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Sample records for acidic coiled-coil protein

  1. Phylogenetic occurrence of coiled coil proteins: implications for tissue structure in metazoa via a coiled coil tissue matrix.

    PubMed

    Odgren, P R; Harvie, L W; Fey, E G

    1996-04-01

    We examined GenBank sequence files with a heptad repeat analysis program to assess the phylogenetic occurrence of coiled coil proteins, how heptad repeat domains are organized within them, and what structural/functional categories they comprise. Of 102,007 proteins analyzed, 5.95% (6,074) contained coiled coil domains; 1.26% (1,289) contained "extended" (> 75 amino acid) domains. While the frequency of proteins containing coiled coils was surprisingly constant among all biota, extended coiled coil proteins were fourfold more frequent in the animal kingdom and may reflect early events in the divergence of plants and animals. Structure/function categories of extended coils also revealed phylogenetic differences. In pathogens and parasites, many extended coiled coil proteins are external and bind host proteins. In animals, the majority of extended coiled coil proteins were identified as constituents of two protein categories: 1) myosins and motors; or 2) components of the nuclear matrix-intermediate filament scaffold. This scaffold, produced by sequential extraction of epithelial monolayers in situ, contains only 1-2% of the cell mass while accurately retaining morphological features of living epithelium and is greatly enriched in proteins with extensive, interrupted coiled coil forming domains. The increased occurrence of this type of protein in metazoa compared with plants or protists leads us to hypothesize a tissue-wide matrix of coiled coil interactions underlying metazoan differentiated cell and tissue structure.

  2. A periodic table of coiled-coil protein structures.

    PubMed

    Moutevelis, Efrosini; Woolfson, Derek N

    2009-01-23

    Coiled coils are protein structure domains with two or more alpha-helices packed together via interlacing of side chains known as knob-into-hole packing. We analysed and classified a large set of coiled-coil structures using a combination of automated and manual methods. This led to a systematic classification that we termed a "periodic table of coiled coils," which we have made available at http://coiledcoils.chm.bris.ac.uk/ccplus/search/periodic_table. In this table, coiled-coil assemblies are arranged in columns with increasing numbers of alpha-helices and in rows of increased complexity. The table provides a framework for understanding possibilities in and limits on coiled-coil structures and a basis for future prediction, engineering and design studies.

  3. Transport Vesicle Tethering at the Trans Golgi Network: Coiled Coil Proteins in Action.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Pak-Yan P; Pfeffer, Suzanne R

    2016-01-01

    The Golgi complex is decorated with so-called Golgin proteins that share a common feature: a large proportion of their amino acid sequences are predicted to form coiled-coil structures. The possible presence of extensive coiled coils implies that these proteins are highly elongated molecules that can extend a significant distance from the Golgi surface. This property would help them to capture or trap inbound transport vesicles and to tether Golgi mini-stacks together. This review will summarize our current understanding of coiled coil tethers that are needed for the receipt of transport vesicles at the trans Golgi network (TGN). How do long tethering proteins actually catch vesicles? Golgi-associated, coiled coil tethers contain numerous binding sites for small GTPases, SNARE proteins, and vesicle coat proteins. How are these interactions coordinated and are any or all of them important for the tethering process? Progress toward understanding these questions and remaining, unresolved mysteries will be discussed.

  4. Functional investigation of the plant-specific long coiled-coil proteins PAMP-INDUCED COILED-COIL (PICC) and PICC-LIKE (PICL) in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Venkatakrishnan, Sowmya; Mackey, David; Meier, Iris

    2013-01-01

    We have identified and characterized two Arabidopsis long coiled-coil proteins PAMP-INDUCED COILED-COIL (PICC) and PICC-LIKE (PICL). PICC (147 kDa) and PICL (87 kDa) are paralogs that consist predominantly of a long coiled-coil domain (expanded in PICC), with a predicted transmembrane domain at the immediate C-terminus. Orthologs of PICC and PICL were found exclusively in vascular plants. PICC and PICL GFP fusion proteins are anchored to the cytoplasmic surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by a C-terminal transmembrane domain and a short tail domain, via a tail-anchoring mechanism. T-DNA-insertion mutants of PICC and PICL as well as the double mutant show an increased sensitivity to the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in a post-germination growth response. PICC, but not PICL gene expression is induced by the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22. T-DNA insertion alleles of PICC, but not PICL, show increased susceptibility to the non-virulent strain P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 hrcC, but not to the virulent strain P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. This suggests that PICC mutants are compromised in PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). The data presented here provide first evidence for the involvement of a plant long coiled-coil protein in a plant defense response.

  5. Functional Investigation of the Plant-Specific Long Coiled-Coil Proteins PAMP-INDUCED COILED-COIL (PICC) and PICC-LIKE (PICL) in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Venkatakrishnan, Sowmya; Mackey, David; Meier, Iris

    2013-01-01

    We have identified and characterized two Arabidopsis long coiled-coil proteins PAMP-INDUCED COILED-COIL (PICC) and PICC-LIKE (PICL). PICC (147 kDa) and PICL (87 kDa) are paralogs that consist predominantly of a long coiled-coil domain (expanded in PICC), with a predicted transmembrane domain at the immediate C-terminus. Orthologs of PICC and PICL were found exclusively in vascular plants. PICC and PICL GFP fusion proteins are anchored to the cytoplasmic surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by a C-terminal transmembrane domain and a short tail domain, via a tail-anchoring mechanism. T-DNA-insertion mutants of PICC and PICL as well as the double mutant show an increased sensitivity to the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in a post-germination growth response. PICC, but not PICL gene expression is induced by the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22. T-DNA insertion alleles of PICC, but not PICL, show increased susceptibility to the non-virulent strain P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 hrcC, but not to the virulent strain P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. This suggests that PICC mutants are compromised in PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). The data presented here provide first evidence for the involvement of a plant long coiled-coil protein in a plant defense response. PMID:23451199

  6. Functional investigation of the plant-specific long coiled-coil proteins PAMP-INDUCED COILED-COIL (PICC) and PICC-LIKE (PICL) in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Venkatakrishnan, Sowmya; Mackey, David; Meier, Iris

    2013-01-01

    We have identified and characterized two Arabidopsis long coiled-coil proteins PAMP-INDUCED COILED-COIL (PICC) and PICC-LIKE (PICL). PICC (147 kDa) and PICL (87 kDa) are paralogs that consist predominantly of a long coiled-coil domain (expanded in PICC), with a predicted transmembrane domain at the immediate C-terminus. Orthologs of PICC and PICL were found exclusively in vascular plants. PICC and PICL GFP fusion proteins are anchored to the cytoplasmic surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by a C-terminal transmembrane domain and a short tail domain, via a tail-anchoring mechanism. T-DNA-insertion mutants of PICC and PICL as well as the double mutant show an increased sensitivity to the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in a post-germination growth response. PICC, but not PICL gene expression is induced by the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22. T-DNA insertion alleles of PICC, but not PICL, show increased susceptibility to the non-virulent strain P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 hrcC, but not to the virulent strain P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. This suggests that PICC mutants are compromised in PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). The data presented here provide first evidence for the involvement of a plant long coiled-coil protein in a plant defense response. PMID:23451199

  7. Solving coiled-coil protein structures

    DOE PAGES

    Dauter, Zbigniew

    2015-02-26

    With the availability of more than 100,000 entries stored in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) that can be used as search models, molecular replacement (MR) is currently the most popular method of solving crystal structures of macromolecules. Significant methodological efforts have been directed in recent years towards making this approach more powerful and practical. This resulted in the creation of several computer programs, highly automated and user friendly, that are able to successfully solve many structures even by researchers who, although interested in structures of biomolecules, are not very experienced in crystallography.

  8. Cloning and expression analysis of mouse Cclp1, a new gene encoding a coiled-coil-like protein.

    PubMed

    Noben-Trauth, K; Naggert, J K; Nishina, P M

    1997-05-30

    Here we describe the nucleotide sequence and expression pattern of a novel gene termed Coiled-coil-like protein 1 (Cclp1). A 2646bp open reading frame encodes a 882 amino acid protein with a predicted coiled-coil domain at the amino terminus. Cclp1 is expressed in a variety of adult tissues and during different stages of embryogenesis. The broad expression pattern suggests a general cellular function of CCLP1. PMID:9199242

  9. Growth Factor Tethering to Protein Nanoparticles via Coiled-Coil Formation for Targeted Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Assal, Yasmine; Mizuguchi, Yoshinori; Mie, Masayasu; Kobatake, Eiry

    2015-08-19

    Protein-based nanoparticles are attractive carriers for drug delivery because they are biodegradable and can be genetically designed. Moreover, modification of protein-based nanoparticles with cell-specific ligands allows for active targeting abilities. Previously, we developed protein nanoparticles comprising genetically engineered elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) with fused polyaspartic acid tails (ELP-D). Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was displayed on the surface of the ELP-D nanoparticles via genetic design to allow for active cell-targeting abilities. Herein, we focused on the coiled-coil structural motif as a means for noncovalent tethering of growth factor to ELP-D. Specifically, two peptides known to form a heterodimer via a coiled-coil structural motif were fused to ELP-D and single-chain vascular endothelial growth factor (scVEGF121), to facilitate noncovalent tethering upon formation of the heterodimer coiled-coil structure. Drug-loaded growth factor-tethered ELP-Ds were found to be effective against cancer cells by provoking cell apoptosis. These results demonstrate that tethering growth factor to protein nanoparticles through coiled-coil formation yields a promising biomaterial candidate for targeted drug delivery.

  10. Short peptide tag for covalent protein labeling based on coiled coils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianpeng; Yu, Yongsheng; Xia, Jiang

    2014-01-15

    To label proteins covalently, one faces a trade-off between labeling a protein specifically and using a small tag. Often one must compromise one parameter for the other or use additional components, such as an enzyme, to satisfy both requirements. Here, we report a new reaction that covalently labels proteins by using engineered coiled-coil peptides. Harnessing the concept of "proximity-induced reactivity", the 21-amino-acid three-heptad peptides CCE/CCK were modified with a nucleophilic cysteine and an α-chloroacetyl group at selected positions. When pairs of coiled coils associated, an irreversible covalent bond spontaneously formed between the peptides. The specificity of the cross-linking reaction was characterized, the probes were improved by making them bivalent, and the system was used to label a protein in vitro and receptors on the surface of mammalian cells. PMID:24341800

  11. Coiled coil interactions for the targeting of liposomes for nucleic acid delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oude Blenke, Erik E.; van den Dikkenberg, Joep; van Kolck, Bartjan; Kros, Alexander; Mastrobattista, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Coiled coil interactions are strong protein-protein interactions that are involved in many biological processes, including intracellular trafficking and membrane fusion. A synthetic heterodimeric coiled-coil forming peptide pair, known as E3 (EIAALEK)3 and K3 (KIAALKE)3 was used to functionalize liposomes encapsulating a splice correcting oligonucleotide or siRNA. These peptide-functionalized vesicles are highly stable in solution but start to cluster when vesicles modified with complementary peptides are mixed together, demonstrating that the peptides quickly coil and crosslink the vesicles. When one of the peptides was anchored to the cell membrane using a hydrophobic cholesterol anchor, vesicles functionalized with the complementary peptide could be docked to these cells, whereas non-functionalized cells did not show any vesicle tethering. Although the anchored peptides do not have a downstream signaling pathway, microscopy pictures revealed that after four hours, the majority of the docked vesicles were internalized by endocytosis. Finally, for the first time, it was shown that the coiled coil assembly at the interface between the vesicles and the cell membrane induces active uptake and leads to cytosolic delivery of the nucleic acid cargo. Both the siRNA and the splice correcting oligonucleotide were functionally delivered, resulting respectively in the silencing or recovery of luciferase expression in the appropriate cell lines. These results demonstrate that the docking to the cell by coiled coil interaction can induce active uptake and achieve the successful intracellular delivery of otherwise membrane impermeable nucleic acids in a highly specific manner.Coiled coil interactions are strong protein-protein interactions that are involved in many biological processes, including intracellular trafficking and membrane fusion. A synthetic heterodimeric coiled-coil forming peptide pair, known as E3 (EIAALEK)3 and K3 (KIAALKE)3 was used to functionalize liposomes

  12. Coiled coil interactions for the targeting of liposomes for nucleic acid delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oude Blenke, Erik E.; van den Dikkenberg, Joep; van Kolck, Bartjan; Kros, Alexander; Mastrobattista, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Coiled coil interactions are strong protein-protein interactions that are involved in many biological processes, including intracellular trafficking and membrane fusion. A synthetic heterodimeric coiled-coil forming peptide pair, known as E3 (EIAALEK)3 and K3 (KIAALKE)3 was used to functionalize liposomes encapsulating a splice correcting oligonucleotide or siRNA. These peptide-functionalized vesicles are highly stable in solution but start to cluster when vesicles modified with complementary peptides are mixed together, demonstrating that the peptides quickly coil and crosslink the vesicles. When one of the peptides was anchored to the cell membrane using a hydrophobic cholesterol anchor, vesicles functionalized with the complementary peptide could be docked to these cells, whereas non-functionalized cells did not show any vesicle tethering. Although the anchored peptides do not have a downstream signaling pathway, microscopy pictures revealed that after four hours, the majority of the docked vesicles were internalized by endocytosis. Finally, for the first time, it was shown that the coiled coil assembly at the interface between the vesicles and the cell membrane induces active uptake and leads to cytosolic delivery of the nucleic acid cargo. Both the siRNA and the splice correcting oligonucleotide were functionally delivered, resulting respectively in the silencing or recovery of luciferase expression in the appropriate cell lines. These results demonstrate that the docking to the cell by coiled coil interaction can induce active uptake and achieve the successful intracellular delivery of otherwise membrane impermeable nucleic acids in a highly specific manner.Coiled coil interactions are strong protein-protein interactions that are involved in many biological processes, including intracellular trafficking and membrane fusion. A synthetic heterodimeric coiled-coil forming peptide pair, known as E3 (EIAALEK)3 and K3 (KIAALKE)3 was used to functionalize liposomes

  13. The structure of the GemC1 coiled coil and its interaction with the Geminin family of coiled-coil proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Caillat, Christophe; Fish, Alexander; Pefani, Dafni-Eleftheria; Taraviras, Stavros; Lygerou, Zoi; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2015-10-31

    The GemC1 coiled-coil structure has subtle differences compared with its homologues Geminin and Idas. Co-expression experiments in cells and biophysical stability analysis of the Geminin-family coiled coils suggest that the GemC1 coiled coil alone is unstable. GemC1, together with Idas and Geminin, an important regulator of DNA-replication licensing and differentiation decisions, constitute a superfamily sharing a homologous central coiled-coil domain. To better understand this family of proteins, the crystal structure of a GemC1 coiled-coil domain variant engineered for better solubility was determined to 2.2 Å resolution. GemC1 shows a less typical coiled coil compared with the Geminin homodimer and the Geminin–Idas heterodimer structures. It is also shown that both in vitro and in cells GemC1 interacts with Geminin through its coiled-coil domain, forming a heterodimer that is more stable that the GemC1 homodimer. Comparative analysis of the thermal stability of all of the possible superfamily complexes, using circular dichroism to follow the unfolding of the entire helix of the coiled coil, or intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of a unique conserved N-terminal tryptophan, shows that the unfolding of the coiled coil is likely to take place from the C-terminus towards the N-terminus. It is also shown that homodimers show a single-state unfolding, while heterodimers show a two-state unfolding, suggesting that the dimer first falls apart and the helices then unfold according to the stability of each protein. The findings argue that Geminin-family members form homodimers and heterodimers between them, and this ability is likely to be important for modulating their function in cycling and differentiating cells.

  14. Pharmacological interference with protein-protein interactions mediated by coiled-coil motifs.

    PubMed

    Strauss, H M; Keller, S

    2008-01-01

    Coiled coils are bundles of intertwined alpha-helices that provide protein-protein interaction sites for the dynamic assembly and disassembly of protein complexes. The coiled-coil motif combines structural versatility and adaptability with mechanical strength and specificity. Multimeric proteins that rely on coiled-coil interactions are structurally and functionally very diverse, ranging from simple homodimeric transcription factors to elaborate heteromultimeric scaffolding clusters. Several coiled-coil-bearing proteins are of outstanding pharmacological importance, most notably SNARE proteins involved in vesicular trafficking of neurotransmitters and viral fusion proteins. Together with their crucial roles in many physiological and pathological processes, the structural simplicity and reversible nature of coiled-coil associations render them a promising target for pharmacological interference, as successfully exemplified by botulinum toxins and viral fusion inhibitors. The alpha-helical coiled coil is a ubiquitous protein domain that mediates highly specific homo- and heteromeric protein-protein interactions among a wide range of proteins. The coiled-coil motif was first proposed by Crick on the basis of X-ray diffraction data on alpha-keratin more than 50 years ago (Crick 1952, 1953) and nowadays belongs to the best-characterized protein interaction modules. By definition, a coiled coil is an oligomeric protein assembly consisting of several right-handed amphipathic alpha-helices that wind around each other into a superhelix (or a supercoil) in which the hydrophobic surfaces of the constituent helices are in continuous contact, forming a hydrophobic core. Both homomeric and heteromeric coiled coils with different stoichiometries are possible, and the helices can be aligned in either a parallel or an antiparallel topology (Harbury et al. 1993, 1994). Stoichiometry and topology are governed by the primary structure, that is, the sequence of the polypeptide chains

  15. GBNV encoded movement protein (NSm) remodels ER network via C-terminal coiled coil domain

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Pratibha; Savithri, H.S.

    2015-08-15

    Plant viruses exploit the host machinery for targeting the viral genome–movement protein complex to plasmodesmata (PD). The mechanism by which the non-structural protein m (NSm) of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) is targeted to PD was investigated using Agrobacterium mediated transient expression of NSm and its fusion proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. GFP:NSm formed punctuate structures that colocalized with mCherry:plasmodesmata localized protein 1a (PDLP 1a) confirming that GBNV NSm localizes to PD. Unlike in other movement proteins, the C-terminal coiled coil domain of GBNV NSm was shown to be involved in the localization of NSm to PD, as deletion of this domain resulted in the cytoplasmic localization of NSm. Treatment with Brefeldin A demonstrated the role of ER in targeting GFP NSm to PD. Furthermore, mCherry:NSm co-localized with ER–GFP (endoplasmic reticulum targeting peptide (HDEL peptide fused with GFP). Co-expression of NSm with ER–GFP showed that the ER-network was transformed into vesicles indicating that NSm interacts with ER and remodels it. Mutations in the conserved hydrophobic region of NSm (residues 130–138) did not abolish the formation of vesicles. Additionally, the conserved prolines at positions 140 and 142 were found to be essential for targeting the vesicles to the cell membrane. Further, systematic deletion of amino acid residues from N- and C-terminus demonstrated that N-terminal 203 amino acids are dispensable for the vesicle formation. On the other hand, the C-terminal coiled coil domain when expressed alone could also form vesicles. These results suggest that GBNV NSm remodels the ER network by forming vesicles via its interaction through the C-terminal coiled coil domain. Interestingly, NSm interacts with NP in vitro and coexpression of these two proteins in planta resulted in the relocalization of NP to PD and this relocalization was abolished when the N-terminal unfolded region of NSm was deleted. Thus, the NSm

  16. Interaction of the transforming acidic coiled-coil 1 (TACC1) protein with ch-TOG and GAS41/NuBI1 suggests multiple TACC1-containing protein complexes in human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lauffart, Brenda; Howell, Scott J; Tasch, Jason E; Cowell, John K; Still, Ivan H

    2002-01-01

    Dysregulation of the human transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) proteins is thought to be important in the evolution of breast cancer and multiple myeloma. However, the exact role of these proteins in the oncogenic process is currently unknown. Using the full-length TACC1 protein as bait to screen a human mammary epithelial cDNA library, we have identified two genes that are also amplified and overexpressed in tumours derived from different cellular origins. TACC1 interacts with the C-terminus of both the microtubule-associated colonic and hepatic tumour overexpressed (ch-TOG) protein, and the oncogenic transcription factor glioma amplified sequence 41/NuMA binding protein 1 (GAS41/NuBI1; where NuMA stands for nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1). This suggests that the TACC proteins can form multiple complexes, dysregulation of which may be an important step during tumorigenesis. PMID:11903063

  17. The Golgin Family of Coiled-Coil Tethering Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Witkos, Tomasz M.; Lowe, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The golgins are a family of predominantly coiled-coil proteins that are localized to the Golgi apparatus. Golgins are present in all eukaryotes, suggesting an evolutionary conserved function. Golgins are anchored to the Golgi membrane by their carboxy terminus and are predicted to adopt an extended conformation that projects into the surrounding cytoplasm. This arrangement is ideal for the capture or tethering of nearby membranes or cytoskeletal elements. Golgin-mediated tethering is thought to be important for vesicular traffic at the Golgi apparatus, the maintenance of Golgi architecture, as well as the positioning of the Golgi apparatus within cells. In addition to acting as tethers, some golgins can also sequester various factors at the Golgi membrane, allowing for the spatiotemporal regulation of downstream cellular functions. Although it is now established that golgins are membrane and cytoskeleton tethers, the mechanisms underlying tethering remain poorly defined. Moreover, the importance of golgin-mediated tethering in a physiological context remains to be fully explored. This review will describe our current understanding of golgin function, highlighting recent progress that has been made, and goes on to discuss outstanding questions and potential avenues for future research with regard to this family of conserved Golgi-associated proteins. PMID:26793708

  18. Critical evaluation of in silico methods for prediction of coiled-coil domains in proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Ching Han Chang, Catherine; Nagel, Jeremy; Porebski, Benjamin T; Hayashida, Morihiro; Akutsu, Tatsuya; Song, Jiangning; Buckle, Ashley M

    2016-03-01

    Coiled-coils refer to a bundle of helices coiled together like strands of a rope. It has been estimated that nearly 3% of protein-encoding regions of genes harbour coiled-coil domains (CCDs). Experimental studies have confirmed that CCDs play a fundamental role in subcellular infrastructure and controlling trafficking of eukaryotic cells. Given the importance of coiled-coils, multiple bioinformatics tools have been developed to facilitate the systematic and high-throughput prediction of CCDs in proteins. In this article, we review and compare 12 sequence-based bioinformatics approaches and tools for coiled-coil prediction. These approaches can be categorized into two classes: coiled-coil detection and coiled-coil oligomeric state prediction. We evaluated and compared these methods in terms of their input/output, algorithm, prediction performance, validation methods and software utility. All the independent testing data sets are available at http://lightning.med.monash.edu/coiledcoil/. In addition, we conducted a case study of nine human polyglutamine (PolyQ) disease-related proteins and predicted CCDs and oligomeric states using various predictors. Prediction results for CCDs were highly variable among different predictors. Only two peptides from two proteins were confirmed to be CCDs by majority voting. Both domains were predicted to form dimeric coiled-coils using oligomeric state prediction. We anticipate that this comprehensive analysis will be an insightful resource for structural biologists with limited prior experience in bioinformatics tools, and for bioinformaticians who are interested in designing novel approaches for coiled-coil and its oligomeric state prediction. PMID:26177815

  19. Accommodation of structural rearrangements in the huntingtin-interacting protein 1 coiled-coil domain

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbur, Jeremy D.; Hwang, Peter K.; Brodsky, Frances M.; Fletterick, Robert J.

    2010-03-01

    Variable packing interaction related to the conformational flexibility within the huntingtin-interacting protein 1 coiled coil domain. Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is an important link between the actin cytoskeleton and clathrin-mediated endocytosis machinery. HIP1 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease. The binding of HIP1 to actin is regulated through an interaction with clathrin light chain. Clathrin light chain binds to a flexible coiled-coil domain in HIP1 and induces a compact state that is refractory to actin binding. To understand the mechanism of this conformational regulation, a high-resolution crystal structure of a stable fragment from the HIP1 coiled-coil domain was determined. The flexibility of the HIP1 coiled-coil region was evident from its variation from a previously determined structure of a similar region. A hydrogen-bond network and changes in coiled-coil monomer interaction suggest that the HIP1 coiled-coil domain is uniquely suited to allow conformational flexibility.

  20. Predicting coiled coils by use of pairwise residue correlations.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, B; Wilson, D B; Wolf, E; Tonchev, T; Milla, M; Kim, P S

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented that predicts coiled-coil domains in protein sequences by using pairwise residue correlations obtained from a (two-stranded) coiled-coil database of 58,217 amino acid residues. A program called PAIRCOIL implements this method and is significantly better than existing methods at distinguishing coiled coils from alpha-helices that are not coiled coils. The database of pairwise residue correlations suggests structural features that stabilize or destabilize coiled coils. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7667278

  1. The structure of the GemC1 coiled coil and its interaction with the Geminin family of coiled-coil proteins

    PubMed Central

    Caillat, Christophe; Fish, Alexander; Pefani, Dafni-Eleftheria; Taraviras, Stavros; Lygerou, Zoi; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2015-01-01

    GemC1, together with Idas and Geminin, an important regulator of DNA-replication licensing and differentiation decisions, constitute a superfamily sharing a homologous central coiled-coil domain. To better understand this family of proteins, the crystal structure of a GemC1 coiled-coil domain variant engineered for better solubility was determined to 2.2 Å resolution. GemC1 shows a less typical coiled coil compared with the Geminin homodimer and the Geminin–Idas heterodimer structures. It is also shown that both in vitro and in cells GemC1 interacts with Geminin through its coiled-coil domain, forming a heterodimer that is more stable that the GemC1 homodimer. Comparative analysis of the thermal stability of all of the possible superfamily complexes, using circular dichroism to follow the unfolding of the entire helix of the coiled coil, or intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of a unique conserved N-terminal tryptophan, shows that the unfolding of the coiled coil is likely to take place from the C-terminus towards the N-terminus. It is also shown that homodimers show a single-state unfolding, while heterodimers show a two-state unfolding, suggesting that the dimer first falls apart and the helices then unfold according to the stability of each protein. The findings argue that Geminin-family members form homodimers and heterodimers between them, and this ability is likely to be important for modulating their function in cycling and differentiating cells. PMID:26527144

  2. Coiled-Coils at the Edge of Configurational Heterogeneity. Structural Analyses of Parallel and Antiparallel Homotetrameric Coiled-Coils Reveal Configurational Sensitivity to a Single Solvent-Exposed Amino Acid Substitution.†§

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Maneesh K.; Leman, Luke J.; Price, Daniel J.; Brooks, Charles L.; Stout, C. David; Ghadiri, M. Reza

    2007-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the mechanisms by which particular amino acid sequences can give rise to more than one folded structure, such as for proteins that undergo large conformational changes or misfolding, is a long-standing objective of protein chemistry. Here we describe the crystal structures of a single coiled-coil peptide in distinct parallel and antiparallel tetrameric configurations and further describe the parallel or antiparallel crystal structures of several related peptide sequences; the antiparallel tetrameric assemblies represents the first crystal structures of GCN4-derived peptides exhibiting such a configuration. Intriguingly, substitution of a single solvent-exposed residue enabled the parallel coiled-coil tetramer GCN4-pLI to populate the antiparallel configuration, suggesting that the two configurations are close enough in energy for subtle sequence changes to have important structural consequences. We present a structural analysis of the small changes to helix register and side chain conformations that accommodate the two configurations, and have supplemented these results using solution studies and a molecular dynamics energetic analysis using a replica exchange methodology. Considering the previous examples of structural nonspecificity in coiled-coil peptides, the findings reported here not only emphasize the predisposition of the coiled-coil motif to adopt multiple configurations, but also call attention to the associated risk that observed crytstal structures may not represent the only (or even the major) species present in solution. PMID:16584182

  3. Routine phasing of coiled-coil protein crystal structures with AMPLE

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jens M. H.; Keegan, Ronan M.; Bibby, Jaclyn; Winn, Martyn D.; Mayans, Olga; Rigden, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Coiled-coil protein folds are among the most abundant in nature. These folds consist of long wound α-helices and are architecturally simple, but paradoxically their crystallographic structures are notoriously difficult to solve with molecular-replacement techniques. The program AMPLE can solve crystal structures by molecular replacement using ab initio search models in the absence of an existent homologous protein structure. AMPLE has been benchmarked on a large and diverse test set of coiled-coil crystal structures and has been found to solve 80% of all cases. Successes included structures with chain lengths of up to 253 residues and resolutions down to 2.9 Å, considerably extending the limits on size and resolution that are typically tractable by ab initio methodologies. The structures of two macromolecular complexes, one including DNA, were also successfully solved using their coiled-coil components. It is demonstrated that both the ab initio modelling and the use of ensemble search models contribute to the success of AMPLE by comparison with phasing attempts using single structures or ideal polyalanine helices. These successes suggest that molecular replacement with AMPLE should be the method of choice for the crystallo­graphic elucidation of a coiled-coil structure. Furthermore, AMPLE may be able to exploit the presence of a coiled coil in a complex to provide a convenient route for phasing. PMID:25866657

  4. Analysis of Coiled-Coil Interactions between Core Proteins of the Spindle Pole Body

    SciTech Connect

    Zizlsperger, N.; Malashkevich, V; Pillay, S; Keating, A

    2008-01-01

    The spindle pole body (SPB) is a multiprotein complex that organizes microtubules in yeast. Due to its large size and association with the nuclear membrane, little is known about its detailed structure. In particular, although many SPB components and some of the interactions between them have been identified, the molecular details of how most of these interactions occur are not known. The prevalence of predicted coiled-coil regions in SPB proteins suggests that some interactions may occur via coiled coils. Here this hypothesis is supported by biochemical characterization of isolated coiled-coil peptides derived from SPB proteins. Formation of four strongly self-associating coiled-coil complexes from Spc29, Spc42, and Spc72 was demonstrated by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. Many weaker self- and heteroassociations were also detected by CD, FRET, and/or cross-linking. The thermal stabilities of nine candidate homooligomers were assessed; six unfolded cooperatively with melting temperatures ranging from <11 to >50 C. Solution studies established that coiled-coil peptides derived from Spc42 and Spc72 form parallel dimers, and this was confirmed for Spc42 by a high-resolution crystal structure. These data contribute to a growing body of knowledge that will ultimately provide a detailed model of the SPB structure.

  5. Gene Delivery from Supercharged Coiled-coil Protein and Cationic Lipid Hybrid Complex

    PubMed Central

    More, Haresh T.; Frezzo, Joseph A.; Dai, Jisen; Yamano, Seiichi; Montclare, Jin K.

    2014-01-01

    A lipoproteoplex comprised of an engineered supercharged coiled-coil protein (CSP) bearing multiple arginines and the cationic lipid formulation FuGENE HD (FG) was developed for effective condensation and delivery of nucleic acids. The CSP was able to maintain helical structure and self-assembly properties while exhibiting binding to plasmid DNA. The ternary CSP•DNA(8:1)•FG lipoproteoplex complex demonstrated enhanced transfection of β-galactosidase DNA into MC3T3-E1 mouse preosteoblasts. The lipoproteoplexes showed significant increases in transfection efficiency when compared to conventional FG and an mTat•FG lipopolyplex with a 6- and 2.5-fold increase in transfection, respectively. The CSP•DNA(8:1)•FG lipoproteoplex assembled into spherical particles with a net positive surface charge, enabling efficient gene delivery. These results support the application of lipoproteoplexes with protein engineered CSP for non-viral gene delivery. PMID:24875765

  6. Dimerization of the DYT6 dystonia protein, THAP1, requires residues within the coiled-coil domain.

    PubMed

    Sengel, Cem; Gavarini, Sophie; Sharma, Nutan; Ozelius, Laurie J; Bragg, D Cristopher

    2011-09-01

    Thanatos-associated [THAP] domain-containing apoptosis-associated protein 1 (THAP1) is a DNA-binding protein that has been recently associated with DYT6 dystonia, a hereditary movement disorder involving sustained, involuntary muscle contractions. A large number of dystonia-related mutations have been identified in THAP1 in diverse patient populations worldwide. Previous reports have suggested that THAP1 oligomerizes with itself via a C-terminal coiled-coil domain, raising the possibility that DYT6 mutations in this region might affect this interaction. In this study, we examined the ability of wild-type THAP1 to bind itself and the effects on this interaction of the following disease mutations: C54Y, F81L, ΔF132, T142A, I149T, Q154fs180X, and A166T. The results confirmed that wild-type THAP1 associated with itself and most of the DYT6 mutants tested, except for the Q154fs180X variant, which loses most of the coiled-coil domain because of a frameshift at position 154. However, deletion of C-terminal residues after position 166 produced a truncated variant of THAP1 that was able to bind the wild-type protein. The interaction of THAP1 with itself therefore required residues within a 13-amino acid region (aa 154-166) of the coiled-coil domain. Further inspection of this sequence revealed elements highly consistent with previous descriptions of leucine zippers, which serve as dimerization domains in other transcription factor families. Based on this similarity, a structural model was generated to predict how hydrophobic residues in this region may mediate dimerization. These observations offer additional insight into the role of the coiled-coil domain in THAP1, which may facilitate future analyses of DYT6 mutations in this region. PMID:21752024

  7. Dimerization of the DYT6 dystonia protein, THAP1, requires residues within the coiled-coil domain

    PubMed Central

    Sengel, Cem; Gavarini, Sophie; Sharma, Nutan; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Bragg, D. Cristopher

    2011-01-01

    THAP1 is a DNA binding protein that has been recently associated with DYT6 dystonia, a hereditary movement disorder involving sustained, involuntary muscle contractions. A large number of dystonia-related mutations have been identified in THAP1 in diverse patient populations worldwide. Previous reports have suggested that THAP1 oligomerizes with itself via a C-terminal coiled-coil domain, raising the possibility that DYT6 mutations in this region might affect this interaction. In this study we examined the ability of wild-type THAP1 to bind itself and the effects on this interaction of the following disease mutations: C54Y, F81L, ΔF132, T142A, I149T, Q154fs180X, and A166T. The results confirmed that wild-type THAP1 associated with itself and most of the DYT6 mutants tested, except for the Q154fs180X variant, which loses most of the coiled-coil domain due to a frameshift at position 154. However, deletion of C-terminal residues after position 166 produced a truncated variant of THAP1 that was able to bind the wild-type protein. The interaction of THAP1 with itself therefore required residues within a 13-amino acid region (aa 154–166) of the coiled-coil domain. Further inspection of this sequence revealed elements highly consistent with previous descriptions of leucine zippers, which serve as dimerization domains in other transcription factor families. Based on this similarity, a structural model was generated to predict how hydrophobic residues in this region may mediate dimerization. These observations offer additional insight into the role of the coiled-coil domain in THAP1, which may facilitate future analyses of DYT6 mutations in this region. PMID:21752024

  8. Isolation and cloning of Omp alpha, a coiled-coil protein spanning the periplasmic space of the ancestral eubacterium Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed Central

    Engel, A M; Cejka, Z; Lupas, A; Lottspeich, F; Baumeister, W

    1992-01-01

    We have discovered a new oligomeric protein component associated with the outer membrane of the ancestral eubacterium Thermotoga maritima. In electron micrographs, the protein, Omp alpha, appears as a rod-shaped spacer that spans the periplasm, connecting the outer membrane to the inner cell body. Purification, biochemical characterization and sequencing of Omp alpha suggest that it is a homodimer composed of two subunits of 380 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 43,000 and a pI of 4.54. The sequence of the omp alpha gene indicates a tripartite organization of the protein with a globular NH2-terminal domain of 64 residues followed by a putative coiled-coil segment of 300 residues and a COOH-terminal, membrane-spanning segment. The predicted length of the coiled-coil segment (45 nm) correlates closely with the spacing between the inner and outer membranes. Despite sequence similarity to a large number of coiled-coil proteins and high scores in a coiled-coil prediction algorithm, the sequence of the central rod-shaped domain of Omp alpha does not have the typical 3.5 periodicity of coiled-coil proteins but rather has a periodicity of 3.58 residues. Such a periodicity was also found in the central domain of staphylococcal M protein and beta-giardin and might be indicative of a subclass of fibrous proteins with packing interactions that are distinct from the ones seen in other two-stranded coiled-coils. Images PMID:1330536

  9. Plasmodium vivax antigen discovery based on alpha-helical coiled coil protein motif.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Nora; Habel, Catherine; Lopez-Perez, Mary; Castellanos, Angélica; Kajava, Andrey V; Servis, Catherine; Felger, Ingrid; Moret, Remy; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Corradin, Giampietro; Herrera, Sócrates

    2014-01-01

    Protein α-helical coiled coil structures that elicit antibody responses, which block critical functions of medically important microorganisms, represent a means for vaccine development. By using bioinformatics algorithms, a total of 50 antigens with α-helical coiled coil motifs orthologous to Plasmodium falciparum were identified in the P. vivax genome. The peptides identified in silico were chemically synthesized; circular dichroism studies indicated partial or high α-helical content. Antigenicity was evaluated using human sera samples from malaria-endemic areas of Colombia and Papua New Guinea. Eight of these fragments were selected and used to assess immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. ELISA assays indicated strong reactivity of serum samples from individuals residing in malaria-endemic regions and sera of immunized mice, with the α-helical coiled coil structures. In addition, ex vivo production of IFN-γ by murine mononuclear cells confirmed the immunogenicity of these structures and the presence of T-cell epitopes in the peptide sequences. Moreover, sera of mice immunized with four of the eight antigens recognized native proteins on blood-stage P. vivax parasites, and antigenic cross-reactivity with three of the peptides was observed when reacted with both the P. falciparum orthologous fragments and whole parasites. Results here point to the α-helical coiled coil peptides as possible P. vivax malaria vaccine candidates as were observed for P. falciparum. Fragments selected here warrant further study in humans and non-human primate models to assess their protective efficacy as single components or assembled as hybrid linear epitopes.

  10. Repacking protein cores with backbone freedom: structure prediction for coiled coils.

    PubMed

    Harbury, P B; Tidor, B; Kim, P S

    1995-08-29

    Progress in homology modeling and protein design has generated considerable interest in methods for predicting side-chain packing in the hydrophobic cores of proteins. Present techniques are not practically useful, however, because they are unable to model protein main-chain flexibility. Parameterization of backbone motions may represent a general and efficient method to incorporate backbone relaxation into such fixed main-chain models. To test this notion, we introduce a method for treating explicitly the backbone motions of alpha-helical bundles based on an algebraic parameterization proposed by Francis Crick in 1953 [Crick, F. H. C. (1953) Acta Crystallogr. 6, 685-689]. Given only the core amino acid sequence, a simple calculation can rapidly reproduce the crystallographic main-chain and core side-chain structures of three coiled coils (one dimer, one trimer, and one tetramer) to within 0.6-A root-mean-square deviations. The speed of the predictive method [approximately 3 min per rotamer choice on a Silicon Graphics (Mountain View, CA) 4D/35 computer] permits it to be used as a design tool.

  11. CCBuilder: an interactive web-based tool for building, designing and assessing coiled-coil protein assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Christopher W.; Bruning, Marc; Ibarra, Amaurys Á.; Bartlett, Gail J.; Thomson, Andrew R.; Sessions, Richard B.; Brady, R Leo; Woolfson, Derek N.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: The ability to accurately model protein structures at the atomistic level underpins efforts to understand protein folding, to engineer natural proteins predictably and to design proteins de novo. Homology-based methods are well established and produce impressive results. However, these are limited to structures presented by and resolved for natural proteins. Addressing this problem more widely and deriving truly ab initio models requires mathematical descriptions for protein folds; the means to decorate these with natural, engineered or de novo sequences; and methods to score the resulting models. Results: We present CCBuilder, a web-based application that tackles the problem for a defined but large class of protein structure, the α-helical coiled coils. CCBuilder generates coiled-coil backbones, builds side chains onto these frameworks and provides a range of metrics to measure the quality of the models. Its straightforward graphical user interface provides broad functionality that allows users to build and assess models, in which helix geometry, coiled-coil architecture and topology and protein sequence can be varied rapidly. We demonstrate the utility of CCBuilder by assembling models for 653 coiled-coil structures from the PDB, which cover >96% of the known coiled-coil types, and by generating models for rarer and de novo coiled-coil structures. Availability and implementation: CCBuilder is freely available, without registration, at http://coiledcoils.chm.bris.ac.uk/app/cc_builder/ Contact: D.N.Woolfson@bristol.ac.uk or Chris.Wood@bristol.ac.uk PMID:25064570

  12. Targeting and import mechanism of coiled-coil helix coiled-coil helix domain-containing protein 3 (ChChd3) into the mitochondrial intermembrane space.

    PubMed

    Darshi, Manjula; Trinh, Kristina N; Murphy, Anne N; Taylor, Susan S

    2012-11-16

    Coiled-coil helix coiled-coil helix domain-containing protein 3 (ChChd3) is a mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) protein facing toward the intermembrane space (IMS). In the IMS, ChChd3 complexes with multiple proteins at the crista junctions and contact sites and plays a key role in maintaining crista integrity. ChChd3 is myristoylated at the N terminus and has a CHCH domain with twin CX(9)C motifs at its C terminus. The CHCH domain proteins are traditionally imported and trapped in the IMS by using a disulfide relay system mediated by Mia40 and Erv1. In this study, we systematically analyzed the role of the myristoylation and the CHCH domain in the import and mitochondrial localization of ChChd3. Based on our results, we predict that myristoylation promotes binding of ChChd3 to the outer membrane and that the CHCH domain translocates the protein across the outer membrane. By analysis of the CHCH domain cysteine mutants, we further show that they have distinct roles in binding to Mia40 in the IMS and proper folding of the protein. The transient disulfide-bonded intermediate with Mia40 is formed preferentially between the second cysteine in helix 1, Cys(193), and the active site cysteine in Mia40, Cys(55). Although each of the four cysteines is essential for folding of the protein and binding to mitofilin and Sam50, they are not involved in import. Together our results indicate that both the myristoylation and the CHCH domain are essential for the import and mitochondrial localization of ChChd3. Once imported, ChChd3 binds to Mia40 for further folding and assembly into macromolecular complexes.

  13. Intermediate filament-like network formed in vitro by a bacterial coiled coil protein.

    PubMed

    Hurme, R; Namork, E; Nurmiaho-Lassila, E L; Rhen, M

    1994-04-01

    The TlpA protein encoded by the virulence plasmid of Salmonella enterica is an alpha-helical 371-amino acid protein possessing characteristics similar to eukaryotic coiled coil proteins (Koski, P., Saarilahti, H., Sukupolvi, S., Taira, S., Rikkonen, P., Osterlund, K., Hurme, R., and Rhen, M. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 12258-12265). In this paper we have investigated inter- and intramolecular associations and the morphology of structures formed by TlpA. Dynamics and temperature stability of TlpA dimers were studied by examining the feasibility and conditions in which TlpA would form an artificial heterodimer with its truncated derivative. Formation of heterodimers, bridged by Cu(2+)-catalyzed air oxidation of adjacent Cys residues, showed that TlpA dimers are dynamic chain exchanging structures at 37 degrees C, whereas they were nonexchanging at room temperature or on ice. Chemical cross-linking suggested higher order interaction between TlpA dimers. Electron microscopy studies revealed two levels of TlpA organization in vitro: thin filaments and rods, 2-5 nm in diameter, and a higher ordered filament network consisting of tonofilament-like formations with a diameter of 8-15 nm. Electron microscopy of thin-sectioned Escherichia coli over-producing TlpA showed an extraordinary intracellular assembly of proteinacious lamellae with a striated appearance and a 38-nm periodicity. This study describes for the first time a bacterial protein capable of organizing itself into an ordered and suspectedly dynamic intermediate filament-like architecture. PMID:8144657

  14. Structure of a Designed, Right-Handed Coiled-Coil Tetramer Containing All Biological Amino Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, M.; Plecs, J.J.; Holton, J.M.; Alber, T.

    2009-06-04

    The previous design of an unprecedented family of two-, three-, and four-helical, right-handed coiled coils utilized nonbiological amino acids to efficiently pack spaces in the oligomer cores. Here we show that a stable, right-handed parallel tetrameric coiled coil, called RH4B, can be designed entirely using biological amino acids. The X-ray crystal structure of RH4B was determined to 1.1 {angstrom} resolution using a designed metal binding site to coordinate a single Yb{sup 2+} ion per 33-amino acid polypeptide chain. The resulting experimental phases were particularly accurate, and the experimental electron density map provided an especially clear, unbiased view of the molecule. The RH4B structure closely matched the design, with equivalent core rotamers and an overall root-mean-square deviation for the N-terminal repeat of the tetramer of 0.24 {angstrom}. The clarity and resolution of the electron density map, however, revealed alternate rotamers and structural differences between the three sequence repeats in the molecule. These results suggest that the RH4B structure populates an unanticipated variety of structures.

  15. Regulation of polysome assembly on the endoplasmic reticulum by a coiled-coil protein, p180.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Tomonori; Kaneko, Keiko; Sata, Tetsutaro; Hattori, Shunji; Ogawa-Goto, Kiyoko

    2012-04-01

    A coiled-coil microtubule-bundling protein, p180, was originally identified as one of the ribosome receptor candidates on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is highly expressed in secretory tissues. Recently, we reported that p180 plays crucial roles in upregulating collagen biosynthesis, mainly by facilitating ribosome association on the ER. Here, we provide evidence that p180 is required to form translationally active polysome/translocon complexes on the ER. Assembly of highly-developed polysomes on the ER was severely perturbed upon loss of p180. p180 associates with polysome/translocon complexes through multiple contact sites: it was coimmunoprecipitated with the translocon complex independently of ribosomes, while it can also bind to ribosomal large subunit specifically. The responsible domain of p180 for membrane polysome assembly was identified in the C-terminal coiled-coil region. The degree of ribosome occupation of collagen and fibronectin mRNAs was regulated in response to increased traffic demands. This effect appears to be exerted in a manner specific for a specified set of mRNAs. Collectively, our data suggest that p180 is required to form translationally active polysome/translocon complexes on the ER membrane, and plays a pivotal role in highly efficient biosynthesis on the ER membrane through facilitating polysome formation in professional secretory cells.

  16. Four-stranded coiled-coil elastic protein in the byssus of the giant clam, Tridacna maxima.

    PubMed

    Miserez, Ali; Li, Youli; Cagnon, Joel; Weaver, James C; Waite, J Herbert

    2012-02-13

    An elastic protein with a secondary structure distinct from all well-known load-bearing proteins is found in the byssus of the giant clam, Tridacna maxima . The byssus consists of a bundle of hundreds of individual threads, each measuring about about 100 μm in diameter, which exhibit a tendon-like mechanical response. The amino acid composition of Tridacna byssus, however, is unlike tendon collagen, lacking high glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline. Wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements suggest that the constituent nanofibrils of the byssal threads are distinct from known secondary structure motifs previously reported for elastic proteins including the collagen triple-helix, the β-sheet nanocrystalline domains of silks, or the double-stranded coiled-coil regions of intermediate filaments. Instead, X-ray diffraction data indicate a structural organization in which four coiled-coil α-helices form a stable rope-like structure, which then further pack in a pseudohexagonal lattice to form nanofibrils. Amino acid composition analysis shows unusually high concentrations of acidic as well as basic residues, suggesting that the four-helix structure is stabilized by strong ionic interactions between oppositely charged residues in neighboring strands. The composition also suggests additional stabilization by disulfide cross-linking. On a larger scale, scanning and conventional transmission electron microscope (STEM and TEM) observations indicate that the nanofibrils exhibit an alternating periodicity of about 500 nm along the axial direction. A molecular model that combines the mechanical properties with the structural characteristics of the Tridacna byssal threads is proposed.

  17. A coiled coil switch mediates cold sensing by the thermosensory protein DesK.

    PubMed

    Saita, Emilio; Abriata, Luciano A; Tsai, Yi Ting; Trajtenberg, Felipe; Lemmin, Thomas; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Dal Peraro, Matteo; de Mendoza, Diego; Albanesi, Daniela

    2015-10-01

    The thermosensor histidine kinase DesK from Bacillus subtilis senses changes in membrane fluidity initiating an adaptive response. Structural changes in DesK have been implicated in transmembrane signaling, but direct evidence is still lacking. On the basis of structure-guided mutagenesis, we now propose a mechanism of DesK-mediated signal sensing and transduction. The data indicate that stabilization/destabilization of a 2-helix coiled coil, which connects the transmembrane sensory domain of DesK to its cytosolic catalytic region, is crucial to control its signaling state. Computational modeling and simulations reveal couplings between protein, water and membrane mechanics. We propose that membrane thickening is the main driving force for signal sensing and that it acts by inducing helix stretching and rotation prompting an asymmetric kinase-competent state. Overall, the known structural changes of the sensor kinase, as well as further dynamic rearrangements that we now predict, consistently link structure determinants to activity modulation.

