As(V) rather than PC formation. Treatment with As(V) caused a moderate decrease in intracellular pH and a strong increase in the concentration of free thiols (GSH). Passive surface adsorption was found to be negligible for living cells exposed to DMA and As(V). However, adsorption of As(III) was observed to be an active process in C. vulgaris, because it did not show saturation at any of the exposure periods. Chelation of As(III) with GS/PC and to a lesser extent hGS/hPC is a major detoxification mechanism employed by C. vulgaris cells when exposed to As(III). The increase of bound As-GS/PC complexes was found to be strongly related to an increase in concentration of As(III) in media. C. vulgaris cells did not produce any As-GS/PC complex when exposed to As(V). This may indicate that a reduction step is needed for As(V) complexation with GSH/PC. C. vulgaris cells formed DMAS(V)-GS upon exposure to DMA independent of the exposure period. As(III) triggers the formation of arsenic complexes with PC and homophytochelatins (hPC) and their compartmentalisation to vacuoles. A conceptual model was devised to explain the mechanisms involving ABCC1/2 transport. The potential of C. vulgaris to bio-remediate arsenic from water appeared to be highly selective and effective without the potential hazard of reducing As(V) to As(III), which is more toxic to humans. PMID:26994369

  7. Heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography methods for quantification of 2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole in Class III caramel colours.

    PubMed

    Moretton, Cédric; Crétier, Gérard; Nigay, Henri; Rocca, Jean-Louis

    2008-07-11

    Heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography/UV detection methods were developed to determine 2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (noted as THI) in Class III caramel colours. In the first dimension, the caramel sample diluted in water was fractionated either by reversed-phase chromatography on C18 silica packing or by ion-exchange chromatography using strong cationic exchanger (SCX) stationary phase. In each case, THI elution domain was recovered in a loop and transferred to a second column packed with porous graphitic carbon (PGC) for the selective separation of THI. From the accuracy profiles with acceptance limit fixed at 20% and beta-expectation tolerance interval fixed at 90%, the two methods, C18-PGC and SCX-PGC, were validated for THI/caramel ratios included between 5-50 and 10-50 ppm, respectively. Finally, the two methods were compared for the analysis of numerous caramel samples. PMID:18538331

  8. Hexa-μ2-acetato-triaqua-μ3-oxido-triiron(III) nitrate acetic acid solvate

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Sumei; Liu, Jianhua; Han, Qiuxia

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Fe3(CH3COO)6O(H2O)3]NO3·CH3COOH, consists of a hexa-μ2-acetato-triaqua-μ3-oxo-triiron(III) macrocation, a nitrate ion and an acetic acid solvent mol­ecule. In the cation, each Fe3+ ion is coordinated by four carboxyl­ate O atoms, one central bridged O atom and one water mol­ecule, resulting in distorted FeO6 octa­hedra. A network of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds helps to establish the packing. PMID:21203085

  9. Hexa-μ(2)-acetato-triaqua-μ(3)-oxido-triiron(III) nitrate acetic acid solvate.

    PubMed

    Yao, Sumei; Liu, Jianhua; Han, Qiuxia

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Fe(3)(CH(3)COO)(6)O(H(2)O)(3)]NO(3)·CH(3)COOH, consists of a hexa-μ(2)-acetato-triaqua-μ(3)-oxo-triiron(III) macrocation, a nitrate ion and an acetic acid solvent mol-ecule. In the cation, each Fe(3+) ion is coordinated by four carboxyl-ate O atoms, one central bridged O atom and one water mol-ecule, resulting in distorted FeO(6) octa-hedra. A network of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds helps to establish the packing. PMID:21203085

  10. 3-Ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is not similar to other condensing enzymes of fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Tai, H; Jaworski, J G

    1993-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding spinach (Spinacia oleracea) 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (KAS III), which catalyzes the initial condensing reaction in fatty acid biosynthesis, was isolated. Based on the amino acid sequence of tryptic digests of purified spinach KAS III, degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed and used to amplify a 612-bp fragment from first-strand cDNA of spinach leaf RNA. A root cDNA library was probed with the PCR fragment, and a 1920-bp clone was isolated. Its deduced amino acid sequence matched the sequences of the tryptic digests obtained from the purified KAS III. Northern analysis confirmed that it was expressed in both leaf and root. The clone contained a 1218-bp open reading frame coding for 405 amino acids. The identity of the clone was confirmed by expression in Escherichia coli BL 21 as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein. The deduced amino acid sequence was 48 and 45% identical with the putative KAS III of Porphyra umbilicalis and KAS III of E. coli, respectively. It also had a strong local homology to the plant chalcone synthases but had little homology with other KAS isoforms from plants, bacteria, or animals. PMID:8290632