  18. Insights on the structure and stability of Licanantase: a trimeric acid-stable coiled-coil lipoprotein from Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Fernando; Gutierrez-Maldonado, Sebastian E; Parada, Pilar; Martinez, Patricio; Maass, Alejandro; Perez-Acle, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Licanantase (Lic) is the major component of the secretome of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans when grown in elemental sulphur. When used as an additive, Lic improves copper recovery from bioleaching processes. However, this recovery enhancement is not fully understood. In this context, our aim is to predict the 3D structure of Lic, to shed light on its structure-function relationships. Bioinformatics analyses on the amino acid sequence of Lic showed a great similarity with Lpp, an Escherichia coli Lipoprotein that can form stable trimers in solution. Lic and Lpp share the secretion motif, intracellular processing and alpha helix structure, as well as the distribution of hydrophobic residues in heptads forming a hydrophobic core, typical of coiled-coil structures. Cross-linking experiments showed the presence of Lic trimers, supporting our predictions. Taking the in vitro and in silico evidence as a whole, we propose that the most probable structure for Lic is a trimeric coiled-coil. According to this prediction, a suitable model for Lic was produced using the de novo algorithm "Rosetta Fold-and-Dock". To assess the structural stability of our model, Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Replica Exchange MD simulations were performed using the structure of Lpp and a 14-alanine Lpp mutant as controls, at both acidic and neutral pH. Our results suggest that Lic was the most stable structure among the studied proteins in both pH conditions. This increased stability can be explained by a higher number of both intermonomer hydrophobic contacts and hydrogen bonds, key elements for the stability of Lic's secondary and tertiary structure.

  19. Insights on the structure and stability of Licanantase: a trimeric acid-stable coiled-coil lipoprotein from Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Abarca, Fernando; Gutierrez-Maldonado, Sebastian E.; Parada, Pilar; Martinez, Patricio; Maass, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Licanantase (Lic) is the major component of the secretome of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans when grown in elemental sulphur. When used as an additive, Lic improves copper recovery from bioleaching processes. However, this recovery enhancement is not fully understood. In this context, our aim is to predict the 3D structure of Lic, to shed light on its structure-function relationships. Bioinformatics analyses on the amino acid sequence of Lic showed a great similarity with Lpp, an Escherichia coli Lipoprotein that can form stable trimers in solution. Lic and Lpp share the secretion motif, intracellular processing and alpha helix structure, as well as the distribution of hydrophobic residues in heptads forming a hydrophobic core, typical of coiled-coil structures. Cross-linking experiments showed the presence of Lic trimers, supporting our predictions. Taking the in vitro and in silico evidence as a whole, we propose that the most probable structure for Lic is a trimeric coiled-coil. According to this prediction, a suitable model for Lic was produced using the de novo algorithm “Rosetta Fold-and-Dock”. To assess the structural stability of our model, Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Replica Exchange MD simulations were performed using the structure of Lpp and a 14-alanine Lpp mutant as controls, at both acidic and neutral pH. Our results suggest that Lic was the most stable structure among the studied proteins in both pH conditions. This increased stability can be explained by a higher number of both intermonomer hydrophobic contacts and hydrogen bonds, key elements for the stability of Lic’s secondary and tertiary structure. PMID:25165619

  20. Insights on the structure and stability of Licanantase: a trimeric acid-stable coiled-coil lipoprotein from Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Fernando; Gutierrez-Maldonado, Sebastian E; Parada, Pilar; Martinez, Patricio; Maass, Alejandro; Perez-Acle, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Licanantase (Lic) is the major component of the secretome of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans when grown in elemental sulphur. When used as an additive, Lic improves copper recovery from bioleaching processes. However, this recovery enhancement is not fully understood. In this context, our aim is to predict the 3D structure of Lic, to shed light on its structure-function relationships. Bioinformatics analyses on the amino acid sequence of Lic showed a great similarity with Lpp, an Escherichia coli Lipoprotein that can form stable trimers in solution. Lic and Lpp share the secretion motif, intracellular processing and alpha helix structure, as well as the distribution of hydrophobic residues in heptads forming a hydrophobic core, typical of coiled-coil structures. Cross-linking experiments showed the presence of Lic trimers, supporting our predictions. Taking the in vitro and in silico evidence as a whole, we propose that the most probable structure for Lic is a trimeric coiled-coil. According to this prediction, a suitable model for Lic was produced using the de novo algorithm "Rosetta Fold-and-Dock". To assess the structural stability of our model, Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Replica Exchange MD simulations were performed using the structure of Lpp and a 14-alanine Lpp mutant as controls, at both acidic and neutral pH. Our results suggest that Lic was the most stable structure among the studied proteins in both pH conditions. This increased stability can be explained by a higher number of both intermonomer hydrophobic contacts and hydrogen bonds, key elements for the stability of Lic's secondary and tertiary structure. PMID:25165619

  1. α/β coiled coils.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Marcus D; Mendler, Claudia T; Bassler, Jens; Karamichali, Ioanna; Ridderbusch, Oswin; Lupas, Andrei N; Hernandez Alvarez, Birte

    2016-01-15

    Coiled coils are the best-understood protein fold, as their backbone structure can uniquely be described by parametric equations. This level of understanding has allowed their manipulation in unprecedented detail. They do not seem a likely source of surprises, yet we describe here the unexpected formation of a new type of fiber by the simple insertion of two or six residues into the underlying heptad repeat of a parallel, trimeric coiled coil. These insertions strain the supercoil to the breaking point, causing the local formation of short β-strands, which move the path of the chain by 120° around the trimer axis. The result is an α/β coiled coil, which retains only one backbone hydrogen bond per repeat unit from the parent coiled coil. Our results show that a substantially novel backbone structure is possible within the allowed regions of the Ramachandran space with only minor mutations to a known fold.

  2. Regulation of Stat1 protein expression by phenylalanine 172 in the coiled-coil domain

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, Akemi; Fleur, Shella Saint; Fujii, Hodaka . E-mail: hodaka@med.nyu.edu

    2006-08-04

    Stat1 plays an essential role in signal transduction and gene expression of various cytokines including interferons (IFNs). Although the mechanism of cytokine-induced activation of Stat1 and transcriptional regulation of Stat1 gene expression have been established, post-transcriptional regulation of Stat1 protein expression is not fully understood. Here, we report identification of a mutant of Stat1 that has decreased expression levels by using inducible translocation trap (ITT), a reporter gene-based detection system of nuclear translocation. The substitution of serine for phenylalanine 172 (F172S) in the coiled-coil domain causes marked decrease in Stat1 protein expression in various cell lines without decreasing its mRNA levels. Our results suggest that the decrease is caused by translational/post-translational mechanisms independent of proteasome machinery. These results suggest a novel potential mechanism of determination of specificity of Stat proteins and showed that the ITT system is a powerful technique to identify mutants of nuclear translocating signal transducers.

  3. Tropomyosin is an interaction partner of the Drosophila coiled coil protein yuri gagarin.

    PubMed

    Texada, Michael J; Simonette, Rebecca A; Deery, William J; Beckingham, Kathleen M

    2011-02-15

    The Drosophila gene yuri gagarin is a complex locus encoding three protein isoform classes that are ubiquitously expressed in the organism. Mutations to the gene affect processes as diverse as gravitactic behavior and spermatogenesis. The larger Yuri isoforms contain extensive coiled-coil regions. Our previous studies indicate that one of the large isoform classes (Yuri-65) is required for formation of specialized F-actin-containing structures generated during spermatogenesis, including the so-called actin "cones" that mediate spermatid individualization. We used the tandem affinity purification of a tagged version of Yuri-65 (the TAP-tagging technique) to identify proteins associated with Yuri-65 in the intact organism. Tropomyosin, primarily as the 284-residue isoform derived from the ubiquitously expressed Tropomyosin 1 gene was thus identified as a major Yuri interaction partner. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed this interaction. We have established that the stable F-actin cones of spermatogenesis contain Tropomyosin 1 (Tm1) and that in mutant yuri(F64), failure of F-actin cone formation is associated with failure of Tm1 to accumulate at the cone initiation sites. In investigating possible interactions of Tm1 and Yuri in other tissues, we discovered that Tm1 and Yuri frequently colocalize with the endoplasmic reticulum. Tropomyosin has been implicated in actin-mediated membrane trafficking activity in other systems. Our findings suggest that Yuri-Tm1 complexes participate in related functions. PMID:21126519

  4. TROPOMYOSIN IS AN INTERACTION PARTNER OF THE DROSOPHILA COILED COIL PROTEIN YURI GAGARIN

    PubMed Central

    Texada, Michael J.; Simonette, Rebecca A.; Deery, William J.; Beckingham, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    The Drosophila gene yuri gagarin is a complex locus encoding three protein isoform classes that are ubiquitously expressed in the organism. Mutations to the gene affect processes as diverse as gravitactic behavior and spermatogenesis. The larger Yuri isoforms contain extensive coiled-coil regions. Our previous studies indicate that one of the large isoform classes (Yuri-65) is required for formation of specialized F-actin-containing structures generated during spermatogenesis, including the so-called actin “cones” that mediate spermatid individualization. We used tandem affinity purification of a tagged version of Yuri-65 (the TAP-tagging technique) to identify proteins associated with Yuri-65 in the intact organism. Tropomyosin, primarily as the 284-residue isoform derived from the ubiquitously expressed Tropomyosin 1 gene was thus identified as a major Yuri interaction partner. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed this interaction. We have established that the stable F-actin cones of spermatogenesis contain Tropomyosin 1 (Tm1) and that in mutant yuriF64, failure of F-actin cone formation is associated with failure of Tm1 to accumulate at the cone initiation sites. In investigating possible interactions of Tm1 and Yuri in other tissues, we discovered that Tm1 and Yuri frequently colocalize with the endoplasmic reticulum. Tropomyosin has been implicated in actin-mediated membrane trafficking activity in other systems. Our findings suggest that Yuri-Tm1 complexes participate in related functions. PMID:21126519

  5. Coiled coil rich proteins (Ccrp) influence molecular pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Schätzle, Sarah; Specht, Mara; Waidner, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenicity of the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori relies on its capacity to adapt to a hostile environment and to escape the host response. Although there have been great advances in our understanding of the bacterial cytoskeleton, major gaps remain in our knowledge of its contribution to virulence. In this study we have explored the influence of coiled coil rich proteins (Ccrp) cytoskeletal elements on pathogenicity factors of H. pylori. Deletion of any of the ccrp resulted in a strongly decreased activity of the main pathogenicity factor urease. We further investigated their role using in vitro co-culture experiments with the human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line AGS modeling H. pylori - host cell interactions. Intriguingly, host cell showed only a weak "scattering/hummingbird" phenotype, in which host cells are transformed from a uniform polygonal shape into a severely elongated state characterized by the formation of needle-like projections, after co-incubation with any ccrp deletion mutant. Furthermore, co-incubation with the ccrp59 mutant resulted in reduced type IV secretion system associated activities, e.g. IL-8 production and CagA translocation/phosphorylation. Thus, in addition to their role in maintaining the helical cell shape of H. pylori Ccrp proteins influence many cellular processes and are thereby crucial for the virulence of this human pathogen. PMID:25822999

  6. Ndm, a coiled-coil domain protein that suppresses macropinocytosis and has effects on cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Jessica S; Fastman, Nathan M; Noratel, Elizabeth F; Blumberg, Daphne D

    2012-09-01

    The ampA gene has a role in cell migration in Dictyostelium discoideum. Cells overexpressing AmpA show an increase in cell migration, forming large plaques on bacterial lawns. A second-site suppressor of this ampA-overexpressing phenotype identified a previously uncharacterized gene, ndm, which is described here. The Ndm protein is predicted to contain a coiled-coil BAR-like domain-a domain involved in endocytosis and membrane bending. ndm-knockout and Ndm-monomeric red fluorescent protein-expressing cell lines were used to establish a role for ndm in suppressing endocytosis. An increase in the rate of endocytosis and in the number of endosomes was detected in ndm(-) cells. During migration ndm(-) cells formed numerous endocytic cups instead of the broad lamellipodia structure characteristic of moving cells. A second lamellipodia-based function-cell spreading-was also defective in the ndm(-) cells. The increase in endocytosis and the defect in lamellipodia formation were associated with reduced chemotaxis in ndm(-) cells. Immunofluorescence results and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays revealed an association of Ndm with coronin and F-actin. The results establish ndm as a gene important in regulating the balance between formation of endocytic cups and lamellipodia structures. PMID:22809629

  7. Human Enhancer of Invasion-Cluster, a Coiled-Coil Protein Required for Passage through Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Einarson, Margret B.; Cukierman, Edna; Compton, Duane A.; Golemis, Erica A.

    2004-01-01

    In a cross-species overexpression approach, we used the pseudohyphal transition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model screening system to identify human genes that regulate cell morphology and the cell cycle. Human enhancer of invasion-cluster (HEI-C), encoding a novel evolutionarily conserved coiled-coil protein, was isolated in a screen for human genes that induce agar invasion in S. cerevisiae. In human cells, HEI-C is primarily localized to the spindle during mitosis. Depletion of HEI-C in vivo with short interfering RNAs results in severe mitotic defects. Analysis by immunofluorescence, flow cytometry analysis, and videomicroscopy indicates that HEI-C-depleted cells form metaphase plates with normal timing after G2/M transition, although in many cases cells have disorganized mitotic spindles. Subsequently, severe defects occur at the metaphase-anaphase transition, characterized by a significant delay at this stage or, more commonly, cellular disintegration accompanied by the display of classic biochemical markers of apoptosis. These mitotic defects occur in spite of the fact that HEI-C-depleted cells retain functional cell cycle checkpoints, as these cells arrest normally following nocodazole or hydroxyurea treatment. These results place HEI-C as a novel regulator of spindle function and integrity during the metaphase-anaphase transition. PMID:15082789

  8. SYNZIP Protein Interaction Toolbox: in Vitro and in Vivo Specifications of Heterospecific Coiled-Coil Interaction Domains

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The synthetic biology toolkit contains a growing number of parts for regulating transcription and translation, but very few that can be used to control protein association. Here we report characterization of 22 previously published heterospecific synthetic coiled-coil peptides called SYNZIPs. We present biophysical analysis of the oligomerization states, helix orientations, and affinities of 27 SYNZIP pairs. SYNZIP pairs were also tested for interaction in two cell-based assays. In a yeast two-hybrid screen, >85% of 253 comparable interactions were consistent with prior in vitro measurements made using coiled-coil microarrays. In a yeast-signaling assay controlled by coiled-coil mediated scaffolding, 12 SYNZIP pairs were successfully used to down-regulate the expression of a reporter gene following treatment with α-factor. Characterization of these interaction modules dramatically increases the number of available protein interaction parts for synthetic biology and should facilitate a wide range of molecular engineering applications. Summary characteristics of 27 SYNZIP peptide pairs are reported in specification sheets available in the Supporting Information and at the SYNZIP Web site [http://keatingweb.mit.edu/SYNZIP/]. PMID:22558529

  9. High-resolution spot-scan electron microscopy of microcrystals of an alpha-helical coiled-coil protein.

    PubMed

    Bullough, P A; Tulloch, P A

    1990-09-01

    We describe the electron microscopy of a crystalline assembly of an alpha-helical coiled-coil protein extracted from the ootheca of the praying mantis. Electron diffraction patterns of unstained crystals show crystal lattice sampling of the coiled-coil molecular transform to a resolution beyond 1.5 A. Using a "spot-scan" method of electron imaging, micrographs of unstained crystals have been obtained that visibly diffract laser light from crystal spacings as small as 4.3 A. A projection map was calculated to 4 A using electron diffraction amplitudes and phases from computer-processed images. The projection map clearly shows modulations in density arising from the 5.1 A alpha-helical repeat, the first time this type of modulation has been revealed by electron microscopy. The crystals have p2 plane group symmetry with a = 92.4 A, b = 150.7 A, y = 92.4 degrees. Examination of tilted specimens shows that c is approximately 18 A, indicating that the unit cell is only one molecule thick. A preliminary interpretation shows tightly packed molecules some 400 A long lying with their long axes in the plane of the projection. The molecules have a coiled-coil configuration for most of their length. The possible modes of packing of the molecules in three dimensions are discussed. PMID:2398496

  10. Structural mapping of the coiled-coil domain of a bacterial condensin and comparative analyses across all domains of life suggest conserved features of SMC proteins.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Vincent M; Stanage, Tyler H; Mims, Alexandra; Norden, Ian S; Oakley, Martha G

    2015-06-01

    The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins form the cores of multisubunit complexes that are required for the segregation and global organization of chromosomes in all domains of life. These proteins share a common domain structure in which N- and C- terminal regions pack against one another to form a globular ATPase domain. This "head" domain is connected to a central, globular, "hinge" or dimerization domain by a long, antiparallel coiled coil. To date, most efforts for structural characterization of SMC proteins have focused on the globular domains. Recently, however, we developed a method to map interstrand interactions in the 50-nm coiled-coil domain of MukB, the divergent SMC protein found in γ-proteobacteria. Here, we apply that technique to map the structure of the Bacillus subtilis SMC (BsSMC) coiled-coil domain. We find that, in contrast to the relatively complicated coiled-coil domain of MukB, the BsSMC domain is nearly continuous, with only two detectable coiled-coil interruptions. Near the middle of the domain is a break in coiled-coil structure in which there are three more residues on the C-terminal strand than on the N-terminal strand. Close to the head domain, there is a second break with a significantly longer insertion on the same strand. These results provide an experience base that allows an informed interpretation of the output of coiled-coil prediction algorithms for this family of proteins. A comparison of such predictions suggests that these coiled-coil deviations are highly conserved across SMC types in a wide variety of organisms, including humans.

  11. Cholera toxin B subunit-five-stranded α-helical coiled-coil fusion protein: "five-to-five" molecular chimera displays robust physicochemical stability.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Takeshi; Harakuni, Tetsuya

    2014-09-01

    To create a physicochemically stable cholera toxin (CT) B subunit (CTB), it was fused to the five-stranded α-helical coiled-coil domain of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). The chimeric fusion protein (CTB-COMP) was expressed in Pichia pastoris, predominantly as a pentamer, and retained its affinity for the monosialoganglioside GM1, a natural receptor of CT. The fusion protein displayed thermostability, tolerating the boiling temperature of water for 10min, whereas unfused CTB readily dissociated to its monomers and lost its affinity for GM1. The fusion protein also displayed resistance to strong acid at pHs as low as 0.1, and to the protein denaturant sodium dodecyl sulfate at concentrations up to 10%. Intranasal administration of the fusion protein to mice induced anti-B subunit serum IgG, even after the protein was boiled, whereas unfused CTB showed no thermostable mucosal immunogenicity. This study demonstrates that CTB fused to a pentameric α-helical coiled coil has a novel physicochemical phenotype, which may provide important insight into the molecular design of enterotoxin-B-subunit-based vaccines and vaccine delivery molecules. PMID:25045819

  12. Crystal Structure of Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Reveals Targeting of TRIM Family Member PML via Coiled-Coil Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sevvana, Madhumati; Otto, Victoria; Schilling, Eva-Maria; Stump, Joachim D.; Müller, Regina; Reuter, Nina; Sticht, Heinrich; Muller, Yves A.; Stamminger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are enigmatic structures of the cell nucleus that act as key mediators of intrinsic immunity against viral pathogens. PML itself is a member of the E3-ligase TRIM family of proteins that regulates a variety of innate immune signaling pathways. Consequently, viruses have evolved effector proteins to modify PML-NBs; however, little is known concerning structure-function relationships of viral antagonists. The herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) expresses the abundant immediate-early protein IE1 that colocalizes with PML-NBs and induces their dispersal, which correlates with the antagonization of NB-mediated intrinsic immunity. Here, we delineate the molecular basis for this antagonization by presenting the first crystal structure for the evolutionary conserved primate cytomegalovirus IE1 proteins. We show that IE1 consists of a globular core (IE1CORE) flanked by intrinsically disordered regions. The 2.3 Å crystal structure of IE1CORE displays an all α-helical, femur-shaped fold, which lacks overall fold similarity with known protein structures, but shares secondary structure features recently observed in the coiled-coil domain of TRIM proteins. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds efficiently to the TRIM family member PML, and is able to induce PML deSUMOylation. Intriguingly, this results in the release of NB-associated proteins into the nucleoplasm, but not of PML itself. Importantly, we show that PML deSUMOylation by IE1CORE is sufficient to antagonize PML-NB-instituted intrinsic immunity. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds via the coiled-coil domain to PML and also interacts with TRIM5α We propose that IE1CORE sequesters PML and possibly other TRIM family members via structural mimicry using an extended binding surface formed by the coiled-coil region. This mode of interaction might render the antagonizing activity less susceptible to

  13. A basis set of de novo coiled-coil peptide oligomers for rational protein design and synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jordan M; Boyle, Aimee L; Bruning, Marc; Bartlett, Gail J; Vincent, Thomas L; Zaccai, Nathan R; Armstrong, Craig T; Bromley, Elizabeth H C; Booth, Paula J; Brady, R Leo; Thomson, Andrew R; Woolfson, Derek N

    2012-06-15

    Protein engineering, chemical biology, and synthetic biology would benefit from toolkits of peptide and protein components that could be exchanged reliably between systems while maintaining their structural and functional integrity. Ideally, such components should be highly defined and predictable in all respects of sequence, structure, stability, interactions, and function. To establish one such toolkit, here we present a basis set of de novo designed α-helical coiled-coil peptides that adopt defined and well-characterized parallel dimeric, trimeric, and tetrameric states. The designs are based on sequence-to-structure relationships both from the literature and analysis of a database of known coiled-coil X-ray crystal structures. These give foreground sequences to specify the targeted oligomer state. A key feature of the design process is that sequence positions outside of these sites are considered non-essential for structural specificity; as such, they are referred to as the background, are kept non-descript, and are available for mutation as required later. Synthetic peptides were characterized in solution by circular-dichroism spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation, and their structures were determined by X-ray crystallography. Intriguingly, a hitherto widely used empirical rule-of-thumb for coiled-coil dimer specification does not hold in the designed system. However, the desired oligomeric state is achieved by database-informed redesign of that particular foreground and confirmed experimentally. We envisage that the basis set will be of use in directing and controlling protein assembly, with potential applications in chemical and synthetic biology. To help with such endeavors, we introduce Pcomp, an on-line registry of peptide components for protein-design and synthetic-biology applications. PMID:23651206

  14. Methods for Solving Highly Symmetric De Novo Designed Metalloproteins: Crystallographic Examination of a Novel Three-Stranded Coiled-Coil Structure Containing d-Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Ruckthong, L; Stuckey, J A; Pecoraro, V L

    2016-01-01

    The core objective of de novo metalloprotein design is to define metal-protein relationships that control the structure and function of metal centers by using simplified proteins. An essential requirement to achieve this goal is to obtain high resolution structural data using either NMR or crystallographic studies in order to evaluate successful design. X-ray crystal structures have proven that a four heptad repeat scaffold contained in the three-stranded coiled coil (3SCC), called CoilSer (CS), provides an excellent motif for modeling a three Cys binding environment capable of chelating metals into geometries that resemble heavy metal sites in metalloregulatory systems. However, new generations of more complicated designs that feature, for example, a d-amino acid or multiple metal ligand sites in the helical sequence require a more stable construct. In doing so, an extra heptad was introduced into the original CS sequence, yielding a GRAND-CoilSer (GRAND-CS) to retain the 3SCC folding. An apo-(GRAND-CSL12DLL16C)3 crystal structure, designed for Cd(II)S3 complexation, proved to be a well-folded parallel 3SCC. Because this structure is novel, protocols for crystallization, structural determination, and refinements of the apo-(GRAND-CSL12DLL16C)3 are described. This report should be generally useful for future crystallographic studies of related coiled-coil designs.

  15. Methods for Solving Highly Symmetric De Novo Designed Metalloproteins: Crystallographic Examination of a Novel Three-Stranded Coiled-Coil Structure Containing d-Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Ruckthong, L; Stuckey, J A; Pecoraro, V L

    2016-01-01

    The core objective of de novo metalloprotein design is to define metal-protein relationships that control the structure and function of metal centers by using simplified proteins. An essential requirement to achieve this goal is to obtain high resolution structural data using either NMR or crystallographic studies in order to evaluate successful design. X-ray crystal structures have proven that a four heptad repeat scaffold contained in the three-stranded coiled coil (3SCC), called CoilSer (CS), provides an excellent motif for modeling a three Cys binding environment capable of chelating metals into geometries that resemble heavy metal sites in metalloregulatory systems. However, new generations of more complicated designs that feature, for example, a d-amino acid or multiple metal ligand sites in the helical sequence require a more stable construct. In doing so, an extra heptad was introduced into the original CS sequence, yielding a GRAND-CoilSer (GRAND-CS) to retain the 3SCC folding. An apo-(GRAND-CSL12DLL16C)3 crystal structure, designed for Cd(II)S3 complexation, proved to be a well-folded parallel 3SCC. Because this structure is novel, protocols for crystallization, structural determination, and refinements of the apo-(GRAND-CSL12DLL16C)3 are described. This report should be generally useful for future crystallographic studies of related coiled-coil designs. PMID:27586331

  16. α/β coiled coils

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Marcus D; Mendler, Claudia T; Bassler, Jens; Karamichali, Ioanna; Ridderbusch, Oswin; Lupas, Andrei N; Hernandez Alvarez, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Coiled coils are the best-understood protein fold, as their backbone structure can uniquely be described by parametric equations. This level of understanding has allowed their manipulation in unprecedented detail. They do not seem a likely source of surprises, yet we describe here the unexpected formation of a new type of fiber by the simple insertion of two or six residues into the underlying heptad repeat of a parallel, trimeric coiled coil. These insertions strain the supercoil to the breaking point, causing the local formation of short β-strands, which move the path of the chain by 120° around the trimer axis. The result is an α/β coiled coil, which retains only one backbone hydrogen bond per repeat unit from the parent coiled coil. Our results show that a substantially novel backbone structure is possible within the allowed regions of the Ramachandran space with only minor mutations to a known fold. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11861.001 PMID:26771248

  17. Considerations in the design and optimization of coiled coil structures.

    PubMed

    Mason, Jody M; Müller, Kristian M; Arndt, Katja M

    2007-01-01

    Coiled coil motifs are, despite their apparent simplicity, highly specific, and play a significant role in the understanding of tertiary structure and its formation. The most commonly observed of the coiled coils, the parallel dimeric, is yet to be fully characterized for this structural class in general. Nonetheless, strict rules have emerged for the necessity of specific types of amino acids at specific positions. In this chapter, we discuss this system in light of existing coiled coil structures and in applying rules to coiled coils that are to be designed or optimized. Understanding and expanding on these rules is crucial in using these motifs, which play key roles in virtually every cellular process, to act as drug-delivery agents by sequestering other proteins that are not behaving natively or that have been upregulated (for example, by binding to coiled coil domains implicated in oncogenesis). The roles of the a and d "hydrophobic" core positions and the e and g "electrostatic" edge positions in directing oligomerization and pairing specificity are discussed. Also discussed is the role of these positions in concert with the b, c, and f positions in maintaining alpha-helical propensity, helix solubility, and dimer stability. PMID:17041258

  18. Considerations in the design and optimization of coiled coil structures.

    PubMed

    Mason, Jody M; Müller, Kristian M; Arndt, Katja M

    2007-01-01

    Coiled coil motifs are, despite their apparent simplicity, highly specific, and play a significant role in the understanding of tertiary structure and its formation. The most commonly observed of the coiled coils, the parallel dimeric, is yet to be fully characterized for this structural class in general. Nonetheless, strict rules have emerged for the necessity of specific types of amino acids at specific positions. In this chapter, we discuss this system in light of existing coiled coil structures and in applying rules to coiled coils that are to be designed or optimized. Understanding and expanding on these rules is crucial in using these motifs, which play key roles in virtually every cellular process, to act as drug-delivery agents by sequestering other proteins that are not behaving natively or that have been upregulated (for example, by binding to coiled coil domains implicated in oncogenesis). The roles of the a and d "hydrophobic" core positions and the e and g "electrostatic" edge positions in directing oligomerization and pairing specificity are discussed. Also discussed is the role of these positions in concert with the b, c, and f positions in maintaining alpha-helical propensity, helix solubility, and dimer stability.

  19. The SH3 domain of UNC-89 (obscurin) interacts with paramyosin, a coiled-coil protein, in Caenorhabditis elegans muscle

    PubMed Central

    Qadota, Hiroshi; Mayans, Olga; Matsunaga, Yohei; McMurry, Jonathan L.; Wilson, Kristy J.; Kwon, Grace E.; Stanford, Rachel; Deehan, Kevin; Tinley, Tina L.; Ngwa, Verra M.; Benian, Guy M.

    2016-01-01

    UNC-89 is a giant polypeptide located at the sarcomeric M-line of Caenorhabditis elegans muscle. The human homologue is obscurin. To understand how UNC-89 is localized and functions, we have been identifying its binding partners. Screening a yeast two-hybrid library revealed that UNC-89 interacts with paramyosin. Paramyosin is an invertebrate-specific coiled-coil dimer protein that is homologous to the rod portion of myosin heavy chains and resides in thick filament cores. Minimally, this interaction requires UNC-89’s SH3 domain and residues 294–376 of paramyosin and has a KD of ∼1.1 μM. In unc-89 loss-of-function mutants that lack the SH3 domain, paramyosin is found in accumulations. When the SH3 domain is overexpressed, paramyosin is mislocalized. SH3 domains usually interact with a proline-rich consensus sequence, but the region of paramyosin that interacts with UNC-89’s SH3 is α-helical and lacks prolines. Homology modeling of UNC-89’s SH3 suggests structural features that might be responsible for this interaction. The SH3-binding region of paramyosin contains a “skip residue,” which is likely to locally unwind the coiled-coil and perhaps contributes to the binding specificity. PMID:27009202

  20. Membrane trafficking. The specificity of vesicle traffic to the Golgi is encoded in the golgin coiled-coil proteins.

    PubMed

    Wong, Mie; Munro, Sean

    2014-10-31

    The Golgi apparatus is a multicompartment central sorting station at the intersection of secretory and endocytic vesicular traffic. The mechanisms that permit cargo-loaded transport vesicles from different origins to selectively access different Golgi compartments are incompletely understood. We developed a rerouting and capture assay to investigate systematically the vesicle-tethering activities of 10 widely conserved golgin coiled-coil proteins. We find that subsets of golgins with distinct localizations on the Golgi surface have capture activities toward vesicles of different origins. These findings demonstrate that golgins act as tethers in vivo, and hence the specificity we find to be encoded in this tethering is likely to make a major contribution to the organization of membrane traffic at the Golgi apparatus.

  1. The coiled-coil protein VIG1 is essential for tethering vacuoles to mitochondria during vacuole inheritance of Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takayuki; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Yagisawa, Fumi; Ohnuma, Mio; Yoshida, Yamato; Yoshida, Masaki; Nishida, Keiji; Misumi, Osami; Watanabe, Satoru; Tanaka, Kan; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2010-03-01

    Vacuoles/lysosomes function in endocytosis and in storage and digestion of metabolites. These organelles are inherited by the daughter cells in eukaryotes. However, the mechanisms of this inheritance are poorly understood because the cells contain multiple vacuoles that behave randomly. The primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae has a minimum set of organelles. Here, we show that C. merolae contains about four vacuoles that are distributed equally between the daughter cells by binding to dividing mitochondria. Binding is mediated by VIG1, a 30-kD coiled-coil protein identified by microarray analyses and immunological assays. VIG1 appears on the surface of free vacuoles in the cytosol and then tethers the vacuoles to the mitochondria. The vacuoles are released from the mitochondrion in the daughter cells following VIG1 digestion. Suppression of VIG1 by antisense RNA disrupted the migration of vacuoles. Thus, VIG1 is essential for tethering vacuoles to mitochondria during vacuole inheritance in C. merolae.

  2. A Parallel Coiled-Coil Tetramer with Offset Helices

    SciTech Connect

    Liu,J.; Deng, Y.; Zheng, Q.; Cheng, C.; Kallenbach, N.; Lu, M.

    2006-01-01

    Specific helix-helix interactions are fundamental in assembling the native state of proteins and in protein-protein interfaces. Coiled coils afford a unique model system for elucidating principles of molecular recognition between {alpha} helices. The coiled-coil fold is specified by a characteristic seven amino acid repeat containing hydrophobic residues at the first (a) and fourth (d) positions. Nonpolar side chains spaced three and four residues apart are referred to as the 3-4 hydrophobic repeat. The presence of apolar amino acids at the e or g positions (corresponding to a 3-3-1 hydrophobic repeat) can provide new possibilities for close-packing of {alpha}-helices that includes examples such as the lac repressor tetramerization domain. Here we demonstrate that an unprecedented coiled-coil interface results from replacement of three charged residues at the e positions in the dimeric GCN4 leucine zipper by nonpolar valine side chains. Equilibrium circular dichroism and analytical ultracentrifugation studies indicate that the valine-containing mutant forms a discrete {alpha}-helical tetramer with a significantly higher stability than the parent leucine-zipper molecule. The 1.35 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the tetramer reveals a parallel four-stranded coiled coil with a three-residue interhelical offset. The local packing geometry of the three hydrophobic positions in the tetramer conformation is completely different from that seen in classical tetrameric structures yet bears resemblance to that in three-stranded coiled coils. These studies demonstrate that distinct van der Waals interactions beyond the a and d side chains can generate a diverse set of helix-helix interfaces and three-dimensional supercoil structures.

  3. Design of beta-domain swapping, alpha/beta-protein, environmentally sensitive coiled coil and peptide functionalized titania materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarkar, Radhika P.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to apply rational peptide design to fabricate nanomaterials via self-assembly. This has been demonstrated in structurally diverse systems with an aim of deciphering the underlying principles governing how sequence affects the peptide's ability to adopt a specific secondary structure and ultimate material properties that are realized from the association of these secondary structural elements. Several amyloidogenic proteins have been shown to self-assemble into fibrils using a mechanism known as domain swapping. Here, discreet units of secondary structure are exchanged among discreet proteins during self-assembly to form extended networks with precise three dimensional organization. The possibility of using these mechanisms to design peptides capable of controlled assembly and fibril formation leading to materials with targeted properties is explored. By altering the placement of a beta-turn sequence that varies the size and location of the exchanged strand, twisting, non-twisting and laminated fibrillar nanostructures are obtained. Hydrogels prepared from these strand swapping beta-hairpins have varied rheological properties due to differences in their fibrillar nanostructures. In a second distinct design, alpha/beta-proteins are used to prepare environmentally sensitive hydrogels. Here, multiple distinct motifs for structural integrity and dynamic response within a single self-assembling peptide allow the amyloid-like fibrils formed to controllably alter their nano-topography in response to an external stimulus such as temperature. The development of these self-assembling alpha/beta-protein motifs also necessitated the design of pH sensitive antiparallel coiled coils. Exploring the basic principles responsible for pH dependent conformational changes in coiled coils can lead to new insights in the control of protein structure and function. Lastly, this dissertation discusses the interface between biomolecules and inorganic

  4. Rapid Covalent Fluorescence Labeling of Membrane Proteins on Live Cells via Coiled-Coil Templated Acyl Transfer.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Ulrike; Lotze, Jonathan; Mörl, Karin; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Seitz, Oliver

    2015-10-21

    Fluorescently labeled proteins enable the microscopic imaging of protein localization and function in live cells. In labeling reactions targeted against specific tag sequences, the size of the fluorophore-tag is of major concern. The tag should be small to prevent interference with protein function. Furthermore, rapid and covalent labeling methods are desired to enable the analysis of fast biological processes. Herein, we describe the development of a method in which the formation of a parallel coiled coil triggers the transfer of a fluorescence dye from a thioester-linked coil peptide conjugate onto a cysteine-modified coil peptide. This labeling method requires only small tag sequences (max 23 aa) and occurs with high tag specificity. We show that size matching of the coil peptides and a suitable thioester reactivity allow the acyl transfer reaction to proceed within minutes (rather than hours). We demonstrate the versatility of this method by applying it to the labeling of different G-protein coupled membrane receptors including the human neuropeptide Y receptors 1, 2, 4, 5, the neuropeptide FF receptors 1 and 2, and the dopamine receptor 1. The labeled receptors are fully functional and able to bind the respective ligand with high affinity. Activity is not impaired as demonstrated by activation, internalization, and recycling experiments. PMID:26367072

  5. Roles of the novel coiled-coil protein Rng10 in septum formation during fission yeast cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yajun; Lee, I-Ju; Sun, Mingzhai; Lower, Casey A.; Runge, Kurt W.; Ma, Jianjie; Wu, Jian-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Rho GAPs are important regulators of Rho GTPases, which are involved in various steps of cytokinesis and other processes. However, regulation of Rho-GAP cellular localization and function is not fully understood. Here we report the characterization of a novel coiled-coil protein Rng10 and its relationship with the Rho-GAP Rga7 in fission yeast. Both rng10Δ and rga7Δ result in defective septum and cell lysis during cytokinesis. Rng10 and Rga7 colocalize on the plasma membrane at the cell tips during interphase and at the division site during cell division. Rng10 physically interacts with Rga7 in affinity purification and coimmunoprecipitation. Of interest, Rga7 localization is nearly abolished without Rng10. Moreover, Rng10 and Rga7 work together to regulate the accumulation and dynamics of glucan synthases for successful septum formation in cytokinesis. Our results show that cellular localization and function of the Rho-GAP Rga7 are regulated by a novel protein, Rng10, during cytokinesis in fission yeast. PMID:27385337

  6. Mcp4, a Meiotic Coiled-Coil Protein, Plays a Role in F-Actin Positioning during Schizosaccharomyces pombe Meiosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Ohtaka, Ayami; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Saito, Takamune T.; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Some meiosis-specific proteins of Schizosaccharomyces pombe harbor coiled-coil motifs and play essential roles in meiotic progression. Here we describe Mcp4, a novel meiosis-specific protein whose expression is abruptly induced at the horsetail phase and which remains expressed until sporulation is finished. Fluorescence microscopic analysis revealed that Mcp4 alters its subcellular localization during meiosis in a manner that partially resembles the movement of F-actin during meiosis. Mcp4 and F-actin never colocalize; rather, they are located in a side-by-side manner. When forespore membrane formation begins at metaphase II, the Mcp4 signals assemble at the lagging face of the dividing nuclei. At this stage, they are sandwiched between F-actin and the nucleus. Mcp4, in turn, appears to sandwich F-actin with Meu14. In mcp4Δ cells at anaphase II, the F-actin, which is normally dumbbell-shaped, adopts an abnormal balloon shape. Spores of mcp4Δ cells were sensitive to NaCl, although their shape and viability were normal. Taken together, we conclude that Mcp4 plays a role in the accurate positioning of F-actin during S. pombe meiosis. PMID:17435009

  7. The C-terminal region of the transcriptional regulator THAP11 forms a parallel coiled-coil domain involved in protein dimerization.

    PubMed

    Cukier, Cyprian D; Maveyraud, Laurent; Saurel, Olivier; Guillet, Valérie; Milon, Alain; Gervais, Virginie

    2016-06-01

    Thanatos associated protein 11 (THAP11) is a cell cycle and cell growth regulator differentially expressed in cancer cells. THAP11 belongs to a distinct family of transcription factors recognizing specific DNA sequences via an atypical zinc finger motif and regulating diverse cellular processes. Outside the extensively characterized DNA-binding domain, THAP proteins vary in size and predicted domains, for which structural data are still lacking. We report here the crystal structure of the C-terminal region of human THAP11 protein, providing the first 3D structure of a coiled-coil motif from a THAP family member. We further investigate the stability, dynamics and oligomeric properties of the determined structure combining molecular dynamics simulations and biophysical experiments. Our results show that the C-ter region of THAP11 forms a left-handed parallel homo-dimeric coiled-coil structure possessing several unusual features. PMID:26975212

  8. Coiled-coil domain of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli type III secreted protein EspD is involved in EspA filament-mediated cell attachment and hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Daniell, S J; Delahay, R M; Shaw, R K; Hartland, E L; Pallen, M J; Booy, F; Ebel, F; Knutton, S; Frankel, G

    2001-06-01

    Many animal and plant pathogens use type III secretion systems to secrete key virulence factors, some directly into the host cell cytosol. However, the basis for such protein translocation has yet to be fully elucidated for any type III secretion system. We have previously shown that in enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli the type III secreted protein EspA is assembled into a filamentous organelle that attaches the bacterium to the plasma membrane of the host cell. Formation of EspA filaments is dependent on expression of another type III secreted protein, EspD. The carboxy terminus of EspD, a protein involved in formation of the translocation pore in the host cell membrane, is predicted to adopt a coiled-coil conformation with 99% probability. Here, we demonstrate EspD-EspD protein interaction using the yeast two-hybrid system and column overlays. Nonconservative triple amino acid substitutions of specific EspD carboxy-terminal residues generated an enteropathogenic E. coli mutant that was attenuated in its ability to induce attaching and effacing lesions on HEp-2 cells. Although the mutation had no effect on EspA filament biosynthesis, it also resulted in reduced binding to and reduced hemolysis of red blood cells. These results segregate, for the first time, functional domains of EspD that control EspA filament length from EspD-mediated cell attachment and pore formation.

  9. Study on the interaction between methyl jasmonate and the coiled-coil domain of rice blast resistance protein Pi36 by spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin Q.; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Xiang M.; Wang, Chun T.; Liu, Xue Q.; Tan, Yan P.; Wu, Yun H.

    2012-03-01

    Interaction between the coiled-coil domain of rice blast resistance protein Pi36 and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) was studied by fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopic techniques. The quenching mechanism of fluorescence of MeJA by this domain was discussed to be a static quenching procedure. Fluorescence quenching was explored to measure the number of binding sites n and apparent binding constants K. The thermodynamics parameters ΔH, ΔG, ΔS were also calculated. The results indicate the binding reaction was not entropy-driven but enthalpy-driven, and hydrophobic binding played major role in the interaction. The binding sites of MeJA with the coiled-coil structural domain of rice blast resistance protein Pi36 were found to approach the microenvironment of both Tyr and Trp by the synchronous fluorescence spectrometry. The distance r between donor (the coiled-coil domain of rice blast resistance protein Pi36) and acceptor (MeJA) was obtained according to Förster theory of non-radioactive energy transfer.

  10. Dimerization of the ATRIP protein through the coiled-coil motif and its implication to the maintenance of stalled replication forks.

    PubMed

    Itakura, Eisuke; Sawada, Isao; Matsuura, Akira

    2005-12-01

    ATR (ATM and Rad3-related), a PI kinase-related kinase (PIKK), has been implicated in the DNA structure checkpoint in mammalian cells. ATR associates with its partner protein ATRIP to form a functional complex in the nucleus. In this study, we investigated the role of the ATRIP coiled-coil domain in ATR-mediated processes. The coiled-coil domain of human ATRIP contributes to self-dimerization in vivo, which is important for the stable translocation of the ATR-ATRIP complex to nuclear foci that are formed after exposure to genotoxic stress. The expression of dimerization-defective ATRIP diminishes the maintenance of replication forks during treatment with replication inhibitors. By contrast, it does not compromise the G2/M checkpoint after IR-induced DNA damage. These results show that there are two critical functions of ATR-ATRIP after the exposure to genotoxic stress: maintenance of the integrity of replication machinery and execution of cell cycle arrest, which are separable and are achieved via distinct mechanisms. The former function may involve the concentrated localization of ATR to damaged sites for which the ATRIP coiled-coil motif is critical.

  11. Crystal structure of a coiled-coil domain from human ROCK I.

    PubMed

    Tu, Daqi; Li, Yiqun; Song, Hyun Kyu; Toms, Angela V; Gould, Christopher J; Ficarro, Scott B; Marto, Jarrod A; Goode, Bruce L; Eck, Michael J

    2011-03-21

    The small GTPase Rho and one of its targets, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), participate in a variety of actin-based cellular processes including smooth muscle contraction, cell migration, and stress fiber formation. The ROCK protein consists of an N-terminal kinase domain, a central coiled-coil domain containing a Rho binding site, and a C-terminal pleckstrin homology domain. Here we present the crystal structure of a large section of the central coiled-coil domain of human ROCK I (amino acids 535-700). The structure forms a parallel α-helical coiled-coil dimer that is structurally similar to tropomyosin, an actin filament binding protein. There is an unusual discontinuity in the coiled-coil; three charged residues (E613, R617 and D620) are positioned at what is normally the hydrophobic core of coiled-coil packing. We speculate that this conserved irregularity could function as a hinge that allows ROCK to adopt its autoinhibited conformation.

  12. Coiled-coil intermediate filament stutter instability and molecular unfolding.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Melis; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2011-05-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) are the key components of cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells and are critical for cell mechanics. The building block of IFs is a coiled-coil alpha-helical dimer, consisting of several domains that include linkers and other structural discontinuities. One of the discontinuities in the dimer's coiled-coil region is the so-called 'stutter' region. The stutter is a region where a variation of the amino acid sequence pattern from other parts of the alpha-helical domains of the protein is found. It was suggested in earlier works that due to this sequence variation, the perfect coiled-coil arrangement ceases to exist. Here, we show using explicit water molecular dynamics and well-tempered metadynamics that for the coil2 domain of vimentin IFs the stutter is more stable in a non-alpha-helical, unfolded state. This causes a local structural disturbance in the alpha helix, which has a global effect on the nanomechanics of the structure. Our analysis suggests that the stutter features an enhanced tendency to unfolding even under the absence of external forces, implying a much greater structural instability than previously assumed. As a result it features a smaller local bending stiffness than other segments and presents a seed for the initiation of molecular bending and unfolding at large deformation. PMID:21516532

  13. Stability and specificity of heterodimer formation for the coiled-coil neck regions of the motor proteins Kif3A and Kif3B: the role of unstructured oppositely charged regions

    PubMed Central

    Chana, M.S.; Tripet, B.P.; Mant, C.T.; Hodges, R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the folding, stability, and specificity of dimerization of the neck regions of the kinesin-like proteins Kif3A (residues 356–416) and Kif3B (residues 351–411). We showed that the complementary charged regions found in the hinge regions (which directly follow the neck regions) of these proteins do not adopt any secondary structure in solution. We then explored the ability of the complementary charged regions to specify heterodimer formation for the neck region coiled-coils found in Kif3A and Kif3B. Redox experiments demonstrated that oppositely charged regions specified the formation of a heterodimeric coiled-coil. Denaturation studies with urea demonstrated that the negatively charged region of Kif3A dramatically destabilized its neck coiled-coil (urea1/2 value of 3.9 m compared with 6.7 m for the coiled-coil alone). By comparison, the placement of a positively charged region C-terminal to the neck coiled-coil of Kif3B had little effect on stability (urea1/2 value of 8.2 m compared with 8.8 m for the coiled-coil alone). The pairing of complementary charged regions leads to specific heterodimer formation where the stability of the heterodimeric neck coiled-coil with charged regions had similar stability (urea1/2 value of 7.8 m) to the most stable homodimer (Kif3B) with charged regions (urea1/2 value of 8.0 m) and dramatically more stable than the Kif3A homodimer with charged regions (urea1/2, value of 3.9 m). The heterodimeric coiled-coil with charged extensions has essentially the same stability as the heterodimeric coiled-coil on its own (urea1/2 values of 7.8 and 8.1 m, respectively) suggesting that specificity of heterodimerization is driven by non-specific attraction of the oppositely unstructured charged regions without affecting stability of the heterodimeric coiled-coil. PMID:15705165

  14. Mcp7, a meiosis-specific coiled-coil protein of fission yeast, associates with Meu13 and is required for meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takamune T; Tougan, Takahiro; Kasama, Takashi; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    We previously showed that Meu13 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe functions in homologous pairing and recombination at meiosis I. Here we show that a meiosis-specific gene encodes a coiled-coil protein that complexes with Meu13 during meiosis in vivo. This gene denoted as mcp7+ (after meiotic coiled-coil protein) is an ortholog of Mnd1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mcp7 proteins are detected on meiotic chromatin. The phenotypes of mcp7Delta cells are similar to those of meu13Delta cells as they show reduced recombination rates and spore viability and produce spores with abnormal morphology. However, a delay in initiation of meiosis I chromosome segregation of mcp7Delta cells is not so conspicuous as meu13Delta cells, and no meiotic delay is observed in mcp7Deltameu13Delta cells. Mcp7 and Meu13 proteins depend on each other differently; Mcp7 becomes more stable in meu13Delta cells, whereas Meu13 becomes less stable in mcp7Delta cells. Genetic analysis shows that Mcp7 acts in the downstream of Dmc1, homologs of Escherichia coli RecA protein, for both recombination and subsequent sporulation. Taken together, we conclude that Mcp7 associates with Meu13 and together they play a key role in meiotic recombination. PMID:15210864

  15. Mcp7, a meiosis-specific coiled-coil protein of fission yeast, associates with Meu13 and is required for meiotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Takamune T.; Tougan, Takahiro; Kasama, Takashi; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    We previously showed that Meu13 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe functions in homologous pairing and recombination at meiosis I. Here we show that a meiosis-specific gene encodes a coiled-coil protein that complexes with Meu13 during meiosis in vivo. This gene denoted as mcp7+ (after meiotic coiled-coil protein) is an ortholog of Mnd1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mcp7 proteins are detected on meiotic chromatin. The phenotypes of mcp7Δ cells are similar to those of meu13Δ cells as they show reduced recombination rates and spore viability and produce spores with abnormal morphology. However, a delay in initiation of meiosis I chromosome segregation of mcp7Δ cells is not so conspicuous as meu13Δ cells, and no meiotic delay is observed in mcp7Δmeu13Δ cells. Mcp7 and Meu13 proteins depend on each other differently; Mcp7 becomes more stable in meu13Δ cells, whereas Meu13 becomes less stable in mcp7Δ cells. Genetic analysis shows that Mcp7 acts in the downstream of Dmc1, homologs of Escherichia coli RecA protein, for both recombination and subsequent sporulation. Taken together, we conclude that Mcp7 associates with Meu13 and together they play a key role in meiotic recombination. PMID:15210864

  16. X-ray scattering indicates that the leucine zipper is a coiled coil.

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, R; Benvegnu, D; O'Shea, E K; Kim, P S; Alber, T

    1991-01-01

    Dimerization of the bZIP class of eukaryotic transcriptional control proteins requires a sequence motif called the leucine zipper. We have grown two distinct crystal forms of a 33-amino acid peptide corresponding to the leucine zipper of the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4. This peptide is known to form a dimer of parallel helices in solution. X-ray scattering from both crystal forms shows reflections that are diagnostic of coiled coils. The most notable reflections occur at approximately 5.2 A resolution and correspond to the pitch of helices in coiled coils. There is no diffraction maximum near 5.4 A, the characteristic pitch of straight helices. Our results provide direct evidence that the leucine zipper of GCN4 is a coiled coil. Images PMID:1988953

  17. Structural analysis of intermolecular interactions in the kinesin adaptor complex fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1/ short coiled-coil protein (FEZ1/SCOCO).