  11. Structural analysis of a class III preQ1 riboswitch reveals an aptamer distant from a ribosome-binding site regulated by fast dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, Joseph A.; Suddala, Krishna C.; Aytenfisu, Asaminew; Chan, Dalen; Belashov, Ivan A.; Salim, Mohammad; Mathews, David H.; Spitale, Robert C.; Walter, Nils G.; Wedekind, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    PreQ1-III riboswitches are newly identified RNA elements that control bacterial genes in response to preQ1 (7-aminomethyl-7-deazaguanine), a precursor to the essential hypermodified tRNA base queuosine. Although numerous riboswitches fold as H-type or HLout-type pseudoknots that integrate ligand-binding and regulatory sequences within a single folded domain, the preQ1-III riboswitch aptamer forms a HLout-type pseudoknot that does not appear to incorporate its ribosome-binding site (RBS). To understand how this unusual organization confers function, we determined the crystal structure of the class III preQ1 riboswitch from Faecalibacterium prausnitzii at 2.75 Å resolution. PreQ1 binds tightly (KD,app 6.5 ± 0.5 nM) between helices P1 and P2 of a three-way helical junction wherein the third helix, P4, projects orthogonally from the ligand-binding pocket, exposing its stem-loop to base pair with the 3′ RBS. Biochemical analysis, computational modeling, and single-molecule FRET imaging demonstrated that preQ1 enhances P4 reorientation toward P1–P2, promoting a partially nested, H-type pseudoknot in which the RBS undergoes rapid docking (kdock ∼0.6 s−1) and undocking (kundock ∼1.1 s−1). Discovery of such dynamic conformational switching provides insight into how a riboswitch with bipartite architecture uses dynamics to modulate expression platform accessibility, thus expanding the known repertoire of gene control strategies used by regulatory RNAs. PMID:26106162

  12. Structural analysis of a class III preQ1 riboswitch reveals an aptamer distant from a ribosome-binding site regulated by fast dynamics.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Joseph A; Suddala, Krishna C; Aytenfisu, Asaminew; Chan, Dalen; Belashov, Ivan A; Salim, Mohammad; Mathews, David H; Spitale, Robert C; Walter, Nils G; Wedekind, Joseph E

    2015-07-01

    PreQ1-III riboswitches are newly identified RNA elements that control bacterial genes in response to preQ1 (7-aminomethyl-7-deazaguanine), a precursor to the essential hypermodified tRNA base queuosine. Although numerous riboswitches fold as H-type or HLout-type pseudoknots that integrate ligand-binding and regulatory sequences within a single folded domain, the preQ1-III riboswitch aptamer forms a HLout-type pseudoknot that does not appear to incorporate its ribosome-binding site (RBS). To understand how this unusual organization confers function, we determined the crystal structure of the class III preQ1 riboswitch from Faecalibacterium prausnitzii at 2.75 Å resolution. PreQ1 binds tightly (KD,app 6.5 ± 0.5 nM) between helices P1 and P2 of a three-way helical junction wherein the third helix, P4, projects orthogonally from the ligand-binding pocket, exposing its stem-loop to base pair with the 3' RBS. Biochemical analysis, computational modeling, and single-molecule FRET imaging demonstrated that preQ1 enhances P4 reorientation toward P1-P2, promoting a partially nested, H-type pseudoknot in which the RBS undergoes rapid docking (kdock ∼ 0.6 s(-1)) and undocking (kundock ∼ 1.1 s(-1)). Discovery of such dynamic conformational switching provides insight into how a riboswitch with bipartite architecture uses dynamics to modulate expression platform accessibility, thus expanding the known repertoire of gene control strategies used by regulatory RNAs. PMID:26106162

  13. Metal interferences and their removal prior to the determination of As(T) and As(III) in acid mine waters by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ball, James W.

    2003-01-01

    Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) is a sensitive and selective method for the determination of total arsenic (arsenic(III) plus arsenic(V)) and arsenic(III); however, it is subject to metal interferences for acid mine waters. Sodium borohydride is used to produce arsine gas, but high metal concentrations can suppress arsine production. This report investigates interferences of sixteen metal species including aluminum, antimony(III), antimony(V), cadmium, chromium(III), chromium(IV), cobalt, copper(II), iron(III), iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(IV), selenium(VI), and zinc ranging in concentration from 0 to 1,000 milligrams per liter and offers a method for removing interfering metal cations with cation exchange resin. The degree of interference for each metal without cation-exchange on the determination of total arsenic and arsenic(III) was evaluated by spiking synthetic samples containing arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) with the potential interfering metal. Total arsenic recoveries ranged from 92 to 102 percent for all metals tested except antimony(III) and antimony(V) which suppressed arsine formation when the antimony(III)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 4 or the antimony(V)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 2. Arsenic(III) recoveries for samples spiked with aluminum, chromium(III), cobalt, iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(VI), and zinc ranged from 84 to 107 percent over the entire concentration range tested. Low arsenic(III) recoveries occurred when the molar ratios of metals to arsenic(III) were copper greater than 120, iron(III) greater than 70, chromium(VI) greater than 2, cadmium greater than 800, antimony(III) greater than 3, antimony(V) greater than 12, or selenium(IV) greater than 1. Low recoveries result when interfering metals compete for available sodium borohydride, causing incomplete arsine production, or when the interfering metal oxidizes arsenic(III). Separation of interfering metal cations using

  14. BtcA, A Class IA Type III Chaperone, Interacts with the BteA N-Terminal Domain through a Globular/Non-Globular Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Guttman, Chen; Davidov, Geula; Yahalom, Adi; Shaked, Hadassa; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Bitton, Ronit; Barber-Zucker, Shiran; Chill, Jordan H.; Zarivach, Raz

    2013-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the etiological agent of “whooping cough” disease, utilizes the type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver a 69 kDa cytotoxic effector protein, BteA, directly into the host cells. As with other T3SS effectors, prior to its secretion BteA binds BtcA, a 13.9 kDa protein predicted to act as a T3SS class IA chaperone. While this interaction had been characterized for such effector-chaperone pairs in other pathogens, it has yet to be fully investigated in Bordetella. Here we provide the first biochemical proof that BtcA is indeed a class IA chaperone, responsible for the binding of BteA's N-terminal domain. We bring forth extensive evidence that BtcA binds its substrate effector through a dual-interface binding mechanism comprising of non-globular and bi-globular interactions at a moderate micromolar level binding affinity. We demonstrate that the non-globular interactions involve the first 31 N-terminal residues of BteA287 and their removal leads to destabilization of the effector-chaperone complex and lower binding affinities to BtcA. These findings represent an important first step towards a molecular understanding of BteA secretion and cell entry. PMID:24312558

  15. Oxidation of Fe III porphyrins by peroxyl radicals derived from 2-propanol and methanol. Evidence for acid-dependent and acid-independent pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brault, D.; Neta, P.

    1985-11-01

    Iron(III) deuteroporphyrin dimethyl ester is oxidized to the radical cation form by the peroxyl radicals CH 2(OH)O 2- and (CH 3) 2C(OH)O 2- generated by pulse radiolysis of air saturated aqueous solutions of methanol and 2-propanol, respectively. Oxidation by CH 2(OH)O 2- radicals proceeds with k = 1×10 7 M -1 s -1 independent of pH. In contrast, the electron-transfer reaction of (CH 3) 2C(OH)O 2-1 is pH-dependent. A reaction scheme, which may apply to all peroxyl radicals depending on relative rate constants, is proposed. It involves the formation of an iron porphyrin peroxyl radical adduct that decays by acid-dependent and acid-independent routes.

  16. Combined effects of lanthanum (III) chloride and acid rain on photosynthetic parameters in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) pollution and acid rain are environmental issues, and their deleterious effects on plants attract worldwide attention. These two issues exist simultaneously in many regions, especially in some rice-growing areas. However, little is known about the combined effects of REEs and acid rain on plants. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3), one type of REE salt, and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice were investigated. We showed that the combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 4.5 increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatic conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), Hill reaction activity (HRA), apparent quantum yield (AQY) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) in rice. The combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 3.5 began to behave toxic effects on photosynthesis (decreasing Pn, Gs, HRA, AQY and CE, and increasing Ci), and the maximally toxic effects were observed in the combined treatment of 2449.0 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 2.5. Moreover, the combined effects of LaCl3 and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice depended on the growth stage of rice, with the maximal effects occurring at the booting stage. Furthermore, the combined treatment of high-concentration LaCl3 and low-pH acid rain had more serious effects on photosynthesis in rice than LaCl3 or acid rain treatment alone. Finally, the combined effect of LaCl3 and acid rain on Pn in rice resulted from the changes in stomatic (Gs, Ci) and non-stomatic (HRA, AQY and CE) factors. PMID:25048927

  17. Lipid Classes, Fatty Acid Composition, and Glycerolipid Molecular Species of the Red Alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla, a Prostaglandin-Producing Seaweed.

    PubMed

    Honda, Masaki; Ishimaru, Takashi; Itabashi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla is a well-known producer of prostaglandins, such as PGE2 and PGF2α. In this study, the characteristics of glycerolipids as substrates of prostaglandin production were clarified, and the lipid classes, fatty acid composition, and glycerolipid molecular species were investigated in detail. The major lipid classes were monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), as well as phosphatidylcholine (PC), which accounted for 43.0% of the total lipid profile. Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), a prostaglandin precursor, and palmitic acid (16:0) were the predominant fatty acids in the total lipid profile. The 20:4n-6 content was significantly high in MGDG and PC (more than 60%), and the 16:0 content was significantly high in DGDG and SQDG (more than 50%). Chiral-phase high-performance liquid chromatography determined that fatty acids were esterified at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of those lipids. The main glycerolipid molecular species were 20:4n-6/20:4n-6 (sn-1/sn-2) for MGDG (56.5%) and PC (40.0%), and 20:4n-6/16:0 for DGDG (75.4%) and SQDG (58.4%). Thus, it was considered that the glycerolipid molecular species containing one or two 20:4n-6 were the major substrates for prostaglandin production in G. vermiculophylla. PMID:27581490

  18. Targeting class A and C serine β-lactamases with a broad-spectrum boronic acid derivative.

    PubMed

    Tondi, Donatella; Venturelli, Alberto; Bonnet, Richard; Pozzi, Cecilia; Shoichet, Brian K; Costi, Maria Paola

    2014-06-26

    Production of β-lactamases (BLs) is the most widespread resistance mechanism adopted by bacteria to fight β-lactam antibiotics. The substrate spectrum of BLs has become increasingly broad, posing a serious health problem. Thus, there is an urgent need for novel BL inhibitors. Boronic acid transition-state analogues are able to reverse the resistance conferred by class A and C BLs. We describe a boronic acid analogue possessing interesting and potent broad-spectrum activity vs class A and C serine-based BLs. Starting from benzo(b)thiophene-2-boronic acid (BZBTH2B), a nanomolar non-β-lactam inhibitor of AmpC that can potentiate the activity of a third-generation cephalosporin against AmpC-producing resistant bacteria, we designed a novel broad-spectrum nanomolar inhibitor of class A and C BLs. Structure-based drug design (SBDD), synthesis, enzymology data, and X-ray crystallography results are discussed. We clarified the inhibitor binding geometry responsible for broad-spectrum activity vs serine-active BLs using double mutant thermodynamic cycle studies. PMID:24882105