    PubMed

    Alborghetti, Marcos Rodrigo; Furlan, Ariane da Silva; da Silva, Júlio César; Sforça, Maurício Luís; Honorato, Rodrigo Vargas; Granato, Daniela Campos; dos Santos Migueleti, Deivid Lucas; Neves, Jorge L; de Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Lopes; Paes-Leme, Adriana Franco; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; de Torriani, Iris Concepcion Linares; Kobarg, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Cytoskeleton and protein trafficking processes, including vesicle transport to synapses, are key processes in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth. The human protein FEZ1 (fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1 / UNC-76, in C. elegans), SCOCO (short coiled-coil protein / UNC-69) and kinesins (e.g. kinesin heavy chain / UNC116) are involved in these processes. Exploiting the feature of FEZ1 protein as a bivalent adapter of transport mediated by kinesins and FEZ1 protein interaction with SCOCO (proteins involved in the same path of axonal growth), we investigated the structural aspects of intermolecular interactions involved in this complex formation by NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) and molecular modelling. The topology of homodimerization was accessed through NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) studies of the region involved in this process, corresponding to FEZ1 (92-194). Through studies involving the protein in its monomeric configuration (reduced) and dimeric state, we propose that homodimerization occurs with FEZ1 chains oriented in an anti-parallel topology. We demonstrate that the interaction interface of FEZ1 and SCOCO defined by MS and computational modelling is in accordance with that previously demonstrated for UNC-76 and UNC-69. SAXS and literature data support a heterotetrameric complex model. These data provide details about the interaction interfaces probably involved in the transport machinery assembly and open perspectives to understand and interfere in this assembly and its involvement in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth.

  18. The Drosophila SUN protein Spag4 cooperates with the coiled-coil protein Yuri Gagarin to maintain association of the basal body and spermatid nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kracklauer, Martin P.; Wiora, Heather M.; Deery, William J.; Chen, Xin; Bolival, Benjamin; Romanowicz, Dwight; Simonette, Rebecca A.; Fuller, Margaret T.; Fischer, Janice A.; Beckingham, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining the proximity of centrosomes to nuclei is important in several cellular contexts, and LINC complexes formed by SUN and KASH proteins are crucial in this process. Here, we characterize the presumed Drosophila ortholog of the mammalian SUN protein, sperm-associated antigen 4 (Spag4, previously named Giacomo), and demonstrate that Spag4 is required for centriole and nuclear attachment during spermatogenesis. Production of spag4 mRNA is limited to the testis, and Spag4 protein shows a dynamic pattern of association with the germline nuclei, including a concentration of protein at the site of attachment of the single spermatid centriole. In the absence of Spag4, nuclei and centrioles or basal bodies (BBs) dissociate from each other after meiosis. This role of Spag4 in centriolar attachment does not involve either of the two KASH proteins of the Drosophila genome (Klarsicht and MSP-300), but does require the coiled-coil protein Yuri Gagarin. Yuri shows an identical pattern of localization at the nuclear surface to Spag4 during spermatogenesis, and epistasis studies show that the activities of Yuri and dynein-dynactin are downstream of spag4 in this centriole attachment pathway. The later defects in spermatogenesis seen for yuri and spag4 mutants are similar, suggesting they could be secondary to initial disruption of events at the nuclear surface. PMID:20647369

  19. The Drosophila SUN protein Spag4 cooperates with the coiled-coil protein Yuri Gagarin to maintain association of the basal body and spermatid nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kracklauer, Martin P; Wiora, Heather M; Deery, William J; Chen, Xin; Bolival, Benjamin; Romanowicz, Dwight; Simonette, Rebecca A; Fuller, Margaret T; Fischer, Janice A; Beckingham, Kathleen M

    2010-08-15

    Maintaining the proximity of centrosomes to nuclei is important in several cellular contexts, and LINC complexes formed by SUN and KASH proteins are crucial in this process. Here, we characterize the presumed Drosophila ortholog of the mammalian SUN protein, sperm-associated antigen 4 (Spag4, previously named Giacomo), and demonstrate that Spag4 is required for centriole and nuclear attachment during spermatogenesis. Production of spag4 mRNA is limited to the testis, and Spag4 protein shows a dynamic pattern of association with the germline nuclei, including a concentration of protein at the site of attachment of the single spermatid centriole. In the absence of Spag4, nuclei and centrioles or basal bodies (BBs) dissociate from each other after meiosis. This role of Spag4 in centriolar attachment does not involve either of the two KASH proteins of the Drosophila genome (Klarsicht and MSP-300), but does require the coiled-coil protein Yuri Gagarin. Yuri shows an identical pattern of localization at the nuclear surface to Spag4 during spermatogenesis, and epistasis studies show that the activities of Yuri and dynein-dynactin are downstream of spag4 in this centriole attachment pathway. The later defects in spermatogenesis seen for yuri and spag4 mutants are similar, suggesting they could be secondary to initial disruption of events at the nuclear surface. PMID:20647369

  20. Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) protein controls microtubule dynamics in a novel signaling pathway that regulates cell migration.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Alice V; Steel, Rohan; Bernard, Ora

    2012-12-21

    The two members of the Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK1 and 2) family are established regulators of actin dynamics that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle as well as cell motility and invasion. Here, we discovered a novel signaling pathway whereby ROCK regulates microtubule (MT) acetylation via phosphorylation of the tubulin polymerization promoting protein 1 (TPPP1/p25). We show that ROCK phosphorylation of TPPP1 inhibits the interaction between TPPP1 and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), which in turn results in increased HDAC6 activity followed by a decrease in MT acetylation. As a consequence, we show that TPPP1 phosphorylation by ROCK increases cell migration and invasion via modulation of cellular acetyl MT levels. We establish here that the ROCK-TPPP1-HDAC6 signaling pathway is important for the regulation of cell migration and invasion.

  1. Novel coiled-coil proteins regulate exocyst association with cortical microtubules in xylem cells via the conserved oligomeric golgi-complex 2 protein.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yoshihisa; Iida, Yuki; Nagashima, Yoshinobu; Sugiyama, Yuki; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2015-02-01

    Xylem vessel cells develop secondary cell walls in distinct patterns. Cortical microtubules are rearranged into distinct patterns and regulate secondary cell wall deposition; however, it is unclear how exocytotic membrane trafficking is linked to cortical microtubules. Here, we show that the novel coiled-coil proteins vesicle tethering 1 (VETH1) and VETH2 recruit EXO70A1, an exocyst subunit essential for correct patterning of secondary cell wall deposition, to cortical microtubules via the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex (COG) 2 protein. VETH1 and VETH2 encode an uncharacterized domain of an unknown function designated DUF869, and were preferentially up-regulated in xylem cells. VETH1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and VETH2-GFP co-localized at novel vesicle-like small compartments, which exhibited microtubule plus-end-directed and end-tracking dynamics. VETH1 and VETH2 interacted with COG2, and this interaction promoted the association between cortical microtubules and EXO70A1 These results suggest that the VETH-COG2 complex ensures the correct secondary cell wall deposition pattern by recruiting exocyst components to cortical microtubules.

  2. High-resolution structures of a heterochiral coiled coil

    PubMed Central

    Mortenson, David E.; Steinkruger, Jay D.; Kreitler, Dale F.; Perroni, Dominic V.; Sorenson, Gregory P.; Huang, Lijun; Mittal, Ritesh; Yun, Hyun Gi; Travis, Benjamin R.; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K.; Forest, Katrina T.; Gellman, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between polypeptide chains containing amino acid residues with opposite absolute configurations have long been a source of interest and speculation, but there is very little structural information for such heterochiral associations. The need to address this lacuna has grown in recent years because of increasing interest in the use of peptides generated from d amino acids (d peptides) as specific ligands for natural proteins, e.g., to inhibit deleterious protein–protein interactions. Coiled–coil interactions, between or among α-helices, represent the most common tertiary and quaternary packing motif in proteins. Heterochiral coiled–coil interactions were predicted over 50 years ago by Crick, and limited experimental data obtained in solution suggest that such interactions can indeed occur. To address the dearth of atomic-level structural characterization of heterochiral helix pairings, we report two independent crystal structures that elucidate coiled-coil packing between l- and d-peptide helices. Both structures resulted from racemic crystallization of a peptide corresponding to the transmembrane segment of the influenza M2 protein. Networks of canonical knobs-into-holes side-chain packing interactions are observed at each helical interface. However, the underlying patterns for these heterochiral coiled coils seem to deviate from the heptad sequence repeat that is characteristic of most homochiral analogs, with an apparent preference for a hendecad repeat pattern. PMID:26460035

  3. The evolution and structure prediction of coiled coils across all genomes.

    PubMed

    Rackham, Owen J L; Madera, Martin; Armstrong, Craig T; Vincent, Thomas L; Woolfson, Derek N; Gough, Julian

    2010-10-29

    Coiled coils are α-helical interactions found in many natural proteins. Various sequence-based coiled-coil predictors are available, but key issues remain: oligomeric state and protein-protein interface prediction and extension to all genomes. We present SpiriCoil (http://supfam.org/SUPERFAMILY/spiricoil), which is based on a novel approach to the coiled-coil prediction problem for coiled coils that fall into known superfamilies: hundreds of hidden Markov models representing coiled-coil-containing domain families. Using whole domains gives the advantage that sequences flanking the coiled coils help. SpiriCoil performs at least as well as existing methods at detecting coiled coils and significantly advances the state of the art for oligomer state prediction. SpiriCoil has been run on over 16 million sequences, including all completely sequenced genomes (more than 1200), and a resulting Web interface supplies data downloads, alignments, scores, oligomeric state classifications, three-dimensional homology models and visualisation. This has allowed, for the first time, a genomewide analysis of coiled-coil evolution. We found that coiled coils have arisen independently de novo well over a hundred times, and these are observed in 16 different oligomeric states. Coiled coils in almost all oligomeric states were present in the last universal common ancestor of life. The vast majority of occasions that individual coiled coils have arisen de novo were before the last universal common ancestor of life; we do, however, observe scattered instances throughout subsequent evolutionary history, mostly in the formation of the eukaryote superkingdom. Coiled coils do not change their oligomeric state over evolution and did not evolve from the rearrangement of existing helices in proteins; coiled coils were forged in unison with the fold of the whole protein.

  4. Antiparallel Four-Stranded Coiled Coil Specified by a 3-3-1 Hyrdrophobic Heptad Repeat

    SciTech Connect

    Deng,Y.; Liu, J.; Zheng, Q.; Eliezer, D.; Kallenbach, N.; Lu, M.

    2006-01-01

    Coiled-coil sequences in proteins commonly share a seven-amino acid repeat with nonpolar side chains at the first (a) and fourth (d) positions. We investigate here the role of a 3-3-1 hydrophobic repeat containing nonpolar amino acids at the a, d, and g positions in determining the structures of coiled coils using mutants of the GCN4 leucine zipper dimerization domain. When three charged residues at the g positions in the parental sequence are replaced by nonpolar alanine or valine side chains, stable four-helix structures result. The X-ray crystal structures of the tetramers reveal antiparallel, four-stranded coiled coils in which the a, d, and g side chains interlock in a combination of knobs-into-knobs and knobs-into-holes packing. Interfacial interactions in a coiled coil can therefore be prescribed by hydrophobic-polar patterns beyond the canonical 3-4 heptad repeat. The results suggest that the conserved, charged residues at the g positions in the GCN4 leucine zipper can impart a negative design element to disfavor thermodynamically more stable, antiparallel tetramers.

  5. Stability of 100 homo and heterotypic coiled-coil a-a' pairs for ten amino acids (A, L, I, V, N, K, S, T, E, and R).

    PubMed

    Acharya, Asha; Rishi, Vikas; Vinson, Charles

    2006-09-26

    We present the thermal stability monitored by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy at 222 nm of 100 heterodimers that contain all possible coiled-coil a-a' pairs for 10 amino acids (I, V, L, N, A, K S, T, E, and R). This includes the stability of 36 heterodimers for 6 amino acids (I, V, L, N, A, and K) previously described and 64 new heterodimers including the 4 amino acids (S, T, E, and R). We have calculated a double mutant alanine thermodynamic cycle to determine a-a' pair coupling energies to evaluate which a-a' pairs encourage specific dimerization partners. The four new homotypic a-a' pairs (T-T, S-S, R-R, E-E) are repulsive relative to A-A and have destabilizing coupling energies. Among the 90 heterotypic a-a' pairs, the stabilizing coupling energies contain lysine or arginine paired with either an aliphatic or a polar amino acid. The range in coupling energies for each amino acid reveals its potential to regulate dimerization specificity. The a-a' pairs containing isoleucine and asparagine have the greatest range in coupling energies and thus contribute dramatically to dimerization specificity, which is to encourage homodimerization. In contrast, the a-a' pairs containing charged amino acids (K, R, and E) show the least range in coupling energies and promiscuously encourage heterodimerization.

  6. The Chloroplastic Protein THF1 Interacts with the Coiled-Coil Domain of the Disease Resistance Protein N′ and Regulates Light-Dependent Cell Death1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Ken-Taro; Wallon, Thérèse; Sugiwaka, Yuji; Kobayashi, Kappei

    2016-01-01

    One branch of plant immunity is mediated through nucleotide-binding/Leu-rich repeat (NB-LRR) family proteins that recognize specific effectors encoded by pathogens. Members of the I2-like family constitute a well-conserved subgroup of NB-LRRs from Solanaceae possessing a coiled-coil (CC) domain at their N termini. We show here that the CC domains of several I2-like proteins are able to induce a hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death associated with disease resistance. Using yeast two-hybrid screens, we identified the chloroplastic protein Thylakoid Formation1 (THF1) as an interacting partner for several I2-like CC domains. Co-immunoprecipitations and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed that THF1 and I2-like CC domains interact in planta and that these interactions take place in the cytosol. Several HR-inducing I2-like CC domains have a negative effect on the accumulation of THF1, suggesting that the latter is destabilized by active CC domains. To confirm this model, we investigated N′, which recognizes the coat protein of most Tobamoviruses, as a prototypical member of the I2-like family. Transient expression and gene silencing data indicated that THF1 functions as a negative regulator of cell death and that activation of full-length N′ results in the destabilization of THF1. Consistent with the known function of THF1 in maintaining chloroplast homeostasis, we show that the HR induced by N′ is light-dependent. Together, our results define, to our knowledge, novel molecular mechanisms linking light and chloroplasts to the induction of cell death by a subgroup of NB-LRR proteins. PMID:26951433

  7. Modulation of elasticity in functionally distinct domains of the tropomyosin coiled-coil

    PubMed Central

    Lakkaraju, Sirish Kaushik; Hwang, Wonmuk

    2009-01-01

    Alpha-helical coiled-coils are common protein structural motifs. Whereas vast information is available regarding their structure, folding, and stability, far less is known about their elastic properties, even though they play mechanical roles in many cases such as tropomyosin in muscle contraction or neck stalks of kinesin or myosin motor proteins. Using computer simulations, we characterized elastic properties of coiled-coils, either globally or locally. Global bending stiffness of standard leucine zipper coiled-coils was calculated using normal mode analysis. Mutations in hydrophobic residues involved in the knob-into-hole interface between the two α-helices affect elasticity significantly, whereas charged side chains forming inter-helical salt bridges do not. This suggests that coiled-coils with less regular heptad periodicity may have regional variations in flexibility. We show this by the flexibility map of tropomyosin, which was constructed by a local fluctuation analysis. Overall, flexibility varies by more than twofold and increases towards the C-terminal region of the molecule. Describing the coiled-coil as a twisted tape, it is generally more flexible in the splay bending than in the bending of the broad face. Actin binding sites in α zones show local rigidity minima. Broken core regions due to acidic residues at the hydrophobic face such as the Asp137 and the Glu218 are found to be the most labile with moduli for splay and broad face bending as 70 nm and 116 nm respectively. Such variation in flexibility could be relevant to the tropomyosin function, especially for moving across the non-uniform surface of F-actin to regulate myosin binding. PMID:19830262

  8. An Evolutionarily Conserved Coiled-Coil Protein Implicated in Polycystic Kidney Disease Is Involved in Basal Body Duplication and Flagellar Biogenesis in Trypanosoma brucei†

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Gareth W.; Denny, Paul W.; Vaughan, Sue; Goulding, David; Jeffries, Tim R.; Smith, Deborah F.; Gull, Keith; Field, Mark C.

    2005-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is a flagellated protozoan with a highly polarized cellular structure. TbLRTP is a trypanosomal protein containing multiple SDS22-class leucine-rich repeats and a coiled-coil domain with high similarity to a mammalian testis-specific protein of unknown function. Homologues are present in a wide range of higher eukaryotes including zebra fish, where the gene product has been implicated in polycystic kidney disease. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence with antibodies against recombinant TbLRTP indicate that the protein is expressed throughout the trypanosome life cycle and localizes to distal zones of the basal bodies. Overexpression and RNA interference demonstrate that TbLRTP is important for faithful basal body duplication and flagellum biogenesis. Expression of excess TbLRTP suppresses new flagellum assembly, while reduction of TbLRTP protein levels often results in the biogenesis of additional flagellar axonemes and paraflagellar rods that, most remarkably, are intracellular and fully contained within the cytoplasm. The mutant flagella are devoid of membrane and are often associated with four microtubules in an arrangement similar to that observed in the normal flagellar attachment zone. Aberrant basal body and flagellar biogenesis in TbLRTP mutants also influences cell size and cytokinesis. These findings demonstrate that TbLRTP suppresses basal body replication and subsequent flagellar biogenesis and indicate a critical role for the LRTP family of proteins in the control of the cell cycle. These data further underscore the role of aberrant flagellar biogenesis as a disease mechanism. PMID:15831481

  9. Hydrogen-Rich Medium Attenuated Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Monocyte-Endothelial Cell Adhesion and Vascular Endothelial Permeability via Rho-Associated Coiled-Coil Protein Kinase.

    PubMed

    Xie, Keliang; Wang, Weina; Chen, Hongguang; Han, Huanzhi; Liu, Daquan; Wang, Guolin; Yu, Yonghao

    2015-07-01

    Sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. In recent years, molecular hydrogen, as an effective free radical scavenger, has been shown a selective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect, and it is beneficial in the treatment of sepsis. Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinase (ROCK) participates in junction between normal cells, and regulates vascular endothelial permeability. In this study, we used lipopolysaccharide to stimulate vascular endothelial cells and explored the effects of hydrogen-rich medium on the regulation of adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells and vascular endothelial permeability. We found that hydrogen-rich medium could inhibit adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells and decrease levels of adhesion molecules, whereas the levels of transepithelial/endothelial electrical resistance values and the expression of vascular endothelial cadherin were increased after hydrogen-rich medium treatment. Moreover, hydrogen-rich medium could lessen the expression of ROCK, as a similar effect of its inhibitor Y-27632. In addition, hydrogen-rich medium could also inhibit adhesion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils to endothelial cells. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich medium could regulate adhesion of monocytes/polymorphonuclear neutrophils to endothelial cells and vascular endothelial permeability, and this effect might be related to the decreased expression of ROCK protein.

  10. The coiled-coil domain containing protein Ccdc136b antagonizes maternal Wnt/β-catenin activity during zebrafish dorsoventral axial patterning.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shi; Shang, Hanqiao; Cao, Yu; Wang, Qiang

    2016-07-20

    The coiled-coil domain containing protein CCDC136 is a putative tumor suppressor and significantly down-regulated in gastric and colorectal cancer tissues. However, little is known about its biological functions during vertebrate embryo development. Zebrafish has two CCDC136 orthologs, ccdc136a and ccdc136b, but only ccdc136b is highly expressed during early embryonic development. In this study, we demonstrate that ccdc136b is required for dorsal-ventral axial patterning in zebrafish embryos. ccdc136b morphants display strongly dorsalized phenotypes. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments in zebrafish embryos and mammalian cells show that Ccdc136b is a crucial negative regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and plays a critical role in the establishment of the dorsal-ventral axis. We further find that Ccdc136b interacts with APC, promotes the binding affinity of APC with β-catenin and then facilitates the turnover of β-catenin. These results provide the first evidence that CCDC136 regulates zebrafish dorsal-ventral patterning by antagonizing Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction and suggest a potential mechanism underlying its suppressive activity in carcinogenesis.

  11. Head-to-tail interactions of the coiled-coil domains regulate ClpB activity and cooperation with Hsp70 in protein disaggregation

    PubMed Central

    Carroni, Marta; Kummer, Eva; Oguchi, Yuki; Wendler, Petra; Clare, Daniel K; Sinning, Irmgard; Kopp, Jürgen; Mogk, Axel; Bukau, Bernd; Saibil, Helen R

    2014-01-01

    The hexameric AAA+ chaperone ClpB reactivates aggregated proteins in cooperation with the Hsp70 system. Essential for disaggregation, the ClpB middle domain (MD) is a coiled-coil propeller that binds Hsp70. Although the ClpB subunit structure is known, positioning of the MD in the hexamer and its mechanism of action are unclear. We obtained electron microscopy (EM) structures of the BAP variant of ClpB that binds the protease ClpP, clearly revealing MD density on the surface of the ClpB ring. Mutant analysis and asymmetric reconstructions show that MDs adopt diverse positions in a single ClpB hexamer. Adjacent, horizontally oriented MDs form head-to-tail contacts and repress ClpB activity by preventing Hsp70 interaction. Tilting of the MD breaks this contact, allowing Hsp70 binding, and releasing the contact in adjacent subunits. Our data suggest a wavelike activation of ClpB subunits around the ring. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02481.001 PMID:24843029

  12. Molecular dynamics guided study of salt bridge length dependence in both fluorinated and non-fluorinated parallel dimeric coiled-coils

    PubMed Central

    Pendley, Scott S.; Yu, Yihua B.; Cheatham, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The α-helical coiled-coil is one of the most common oligomerization motifs found in both native and engineered proteins. To better understand the stability and dynamics of coiled-coil motifs, including those modified by fluorination, several fluorinated and non-fluorinated parallel dimeric coiled-coil protein structures were designed and modeled. We also attempt to investigate how changing the length and geometry of the important stabilizing salt bridges influences the coiled-coil protein structure. Molecular dynamics (MD) and free energy simulations with AMBER employed a particle mesh Ewald treatment of the electrostatics in explicit TIP3P solvent with balanced force field treatments. Preliminary studies with legacy force fields (ff94, ff96, ff99) show a profound instability of the coiled-coil structures in short MD simulation. Significantly better behavior is evident with the more balanced ff99SB and ff03 protein force fields. Overall, the results suggest that the coiled-coil structures can readily accommodate the larger acidic arginine or S-2,7-diaminoheptanedoic acid mutants in the salt bridge, whereas substitution of the smaller L-ornithine residue leads to rapid disruption of the coiled-coil structure on the MD simulation time scale. This structural distortion of the secondary structure allows both the formation of large hydration pockets proximal to the charged groups and within the hydrophobic core. Moreover, the increased structural fluctuations and movement lead to a decrease in the water occupancy lifetimes in the hydration pockets. In contrast, analysis of the hydration in the stable dimeric coiled coils shows high occupancy water sites along the backbone residues with no water occupancy in the hydrophobic core, although transitory water interactions with the salt bridge residues are evident. The simulations of the fluorinated coiled-coils suggest that in some cases fluorination electrostatically stabilizes the intermolecular coiled-coil salt bridges

  13. Mcp6, a meiosis-specific coiled-coil protein of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, localizes to the spindle pole body and is required for horsetail movement and recombination.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takamune T; Tougan, Takahiro; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Kasama, Takashi; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2005-01-15

    We report here that a meiosis-specific gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe denoted mcp6+ (meiotic coiled-coil protein) encodes a protein that is required for the horsetail movement of chromosomes at meiosis I. The mcp6+ gene is specifically transcribed during the horsetail phase. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Mcp6 appears at the start of karyogamy, localizes to the spindle-pole body (SPB) and then disappears before chromosome segregation at meiosis I. In the mcp6Delta strain, the horsetail movement was either hampered (zygotic meiosis) or abolished (azygotic meiosis) and the pairing of homologous chromosomes was impaired. Accordingly, the allelic recombination rates of the mcp6Delta strain were only 10-40% of the wild-type rates. By contrast, the ectopic recombination rate of the mcp6Delta strain was twice the wild-type rate. This is probably caused by abnormal homologous pairing in mcp6Delta cells because of aberrant horsetail movement. Fluorescent microscopy indicates that SPB components such as Sad1, Kms1 and Spo15 localize normally in mcp6Delta cells. Because Taz1 and Swi6 also localized with Sad1 in mcp6Delta cells, Mcp6 is not required for telomere clustering. In a taz1Delta strain, which does not display telomere clustering, and the dhc1-d3 mutant, which lacks horsetail movement, Mcp6 localized with Sad1 normally. However, we observed abnormal astral microtubule organization in mcp6Delta cells. From these results, we conclude that Mcp6 is necessary for neither SPB organization nor telomere clustering, but is required for proper astral microtubule positioning to maintain horsetail movement. PMID:15654021

  14. Novel nuclear targeting coiled-coil protein of Helicobacter pylori showing Ca(2+)-independent, Mg(2+)-dependent DNase I activity.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young Chul; Kim, Sinil; Lee, Yong Seok; Lee, Je Chul; Cho, Myung-Je; Lee, Woo-Kon; Kang, Hyung-Lyun; Song, Jae-Young; Baik, Seung Chul; Ro, Hyeon Su

    2016-05-01

    HP0059, an uncharacterized gene of Helicobacter pylori, encodes a 284-aa-long protein containing a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and multiple leucine-rich heptad repeats. Effects of HP0059 proteins in human stomach cells were assessed by incubation of recombinant HP0059 proteins with the AGS human gastric carcinoma cell line. Wild-type HP0059 proteins showed cytotoxicity in AGS cells in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas NLS mutant protein showed no effect, suggesting that the cytotoxicity is attributed to host nuclear localization. AGS cells transfected with pEGFP-HP0059 plasmid showed strong GFP signal merged to the chromosomal DNA region. The chromosome was fragmented into multiple distinct dots merged with the GFP signal after 12 h of incubation. The chromosome fragmentation was further explored by incubation of AGS chromosomal DNA with recombinant HP0059 proteins, which leaded to complete degradation of the chromosomal DNA. HP0059 protein also degraded circular plasmid DNA without consensus, being an indication of DNase I activity. The DNase was activated by MgCl2, but not by CaCl2. The activity was completely blocked by EDTA. The optimal pH and temperature for DNase activity were 7.0-8.0 and 55°C, respectively. These results indicate that HP0059 possesses a novel DNase I activity along with a role in the genomic instability of human gastric cells, which may result in the transformation of gastric cells. PMID:27095458

  15. Addition of magnesium chloride to enhance mono-dispersity of a coiled-coil recombinant mouse macrophage protein.

    PubMed

    Pahuja, Parveen; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Puri, Munish

    2014-04-01

    X-ray crystallography for the determination of three-dimensional structures of protein macromolecules represents an important tool in function assignment of uncharacterized proteins. However, crystallisation is often difficult to achieve. A protein sample fully characterized in terms of dispersity may increase the likelihood of successful crystallisation by improving the predictability of the crystallisation process. To maximize the probability of crystallisation of a novel mouse macrophage protein (rMMP), target molecule was characterized and refined to improve monodispersity. Addition of MgCl2 at low concentrations resolves the rMMP into a monodisperse solution, and finally successful crystallization of rMMP was achieved. The effect of MgCl2 was studied using gel filtration chromatography and dynamic light scattering.

  16. The coiled-coil domain containing protein CCDC151 is required for the function of IFT-dependent motile cilia in animals.

    PubMed

    Jerber, Julie; Baas, Dominique; Soulavie, Fabien; Chhin, Brigitte; Cortier, Elisabeth; Vesque, Christine; Thomas, Joëlle; Durand, Bénédicte

    2014-02-01

    Cilia are evolutionarily conserved organelles endowed with essential physiological and developmental functions. In humans, disruption of cilia motility or signaling leads to complex pleiotropic genetic disorders called ciliopathies. Cilia motility requires the assembly of multi-subunit motile components such as dynein arms, but mechanisms underlying their assembly pathway and transport into the axoneme are still largely unknown. We identified a previously uncharacterized coiled-coil domain containing protein CCDC151, which is evolutionarily conserved in motile ciliated species and shares ancient features with the outer dynein arm-docking complex 2 of Chlamydomonas. In Drosophila, we show that CG14127/CCDC151 is associated with motile intraflagellar transport (IFT)-dependent cilia and required for geotaxis behavior of adult flies. In zebrafish, Ccdc151 is expressed in tissues with motile cilia, and morpholino-induced depletion of Ccdc151 leads to left-right asymmetry defects and kidney cysts. We demonstrate that Ccdc151 is required for proper motile function of cilia in the Kupffer's vesicle and in the pronephros by controlling dynein arm assembly, showing that Ccdc151 is a novel player in the control of IFT-dependent dynein arm assembly in animals. However, we observed that CCDC151 is also implicated in other cellular functions in vertebrates. In zebrafish, ccdc151 is involved in proper orientation of cell divisions in the pronephros and genetically interacts with prickle1 in this process. Furthermore, knockdown experiments in mammalian cells demonstrate that CCDC151 is implicated in the regulation of primary cilium length. Hence, CCDC151 is required for motile cilia function in animals but has acquired additional non-motile functions in vertebrates.

  17. From coiled coils to small globular proteins: design of a native-like three-helix bundle.

    PubMed Central

    Bryson, J. W.; Desjarlais, J. R.; Handel, T. M.; DeGrado, W. F.

    1998-01-01

    A monomolecular native-like three-helix bundle has been designed in an iterative process, beginning with a peptide that noncooperatively assembled into an antiparallel three-helix bundle. Three versions of the protein were designed in which specific interactions were incrementally added. The hydrodynamic and spectroscopic properties of the proteins were examined by size exclusion chromatography, sedimentation equilibrium, fluorescence spectroscopy, and NMR. The thermodynamics of folding were evaluated by monitoring the thermal and guanidine-induced unfolding transitions using far UV circular dichroism spectroscopy. The attainment of a unique, native-like state was achieved through the introduction of: (1) helix capping interactions; (2) electrostatic interactions between partially exposed charged residues; (3) a diverse collection of apolar side chains within the hydrophobic core. PMID:9655345

  18. A single missense mutation in a coiled-coil domain of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S2 confers a thermosensitive phenotype that can be suppressed by ribosomal protein S1.

    PubMed

    Aseev, Leonid V; Chugunov, Anton O; Efremov, Roman G; Boni, Irina V

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S2 is an essential component of translation machinery, and its viable mutated variants conferring distinct phenotypes serve as a valuable tool in studying the role of S2 in translation regulation. One of a few available rpsB mutants, rpsB1, shows thermosensitivity and ensures enhanced expression of leaderless mRNAs. In this study, we identified the nature of the rpsB1 mutation. Sequencing of the rpsB1 allele revealed a G-to-A transition in the part of the rpsB gene which encodes a coiled-coil domain of S2. The resulting E132K substitution resides in a highly conserved site, TKKE, a so-called N-terminal capping box, at the beginning of the second alpha helix. The protruding coiled-coil domain of S2 is known to provide binding with 16S rRNA in the head of the 30S subunit and, in addition, to interact with a key mRNA binding protein, S1. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed a detrimental impact of the E132K mutation on the coiled-coil structure and thereby on the interactions between S2 and 16S rRNA, providing a clue for the thermosensitivity of the rpsB1 mutant. Using a strain producing a leaderless lacZ transcript from the chromosomal lac promoter, we demonstrated that not only the rpsB1 mutation generating S2/S1-deficient ribosomes but also the rpsA::IS10 mutation leading to partial deficiency in S1 alone increased translation efficiency of the leaderless mRNA by about 10-fold. Moderate overexpression of S1 relieved all these effects and, moreover, suppressed the thermosensitive phenotype of rpsB1, indicating the role of S1 as an extragenic suppressor of the E132K mutation.

  19. NUP-1 Is a Large Coiled-Coil Nucleoskeletal Protein in Trypanosomes with Lamin-Like Functions

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, Kelly N.; Alsford, Sam; Holden, Jennifer M.; Buisson, Johanna; Swiderski, Michal; Bart, Jean-Mathieu; Ratushny, Alexander V.; Wan, Yakun; Bastin, Philippe; Barry, J. David; Navarro, Miguel; Horn, David; Aitchison, John D.; Rout, Michael P.; Field, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    A unifying feature of eukaryotic nuclear organization is genome segregation into transcriptionally active euchromatin and transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin. In metazoa, lamin proteins preserve nuclear integrity and higher order heterochromatin organization at the nuclear periphery, but no non-metazoan lamin orthologues have been identified, despite the likely presence of nucleoskeletal elements in many lineages. This suggests a metazoan-specific origin for lamins, and therefore that distinct protein elements must compose the nucleoskeleton in other lineages. The trypanosomatids are highly divergent organisms and possess well-documented but remarkably distinct mechanisms for control of gene expression, including polycistronic transcription and trans-splicing. NUP-1 is a large protein localizing to the nuclear periphery of Trypanosoma brucei and a candidate nucleoskeletal component. We sought to determine if NUP-1 mediates heterochromatin organization and gene regulation at the nuclear periphery by examining the influence of NUP-1 knockdown on morphology, chromatin positioning, and transcription. We demonstrate that NUP-1 is essential and part of a stable network at the inner face of the trypanosome nuclear envelope, since knockdown cells have abnormally shaped nuclei with compromised structural integrity. NUP-1 knockdown also disrupts organization of nuclear pore complexes and chromosomes. Most significantly, we find that NUP-1 is required to maintain the silenced state of developmentally regulated genes at the nuclear periphery; NUP-1 knockdown results in highly specific mis-regulation of telomere-proximal silenced variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) expression sites and procyclin loci, indicating a disruption to normal chromatin organization essential to life-cycle progression. Further, NUP-1 depletion leads to increased VSG switching and therefore appears to have a role in control of antigenic variation. Thus, analogous to vertebrate lamins, NUP-1 is a

  20. Coiled coils ensure the physiological ectodomain shedding of collagen XVII.

    PubMed

    Nishie, Wataru; Jackow, Joanna; Hofmann, Silke C; Franzke, Claus-Werner; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2012-08-24

    α-Helical coiled coils, frequent protein oligomerization motifs, are commonly observed in vital proteins. Here, using collagen XVII as an example, we provide evidence for a novel function of coiled coils in the regulation of ectodomain shedding. Transmembrane collagen XVII, an epithelial cell surface receptor, mediates dermal-epidermal adhesion in the skin, and its dysfunction is linked to human skin blistering diseases. The ectodomain of this collagen is constitutively shed from the cell surface by proteinases of a disintegrin and metalloprotease family; however, the mechanisms regulating shedding remain elusive. Here, we used site-specific mutagenesis to target the coiled-coil heptad repeats within the juxtamembranous, extracellular noncollagenous 16th A (NC16A) domain of collagen XVII. This resulted in a substantial increase of ectodomain shedding, which was not mediated by disintegrin and metalloproteases. Instead, conformational changes induced by the mutation(s) unmasked a furin recognition sequence that was used for cleavage. This study shows that apart from their functions in protein oligomerization, coiled coils can also act as regulators of ectodomain shedding depending on the biological context.

  1. De novo design of a non-natural fold for an iron-sulfur protein: alpha-helical coiled-coil with a four-iron four-sulfur cluster binding site in its central core.

    PubMed

    Grzyb, Joanna; Xu, Fei; Weiner, Lev; Reijerse, Eduard J; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Nanda, Vikas; Noy, Dror

    2010-03-01

    Using a 'metal-first' approach, we computationally designed, prepared, and characterized a four-iron four-sulfur (Fe(4)S(4)) cluster protein with a non-natural alpha-helical coiled-coil fold. The novelty of this fold lies in the placement of a Fe(4)S(4) cluster within the hydrophobic core of a four-helix bundle, making it unique among previous iron-sulfur (FeS) protein designs, and different from known natural FeS proteins. The apoprotein, recombinantly expressed and purified from E. coli, readily self-assembles with Fe(4)S(4) clusters in vitro. UV-Vis absorption and CD spectroscopy, elemental analysis, gel filtration, and analytical ultracentrifugation confirm that the protein is folded and assembled as designed, namely, alpha-helical coiled-coil binding a single Fe(4)S(4) cluster. Dithionite-reduced holoprotein samples have characteristic rhombic EPR spectra, typical of low-potential, [Fe(4)S(4)](+) (S=1/2), with g values of g(zy)=(1.970, 1.975), and g(x)=2.053. The temperature, and power dependence of the signal intensity were also characteristic of [Fe(4)S(4)](+) clusters with very efficient spin relaxation, but almost without any interaction between adjacent clusters. The new design is very promising although optimization is required, particularly for preventing aggregation, and adding second shell interactions to stabilize the reduced state. Its main advantage is its extendibility into a multi-FeS cluster protein by simply duplicating and translating the binding site along the coiled-coil axis. This opens new possibilities for designing protein-embedded redox chains that may be used as "wires" for coupling any given set of redox enzymes. PMID:20035711

  2. Hierarchical Cascades of Instability Govern the Mechanics of Coiled Coils: Helix Unfolding Precedes Coil Unzipping

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, Elham; Keten, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Coiled coils are a fundamental emergent motif in proteins found in structural biomaterials, consisting of α-helical secondary structures wrapped in a supercoil. A fundamental question regarding the thermal and mechanical stability of coiled coils in extreme environments is the sequence of events leading to the disassembly of individual oligomers from the universal coiled-coil motifs. To shed light on this phenomenon, here we report atomistic simulations of a trimeric coiled coil in an explicit water solvent and investigate the mechanisms underlying helix unfolding and coil unzipping in the assembly. We employ advanced sampling techniques involving steered molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations to obtain the free-energy landscapes of single-strand unfolding and unzipping in a three-stranded assembly. Our comparative analysis of the free-energy landscapes of instability pathways shows that coil unzipping is a sequential process involving multiple intermediates. At each intermediate state, one heptad repeat of the coiled coil first unfolds and then unzips due to the loss of contacts with the hydrophobic core. This observation suggests that helix unfolding facilitates the initiation of coiled-coil disassembly, which is confirmed by our 2D metadynamics simulations showing that unzipping of one strand requires less energy in the unfolded state compared with the folded state. Our results explain recent experimental findings and lay the groundwork for studying the hierarchical molecular mechanisms that underpin the thermomechanical stability/instability of coiled coils and similar protein assemblies. PMID:25028889

  3. The d'--d--d' vertical triad is less discriminating than the a'--a--a' vertical triad in the antiparallel coiled-coil dimer motif.

    PubMed

    Steinkruger, Jay D; Bartlett, Gail J; Hadley, Erik B; Fay, Lindsay; Woolfson, Derek N; Gellman, Samuel H

    2012-02-01

    Elucidating relationships between the amino-acid sequences of proteins and their three-dimensional structures, and uncovering non-covalent interactions that underlie polypeptide folding, are major goals in protein science. One approach toward these goals is to study interactions between selected residues, or among constellations of residues, in small folding motifs. The α-helical coiled coil has served as a platform for such studies because this folding unit is relatively simple in terms of both sequence and structure. Amino acid side chains at the helix-helix interface of a coiled coil participate in so-called "knobs-into-holes" (KIH) packing whereby a side chain (the knob) on one helix inserts into a space (the hole) generated by four side chains on a partner helix. The vast majority of sequence-stability studies on coiled-coil dimers have focused on lateral interactions within these KIH arrangements, for example, between an a position on one helix and an a' position of the partner in a parallel coiled-coil dimer, or between a--d' pairs in an antiparallel dimer. More recently, it has been shown that vertical triads (specifically, a'--a--a' triads) in antiparallel dimers exert a significant impact on pairing preferences. This observation provides impetus for analysis of other complex networks of side-chain interactions at the helix-helix interface. Here, we describe a combination of experimental and bioinformatics studies that show that d'--d--d' triads have much less impact on pairing preference than do a'--a--a' triads in a small, designed antiparallel coiled-coil dimer. However, the influence of the d'--d--d' triad depends on the lateral a'--d interaction. Taken together, these results strengthen the emerging understanding that simple pairwise interactions are not sufficient to describe side-chain interactions and overall stability in antiparallel coiled-coil dimers; higher-order interactions must be considered as well.

  4. L1 retrotransposition requires rapid ORF1p oligomerization, a novel coiled coil-dependent property conserved despite extensive remodeling.

    PubMed

    Naufer, M Nabuan; Callahan, Kathryn E; Cook, Pamela R; Perez-Gonzalez, Cesar E; Williams, Mark C; Furano, Anthony V

    2016-01-01

    Detailed mechanistic understanding of L1 retrotransposition is sparse, particularly with respect to ORF1p, a coiled coil-mediated homotrimeric nucleic acid chaperone that can form tightly packed oligomers on nucleic acids. Although the coiled coil motif is highly conserved, it is uniquely susceptible to evolutionary change. Here we studied three ORF1 proteins: a modern human one (111p), its resuscitated primate ancestor (555p) and a mosaic modern protein (151p) wherein 9 of the 30 coiled coil substitutions retain their ancestral state. While 111p and 555p equally supported retrotransposition, 151p was inactive. Nonetheless, they were fully active in bulk assays of nucleic acid interactions including chaperone activity. However, single molecule assays showed that 151p trimers form stably bound oligomers on ssDNA at <1/10th the rate of the active proteins, revealing that oligomerization rate is a novel critical parameter of ORF1p activity in retrotransposition conserved for at least the last 25 Myr of primate evolution. PMID:26673717

  5. L1 retrotransposition requires rapid ORF1p oligomerization, a novel coiled coil-dependent property conserved despite extensive remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Naufer, M. Nabuan; Callahan, Kathryn E.; Cook, Pamela R.; Perez-Gonzalez, Cesar E.; Williams, Mark C.; Furano, Anthony V.

    2016-01-01

    Detailed mechanistic understanding of L1 retrotransposition is sparse, particularly with respect to ORF1p, a coiled coil-mediated homotrimeric nucleic acid chaperone that can form tightly packed oligomers on nucleic acids. Although the coiled coil motif is highly conserved, it is uniquely susceptible to evolutionary change. Here we studied three ORF1 proteins: a modern human one (111p), its resuscitated primate ancestor (555p) and a mosaic modern protein (151p) wherein 9 of the 30 coiled coil substitutions retain their ancestral state. While 111p and 555p equally supported retrotransposition, 151p was inactive. Nonetheless, they were fully active in bulk assays of nucleic acid interactions including chaperone activity. However, single molecule assays showed that 151p trimers form stably bound oligomers on ssDNA at <1/10th the rate of the active proteins, revealing that oligomerization rate is a novel critical parameter of ORF1p activity in retrotransposition conserved for at least the last 25 Myr of primate evolution. PMID:26673717

  6. A Non-perturbing Probe of Coiled Coil Formation Based on Electron Transfer Mediated Fluorescence Quenching.

    PubMed

    Watson, Matthew D; Peran, Ivan; Raleigh, Daniel P

    2016-07-01

    Coiled coils are abundant in nature, occurring in ∼3% of proteins across sequenced genomes, and are found in proteins ranging from transcription factors to structural proteins. The motif continues to be an important model system for understanding protein-protein interactions and is finding increased use in bioinspired materials and synthetic biology. Knowledge of the thermodynamics of self-assembly, particularly the dissociation constant KD, is essential for the application of designed coiled coils and for understanding the in vivo specificity of natural coiled coils. Standard methods for measuring KD typically rely on concentration dependent circular dichroism (CD). Fluorescence methods are an attractive alternative; however Trp is rarely found in an interior position of a coiled coil, and appending unnatural fluorophores can perturb the system. We demonstrate a simple, non-perturbing method to monitor coiled coil formation using p-cyanophenylalanine (FCN) and selenomethionine (MSe), the Se analogue of Met. FCN fluorescence can be selectively excited and is effectively quenched by electron transfer with MSe. Both FCN and MSe represent minimally perturbing substitutions in coiled coils. MSe quenching of FCN fluorescence is shown to offer a non-perturbing method for following coiled coil formation and for accurately determining dissociation constants. The method is validated using a designed heterodimeric coiled coil. The KD deduced by fluorescence monitored titration is in excellent agreement with the value deduced from concentration dependent CD measurements to within the uncertainty of the measurement. However, the fluorescence approach requires less protein, is less time-consuming, can be applied to lower concentrations and could be applied to high throughput screens. PMID:27258904

  7. Natural templates for coiled-coil biomaterials from praying mantis egg cases.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andrew A; Weisman, Sarah; Kameda, Tsunenori; Sutherland, Tara D

    2012-12-10

    Whereas there is growing interest in producing biomaterials containing coiled-coils, relatively few studies have made use of naturally occurring fibrous proteins. In this study, we have characterized fibrous proteins used by mother praying mantises to produce an extensive covering for their eggs called an ootheca and demonstrate the production of artificial ootheca using recombinantly produced proteins. Examination of natural oothecae by infrared spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance revealed the material to consist of proteins organized predominately as coiled-coils. Two structural proteins, Mantis Fibroin 1 and Mantis Fibroin 2, were identified in ootheca from each of three species. Between species, the primary sequences of both proteins had diverged considerably, but other features were tightly conserved, including low molecular weight, high abundance of Ala, Glu, Lys, and Ser, and a triblock-like architecture with extensive central coiled-coil domain. Mantis fibroin hydrophobic cores had an unusual composition containing high levels of alanine and aromatic residues. Recombinantly produced mantis fibroins folded into coiled-coils in solution and could be fabricated into solid materials with high coiled-coil content. The structural features of mantis fibroins and their straightforward recombinant production make them promising templates for the production of coiled-coil biomimetics materials. PMID:23137042

  8. Infrared amide I' band of the coiled coil.

    PubMed

    Reisdorf, W C; Krimm, S

    1996-02-01

    The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of several coiled-coil proteins have been shown to possess unusual features in the amide I' region. Band maxima occur in the vicinity of 1630 cm-1, with component bands at higher frequency. This is well below the observed band at 1650 cm-1 found in standard alpha-helical polypeptides such as poly-L-alanine. Normal mode calculations on models of the coiled-coil structure have been performed to investigate this issue. We find that the observed band profile can be reproduced with very small random variation on the phi, psi of tropomyosin. We believe that the shift to lower frequency is due to additional hydrogen bonding of the solvent accessible backbone CO groups to water.

  9. Crystal Structure of a Super Leucine Zipper an Extended Two-Stranded Super Long Coiled Coil

    SciTech Connect

    J Diao

    2011-12-31

    Coiled coil is a ubiquitous structural motif in proteins, with two to seven alpha helices coiled together like the strands of a rope, and coiled coil folding and assembly is not completely understood. A GCN4 leucine zipper mutant with four mutations of K3A, D7A, Y17W, and H18N has been designed, and the crystal structure has been determined at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution. The peptide monomer shows a helix trunk with short curved N- and C-termini. In the crystal, two monomers cross in 35{sup o} and form an X-shaped dimer, and each X-shaped dimer is welded into the next one through sticky hydrophobic ends, thus forming an extended two-stranded, parallel, super long coiled coil rather than a discrete, two-helix coiled coil of the wild-type GCN4 leucine zipper. Leucine residues appear at every seventh position in the super long coiled coil, suggesting that it is an extended super leucine zipper. Compared to the wild-type leucine zipper, the N-terminus of the mutant has a dramatic conformational change and the C-terminus has one more residue Glu 32 determined. The mutant X-shaped dimer has a large crossing angle of 35{sup o} instead of 18{sup o} in the wild-type dimer. The results show a novel assembly mode and oligomeric state of coiled coil, and demonstrate that mutations may affect folding and assembly of the overall coiled coil. Analysis of the formation mechanism of the super long coiled coil may help understand and design self-assembling protein fibers.

  10. The predicted coiled-coil domain of myosin 10 forms a novel elongated domain that lengthens the head.

    PubMed

    Knight, Peter J; Thirumurugan, Kavitha; Xu, Yuhui; Wang, Fei; Kalverda, Arnout P; Stafford, Walter F; Sellers, James R; Peckham, Michelle

    2005-10-14

    Myosin 10 contains a region of predicted coiled coil 120 residues long. However, the highly charged nature and pattern of charges in the proximal 36 residues appear incompatible with coiled-coil formation. Circular dichroism, NMR, and analytical ultracentrifugation show that a synthesized peptide containing this region forms a stable single alpha-helix (SAH) domain in solution and does not dimerize to form a coiled coil even at millimolar concentrations. Additionally, electron microscopy of a recombinant myosin 10 containing the motor, the three calmodulin binding domains, and the full-length predicted coiled coil showed that it was mostly monomeric at physiological protein concentration. In dimers the molecules were joined only at their extreme distal ends, and no coiled-coil tail was visible. Furthermore, the neck lengths of both monomers and dimers were much longer than expected from the number of calmodulin binding domains. In contrast, micrographs of myosin 5 heavy meromyosin obtained under the same conditions clearly showed a coiled-coil tail, and the necks were the predicted length. Thus the predicted coiled coil of myosin 10 forms a novel elongated structure in which the proximal region is a SAH domain and the distal region is a SAH domain (or has an unknown extended structure) that dimerizes only at its end. Sequence comparisons show that similar structures may exist in the predicted coiled-coil domains of myosins 6 and 7a and MyoM and could function to increase the size of the working stroke. PMID:16030012

  11. The structure of human SFPQ reveals a coiled-coil mediated polymer essential for functional aggregation in gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mihwa; Sadowska, Agata; Bekere, Indra; Ho, Diwei; Gully, Benjamin S.; Lu, Yanling; Iyer, K. Swaminathan; Trewhella, Jill; Fox, Archa H.; Bond, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    SFPQ, (a.k.a. PSF), is a human tumor suppressor protein that regulates many important functions in the cell nucleus including coordination of long non-coding RNA molecules into nuclear bodies. Here we describe the first crystal structures of Splicing Factor Proline and Glutamine Rich (SFPQ), revealing structural similarity to the related PSPC1/NONO heterodimer and a strikingly extended structure (over 265 Å long) formed by an unusual anti-parallel coiled-coil that results in an infinite linear polymer of SFPQ dimers within the crystals. Small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy experiments show that polymerization is reversible in solution and can be templated by DNA. We demonstrate that the ability to polymerize is essential for the cellular functions of SFPQ: disruptive mutation of the coiled-coil interaction motif results in SFPQ mislocalization, reduced formation of nuclear bodies, abrogated molecular interactions and deficient transcriptional regulation. The coiled-coil interaction motif thus provides a molecular explanation for the functional aggregation of SFPQ that directs its role in regulating many aspects of cellular nucleic acid metabolism. PMID:25765647

  12. Designed coiled coils promote folding of a recombinant bacterial collagen.

    PubMed

    Yoshizumi, Ayumi; Fletcher, Jordan M; Yu, Zhuoxin; Persikov, Anton V; Bartlett, Gail J; Boyle, Aimee L; Vincent, Thomas L; Woolfson, Derek N; Brodsky, Barbara

    2011-05-20

    Collagen triple helices fold slowly and inefficiently, often requiring adjacent globular domains to assist this process. In the Streptococcus pyogenes collagen-like protein Scl2, a V domain predicted to be largely α-helical, occurs N-terminal to the collagen triple helix (CL). Here, we replace this natural trimerization domain with a de novo designed, hyperstable, parallel, three-stranded, α-helical coiled coil (CC), either at the N terminus (CC-CL) or the C terminus (CL-CC) of the collagen domain. CD spectra of the constructs are consistent with additivity of independently and fully folded CC and CL domains, and the proteins retain their distinctive thermal stabilities, CL at ∼37 °C and CC at >90 °C. Heating the hybrid proteins to 50 °C unfolds CL, leaving CC intact, and upon cooling, the rate of CL refolding is somewhat faster for CL-CC than for CC-CL. A construct with coiled coils on both ends, CC-CL-CC, retains the ∼37 °C thermal stability for CL but shows less triple helix at low temperature and less denaturation at 50 °C. Most strikingly however, in CC-CL-CC, the CL refolds slower than in either CC-CL or CL-CC by almost two orders of magnitude. We propose that a single CC promotes folding of the CL domain via nucleation and in-register growth from one end, whereas initiation and growth from both ends in CC-CL-CC results in mismatched registers that frustrate folding. Bioinformatics analysis of natural collagens lends support to this because, where present, there is generally only one coiled-coil domain close to the triple helix, and it is nearly always N-terminal to the collagen repeat.

  13. Designed coiled coils promote folding of a recombinant bacterial collagen.

    PubMed

    Yoshizumi, Ayumi; Fletcher, Jordan M; Yu, Zhuoxin; Persikov, Anton V; Bartlett, Gail J; Boyle, Aimee L; Vincent, Thomas L; Woolfson, Derek N; Brodsky, Barbara

    2011-05-20

    Collagen triple helices fold slowly and inefficiently, often requiring adjacent globular domains to assist this process. In the Streptococcus pyogenes collagen-like protein Scl2, a V domain predicted to be largely α-helical, occurs N-terminal to the collagen triple helix (CL). Here, we replace this natural trimerization domain with a de novo designed, hyperstable, parallel, three-stranded, α-helical coiled coil (CC), either at the N terminus (CC-CL) or the C terminus (CL-CC) of the collagen domain. CD spectra of the constructs are consistent with additivity of independently and fully folded CC and CL domains, and the proteins retain their distinctive thermal stabilities, CL at ∼37 °C and CC at >90 °C. Heating the hybrid proteins to 50 °C unfolds CL, leaving CC intact, and upon cooling, the rate of CL refolding is somewhat faster for CL-CC than for CC-CL. A construct with coiled coils on both ends, CC-CL-CC, retains the ∼37 °C thermal stability for CL but shows less triple helix at low temperature and less denaturation at 50 °C. Most strikingly however, in CC-CL-CC, the CL refolds slower than in either CC-CL or CL-CC by almost two orders of magnitude. We propose that a single CC promotes folding of the CL domain via nucleation and in-register growth from one end, whereas initiation and growth from both ends in CC-CL-CC results in mismatched registers that frustrate folding. Bioinformatics analysis of natural collagens lends support to this because, where present, there is generally only one coiled-coil domain close to the triple helix, and it is nearly always N-terminal to the collagen repeat. PMID:21454493

  14. Cloning, overexpression, purification and crystallization of the CRN12 coiled-coil domain from Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vijay Kumar; Rana, Ajay Kumar; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A.; Gupta, C. M; Pratap, J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania donovani coronin CRN12 is an actin-binding protein which consists of two domains: an N-terminal WD repeat domain and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. The coiled-coil domain is 53 residues in length. Helix–helix interactions in general and coiled coils in particular are ubiquitous in the structure of proteins and play a significant role in the association among proteins, including supramolecular assemblies and transmembrane receptors that mediate cellular signalling, transport and actin dynamics. The L. donovani coronin CRN12 coiled-coil domain (5.8 kDa) was cloned, overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and the N-terminal 6×His tag was successfully removed by thrombin cleavage. Crystals of recombinant L. donovani coronin CRN12 coiled-coil domain were grown by vapour diffusion using a hanging-drop setup. Diffraction-quality crystals were obtained and data extending to 2.46 Å resolution were collected at 100 K on BM14, ESRF, Grenoble, France. The crystal belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 118.0, b = 50.6, c = 46.0 Å, β = 111.0°. Matthews coefficient (V M) calculations suggested the presence of 4–6 molecules in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to a solvent content of ∼33–55%, and are consistent with self-rotation function calculations. PMID:23695571

  15. Cloning, overexpression, purification and crystallization of the CRN12 coiled-coil domain from Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Vijay Kumar; Rana, Ajay Kumar; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A; Gupta, C M; Pratap, J V

    2013-05-01

    Leishmania donovani coronin CRN12 is an actin-binding protein which consists of two domains: an N-terminal WD repeat domain and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. The coiled-coil domain is 53 residues in length. Helix-helix interactions in general and coiled coils in particular are ubiquitous in the structure of proteins and play a significant role in the association among proteins, including supramolecular assemblies and transmembrane receptors that mediate cellular signalling, transport and actin dynamics. The L. donovani coronin CRN12 coiled-coil domain (5.8 kDa) was cloned, overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and the N-terminal 6×His tag was successfully removed by thrombin cleavage. Crystals of recombinant L. donovani coronin CRN12 coiled-coil domain were grown by vapour diffusion using a hanging-drop setup. Diffraction-quality crystals were obtained and data extending to 2.46 Å resolution were collected at 100 K on BM14, ESRF, Grenoble, France. The crystal belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 118.0, b = 50.6, c = 46.0 Å, β = 111.0°. Matthews coefficient (VM) calculations suggested the presence of 4-6 molecules in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to a solvent content of ∼33-55%, and are consistent with self-rotation function calculations. PMID:23695571

  16. Crystal Structure of the Central Coiled-Coil Domain from Human Liprin-[beta]2

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, Ryan L.; Tang, Ming-Yun; Sawaya, Michael R.; Phillips, Martin L.; Bowie, James U.

    2012-02-07

    Liprins are a conserved family of scaffolding proteins important for the proper regulation and development of neuronal synapses. Humans have four liprin-{alpha}s and two liprin-{beta}s which all contain long coiled-coil domains followed by three tandem SAM domains. Complex interactions between the coiled-coil and SAM domains are thought to create liprin scaffolds, but the structural and biochemical properties of these domains remain largely uncharacterized. In this study we find that the human liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coil forms an extended dimer. Several protease-resistant subdomains within the liprin-{beta}1 and liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coils were also identified. A 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the central, protease-resistant core of the liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coil reveals a parallel helix orientation. These studies represent an initial step toward determining the overall architecture of liprin scaffolds and understanding the molecular basis for their synaptic functions.

  17. Crystal structure of the central coiled-coil domain from human liprin-β2.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Ryan L; Tang, Ming-Yun; Sawaya, Michael R; Phillips, Martin L; Bowie, James U

    2011-05-10

    Liprins are a conserved family of scaffolding proteins important for the proper regulation and development of neuronal synapses. Humans have four liprin-αs and two liprin-βs which all contain long coiled-coil domains followed by three tandem SAM domains. Complex interactions between the coiled-coil and SAM domains are thought to create liprin scaffolds, but the structural and biochemical properties of these domains remain largely uncharacterized. In this study we find that the human liprin-β2 coiled-coil forms an extended dimer. Several protease-resistant subdomains within the liprin-β1 and liprin-β2 coiled-coils were also identified. A 2.0 Å crystal structure of the central, protease-resistant core of the liprin-β2 coiled-coil reveals a parallel helix orientation. These studies represent an initial step toward determining the overall architecture of liprin scaffolds and understanding the molecular basis for their synaptic functions.

  18. Coiled-coils as assembly-directing domains in self-assembling structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Erinc

    2008-10-01

    The bioconjugation of proteins and peptides with synthetic polymers is a promising method to tailor chemical, biological and physical properties of both the polymeric and protein-based components. Here, we describe macromolecular assemblies of polyethylene glycol-coiled-coil alternating block copolymers guided by associations of coiled-coils. High molecular weight, alternating block copolymers of PEG and coiled-coil peptides were formed via facile reactions between N-hydroxysuccinimide esters and amines, leading to amide bond formation under anhydrous conditions. Confirmation of multiblock formation was assessed via a combination of NMR spectroscopy, size-exclusion chromatography, and electrophoretic analysis. Formation of the alternating block copolymers of PEG with coiled-coil peptides through the f-position on the heptads did not impair the ability of the coiled-coils to form heterodimers, as assessed via circular dichroic spectroscopy. Interestingly, the conjugation triggered homooligomer formation in one of the peptides that is monomeric in the absence of PEG. The macromolecular assembly of the homooligomer was characterized via circular dichroism, analytical ultracentrifugation, and dynamic and static light scattering. The copolymer structures were formed under physiological conditions, and exhibited controlled sizes relevant in applications such as drug delivery and controlled release. Our efforts toward synthesis of coiled-coils via recombinant expression have also lead to the discovery of an evolutionary phenomenon. We observed a strong inverse correlation between the pH of an organism's habitat and its proteomic pI, that is the isoelectric point of bulk of its proteome. This observation may be useful in informed selection of host organisms for recombinant expression of proteins with extreme isoelectric points.

  19. Insertion of a coiled-coil peptide from influenza virus hemagglutinin into membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Y.G.; Shin, Y.K.; King, D.S.

    1994-10-14

    The trimeric protein hemagglutinin (HA) of the influenza viral envelope is essential for cell entry. To investigate the interaction of HA with membranes, two 40-residue, cysteine-substituted peptides comprising the loop region and the first part of the coiled-coil stem were synthesized and modified with a nitroxide spin label. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis revealed that the peptide inserts reversibly into phospholipid vesicles under endosomal pH conditions. This result suggests that some or all of the long coiled-coil trimer of HA may insert into membranes, which could bring the viral and cell membranes closer together and facilitate fusion. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Tubulin polymerization promoting protein 1 (Tppp1) phosphorylation by Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (rock) and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) inhibits microtubule dynamics to increase cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Alice V; Gamell, Cristina; Suryadinata, Randy; Sarcevic, Boris; Bernard, Ora

    2013-03-15

    Tubulin polymerization promoting protein 1 (Tppp1) regulates microtubule (MT) dynamics via promoting MT polymerization and inhibiting histone deacetylase 6 (Hdac6) activity to increase MT acetylation. Our results reveal that as a consequence, Tppp1 inhibits cell proliferation by delaying the G1/S-phase and the mitosis to G1-phase transitions. We show that phosphorylation of Tppp1 by Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (Rock) prevents its Hdac6 inhibitory activity to enable cells to enter S-phase. Whereas, our analysis of the role of Tppp1 during mitosis revealed that inhibition of its MT polymerizing and Hdac6 regulatory activities were necessary for cells to re-enter the G1-phase. During this investigation, we also discovered that Tppp1 is a novel Cyclin B/Cdk1 (cyclin-dependent kinase) substrate and that Cdk phosphorylation of Tppp1 inhibits its MT polymerizing activity. Overall, our results show that dual Rock and Cdk phosphorylation of Tppp1 inhibits its regulation of the cell cycle to increase cell proliferation.

  1. Bioproduction of highly charged designer peptide surfactants via a chemically cleavable coiled-coil heteroconcatemer.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Nicholas L; Paquet, Nicolas; Dickinson, Ellyce L; Dexter, Annette F

    2015-02-01

    Designer peptides have recently attracted attention as self-assembling fibrils, hydrogelators and green surfactants with the potential for sustainable bioproduction. Carboxylate-rich peptides in particular have shown potential as salt-resistant emulsifiers; however the expression of highly charged peptides of this kind remains a challenge. To achieve expression of a strongly anionic helical surfactant peptide, we paired the peptide with a cationic helical partner in a coiled-coil miniprotein and optimized the polypeptide sequence for net charge, hydropathy and predicted protease resistance (via the Guruprasad instability index). Our design permitted expression of a soluble concatemer that accumulates to high levels (22% of total protein) in E. coli. The concatemer showed high stability to heat and proteases, allowing isolation by simple heat and pH precipitation steps that yield concatemer at 133 mg per gram of dry cell weight and >99% purity. Aspartate-proline sites were included in the concatemer to allow cleavage with heat and acid to give monomeric peptides. We characterized the acid cleavage pathway of the concatemer by coupled liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and modeled the kinetic pathways involved. The outcome represents the first detailed kinetic characterization of protein cleavage at aspartate-proline sites, and reveals unexpected cleavage preferences, such as favored cleavage at the C-termini of peptide helices. Chemical denaturation of the concatemer showed an extremely high thermodynamic stability of 38.9 kcal mol(-1) , with cleavage decreasing the stability of the coiled coil to 32.8 kcal mol(-1) . We determined an interfacial pressure of 29 mN m(-1) for both intact and cleaved concatemer at the air-water interface, although adsorption was slightly more rapid for the cleaved peptides. The cleaved peptides could be used to prepare heat-stable emulsions with droplet sizes in the nanometer range.

  2. Subunit b-dimer of the Escherichia coli ATP synthase can form left-handed coiled-coils.

    PubMed

    Wise, John G; Vogel, Pia D

    2008-06-01

    One remaining challenge to our understanding of the ATP synthase concerns the dimeric coiled-coil stator subunit b of bacterial synthases. The subunit b-dimer has been implicated in important protein interactions that appear necessary for energy conservation and that may be instrumental in energy conservation during rotary catalysis by the synthase. Understanding the stator structure and its interactions with the rest of the enzyme is crucial to the understanding of the overall catalytic mechanism. Controversy exists on whether subunit b adopts a classic left-handed or a presumed right-handed dimeric coiled-coil and whether or not staggered pairing between nonhomologous residues in the homodimer is required for intersubunit packing. In this study we generated molecular models of the Escherichia coli subunit b-dimer that were based on the well-established heptad-repeat packing exhibited by left-handed, dimeric coiled-coils by employing simulated annealing protocols with structural restraints collected from known structures. In addition, we attempted to create hypothetical right-handed coiled-coil models and left- and right-handed models with staggered packing in the coiled-coil domains. Our analyses suggest that the available structural and biochemical evidence for subunit b can be accommodated by classic left-handed, dimeric coiled-coil quaternary structures.

  3. A coiled-coil domain acts as a molecular ruler in LPS chain length regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tuukkanen, Anne; Danciu, Iulia; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Hussain, Rohanah; Liu, Huanting; Whitfield, Chris; Naismith, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Long-chain bacterial polysaccharides play important roles in pathogenicity. In Escherichia coli O9a, a model for ABC transporter dependent polysaccharide assembly, a large extracellular carbohydrate with a narrow distribution of size is polymerized from monosaccharides by a complex of two proteins, WbdA (polymerase) and WbdD (terminating protein). Such careful control of polymerization is recurring theme in biology. Combining crystallography and small angle X-ray scattering, we show that the C-terminal domain of WbdD contains an extended coiled-coil that physically separates WbdA from the catalytic domain of WbdD. The effects of insertions and deletions within the coiled-coil region were analyzed in vivo, revealing that polymer size is controlled by varying the length of the coiled-coil domain. Thus, the coiled-coil domain of WbdD functions as a molecular ruler that, along with WbdA:WbdD stoichiometry, controls the chain length of a model bacterial polysaccharide. PMID:25504321

  4. Forced Unfolding of the Coiled-Coils of Fibrinogen by Single-Molecule AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andre; Litvinov, Rustem; Discher, Dennis; Weisel, John

    2007-03-01

    A blood clot needs to have the right degree of stiffness and plasticity for hemostasis, but the origin of these mechanical properties is unknown. Here we report the first measurements using single molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the forced unfolding of fibrinogen to begin addressing this problem. To generate longer reproducible curves than are possible using monomer, factor XIIIa cross-linked, single chain fibrinogen oligomers were used. When extended under force, these oligomers showed sawtooth shaped force-extension patterns characteristic of unfolding proteins with a peak-to-peak separation of approximately 26 nm, consistent with the independent unfolding of the coiled-coils. These results were then reproduced using a Monte Carlo simulation with parameters in the same range as those previously used for unfolding globular domains. In particular, we found that the refolding time was negligible on experimental time and force scales in contrast to previous work on simpler coiled-coils. We suggest that this difference may be due to fibrinogen's structurally and topologically more complex coiled-coils and that an interaction between the alpha C and central domains may be involved. These results suggest a new functional property of fibrinogen and that the coiled-coil is more than a passive structural element of this molecule.

  5. Folding behavior of four silks of giant honey bee reflects the evolutionary conservation of aculeate silk proteins.

    PubMed

    Maitip, Jakkrawut; Trueman, Holly E; Kaehler, Benjamin D; Huttley, Gavin A; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Sutherland, Tara D

    2015-04-01

    Multiple gene duplication events in the precursor of the Aculeata (bees, ants, hornets) gave rise to four silk genes. Whilst these homologs encode proteins with similar amino acid composition and coiled coil structure, the retention of all four homologs implies they each are important. In this study we identified, produced and characterized the four silk proteins from Apis dorsata, the giant Asian honeybee. The proteins were readily purified, allowing us to investigate the folding behavior of solutions of individual proteins in comparison to mixtures of all four proteins at concentrations where they assemble into their native coiled coil structure. In contrast to solutions of any one protein type, solutions of a mixture of the four proteins formed coiled coils that were stable against dilution and detergent denaturation. The results are consistent with the formation of a heteromeric coiled coil protein complex. The mechanism of silk protein coiled coil formation and evolution is discussed in light of these results. PMID:25712559

  6. Folding behavior of four silks of giant honey bee reflects the evolutionary conservation of aculeate silk proteins.

    PubMed

    Maitip, Jakkrawut; Trueman, Holly E; Kaehler, Benjamin D; Huttley, Gavin A; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Sutherland, Tara D

    2015-04-01

    Multiple gene duplication events in the precursor of the Aculeata (bees, ants, hornets) gave rise to four silk genes. Whilst these homologs encode proteins with similar amino acid composition and coiled coil structure, the retention of all four homologs implies they each are important. In this study we identified, produced and characterized the four silk proteins from Apis dorsata, the giant Asian honeybee. The proteins were readily purified, allowing us to investigate the folding behavior of solutions of individual proteins in comparison to mixtures of all four proteins at concentrations where they assemble into their native coiled coil structure. In contrast to solutions of any one protein type, solutions of a mixture of the four proteins formed coiled coils that were stable against dilution and detergent denaturation. The results are consistent with the formation of a heteromeric coiled coil protein complex. The mechanism of silk protein coiled coil formation and evolution is discussed in light of these results.

  7. A coiled-coil interaction mediates cauliflower mosaic virus cell-to-cell movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavolone, Livia; Villani, Maria Elena; Leclerc, Denis; Hohn, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    The function of the virion-associated protein (VAP) of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) has long been only poorly understood. VAP is associated with the virion but is dispensable for virus morphogenesis and replication. It mediates virus transmission by aphids through simultaneous interaction with both the aphid transmission factor and the virion. However, although insect transmission is not fundamental to CaMV survival, VAP is indispensable for spreading the virus infection within the host plant. We used a GST pull-down technique to demonstrate that VAP interacts with the viral movement protein through coiled-coil domains and surface plasmon resonance to measure the interaction kinetics. We mapped the movement protein coiled-coil to the C terminus of the protein and proved that it self-assembles as a trimer. Immunogold labeling/electron microscopy revealed that the VAP and viral movement protein colocalize on CaMV particles within plasmodesmata. These results highlight the multifunctional potential of the VAP protein conferred by its efficient coiled-coil interaction system and show a plant virus possessing a surface-exposed protein (VAP) mediating viral entry into host cells. movement protein | virion-associated protein | Biacore

  8. Data-Driven Prediction and Design of bZIP Coiled-Coil Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Potapov, Vladimir; Kaplan, Jenifer B.; Keating, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Selective dimerization of the basic-region leucine-zipper (bZIP) transcription factors presents a vivid example of how a high degree of interaction specificity can be achieved within a family of structurally similar proteins. The coiled-coil motif that mediates homo- or hetero-dimerization of the bZIP proteins has been intensively studied, and a variety of methods have been proposed to predict these interactions from sequence data. In this work, we used a large quantitative set of 4,549 bZIP coiled-coil interactions to develop a predictive model that exploits knowledge of structurally conserved residue-residue interactions in the coiled-coil motif. Our model, which expresses interaction energies as a sum of interpretable residue-pair and triplet terms, achieves a correlation with experimental binding free energies of R = 0.68 and significantly out-performs other scoring functions. To use our model in protein design applications, we devised a strategy in which synthetic peptides are built by assembling 7-residue native-protein heptad modules into new combinations. An integer linear program was used to find the optimal combination of heptads to bind selectively to a target human bZIP coiled coil, but not to target paralogs. Using this approach, we designed peptides to interact with the bZIP domains from human JUN, XBP1, ATF4 and ATF5. Testing more than 132 candidate protein complexes using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay confirmed the formation of tight and selective heterodimers between the designed peptides and their targets. This approach can be used to make inhibitors of native proteins, or to develop novel peptides for applications in synthetic biology or nanotechnology. PMID:25695764

  9. Coiled-Coil Irregularities and Instabilities in Group A Streptococcus M1 Are Required for Virulence

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, Case; Zinkernagel, Annelies S.; Macheboeuf, Pauline; Cunningham, Madeleine W.; Nizet, Victor; Ghosh, Partho

    2008-07-21

    Antigenically variable M proteins are major virulence factors and immunogens of the human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS). Here, we report the -3 angstrom resolution structure of a GAS M1 fragment containing the regions responsible for eliciting type-specific, protective immunity and for binding fibrinogen, which promotes M1 proinflammatory and antiphagocytic functions. The structure revealed substantial irregularities and instabilities throughout the coiled coil of the M1 fragment. Similar structural irregularities occur in myosin and tropomyosin, explaining the patterns of cross-reactivity seen in autoimmune sequelae of GAS infection. Sequence idealization of a large segment of the M1 coiled coil enhanced stability but diminished fibrinogen binding, proinflammatory effects, and antibody cross-reactivity, whereas it left protective immunogenicity undiminished. Idealized M proteins appear to have promise as vaccine immunogens.

  10. Crystallization of the coiled-coil domain of Atg16 essential for autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Yuko; Noda, Nobuo N.; Matsushita, Minako; Ohsumi, Yoshinori; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Atg16 is a scaffold protein that interacts with Atg12–Atg5 protein conjugates via its N-terminal domain and self-assembles via its coiled-coil domain, thus forming a multimeric Atg12–Atg5–Atg16 complex that is essential for autophagy. The coiled-coil domain of Atg16 was expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystal belonged to space group P41212 or P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = 127.7, c = 77.8 Å. Self-rotation functions and volume-to-weight ratio values suggested that the crystal may contain six molecules per asymmetric unit. Since the domain does not contain a methionine residue, selenomethionine-labelled crystals were prepared with a leucine-to-methionine substitution in the coiled-coil domain and these crystals were used for the collection of single-wavelength anomalous dispersion data to 2.5 Å resolution. PMID:18997338

  11. Historical review: another 50th anniversary--new periodicities in coiled coils.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Markus; Lupas, Andrei N

    2003-12-01

    In 1953, Francis Crick and Linus Pauling both proposed models of supercoiled alpha helices ('coiled coils') for the structure of keratin. These were the first attempts at modelling the tertiary structure of a protein. Crick emphasized the packing mode of the side-chains ('knobs-into-holes'), which required a periodicity of seven residues over two helical turns (7/2) and a supercoil in the opposite sense of the constituent helices. By contrast, Pauling envisaged a broader set of periodicities (4/1, 7/2, 18/5, 15/4, 11/3) and supercoils of both senses. Crick's model became canonical and the 'heptad repeat' essentially synonymous with coiled coils, but 50 years later new crystal structures and protein sequences show that the less common periodicities envisaged by Pauling also occur in coiled coils, adding a variant packing mode ('knobs-to-knobs') to the standard model. Pauling's laboratory notebooks suggest that he searched unsuccessfully for this packing mode in 1953.

  12. Dynamics of the coiled-coil unfolding transition of myosin rod probed by dissipation force spectrum.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yukinori; Khatri, Bhavin S; Brockwell, David J; Paci, Emanuele; Kawakami, Masaru

    2010-07-01

    The motor protein myosin II plays a crucial role in muscle contraction. The mechanical properties of its coiled-coil region, the myosin rod, are important for effective force transduction during muscle function. Previous studies have investigated the static elastic response of the myosin rod. However, analogous to the study of macroscopic complex fluids, how myosin will respond to physiological time-dependent loads can only be understood from its viscoelastic response. Here, we apply atomic force microscopy using a magnetically driven oscillating cantilever to measure the dissipative properties of single myosin rods that provide unique dynamical information about the coiled-coil structure as a function of force. We find that the friction constant of the single myosin rod has a highly nontrivial variation with force; in particular, the single-molecule friction constant is reduced dramatically and increases again as it passes through the coiled-uncoiled transition. This is a direct indication of a large free-energy barrier to uncoiling, which may be related to a fine-tuned dynamic mechanosignaling response to large and unexpected physiological loads. Further, from the critical force at which the minimum in friction occurs we determine the asymmetry of the bistable landscape that controls uncoiling of the coiled coil. This work highlights the sensitivity of the dissipative signal in force unfolding to dynamic molecular structure that is hidden to the elastic signal. PMID:20655854

  13. Intermediate filament mechanics in vitro and in the cell: from coiled coils to filaments, fibers and networks.

    PubMed

    Köster, Sarah; Weitz, David A; Goldman, Robert D; Aebi, Ueli; Herrmann, Harald

    2015-02-01

    Intermediate filament proteins form filaments, fibers and networks both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of metazoan cells. Their general structural building plan accommodates highly varying amino acid sequences to yield extended dimeric α-helical coiled coils of highly conserved design. These 'rod' particles are the basic building blocks of intrinsically flexible, filamentous structures that are able to resist high mechanical stresses, that is, bending and stretching to a considerable degree, both in vitro and in the cell. Biophysical and computer modeling studies are beginning to unfold detailed structural and mechanical insights into these major supramolecular assemblies of cell architecture, not only in the 'test tube' but also in the cellular and tissue context.

  14. Intermediate filament mechanics in vitro and in the cell: From coiled coils to filaments, fibers and networks

    PubMed Central

    Köster, Sarah; Weitz, David; Goldman, Robert D.; Aebi, Ueli; Herrmann, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Summary Intermediate filament proteins form filaments, fibers and networks both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of metazoan cells. Their general structural building plan accommodates highly varying amino acid sequences to yield extended dimeric α-helical coiled coils of highly conserved design. These “rod” particles are the basic building blocks of intrinsically flexible, filamentous structures that are able to resist high mechanical stresses, i.e. bending and stretching to a considerable degree, both in vitro and in the cell. Biophysical and computer modeling studies are beginning to unfold detailed structural and mechanical insights into these major supramolecular assemblies of cell architecture, not only in the “test tube” but also in the cellular and tissue context. PMID:25621895

  15. Interactions of HIV-1 inhibitory peptide T20 with the gp41 N-HR coiled coil.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Kelly; Shishido, Akira; Root, Michael J

    2009-02-01

    Cellular entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) involves fusion of viral and cellular membranes and is mediated by structural transitions in viral glycoprotein gp41. The antiviral C-peptide T20 targets the gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat region (N-HR), blocking gp41 conformational changes essential for the entry process. To probe the T20 structure-activity relationship, we engineered a molecular mimic of the entire gp41 N-HR coiled coil using the 5-Helix design strategy. T20 bound this artificial protein (denoted 5H-ex) with nanomolar affinity (K(D) = 30 nm), close to its IC50 concentration (approximately 3 nm) but much weaker than the affinity of a related inhibitory C-peptide C37 (K(D) = 0.0007 nm). T20/C37 competitive binding assays confirmed that T20 interacts with the hydrophobic groove on the surface of the N-HR coiled coil outside of a deep pocket region crucial for C37 binding. We used 5H-ex to investigate how the T20 N and C termini contributed to the inhibitor binding activity. Mutating three aromatic residues at the T20 C terminus (WNWF --> ANAA) had no effect on affinity, suggesting that these amino acids do not participate in T20 binding to the gp41 N-HR. The results support recent evidence pointing to a different role for these residues in T20 inhibition (Peisajovich, S. G., Gallo, S. A., Blumenthal, R., and Shai, Y. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 21012-21017; Liu, S., Jing, W., Cheung, B., Lu, H., Sun, J., Yan, X., Niu, J., Farmar, J., Wu, S., and Jiang, S. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 9612-9620). By contrast, mutations near the T20 N terminus substantially influenced inhibitor binding strength. When Ile was substituted for Thr in the second T20 position, a 40-fold increase in binding affinity was measured (K(D) = 0.75 nm). The effect of this affinity enhancement on T20 inhibitory potency varied among different viral strains. The original T20 and the higher affinity T20 variant had similar potency against wild type HIV-1. However, the higher

  16. Growth factor identity is encoded by discrete coiled coil rotamers in the EGFR juxtamembrane region

    PubMed Central

    Doerner, Amy; Scheck, Rebecca; Schepartz, Alanna

    2015-01-01

    Summary Binding of the growth factor TGF-α to the EGFR extracellular domain is encoded through the formation of a unique anti-parallel coiled coil within the juxtamembrane segment. This new coiled coil is an ‘inside-out’ version of the coiled coil formed in the presence of EGF. A third, intermediary coiled coil interface is formed in the juxtamembrane segment when EGFR is stimulated with betacellulin. The seven growth factors that activate EGFR in mammalian systems (EGF, TGF-α, epigen, epiregulin, betacellulin, heparin-binding EGF, and amphiregulin) fall into distinct categories in which the structure of the coiled coil induced within the juxtamembrane segment correlates with cell state. The observation that coiled coil state tracks with the downstream signaling profiles for each ligand provides evidence for growth factor functional selectivity by EGFR. Encoding growth factor identity in alternative coiled coil rotamers provides a simple and elegant method for communicating chemical information across the plasma membrane. PMID:26091170

  17. Type I macrophage scavenger receptor contains α-helical and collagen-like coiled coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Freeman, Mason; Rohrer, Lucia; Zabrecky, James; Matsudaira, Paul; Krieger, Monty

    1990-02-01

    The macrophage scavenger receptor is a trimeric membrane glycoprotein with unusual ligand-binding properties which has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. The trimeric structure of the bovine type I scavenger receptor, deduced by complementary DNA cloning, contains three extracellular C-terminal cysteine-rich domains connected to the transmembrane domain by a long fibrous stalk. This stalk structure, composed of an a-helical coiled coil and a collagen-like triple helix, has not previously been observed in an integral membrane protein.

  18. Simultaneous formation of right- and left-handed anti-parallel coiled-coil interfaces by a coil2 fragment of human lamin A.

    PubMed

    Kapinos, Larisa E; Burkhard, Peter; Herrmann, Harald; Aebi, Ueli; Strelkov, Sergei V

    2011-04-22

    The elementary building block of all intermediate filaments (IFs) is a dimer featuring a central α-helical rod domain flanked by the N- and C-terminal end domains. In nuclear IF proteins (lamins), the rod domain consists of two coiled-coil segments, coil1 and coil2, that are connected by a short non-helical linker. Coil1 and the C-terminal part of coil2 contain the two highly conserved IF consensus motifs involved in the longitudinal assembly of dimers. The previously solved crystal structure of a lamin A fragment (residues 305-387) corresponding to the second half of coil2 has yielded a parallel left-handed coiled coil. Here, we present the crystal structure and solution properties of another human lamin A fragment (residues 328-398), which is largely overlapping with fragment 305-387 but harbors a short segment of the tail domain. Unexpectedly, no parallel coiled coil forms within the crystal. Instead, the α-helices are arranged such that two anti-parallel coiled-coil interfaces are formed. The most significant interface has a right-handed geometry, which is accounted for by a characteristic 15-residue repeat pattern that overlays with the canonical heptad repeat pattern. The second interface is a left-handed anti-parallel coiled coil based on the predicted heptad repeat pattern. In solution, the fragment reveals only a weak dimerization propensity. We speculate that the C-terminus of coil2 might unzip, thereby allowing for a right-handed coiled-coil interface to form between two laterally aligned dimers. Such an interface might co-exist with a heterotetrameric left-handed coiled-coil assembly, which is expected to be responsible for the longitudinal A(CN) contact.

  19. Design of a single-chain polypeptide tetrahedron assembled from coiled-coil segments.

    PubMed

    Gradišar, Helena; Božič, Sabina; Doles, Tibor; Vengust, Damjan; Hafner-Bratkovič, Iva; Mertelj, Alenka; Webb, Ben; Šali, Andrej; Klavžar, Sandi; Jerala, Roman

    2013-06-01

    Protein structures evolved through a complex interplay of cooperative interactions, and it is still very challenging to design new protein folds de novo. Here we present a strategy to design self-assembling polypeptide nanostructured polyhedra based on modularization using orthogonal dimerizing segments. We designed and experimentally demonstrated the formation of the tetrahedron that self-assembles from a single polypeptide chain comprising 12 concatenated coiled coil-forming segments separated by flexible peptide hinges. The path of the polypeptide chain is guided by a defined order of segments that traverse each of the six edges of the tetrahedron exactly twice, forming coiled-coil dimers with their corresponding partners. The coincidence of the polypeptide termini in the same vertex is demonstrated by reconstituting a split fluorescent protein in the polypeptide with the correct tetrahedral topology. Polypeptides with a deleted or scrambled segment order fail to self-assemble correctly. This design platform provides a foundation for constructing new topological polypeptide folds based on the set of orthogonal interacting polypeptide segments.

  20. Evidence of α-helical coiled coils and β-sheets in hornet silk.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tsunenori; Nemoto, Takashi; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Tosaka, Masatoshi; Kurata, Hiroki; Schaper, Andreas K

    2014-03-01

    α-Helical coiled coil and β-sheet complexes are essential structural building elements of silk proteins produced by different species of the Hymenoptera. Beside X-ray scattering at wide and small angles we applied cryo-electron diffraction and microscopy to demonstrate the presence and the details of such structures in silk of the giant hornet Vespa mandarinia japonica. Our studies on the assembly of the fibrous silk proteins and their internal organization in relation to the primary chain structure suggest a 172 Å pitch supercoil consisting of four intertwined alanine-rich α-helical strands. The axial periodicity may adopt even multiples of the pitch value. Coiled coil motifs form the largest portion of the hornet silk structure and are aligned nearly parallel to the cocoon fiber axis in the same way as the membrane-like parts of the cocoon are molecularly orientated in the spinning direction. Supercoils were found to be associated with β-crystals, predominantly localized in the l-serine-rich chain sequences terminating each of the four predominant silk proteins. Such β-sheet blocks are considered resulting from transformation of random coil molecular sequences due to the action of elongational forces during the spinning process. PMID:24345346

  1. Peptidyl Materials Formed Through Click Chemistry Enhanced Coiled-Coil Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    Biologically derived materials offer a level of sophistication synthetically fabricated materials have only attempted to mimic. This level of complexity may be found in materials such as peptides. Implementing new theory and modeling, peptides with the propensity to form coiled-coil (CC) bundles were designed and synthesized. Through the use of this de novo approach, modeling allowed prediction of the feasibility to include non-natural amino acids conducive to click chemistry into the peptide. Amino acids showcasing thiol or alkyne functionalities were considered owing to the ability of these moieties to participate in the thiol-ene and copper click reactions respectively. Once synthesized, the peptides decorated with these clickable motifs were placed in solution and allowed to self-assemble into CC's. CD spectroscopy and DLS experiments confirmed the formation and assembly of CC's. Click reactions were then incited to link the CC assemblies together and form a network with predictable dimensionality and pore size between CC bundles. To incite network formation, click reactions between CC side chain residues and suitably functionalized crosslinkers were implemented. The linking of coiled-coils and material formation were assessed using DLS and TEM.

  2. The coiled-coil domain of MURC/cavin-4 is involved in membrane trafficking of caveolin-3 in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Naito, Daisuke; Ogata, Takehiro; Hamaoka, Tetsuro; Nakanishi, Naohiko; Miyagawa, Kotaro; Maruyama, Naoki; Kasahara, Takeru; Taniguchi, Takuya; Nishi, Masahiro; Matoba, Satoaki; Ueyama, Tomomi

    2015-12-15

    Muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein (MURC), also referred to as cavin-4, is a member of the cavin family that works cooperatively with caveolins in caveola formation and function. Cavins are cytoplasmic proteins with coiled-coil domains and form heteromeric complexes, which are recruited to caveolae in cells expressing caveolins. Among caveolins, caveolin-3 (Cav3) is exclusively expressed in muscle cells, similar to MURC/cavin-4. In the heart, Cav3 overexpression contributes to cardiac protection, and its deficiency leads to progressive cardiomyopathy. Mutations in the MURC/cavin-4 gene have been identified in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. In the present study, we show the role of MURC/cavin-4 as a caveolar component in the heart. In H9c2 cells, MURC/cavin-4 was localized at the plasma membrane, whereas a MURC/cavin-4 mutant lacking the coiled-coil domain (ΔCC) was primarily localized to the cytoplasm. ΔCC bound to Cav3 and impaired membrane localization of Cav3 in cardiomyocytes. Additionally, although ΔCC did not alter Cav3 mRNA expression, ΔCC decreased the Cav3 protein level. MURC/cavin-4 and ΔCC similarly induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; however, ΔCC showed higher hypertrophy-related fetal gene expression than MURC/cavin-4. ΔCC induced ERK activation in cardiomyocytes. Transgenic mice expressing ΔCC in the heart (ΔCC-Tg mice) showed impaired cardiac function accompanied by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and marked interstitial fibrosis. Hearts from ΔCC-Tg mice showed a reduction of the Cav3 protein level and activation of ERK. These results suggest that MURC/cavin-4 requires its coiled-coil domain to target the plasma membrane and to stabilize Cav3 at the plasma membrane of cardiomyocytes and that MURC/cavin-4 functions as a crucial caveolar component to regulate cardiac function. PMID:26497963

  3. The coiled-coil domain of MURC/cavin-4 is involved in membrane trafficking of caveolin-3 in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Naito, Daisuke; Ogata, Takehiro; Hamaoka, Tetsuro; Nakanishi, Naohiko; Miyagawa, Kotaro; Maruyama, Naoki; Kasahara, Takeru; Taniguchi, Takuya; Nishi, Masahiro; Matoba, Satoaki; Ueyama, Tomomi

    2015-12-15

    Muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein (MURC), also referred to as cavin-4, is a member of the cavin family that works cooperatively with caveolins in caveola formation and function. Cavins are cytoplasmic proteins with coiled-coil domains and form heteromeric complexes, which are recruited to caveolae in cells expressing caveolins. Among caveolins, caveolin-3 (Cav3) is exclusively expressed in muscle cells, similar to MURC/cavin-4. In the heart, Cav3 overexpression contributes to cardiac protection, and its deficiency leads to progressive cardiomyopathy. Mutations in the MURC/cavin-4 gene have been identified in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. In the present study, we show the role of MURC/cavin-4 as a caveolar component in the heart. In H9c2 cells, MURC/cavin-4 was localized at the plasma membrane, whereas a MURC/cavin-4 mutant lacking the coiled-coil domain (ΔCC) was primarily localized to the cytoplasm. ΔCC bound to Cav3 and impaired membrane localization of Cav3 in cardiomyocytes. Additionally, although ΔCC did not alter Cav3 mRNA expression, ΔCC decreased the Cav3 protein level. MURC/cavin-4 and ΔCC similarly induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; however, ΔCC showed higher hypertrophy-related fetal gene expression than MURC/cavin-4. ΔCC induced ERK activation in cardiomyocytes. Transgenic mice expressing ΔCC in the heart (ΔCC-Tg mice) showed impaired cardiac function accompanied by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and marked interstitial fibrosis. Hearts from ΔCC-Tg mice showed a reduction of the Cav3 protein level and activation of ERK. These results suggest that MURC/cavin-4 requires its coiled-coil domain to target the plasma membrane and to stabilize Cav3 at the plasma membrane of cardiomyocytes and that MURC/cavin-4 functions as a crucial caveolar component to regulate cardiac function.

  4. Dimeric Coiled-coil Structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Atg16 and Its Functional Significance in Autophagy*

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Yuko; Noda, Nobuo N.; Nakatogawa, Hitoshi; Ohsumi, Yoshinori; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Atg16 interacts with the Atg12-Atg5 protein conjugate through its N-terminal domain and self-assembles through its coiled-coil domain (CCD). Formation of the Atg12-Atg5·Atg16 complex is essential for autophagy, the bulk degradation process conserved among most eukaryotes. Here, we report the crystal structures of full-length Saccharomyces cerevisiae Atg16 at 2.8 Å resolution and its CCD at 2.5 Å resolution. The CCD and full-length Atg16 each exhibit an extended α-helix, 90 and 130 Å, respectively, and form a parallel coiled-coil dimer in the crystals. Although the apparent molecular weight of Atg16 observed by gel-filtration chromatography suggests that Atg16 is tetrameric, an analytical ultracentrifugation study showed Atg16 as a dimer in solution, consistent with the crystal structure. Evolutionary conserved surface residues clustered at the C-terminal half of Atg16 CCD were shown to be crucial for autophagy. These results will give a structural basis for understanding the molecular functions and significance of Atg16 in autophagy. PMID:19889643

  5. Structural basis for cargo binding and autoinhibition of Bicaudal-D1 by a parallel coiled-coil with homotypic registry

    SciTech Connect

    Terawaki, Shin-ichi; Yoshikane, Asuka; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Wakamatsu, Kaori

    2015-05-01

    Bicaudal-D1 (BICD1) is an α-helical coiled-coil protein mediating the attachment of specific cargo to cytoplasmic dynein. It plays an essential role in minus end-directed intracellular transport along microtubules. The third C-terminal coiled-coil region of BICD1 (BICD1 CC3) has an important role in cargo sorting, including intracellular vesicles associating with the small GTPase Rab6 and the nuclear pore complex Ran binding protein 2 (RanBP2), and inhibiting the association with cytoplasmic dynein by binding to the first N-terminal coiled-coil region (CC1). The crystal structure of BICD1 CC3 revealed a parallel homodimeric coiled-coil with asymmetry and complementary knobs-into-holes interactions, differing from Drosophila BicD CC3. Furthermore, our binding study indicated that BICD1 CC3 possesses a binding surface for two distinct cargos, Rab6 and RanBP2, and that the CC1-binding site overlaps with the Rab6-binding site. These findings suggest a molecular basis for cargo recognition and autoinhibition of BICD proteins during dynein-dependent intracellular retrograde transport. - Highlights: • BICD1 CC3 is a parallel homodimeric coiled-coil with axial asymmetry. • The coiled-coil packing of BICD1 CC3 is adapted to the equivalent heptad position. • BICD1 CC3 has distinct binding sites for two classes of cargo, Rab6 and RanBP2. • The CC1-binding site of BICD1 CC3 overlaps with the Rab6-binding site.

  6. KAP, the accessory subunit of kinesin-2, binds the predicted coiled-coil stalk of the motor subunits.

    PubMed

    Doodhi, Harinath; Ghosal, Debnath; Krishnamurthy, Mahalakshmi; Jana, Swadhin C; Shamala, Divya; Bhaduri, Anirban; Sowdhamini, R; Ray, Krishanu

    2009-03-17

    Kinesin-2 is an anterograde motor involved in intraflagellar transport and certain other intracellular transport processes. It consists of two different motor subunits and an accessory protein KAP (kinesin accessory protein). The motor subunits were shown to bind each other through the coiled-coil stalk domains, while KAP was proposed to bind the tail domains of the motor subunits. Although several genetic studies established that KAP plays an important role in kinesin-2 functions, its exact role remains unclear. Here, we report the results of a systematic analysis of the KAP binding sites by using recombinant Drosophila kinesin-2 subunits as well as the endogenous proteins. These show that at least one of the coiled-coil stalks is sufficient to bind the N-terminal region of DmKAP. The soluble complex involving the recombinant kinesin-2 fragments is reconstituted in vitro at high salt concentrations, suggesting that the interaction is primarily nonionic. Furthermore, independent distant homology modeling indicated that DmKAP may bind along the coiled-coil stalks through a combination of predominantly hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds. These observations led us to propose that KAP would stabilize the motor subunit heterodimer and help assemble a greater kinesin-2 complex in vivo. PMID:19161286

  7. Self assembly of coiled-coil peptide-porphyrin complexes.

    PubMed

    Kokona, Bashkim; Kim, Andrew M; Roden, R Claire; Daniels, Joshua P; Pepe-Mooney, Brian J; Kovaric, Brian C; de Paula, Julio C; Johnson, Karl A; Fairman, Robert

    2009-06-01

    We are interested in the controlled assembly of photoelectronic materials using peptides as scaffolds and porphyrins as the conducting material. We describe the integration of a peptide-based polymer strategy with the ability of designed basic peptides to bind anionic porphyrins in order to create regulated photoelectronically active biomaterials. We have described our peptide system in earlier work, which demonstrates the ability of a peptide to form filamentous materials made up of self-assembling coiled-coil structures. We have modified this peptide system to include lysine residues appropriately positioned to specifically bind meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphine (TPPS(4)), a porphyrin that contains four negatively charged sulfonate groups at neutral pH. We measure the binding of TPPS(4) to our peptide using UV--visible and fluorescence spectroscopies to follow the porphyrin signature. We determine the concomitant acquisition of helical secondary structure in the peptide upon TPPS(4) binding using circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. This binding fosters polymerization of the peptide, as shown by absorbance extinction effects in the peptide CD spectra. The morphologies of the peptide/porphyrin complexes, as imaged by atomic force microscopy, are consistent with the coiled-coil polymers that we had characterized earlier, except that the heights are slightly higher, consistent with porphyrin binding. Evidence for exciton coupling in the copolymers is shown by red-shifting in the UV--visible data, however, the coupling is weak based on a lack of fluorescence quenching in fluorescence experiments.