  19. Effects of 5‑fluorouracil and class III phosphoinositide 3‑kinase small interfering RNA combination therapy on SGC7901 human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Song; Sun, Jia-Lei; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Xing-Ding; Wu, Yong-You; Xing, Chun-Gen

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of small interfering RNA‑mediated inhibition of Class III phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K) signal transduction on the proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy of SGC7901 gastric cancer cells. The present study also aimed to examine the contribution of autophagic inhibition to the antitumor effects of 5‑fluorouracil (5‑FU). A PI3K(III)‑RNA interference (i)‑green fluorescent protein (GFP) recombinant replication adenovirus (AD) and the negative control (NC)‑RNAi‑GFP control AD were constructed and infected into SGC7901 cells. A methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay was used to determine the growth rate of the SGC7901 cells. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect microtubule‑associated protein 1 light chain 3 expression. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using the JC‑1 fluorescent probe. Autophagic expression was monitored with MDC staining and transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that following combination treatment of the SGC7901 gastric cancer cells with 5‑FU + PI3K(III)‑RNAi‑AD, the optical density absorbance values at 24, 48 and 72 h were 0.17 ± 1.64, 0.13 ± 4.64 and 0.11 ± 3.56%, respectively, with cell viability inhibition ratios of 45.89 ± 6.67, 72.57 ± 9.48 and 87.51 ± 4.65%, respectively. As compared with the other treatment groups, the inhibition rate in the combined treatment group was significantly higher (P<0.05). The percentages of the cells with green fluorescence in the combined treatment group were 74.4 ± 3.86 (24 h), 82.3 ± 1.84 (48 h) and 92.5 ± 1.1% (72 h), which were larger than those of the other groups. The percentage of cells with green fluorescence became larger, which indicated that the mitochondrion membrane potential had been reduced to a greater extent. MDC staining revealed that the number of autophagic vacuoles in the cells (measured at 24, 48 and 72 h) decreased gradually with time, with more autophagic

  20. Human helicase gene SKI2W in the HLA class III region exhibits striking structural similarities to the yeast antiviral gene SKI2 and to the human gene KIAA0052: emergence of a new gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Dangel, A W; Shen, L; Mendoza, A R; Wu, L C; Yu, C Y

    1995-01-01

    Helicases are essential enzymes for life because DNA replication, DNA repair, recombination, transcription, RNA splicing and translation all involve more than one helicase to unwind DNA or RNA. We have discovered, cloned and partially characterized a novel human helicase gene, SKI2W. The human SKI2W is located between the RD and RP1 genes in the class III region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6, a genomic region associated with many malignant, genetic and autoimmune diseases. Derived amino acid sequence of human SKI2W showed an open reading frame for 1246 residues. It contains consensus sequences for structural motifs of an RNA helicase with a DEVH box. It has a leucine zipper motif that may be important for protein dimerization, and an RGD motif close to the N-terminus that might serve as a ligand for integrin or cell adhesion molecules. SKI2W shares a striking and extensive similarity to the yeast Ski2p that is involved in the inhibition of translation of poly(A) negative [poly(A)-] RNA, and plays an important role in antiviral activities. Human SKI2W fusion protein expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus vector has ATPase activity. The human SKI2W protein and the yeast Ski2p share extensive sequence similarities to another putative human protein KIAA0052, suggesting the presence of a new gene family that may be involved in translational regulation of cellular and viral RNA. Images PMID:7610041

  1. Root growth restraint can be an acclimatory response to low pH and is associated with reduced cell mortality: a possible role of class III peroxidases and NADPH oxidases.

    PubMed

    Graças, J P; Ruiz-Romero, R; Figueiredo, L D; Mattiello, L; Peres, L E P; Vitorello, V A

    2016-07-01

    Low pH (<5.0) can significantly decrease root growth but whether this is a direct effect of H(+) or an active plant response is examined here. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv Micro-Tom) roots were exposed directly or gradually to low pH through step-wise changes in pH over periods ranging from 4 to 24 h. Roots exposed gradually to pH 4.5 grew even less than those exposed directly, indicating a plant-coordinated response. Direct exposure to pH 4.0 suppressed root growth and caused high cell mortality, in contrast to roots exposed gradually, in which growth remained inhibited but cell viability was maintained. Total class III peroxidase activity increased significantly in all low pH treatments, but was not correlated with the observed differential responses. Use of the enzyme inhibitors salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) suggest that peroxidase and, to a lesser extent, NADPH oxidase were required to prevent or reduce injury in all low pH treatments. However, a role for other enzymes, such as the alternative oxidase is also possible. The results with SHAM, but not DPI, were confirmed in tobacco BY-2 cells. Our results indicate that root growth inhibition from low pH can be part of an active plant response, and suggest that peroxidases may have a critical early role in reducing loss of cell viability and in the observed root growth constraint. PMID:26891589

  2. Halogenated methanesulfonic acids: A new class of organic micropollutants in the water cycle.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Daniel; Frömel, Tobias; Knepper, Thomas P