  8. Hg(II) binding to a weakly associated coiled coil nucleates an encoded metalloprotein fold: a kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Farrer, Brian T; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2003-04-01

    A detailed kinetic analysis of metal encapsulation by a de novo-designed protein is described. The kinetic mechanism of Hg(II) encapsulation in the three-stranded coiled coil formed by the peptide CH(3)CO-G LKALEEK CKALEEK LKALEEK G-NH(2) (Baby L9C) is derived by global analysis. The mechanism involves rapid initial collapse of two peptides by Hg(II) forming Hg(Baby L9C(-H))(2) with a linear thiolato Hg(II) bound to the cysteine sulfur atoms. Here, Baby L9C(-H) denotes Baby L9C with the cysteine thiol deprotonated. Addition of the third peptide, forming the three-stranded coiled coil, is the rate-determining step and results in an intermediate state involving two separate species. One of the species, termed the properly folded intermediate, undergoes rapid deprotonation of the third cysteine thiol, yielding the desired three-stranded coiled coil with an encapsulated trigonal thiolato Hg(II). The other species, termed the misfolded intermediate, rearranges in an experimentally distinguishable step to the properly folded intermediate. The order of the reaction involving the addition of the third peptide with respect to the concentration of Baby L9C indicates that addition of the third helix only occurs through reaction of Hg(Baby L9C(-H))(2) and Baby L9C that is unassociated with a coiled coil. Temperature dependence of the reaction afforded activation parameters for both the addition of the third helix (deltaH = 20(2) kcalmol; deltaS= 40(5) calmol K) and the rearrangement of the misfolded intermediate steps (deltaH = 23(2) kcalmol; deltaS= 27(5) calmol K). The mechanism is discussed with regard to metalloprotein folding and metalloprotein design.

  9. The Coiled-Coil Domain of EHD2 Mediates Inhibition of LeEix2 Endocytosis and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Maya; Sharfman, Miya; Schuster, Silvia; Avni, Adi

    2009-01-01

    Endocytosis has been suggested to be crucial for the induction of plant immunity in several cases. We have previously shown that two Arabidopsis proteins, AtEHD1 and AtEHD2, are involved in endocytosis in plant systems. AtEHD2 has an inhibitory effect on endocytosis of transferrin, FM-4-64, and LeEix2. There are many works in mammalian systems detailing the importance of the various domains in EHDs but, to date, the domains of plant EHD2 that are required for its inhibitory activity on endocytosis remained unknown. In this work we demonstrate that the coiled-coil domain of EHD2 is crucial for the ability of EHD2 to inhibit endocytosis in plants, as mutant EHD2 forms lacking the coiled-coil lost the ability to inhibit endocytosis and signaling of LeEix2. The coiled-coil was also required for binding of EHD2 to the LeEix2 receptor. It is therefore probable that binding of EHD2 to the LeEix2 receptor is required for inhibition of LeEix2 internalization. We also show herein that the P-loop of EHD2 is important for EHD2 to function properly. The EH domain of AtEHD2 does not appear to be involved in inhibition of endocytosis. Moreover, AtEHD2 influences actin organization and may exert its inhibitory effect on endocytosis through actin re-distribution. The coiled-coil domain of EHD2 functions in inhibition of endocytosis, while the EH domain does not appear to be involved in inhibition of endocytosis. PMID:19936242

  10. The coiled-coil domain of EHD2 mediates inhibition of LeEix2 endocytosis and signaling.

    PubMed

    Bar, Maya; Sharfman, Miya; Schuster, Silvia; Avni, Adi

    2009-01-01

    Endocytosis has been suggested to be crucial for the induction of plant immunity in several cases. We have previously shown that two Arabidopsis proteins, AtEHD1 and AtEHD2, are involved in endocytosis in plant systems. AtEHD2 has an inhibitory effect on endocytosis of transferrin, FM-4-64, and LeEix2. There are many works in mammalian systems detailing the importance of the various domains in EHDs but, to date, the domains of plant EHD2 that are required for its inhibitory activity on endocytosis remained unknown. In this work we demonstrate that the coiled-coil domain of EHD2 is crucial for the ability of EHD2 to inhibit endocytosis in plants, as mutant EHD2 forms lacking the coiled-coil lost the ability to inhibit endocytosis and signaling of LeEix2. The coiled-coil was also required for binding of EHD2 to the LeEix2 receptor. It is therefore probable that binding of EHD2 to the LeEix2 receptor is required for inhibition of LeEix2 internalization. We also show herein that the P-loop of EHD2 is important for EHD2 to function properly. The EH domain of AtEHD2 does not appear to be involved in inhibition of endocytosis. Moreover, AtEHD2 influences actin organization and may exert its inhibitory effect on endocytosis through actin re-distribution. The coiled-coil domain of EHD2 functions in inhibition of endocytosis, while the EH domain does not appear to be involved in inhibition of endocytosis. PMID:19936242

  11. Designed Coiled-Coil Peptides Inhibit the Type Three Secretion System of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Larzábal, Mariano; Mercado, Elsa C.; Vilte, Daniel A.; Salazar-González, Hector; Cataldi, Angel; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Background Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are two categories of E. coli strains associated with human disease. A major virulence factor of both pathotypes is the expression of a type three secretion system (TTSS), responsible for their ability to adhere to gut mucosa causing a characteristic attaching and effacing lesion (A/E). The TTSS translocates effector proteins directly into the host cell that subvert mammalian cell biochemistry. Methods/Principal Findings We examined synthetic peptides designed to inhibit the TTSS. CoilA and CoilB peptides, both representing coiled-coil regions of the translocator protein EspA, and CoilD peptide, corresponding to a coiled–coil region of the needle protein EscF, were effective in inhibiting the TTSS dependent hemolysis of red blood cells by the EPEC E2348/69 strain. CoilA and CoilB peptides also reduced the formation of actin pedestals by the same strain in HEp-2 cells and impaired the TTSS-mediated protein translocation into the epithelial cell. Interestingly, CoilA and CoilB were able to block EspA assembly, destabilizing the TTSS and thereby Tir translocation. This blockage of EspA polymerization by CoilA or CoilB peptides, also inhibited the correct delivery of EspB and EspD as detected by immunoblotting. Interestingly, electron microscopy of bacteria incubated with the CoilA peptide showed a reduction of the length of EspA filaments. Conclusions Our data indicate that coiled-coil peptides can prevent the assembly and thus the functionality of the TTSS apparatus and suggest that these peptides could provide an attractive tool to block EPEC and EHEC pathogenesis. PMID:20140230

  12. Oncogenic TPM3-ALK activation requires dimerization through the coiled-coil structure of TPM3

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, Yosuke; Ishikawa, Rie; Sakatani, Toshio; Ichinose, Junji; Sunohara, Mitsuhiro; Watanabe, Kousuke; Kage, Hidenori; Nakajima, Jun; Nagase, Takahide; Ohishi, Nobuya; Takai, Daiya

    2015-02-13

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a mesenchymal tumor that can arise from anywhere in the body. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements, most often resulting in the tropomyosin 3 (TPM3)-ALK fusion gene, are the main causes of IMT. However, the mechanism of malignant transformation in IMT has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of the TPM3 region in the transformation of IMT via TPM3-ALK. Lentivirus vectors containing a TPM3-ALK fusion gene lacking various lengths of TPM3 were constructed and expressed in HEK293T and NIH3T3 cell lines. Focus formation assay revealed loss of contact inhibition in NIH3T3 cells transfected with full-length TPM3-ALK, but not with ALK alone. Blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) revealed that TPM3-ALK dimerization increased in proportion to the length of TPM3. Western blot showed phosphorylation of ALK, ERK1/2, and STAT3 in HEK293T cells transfected with TPM3-ALK. Thus, the coiled-coil structure of TPM3 contributes to the transforming ability of the TPM3-ALK fusion protein, and longer TPM3 region leads to higher dimer formation. - Highlights: • TPM3-ALK fusion protein dimerizes through the coiled-coil structure of TPM3. • Longer coiled-coil structure of TPM3 leads to higher TPM3-ALK dimer formation. • Presence of TPM3-ALK dimer leads to ALK, STAT3, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. • Presence of TPM3-ALK leads to loss of contact inhibition. • BN-PAGE is a simple technique for visualizing oncogenic dimerization.

  13. Rationally designed coiled-coil DNA looping peptides control DNA topology.

    PubMed

    Gowetski, Daniel B; Kodis, Erin J; Kahn, Jason D

    2013-09-01

    Artificial DNA looping peptides were engineered to study the roles of protein and DNA flexibility in controlling the geometry and stability of protein-mediated DNA loops. These LZD (leucine zipper dual-binding) peptides were derived by fusing a second, C-terminal, DNA-binding region onto the GCN4 bZip peptide. Two variants with different coiled-coil lengths were designed to control the relative orientations of DNA bound at each end. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays verified formation of a sandwich complex containing two DNAs and one peptide. Ring closure experiments demonstrated that looping requires a DNA-binding site separation of 310 bp, much longer than the length needed for natural loops. Systematic variation of binding site separation over a series of 10 constructs that cyclize to form 862-bp minicircles yielded positive and negative topoisomers because of two possible writhed geometries. Periodic variation in topoisomer abundance could be modeled using canonical DNA persistence length and torsional modulus values. The results confirm that the LZD peptides are stiffer than natural DNA looping proteins, and they suggest that formation of short DNA loops requires protein flexibility, not unusual DNA bendability. Small, stable, tunable looping peptides may be useful as synthetic transcriptional regulators or components of protein-DNA nanostructures.

  14. SAS-6 coiled-coil structure and interaction with SAS-5 suggest a regulatory mechanism in C. elegans centriole assembly.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Renping; Cabral, Gabriela; Lettman, Molly M; Dammermann, Alexander; Dong, Gang

    2012-11-14

    The centriole is a conserved microtubule-based organelle essential for both centrosome formation and cilium biogenesis. Five conserved proteins for centriole duplication have been identified. Two of them, SAS-5 and SAS-6, physically interact with each other and are codependent for their targeting to procentrioles. However, it remains unclear how these two proteins interact at the molecular level. Here, we demonstrate that the short SAS-5 C-terminal domain (residues 390-404) specifically binds to a narrow central region (residues 275-288) of the SAS-6 coiled coil. This was supported by the crystal structure of the SAS-6 coiled-coil domain (CCD), which, together with mutagenesis studies, indicated that the association is mediated by synergistic hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. The crystal structure also shows a periodic charge pattern along the SAS-6 CCD, which gives rise to an anti-parallel tetramer. Overall, our findings establish the molecular basis of the specific interaction between SAS-5 and SAS-6, and suggest that both proteins individually adopt an oligomeric conformation that is disrupted upon the formation of the hetero-complex to facilitate the correct assembly of the nine-fold symmetric centriole.

  15. SAS-6 coiled-coil structure and interaction with SAS-5 suggest a regulatory mechanism in C. elegans centriole assembly

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Renping; Cabral, Gabriela; Lettman, Molly M; Dammermann, Alexander; Dong, Gang

    2012-01-01

    The centriole is a conserved microtubule-based organelle essential for both centrosome formation and cilium biogenesis. Five conserved proteins for centriole duplication have been identified. Two of them, SAS-5 and SAS-6, physically interact with each other and are codependent for their targeting to procentrioles. However, it remains unclear how these two proteins interact at the molecular level. Here, we demonstrate that the short SAS-5 C-terminal domain (residues 390–404) specifically binds to a narrow central region (residues 275–288) of the SAS-6 coiled coil. This was supported by the crystal structure of the SAS-6 coiled-coil domain (CCD), which, together with mutagenesis studies, indicated that the association is mediated by synergistic hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. The crystal structure also shows a periodic charge pattern along the SAS-6 CCD, which gives rise to an anti-parallel tetramer. Overall, our findings establish the molecular basis of the specific interaction between SAS-5 and SAS-6, and suggest that both proteins individually adopt an oligomeric conformation that is disrupted upon the formation of the hetero-complex to facilitate the correct assembly of the nine-fold symmetric centriole. PMID:23064147

  16. JunB potentiates function of BRCA1 activation domain 1 (AD1) through a coiled-coil-mediated interaction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yan-Fen; Li, Rong

    2002-01-01

    BRCA1 is involved in the regulation of multiple nuclear events including transcription. AD1, one of the two trans-activation domains in BRCA1, stimulates transcription in a cell context-dependent manner. Here, it is shown that BRCA1 interacts with Jun proteins via a coiled-coil motif in AD1 and the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) region of the Jun proteins. The Jun-interacting domain in BRCA1 is critical for AD1-mediated transcriptional activation. In particular, the strength of AD1 in transcriptional activation is limited by the JunB level and ectopic expression of JunB potentiates the transcriptional activity of AD1. Furthermore, JunB mRNA expression is down-regulated in many ovarian tumor tissues examined. Thus, the coiled-coil-mediated cooperation between BRCA1 and JunB may facilitate the function of these proteins in tissue-specific transcriptional regulation and tumor suppression. PMID:12080089

  17. A Reversible Association between Smc Coiled Coils Is Regulated by Lysine Acetylation and Is Required for Cohesin Association with the DNA.

    PubMed

    Kulemzina, Irina; Ang, Keven; Zhao, Xiaodan; Teh, Jun-Thing; Verma, Vikash; Suranthran, Sasikala; Chavda, Alap P; Huber, Roland G; Eisenhaber, Birgit; Eisenhaber, Frank; Yan, Jie; Ivanov, Dmitri

    2016-09-15

    Cohesin is a ring-shaped protein complex that is capable of embracing DNA. Most of the ring circumference is comprised of the anti-parallel intramolecular coiled coils of the Smc1 and Smc3 proteins, which connect globular head and hinge domains. Smc coiled coil arms contain multiple acetylated and ubiquitylated lysines. To investigate the role of these modifications, we substituted lysines for arginines to mimic the unmodified state and uncovered genetic interaction between the Smc arms. Using scanning force microscopy, we show that wild-type Smc arms associate with each other when the complex is not on DNA. Deacetylation of the Smc1/Smc3 dimers promotes arms' dissociation. Smc arginine mutants display loose packing of the Smc arms and, although they dimerize at the hinges, fail to connect the heads and associate with the DNA. Our findings highlight the importance of a "collapsed ring," or "rod," conformation of cohesin for its loading on the chromosomes. PMID:27618487

  18. The coiled-coil domain of zebrafish TRPM7 regulates Mg·nucleotide sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Chad; Sahni, Jaya; Suzuki, Sayuri; Horgen, F David; Penner, Reinhold; Fleig, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    TRPM7 is a member of the Transient-Receptor-Potential Melastatin ion channel family. TRPM7 is a unique fusion protein of an ion channel and an α-kinase. Although mammalian TRPM7 is well characterized biophysically and its pivotal role in cancer, ischemia and cardiovascular disease is becoming increasingly evident, the study of TRPM7 in mouse models has been hampered by embryonic lethality of transgenic ablations. In zebrafish, functional loss of TRPM7 (drTRPM7) manifests itself in an array of non-lethal physiological malfunctions. Here, we investigate the regulation of wild type drTRPM7 and multiple C-terminal truncation mutants. We find that the biophysical properties of drTRPM7 are very similar to mammalian TRPM7. However, pharmacological profiling reveals that drTRPM7 is facilitated rather than inhibited by 2-APB, and that the TRPM7 inhibitor waixenicin A has no effect. This is reminiscent of the pharmacological profile of human TRPM6, the sister channel kinase of TRPM7. Furthermore, using truncation mutations, we show that the coiled-coil domain of drTRPM7 is involved in the channel's regulation by magnesium (Mg) and Mg·adenosine triphosphate (Mg·ATP). We propose that drTRPM7 has two protein domains that regulate inhibition by intracellular magnesium and nucleotides, and one domain that is concerned with sensing magnesium only. PMID:27628598

  19. The coiled-coil domain of zebrafish TRPM7 regulates Mg·nucleotide sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Chad; Sahni, Jaya; Suzuki, Sayuri; Horgen, F. David; Penner, Reinhold; Fleig, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    TRPM7 is a member of the Transient-Receptor-Potential Melastatin ion channel family. TRPM7 is a unique fusion protein of an ion channel and an α-kinase. Although mammalian TRPM7 is well characterized biophysically and its pivotal role in cancer, ischemia and cardiovascular disease is becoming increasingly evident, the study of TRPM7 in mouse models has been hampered by embryonic lethality of transgenic ablations. In zebrafish, functional loss of TRPM7 (drTRPM7) manifests itself in an array of non-lethal physiological malfunctions. Here, we investigate the regulation of wild type drTRPM7 and multiple C-terminal truncation mutants. We find that the biophysical properties of drTRPM7 are very similar to mammalian TRPM7. However, pharmacological profiling reveals that drTRPM7 is facilitated rather than inhibited by 2-APB, and that the TRPM7 inhibitor waixenicin A has no effect. This is reminiscent of the pharmacological profile of human TRPM6, the sister channel kinase of TRPM7. Furthermore, using truncation mutations, we show that the coiled-coil domain of drTRPM7 is involved in the channel’s regulation by magnesium (Mg) and Mg·adenosine triphosphate (Mg·ATP). We propose that drTRPM7 has two protein domains that regulate inhibition by intracellular magnesium and nucleotides, and one domain that is concerned with sensing magnesium only. PMID:27628598

  20. Accessing Three-Dimensional Crystals with Incorporated Guests through Metal-Directed Coiled-Coil Peptide Assembly.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Manish; Sheedlo, Michael J; Das, Chittaranjan; Chmielewski, Jean

    2016-08-31

    Obtaining three-dimensional (3D) protein and peptide crystals on demand requires a precisely orchestrated hierarchical assembly of biopolymer building blocks. In this work, we disclose a metal-ion-mediated strategy to assemble trimeric coiled-coil peptides in a head-to-tail fashion into linear strands with interstrand interactions. This design led to hexagonal 3D peptide crystal formation within 30 min in the presence of divalent metal ions. The crystal morphology could be controlled by varying the metal ion/peptide ratio, resulting in hexagonal discs to rods. Diffraction studies elucidated the head-to-tail arrangement of the coiled-coil linear strands and their hexagonal, antiparallel packing within the crystal. Unsatisfied ligands at the hexagonal ends of the crystals were harnessed as a powerful means to direct His-tagged fluorophores to distinct locations within the crystals. Overall, the designed hierarchical assembly provides a facile means to obtain 3D peptide crystals and incorporate His-tag-based cargoes and may have potential use in drug delivery and sensor design. PMID:27500907

  1. Functional Analysis of the Bacteriophage T4 Rad50 Homolog (gp46) Coiled-coil Domain.

    PubMed

    Barfoot, Tasida; Herdendorf, Timothy J; Behning, Bryanna R; Stohr, Bradley A; Gao, Yang; Kreuzer, Kenneth N; Nelson, Scott W

    2015-09-25

    Rad50 and Mre11 form a complex involved in the detection and processing of DNA double strand breaks. Rad50 contains an anti-parallel coiled-coil with two absolutely conserved cysteine residues at its apex. These cysteine residues serve as a dimerization domain and bind a Zn(2+) cation in a tetrathiolate coordination complex known as the zinc-hook. Mutation of the zinc-hook in bacteriophage T4 is lethal, indicating the ability to bind Zn(2+) is critical for the functioning of the MR complex. In vitro, we found that complex formation between Rad50 and a peptide corresponding to the C-terminal domain of Mre11 enhances the ATPase activity of Rad50, supporting the hypothesis that the coiled-coil is a major conduit for communication between Mre11 and Rad50. We constructed mutations to perturb this domain in the bacteriophage T4 Rad50 homolog. Deletion of the Rad50 coiled-coil and zinc-hook eliminates Mre11 binding and ATPase activation but does not affect its basal activity. Mutation of the zinc-hook or disruption of the coiled-coil does not affect Mre11 or DNA binding, but their activation of Rad50 ATPase activity is abolished. Although these mutants excise a single nucleotide at a normal rate, they lack processivity and have reduced repetitive exonuclease rates. Restricting the mobility of the coiled-coil eliminates ATPase activation and repetitive exonuclease activity, but the ability to support single nucleotide excision is retained. These results suggest that the coiled-coiled domain adopts at least two conformations throughout the ATPase/nuclease cycle, with one conformation supporting enhanced ATPase activity and processivity and the other supporting nucleotide excision.

  2. Coiled-coil domain of PML is essential for the aberrant dynamics of PML-RAR{alpha}, resulting in sequestration and decreased mobility of SMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Ying; Qiu Jihui; Chen Guoqiang; Dong Shuo

    2008-01-11

    Promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor {alpha} (PML-RAR{alpha}) is the most frequent RAR{alpha} fusion protein in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Our previous study has demonstrated that, compared with RAR{alpha}, PML-RAR{alpha} had reduced intranuclear mobility accompanied with mislocalization. To understand the molecular basis for the altered dynamics of PML-RAR{alpha} fusion protein, we performed FRAP analysis at a single cell level. Results indicated that three known sumoylation site mutated PML-RAR{alpha} had same intracellular localization and reduced mobility as wild-type counterpart. The coiled-coil domain of PML is responsible for the aberrant dynamics of PML-RAR{alpha}. In addition, we revealed that co-repressor SMRT co-localized with PML-RAR{alpha}, resulting in the immobilization of SMRT while ATRA treatment eliminated their association and reversed the immobile effect of SMRT. Furthermore, co-activator CBP, co-localized with PML-RAR{alpha} in an ATRA-independent way, was demonstrated as a high dynamic intranuclear molecule. These results would shed new insights for the molecular mechanisms of PML-RAR{alpha}-associated leukemogenesis.

  3. Self-sorting heterodimeric coiled coil peptides with defined and tuneable self-assembly properties

    PubMed Central

    Aronsson, Christopher; Dånmark, Staffan; Zhou, Feng; Öberg, Per; Enander, Karin; Su, Haibin; Aili, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Coiled coils with defined assembly properties and dissociation constants are highly attractive components in synthetic biology and for fabrication of peptide-based hybrid nanomaterials and nanostructures. Complex assemblies based on multiple different peptides typically require orthogonal peptides obtained by negative design. Negative design does not necessarily exclude formation of undesired species and may eventually compromise the stability of the desired coiled coils. This work describe a set of four promiscuous 28-residue de novo designed peptides that heterodimerize and fold into parallel coiled coils. The peptides are non-orthogonal and can form four different heterodimers albeit with large differences in affinities. The peptides display dissociation constants for dimerization spanning from the micromolar to the picomolar range. The significant differences in affinities for dimerization make the peptides prone to thermodynamic social self-sorting as shown by thermal unfolding and fluorescence experiments, and confirmed by simulations. The peptides self-sort with high fidelity to form the two coiled coils with the highest and lowest affinities for heterodimerization. The possibility to exploit self-sorting of mutually complementary peptides could hence be a viable approach to guide the assembly of higher order architectures and a powerful strategy for fabrication of dynamic and tuneable nanostructured materials. PMID:26370878

  4. Salt effects on hydrophobic interaction and charge screening in the folding of a negatively charged peptide to a coiled coil (leucine zipper).

    PubMed

    Jelesarov, I; Dürr, E; Thomas, R M; Bosshard, H R

    1998-05-19

    The stability of a coiled coil or leucine zipper is controlled by hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic forces between the constituent helices. We have designed a 30-residue peptide with the repeating seven-residue pattern of a coiled coil, (abcdefg)n, and with Glu in positions e and g of each heptad. The glutamate side chains prevented folding at pH values above 6 because of electrostatic repulsion across the helix dimer interface as well as within the individual helices. Protonation of the carboxylates changed the conformation from a random coil monomer to a coiled coil dimer. Folding at alkaline pH where the peptide had a net charge of -7e was promoted by the addition of salts. The nature of the charge screening cation was less important than that of the anion. The high salt concentrations (>1 M) necessary to induce folding indicated that the salt-induced folding resulted from alterations in the protein-water interaction. Folding was promoted by the kosmotropic anions sulfate and fluoride and to a lesser extent by the weak kosmotrope formate, whereas chloride and the strong chaotrope perchlorate were ineffective. Kosmotropes are excluded from the protein surface, which is preferentially hydrated, and this promotes folding by strengthening hydrophobic interactions at the coiled coil interface. Although charge neutralization also contributed to folding, it was effective only when the screening cation was partnered by a good kosmotropic anion. Folding conformed to a two-state transition from random coil monomer to coiled coil dimer and was enthalpy driven and characterized by a change in the heat capacity of unfolding of 3.9 +/- 1.2 kJ mol-1 K-1. The rate of folding was analyzed by fluorescence stopped-flow measurements. Folding occurred in a biphasic reaction in which the rapid formation of an initial dimer (kf = 2 x 10(7) M-1 s-1) was followed by an equally rapid concentration-independent rearrangement to the folded dimer (k > 100 s-1).

  5. Salt effects on hydrophobic interaction and charge screening in the folding of a negatively charged peptide to a coiled coil (leucine zipper).

    PubMed

    Jelesarov, I; Dürr, E; Thomas, R M; Bosshard, H R

    1998-05-19

    The stability of a coiled coil or leucine zipper is controlled by hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic forces between the constituent helices. We have designed a 30-residue peptide with the repeating seven-residue pattern of a coiled coil, (abcdefg)n, and with Glu in positions e and g of each heptad. The glutamate side chains prevented folding at pH values above 6 because of electrostatic repulsion across the helix dimer interface as well as within the individual helices. Protonation of the carboxylates changed the conformation from a random coil monomer to a coiled coil dimer. Folding at alkaline pH where the peptide had a net charge of -7e was promoted by the addition of salts. The nature of the charge screening cation was less important than that of the anion. The high salt concentrations (>1 M) necessary to induce folding indicated that the salt-induced folding resulted from alterations in the protein-water interaction. Folding was promoted by the kosmotropic anions sulfate and fluoride and to a lesser extent by the weak kosmotrope formate, whereas chloride and the strong chaotrope perchlorate were ineffective. Kosmotropes are excluded from the protein surface, which is preferentially hydrated, and this promotes folding by strengthening hydrophobic interactions at the coiled coil interface. Although charge neutralization also contributed to folding, it was effective only when the screening cation was partnered by a good kosmotropic anion. Folding conformed to a two-state transition from random coil monomer to coiled coil dimer and was enthalpy driven and characterized by a change in the heat capacity of unfolding of 3.9 +/- 1.2 kJ mol-1 K-1. The rate of folding was analyzed by fluorescence stopped-flow measurements. Folding occurred in a biphasic reaction in which the rapid formation of an initial dimer (kf = 2 x 10(7) M-1 s-1) was followed by an equally rapid concentration-independent rearrangement to the folded dimer (k > 100 s-1). PMID:9585569

  6. The Structures of Coiled-Coil Domains from Type III Secretion System Translocators Reveal Homology to Pore-Forming Toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, Michael L.; Dickenson, Nicholas E.; Patil, Mrinalini; Keightley, Andrew; Wyckoff, Gerald J.; Picking, William D.; Picking, Wendy L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.

    2012-03-26

    Many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria utilize type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to alter the normal functions of target cells. Shigella flexneri uses its T3SS to invade human intestinal cells to cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) that is responsible for over one million deaths per year. The Shigella type III secretion apparatus is composed of a basal body spanning both bacterial membranes and an exposed oligomeric needle. Host altering effectors are secreted through this energized unidirectional conduit to promote bacterial invasion. The active needle tip complex of S. flexneri is composed of a tip protein, IpaD, and two pore-forming translocators, IpaB and IpaC. While the atomic structure of IpaD has been elucidated and studied, structural data on the hydrophobic translocators from the T3SS family remain elusive. We present here the crystal structures of a protease-stable fragment identified within the N-terminal regions of IpaB from S. flexneri and SipB from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium determined at 2.1 {angstrom} and 2.8 {angstrom} limiting resolution, respectively. These newly identified domains are composed of extended-length (114 {angstrom} in IpaB and 71 {angstrom} in SipB) coiled-coil motifs that display a high degree of structural homology to one another despite the fact that they share only 21% sequence identity. Further structural comparisons also reveal substantial similarity to the coiled-coil regions of pore-forming proteins from other Gram-negative pathogens, notably, colicin Ia. This suggests that these mechanistically separate and functionally distinct membrane-targeting proteins may have diverged from a common ancestor during the course of pathogen-specific evolutionary events.

  7. THE STRUCTURES OF COILED-COIL DOMAINS FROM TYPE THREE SECRETION SYSTEM TRANSLOCATORS REVEAL HOMOLOGY TO PORE-FORMING TOXINS

    PubMed Central

    Barta, Michael L.; Dickenson, Nicholas E.; Patil, Mrinalini; Keightley, Andrew; Wyckoff, Gerald J.; Picking, William D.; Picking, Wendy L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.

    2012-01-01

    Many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria utilize type III secretion systems (T3SS) to alter the normal functions of target cells. Shigella flexneri uses its T3SS to invade human intestinal cells to cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) which is responsible for over one million deaths per year. The Shigella type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) is comprised of a basal body spanning both bacterial membranes and an exposed oligomeric needle. Host altering effectors are secreted through this energized unidirectional conduit to promote bacterial invasion. The active needle tip complex of S. flexneri is composed of a tip protein, IpaD, and two pore-forming translocators, IpaB and IpaC. While the atomic structure of IpaD has been elucidated and studied, structural data on the hydrophobic translocators from the T3SS family remain elusive. We present here the crystal structures of a protease-stable fragment identified within the N-terminal regions of IpaB from S. flexneri and SipB from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium determined at 2.1 Å and 2.8 Å limiting resolution, respectively. These newly identified domains are comprised of extended length (114 Å in IpaB and 71 Å in SipB) coiled-coil motifs that display a high degree of structural homology to one another despite the fact that they share only 21% sequence identity. Further structural comparisons also reveal substantial similarity to the coiled-coil regions of pore-forming proteins from other Gram-negative pathogens, notably colicin Ia. This suggests that these mechanistically-separate and functionally-distinct membrane-targeting proteins may have diverged from a common ancestor during the course of pathogen-specific evolutionary events. PMID:22321794

  8. Designing a functional type 2 copper center that has nitrite reductase activity within α-helical coiled coils.

    PubMed

    Tegoni, Matteo; Yu, Fangting; Bersellini, Manuela; Penner-Hahn, James E; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2012-12-26

    One of the ultimate objectives of de novo protein design is to realize systems capable of catalyzing redox reactions on substrates. This goal is challenging as redox-active proteins require design considerations for both the reduced and oxidized states of the protein. In this paper, we describe the spectroscopic characterization and catalytic activity of a de novo designed metallopeptide Cu(I/II)(TRIL23H)(3)(+/2+), where Cu(I/II) is embeded in α-helical coiled coils, as a model for the Cu(T2) center of copper nitrite reductase. In Cu(I/II)(TRIL23H)(3)(+/2+), Cu(I) is coordinated to three histidines, as indicated by X-ray absorption data, and Cu(II) to three histidines and one or two water molecules. Both ions are bound in the interior of the three-stranded coiled coils with affinities that range from nano- to micromolar [Cu(II)], and picomolar [Cu(I)]. The Cu(His)(3) active site is characterized in both oxidation states, revealing similarities to the Cu(T2) site in the natural enzyme. The species Cu(II)(TRIL23H)(3)(2+) in aqueous solution can be reduced to Cu(I)(TRIL23H)(3)(+) using ascorbate, and reoxidized by nitrite with production of nitric oxide. At pH 5.8, with an excess of both the reductant (ascorbate) and the substrate (nitrite), the copper peptide Cu(II)(TRIL23H)(3)(2+) acts as a catalyst for the reduction of nitrite with at least five turnovers and no loss of catalytic efficiency after 3.7 h. The catalytic activity, which is first order in the concentration of the peptide, also shows a pH dependence that is described and discussed. PMID:23236170

  9. Designing a functional type 2 copper center that has nitrite reductase activity within α-helical coiled coils

    PubMed Central

    Tegoni, Matteo; Yu, Fangting; Bersellini, Manuela; Penner-Hahn, James E.; Pecoraro, Vincent L.

    2012-01-01

    One of the ultimate objectives of de novo protein design is to realize systems capable of catalyzing redox reactions on substrates. This goal is challenging as redox-active proteins require design considerations for both the reduced and oxidized states of the protein. In this paper, we describe the spectroscopic characterization and catalytic activity of a de novo designed metallopeptide Cu(I/II)(TRIL23H)3+/2+, where Cu(I/II) is embeded in α-helical coiled coils, as a model for the CuT2 center of copper nitrite reductase. In Cu(I/II)(TRIL23H)3+/2+, Cu(I) is coordinated to three histidines, as indicated by X-ray absorption data, and Cu(II) to three histidines and one or two water molecules. Both ions are bound in the interior of the three-stranded coiled coils with affinities that range from nano- to micromolar [Cu(II)], and picomolar [Cu(I)]. The Cu(His)3 active site is characterized in both oxidation states, revealing similarities to the CuT2 site in the natural enzyme. The species Cu(II)(TRIL23H)32+ in aqueous solution can be reduced to Cu(I)(TRIL23H)3+ using ascorbate, and reoxidized by nitrite with production of nitric oxide. At pH 5.8, with an excess of both the reductant (ascorbate) and the substrate (nitrite), the copper peptide Cu(II)(TRIL23H)32+ acts as a catalyst for the reduction of nitrite with at least five turnovers and no loss of catalytic efficiency after 3.7 h. The catalytic activity, which is first order in the concentration of the peptide, also shows a pH dependence that is described and discussed. PMID:23236170

  10. ELKS controls the pool of readily releasable vesicles at excitatory synapses through its N-terminal coiled-coil domains.

    PubMed

    Held, Richard G; Liu, Changliang; Kaeser, Pascal S

    2016-06-02

    In a presynaptic nerve terminal, synaptic strength is determined by the pool of readily releasable vesicles (RRP) and the probability of release (P) of each RRP vesicle. These parameters are controlled at the active zone and vary across synapses, but how such synapse specific control is achieved is not understood. ELKS proteins are enriched at vertebrate active zones and enhance P at inhibitory hippocampal synapses, but ELKS functions at excitatory synapses are not known. Studying conditional knockout mice for ELKS, we find that ELKS enhances the RRP at excitatory synapses without affecting P. Surprisingly, ELKS C-terminal sequences, which interact with RIM, are dispensable for RRP enhancement. Instead, the N-terminal ELKS coiled-coil domains that bind to Liprin-α and Bassoon are necessary to control RRP. Thus, ELKS removal has differential, synapse-specific effects on RRP and P, and our findings establish important roles for ELKS N-terminal domains in synaptic vesicle priming.

  11. Novel Anti-Nicotine Vaccine Using a Trimeric Coiled-Coil Hapten Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Keith D.; Roque, Richard; Clegg, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco addiction represents one of the largest public health problems in the world and is the leading cause of cancer and heart disease, resulting in millions of deaths a year. Vaccines for smoking cessation have shown considerable promise in preclinical models, although functional antibody responses induced in humans are only modestly effective in preventing nicotine entry into the brain. The challenge in generating serum antibodies with a large nicotine binding capacity is made difficult by the fact that this drug is non-immunogenic and must be conjugated as a hapten to a protein carrier. To circumvent the limitations of traditional carriers like keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), we have synthesized a short trimeric coiled-coil peptide (TCC) that creates a series of B and T cell epitopes with uniform stoichiometry and high density. Here we compared the relative activities of a TCC-nic vaccine and two control KLH-nic vaccines using Alum as an adjuvant or GLA-SE, which contains a synthetic TLR4 agonist formulated in a stable oil-in-water emulsion. The results showed that the TCC's high hapten density correlated with a better immune response in mice as measured by anti-nicotine Ab titer, affinity, and specificity, and was responsible for a reduction in anti-carrier immunogenicity. The Ab responses achieved with this synthetic vaccine resulted in a nicotine binding capacity in serum that could prevent >90% of a nicotine dose equivalent to three smoked cigarettes (0.05 mg/kg) from reaching the brain. PMID:25494044

  12. Inter-molecular coiled-coil formation in human apolipoprotein E C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Choy, Nicole; Raussens, Vincent; Narayanaswami, Vasanthy

    2003-11-28

    Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) is composed of an N-terminal (NT) domain (residues 1-191) that bears low-density lipoprotein receptor-binding sites, and a C-terminal (CT) domain (residues 210-299), which houses lipoprotein binding and apoE self-association sites. The NT domain is comprised of a four-helix bundle, while the structural organization of the CT domain is not known. Secondary structural algorithms predict that the apoE CT domain adopts an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation. On the basis of further sequence predictions, we identified a segment (residues 218-266) in the apoE CT domain that bears a high propensity to form a coiled-coil helix, which coincides with the putative lipoprotein-binding surface. An apoE construct bearing residues 201-299 that encompasses the entire CT domain was designed, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy of the apoE CT domain reveals spectra characteristic of coiled-coil helices, with the ratio of molar ellipticities at 222 nm and 208 nm ([theta](222)/[theta](208)) of 1.03. Trifluoroethanol (TFE) stabilized the secondary structure of the apoE CT domain and disrupted coiled-coil helix formation as determined by CD and tryptophan fluorescence analysis. Analytical ultracentrifugation and lysine-specific cross-linking analysis of the apoE CT domain revealed predominant formation of dimeric and tetrameric species in aqueous buffers, and monomeric forms in 50% TFE. Guanidine hydrochloride-induced denaturation studies reveal that, at low concentrations of denaturant, the apoE CT domain maintains the [theta](222)/[theta](208) ratio at approximately 1.0 and elicits an altered tertiary environment with a shift in oligomeric state towards a dimer, indicative of the role of coiled-coil helix formation in inter molecular interactions. Further, coiled-coil formation is disrupted by protonation below pH 6.0, with a corresponding decrease in Trp fluorescence emission

  13. IMPROVED COILED-COIL DESIGN ENHANCES INTERACTION WITH BCR-ABL AND INDUCES APOPTOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Andrew S.; Miller, Geoffrey D.; Bruno, Benjamin J.; Constance, Jonathan E.; Woessner, David W.; Fidler, Trevor P.; Robertson, James C.; Cheatham, Thomas E.; Lim, Carol S.

    2012-01-01

    The oncoprotein Bcr-Abl drives aberrant downstream activity through trans-autophosphorylation of homo-oligomers in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).1,2 The formation of Bcr-Abl oligomers is achieved through the coiled-coil domain at the N-terminus of Bcr.3, 4 We have previously reported a modified version of this coiled-coil domain, CCmut2, which exhibits disruption of Bcr-Abl oligomeric complexes and results in decreased proliferation of CML cells and induction of apoptosis.5 A major contributing factor to these enhanced capabilities is the destabilization of the CCmut2 homo-dimers, increasing the availability to interact with and inhibit Bcr-Abl. Here, we included an additional mutation (K39E) that could in turn further destabilize the mutant homo-dimer. Incorporation of this modification into CCmut2 (C38A, S41R, L45D, E48R, Q60E) generated what we termed CCmut3, and resulted in further improvements in the binding properties with the wild-type coiled-coil domain representative of Bcr-Abl. A separate construct containing one revert mutation, CCmut4, did not demonstrate improved oligomeric properties and indicated the importance of the L45D mutation. CCmut3 demonstrated improved oligomerization via a two-hybrid assay as well as through colocalization studies, in addition to showing similar biologic activity as CCmut2. The improved binding between CCmut3 and the Bcr-Abl coiled-coil may be used to redirect Bcr-Abl to alternative subcellular locations with interesting therapeutic implications. PMID:22136227

  14. Application of Coiled Coil Peptides in Liposomal Anticancer Drug Delivery Using a Zebrafish Xenograft Model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Shimada, Yasuhito; Olsthoorn, René C L; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa; Spaink, Herman P; Kros, Alexander

    2016-08-23

    The complementary coiled coil forming peptides E4 [(EIAALEK)4] and K4 [(KIAALKE)4] are known to trigger liposomal membrane fusion when tethered to lipid vesicles in the form of lipopeptides. In this study, we examined whether these coiled coil forming peptides can be used for drug delivery applications. First, we prepared E4 peptide modified liposomes containing the far-red fluorescent dye TO-PRO-3 iodide (E4-Lipo-TP3) and confirmed that E4-liposomes could deliver TP3 into HeLa cells expressing K4 peptide on the membrane (HeLa-K) under cell culture conditions in a selective manner. Next, we prepared doxorubicin-containing E4-liposomes (E4-Lipo-DOX) and confirmed that E4-liposomes could also deliver DOX into HeLa-K cells. Moreover, E4-Lipo-DOX showed enhanced cytotoxicity toward HeLa-K cells compared to free doxorubicin. To prove the suitability of E4/K4 coiled coil formation for in vivo drug delivery, we injected E4-Lipo-TP3 or E4-Lipo-DOX into zebrafish xenografts of HeLa-K. As a result, E4-liposomes delivered TP3 to the implanted HeLa-K cells, and E4-Lipo-DOX could suppress cancer proliferation in the xenograft when compared to nontargeted conditions (i.e., zebrafish xenograft with free DOX injection). These data demonstrate that coiled coil formation enables drug selectivity and efficacy in vivo. It is envisaged that these findings are a step forward toward biorthogonal targeting systems as a tool for clinical drug delivery. PMID:27504667

  15. Tailored Presentation of Carbohydrates on a Coiled Coil-Based Scaffold for Asialoglycoprotein Receptor Targeting.

    PubMed

    Zacco, Elsa; Hütter, Julia; Heier, Jason L; Mortier, Jérémie; Seeberger, Peter H; Lepenies, Bernd; Koksch, Beate

    2015-09-18

    The coiled-coil folding motif represents an ideal scaffold for the defined presentation of ligands due to the possibility of positioning them at specific distances along the axis. We created a coiled-coil glycopeptide library to characterize the distances between the carbohydrate-binding sites of the asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) on hepatocytes. The components of the glycopeptide library vary for the number of displayed ligands (galactose), their position on the peptide sequence, and the space between peptide backbone and carbohydrate. We determined the binding of the glycopeptides to the hepatocytes, and we established the optimal distance and orientation of the galactose moieties for interaction with the ASGPR using flow cytometry. We confirmed that the binding occurs through endocytosis mediated by ASGPR via inhibition studies with cytochalasin D; fluorescence microscopy studies display the uptake of the carrier peptides inside the cell. Thus, this study demonstrates that the coiled-coil motif can be used as reliable scaffold for the rational presentation of ligands.

  16. Three novel mutations in KIF21A highlight the importance of the third coiled-coil stalk domain in the etiology of CFEOM1

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wai-Man; Andrews, Caroline; Dragan, Laryssa; Fredrick, Douglas; Armstrong, Linlea; Lyons, Christopher; Geraghty, Michael T; Hunter, David G; Yazdani, Ahmad; Traboulsi, Elias I; Pott, Jan WR; Gutowski, Nicholas J; Ellard, Sian; Young, Elizabeth; Hanisch, Frank; Koc, Feray; Schnall, Bruce; Engle, Elizabeth C

    2007-01-01

    Background Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles types 1 and 3 (CFEOM1/CFEOM3) are autosomal dominant strabismus disorders that appear to result from maldevelopment of ocular nuclei and nerves. We previously reported that most individuals with CFEOM1 and rare individuals with CFEOM3 harbor heterozygous mutations in KIF21A. KIF21A encodes a kinesin motor involved in anterograde axonal transport, and the familial and de novo mutations reported to date predictably alter one of only a few KIF21A amino acids – three within the third coiled-coil region of the stalk and one in the distal motor domain, suggesting they result in altered KIF21A function. To further define the spectrum of KIF21A mutations in CFEOM we have now identified all CFEOM probands newly enrolled in our study and determined if they harbor mutations in KIF21A. Results Sixteen CFEOM1 and 29 CFEOM3 probands were studied. Three previously unreported de novo KIF21A mutations were identified in three CFEOM1 probands, all located in the same coiled-coil region of the stalk that contains all but one of the previously reported mutations. Eight additional CFEOM1 probands harbored three of the mutations previously reported in KIF21A; seven had one of the two most common mutations, while one harbored the mutation in the distal motor domain. No mutation was detected in 5 CFEOM1 or any CFEOM3 probands. Conclusion Analysis of sixteen CFEOM1 probands revealed three novel KIF21A mutations and confirmed three reported mutations, bringing the total number of reported KIF21A mutations in CFEOM1 to 11 mutations among 70 mutation positive probands. All three new mutations alter amino acids in heptad repeats within the third coiled-coil region of the KIF21A stalk, further highlighting the importance of alterations in this domain in the etiology of CFEOM1. PMID:17511870

  17. Polymerization and nucleic acid-binding properties of human L1 ORF1 protein.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Kathryn E; Hickman, Alison B; Jones, Charles E; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Furano, Anthony V

    2012-01-01

    The L1 (LINE 1) retrotransposable element encodes two proteins, ORF1p and ORF2p. ORF2p is the L1 replicase, but the role of ORF1p is unknown. Mouse ORF1p, a coiled-coil-mediated trimer of ∼42-kDa monomers, binds nucleic acids and has nucleic acid chaperone activity. We purified human L1 ORF1p expressed in insect cells and made two findings that significantly advance our knowledge of the protein. First, in the absence of nucleic acids, the protein polymerizes under the very conditions (0.05 M NaCl) that are optimal for high (∼1 nM)-affinity nucleic acid binding. The non-coiled-coil C-terminal half mediates formation of the polymer, an active conformer that is instantly resolved to trimers, or multimers thereof, by nucleic acid. Second, the protein has a biphasic effect on mismatched double-stranded DNA, a proxy chaperone substrate. It protects the duplex from dissociation at 37°C before eventually melting it when largely polymeric. Therefore, polymerization of ORF1p seemingly affects its interaction with nucleic acids. Additionally, polymerization of ORF1p at its translation site could explain the heretofore-inexplicable phenomenon of cis preference-the favored retrotransposition of the actively translated L1 transcript, which is essential for L1 survival. PMID:21937507

  18. Identification of a region in the coiled-coil domain of Smc3 that is essential for cohesin activity.

    PubMed

    Orgil, Ola; Mor, Hadar; Matityahu, Avi; Onn, Itay

    2016-07-27

    The cohesin complex plays an important role in sister chromatin cohesion. Cohesin's core is composed of two structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) proteins, called Smc1 and Smc3. SMC proteins are built from a globular hinge domain, a rod-shaped domain composed of long anti-parallel coiled-coil (CC), and a second globular adenosine triphosphatase domain called the head. The functions of both head and hinge domains have been studied extensively, yet the function of the CC region remains elusive. We identified a mutation in the CC of smc3 (L217P) that disrupts the function of the protein. Cells carrying the smc3-L217P allele have a strong cohesion defect and complexes containing smc3-L217P are not loaded onto the chromosomes. However, the mutation does not affect inter-protein interactions in either the core complex or with the Scc2 loader. We show by molecular dynamics and biochemistry that wild-type Smc3 can adopt distinct conformations, and that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) induces the conformational change. The L217P mutation restricts the ability of the mutated protein to switch between the conformations. We suggest that the function of the CC is to transfer ATP binding/hydrolysis signals between the head and the hinge domains. The results provide a new insight into the mechanism of cohesin activity. PMID:27307603

  19. The DNA rearrangement that generates the TRK-T3 oncogene involves a novel gene on chromosome 3 whose product has a potential coiled-coil domain.

    PubMed Central

    Greco, A; Mariani, C; Miranda, C; Lupas, A; Pagliardini, S; Pomati, M; Pierotti, M A

    1995-01-01

    Oncogenic rearrangements of the NTRK1 gene (also designated TRKA), encoding one of the receptors for the nerve growth factor, are frequently detected in thyroid carcinomas. Such rearrangements fuse the NTRK1 tyrosine kinase domain to 5'-end sequences belonging to different genes. In previously reported studies we have demonstrated that NTRK1 oncogenic activation involves two genes, TPM3 and TPR, both localized similarly to the receptor tyrosine kinase, on the q arm of chromosome 1. Here we report the characterization of a novel NTRK1-derived thyroid oncogene, named TRK-T3. A cDNA clone, capable of transforming activity, was isolated from a transformant cell line. Sequence analysis revealed that TRK-T3 contains 1,412 nucleotides of NTRK1 preceded by 598 nucleotides belonging to a novel gene that we have named TFG (TRK-fused gene). The TRK-T3 amino acid sequence displays, within the TFG region, a coiled-coil motif that could endow the oncoprotein with the capability to form complexes. The TRK-T3 oncogene encodes a 68-kDa cytoplasmic protein reacting with NTRK1-specific antibodies. By sedimentation gradient experiments the TRK-T3 oncoprotein was shown to form, in vivo, multimeric complexes, most likely trimers or tetramers. The TFG gene is ubiquitously expressed and is located on chromosome 3. The breakpoint producing the TRK-T3 oncogene occurs within exons of both the TFG gene and the NTRK1 gene and produces a chimeric exon that undergoes alternative splicing. Molecular analysis of the NTRK1 rearranged fragments indicated that the chromosomal rearrangement is reciprocal and balanced and involves loss of a few nucleotides of germ line sequences. PMID:7565764

  20. Mitochondrial Hsp90 is a ligand-activated molecular chaperone coupling ATP binding to dimer closure through a coiled-coil intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Nuri; Lee, Jungsoon; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Chang, Changsoo; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Lee, Sukyeong; Tsai, Francis T. F.

    2016-01-01

    Heat-shock protein of 90 kDa (Hsp90) is an essential molecular chaperone that adopts different 3D structures associated with distinct nucleotide states: a wide-open, V-shaped dimer in the apo state and a twisted, N-terminally closed dimer with ATP. Although the N domain is known to mediate ATP binding, how Hsp90 senses the bound nucleotide and facilitates dimer closure remains unclear. Here we present atomic structures of human mitochondrial Hsp90N (TRAP1N) and a composite model of intact TRAP1 revealing a previously unobserved coiled-coil dimer conformation that may precede dimer closure and is conserved in intact TRAP1 in solution. Our structure suggests that TRAP1 normally exists in an autoinhibited state with the ATP lid bound to the nucleotide-binding pocket. ATP binding displaces the ATP lid that signals the cis-bound ATP status to the neighboring subunit in a highly cooperative manner compatible with the coiled-coil intermediate state. We propose that TRAP1 is a ligand-activated molecular chaperone, which couples ATP binding to dramatic changes in local structure required for protein folding. PMID:26929380

  1. X-Ray Crystal Structure of a TRPM Assembly Domain Reveals An Antiparallel Four-Stranded Coiled-Coil

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Y.; Minor, D.L.; Jr.

    2009-05-18

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels comprise a large family of tetrameric cation-selective ion channels that respond to diverse forms of sensory input. Earlier studies showed that members of the TRPM subclass possess a self-assembling tetrameric C-terminal cytoplasmic coiled-coil domain that underlies channel assembly and trafficking. Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structure of the coiled-coil domain of the channel enzyme TRPM7. The crystal structure, together with biochemical experiments, reveals an unexpected four-stranded antiparallel coiled-coil architecture that bears unique features relative to other antiparallel coiled-coils. Structural analysis indicates that a limited set of interactions encode assembly specificity determinants and uncovers a previously unnoticed segregation of TRPM assembly domains into two families that correspond with the phylogenetic divisions seen for the complete subunits. Together, the data provide a framework for understanding the mechanism of TRPM channel assembly and highlight the diversity of forms found in the coiled-coil fold.

  2. X-ray crystal structure of a TRPM assembly domain reveals an antiparallel four-stranded coiled-coil.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Minor, Daniel L

    2008-11-21

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels comprise a large family of tetrameric cation-selective ion channels that respond to diverse forms of sensory input. Earlier studies showed that members of the TRPM subclass possess a self-assembling tetrameric C-terminal cytoplasmic coiled-coil domain that underlies channel assembly and trafficking. Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structure of the coiled-coil domain of the channel enzyme TRPM7. The crystal structure, together with biochemical experiments, reveals an unexpected four-stranded antiparallel coiled-coil architecture that bears unique features relative to other antiparallel coiled-coils. Structural analysis indicates that a limited set of interactions encode assembly specificity determinants and uncovers a previously unnoticed segregation of TRPM assembly domains into two families that correspond with the phylogenetic divisions seen for the complete subunits. Together, the data provide a framework for understanding the mechanism of TRPM channel assembly and highlight the diversity of forms found in the coiled-coil fold. PMID:18782578

  3. The Heterotrimeric Laminin Coiled-Coil Domain Exerts Anti-Adhesive Effects and Induces a Pro-Invasive Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Valle, Patricia; Guijarro-Muñoz, Irene; Cuesta, Ángel M.; Alonso-Camino, Vanesa; Villate, Maider; Álvarez-Cienfuegos, Ana; Blanco, Francisco J.; Sanz, Laura; Álvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Laminins are large heterotrimeric cross-shaped extracellular matrix glycoproteins with terminal globular domains and a coiled-coil region through which the three chains are assembled and covalently linked. Laminins are key components of basement membranes, and they serve as attachment sites for cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. In this work, we produced a recombinant fragment comprising the entire laminin coiled-coil of the α1-, β1-, and γ1-chains that assemble into a stable heterotrimeric coiled-coil structure independently of the rest of the molecule. This domain was biologically active and not only failed to serve as a substrate for cell attachment, spreading and focal adhesion formation but also inhibited cell adhesion to laminin when added to cells in a soluble form at the time of seeding. Furthermore, gene array expression profiling in cells cultured in the presence of the laminin coiled-coil domain revealed up-regulation of genes involved in cell motility and invasion. These findings were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and zymography assays. In conclusion, this study shows for the first time that the laminin coiled-coil domain displays anti-adhesive functions and has potential implications for cell migration during matrix remodeling. PMID:22723936

  4. STIM1/Orai1 coiled-coil interplay in the regulation of store-operated calcium entry

    PubMed Central

    Stathopulos, Peter B.; Schindl, Rainer; Fahrner, Marc; Zheng, Le; Gasmi-Seabrook, Geneviève M.; Muik, Martin; Romanin, Christoph; Ikura, Mitsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Orai1 calcium channels in the plasma membrane are activated by stromal interaction molecule-1 (STIM1), an endoplasmic reticulum calcium sensor, to mediate store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). The cytosolic region of STIM1 contains a long putative coiled-coil (CC)1 segment and shorter CC2 and CC3 domains. Here we present solution nuclear magnetic resonance structures of a trypsin-resistant CC1–CC2 fragment in the apo and Orai1-bound states. Each CC1–CC2 subunit forms a U-shaped structure that homodimerizes through antiparallel interactions between equivalent α-helices. The CC2:CC2′ helix pair clamps two identical acidic Orai1 C-terminal helices at opposite ends of a hydrophobic/basic STIM–Orai association pocket. STIM1 mutants disrupting CC1:CC1′ interactions attenuate, while variants promoting CC1 stability spontaneously activate Orai1 currents. CC2 mutations cause remarkable variability in Orai1 activation because of a dual function in binding Orai1 and autoinhibiting STIM1 oligomerization via interactions with CC3. We conclude that SOCE is activated through dynamic interplay between STIM1 and Orai1 helices. PMID:24351972

  5. A Coiled-Coil Mimetic Intercepts BCR-ABL1 Dimerization in Native and Kinase-Mutant Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Woessner, David W.; Eiring, Anna M.; Bruno, Benjamin J.; Zabriskie, Matthew S.; Reynolds, Kimberly R.; Miller, Geoffrey D.; O’Hare, Thomas; Deininger, Michael W.; Lim, Carol S.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia is currently based on small-molecule inhibitors that directly bind the tyrosine kinase domain of BCR-ABL1. This strategy has generally been successful, but is subject to drug resistance due to point mutations in the kinase domain. Kinase activity requires transactivation of BCR-ABL1 following an oligomerization event, which is mediated by the coiled-coil (CC) domain at the N-terminus of the protein. Here, we describe a rationally engineered mutant version of the CC domain, called CCmut3, which interferes with BCR-ABL1 oligomerization and promotes apoptosis in BCR-ABL1-expressing cells, regardless of kinase domain mutation status. CCmut3 exhibits strong pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative activity in cell lines expressing native BCR-ABL1, single kinase domain mutant BCR-ABL1 (E255V and T315I) or compound mutant BCR-ABL1 (E255V/T315I). Moreover, CCmut3 inhibits colony formation by primary CML CD34+ cells ex vivo, including a sample expressing the T315I mutant. These data suggest that targeting BCR-ABL1 with CC mutants may provide a novel alternative strategy for treating patients with resistance to current targeted therapies. PMID:25721898

  6. ELKS controls the pool of readily releasable vesicles at excitatory synapses through its N-terminal coiled-coil domains

    PubMed Central

    Held, Richard G; Liu, Changliang; Kaeser, Pascal S

    2016-01-01

    In a presynaptic nerve terminal, synaptic strength is determined by the pool of readily releasable vesicles (RRP) and the probability of release (P) of each RRP vesicle. These parameters are controlled at the active zone and vary across synapses, but how such synapse specific control is achieved is not understood. ELKS proteins are enriched at vertebrate active zones and enhance P at inhibitory hippocampal synapses, but ELKS functions at excitatory synapses are not known. Studying conditional knockout mice for ELKS, we find that ELKS enhances the RRP at excitatory synapses without affecting P. Surprisingly, ELKS C-terminal sequences, which interact with RIM, are dispensable for RRP enhancement. Instead, the N-terminal ELKS coiled-coil domains that bind to Liprin-α and Bassoon are necessary to control RRP. Thus, ELKS removal has differential, synapse-specific effects on RRP and P, and our findings establish important roles for ELKS N-terminal domains in synaptic vesicle priming. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14862.001 PMID:27253063

  7. Arabidopsis COP1 SUPPRESSOR 2 Represses COP1 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity through Their Coiled-Coil Domains Association

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Ling, Junjie; Hettiarachchi, Chamari; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Wei, Ning; Deng, Xing Wang

    2015-01-01

    CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase and mediates a variety of developmental processes in Arabidopsis by targeting a number of key regulators for ubiquitination and degradation. Here, we identify a novel COP1 interacting protein, COP1 SUPPRESSOR 2 (CSU2). Loss of function mutations in CSU2 suppress the constitutive photomorphogenic phenotype of cop1-6 in darkness. CSU2 directly interacts with COP1 via their coiled-coil domains and is recruited by COP1 into nuclear speckles in living plant cells. Furthermore, CSU2 inhibits COP1 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro, and represses COP1 mediated turnover of HY5 in cell-free extracts. We propose that in csu2 cop1-6 mutants, the lack of CSU2’s repression of COP1 allows the low level of COP1 to exhibit higher activity that is sufficient to prevent accumulation of HY5 in the dark, thus restoring the etiolated phenotype. In addition, CSU2 is required for primary root development under normal light growth condition. PMID:26714275

  8. Insights into the coiled-coil organization of the Hendra virus phosphoprotein from combined biochemical and SAXS studies.

    PubMed

    Beltrandi, Matilde; Blocquel, David; Erales, Jenny; Barbier, Pascale; Cavalli, Andrea; Longhi, Sonia

    2015-03-01

    Nipah and Hendra viruses are recently emerged paramyxoviruses belonging to the Henipavirus genus. The Henipavirus phosphoprotein (P) consists of a large intrinsically disordered domain and a C-terminal domain (PCT) containing alternating disordered and ordered regions. Among these latter is the P multimerization domain (PMD). Using biochemical, analytical ultracentrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies, we show that Hendra virus (HeV) PMD forms an elongated coiled-coil homotrimer in solution, in agreement with our previous findings on Nipah virus (NiV) PMD. However, the orientation of the N-terminal region differs from that observed in solution for NiV PMD, consistent with the ability of this region to adopt different conformations. SAXS studies provided evidence for a trimeric organization also in the case of PCT, thus extending and strengthening our findings on PMD. The present results are discussed in light of conflicting reports in the literature pointing to a tetrameric organization of paramyxoviral P proteins.

  9. Mapping of the Neisseria meningitidis NadA Cell-Binding Site: Relevance of Predicted α-Helices in the NH2-Terminal and Dimeric Coiled-Coil Regions▿

    PubMed Central

    Tavano, Regina; Capecchi, Barbara; Montanari, Paolo; Franzoso, Susanna; Marin, Oriano; Sztukowska, Maryta; Cecchini, Paola; Segat, Daniela; Scarselli, Maria; Aricò, Beatrice; Papini, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    NadA is a trimeric autotransporter protein of Neisseria meningitidis belonging to the group of oligomeric coiled-coil adhesins. It is implicated in the colonization of the human upper respiratory tract by hypervirulent serogroup B N. meningitidis strains and is part of a multiantigen anti-serogroup B vaccine. Structure prediction indicates that NadA is made by a COOH-terminal membrane anchor (also necessary for autotranslocation to the bacterial surface), an intermediate elongated coiled-coil-rich stalk, and an NH2-terminal region involved in cell interaction. Electron microscopy analysis and structure prediction suggest that the apical region of NadA forms a compact and globular domain. Deletion studies proved that the NH2-terminal sequence (residues 24 to 87) is necessary for cell adhesion. In this study, to better define the NadA cell binding site, we exploited (i) a panel of NadA mutants lacking sequences along the coiled-coil stalk and (ii) several oligoclonal rabbit antibodies, and their relative Fab fragments, directed to linear epitopes distributed along the NadA ectodomain. We identified two critical regions for the NadA-cell receptor interaction with Chang cells: the NH2 globular head domain and the NH2 dimeric intrachain coiled-coil α-helices stemming from the stalk. This raises the importance of different modules within the predicted NadA structure. The identification of linear epitopes involved in receptor binding that are able to induce interfering antibodies reinforces the importance of NadA as a vaccine antigen. PMID:20971901

  10. Mapping of the Neisseria meningitidis NadA cell-binding site: relevance of predicted {alpha}-helices in the NH2-terminal and dimeric coiled-coil regions.

    PubMed

    Tavano, Regina; Capecchi, Barbara; Montanari, Paolo; Franzoso, Susanna; Marin, Oriano; Sztukowska, Maryta; Cecchini, Paola; Segat, Daniela; Scarselli, Maria; Aricò, Beatrice; Papini, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    NadA is a trimeric autotransporter protein of Neisseria meningitidis belonging to the group of oligomeric coiled-coil adhesins. It is implicated in the colonization of the human upper respiratory tract by hypervirulent serogroup B N. meningitidis strains and is part of a multiantigen anti-serogroup B vaccine. Structure prediction indicates that NadA is made by a COOH-terminal membrane anchor (also necessary for autotranslocation to the bacterial surface), an intermediate elongated coiled-coil-rich stalk, and an NH(2)-terminal region involved in cell interaction. Electron microscopy analysis and structure prediction suggest that the apical region of NadA forms a compact and globular domain. Deletion studies proved that the NH(2)-terminal sequence (residues 24 to 87) is necessary for cell adhesion. In this study, to better define the NadA cell binding site, we exploited (i) a panel of NadA mutants lacking sequences along the coiled-coil stalk and (ii) several oligoclonal rabbit antibodies, and their relative Fab fragments, directed to linear epitopes distributed along the NadA ectodomain. We identified two critical regions for the NadA-cell receptor interaction with Chang cells: the NH(2) globular head domain and the NH(2) dimeric intrachain coiled-coil α-helices stemming from the stalk. This raises the importance of different modules within the predicted NadA structure. The identification of linear epitopes involved in receptor binding that are able to induce interfering antibodies reinforces the importance of NadA as a vaccine antigen.

  11. SUMO modification of TBK1 at the adaptor-binding C-terminal coiled-coil domain contributes to its antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Saul, Vera V; Niedenthal, Rainer; Pich, Andreas; Weber, Friedemann; Schmitz, M Lienhard

    2015-01-01

    The non-canonical IKK kinase TBK1 serves as an important signal transmitter of the antiviral interferon response, but is also involved in the regulation of further processes such as autophagy. The activity of TBK1 is regulated by posttranslational modifications comprising phosphorylation and ubiquitination. This study identifies SUMOylation as a novel posttranslational TBK1 modification. TBK1 kinase activity is required to allow the attachment of SUMO1 or SUMO2/3 proteins. Since TBK1 does not bind to the E2 enzyme Ubc9, this modification most likely proceeds via trans-SUMOylation. Mass spectrometry allowed identifying K694 as the SUMO acceptor site, a residue located in the C-terminal coiled-coil domain which is exclusively responsible for the association with the adaptor proteins NAP1, Sintbad and TANK. SUMO modification at K694 contributes to the antiviral function of TBK1 and accordingly the viral protein Gam1 antagonizes this posttranslational modification. PMID:25409927

  12. Importance of the gamma-aminobutyric acid(B) receptor C-termini for G-protein coupling.

    PubMed

    Grünewald, Sylvia; Schupp, Bettina J; Ikeda, Stephen R; Kuner, Rohini; Steigerwald, Frank; Kornau, Hans-Christian; Köhr, Georg

    2002-05-01

    Functional gamma-aminobutyric acid(B) (GABA(B)) receptors assemble from two subunits, GABA(B(1)) and GABA(B(2).) This heteromerization, which involves a C-terminal coiled-coil interaction, ensures efficient surface trafficking and agonist-dependent G-protein activation. In the present study, we took a closer look at the implications of the intracellular C termini of GABA(B(1)) and GABA(B(2)) for G-protein coupling. We generated a series of C-terminal mutants of GABA(B(1)) and GABA(B(2)) and tested them for physical interaction, surface trafficking, coupling to adenylyl cyclase, and G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells as well as on endogenous calcium channels in sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG). We found that the C-terminal interaction contributes only partly to the heterodimeric assembly of the subunits, indicating the presence of an additional interaction site. The described endoplasmic reticulum retention signal within the C terminus of GABA(B(1)) functioned only in the context of specific amino acids, which constitute part of the GABA(B(1)) coiled-coil sequence. This finding may provide a link between the retention signal and its shielding by the coiled coil of GABA(B(2).) In HEK293 cells, we observed that the two well-known GABA(B) receptor antagonists [S-(R*,R*)]-[3-[[1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]amino]-2-hydroxypropyl](cyclohexylmethyl) phosphinic acid (CGP54626) and (+)-(2S)-5,5-dimethyl-2-morpholineacetic acid (SCH50911) CGP54626 and SCH50911 function as inverse agonists. The C termini of GABA(B(1)) and GABA(B(2)) strongly influenced agonist-independent G-protein coupling, although they were not necessary for agonist-dependent G-protein coupling. The C-terminal GABA(B) receptor mutants described here demonstrate that the active receptor conformation is stabilized by the coiled-coil interaction. Thus, the C-terminal conformation of the GABA(B) receptor may determine its

  13. Fiber knob domain lacking the shaft sequence but fused to a coiled coil is a candidate subunit vaccine against egg-drop syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harakuni, Tetsuya; Andoh, Kiyohiko; Sakamoto, Ryu-Ichi; Tamaki, Yukihiro; Miyata, Takeshi; Uefuji, Hirotaka; Yamazaki, Ken-Ichi; Arakawa, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    Egg-drop syndrome (EDS) virus is an avian adenovirus that causes a sudden drop in egg production and in the quality of the eggs when it infects chickens, leading to substantial economic losses in the poultry industry. Inactivated EDS vaccines produced in embryonated duck eggs or cell culture systems are available for the prophylaxis of EDS. However, recombinant subunit vaccines that are efficacious and inexpensive are a desirable alternative. In this study, we engineered chimeric fusion proteins in which the trimeric fiber knob domain lacking the triple β-spiral motif in the fiber shaft region was genetically fused to trimeric coiled coils, such as those of the engineered form of the GCN4 leucine zipper peptide or chicken cartilage matrix protein (CMP). The fusion proteins were expressed predominantly as soluble trimeric proteins in Escherichia coli at levels of 15-80mg/L of bacterial culture. The single immunization of chickens with the purified fusion proteins, at a dose equivalent to 10μg of the knob moiety, elicited serum antibodies with high hemagglutination inhibition (HI) activities, similar to those induced by an inactivated EDS vaccine. A dose-response analysis indicated that a single immunization with as little as 1μg of the knob moiety of the CMP-knob fusion protein was as effective as the inactivated vaccine in inducing antibodies with HI activity. The immunization of laying hens had no apparent adverse effects on egg production and effectively prevented clinical symptoms of EDS when the chickens were challenged with pathogenic EDS virus. This study demonstrates that the knob domain lacking the shaft sequence but fused to a trimeric coiled coil is a promising candidate subunit vaccine for the prophylaxis of EDS in chickens. PMID:27105561

  14. Missense mutation in DISC1 C-terminal coiled-coil has GSK3β signaling and sex-dependent behavioral effects in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dachtler, James; Elliott, Christina; Rodgers, R. John; Baillie, George S.; Clapcote, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a risk factor for schizophrenia and affective disorders. The full-length DISC1 protein consists of an N-terminal ‘head’ domain and a C-terminal tail domain that contains several predicted coiled-coils, structural motifs involved in protein-protein interactions. To probe the in vivo effects of missense mutation of DISC1’s C-terminal tail, we tested mice carrying mutation D453G within a predicted α-helical coiled-coil region. We report that, relative to wild-type littermates, female DISC1D453G mice exhibited novelty-induced hyperlocomotion, an anxiogenic profile in the elevated plus-maze and open field tests, and reduced social exploration of unfamiliar mice. Male DISC1D453G mice displayed a deficit in passive avoidance, while neither males nor females exhibited any impairment in startle reactivity or prepulse inhibition. Whole brain homogenates showed normal levels of DISC1 protein, but decreased binding of DISC1 to GSK3β, decreased phospho-inhibition of GSK3β at serine 9, and decreased levels of β-catenin in DISC1D453G mice of either sex. Interrupted GSK3β signaling may thus be part of the mechanism underlying the behavioral phenotype associated with D453G, in common with the previously described N-terminal domain mutations Q31L and L100P in mice, and the schizophrenia risk-conferring variant R264Q in humans. PMID:26728762

  15. De-novo modeling and ESR validation of a cyanobacterial F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase subunit bb' left-handed coiled coil.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Oleg A; Zaida, Tarek M; Voeller, Petra; Lill, Holger; Wise, John G; Vogel, Pia D

    2009-03-01

    The structure and functional role of the dimeric external stalk of F(o)F(1)-ATP synthases have been very actively researched over the last years. To understand the function, detailed knowledge of the structure and protein packing interactions in the dimer is required. In this paper we describe the application of structural prediction and molecular modeling approaches to elucidate the structural packing interaction of the cyanobacterial ATP synthase external stalk. In addition we present biophysical evidence derived from ESR spectroscopy and site directed spin labeling of stalk proteins that supports the proposed structural model. The use of the heterodimeric bb' dimer from a cyanobacterial ATP synthase (Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803) allowed, by specific introduction of spin labels along each individual subunit, the evaluation of the overall tertiary structure of the subunits by calculating inter-spin distances. At defined positions in both b and b' subunits, reporter groups were inserted to determine and confirm inter-subunit packing. The experiments showed that an approximately 100 residue long section of the cytoplasmic part of the bb'-dimer exists mostly as an elongated alpha-helix. The distant C-terminal end of the dimer, which is thought to interact with the delta-subunit, seemed to be disordered in experiments using soluble bb' proteins. A left-handed coiled coil packing of the dimer suggested from structure prediction studies and shown to be feasible in molecular modeling experiments was used together with the measured inter-spin distances of the inserted reporter groups determined in ESR experiments to support the hypothesis that a significant portion of the bb' structure exists as a left-handed coiled coil.

  16. Hybrid character of a large neurofilament protein (NF-M): intermediate filament type sequence followed by a long and acidic carboxy-terminal extension.

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, N; Fischer, S; Vandekerckhove, J; Plessmann, U; Weber, K

    1984-01-01

    The sequence of the amino-terminal 436 residues of porcine neurofilament component NF-M (apparent mol. wt. in gel electrophoresis 160 kd), one of the two high mol. wt. components of mammalian neurofilaments, reveals the typical structural organization of an intermediate filament (IF) protein of the non-epithelial type. A non-alpha-helical arginine-rich headpiece with multiple beta-turns (residues 1-98) precedes a highly alpha-helical rod domain able to form double-stranded coiled-coils (residues 99-412) and a non-alpha-helical tailpiece array starting at residue 413. All extra mass of NF-M forms, as a carboxy-terminal tailpiece extension of approximately 500 residues, an autonomous domain of unique composition. Limited sequence data in the amino-terminal region of this domain document a lysine- and particularly glutamic acid-rich array somewhat reminiscent of the much shorter tailpiece extension of NF-L (apparent mol. wt. 68 kd), the major neurofilament protein. NF-M is therefore a true intermediate filament protein co-polymerized with NF-L via presumptive coiled-coil type interactions and not a peripherally bound associated protein of a filament backbone built exclusively from NF-L. Along the structurally conserved coiled-coil domains the two neurofilament proteins show only approximately 65% sequence identity, a value similar to that seen when NF-L and NF-M are compared with mesenchymal vimentin. The highly charged and acidic tailpiece extensions of all triplet proteins particularly rich in glutamic acid seem unique to the neurofilament type of IFs. They could form extra-filamentous scaffolds suitable for interactions with other neuronal components.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6439558

  17. An engineered coiled-coil polypeptide assembled onto quantum dots for targeted cell imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ming-Hao; Yang, Jie; Song, Ji-Tao; Zhang, Lin; Fang, Bi-Yun; Zhao, Dong-Hui; Xia, Rui-Xue; Jin, Rui-Mei; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Liu, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Quantum dot (QD)-polypeptide probes have been developed through the specific metal-affinity interaction between polypeptides appended with N-terminal polyhistidine sequences and CdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs. The size and charge of a QD-polypeptide can be tuned by using different coiled-coil polypeptides. Compared to glutathione-capped QDs (QD-GSH), QD-polypeptide probes showed an approximately two- to three-fold luminescence increase, and the luminescence increase was not obviously related to the charge of the polypeptide. QD-polypeptide probes with different charge have a great effect on nonspecific cellular uptake. QD-polypeptide probes with negative charge exhibited lower nonspecific cellular uptake in comparison to the QD-GSH, while positively charged QD-polypeptide probes presented higher cellular uptake than the QD-GSH. A targeted QD-ARGD probe can obviously increase targeted cellular uptake in α v β 3 overexpressing HeLa cells compared to QD-A. In addition, QD-polypeptide probes showed lower in vitro cytotoxicity compared to the original QDs. These results demonstrate that these QD-polypeptide probes with high specific cellular uptake, high fluorescence intensity and low background noise are expected to have great potential applications in targeted cell imaging.

  18. L{sup 565}M mutation in HIV-1 glycoprotein 41 stabilizes the coiled-coil structure

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Daisuke . E-Mail: center@art.osaka-med.ac.jp; Li, Gui-Mei; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Goto, Toshiyuki

    2005-09-16

    N-terminal and C-terminal heptad repeats (NHR and CHR) of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) glycoprotein 41 are known to be regions directly related to cell fusion during virus attack, and their complex core constructs a coiled-coil structure in the fusion process. In our recent studies, MT-4/17-3-6, a strain of HIV-1, showed the strong resistance to peptide fusion inhibitors compared with other strains such as MT-4/LAI, L-2 and CU98-26, and had a distinctive L{sup 565}M mutation in the central region of NHR. To investigate the relationship between the mutation and resistance, we performed a molecular modeling of the coiled-coil of MT-4/17-3-6 by using energy minimization and molecular dynamics simulation based on the MT-4/LAI X-ray structure. As a result, we found that H{sup 564} in the NHR was pushed to the outer side by this mutation, and three hydrogen bond bridges of Y{sup 638}-H{sup 564}-E{sup 560}-Q{sup 650} could be formed, enclosing the coiled-coil. The binding of peptide inhibitors would be disturbed by the structural stabilization of these bridges in MT-4/17-3-6.

  19. Balance between Coiled-Coil Stability and Dynamics Regulates Activity of BvgS Sensor Kinase in Bordetella

    PubMed Central

    Lesne, E.; Krammer, E.-M.; Dupre, E.; Locht, C.; Lensink, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The two-component system BvgAS controls the expression of the virulence regulon of Bordetella pertussis. BvgS is a prototype of bacterial sensor kinases with extracytoplasmic Venus flytrap perception domains. Following its transmembrane segment, BvgS harbors a cytoplasmic Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain and then a predicted 2-helix coiled coil that precede the dimerization-histidine-phosphotransfer domain of the kinase. BvgS homologs have a similar domain organization, or they harbor only a predicted coiled coil between the transmembrane and the dimerization-histidine-phosphotransfer domains. Here, we show that the 2-helix coiled coil of BvgS regulates the enzymatic activity in a mechanical manner. Its marginally stable hydrophobic interface enables a switch between a state of great rotational dynamics in the kinase mode and a more rigid conformation in the phosphatase mode in response to signal perception by the periplasmic domains. We further show that the activity of BvgS is controlled in the same manner if its PAS domain is replaced with the natural α-helical sequences of PAS-less homologs. Clamshell motions of the Venus flytrap domains trigger the shift of the coiled coil’s dynamics. Thus, we have uncovered a general mechanism of regulation for the BvgS family of Venus flytrap-containing two-component sensor kinases. PMID:26933056

  20. Coiled-coil unwinding at the smooth muscle myosin head-rod junction is required for optimal mechanical performance.

    PubMed Central

    Lauzon, A M; Fagnant, P M; Warshaw, D M; Trybus, K M

    2001-01-01

    Myosin II has two heads that are joined together by an alpha-helical coiled-coil rod, which can separate in the region adjacent to the head-rod junction (Trybus, K. M. 1994. J. Biol. Chem. 269:20819-20822). To test whether this flexibility at the head-rod junction is important for the mechanical performance of myosin, we used the optical trap to measure the unitary displacements of heavy meromyosin constructs in which a stable coiled-coil sequence derived from the leucine zipper was introduced into the myosin rod. The zipper was positioned either immediately after the heads (0-hep zip) or following 15 heptads of native sequence (15-hep zip). The unitary displacement (d) decreased from d = 9.7 +/- 0.6 nm for wild-type heavy meromyosin (WT HMM) to d = 0.1 +/- 0.3 nm for the 0-hep zip construct (mean +/- SE). Native values were restored in the 15-hep zip construct (d = 7.5 +/- 0.7 nm). We conclude that flexibility at the myosin head-rod junction, which is provided by an unstable coiled-coil region, is essential for optimal mechanical performance. PMID:11259302

  1. Effect of coiled-coil peptides on the function of the type III secretion system-dependent activity of enterohemorragic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Citrobacter rodentium.

    PubMed

    Larzábal, Mariano; Zotta, Elsa; Ibarra, Cristina; Rabinovitz, Bettina C; Vilte, Daniel A; Mercado, Elsa C; Cataldi, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Many animal and human pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria such as Salmonella, Yersinia, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) possess a type III secretion system (TTSS) that is used to deliver virulence proteins directly into the host cell. Recent evidence has suggested that CoilA and CoilB, two synthetic peptides corresponding to coiled-coil domains of the translocator protein EspA, are effective in inhibiting the action of TTSS from EPEC. In the current study, the action of these coiled-coil peptides on the TTSS of EHEC O157:H7 and Citrobacter rodentium was examined. CoilA and CoilB showed to be effective in reducing the red blood cell lysis mediated by EHEC O157:H7 and the in vitro secretion of translocator proteins EspB and EspD by EHEC O157:H7 and EspD by C. rodentium. Treatment of mice with CoilA and CoilB peptides prevented colon damage when the animals were inoculated with C. rodentium. Colon samples of the non-treated group showed areas with loss of superficial epithelium, damaged cells, and endoluminal mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate, consistent with histological lesions induced by C. rodentium, whereas mice treated with the synthetic peptides displayed normal surface epithelium showing a similar structure as the uninfected control group. These encouraging results prompt us to test coiled-coil peptides as treatment or vaccines in other models of bacterial infections in future work. PMID:23312797

  2. Structural Comparisons of Apo- and Metalated Three-Stranded Coiled Coils Clarify Metal Binding Determinants in Thiolate Containing Designed Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Saumen; Touw, Debra S.; Peacock, Anna F.A.; Stuckey, Jeanne; Pecoraro, Vincent L.

    2010-11-05

    Over the past two decades, designed metallopeptides have held the promise for understanding a variety of fundamental questions in metallobiochemistry; however, these dreams have not yet been realized because of a lack of structural data to elaborate the protein scaffolds before metal complexation and the resultant metalated structures which ultimately exist. This is because there are few reports of structural characterization of such systems either in their metalated or nonmetalated forms and no examples where an apo structure and the corresponding metalated peptide assembly have both been defined by X-ray crystallography. Herein we present X-ray structures of two de novo designed parallel three-stranded coiled coils (designed using the heptad repeat (a {yields} g)) CSL9C (CS = Coil Ser) and CSL19C in their nonmetalated forms, determined to 1.36 and 2.15 {angstrom} resolutions, respectively. Leucines from either position 9 (a site) or 19 (d site) are replaced by cysteine to generate the constructs CSL9C and CSL19C, respectively, yielding thiol-rich pockets at the hydrophobic interior of these peptides, suitable to bind heavy metals such as As(III), Hg(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II). We use these structures to understand the inherent structural differences between a and d sites to clarify the basis of the observed differential spectroscopic behavior of metal binding in these types of peptides. Cys side chains of (CSL9C){sub 3} show alternate conformations and are partially preorganized for metal binding, whereas cysteines in (CSL19C){sub 3} are present as a single conformer. Zn(II) ions, which do not coordinate or influence Cys residues at the designed metal sites but are essential for forming X-ray quality crystals, are bound to His and Glu residues at the crystal packing interfaces of both structures. These 'apo' structures are used to clarify the changes in metal site organization between metalated As(CSL9C){sub 3} and to speculate on the differential basis of Hg

  3. Structural Comparisons of Apo- and Metallated Three Stranded Coiled Coils Clarify Metal Binding Determinants in Thiolate Containing Designed Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Saumen; Touw, Debra S.; Peacock, Anna F. A.; Stuckey, Jeanne; Pecoraro, Vincent L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, designed metallopeptides have held the promise for understanding a variety of fundamental questions in metallobiochemistry; however, these dreams have not yet been realized because of a lack of structural data to elaborate the protein scaffolds before metal complexation and the resultant metallated structures which ultimately exist. This is because there are few reports of structural characterization of such systems either in their metallated or non-metallated forms and no examples where an apo structure and the corresponding metallated peptide assembly have both been defined by x-ray crystallography. Herein we present x-ray structures of two de novo designed parallel three-stranded coiled coils (designed using the heptad repeat (a→g)) CSL9C (CS = Coil Ser) and CSL19C in their non-metallated forms, determined to 1.36 Å and 2.15 Å resolutions, respectively. Leucines from either position 9 (a site) or 19 (d site) are replaced by cysteine to generate the constructs CSL9C and CSL19C, respectively, yielding thiol-rich pockets at the hydrophobic interior of these peptides, suitable to bind heavy metals such as As(III), Hg(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II). We use these structures to understand the inherent structural differences between a and d sites to clarify the basis of the observed differential spectroscopic behavior of metal binding in these types of peptides. Cys side chains of (CSL9C)3 show alternate conformations and are partially preorganized for metal binding, whereas cysteines in (CSL19C)3 are present as a single conformer. Zn(II) ions, which do not coordinate or influence Cys residues at the designed metal sites but are essential for forming x-ray quality crystals, are bound to His and Glu residues at the crystal packing interfaces of both structures. These “apo” structures are used to clarify the changes in metal site organization between metallated As(CSL9C)3 and to speculate on the differential basis of Hg(II) binding in a versus d

  4. Stabilizing Protein Motifs with a Genetically Encoded Metal-Ion Chelator.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaozhou; Wang, Tsung-Shing Andrew; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Feng; Schultz, Peter G

    2016-09-22

    The N-peptide of HIV gp41 forms a trimeric coiled-coil intermediate during host cell-viral fusion. Stable mimics of this coiled coil could potentially serve as HIV vaccine candidates or inhibitors of viral entry. Therefore, a variety of approaches have been investigated to maintain the N-peptide in its trimeric helical conformation. Here, we utilize a genetic method to incorporate the metal chelating noncanonical amino acid (2,2'-bipyridin-5-yl)alanine (BpyAla) into IZN17, an established trimeric coiled-coil gp41 model. We demonstrate that BpyAla-IZN17 acquires Fe(II) during expression in Escherichia coli, resulting in the formation of a highly stable IZN17 helical trimer with a Tm > 95°C. Removal of Fe(II) results in a 27°C decrease in thermal stability. Replacement of Fe(II) with Zn(II) also affords a Tm > 90°C. Thus, the genetic introduction of BpyAla into polypeptide provides a straightforward method for stabilizing coiled-coil structural motifs in recombinantly engineered proteins. PMID:27662253

  5. Adenovirus E4-ORF3-dependent relocalization of TIF1{alpha} and TIF1{gamma} relies on access to the Coiled-Coil motif

    SciTech Connect

    Vink, Elizabeth I.; Yondola, Mark A.; Wu, Kai; Hearing, Patrick

    2012-01-20

    The adenovirus E4-ORF3 protein promotes viral replication by relocalizing cellular proteins into nuclear track structures, interfering with potential anti-viral activities. E4-ORF3 targets transcriptional intermediary factor 1 alpha (TIF1{alpha}), but not homologous TIF1{beta}. Here, we introduce TIF1{gamma} as a novel E4-ORF3-interacting partner. E4-ORF3 relocalizes endogenous TIF1{gamma} in virus-infected cells in vivo and binds to TIF1{gamma} in vitro. We used the homologous nature, yet differing binding capabilities, of these proteins to study how E4-ORF3 targets proteins for track localization. We mapped the ability of E4-ORF3 to interact with specific TIF1 subdomains, demonstrating that E4-ORF3 interacts with the Coiled-Coil domains of TIF1{alpha}, TIF1{beta}, and TIF1{gamma}, and that the C-terminal half of TIF1{beta} interferes with this interaction. The results of E4-ORF3-directed TIF1 protein relocalization assays performed in vivo were verified using coimmunoprecipitation assays in vitro. These results suggest that E4-ORF3 targets proteins for relocalization through a loosely homologous sequence dependent on accessibility.

  6. Forced expression of desmin and desmin mutants in cultured cells: impact of myopathic missense mutations in the central coiled-coil domain on network formation.

    PubMed

    Bär, Harald; Kostareva, Anna; Sjöberg, Gunnar; Sejersen, Thomas; Katus, Hugo A; Herrmann, Harald

    2006-05-15

    We recently demonstrated that inherited disease-causing mutations clustered in the alpha-helical coiled-coil "rod" domain of the muscle-specific intermediate filament (IF) protein desmin display a wide range of inhibitory effects on regular in vitro assembly. In these studies, we showed that individual mutations exhibited phenotypes that were not, with respect to the severity of interference, predictable by our current knowledge of the structural design of IF proteins. Moreover, the behavior of some mutated proteins in a standard tissue culture cell expression system was found to be even more complex. Here, we systematically investigate the behavior of these disease mutants in four different cell types: three not containing desmin or the related IF protein vimentin and the standard fibroblast line 3T3, which has an extensive vimentin system. The ability of the mutants to form filaments in the vimentin-free cells varies considerably, and only the mutants forming IFs in vitro generate extended filamentous networks. Furthermore, these latter mutants integrate into the 3T3 vimentin network but all the others do not. Instead, they cause the endogenous network of 3T3 vimentin to reorganize into perinuclear bundles. In addition, most of these assembly-deficient mutant desmins completely segregate from the vimentin system. Instead, the small round to fibrillar particles formed distribute independently throughout the cytoplasm as well as between the collapsed vimentin filament arrays in the perinuclear area. PMID:16519886

  7. Crystal Structure of C-Terminal Coiled-Coil Domain of SYCP1 Reveals Non-Canonical Anti-Parallel Dimeric Structure of Transverse Filament at the Synaptonemal Complex.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eun Kyung; Choi, Jae Young; Jeong, Jae-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Gil; Park, Hyun Ho

    2016-01-01

    The synaptonemal complex protein 1 (SYCP1) is the main structural element of transverse filaments (TFs) of the synaptonemal complex (SC), which is a meiosis-specific complex structure formed at the synapse of homologue chromosomes to hold them together. The N-terminal domain of SYCP1 is known to be located within the central elements (CEs), whereas the C-terminal domain is located toward lateral elements (LEs). SYCP1 is a well-known meiosis marker that is also known to be a prognostic marker in the early stage of several cancers including breast, gliomas, and ovarian cancers. The structure of SC, especially the TF structure formed mainly by SYCP1, remains unclear without any structural information. To elucidate a molecular basis of SC formation and function, we first solved the crystal structure of C-terminal coiled-coil domain of SYCP1. The coiled-coil domain of SYCP1 forms asymmetric, anti-parallel dimers in solution. PMID:27548613

  8. Crystal Structure of C-Terminal Coiled-Coil Domain of SYCP1 Reveals Non-Canonical Anti-Parallel Dimeric Structure of Transverse Filament at the Synaptonemal Complex

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jae-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Gil; Park, Hyun Ho

    2016-01-01

    The synaptonemal complex protein 1 (SYCP1) is the main structural element of transverse filaments (TFs) of the synaptonemal complex (SC), which is a meiosis-specific complex structure formed at the synapse of homologue chromosomes to hold them together. The N-terminal domain of SYCP1 is known to be located within the central elements (CEs), whereas the C-terminal domain is located toward lateral elements (LEs). SYCP1 is a well-known meiosis marker that is also known to be a prognostic marker in the early stage of several cancers including breast, gliomas, and ovarian cancers. The structure of SC, especially the TF structure formed mainly by SYCP1, remains unclear without any structural information. To elucidate a molecular basis of SC formation and function, we first solved the crystal structure of C-terminal coiled-coil domain of SYCP1. The coiled-coil domain of SYCP1 forms asymmetric, anti-parallel dimers in solution. PMID:27548613

  9. Structural proteins from whelk egg capsule with long range elasticity associated with a solid-state phase transition.

    PubMed

    Wasko, S Scott; Tay, Gavin Z; Schwaighofer, Andreas; Nowak, Christoph; Waite, J Herbert; Miserez, Ali

    2014-01-13

    The robust, proteinaceous egg capsules of marine prosobranch gastropods (genus Busycotypus ) exhibit unique biomechanical properties such as high elastic strain recovery and elastic energy dissipation capability. Capsule material possesses long-range extensibility that is fully recoverable and is the result of a secondary structure phase transition from α-helical coiled-coil to extended β-sheet rather than of entropic (rubber) elasticity. We report here the characterization of the precursor proteins that make up this material. Three different proteins have been purified and analyzed, and complete protein sequences deduced from messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) transcripts. Circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicate that the proteins are strongly α-helical in solution and primary sequence analysis suggests that these proteins have a propensity to form coiled-coils. This is in agreement with previous wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and solid-state Raman spectroscopic analysis of mature egg capsules.

  10. All-atom simulations and free-energy calculations of coiled-coil peptides with lipid bilayers: binding strength, structural transition, and effect on lipid dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Sun Young; Lee, Hwankyu

    2016-01-01

    Peptides E and K, which are synthetic coiled-coil peptides for membrane fusion, were simulated with lipid bilayers composed of lipids and cholesterols at different ratios using all-atom models. We first calculated free energies of binding from umbrella sampling simulations, showing that both E and K peptides tend to adsorb onto the bilayer surface, which occurs more strongly in the bilayer composed of smaller lipid headgroups. Then, unrestrained simulations show that K peptides more deeply insert into the bilayer with partially retaining the helical structure, while E peptides less insert and predominantly become random coils, indicating the structural transition from helices to random coils, in quantitative agreement with experiments. This is because K peptides electrostatically interact with lipid phosphates, as well as because hydrocarbons of lysines of K peptide are longer than those of glutamic acids of E peptide and thus form stronger hydrophobic interactions with lipid tails. This deeper insertion of K peptide increases the bilayer dynamics and a vacancy below the peptide, leading to the rearrangement of smaller lipids. These findings help explain the experimentally observed or proposed differences in the insertion depth, binding strength, and structural transition of E and K peptides, and support the snorkeling effect. PMID:26926570

  11. A suite of modular fluorescence assays interrogate the human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein-41 coiled coil and assist in determining binding mechanism of low molecular weight fusion inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gochin, Miriam

    2012-10-01

    Several different segments of the gp41 N-heptad repeat coiled coil have been constructed using N-terminal bipyridyl modification of composite peptides and inducing trimerization by adding ferrous ions. These metallopeptides act as receptors in fluorescence-binding assays with corresponding fluorescently labeled C-peptide probes. The Fe(II) coordination complex quenches C-peptide fluorescence upon binding, and reversal of quenching by a small molecule inhibitor can be used to obtain the inhibitor-binding constant. A total of 10 peptide pairs targeting 25-46 residue segments of the coiled coil were constructed, with C-peptide probes of different lengths and binding affinities. The result is a suite of assays for exploring binding in the mM to nM range to any desired region of the coiled coil, including the hydrophobic pocket (HP), extended regions on either side of the pocket, or a region associated with T20 resistance mutations. These assays are high-throughput ready, and could be used to discover novel compounds binding along various regions of the gp41 coiled coil groove. They were used to evaluate a sub-μM low molecular weight fusion inhibitor, resulting in the finding that the molecule bound specifically to the HP and attained its potency from a low off-rate.

  12. A C-Terminal Coiled-Coil Region of CagL is Responsible for Helicobacter Pylori-Induced Il-8 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemann, Tobias; Hofbaur, Stefan; Loell, Eva; Rieder, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent neutrophil-activating chemokine which triggers the infiltration and migration of neutrophils into areas of bacterial infection. Helicobacter pylori-infected patient studies as well as animal models have revealed that H. pylori type I strains carrying an intact cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island (cag-PAI) with a functional type IV secretion system (T4SS) induce IL-8 expression and secretion in gastric mucosa. This gastric mucosal IL-8 expression correlates with severe histological changes due to H. pylori infection. In the present study, we explored a new recognition pattern on the bacterial adhesion protein CagL inducing IL-8 expression in H. pylori-infected host cells. To analyze the secreted IL-8 concentration, we performed IL-8 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To investigate the H. pylori-induced IL-8 expression on the transcriptional level, we transiently transfected gastric epithelial cells (AGS) with a human IL-8 luciferase reporter construct. The results of this study demonstrate that specifically the C-terminal coiled-coil region of the H. pylori CagL protein, a protein described to be located on the tip of the T4SS-pilus, is responsible for several in vitro observations: 1) H. pylori-induced IL-8 secretion via the transforming growth factor (TGF)-α activated epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) signaling pathway; 2) H. pylori-induced elongation of the cells, a typical CagA-induced phenotype; and 3) the bridging of the T4SS to its human target cells. This novel bacterial-host recognition sequence allows a new insight into how H. pylori induces the inflammatory response in gastric epithelial cells and facilitates the development of precancerous conditions. PMID:27766167

  13. Coiled-coil domain containing 42 (Ccdc42) is necessary for proper sperm development and male fertility in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Pasek, Raymond C; Malarkey, Erik; Berbari, Nicolas F; Sharma, Neeraj; Kesterson, Robert A; Tres, Laura L; Kierszenbaum, Abraham L; Yoder, Bradley K

    2016-04-15

    Spermiogenesis is the differentiation of spermatids into motile sperm consisting of a head and a tail. The head harbors a condensed elongated nucleus partially covered by the acrosome-acroplaxome complex. Defects in the acrosome-acroplaxome complex are associated with abnormalities in sperm head shaping. The head-tail coupling apparatus (HTCA), a complex structure consisting of two cylindrical microtubule-based centrioles and associated components, connects the tail or flagellum to the sperm head. Defects in the development of the HTCA cause sperm decapitation and disrupt sperm motility, two major contributors to male infertility. Here, we provide data indicating that mutations in the gene Coiled-coil domain containing 42 (Ccdc42) is associated with malformation of the mouse sperm flagella. In contrast to many other flagella and motile cilia genes, Ccdc42 expression is only observed in the brain and developing sperm. Male mice homozygous for a loss-of-function Ccdc42 allele (Ccdc42(KO)) display defects in the number and location of the HTCA, lack flagellated sperm, and are sterile. The testes enriched expression of Ccdc42 and lack of other phenotypes in mutant mice make it an ideal candidate for screening cases of azoospermia in humans. PMID:26945718

  14. Magnetic Field Alignment of PS-P4VP: a Non-Liquid Crystalline Coil-Coil Block Copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Zhang, Kai; Larson, Steven; Gopalan, Padma; O'Hern, Corey; Osuji, Chinedum

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic fields provide the ability to control alignment of self-assembled soft materials such as block copolymers. Most prior work in this area has relied on the presence of ordered assemblies of anisotropic liquid crystalline species to ensure sufficient magnetic anisotropy to drive alignment. Recent experiments with poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine), a non-liquid crystalline BCP, however, show field-induced alignment of a lamellar microstructure during cooling across the order-disorder transition. Using in situ x-ray scattering, we examine the roles of field strength and cooling rate on the alignment response of this low MW coil-coil BCP. Alignment is first observed at field strengths as low as 1 Tesla and improves markedly with both increasing field strength and slower cooling. We present a geometric argument to illustrate the origin of a finite, non-trivial magnetic susceptibility anisotropy for highly stretched surface-tethered polymer chains and corroborate this using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. We rationalize the magnetic field response of the system in terms of the mobility afforded by the absence of entanglements, the intrinsic anisotropy resulting from the stretched polymer chains and sterically constrained conjugated rings, and the large grain size in these low molecular weight materials.