    2016-09-15

    Mobile and persistent organic micropollutants may impact raw and drinking waters and are thus of concern for human health. To identify such possible substances of concern nineteen water samples from five European countries (France, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Spain and Germany) and different compartments of the water cycle (urban effluent, surface water, ground water and drinking water) were enriched with mixed-mode solid phase extraction. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry non-target screening of these samples led to the detection and structural elucidation of seven novel organic micropollutants. One structure could already be confirmed by a reference standard (trifluoromethanesulfonic acid) and six were tentatively identified based on experimental evidence (chloromethanesulfonic acid, dichloromethanesulfonic acid, trichloromethanesulfonic acid, bromomethanesulfonic acid, dibromomethanesulfonic acid and bromochloromethanesulfonic acid). Approximated concentrations for these substances show that trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, a chemical registered under the European Union regulation REACH with a production volume of more than 100 t/a, is able to spread along the water cycle and may be present in concentrations up to the μg/L range. Chlorinated and brominated methanesulfonic acids were predominantly detected together which indicates a common source and first experimental evidence points towards water disinfection as a potential origin. Halogenated methanesulfonic acids were detected in drinking waters and thus may be new substances of concern. PMID:27267477

  3. Acid-tolerant microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria promote Fe(III)-accumulation in a fen.

    PubMed

    Lüdecke, Claudia; Reiche, Marco; Eusterhues, Karin; Nietzsche, Sandor; Küsel, Kirsten

    2010-10-01

    The ecological importance of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) at circumneutral pH is often masked in the presence of O(2) where rapid chemical oxidation of Fe(II) predominates. This study addresses the abundance, diversity and activity of microaerophilic FeOB in an acidic fen (pH ∼ 5) located in northern Bavaria, Germany. Mean O(2) penetration depth reached 16 cm where the highest dissolved Fe(II) concentrations (up to 140 µM) were present in soil water. Acid-tolerant FeOB cultivated in gradient tubes were most abundant (10(6) cells g(-1) peat) at the 10-20 cm depth interval. A stable enrichment culture was active at up to 29% O(2) saturation and Fe(III) accumulated 1.6 times faster than in abiotic controls. An acid-tolerant, microaerophilic isolate (strain CL21) was obtained which was closely related to the neutrophilic, lithoautotrophic FeOB Sideroxydans lithotrophicus strain LD-1. CL21 oxidized Fe(II) between pH 4 and 6.0, and produced nanoscale-goethites with a clearly lower mean coherence length (7 nm) perpendicular to the (110) plane than those formed abiotically (10 nm). Our results suggest that an acid-tolerant population of FeOB is thriving at redox interfaces formed by diffusion-limited O(2) transport in acidic peatlands. Furthermore, this well-adapted population is successfully competing with chemical oxidation and thereby playing an important role in the microbial iron cycle. PMID:20545739

  4. Frontal soft tissue analysis using a 3 dimensional camera following two-jaw rotational orthognathic surgery in skeletal class III patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Woo; Lee, Jang Yeol; Oh, Tae-Suk; Kwon, Soon Man; Yang, Sung Joon; Koh, Kyung Suk

    2014-04-01

    Although two dimensional cephalometry is the standard method for analyzing the results of orthognathic surgery, it has potential limits in frontal soft tissue analysis. We have utilized a 3 dimensional camera to examine changes in soft tissue landmarks in patients with skeletal class III dentofacial deformity who underwent two-jaw rotational setback surgery. We assessed 25 consecutive Asian patients (mean age, 22 years; range, 17-32 years) with skeletal class III dentofacial deformities who underwent two-jaw rotational surgery without maxillary advancement. Using a 3D camera, we analyzed changes in facial proportions, including vertical and horizontal dimensions, facial surface areas, nose profile, lip contour, and soft tissue cheek convexity, as well as landmarks related to facial symmetry. The average mandibular setback was 10.7 mm (range: 5-17 mm). The average SNA changed from 77.4° to 77.8°, the average SNB from 89.2° to 81.1°, and the average occlusal plane from 8.7° to 11.4°. The mid third vertical dimension changed from 58.8 mm to 57.8 mm (p = 0.059), and the lower third vertical dimension changed from 70.4 mm to 68.2 mm (p = 0.0006). The average bigonial width decreased from 113.5 mm to 109.2 mm (p = 0.0028), the alar width increased from 34.7 mm to 36.1 mm (p-value = 0.0002), and lip length was unchanged. Mean mid and lower facial surface areas decreased significantly, from 171.8 cm(2) to 166.2 cm(2) (p = 0.026) and from 71.23 cm(2) to 61.9 cm(2) (p < 0.0001), respectively. Cheek convexity increased significantly, from 171.8° to 155.9° (p = 0.0007). The 3D camera was effective in frontal soft tissue analysis for orthognathic surgery, and enabled quantitative analysis of changes in frontal soft tissue landmarks and facial proportions that were not possible with conventional 2D cephalometric analysis. PMID:23870714

  5. Rapid access to synthetic lysobisphosphatidic acids using P(III) chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chevallier, J; Sakai, N; Robert, F; Kobayashi, T; Gruenberg, J; Matile, S

    2000-06-29

    An expeditious route to synthetic lysobisphosphatidic acid S,S-1, its enantiomer, and regioisomers is reported. Synthetic difficulties concerning lipid stability and stereochemistry are bypassed using a phosphite triester approach in combination with multiple silyl protection. Spectroscopic studies evidence that acyl group migration in S,S-1 is accelerated by nonpolar solvents and inhibited by pyridine. PMID:10891176

  6. PHOTODEGRADATION OF A TERNARY IRON(III)-URANIUM(VI)-CITRIC ACID COMPLEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms of photodegradation of binary iron- and uranium-citrate and ternary iron-uranium-citrate complexes were elucidated. Citric acid degradation products were identified by HPLC and GC, and the metal precipitates were identified by XRD and EXAFS. Photodegradation of a b...