  15. A novel natural mutation AαPhe98Ile in the fibrinogen coiled-coil affects fibrinogen function.

    PubMed

    Riedelová-Reicheltová, Zuzana; Kotlín, Roman; Suttnar, Jiří; Geierová, Véra; Riedel, Tomáš; Májek, Pavel; Dyr, Jan Evangelista

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the structure and function of fibrinogen obtained from a patient with normal coagulation times and idiopathic thrombophilia. This was done by SDS-PAGE and DNA sequence analyses, scanning electron microscopy, fibrinopeptide release, fibrin polymerisation initiated by thrombin and reptilase, fibrinolysis, and platelet aggregometry. A novel heterozygous point mutation in the fibrinogen Aα chain, Phe98 to Ile, was found and designated as fibrinogen Vizovice. The mutation, which is located in the RGDF sequence (Aα 95-98) of the fibrinogen coiled-coil region, significantly affected fibrin clot morphology. Namely, the clot formed by fibrinogen Vizovice contained thinner and curled fibrin fibers with reduced length. Lysis of the clots prepared from Vizovice plasma and isolated fibrinogen were found to be impaired. The lysis rate of Vizovice clots was almost four times slower than the lysis rate of control clots. In the presence of platelets agonists the mutant fibrinogen caused increased platelet aggregation. The data obtained show that natural mutation of Phe98 to Ile in the fibrinogen Aα chain influences lateral aggregation of fibrin protofibrils, fibrinolysis, and platelet aggregation. They also suggest that delayed fibrinolysis, together with the abnormal fibrin network morphology and increased platelet aggregation, may be the direct cause of thrombotic complications in the patient associated with pregnancy loss. PMID:24108601

  16. An alternative conformation of the gp41 heptad repeat 1 region coiled coil exists in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Mische, Claudia C.; Yuan Wen; Strack, Bettina; Craig, Stewart; Farzan, Michael; Sodroski, Joseph . E-mail: joseph_sodroski@dfci.harvard.edu

    2005-07-20

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) transmembrane envelope glycoprotein, gp41, which mediates virus-cell fusion, exists in at least three different conformations within the trimeric envelope glycoprotein complex. The structures of the prefusogenic and intermediate states are unknown; structures representing the postfusion state have been solved. In the postfusion conformation, three helical heptad repeat 2 (HR2) regions pack in an antiparallel fashion into the hydrophobic grooves on the surface of a triple-helical coiled coil formed by the heptad repeat 1 (HR1) regions. We studied the prefusogenic conformation of gp41 by mutagenic alteration of membrane-anchored and soluble forms of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. Our results indicate that, in the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein precursor, the gp41 HR1 region is in a conformation distinct from that of a trimeric coiled coil. Thus, the central gp41 coiled coil is formed during the transition of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins from the precursor state to the receptor-bound intermediate.

  17. Crystal Structure of the Signaling Helix Coiled-coil Domain of the b1 Subunit of the Soluble guanylyl Cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, X.; Beuve, A; van den Akker, F

    2010-01-01

    The soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric enzyme that, upon activation by nitric oxide, stimulates the production of the second messenger cGMP. Each sGC subunit harbor four domains three of which are used for heterodimerization: H-NOXA/H-NOBA domain, coiled-coil domain (CC), and catalytic guanylyl cyclase domain. The CC domain has previously been postulated to be part of a larger CC family termed the signaling helix (S-helix) family. Homodimers of sGC have also been observed but are not functionally active yet are likely transient awaiting their intended heterodimeric partner. To investigate the structure of the CC S-helix region, we crystallized and determined the structure of the CC domain of the sGC{beta}1 subunit comprising residues 348-409. The crystal structure was refined to 2.15 {angstrom} resolution. The CC structure of sGC{beta}1 revealed a tetrameric arrangement comprised of a dimer of CC dimers. Each monomer is comprised of a long a-helix, a turn near residue P399, and a short second a-helix. The CC structure also offers insights as to how sGC homodimers are not as stable as (functionally) active heterodimers via a possible role for inter-helix salt-bridge formation. The structure also yielded insights into the residues involved in dimerization. In addition, the CC region is also known to harbor a number of congenital and man-made mutations in both membrane and soluble guanylyl cyclases and those function-affecting mutations have been mapped onto the CC structure. This mutant analysis indicated an importance for not only certain dimerization residue positions, but also an important role for other faces of the CC dimer which might perhaps interact with adjacent domains. Our results also extend beyond guanylyl cyclases as the CC structure is, to our knowledge, the first S-helix structure and serves as a model for all S-helix containing family members.

  18. Conformational consequences of cooperative binding of a coiled-coil peptide motif to poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide) HPMA copolymers.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Peter C; Paul, Alison; Apostolovic, Bojana; Klok, Harm-Anton; de Luca, Edoardo; King, Stephen M; Heenan, Richard K

    2011-07-30

    Small-angle neutron scattering and pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR have been used to examine the solution conformation of a series of water soluble poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide) P(HPMA) co-polymer drug delivery vehicles incorporating a coiled-coil peptide motif as a novel pH sensitive non-covalent linker. The conformation of the HPMA homopolymer is well-described by a Gaussian coil model and changing pH from pH 7 to pH 5 has little effect on the solution conformation, as quantified via the radius of gyration. Copolymerisation with 5-10mol% of the K3 peptide bearing methacrylate monomer (K3-MA), gave a series of copolymers that exhibited an increase in radius of gyration at both pH's, despite being typically 30% lower in molecular weight, indicating that the K3-MA causes a perturbation (expansion) of the copolymer conformation. Subsequent addition of an equimolar amount of the complementary peptide E3 makes little further difference to the conformation, indicative of the intimate binding (coiled-coil motif) between the two peptides. Again, the effects of pH are small. Only the addition of a large aromatic structure such as methotrexate causes a further perturbation of the structure - the hydrophobic interaction between the MTX units causes a significant collapse of the polymer coil. These findings further elaborate the understanding of those factors that determine the solution conformation of novel polymer therapeutics.

  19. The conserved glycine-rich segment linking the N-terminal fusion peptide to the coiled coil of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein gp21 is a determinant of membrane fusion function.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kirilee A; Bär, Séverine; Maerz, Anne L; Alizon, Marc; Poumbourios, Pantelis

    2005-04-01

    Retroviral transmembrane proteins (TMs) contain an N-terminal fusion peptide that initiates virus-cell membrane fusion. The fusion peptide is linked to the coiled-coil core through a conserved sequence that is often rich in glycines. We investigated the functional role of the glycine-rich segment, Met-326 to Ser-337, of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) TM, gp21, by alanine and proline scanning mutagenesis. Alanine substitution for the hydrophobic residue Ile-334 caused an approximately 90% reduction in cell-cell fusion activity without detectable effects on the lipid-mixing and pore formation phases of fusion. Alanine substitutions at other positions had smaller effects (Gly-329, Val-330, and Gly-332) or no effect on fusion function. Proline substitution for glycine residues inhibited cell-cell fusion function with position-dependent effects on the three phases of fusion. Retroviral glycoprotein fusion function thus appears to require flexibility within the glycine-rich segment and hydrophobic contacts mediated by this segment. PMID:15767455

  20. Amino acids and proteins.

    PubMed

    van Goudoever, Johannes B; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R D

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional requirements are not met, resulting in a postnatal growth restriction. However, current knowledge on adequate levels of both amino acid as well as protein intake can avoid under nutrition in the direct postnatal phase, avoid the need for subsequent catch-up growth and improve later outcome.

  1. Neurofilament architecture combines structural principles of intermediate filaments with carboxy-terminal extensions increasing in size between triplet proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, N; Kaufmann, E; Fischer, S; Plessmann, U; Weber, K

    1983-01-01

    Mammalian neurofilament triplet proteins (68 K, 160 K and 200 K) have been correlated by a biochemical, immunological and protein chemical study. The 160 K and 200 K triplet proteins are intermediate filament proteins in their own right, since they reveal the alpha-helical coiled-coil rod domain analyzed in detail for the 68 K protein. Triplet proteins display two distinct arrays. Their amino-terminal region built analogously to non-neuronal intermediate filament proteins should allow a co-polymerization process via the interaction of coiled-coil domains. The extra mass of all triplet proteins is allocated to carboxy-terminally located extensions of increasing size and unique amino acid sequences. These may provide highly charged scaffolds suitable for interactions with other neuronal components. Such a domain of 68 K reveals, in sequence analysis, 47 glutamic acids within 106 residues. The epitope recognized by a monoclonal antibody reacting probably with all intermediate filament proteins has been mapped. It is located within the last 20 residues of the rods, where six distinct intermediate filament proteins point to a consensus sequence. Images Fig. 1. PMID:10872323

  2. Structural Basis of HIV-1 Neutralization by Affinity Matured Fabs Directed against the Internal Trimeric Coiled-Coil of gp41

    SciTech Connect

    Gustchina, Elena; Li, Mi; Louis, John M.; Anderson, D.Eric; Lloyd, John; Frisch, Christian; Bewley, Carole A.; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Clore, G.Marius

    2010-12-03

    The conserved internal trimeric coiled-coil of the N-heptad repeat (N-HR) of HIV-1 gp41 is transiently exposed during the fusion process by forming a pre-hairpin intermediate, thus representing an attractive target for the design of fusion inhibitors and neutralizing antibodies. In previous studies we reported a series of broadly neutralizing mini-antibodies derived from a synthetic naive human combinatorial antibody library by panning against a mimetic of the trimeric N-HR coiled coil, followed by affinity maturation using targeted diversification of the CDR-H2 loop. Here we report crystal structures of the N-HR mimetic 5-Helix with two Fabs that represent the extremes of this series: Fab 8066 is broadly neutralizing across a wide panel of B and C type HIV-1 viruses, whereas Fab 8062 is non-neutralizing. The crystal structures reveal important differences in the conformations of the CDR-H2 loops in the complexes that propagate into other regions of the antigen-antibody interface, and suggest that both neutralization properties and affinity for the target can be attributed, at least in part, to the differences in the interactions of the CDR-H2 loops with the antigen. Furthermore, modeling of the complex of an N-HR trimer with three Fabs suggests that the CDR-H2 loop may be involved in close intermolecular contacts between neighboring antibody molecules, and that such contacts may hinder the formation of complexes between the N-HR trimer and more than one antibody molecule depending on the conformation of the bound CDR-H2 loop which is defined by its interactions with antigen. Comparison with the crystal structure of the complex of 5-Helix with another neutralizing monoclonal antibody known as D5, derived using an entirely different antibody library and panning procedure, reveals remarkable convergence in the optimal sequence and conformation of the CDR-H2 loop.

  3. An Evolutionarily Conserved Family of Virion Tail Needles Related to Bacteriophage P22 gp26: Correlation between Structural Stability and Length of the -Helical Trimeric Coiled Coil

    SciTech Connect

    Bhardwaj, A.; Walker-Kopp, N; Casjens, S; Cingolani, G

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriophages of the Podoviridae family use short noncontractile tails to inject their genetic material into Gram-negative bacteria. In phage P22, the tail contains a thin needle, encoded by the phage gene 26, which is essential both for stabilization and for ejection of the packaged viral genome. Bioinformatic analysis of the N-terminal domain of gp26 (residues 1-60) led us to identify a family of genes encoding putative homologues of the tail needle gp26. To validate this idea experimentally and to explore their diversity, we cloned the gp26-like gene from phages HK620, Sf6 and HS1, and characterized these gene products in solution. All gp26-like factors contain an elongated {alpha}-helical coiled-coil core consisting of repeating, adjacent trimerization heptads and form trimeric fibers with length ranging between about 240 to 300 {angstrom}. gp26 tail needles display a high level of structural stability in solution, with Tm (temperature of melting) between 85 and 95 C. To determine how the structural stability of these phage fibers correlates with the length of the {alpha}-helical core, we investigated the effect of insertions and deletions in the helical core. In the P22 tail needle, we identified an 85-residue-long helical domain, termed MiCRU (minimal coiled-coil repeat unit), that can be inserted in-frame inside the gp26 helical core, preserving the straight morphology of the fiber. Likewise, we were able to remove three quarters of the helical core of the HS1 tail needle, minimally decreasing the stability of the fiber. We conclude that in the gp26 family of tail needles, structural stability increases nonlinearly with the length of the {alpha}-helical core. Thus, the overall stability of these bacteriophage fibers is not solely dependent on the number of trimerization repeats in the {alpha}-helical core.

  4. The small GTP-binding protein Rho binds to and activates a 160 kDa Ser/Thr protein kinase homologous to myotonic dystrophy kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Ishizaki, T; Maekawa, M; Fujisawa, K; Okawa, K; Iwamatsu, A; Fujita, A; Watanabe, N; Saito, Y; Kakizuka, A; Morii, N; Narumiya, S

    1996-01-01

    The small GTP-binding protein Rho functions as a molecular switch in the formation of focal adhesions and stress fibers, cytokinesis and transcriptional activation. The biochemical mechanism underlying these actions remains unknown. Using a ligand overlay assay, we purified a 160 kDa platelet protein that bound specifically to GTP-bound Rho. This protein, p160, underwent autophosphorylation at its serine and threonine residues and showed the kinase activity to exogenous substrates. Both activities were enhanced by the addition of GTP-bound Rho. A cDNA encoding p160 coded for a 1354 amino acid protein. This protein has a Ser/Thr kinase domain in its N-terminus, followed by a coiled-coil structure approximately 600 amino acids long, and a cysteine-rich zinc finger-like motif and a pleckstrin homology region in the C-terminus. The N-terminus region including a kinase domain and a part of coiled-coil structure showed strong homology to myotonic dystrophy kinase over 500 residues. When co-expressed with RhoA in COS cells, p160 was co-precipitated with the expressed Rho and its kinase activity was activated, indicating that p160 can associate physically and functionally with Rho both in vitro and in vivo. Images PMID:8617235

  5. BTBD1 and BTBD2 colocalize to cytoplasmic bodies with the RBCC/tripartite motif protein, TRIM5delta.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lixin; Yang, Lihong; Moitra, Prasun K; Hashimoto, Keiko; Rallabhandi, Prasad; Kaul, Sunil; Meroni, Germana; Jensen, Jane P; Weissman, Allan M; D'Arpa, Peter

    2003-08-01

    We previously identified BTBD1 and BTBD2 as novel topoisomerase I-interacting proteins that share 80% amino acid identity. Here we report the characterization of their subcellular localization. In a number of mouse and human cells, BTBD1 and BTBD2 (BTBD1/2) colocalized to punctate or elongated cytoplasmic bodies (< 5 microm long and several per cell) that were larger and more elongated in cancer cell lines than in fibroblasts and myoblasts. A search for potential colocalizing proteins identified TRIM family members that localize to morphologically similar cytoplasmic bodies, which were then tested for colocalization with BTBD1/2. TRIM5delta, expressed as a GFP fusion, colocalized with BTBD1/2 immunostaining and appeared to serve as a scaffold for the assembly of endogenous BTBD1/2 proteins. TRIM family members contain a RING domain, B-box(es), and coiled-coil regions, which have a characteristic order and spacing (RBCC domain). RING-dependent ubiquitin ligase activity and multimerization via the coiled-coil region may be defining properties of the RBCC/TRIM protein family. We found that TRIM5delta with a deleted coiled-coil region or a mutated RING domain failed to colocalize with BTBD1/2. Additionally, TRIM5delta ubiquitylated itself in a RING finger- and UbcH5B-dependent manner. BTBD1/2 each contain a PHR-similarity region, repeated twice on the putative ubiquitin ligases PAM, highwire and RPM-1, which also contain a RING and B-box. Thus, four protein modules found on each of these putative ubiquitin ligases, a RING, a B-box and two PHR repeats, are present on BTBD1/2 and TRIM5delta that are colocalized to cytoplasmic bodies.

  6. Characterisation of a cell wall-anchored protein of Staphylococcus saprophyticus associated with linoleic acid resistance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus saprophyticus is the second most frequent causative agent of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI), accounting for up to 20% of cases. A common feature of staphylococci is colonisation of the human skin. This involves survival against innate immune defenses including antibacterial unsaturated free fatty acids such as linoleic acid which act by disrupting bacterial cell membranes. Indeed, S. saprophyticus UTI is usually preceded by perineal skin colonisation. Results In this study we identified a previously undescribed 73.5 kDa cell wall-anchored protein of S. saprophyticus, encoded on plasmid pSSAP2 of strain MS1146, which we termed S. saprophyticus surface protein F (SssF). The sssF gene is highly prevalent in S. saprophyticus clinical isolates and we demonstrate that the SssF protein is expressed at the cell surface. However, unlike all other characterised cell wall-anchored proteins of S. saprophyticus, we were unable to demonstrate a role for SssF in adhesion. SssF shares moderate sequence identity to a surface protein of Staphylococcus aureus (SasF) recently shown to be an important mediator of linoleic acid resistance. Using a heterologous complementation approach in a S. aureus sasF null genetic background, we demonstrate that SssF is associated with resistance to linoleic acid. We also show that S. saprophyticus strains lacking sssF are more sensitive to linoleic acid than those that possess it. Every staphylococcal genome sequenced to date encodes SssF and SasF homologues. Proteins in this family share similar predicted secondary structures consisting almost exclusively of α-helices in a probable coiled-coil formation. Conclusions Our data indicate that SssF is a newly described and highly prevalent surface-localised protein of S. saprophyticus that contributes to resistance against the antibacterial effects of linoleic acid. SssF is a member of a protein family widely disseminated

  7. Structural organization of FtsB, a transmembrane protein of the bacterial divisome

    PubMed Central

    LaPointe, Loren M.; Taylor, Keenan C.; Subramaniam, Sabareesh; Khadria, Ambalika; Rayment, Ivan; Senes, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We report the first structural analysis of an integral membrane protein of the bacterial divisome. FtsB is a single-pass membrane protein with a periplasmic coiled coil. Its heterologous association with its partner FtsL represents an essential event for the recruitment of the late components to the division site. Using a combination of mutagenesis, computational modeling and X-ray crystallography, we determined that FtsB self-associates and we investigated its structural organization. We found that the transmembrane domain of FtsB homo-oligomerizes through an evolutionarily conserved interaction interface where a polar residue (Gln 16) plays a critical role through the formation of an inter-helical hydrogen bond. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domain, solved as a fusion with Gp7, shows that 30 juxta-membrane amino acids of FtsB form a canonical coiled coil. The presence of conserved Gly residue in the linker region suggests that flexibility between the transmembrane and coiled coil domains is functionally important. We hypothesize that the transmembrane helices of FtsB form a stable dimeric core for its association with FtsL into a higher-order oligomer, and that FtsL is required to stabilize the periplasmic domain of FtsB, leading to the formation of a complex that is competent for binding to FtsQ, and to their consequent recruitment to the divisome. The study provides an experimentally validated structural model and identifies point mutations that disrupt association, thereby establishing important groundwork for the functional characterization of FtsB in vivo. PMID:23520975

  8. Missense mutation in immunodeficient patients shows the multifunctional roles of coiled-coil domain 3 (CC3) in STIM1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Maus, Mate; Jairaman, Amit; Stathopulos, Peter B.; Muik, Martin; Fahrner, Marc; Weidinger, Carl; Benson, Melina; Fuchs, Sebastian; Ehl, Stephan; Romanin, Christoph; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Prakriya, Murali; Feske, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is a universal Ca2+ influx pathway that is important for the function of many cell types. SOCE occurs upon depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ stores and relies on a complex molecular interplay between the plasma membrane (PM) Ca2+ channel ORAI1 and the ER Ca2+ sensor stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1. Patients with null mutations in ORAI1 or STIM1 genes present with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-like disease. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms by which a loss-of-function STIM1 mutation (R429C) in human patients abolishes SOCE. R429 is located in the third coiled-coil (CC3) domain of the cytoplasmic C terminus of STIM1. Mutation of R429 destabilizes the CC3 structure and alters the conformation of the STIM1 C terminus, thereby releasing a polybasic domain that promotes STIM1 recruitment to ER–PM junctions. However, the mutation also impairs cytoplasmic STIM1 oligomerization and abolishes STIM1–ORAI1 interactions. Thus, despite its constitutive localization at ER–PM junctions, mutant STIM1 fails to activate SOCE. Our results demonstrate multifunctional roles of the CC3 domain in regulating intra- and intermolecular STIM1 interactions that control (i) transition of STIM1 from a quiescent to an active conformational state, (ii) cytoplasmic STIM1 oligomerization, and (iii) STIM1–ORAI1 binding required for ORAI1 activation. PMID:25918394

  9. A novel abscisic acid- and dehydration-responsive gene family from the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum encodes a plastid-targeted protein with DNA-binding activity.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jonathan R; Hilbricht, Tobias; Salamini, Francesco; Bartels, Dorothea

    2002-06-01

    In the desiccation-tolerant resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum Hochst. the chloroplasts undergo major ultrastructural changes during dehydration, which are reversible upon rehydration. Such alterations argue the need for efficient protective/stabilising mechanisms to exist. Here we describe a novel gene family that is rapidly and transiently expressed in response to both dehydration and exogenously applied abscisic acid, mostly in the chloroplast-rich palisade layer on the adaxial side of the leaf. Analysis of the putative coding region suggests that the resulting protein is plastid-targeted. This was confirmed using a chimeric green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct in transgenic tobacco plants - hence the gene family is termed Plastid Targeted Protein ( CpPTP). Fluorescence microscopy also revealed that CpPTP was localised in structures similar to proplastid nucleoids in transgenic tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) BY-2 cells. The ability of CpPTP to interact with DNA was demonstrated through a DNaseI protection assay. A structure-prediction programme suggests that the mature CpPTP is composed almost entirely of a pattern of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues that form heptad repeats, which are the hallmarks of a coiled-coil domain. Given the localisation and DNA-binding property of the protein, we propose that CpPTP plays a role during the early stages of dehydration-induced chloroplast remodelling.

  10. Rho-associated kinase, a novel serine/threonine kinase, as a putative target for small GTP binding protein Rho.

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, T; Amano, M; Yamamoto, T; Chihara, K; Nakafuku, M; Ito, M; Nakano, T; Okawa, K; Iwamatsu, A; Kaibuchi, K

    1996-01-01

    The small GTP binding protein Rho is implicated in cytoskeletal responses to extracellular signals such as lysophosphatidic acid to form stress fibers and focal contacts. Here we have purified a Rho-interacting protein with a molecular mass of approximately 164 kDa (p164) from bovine brain. This protein bound to GTPgammaS (a non-hydrolyzable GTP analog).RhoA but not to GDP.RhoA or GTPgammaS.RhoA with a mutation in the effector domain (RhoAA37).p164 had a kinase activity which was specifically stimulated by GTPgammaS.RhoA. We obtained the cDNA encoding p164 on the basis of its partial amino acid sequences and named it Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase). Rho-kinase has a catalytic domain in the N-terminal portion, a coiled coil domain in the middle portion and a zinc finger-like motif in the C-terminal portion. The catalytic domain shares 72% sequence homology with that of myotonic dystrophy kinase and the coiled coil domain contains a Rho-interacting interface. When COS7 cells were cotransfected with Rho-kinase and activated RhoA, some Rho-kinase was recruited to membranes. Thus it is likely that Rho-kinase is a putative target serine/threonine kinase for Rho and serves as a mediator of the Rho-dependent signaling pathway. Images PMID:8641286

  11. Antibody elicited against the gp41 N-heptad repeat (NHR) coiled-coil can neutralize HIV-1 with modest potency but non-neutralizing antibodies also bind to NHR mimetics

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Josh D.; Kinkead, Heather; Brunel, Florence M.; Leaman, Dan; Jensen, Richard; Louis, John M.; Maruyama, Toshiaki; Bewley, Carole A.; Bowdish, Katherine; Clore, G. Marius; Dawson, Philip E.; Frederickson, Shana; Mage, Rose G.; Richman, Douglas D.; Burton, Dennis R.; Zwick, Michael B.

    2008-07-20

    Following CD4 receptor binding to the HIV-1 envelope spike (Env), the conserved N-heptad repeat (NHR) region of gp41 forms a coiled-coil that is a precursor to the fusion reaction. Although it has been a target of drug and vaccine design, there are few monoclonal antibody (mAb) tools with which to probe the antigenicity and immunogenicity specifically of the NHR coiled-coil. Here, we have rescued HIV-1-neutralizing anti-NHR mAbs from immune phage display libraries that were prepared (i) from b9 rabbits immunized with a previously described mimetic of the NHR coiled-coil, N35{sub CCG}-N13, and (ii) from an HIV-1 infected individual. We describe a rabbit single-chain Fv fragment (scFv), 8K8, and a human Fab, DN9, which specifically recognize NHR coiled-coils that are unoccupied by peptide corresponding to the C-heptad repeat or CHR region of gp41 (e.g. C34). The epitopes of 8K8 and DN9 were found to partially overlap with that of a previously described anti-NHR mAb, IgG D5; however, 8K8 and DN9 were much more specific than D5 for unoccupied NHR trimers. The mAbs, including a whole IgG 8K8 molecule, neutralized primary HIV-1 of clades B and C in a pseudotyped virus assay with comparable, albeit relatively modest potency. Finally, a human Fab T3 and a rabbit serum (both non-neutralizing) were able to block binding of D5 and 8K8 to a gp41 NHR mimetic, respectively, but not the neutralizing activity of these mAbs. We conclude from these results that NHR coiled-coil analogs of HIV-1 gp41 elicit many Abs during natural infection and through immunization, but that due to limited accessibility to the corresponding region on fusogenic gp41 few can neutralize. Caution is therefore required in targeting the NHR for vaccine design. Nevertheless, the mAb panel may be useful as tools for elucidating access restrictions to the NHR of gp41 and in designing potential improvements to mimetics of receptor-activated Env.

  12. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp.

    PubMed

    Fat'yanov, O V; Asimow, P D

    2015-10-01

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30,000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen

  13. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Fat’yanov, O. V. Asimow, P. D.

    2015-10-15

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen

  14. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp.

    PubMed

    Fat'yanov, O V; Asimow, P D

    2015-10-01

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30,000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen

  15. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Asimow, P. D.

    2015-10-01

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen

  16. Structural Proteins from Whelk Egg Capsule with Long Range Elasticity Associated with a Solid-state Phase Transition

    PubMed Central

    Wasko, S. Scott; Tay, Gavin; Schwaighofer, Andreas; Nowak, Christoph; Waite, J. Herbert; Miserez, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The robust, proteinaceous egg capsules of marine prosobranch gastropods (genus Busycotypus) exhibit unique biomechanical properties such as high elastic strain recovery and elastic energy dissipation capability. Capsule material possesses long-range extensibility that is fully recoverable and is the result of a secondary structure phase transition from α-helix to extended β-sheet rather than of entropic (rubber) elasticity. We report here the characterization of the precursor proteins that make up this material. Three different proteins have been purified and analyzed, and complete protein sequences deduced from messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) transcripts. Circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra indicate that the proteins are strongly α-helical in solution and primary sequence analysis suggests that these proteins have a propensity to form coiled-coils. This is in agreement with previous wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) and solid-state Raman spectroscopic analysis of mature egg capsules. PMID:24350603

  17. Molecular cloning of a coiled-coil-nucleotide-binding-site-leucine-rich repeat gene from pearl millet and its expression pattern in response to the downy mildew pathogen.

    PubMed

    Veena, Mariswamy; Melvin, Prasad; Prabhu, Sreedhara Ashok; Shailasree, Sekhar; Shetty, Hunthrike Shekar; Kini, Kukkundoor Ramachandra

    2016-03-01

    Downy mildew caused by Sclerospora graminicola is a devastating disease of pearl millet. Based on candidate gene approach, a set of 22 resistance gene analogues were identified. The clone RGPM 301 (AY117410) containing a partial sequence shared 83% similarity to rice R-proteins. A full-length R-gene RGA RGPM 301 of 3552 bp with 2979 bp open reading frame encoding 992 amino acids was isolated by the degenerate primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) approach. It had a molecular mass of 113.96 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) of 8.71. The sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis grouped it to a non-TIR NBS LRR group. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed higher accumulation of the transcripts following inoculation with S. graminicola in the resistant cultivar (IP18296) compared to susceptible cultivar (7042S). Further, significant induction in the transcript levels were observed when treated with abiotic elicitor β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) and biotic elicitor Pseudomonas fluorescens. Exogenous application of phytohormones jasmonic acid or salicylic acid also up-regulated the expression levels of RGA RGPM 301. The treatment of cultivar IP18296 with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) suppressed the levels of RGA RGPM 301. A 3.5 kb RGA RGPM 301 which is a non-TIR NBS-LRR protein was isolated from pearl millet and its up-regulation during downy mildew interaction was demonstrated by qRT-PCR. These studies indicate a role for this RGA in pearl millet downy mildew interaction.

  18. Centlein, a novel microtubule-associated protein stabilizing microtubules and involved in neurite formation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Zhenli; Yin, Huilong; Wang, Pan; Gao, Juntao; Yuan, Li

    2016-04-01

    We have previously reported that the centriolar protein centlein functions as a molecular link between C-Nap1 and Cep68 to maintain centrosome cohesion [1]. In this study, we identified centlein as a novel microtubule-associated protein (MAP), directly binding to purified microtubules (MTs) via its longest coiled-coil domain. Overexpression of centlein caused profound nocodazole- and cold-resistant MT bundles, which also relied on its MT-binding domain. siRNA-mediated centlein depletion resulted in a significant reduction in tubulin acetylation level and overall fluorescence intensity of cytoplasmic MT acetylation. Centlein was further characterized in neurons. We found that centlein overexpression inhibited neurite formation in retinoic acid (RA)-induced SH-SY5Y and N2a cells. Taken together, we propose that centlein is involved in MT stability and neuritogenesis in vivo. PMID:26915804

  19. An evolutionarily conserved family of virion tail needles related to bacteriophage P22 gp26: correlation between structural stability and length of the α-helical trimeric coiled-coil

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Anshul; Walker-Kopp, Nancy; Casjens, Sherwood R.; Cingolani, Gino

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriophages of the Podoviridae family use short non-contractile tails to inject their genetic material into Gram-negative bacteria. In phage P22, the tail contains a thin needle, encoded by the phage gene 26, which is essential both for stabilization and ejection of the packaged viral genome. Bio-informatic analysis of the N-terminal domain of gp26 (residues 1–60) led us to identify a family of genes encoding putative homologues of the tail needle gp26. To validate this idea experimentally and to explore their diversity, we cloned the gp26-like gene from phages HK620, Sf6, HS1, and characterized these gene products in solution. All gp26-like factors contain an elongated α-helical coiled-coil core consisting of repeating, adjacent trimerization heptads and form trimeric fibers with length ranging between about 240Å to 300Å. Gp26-tail needles display high structural stability in solution, with Tm (temperature of melting) between 85–95°C. To determine how the structural stability of these phage fibers correlates with the length of the α-helical core, we investigated the effect of insertions and deletions in the helical core. In P22 tail needle, we identified an 85-residue long helical domain, termed MiCRU (Minimal Coiled-coil Repeat Unit), that can be inserted in frame inside gp26 helical core, preserving the straight morphology of the fiber. Likewise, we were able to remove three quarters of the helical core of HS1 tail needle minimally decreasing the stability of the fiber. We conclude that in the gp26 family of tail needles, structural stability increases non-linearly with the length of the α-helical core. Thus, the overall stability of these bacteriophage fibers is not solely dependent on the number of trimerization repeats in the α-helical core. PMID:19482036

  20. Protein-chemical characterization of NF-H, the largest mammalian neurofilament component; intermediate filament-type sequences followed by a unique carboxy-terminal extension

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, N.; Fischer, S.; Vandekerckhove, J.; Damme, J. Van; Plessmann, U.; Weber, K.

    1985-01-01

    NF-H has the highest mol. wt. of the three mammalian neurofilament components (NF-L, NF-M, NF-H). In spite of its unusually large mol. wt., estimated to be 200 K by gel electrophoresis, NF-H contains sequences which identify it as an integral intermediate filament (IF) protein in its amino-terminal region. We have isolated and partially characterized a basic, non-α-helical segment located at the amino-terminal end with properties similar to headpieces of other non-epithelial IF proteins. The highly α-helical 40-K fragment excised by chymotrypsin is now identified by the amino acid sequence of a 17-K fragment. This sequence can be unambiguously aligned with the rod region of other IF proteins and covers about half of the presumptive coiled-coil arrays. NF-H and NF-M show 45% sequence identity in this region. The extra mass of NF-H in comparison with most other IF proteins arises from a carboxy-terminal extension thought to be responsible for inter-neurofilament cross-bridges in axons. This autonomous domain has a unique amino acid composition characterized by a high content of proline, alanine and particularly of lysine and glutamic acid. The NF-H tailpiece extension also carries a large number of serine phosphates, which are not evenly distributed, but are restricted to the amino-terminal part. Having now delineated the intermediate filament-type sequences for all three neurofilament proteins it seems very likely that the three components interact via coiled-coil interactions. They all carry unique carboxy-terminal extensions which increase in length from NF-L to NF-H and seem to extend from the filament wall. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:16453600

  1. DIPA-family coiled-coils bind conserved isoform-specific head domain of p120-catenin family: potential roles in hydrocephalus and heterotopia

    PubMed Central

    Markham, Nicholas O.; Doll, Caleb A.; Dohn, Michael R.; Miller, Rachel K.; Yu, Huapeng; Coffey, Robert J.; McCrea, Pierre D.; Gamse, Joshua T.; Reynolds, Albert B.

    2014-01-01

    p120-catenin (p120) modulates adherens junction (AJ) dynamics by controlling the stability of classical cadherins. Among all p120 isoforms, p120-3A and p120-1A are the most prevalent. Both stabilize cadherins, but p120-3A is preferred in epithelia, whereas p120-1A takes precedence in neurons, fibroblasts, and macrophages. During epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, E- to N-cadherin switching coincides with p120-3A to -1A alternative splicing. These isoforms differ by a 101–amino acid “head domain” comprising the p120-1A N-terminus. Although its exact role is unknown, the head domain likely mediates developmental and cancer-associated events linked to p120-1A expression (e.g., motility, invasion, metastasis). Here we identified delta-interacting protein A (DIPA) as the first head domain–specific binding partner and candidate mediator of isoform 1A activity. DIPA colocalizes with AJs in a p120-1A- but not 3A-dependent manner. Moreover, all DIPA family members (Ccdc85a, Ccdc85b/DIPA, and Ccdc85c) interact reciprocally with p120 family members (p120, δ-catenin, p0071, and ARVCF), suggesting significant functional overlap. During zebrafish neural tube development, both knockdown and overexpression of DIPA phenocopy N-cadherin mutations, an effect bearing functional ties to a reported mouse hydrocephalus phenotype associated with Ccdc85c. These studies identify a novel, highly conserved interaction between two protein families that may participate either individually or collectively in N-cadherin–mediated development. PMID:25009281

  2. HRTEM in protein crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, P. W.; Spargo, A. E. C.; Tulloch, P. A.; Johnson, A. W. S.

    Electron microscopy/diffraction (ED/D) using spot-scan and low-dose imaging has been successfully applied to investigate microcrystals of an alpha-helical coiled-coil protein extracted from ootheca of the praying mantis. Fourier transforms of the images show resolution out to 4 A and can be used to phase the corresponding ED data which shows reflections out to 2 A.

  3. Proteins and acids from petroleum.

    PubMed

    Zaki, D; el-Badrawy, S

    1978-01-01

    The wax distillate fraction (boiling range 300 up to 400 degrees C) from the crude oil "El-Alameen" was found to be a good substrate for the biosynthesis of proteins and/or amino acids by bacteria under special culture conditions. The fermentation processes were accompanied by a refining effect to the oil fraction, elevating its refraction index and lowering its melting point, giving dewaxing effect to the oil fraction. PMID:735504

  4. Genome adaptations of a tripartite motif protein for retroviral defense in cattle and sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tripartite motif (TRIM) genes encode proteins composed of RING, B-box, and coiled coil motif domains. Primate TRIM5' has been shown to be a primary determinant of retroviral host cell range restriction in primates. TRIM5 restriction was originally thought to be a primate-specific defense mechanism...

  5. Vam7p, a SNAP-25-Like Molecule, and Vam3p, a Syntaxin Homolog, Function Together in Yeast Vacuolar Protein Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Trey K.; Darsow, Tamara; Emr, Scott D.

    1998-01-01

    A genetic screen to isolate gene products required for vacuolar morphogenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae identified VAM7, a gene which encodes a protein containing a predicted coiled-coil domain homologous to the coiled-coil domain of the neuronal t-SNARE, SNAP-25 (Y. Wada and Y. Anraku, J. Biol. Chem. 267:18671–18675, 1992; T. Weimbs, S. H. Low, S. J. Chapin, K. E. Mostov, P. Bucher, and K. Hofmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:3046–3051, 1997). Analysis of a temperature-sensitive-for-function (tsf) allele of VAM7 (vam7tsf) demonstrated that the VAM7 gene product directly functions in vacuolar protein transport. vam7tsf mutant cells incubated at the nonpermissive temperature displayed rapid defects in the delivery of multiple proteins that traffic to the vacuole via distinct biosynthetic pathways. Examination of vam7tsf cells at the nonpermissive temperature by electron microscopy revealed the accumulation of aberrant membranous compartments that may represent unfused transport intermediates. A fraction of Vam7p was localized to vacuolar membranes. Furthermore, VAM7 displayed genetic interactions with the vacuolar syntaxin homolog, VAM3. Consistent with the genetic results, Vam7p physically associated in a complex containing Vam3p, and this interaction was enhanced by inactivation of the yeast NSF (N-ethyl maleimide-sensitive factor) homolog, Sec18p. In addition to the coiled-coil domain, Vam7p also contains a putative NADPH oxidase p40phox (PX) domain. Changes in two conserved amino acids within this domain resulted in synthetic phenotypes when combined with the vam3tsf mutation, suggesting that the PX domain is required for Vam7p function. This study provides evidence for the functional and physical interaction between Vam7p and Vam3p at the vacuolar membrane, where they function as part of a t-SNARE complex required for the docking and/or fusion of multiple transport intermediates destined for the vacuole. PMID:9710615

  6. Direct interaction of the N-terminal domain of ribosomal protein S1 with protein S2 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Byrgazov, Konstantin; Manoharadas, Salim; Kaberdina, Anna C; Vesper, Oliver; Moll, Isabella

    2012-01-01

    Despite of the high resolution structure available for the E. coli ribosome, hitherto the structure and localization of the essential ribosomal protein S1 on the 30 S subunit still remains to be elucidated. It was previously reported that protein S1 binds to the ribosome via protein-protein interaction at the two N-terminal domains. Moreover, protein S2 was shown to be required for binding of protein S1 to the ribosome. Here, we present evidence that the N-terminal domain of S1 (amino acids 1-106; S1(106)) is necessary and sufficient for the interaction with protein S2 as well as for ribosome binding. We show that over production of protein S1(106) affects E. coli growth by displacing native protein S1 from its binding pocket on the ribosome. In addition, our data reveal that the coiled-coil domain of protein S2 (S2α(2)) is sufficient to allow protein S1 to bind to the ribosome. Taken together, these data uncover the crucial elements required for the S1/S2 interaction, which is pivotal for translation initiation on canonical mRNAs in gram-negative bacteria. The results are discussed in terms of a model wherein the S1/S2 interaction surface could represent a possible target to modulate the selectivity of the translational machinery and thereby alter the translational program under distinct conditions.

  7. Conformational characterization of the intrinsically disordered protein Chibby: Interplay between structural elements in target recognition.

    PubMed

    Killoran, Ryan C; Sowole, Modupeola A; Halim, Mohammad A; Konermann, Lars; Choy, Wing-Yiu

    2016-08-01

    The protein Chibby (Cby) is an antagonist of the Wnt signaling pathway, where it inhibits the binding between the transcriptional coactivator β-catenin and the Tcf/Lef transcription factors. The 126 residue Cby is partially disordered; its N-terminal half is unstructured while its C-terminal half comprises a coiled-coil domain. Previous structural analyses of Cby using NMR spectroscopy suffered from severe line broadening for residues within the protein's C-terminal half, hindering detailed characterization of the coiled-coil domain. Here, we use hydrogen/deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to examine Cby's C-terminal half. Results reveal that Cby is divided into three structural elements: a disordered N-terminal half, a coiled-coil domain, and a C-terminal unstructured extension consisting of the last ∼ 25 residues (which we term C-terminal extension). A series of truncation constructs were designed to assess the roles of individual structural elements in protein stability and Cby binding to TC-1, a positive regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway. CD and NMR data show that Cby maintains coiled-coil structure upon deletion of either disordered region. NMR and ITC binding experiments between Cby and TC-1 illustrate that the interaction is retained upon deletion of either Cby's N-terminal half or its C-terminal extension. Intriguingly, Cby's C-terminal half alone binds to TC-1 with significantly greater affinity compared to full-length Cby, implying that target binding of the coiled-coil domain is affected by the flanking disordered regions. PMID:27082063

  8. Full-Length Gαq–Phospholipase C-β3 Structure Reveals Interfaces of the C-terminal Coiled-Coil Domain

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Angeline M.; Dutta, Somnath; Boguth, Cassandra A.; Skiniotis, Georgios; Tesmer, John J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipase C-β (PLCβ) is directly activated by Gαq, but the molecular basis for how its distal C-terminal domain (CTD) contributes to maximal activity is poorly understood. Herein we present both the crystal structure and cryo-EM 3D reconstructions of human full-length PLCβ3 in complex with murine Gαq. The distal CTD forms an extended, monomeric helical bundle consisting of three anti-parallel segments with structural similarity to membrane-binding bin–amphiphysin–Rvs (BAR) domains. Sequence conservation of the distal CTD identifies putative membrane and protein interaction sites, the latter of which bind the N-terminal helix of Gαq in both the crystal structure and cryo-EM reconstructions. Functional analysis suggests the distal CTD plays roles in membrane targeting and in optimizing the orientation of the catalytic core at the membrane for maximal rates of lipid hydrolysis. PMID:23377541

  9. Full-length Gαq-phospholipase C-β3 structure reveals interfaces of the C-terminal coiled-coil domain

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, Angeline M.; Dutta, Somnath; Boguth, Cassandra A.; Skiniotis, Georgios; Tesmer, John J.G.

    2014-08-21

    Phospholipase C-β (PLCβ) is directly activated by Gαq, but the molecular basis for how its distal C-terminal domain (CTD) contributes to maximal activity is poorly understood. Herein we present both the crystal structure and cryo-EM three-dimensional reconstructions of human full-length PLCβ3 in complex with mouse Gαq. The distal CTD forms an extended monomeric helical bundle consisting of three antiparallel segments with structural similarity to membrane-binding bin-amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domains. Sequence conservation of the distal CTD suggests putative membrane and protein interaction sites, the latter of which bind the N-terminal helix of Gαq in both the crystal structure and cryo-EM reconstructions. Functional analysis suggests that the distal CTD has roles in membrane targeting and in optimizing the orientation of the catalytic core at the membrane for maximal rates of lipid hydrolysis.

  10. Full-length Gα(q)-phospholipase C-β3 structure reveals interfaces of the C-terminal coiled-coil domain.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Angeline M; Dutta, Somnath; Boguth, Cassandra A; Skiniotis, Georgios; Tesmer, John J G

    2013-03-01

    Phospholipase C-β (PLCβ) is directly activated by Gαq, but the molecular basis for how its distal C-terminal domain (CTD) contributes to maximal activity is poorly understood. Herein we present both the crystal structure and cryo-EM three-dimensional reconstructions of human full-length PLCβ3 in complex with mouse Gαq. The distal CTD forms an extended monomeric helical bundle consisting of three antiparallel segments with structural similarity to membrane-binding bin-amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domains. Sequence conservation of the distal CTD suggests putative membrane and protein interaction sites, the latter of which bind the N-terminal helix of Gαq in both the crystal structure and cryo-EM reconstructions. Functional analysis suggests that the distal CTD has roles in membrane targeting and in optimizing the orientation of the catalytic core at the membrane for maximal rates of lipid hydrolysis. PMID:23377541

  11. The primary structure of component 8c-1, a subunit protein of intermediate filaments in wool keratin. Relationships with proteins from other intermediate filaments.

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, L M; Crewther, W G; Inglis, A S

    1986-01-01

    Component 8c-1, one of four highly homologous component-8 subunit proteins present in the microfibrils of wool, was isolated as its S-carboxymethyl derivative and its amino acid sequence was determined. Large peptides were isolated after cleaving the protein chemically or enzymically and the sequence of each was determined with an automatic Sequenator. The peptides were ordered by sequence overlaps and, in some instances, by homology with known sequences from other component-8 subunits. The C-terminal residues were identified by three procedures. Full details of the various procedures used have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50133 (4 pp.) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1986) 233, 5. The result showed that the protein comprises 412 residues and has an Mr, including the N-terminal acetyl group, of 48,300. The sequence of residues 98-200 of component 8c-1 was found to correspond to the partial or complete sequences of four homologous type I helical segments previously isolated from helical fragments recovered from chymotryptic digests of microfibrillar proteins of wool [Crewther & Dowling (1971) Appl. Polym. Symp. 18, 1-20; Crewther, Gough, Inglis & McKern (1978) Text. Res. J. 48, 160-162; Gough, Inglis & Crewther (1978) Biochem. J. 173, 385]. Considered in relation to amino acid sequences of other intermediate-filament proteins, the sequence is in accord with the view that keratin filament proteins are of two types [Hanukoglu & Fuchs (1983) Cell (Cambridge, Mass.) 33, 915-924]. Filament proteins from non-keratinous tissues, such as desmin, vimentin, neurofilament proteins and the glial fibrillary acidic protein, which form monocomponent filaments, constitute a third type. It is suggested that as a whole the proteins from intermediate filaments be classed as filamentins, the three types at present identified forming

  12. Molecular mechanism of the assembly of an acid-sensing receptor ion channel complex.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; Ulbrich, Maximilian H; Li, Ming-Hui; Dobbins, Scott; Zhang, Wei K; Tong, Liang; Isacoff, Ehud Y; Yang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) family proteins associate with transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family proteins to form functionally important complexes. PKD proteins differ from known ion channel-forming proteins and are generally thought to act as membrane receptors. Here we find that PKD1L3, a PKD protein, functions as a channel-forming subunit in an acid-sensing heteromeric complex formed by PKD1L3 and TRPP3, a TRP channel protein. Single amino-acid mutations in the putative pore region of both proteins alter the channel's ion selectivity. The PKD1L3/TRPP3 complex in the plasma membrane of live cells contains one PKD1L3 and three TRPP3. A TRPP3 C-terminal coiled-coil domain forms a trimer in solution and in crystal, and has a crucial role in the assembly and surface expression of the PKD1L3/TRPP3 complex. These results demonstrate that PKD subunits constitute a new class of channel-forming proteins, enriching our understanding of the function of PKD proteins and PKD/TRPP complexes. PMID:23212381

  13. Protein biosynthesis with conformationally restricted amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, D. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA ); Ellman, J.; Schultz, P.G. )

    1993-05-19

    The incorporation of conformationally constrained amino acids into peptides is a powerful approach for generating structurally defined peptides as conformational probes and bioactive agents. The ability to site-specifically introduce constrained amino acids into large polypeptide chains would provide a similar opportunity to probe the flexibility, conformation, folding and stability of proteins. To this end, we have examined the competence of the Escherichia coli protein biosynthetic machinery to incorporate a number of these unnatural amino acids into the 164 residue protein T4 lysozyme (T4L). Results clearly demonstrate that the protein biosynthetic machinery can accommodate a wide variety of conformationally constrained amino acids. The expansion of structural motifs that can be biosynthetically incorporated into proteins to include a large number of conformationally constrained amino acids significantly increases the power of mutagenesis methods as probes of protein structure and function and provides additional insights into the steric requirements of the translational machinery. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Distinguishing proteins from arbitrary amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Yau, Stephen S-T; Mao, Wei-Guang; Benson, Max; He, Rong Lucy

    2015-01-01

    What kinds of amino acid sequences could possibly be protein sequences? From all existing databases that we can find, known proteins are only a small fraction of all possible combinations of amino acids. Beginning with Sanger's first detailed determination of a protein sequence in 1952, previous studies have focused on describing the structure of existing protein sequences in order to construct the protein universe. No one, however, has developed a criteria for determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Here we show that when the collection of arbitrary amino acid sequences is viewed in an appropriate geometric context, the protein sequences cluster together. This leads to a new computational test, described here, that has proved to be remarkably accurate at determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Even more, if the results of this test indicate that the sequence can be a protein, and it is indeed a protein sequence, then its identity as a protein sequence is uniquely defined. We anticipate our computational test will be useful for those who are attempting to complete the job of discovering all proteins, or constructing the protein universe. PMID:25609314

  15. A new acidic protein in porcine brain.

    PubMed

    Ishioka, N; Isobe, T; Okuyama, T; Numata, Y; Wada, H

    1980-10-21

    An extremely acidic protein has been isolated in a purified form from porcine rain extract, by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation followed by column chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and on Sephadex G-75. The purified protein was tentatively named as glutamic acid-rich protein because it was characterized by its remarkably high content of glutamic acid which accounted for 49% of the total amino acid composition. The protein appeared to be a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 56 000-58 000, and had an isoelectric point of 4.6. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was Asp-Glu-Pro-Pro-Ser-Glu-Gly. The immunochemical analysis using rabbit antiserum prepared to the porcine protein has suggested that it is present in the brain of human, cow, cat, dog and goat as well as in various goat organs including liver, kidney, heart, small intestine and spleen.