  7. Effect of exercise training on the fatty acid composition of lipid classes in rat liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Petridou, Anatoli; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Matsakas, Antonis; Schulz, Thorsten; Michna, Horst; Mougios, Vassilis

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of 8 weeks of exercise training on the fatty acid composition of phospholipids (PL) and triacylglycerols (TG) in rat liver, skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius medialis), and adipose tissue (epididymal and subcutaneous fat). For this purpose, the relevant tissues of 11 trained rats were compared to those of 14 untrained ones. Training caused several significant differences of large effect size in the concentrations and percentages of individual fatty acids in the aforementioned lipid classes. The fatty acid composition of liver PL, in terms of both concentrations and percentages, changed with training. The TG content of muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue decreased significantly with training. In contrast to the liver, where no significant differences in the fatty acid profile of TG were found, muscle underwent more significant differences in TG than PL, and adipose tissue only in TG. Most differences were in the same direction in muscle and adipose tissue TG, suggesting a common underlying mechanism. Estimated fatty acid elongase activity was significantly higher, whereas Delta(9)-desaturase activity was significantly lower in muscle and adipose tissue of the trained rats. In conclusion, exercise training modified the fatty acid composition of liver PL, muscle PL and TG, as well as adipose tissue TG. These findings may aid in delineating the effects of exercise on biological functions such as membrane properties, cell signaling, and gene expression. PMID:15682327

  8. Hepatotoxicity of Pentavalent Antimonial Drug: Possible Role of Residual Sb(III) and Protective Effect of Ascorbic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kelly C.; Morais-Teixeira, Eliane; Reis, Priscila G.; Silva-Barcellos, Neila M.; Salaün, Pascal; Campos, Paula P.; Dias Corrêa-Junior, José; Rabello, Ana; Demicheli, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Pentavalent antimonial drugs such as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime [Glu; Sanofi-Aventis, São Paulo, Brazil]) produce severe side effects, including cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity, during the treatment of leishmaniasis. We evaluated the role of residual Sb(III) in the hepatotoxicity of meglumine antimoniate, as well as the protective effect of the antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) during antimonial chemotherapy in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis. BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania infantum were treated intraperitoneally at 80 mg of Sb/kg/day with commercial meglumine antimoniate (Glu) or a synthetic meglumine antimoniate with lower Sb(III) level (MA), in association or not with AA (15 mg/kg/day), for a 20-day period. Control groups received saline or saline plus AA. Livers were evaluated for hepatocytes histological alterations, peroxidase activity, and apoptosis. Increased proportions of swollen and apoptotic hepatocytes were observed in animals treated with Glu compared to animals treated with saline or MA. The peroxidase activity was also enhanced in the liver of animals that received Glu. Cotreatment with AA reduced the extent of histological changes, the apoptotic index, and the peroxidase activity to levels corresponding to the control group. Moreover, the association with AA did not affect the hepatic uptake of Sb and the ability of Glu to reduce the liver and spleen parasite loads in infected mice. In conclusion, our data supports the use of pentavalent antimonials with low residue of Sb(III) and the association of pentavalent antimonials with AA, as effective strategies to reduce side effects in antimonial therapy. PMID:24189251

  9. Reduction of Cr(VI) under acidic conditions by the facultative Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Acidiphilium cryptum

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Cummings; Scott Fendorf; Rajesh K. Sani; Brent M. Peyton; Timothy S. Magnuson

    2007-01-01

    The potential for biological reduction of Cr(VI) under acidic conditions was evaluated with the acidophilic, facultatively metal-reducing bacterium Acidiphilium cryptum strain JF-5 to explore the role of acidophilic microorganisms in the Cr cycle in low-pH environments. An anaerobic suspension of washed A. cryptum cells rapidly reduced 50 M Cr(VI) at pH 3.2; biological reduction was detected from pH 1.7-4.7. The reduction product, confirmed by XANES analysis, was entirely Cr(III) that was associated predominantly with the cell biomass (70-80%) with the residual residing in the aqueous phase. Reduction of Cr(VI) showed a pH optimum similar to that for growth and was inhibited by 5 mM HgCl2, suggesting that the reaction was enzyme-mediated. Introduction of O2 into the reaction medium slowed the reduction rate only slightly, whereas soluble Fe(III) (as ferric sulfate) increased the rate dramatically, presumably by the shuttling of electrons from bioreduced Fe(II) to Cr(VI) in a coupled biotic-abiotic cycle. Starved cells could not reduce Cr(VI) when provided as sole electron acceptor, indicating that Cr(VI) reduction is not an energy-conserving process in A. cryptum. We speculate, rather, that Cr(VI) reduction is used here as a detoxification mechanism.

  10. Effects of resistant starch type III polymorphs on human colon microbiota and short chain fatty acids in human gut models.

    PubMed

    Lesmes, Uri; Beards, Emma J; Gibson, Glenn R; Tuohy, Kieran M; Shimoni, Eyal

    2008-07-01

    This study probed the possible effects of type III resistant starch (RS) crystalline polymorphism on RS fermentability by human gut microbiota and the short chain fatty acids production in vitro. Human fecal pH-controlled batch cultures showed RS induces an ecological shift in the colonic microbiota with polymorph B inducing Bifidobacterium spp. and polymorph A inducing Atopobium spp. Interestingly, polymorph B also induced higher butyrate production to levels of 0.79 mM. In addition, human gut simulation demonstrated that polymorph B promotes the growth of bifidobacteria in the proximal part of the colon and double their relative proportion in the microbiota in the distal colon. These findings suggest that RS polymorph B may promote large bowel health. While the findings are limited by study constraints, they do raise the possibility of using different thermal processing to delineate differences in the prebiotic capabilities of RS, especially its butryrogenicity in the human colon. PMID:18543927

  11. The efficient synthesis of morphinandienone alkaloids by using a combination of hypervalent iodine(III) reagent and heteropoly acid.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Hiromi; Shiozaki, Yukiko; Nambu, Hisanori; Hata, Kayoko; Tohma, Hirofumi; Kita, Yasuyuki

    2004-10-11

    The non-phenolic coupling reaction of benzyltetrahydroisoquinolines (laudanosine derivatives) by using a hypervalent iodine(III) reagent is described. In general, chemical oxidation of laudanosine gives glaucine. In contrast to general chemical oxidizing reagent systems, the novel use of reagent combination of phenyliodine bis(trifluoroacetate) (PIFA), and heteropoly acid (HPA) afforded morphinandienone alkaloids in excellent yields. In order to achieve the coupling reaction with simple reaction procedure, the use of HPA supported on silica gel instead of HPA was demonstrated and sufficient yield was exerted again. The present reagent system, PIFA/HPA, was also applied to the oxidation of other non-phenolic benzyltetrahydroisoquinolines and the high yield conversion to morphinandienones was accomplished. PMID:15372696

  12. Identification of amino acid networks governing catalysis in the closed complex of class I terpene synthases

    PubMed Central

    Buettner, Alexander; Goerner, Christian; Hertel, Michael; van Rijn, Jeaphianne; Wallrapp, Frank; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Sieber, Volker; Kourist, Robert; Brück, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Class I terpene synthases generate the structural core of bioactive terpenoids. Deciphering structure–function relationships in the reactive closed complex and targeted engineering is hampered by highly dynamic carbocation rearrangements during catalysis. Available crystal structures, however, represent the open, catalytically inactive form or harbor nonproductive substrate analogs. Here, we present a catalytically relevant, closed conformation of taxadiene synthase (TXS), the model class I terpene synthase, which simulates the initial catalytic time point. In silico modeling of subsequent catalytic steps allowed unprecedented insights into the dynamic reaction cascades and promiscuity mechanisms of class I terpene synthases. This generally applicable methodology enables the active-site localization of carbocations and demonstrates the presence of an active-site base motif and its dominating role during catalysis. It additionally allowed in silico-designed targeted protein engineering that unlocked the path to alternate monocyclic and bicyclic synthons representing the basis of a myriad of bioactive terpenoids. PMID:26842837

  13. Identification of amino acid networks governing catalysis in the closed complex of class I terpene synthases.

    PubMed

    Schrepfer, Patrick; Buettner, Alexander; Goerner, Christian; Hertel, Michael; van Rijn, Jeaphianne; Wallrapp, Frank; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Sieber, Volker; Kourist, Robert; Brück, Thomas

    2016-02-23

    Class I terpene synthases generate the structural core of bioactive terpenoids. Deciphering structure-function relationships in the reactive closed complex and targeted engineering is hampered by highly dynamic carbocation rearrangements during catalysis. Available crystal structures, however, represent the open, catalytically inactive form or harbor nonproductive substrate analogs. Here, we present a catalytically relevant, closed conformation of taxadiene synthase (TXS), the model class I terpene synthase, which simulates the initial catalytic time point. In silico modeling of subsequent catalytic steps allowed unprecedented insights into the dynamic reaction cascades and promiscuity mechanisms of class I terpene synthases. This generally applicable methodology enables the active-site localization of carbocations and demonstrates the presence of an active-site base motif and its dominating role during catalysis. It additionally allowed in silico-designed targeted protein engineering that unlocked the path to alternate monocyclic and bicyclic synthons representing the basis of a myriad of bioactive terpenoids. PMID:26842837

  14. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants. PMID:26230263

  15. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants. PMID:26230263

  16. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part III: Technology scale-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Serra, L.; Dumenil, S.; Brichard, G.; Alias, M.; Jammet, B.; Vinit, L.

    2015-12-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid technology employs new carbon/carbon composites with ordered 3D structure instead of the classic lead-acid battery current collectors. The technology is laboratory scaled up from small size grids corresponding to electrodes with a capacity of 3 Ah to current collectors suitable for assembly of lead-acid batteries covering the majority of the typical lead-acid battery applications. Two series of 150 grids each (one positive and one negative) are manufactured using low-cost lab-scale equipment. They are further subjected to pasting with active materials and the resulting battery plates are assembled in 12 V AGM-VLRA battery mono-blocks for laboratory testing and outdoor demonstration in electric scooter replacing its original VRLAB pack. The obtained results demonstrate that the technology can replace successfully the state of the art negative grids with considerable benefits. The use of the carbon honeycomb grids as positive plate current collectors is limited by the anodic corrosion of the entire structure attacking both the carbon/carbon composite part and the electroplated lead-tin alloy coating.

  17. Dissolution of cerium(IV)-lanthanide(III) oxides: Comparative effect of chemical composition, temperature, and acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Horlait, D.; Clavier, N.; Szenknect, S.; Dacheux, N.; Dubois, V.

    2012-03-15

    The dissolution of Ce{sub 1-x}Ln{sub x}O{sub 2-x/2} solid solutions was undertaken in various acid media in order to evaluate the effects of several physicochemical parameters such as chemical composition, temperature, and acidity on the reaction kinetics. The normalized dissolution rates (R{sub L,0}) were found to be strongly modified by the trivalent lanthanide incorporation rate, due to the presence of oxygen vacancies decreasing the samples cohesion. Conversely, the nature of the trivalent cation considered only weakly impacted the R{sub L,0} values. The dependence of the normalized dissolution rates on the temperature then appeared to be of the same order of magnitude than that of chemical composition. Moreover, it allowed determining the corresponding activation energy (E{sub A} ≅ 60-85 kJ.mol{sup -1}) which accounts for a dissolution driven by surface-controlled reactions. A similar conclusion was made regarding the acidity of the solution: the partial order related to (H{sub 3}O{sup +}) reaching about 0.7. Finally, the prevailing effect of the incorporation of aliovalent cations in the fluorite-type CeO{sub 2} matrix on the dissolution kinetics precluded the observation of slight effects such as those linked to the complexing agents or to the crystal structure of the samples. (authors)

  18. Formation of W/O microemulsions in the extraction of Nd(iii) by bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid and its effects on Nd(iii) coordination.

    PubMed

    Sun, Taoxiang; Xu, Chao; Chen, Jing

    2016-01-21

    The formation of water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions during the extraction of Nd(iii) by bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid (also known as purified Cyanex 301, denoted as HC301) was studied. Results from the measurement of the concentration of Nd(iii), Na(+) and NO3(-) in the organic phase, IR spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) all indicated that W/O microemulsions could form as the ratio of the neutralized ligand to Nd(iii) in the aqueous phase is over 3 : 1. The coordination environment of Nd(iii) in the extracted complexes was monitored by absorption spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and was found to vary significantly with the formation of W/O microemulsions. When only 10% of HC301 was neutralized, with no formation of W/O microemulsions, the inner coordination shell of Nd(iii) in the organic phase was occupied dominantly by sulfur atoms from HC301. As HC301 was further neutralized, the coordinated sulfur atoms around Nd(iii) were replaced gradually by the oxygen atoms from water. This work provides further insights into the extraction mechanism in the extraction system using purified Cyanex 301 as an extractant. PMID:26660060

  19. Rationale and design of the treatment of hyponatremia based on lixivaptan in NYHA class III/IV cardiac patient evaluation (THE BALANCE) study.

    PubMed

    Abraham, William T; Aranda, Juan M; Boehmer, John P; Elkayam, Uri; Gilbert, Edward M; Gottlieb, Stephen S; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Kukin, Marrick; Lowes, Brian D; O'Connell, John B; Tavazzi, Luigi; Feldman, Arthur M; Ticho, Barry; Orlandi, Cesare

    2010-10-01

    Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder in patients with heart failure (HF) associated with cognitive dysfunction and increased mortality and rehospitalization rates. Loop diuretics worsen renal function, produce neurohormonal activation, and induce electrolyte imbalances. Lixivaptan is a selective, oral vasopressin V(2) -receptor antagonist that improves hyponatremia by promoting electrolyte-free aquaresis without significant side effects. The Treatment of Hyponatremia Based on Lixivaptan in NYHA Class III/IV Cardiac Patient Evaluation (BALANCE) study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial designed to evaluate the effects of lixivaptan on serum sodium in patients hospitalized with worsening heart failure (target N= 650), signs of congestion and serum sodium concentrations <135 mEq/L. Other endpoints include assessment of dyspnea, body weight, cognitive function, and days of hospital-free survival. Patients are randomized 1:1 to lixivaptan or matching placebo for 60 days, with a 30-day safety follow-up. Doses of lixivaptan or placebo are adjusted based on serum sodium and volume status. Lixivaptan was shown to increase serum sodium and reduce body weight, without renal dysfunction or hypokalemia. BALANCE seeks to address unmet questions regarding the use of vasopressin antagonists including their effects on cognitive function and clinical outcomes in patients with hyponatremia and worsening heart failure. PMID:20973922

  20. Apparatus for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells employing materials selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus for forming thin-film, large area solar cells having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n-type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5 .mu.m to .congruent.5.0 .mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer to evolve into p-type material, thereby defining a thin layer heterojunction device characterized by the absence of voids, vacancies and nodules which tend to reduce the energy conversion efficiency of the system.