  16. Peripheral framework of carrot cell nucleus contains a novel protein predicted to exhibit a long alpha-helical domain.

    PubMed

    Masuda, K; Xu, Z J; Takahashi, S; Ito, A; Ono, M; Nomura, K; Inoue, M

    1997-04-10

    A monoclonal antibody, CML-1, raised against carrot (Daucus carota L.) nuclear-matrix proteins selectively labeled the nuclear periphery of carrot protoplasts when visualized by confocal and electron microscopy. To identify the constituent proteins of higher plant cells structurally homologous to the vertebrate nuclear lamina, we cloned overlapping cDNAs partially encoding a CML-1-recognized protein and determined the entire sequence including the open reading frame. When the deduced amino acid sequence was compared with other known protein sequences contained in major databases, no protein was found to show high sequence identity across the whole region of the protein, while the partial sequence showed strong similarities with myosin, tropomyosin, and some intermediate filament proteins. The protein, designated NMCP1, had an estimated molecular mass of 133.6 kDa and showed three characteristic domains. The central domain contains long alpha-helices exhibiting heptad repeats of apolar residues, demonstrating structural similarity to that of filament-forming proteins. The terminal domains are predominantly nonhelical and contain potential sequence motifs for nuclear localization signals. NMCP1 has many recognition motifs for different types of protein kinases, including cdc2 kinase and PKC. These results suggest that NMCP1 protein forms coiled-coil filaments and is a constituent of the peripheral architecture of the higher plant cell nucleus.

  17. BIOPOLYMERS FROM POLYLACTIC ACID AND MILK PROTEINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a commercially available biodegradable polymer derived from lactic acid and is used in many nonfood products as an alternative to petrochemical-derived polymers. However, its physical properties limit its use in many applications. Using dairy proteins to substitute for por...

  18. A testis-specific and testis developmentally regulated tumor protein D52 (TPD52)-like protein TPD52L3/hD55 interacts with TPD52 family proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Qinhong; Chen Jie; Zhu Li; Liu Yun; Zhou Zuomin; Sha Jiahao; Wang Shui; Li Jianmin . E-mail: jianminli@njmu.edu.cn

    2006-06-09

    Tumor protein D52-like proteins (TPD52) are small coiled-coil motif bearing proteins that were first identified in breast cancer. TPD52 and related proteins have been implicated in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and vesicle trafficking. To date, three human TPD52 members had been identified, named hD52 (TPD52), hD53 (TPD52L1), and hD54 (TPD52L2). The most important characteristic of the protein family is a highly conserved coiled-coil motif that is required for homo- and heteromeric interaction with other TPD52-like proteins. Herein, we identified a novel TPD52-like sequence (TPD52L3, or hD55) in human testis using cDNA microarray. Sequence analysis of the deduced protein suggests that hD55 contains a coiled-coil motif and is highly conserved compared with other TPD52-like sequences. Yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays revealed that hD55 interacts with hD52, hD53, hD54, and itself. cDNA microarray detection found that hD55 was expressed at 5.6-fold higher levels in adult testis than in fetal testis. Additionally, the expression profile shows that hD55 is testis-specific, indicating a potential role for hD55 in testis development and spermatogenesis.

  19. Acanthamoeba castellanii STAT protein.

    PubMed

    Kicinska, Anna; Leluk, Jacek; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2014-01-01

    STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins are one of the important mediators of phosphotyrosine-regulated signaling in metazoan cells. We described the presence of STAT protein in a unicellular, free-living amoebae with a simple life cycle, Acanthamoeba castellanii. A. castellanii is the only, studied to date, Amoebozoan that does not belong to Mycetozoa but possesses STATs. A sequence of the A. castellanii STAT protein includes domains similar to those of the Dictyostelium STAT proteins: a coiled coil (characteristic for Dictyostelium STAT coiled coil), a STAT DNA-binding domain and a Src-homology domain. The search for protein sequences homologous to A. castellanii STAT revealed 17 additional sequences from lower eukaryotes. Interestingly, all of these sequences come from Amoebozoa organisms that belong to either Mycetozoa (slime molds) or Centramoebida. We showed that there are four separated clades within the slime mold STAT proteins. The A. castellanii STAT protein branches next to a group of STATc proteins from Mycetozoa. We also demonstrate that Amoebozoa form a distinct monophyletic lineage within the STAT protein world that is well separated from the other groups. PMID:25338074

  20. Probing protein stability with unnatural amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, D.; Ellman, J.A.; Zhiyuh Chang; Veenstra, D.L.; Kollman, P.A.; Schultz, P.G. )

    1992-06-26

    Unnatural amino acid mutagenesis, in combination with molecular modeling and simulation techniques, was used to probe the effect of side chain structure on protein stability. Specific replacements at position 133 in T4 lysozyme included (1) leucine (wt), norvaline, ethylglycine, and alanine to measure the cost of stepwise removal of methyl groups from the hydrophobic core, (2) norvaline and O-methyl serine to evaluate the effects of side chain solvation, and (3) leucine, S,S-2-amino-4-methylhexanoic acid, and S-2-amino-3-cyclopentylpropanoic acid to measure the influence of packing density and side chain conformational entropy on protein stability. All of these factors (hydrophobicity, packing, conformational entropy, and cavity formation) significantly influence protein stability and must be considered when analyzing any structural change to proteins.

  1. Gravitropism and Lateral Root Emergence are Dependent on the Trans-Golgi Network Protein TNO1

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Rahul; Bassham, Diane C.

    2015-01-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is a dynamic organelle that functions as a relay station for receiving endocytosed cargo, directing secretory cargo, and trafficking to the vacuole. TGN-localized SYP41-interacting protein (TNO1) is a large, TGN-localized, coiled-coil protein that associates with the membrane fusion protein SYP41, a target SNARE, and is required for efficient protein trafficking to the vacuole. Here, we show that a tno1 mutant has auxin transport-related defects. Mutant roots have delayed lateral root emergence, decreased gravitropic bending of plant organs and increased sensitivity to the auxin analog 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and the natural auxin 3-indoleacetic acid. Auxin asymmetry at the tips of elongating stage II lateral roots was reduced in the tno1 mutant, suggesting a role for TNO1 in cellular auxin transport during lateral root emergence. During gravistimulation, tno1 roots exhibited delayed auxin transport from the columella to the basal epidermal cells. Endocytosis to the TGN was unaffected in the mutant, indicating that bulk endocytic defects are not responsible for the observed phenotypes. Together these studies demonstrate a role for TNO1 in mediating auxin responses during root development and gravistimulation, potentially through trafficking of auxin transport proteins. PMID:26617617

  2. Identification of Tpr and α-actinin-4 as two novel SLK-interacting proteins.

    PubMed

    Jaberi, Aala; Hooker, Erika; Guillemette, Julie; Papillon, Joan; Kristof, Arnold S; Cybulsky, Andrey V

    2015-10-01

    Expression and activity of the Ste20-like kinase, SLK, are increased during kidney development and recovery from ischemia-reperfusion injury. SLK mediates apoptosis in various cells, and can regulate cell cycle progression and cytoskeletal remodeling. In cells, SLK is detected in a high molecular mass complex, suggesting that SLK is a dimer/oligomer, or is in tight association with other proteins. To better understand the regulation, localization and function of SLK, we sought to identify proteins in this high molecular mass complex. Analysis by mass spectroscopy identified the nucleoporin, translocated promoter region (Tpr), and the cytoskeletal protein, α-actinin-4, as potential SLK-interacting proteins. Using a protein complementation assay, we showed that the 350 amino acid C-terminal, coiled-coil domain of SLK was responsible for homodimerization, as well as interaction with Tpr and α-actinin-4. The association of SLK with Tpr and α-actinin-4, respectively, was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Subsets of total cellular SLK colocalized with Tpr at the nuclear envelope, and α-actinin-4 in the cytoplasm. Expression of Tpr attenuated activation-specific autophosphorylation of SLK, and blocked SLK-induced apoptosis and AP-1 activity. In contrast to the effect of Tpr, autophosphorylation of SLK was not affected by α-actinin-4. Thus, SLK interacts with Tpr and α-actinin-4 in cells, and these protein-protein interactions may control the subcellular localization and the biological activity of SLK.

  3. Pan1 is an intrinsically disordered protein with homotypic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, B. D.; Toptygin, D.; Wendland, B.

    2013-01-01

    The yeast scaffold protein Pan1 contains two EH domains at its N-terminus, a predicted coiled-coil central region, and a C-terminal proline-rich domain. Pan1 is also predicted to contain regions of intrinsic disorder, characteristic of proteins that have many binding partners. In vitro biochemical data suggest that Pan1 exists as a dimer, and we have identified amino acids 705–848 as critical for this homotypic interaction. Tryptophan fluorescence was used to further characterize Pan1 conformational states. Pan1 contains four endogenous tryptophans, each in a distinct region of the protein: Trp312 and Trp642 are each in an EH domain, Trp957 is in the central region, and Trp1280 is a critical residue in the Arp2/3 activation domain. To examine the local environment of each of these tryptophans, three of the four tryptophans were mutagenized to phenylalanine to create four proteins, each with only one tryptophan residue. When quenched with acrylamide, these single tryptophan mutants appeared to undergo collisional quenching exclusively and were moderately accessible to the acrylamide molecule. Quenching with iodide or cesium, however, revealed different Stern-Volmer constants due to unique electrostatic environments of the tryptophan residues. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy data confirmed structural and disorder predictions of Pan1. Further experimentation to fully develop a model of Pan1 conformational dynamics will assist in a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of endocytosis. PMID:23801378

  4. Enhanced disease susceptibility 1 and salicylic acid act redundantly to regulate resistance gene-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Srivathsa C; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Mandal, Mihir K; Zhu, Shifeng; Chandra-Shekara, A C; Xia, Ye; Hersh, Matthew; Stromberg, Arnold J; Navarre, DuRoy; Kachroo, Aardra; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2009-07-01

    Resistance (R) protein-associated pathways are well known to participate in defense against a variety of microbial pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) and its associated proteinaceous signaling components, including enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1), non-race-specific disease resistance 1 (NDR1), phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4), senescence associated gene 101 (SAG101), and EDS5, have been identified as components of resistance derived from many R proteins. Here, we show that EDS1 and SA fulfill redundant functions in defense signaling mediated by R proteins, which were thought to function independent of EDS1 and/or SA. Simultaneous mutations in EDS1 and the SA-synthesizing enzyme SID2 compromised hypersensitive response and/or resistance mediated by R proteins that contain coiled coil domains at their N-terminal ends. Furthermore, the expression of R genes and the associated defense signaling induced in response to a reduction in the level of oleic acid were also suppressed by compromising SA biosynthesis in the eds1 mutant background. The functional redundancy with SA was specific to EDS1. Results presented here redefine our understanding of the roles of EDS1 and SA in plant defense.

  5. Dilatory is a Drosophila protein related to AZI1 (CEP131) that is located at the ciliary base and required for cilium formation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lina; Jarman, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    A significant number of ciliary disease genes have been found to encode proteins that localise to the basal body. By contrast, a large number of basal-body-associated proteins remain to be characterised. Here, we report the identification of a new basal body protein that is required for ciliogenesis in Drosophila. Dilatory (DILA) is a predicted coiled-coil protein homologous to vertebrate AZI1 (also known as CEP131). Mutations in dila specifically exhibit defects in ciliated cells (sensory neurons and sperm). Several features of the neuronal phenotype suggest a defect in intraflagellar transport. In sensory neuron cilia, DILA protein localises to the ciliary base, including the basal body and putative transition zone, and it interacts genetically with the ciliary coiled-coil protein, Uncoordinated. These data implicate DILA in regulating intraflagellar transport at the base of sensory cilia. PMID:21750193

  6. Cancer cell death induced by novel small molecules degrading the TACC3 protein via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    PubMed

    Ohoka, N; Nagai, K; Hattori, T; Okuhira, K; Shibata, N; Cho, N; Naito, M

    2014-11-06

    The selective degradation of target proteins with small molecules is a novel approach to the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. We have developed a protein knockdown system with a series of hybrid small compounds that induce the selective degradation of target proteins via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In this study, we designed and synthesized novel small molecules called SNIPER(TACC3)s, which target the spindle regulatory protein transforming acidic coiled-coil-3 (TACC3). SNIPER(TACC3)s induce poly-ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of TACC3 and reduce the TACC3 protein level in cells. Mechanistic analysis indicated that the ubiquitin ligase APC/C(CDH1) mediates the SNIPER(TACC3)-induced degradation of TACC3. Intriguingly, SNIPER(TACC3) selectively induced cell death in cancer cells expressing a larger amount of TACC3 protein than normal cells. These results suggest that protein knockdown of TACC3 by SNIPER(TACC3) is a potential strategy for treating cancers overexpressing the TACC3 protein.

  7. Creation of Hybrid Nanorods From Sequences of Natural Trimeric Fibrous Proteins Using the Fibritin Trimerization Motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanikolopoulou, Katerina; van Raaij, Mark J.; Mitraki, Anna

    Stable, artificial fibrous proteins that can be functionalized open new avenues in fields such as bionanomaterials design and fiber engineering. An important source of inspiration for the creation of such proteins are natural fibrous proteins such as collagen, elastin, insect silks, and fibers from phages and viruses. The fibrous parts of this last class of proteins usually adopt trimeric, β-stranded structural folds and are appended to globular, receptor-binding domains. It has been recently shown that the globular domains are essential for correct folding and trimerization and can be successfully substituted by a very small (27-amino acid) trimerization motif from phage T4 fibritin. The hybrid proteins are correctly folded nanorods that can withstand extreme conditions. When the fibrous part derives from the adenovirus fiber shaft, different tissue-targeting specificities can be engineered into the hybrid proteins, which therefore can be used as gene therapy vectors. The integration of such stable nanorods in devices is also a big challenge in the field of biomechanical design. The fibritin foldon domain is a versatile trimerization motif and can be combined with a variety of fibrous motifs, such as coiled-coil, collagenous, and triple β-stranded motifs, provided the appropriate linkers are used. The combination of different motifs within the same fibrous molecule to create stable rods with multiple functions can even be envisioned. We provide a comprehensive overview of the experimental procedures used for designing, creating, and characterizing hybrid fibrous nanorods using the fibritin trimerization motif.

  8. Detection of non-protein amino acids in the presence of protein amino acids. II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapshak, P.; Okaji, M.

    1972-01-01

    Studies conducted with the JEOL 5AH amino acid analyzer are described. This instrument makes possible the programming of the chromatographic process. Data are presented showing the separations of seventeen non-protein amino acids in the presence of eighteen protein amino acids. It is pointed out that distinct separations could be obtained in the case of a number of chemically similar compounds, such as ornithine and lysine, N-amidino alanine and arginine, and iminodiacetic acid and S-carboxymethyl cysteine and aspartic acid.

  9. Nucleic acids, proteins, and chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usher, D. A.; Profy, A. T.; Walstrum, S. A.; Needels, M. C.; Bulack, S. C.; Lo, K. M.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with experimental results related, in one case, to the chirality of nucleotides, and, in another case, to the possibility of a link between the chirality of nucleic acids, and that of peptides. It has been found that aminoacylation of the 'internal' hydroxyl group of a dinucleoside monophosphate can occur stereoselectively. However, this reaction has not yet been made a part of a working peptide synthesis scheme. The formation and cleavage of oligonucleotides is considered. In the event of the formation of a helical complex between the oligonucleotide and the polymer, 1-prime,5-prime-bonds in the oligomer are found to become more resistant towards cleavage. The conditions required for peptide bond formation are examined, taking into account the known structures of RNA and possible mechanisms for prebiotic peptide bond formation. The possibility is considered that the 2-prime,5-prime-internucleotide linkage could have played an important part in the early days of biological peptide synthesis.

  10. The expression of N-terminal deletion DNA pilot proteins inhibits the early stages of phiX174 replication.

    PubMed

    Ruboyianes, Mark V; Chen, Min; Dubrava, Mathew S; Cherwa, James E; Fane, Bentley A

    2009-10-01

    The phiX174 DNA pilot protein H contains four predicted C-terminal coiled-coil domains. The region of the gene encoding these structures was cloned, expressed in vivo, and found to strongly inhibit wild-type replication. DNA and protein synthesis was investigated in the absence of de novo H protein synthesis and in wild-type-infected cells expressing the inhibitory proteins (DeltaH). The expression of the DeltaH proteins interfered with early stages of DNA replication, which did not require de novo H protein synthesis, suggesting that the inhibitory proteins interfere with the wild-type H protein that enters the cell with the penetrating DNA. As transcription and protein synthesis are dependent on DNA replication in positive single-stranded DNA life cycles, viral protein synthesis was also reduced. However, unlike DNA synthesis, efficient viral protein synthesis required de novo H protein synthesis, a novel function for this protein. A single amino acid change in the C terminus of protein H was both necessary and sufficient to confer resistance to the inhibitory DeltaH proteins, restoring both DNA and protein synthesis to wild-type levels. DeltaH proteins derived from the resistant mutant did not inhibit wild-type or resistant mutant replication. The inhibitory effects of the DeltaH proteins were lessened by the coexpression of the internal scaffolding protein, which may suppress H-H protein interactions. While coexpression relieved the block in DNA biosynthesis, viral protein synthesis remained suppressed. These data indicate that protein H's role in DNA replication and stimulating viral protein synthesis can be uncoupled. PMID:19640994

  11. Alimentary proteins, amino acids and cholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Blachier, François; Lancha, Antonio H; Boutry, Claire; Tomé, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Numerous data from both epidemiological and experimental origins indicate that some alimentary proteins and amino acids in supplements can modify the blood LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and total cholesterol. After an initial approval of the health claim for soy protein consumption for the prevention of coronary heart disease, more recently it has been concluded from an overall analysis of literature that isolated soy protein with isoflavones only slightly decrease LDL and total cholesterol. Other plant extracts and also some proteins from animal origin have been reported to exert a lowering effect on blood cholesterol when compared with a reference protein (often casein). The underlying mechanisms are still little understood. Individual amino acids and mixture of amino acids have also been tested (mostly in animal studies) for their effects on cholesterol parameters and on cholesterol metabolism. Methionine, lysine, cystine, leucine, aspartate and glutamate have been tested individually and in combination in different models of either normo or hypercholesterolemic animals and found to be able to modify blood cholesterol and/or LDL cholesterol and/or HDL cholesterol. It is however not known if these results are relevant to human nutrition.

  12. The human mid-size neurofilament subunit: a repeated protein sequence and the relationship of its gene to the intermediate filament gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M W; Lazzarini, R A; Lee, V M; Schlaepfer, W W; Nelson, D L

    1987-01-01

    We report the isolation and sequence of cDNA and genomic clones for one of the two large subunits of human neurofilament, NF-M. Analysis of the sequence has allowed us to investigate the structure of the carboxy-terminal tail of this protein, and to compare it to that of the small neurofilament as well as to other intermediate filaments. The carboxy-terminal region of the protein contains a 13 amino acid proline- and serine-rich sequence repeated six times in succession. Within each repeat unit are two smaller repeats of the sequence Lys-Ser-Pro-Val. The four amino acid repeat may represent a kinase recognition site in a region of the protein that is known to be highly phosphorylated. We also note the presence of an additional heptad repeat at the extreme carboxy terminus of the protein. This region of 60 amino acids may be involved in coiled-coil interactions similar to those that facilitate the filament formation in the rod region. The human gene contains only two introns. Their positions correspond to two of the three introns found in the small neurofilament of the mouse. Thus, two of the three neurofilament genes of mammals have similar structures which are quite different from those of the other intermediate filaments. This finding suggests a common origin of the neurofilament subunits, whose evolutionary relationship to other intermediate filament genes is uncertain. Images Fig. 1. PMID:3608989

  13. Common Evolutionary Origin for the Rotor Domain of Rotary Atpases and Flagellar Protein Export Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Kishikawa, Jun-ichi; Ibuki, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Shuichi; Nakanishi, Astuko; Minamino, Tohru; Miyata, Tomoko; Namba, Keiichi; Konno, Hiroki; Ueno, Hiroshi; Imada, Katsumi; Yokoyama, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The V1- and F1- rotary ATPases contain a rotor that rotates against a catalytic A3B3 or α3β3 stator. The rotor F1-γ or V1-DF is composed of both anti-parallel coiled coil and globular-loop parts. The bacterial flagellar type III export apparatus contains a V1/F1-like ATPase ring structure composed of FliI6 homo-hexamer and FliJ which adopts an anti-parallel coiled coil structure without the globular-loop part. Here we report that FliJ of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium shows a rotor like function in Thermus thermophilus A3B3 based on both biochemical and structural analysis. Single molecular analysis indicates that an anti-parallel coiled-coil structure protein (FliJ structure protein) functions as a rotor in A3B3. A rotary ATPase possessing an F1-γ-like protein generated by fusion of the D and F subunits of V1 rotates, suggesting F1-γ could be the result of a fusion of the genes encoding two separate rotor subunits. Together with sequence comparison among the globular part proteins, the data strongly suggest that the rotor domains of the rotary ATPases and the flagellar export apparatus share a common evolutionary origin. PMID:23724081

  14. The inv(16) fusion protein associates with corepressors via a smooth muscle myosin heavy-chain domain.

    PubMed

    Durst, Kristie L; Lutterbach, Bart; Kummalue, Tanawan; Friedman, Alan D; Hiebert, Scott W

    2003-01-01

    Inversion(16) is one of the most frequent chromosomal translocations found in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), occurring in over 8% of AML cases. This translocation results in a protein product that fuses the first 165 amino acids of core binding factor beta to the coiled-coil region of a smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (CBFbeta/SMMHC). CBFbeta interacts with AML1 to form a heterodimer that binds DNA; this interaction increases the affinity of AML1 for DNA. The CBFbeta/SMMHC fusion protein cooperates with AML1 to repress the transcription of AML1-regulated genes. We show that CBFbeta/SMMHC contains a repression domain in the C-terminal 163 amino acids of the SMMHC region that is required for inv(16)-mediated transcriptional repression. This minimal repression domain is sufficient for the association of CBFbeta/SMMHC with the mSin3A corepressor. In addition, the inv(16) fusion protein specifically associates with histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8). inv(16)-mediated repression is sensitive to HDAC inhibitors. We propose a model whereby the inv(16) fusion protein associates with AML1 to convert AML1 into a constitutive transcriptional repressor. PMID:12509458

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of central structure domains from mumps virus F protein

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yueyong; Xu, Yanhui; Zhu, Jieqing; Qiu, Bingsheng; Rao, Zihe; Gao, George F.; Tien, Po

    2005-09-01

    Single crystals of the central structure domains from mumps virus F protein have been obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A diffraction data set has been collected to 2.2 Å resolution. Fusion of members of the Paramyxoviridae family involves two glycoproteins: the attachment protein and the fusion protein. Changes in the fusion-protein conformation were caused by binding of the attachment protein to the cellular receptor. In the membrane-fusion process, two highly conserved heptad-repeat (HR) regions, HR1 and HR2, are believed to form a stable six-helix coiled-coil bundle. However, no crystal structure has yet been determined for this state in the mumps virus (MuV, a member of the Paramyxoviridae family). In this study, a single-chain protein consisting of two HR regions connected by a flexible amino-acid linker (named 2-Helix) was expressed, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A complete X-ray data set was obtained in-house to 2.2 Å resolution from a single crystal. The crystal belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 161.2, b = 60.8, c = 40.1 Å, β = 98.4°. The crystal structure will help in understanding the molecular mechanism of Paramyxoviridae family membrane fusion.

  16. Protein and Amino Acid Requirements during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Elango, Rajavel; Ball, Ronald O

    2016-07-01

    Protein forms an essential component of a healthy diet in humans to support both growth and maintenance. During pregnancy, an exceptional stage of life defined by rapid growth and development, adequate dietary protein is crucial to ensure a healthy outcome. Protein deposition in maternal and fetal tissues increases throughout pregnancy, with most occurring during the third trimester. Dietary protein intake recommendations are based on factorial estimates because the traditional method of determining protein requirements, nitrogen balance, is invasive and undesirable during pregnancy. The current Estimated Average Requirement and RDA recommendations of 0.88 and 1.1 g · kg(-1) · d(-1), respectively, are for all stages of pregnancy. The single recommendation does not take into account the changing needs during different stages of pregnancy. Recently, with the use of the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation method, we defined the requirements to be, on average, 1.2 and 1.52 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) during early (∼16 wk) and late (∼36 wk) stages of pregnancy, respectively. Although the requirements are substantially higher than current recommendations, our values are ∼14-18% of total energy and fit within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range. Using swine as an animal model we showed that the requirements for several indispensable amino acids increase dramatically during late gestation compared with early gestation. Additional studies should be conducted during pregnancy to confirm the newly determined protein requirements and to determine the indispensable amino acid requirements during pregnancy in humans. PMID:27422521

  17. Cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins of invertebrates are closer to nuclear lamins than are vertebrate intermediate filament proteins; sequence characterization of two muscle proteins of a nematode.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, K; Plessmann, U; Ulrich, W

    1989-01-01

    The giant body muscle cells of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides show a complex three dimensional array of intermediate filaments (IFs). They contain two proteins, A (71 kd) and B (63 kd), which we now show are able to form homopolymeric filaments in vitro. The complete amino acid sequence of B and 80% of A have been determined. A and B are two homologous proteins with a 55% sequence identity over the rod and tail domains. Sequence comparisons with the only other invertebrate IF protein currently known (Helix pomatia) and with vertebrate IF proteins show that along the coiled-coil rod domain, sequence principles rather than actual sequences are conserved in evolution. Noticeable exceptions are the consensus sequences at the ends of the rod, which probably play a direct role in IF assembly. Like the Helix IF protein the nematode proteins have six extra heptads in the coil 1b segment. These are characteristic of nuclear lamins from vertebrates and invertebrates and are not found in vertebrate IF proteins. Unexpectedly the enhanced homology between lamins and invertebrate IF proteins continues in the tail domains, which in vertebrate IF proteins totally diverge. The sequence alignment necessitates the introduction of a 15 residue deletion in the tail domain of all three invertebrate IF proteins. Its location coincides with the position of the karyophilic signal sequence, which dictates nuclear entry of the lamins. The results provide the first molecular support for the speculation that nuclear lamins and cytoplasmic IF proteins arose in eukaryotic evolution from a common lamin-like predecessor. Images PMID:2583097

  18. Origins of Structural Flexibility in Protein-Based Supramolecular Polymers Revealed by DEER Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Modular assembly of bio-inspired supramolecular polymers is a powerful technique to develop new soft nanomaterials, and protein folding is a versatile basis for preparing such materials. Previous work demonstrated a significant difference in the physical properties of closely related supramolecular polymers composed of building blocks in which identical coiled-coil-forming peptides are cross-linked by one of two subtly different organic linkers (one flexible and the other rigid). Herein, we investigate the molecular basis for this observation by isolating a single subunit of the supramolecular polymer chain and probing its structure and conformational flexibility by double electron–electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy. Experimental spin–spin distance distributions for two different labeling sites coupled with molecular dynamics simulations provide insights into how the linker structure impacts chain dynamics in the coiled-coil supramolecular polymer. PMID:25060334

  19. Origins of structural flexibility in protein-based supramolecular polymers revealed by DEER spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tavenor, Nathan A; Silva, K Ishara; Saxena, Sunil; Horne, W Seth

    2014-08-21

    Modular assembly of bio-inspired supramolecular polymers is a powerful technique to develop new soft nanomaterials, and protein folding is a versatile basis for preparing such materials. Previous work demonstrated a significant difference in the physical properties of closely related supramolecular polymers composed of building blocks in which identical coiled-coil-forming peptides are cross-linked by one of two subtly different organic linkers (one flexible and the other rigid). Herein, we investigate the molecular basis for this observation by isolating a single subunit of the supramolecular polymer chain and probing its structure and conformational flexibility by double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy. Experimental spin-spin distance distributions for two different labeling sites coupled with molecular dynamics simulations provide insights into how the linker structure impacts chain dynamics in the coiled-coil supramolecular polymer. PMID:25060334

  20. Identification of a novel centrosomal protein Crp{sup F46} involved in cell cycle progression and mitosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Yi; Shen Enzhi; Zhao Na; Liu Qian; Fan Jinling; Marc, Jan; Wang Yongchao; Sun Le; Liang Qianjin

    2008-05-01

    A novel centrosome-related protein Crp{sup F46} was detected using a serum F46 from a patient suffering from progressive systemic sclerosis. We identified the protein by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting followed by tandem mass spectrometry sequencing. The protein Crp{sup F46} has an apparent molecular mass of {approx} 60 kDa, is highly homologous to a 527 amino acid sequence of the C-terminal portion of the protein Golgin-245, and appears to be a splice variant of Golgin-245. Immunofluorescence microscopy of synchronized HeLa cells labeled with an anti-Crp{sup F46} monoclonal antibody revealed that Crp{sup F46} localized exclusively to the centrosome during interphase, although it dispersed throughout the cytoplasm at the onset of mitosis. Domain analysis using Crp{sup F46} fragments in GFP-expression vectors transformed into HeLa cells revealed that centrosomal targeting is conferred by a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. Antisense Crp{sup F46} knockdown inhibited cell growth and proliferation and the cell cycle typically stalled at S phase. The knockdown also resulted in the formation of poly-centrosomal and multinucleate cells, which finally became apoptotic. These results suggest that Crp{sup F46} is a novel centrosome-related protein that associates with the centrosome in a cell cycle-dependent manner and is involved in the progression of the cell cycle and M phase mechanism.

  1. Functional differentiation in the leucine-rich repeat domains of closely related plant virus-resistance proteins that recognize common avr proteins.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Ken-Taro; Tomita, Reiko; Takeuchi, Shigeharu; Atsumi, Go; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Mizumoto, Hiroyuki; Kiba, Akinori; Yamaoka, Naoto; Nishiguchi, Masamichi; Hikichi, Yasufumi; Kobayashi, Kappei

    2012-09-01

    The N' gene of Nicotiana sylvestris and L genes of Capsicum plants confer the resistance response accompanying the hypersensitive response (HR) elicited by tobamovirus coat proteins (CP) but with different viral specificities. Here, we report the identification of the N' gene. We amplified and cloned an N' candidate using polymerase chain reaction primers designed from L gene sequences. The N' candidate gene was a single 4143 base pairs fragment encoding a coiled-coil nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-type resistance protein of 1,380 amino acids. The candidate gene induced the HR in response to the coexpression of tobamovirus CP with the identical specificity as reported for N'. Analysis of N'-containing and tobamovirus-susceptible N. tabacum accessions supported the hypothesis that the candidate is the N' gene itself. Chimera analysis between N' and L(3) revealed that their LRR domains determine the spectrum of their tobamovirus CP recognition. Deletion and mutation analyses of N' and L(3) revealed that the conserved sequences in their C-terminal regions have important roles but contribute differentially to the recognition of common avirulence proteins. The results collectively suggest that Nicotiana N' and Capsicum L genes, which most likely evolved from a common ancestor, differentiated in their recognition specificity through changes in the structural requirements for LRR function.

  2. Molecular insights into DNA binding and anchoring by the Bacillus subtilis sporulation kinetochore-like RacA protein

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Maria A.; Lee, Jeehyun; Zeng, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    During Bacillus subtilis sporulation, segregating sister chromosomes are anchored to cell poles and the chromosome is remodeled into an elongated structure called the axial filament. Data indicate that a developmentally regulated protein called RacA is involved in these functions. To gain insight into how RacA performs these diverse processes we performed a battery of structural and biochemical analyses. These studies show that RacA contains an N-terminal winged-helix-turn-helix module connected by a disordered region to a predicted coiled-coil domain. Structures capture RacA binding the DNA using distinct protein–protein interfaces and employing adjustable DNA docking modes. This unique DNA binding mechanism indicates how RacA can both specifically recognize its GC-rich centromere and also non-specifically bind the DNA. Adjacent RacA molecules within the protein–DNA structure interact leading to DNA compaction, suggesting a mechanism for axial filament formation. We also show that the RacA C-domain coiled coil directly contacts the coiled coil region of the polar protein DivIVA, which anchors RacA and hence the chromosome to the pole. Thus, our combined data reveal unique DNA binding properties by RacA and provide insight into the DNA remodeling and polar anchorage functions of the protein. PMID:27085804

  3. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding an A-kinase anchoring protein located in the centrosome, AKAP450.

    PubMed Central

    Witczak, O; Skålhegg, B S; Keryer, G; Bornens, M; Taskén, K; Jahnsen, T; Orstavik, S

    1999-01-01

    A combination of protein kinase A type II (RII) overlay screening, database searches and PCR was used to identify a centrosomal A-kinase anchoring protein. A cDNA with an 11.7 kb open reading frame was characterized and found to correspond to 50 exons of genomic sequence on human chromosome 7q21-22. This cDNA clone encoded a 3908 amino acid protein of 453 kDa, that was designated AKAP450 (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank accession No. AJ131693). Sequence comparison demonstrated that the open reading frame contained a previously characterized cDNA encoding Yotiao, as well as the human homologue of AKAP120. Numerous coiled-coil structures were predicted from AKAP450, and weak homology to pericentrin, giantin and other structural proteins was observed. A putative RII-binding site was identified involving amino acid 2556 of AKAP450 by mutation analysis combined with RII overlay and an amphipatic helix was predicted in this region. Immunoprecipitation of RII from RIPA-buffer extracts of HeLa cells demonstrated co-precipitation of AKAP450. By immunofluorecent labeling with specific antibodies it was demonstrated that AKAP450 localized to centrosomes. Furthermore, AKAP450 was shown to co-purify in centrosomal preparations. The observation of two mRNAs and several splice products suggests additional functions for the AKAP450 gene. PMID:10202149

  4. Amino Acid Recycling in Relation to Protein Turnover 1

    PubMed Central

    Davies, David D.; Humphrey, Thomas J.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of measuring amino acid recycling in Lemna minor are described. The extent to which the recycling of individual amino acids may underestimate protein turnover has been measured for a number of amino acids. The methods have been used to study the relationship between protein turnover and amino acid recycling during nitrogen starvation. It is concluded that following the removal of nitrate from the environment, protein turnover is enhanced, the partitioning of amino acids between protein synthesis and amino acid metabolism is relatively constant, but the total amount of amino acids recycling is increased. PMID:16660236

  5. Unusual ultrastructures of the Branchiostoma IF protein C2 containing heptads in the tail.

    PubMed

    Karabinos, Anton; Schünemann, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    Branchiostoma intermediate filament (IF) protein C2 contains a long tail domain consisting of several degenerate repeats which display a heptad repeat pattern. This unique tail sequence is predicted to constitute a long coiled coil domain in C2, which is separated from the rod by a glycine-rich linker L3. The recombinant IF protein C2 shows, in electron microscopy (EM), parallel rodlike dimers of 66.7 nm decorated by a larger globule on one side and a smaller globule on the other side. In contrast, the length of the tailless C2 dimers, decorated by only one small globule, is about 26 nm shorter. These results indicate that both the rod domain and the newly predicted coiled coil segment 3 participate in the formation of a double-stranded coiled coil dimer. Moreover, the two to four C2 dimers are able to associate via their globular tail domain into multiarm oligomers, an ability not seen by the tailless C2 mutant or the other currently known protostomic and vertebrate IFs.

  6. Unusual ultrastructures of the Branchiostoma IF protein C2 containing heptads in the tail.

    PubMed

    Karabinos, Anton; Schünemann, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    Branchiostoma intermediate filament (IF) protein C2 contains a long tail domain consisting of several degenerate repeats which display a heptad repeat pattern. This unique tail sequence is predicted to constitute a long coiled coil domain in C2, which is separated from the rod by a glycine-rich linker L3. The recombinant IF protein C2 shows, in electron microscopy (EM), parallel rodlike dimers of 66.7 nm decorated by a larger globule on one side and a smaller globule on the other side. In contrast, the length of the tailless C2 dimers, decorated by only one small globule, is about 26 nm shorter. These results indicate that both the rod domain and the newly predicted coiled coil segment 3 participate in the formation of a double-stranded coiled coil dimer. Moreover, the two to four C2 dimers are able to associate via their globular tail domain into multiarm oligomers, an ability not seen by the tailless C2 mutant or the other currently known protostomic and vertebrate IFs. PMID:24414169

  7. Your personalized protein structure: Andrei N. Lupas fused to GCN4 adaptors.

    PubMed

    Deiss, Silvia; Hernandez Alvarez, Birte; Bär, Kerstin; Ewers, Carolin P; Coles, Murray; Albrecht, Reinhard; Hartmann, Marcus D

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a protein structure that has been designed purely for aesthetic reasons, symbolizing decades of coiled-coil research and praising its most fundamental model system, the GCN4 leucine zipper. The GCN4 leucine zipper is a highly stable coiled coil which can be tuned to adopt different oligomeric states via mutation of its core residues. For these reasons it is used in structural studies as a stabilizing fusion adaptor. On the occasion of the 50th birthday of Andrei N. Lupas, we used it to create the first personalized protein structure: we fused the sequence ANDREI-N-LVPAS in heptad register to trimeric GCN4 adaptors and determined its structure by X-ray crystallography. The structure demonstrates the robustness and versatility of GCN4 as a fusion adaptor. We learn how proline can be accommodated in trimeric coiled coils, and put the structure into the context of the other GCN4-fusion structures known to date. PMID:24486584

  8. Obtaining structural information of small proteins using solid-state nanopores and high-bandwidth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzwiecki, David; Lanci, Christopher; Saven, Jeffery; Drndic, Marija

    2015-03-01

    The use of biological nanopores sensors to characterize proteins has proved a fruitful field of study. Solid-state nanopores hold several advantages over their biological counterparts, including the ability to tune pore diameter and their robustness to external conditions. Despite these advantages, the use of solid-state nanopores for protein analysis has proved difficult due to rapid translocation times of proteins and poor signal-to-noise of small peptides. Recently, improvements in high-bandwidth acquisition and in signal-to-noise have made the study of small peptides using solid-state nanopores feasible. Here we report on the detection and characterization of peptides as small as 33 amino-acids in length using sub-10 nm thin silicon nitride nanopores, giving high signal levels, combined with high-bandwidth electronics. In addition we show differentiation between monomers and dimer forms of the GCN-4 p1 leucine zipper, a coil-coil structure, and compare this with the unstructured 33-mer. The differentiation between these two forms demonstrates the possibility of extracting useful structural information from short peptide structures using modern solid-state nanopore systems.

  9. Tpr is localized within the nuclear basket of the pore complex and has a role in nuclear protein export.

    PubMed

    Frosst, Phyllis; Guan, Tinglu; Subauste, Cecilia; Hahn, Klaus; Gerace, Larry

    2002-02-18

    Tpr is a coiled-coil protein found near the nucleoplasmic side of the pore complex. Since neither the precise localization of Tpr nor its functions are well defined, we generated antibodies to three regions of Tpr to clarify these issues. Using light and EM immunolocalization, we determined that mammalian Tpr is concentrated within the nuclear basket of the pore complex in a distribution similar to Nup153 and Nup98. Antibody localization together with imaging of GFP-Tpr in living cells revealed that Tpr is in discrete foci inside the nucleus similar to several other nucleoporins but is not present in intranuclear filamentous networks (Zimowska et al., 1997) or in long filaments extending from the pore complex (Cordes et al., 1997) as proposed. Injection of anti-Tpr antibodies into mitotic cells resulted in depletion of Tpr from the nuclear envelope without loss of other pore complex basket proteins. Whereas nuclear import mediated by a basic amino acid signal was unaffected, nuclear export mediated by a leucine-rich signal was retarded significantly. Nuclear injection of anti-Tpr antibodies in interphase cells similarly yielded inhibition of protein export but not import. These results indicate that Tpr is a nucleoporin of the nuclear basket with a role in nuclear protein export.

  10. Structures and Polymorphic Interactions of Two Heptad-Repeat Regions of the SARS Virus S2 Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Deng,Y.; Liu, J.; Zheng, Q.; Yong, W.; Lu, M.

    2006-01-01

    Entry of SARS coronavirus into its target cell requires large-scale structural transitions in the viral spike (S) glycoprotein in order to induce fusion of the virus and cell membranes. Here we describe the identification and crystal structures of four distinct a-helical domains derived from the highly conserved heptad-repeat (HR) regions of the S2 fusion subunit. The four domains are an antiparallel four-stranded coiled coil, a parallel trimeric coiled coil, a four-helix bundle, and a six-helix bundle that is likely the final fusogenic form of the protein. When considered together, the structural and thermodynamic features of the four domains suggest a possible mechanism whereby the HR regions, initially sequestered in the native S glycoprotein spike, are released and refold sequentially to promote membrane fusion. Our results provide a structural framework for understanding the control of membrane fusion and should guide efforts to intervene in the SARS coronavirus entry process.

  11. Structure and Non-Structure of Centrosomal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bertero, Michela G.; Boutin, Maïlys; Guarín, Nayibe; Méndez-Giraldez, Raúl; Nuñez, Alfonso; Pedrero, Juan G.; Redondo, Pilar; Sanz, María; Speroni, Silvia; Teichert, Florian; Bruix, Marta; Carazo, José M.; Gonzalez, Cayetano; Reina, José; Valpuesta, José M.; Vernos, Isabelle; Zabala, Juan C.; Montoya, Guillermo; Coll, Miquel; Bastolla, Ugo; Serrano, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Here we perform a large-scale study of the structural properties and the expression of proteins that constitute the human Centrosome. Centrosomal proteins tend to be larger than generic human proteins (control set), since their genes contain in average more exons (20.3 versus 14.6). They are rich in predicted disordered regions, which cover 57% of their length, compared to 39% in the general human proteome. They also contain several regions that are dually predicted to be disordered and coiled-coil at the same time: 55 proteins (15%) contain disordered and coiled-coil fragments that cover more than 20% of their length. Helices prevail over strands in regions homologous to known structures (47% predicted helical residues against 17% predicted as strands), and even more in the whole centrosomal proteome (52% against 7%), while for control human proteins 34.5% of the residues are predicted as helical and 12.8% are predicted as strands. This difference is mainly due to residues predicted as disordered and helical (30% in centrosomal and 9.4% in control proteins), which may correspond to alpha-helix forming molecular recognition features (α-MoRFs). We performed expression assays for 120 full-length centrosomal proteins and 72 domain constructs that we have predicted to be globular. These full-length proteins are often insoluble: Only 39 out of 120 expressed proteins (32%) and 19 out of 72 domains (26%) were soluble. We built or retrieved structural models for 277 out of 361 human proteins whose centrosomal localization has been experimentally verified. We could not find any suitable structural template with more than 20% sequence identity for 84 centrosomal proteins (23%), for which around 74% of the residues are predicted to be disordered or coiled-coils. The three-dimensional models that we built are available at http://ub.cbm.uam.es/centrosome/models/index.php. PMID:23671615

  12. Protein and Amino Acid Profiles of Different Whey Protein Supplements.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Cristine C; Alvares, Thiago S; Costa, Marion P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) supplements have received increasing attention by consumers due to the high nutritional value of the proteins and amino acids they provide. However, some WP supplements may not contain the disclosed amounts of the ingredients listed on the label, compromising the nutritional quality and the effectiveness of these supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the contents of total protein (TP), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), free essential amino acids (free EAA), and free branched-chain amino acids (free BCAA), amongst different WP supplements produced by U.S. and Brazilian companies. Twenty commercial brands of WP supplements were selected, ten manufactured in U.S. (WP-USA) and ten in Brazil (WP-BRA). The TP was analyzed using the Kjeldahl method, while α-LA, β-LG, free EAA, and free BCAA were analyzed using HPLC system. There were higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA in WP-USA supplements, as compared to the WP-BRA supplements; however, there was no difference (p > 0.05) in the content of free EAA between WP-USA and WP-BRA. Amongst the 20 brands evaluated, four WP-USA and seven WP-BRA had lower (p < 0.05) values of TP than those specified on the label. In conclusion, the WP-USA supplements exhibited better nutritional quality, evaluated by TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA when compared to WP-BRA.

  13. Crystal structure of a plectonemic RNA supercoil

    SciTech Connect

    Stagno, Jason R.; Ma, Buyong; Li, Jess; Altieri, Amanda S.; Byrd, R. Andrew; Ji, Xinhua

    2012-12-14

    Genome packaging is an essential housekeeping process in virtually all organisms for proper storage and maintenance of genetic information. Although the extent and mechanisms of packaging vary, the process involves the formation of nucleic-acid superstructures. Crystal structures of DNA coiled coils indicate that their geometries can vary according to sequence and/or the presence of stabilizers such as proteins or small molecules. However, such superstructures have not been revealed for RNA. Here we report the crystal structure of an RNA supercoil, which displays one level higher molecular organization than previously reported structures of DNA coiled coils. In the presence of an RNA-binding protein, two interlocking RNA coiled coils of double-stranded RNA, a 'coil of coiled coils', form a plectonemic supercoil. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that protein-RNA interaction is required for the stability of the supercoiled RNA. This study provides structural insight into higher order packaging mechanisms of nucleic acids.

  14. The crystal structures of the Salmonella type III secretion system tip protein SipD in complex with deoxycholate and chenodeoxycholate

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Srirupa; Zhong, Dalian; Nordhues, Bryce A; Battaile, Kevin P; Lovell, Scott; De Guzman, Roberto N

    2011-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a protein injection nanomachinery required for virulence by many human pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella and Shigella. An essential component of the T3SS is the tip protein and the Salmonella SipD and the Shigella IpaD tip proteins interact with bile salts, which serve as environmental sensors for these enteric pathogens. SipD and IpaD have long central coiled coils and their N-terminal regions form α-helical hairpins and a short helix α3 that pack against the coiled coil. Using AutoDock, others have predicted that the bile salt deoxycholate binds IpaD in a cleft formed by the α-helical hairpin and its long central coiled coil. NMR chemical shift mapping, however, indicated that the SipD residues most affected by bile salts are located in a disordered region near helix α3. Thus, how bile salts interact with SipD and IpaD is unclear. Here, we report the crystal structures of SipD in complex with the bile salts deoxycholate and chenodeoxycholate. Bile salts bind SipD in a region different from what was predicted for IpaD. In SipD, bile salts bind part of helix α3 and the C-terminus of the long central coiled coil, towards the C-terminus of the protein. We discuss the biological implication of the differences in how bile salts interact with SipD and IpaD. PMID:21031487

  15. The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ODA3 Gene Encodes a Protein of the Outer Dynein Arm Docking Complex

    PubMed Central

    Koutoulis, Anthony; Pazour, Gregory J.; Wilkerson, Curtis G.; Inaba, Kazuo; Sheng, Hong; Takada, Saeko; Witman, George B.

    1997-01-01

    We have used an insertional mutagenesis/ gene tagging technique to generate new Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants that are defective in assembly of the outer dynein arm. Among 39 insertional oda mutants characterized, two are alleles of the previously uncloned ODA3 gene, one is an allele of the uncloned ODA10 gene, and one represents a novel ODA gene (termed ODA12). ODA3 is of particular interest because it is essential for assembly of both the outer dynein arm and the outer dynein arm docking complex (ODA-DC) onto flagellar doublet microtubules (Takada, S., and R. Kamiya. 1994. J. Cell Biol. 126:737– 745). Beginning with the inserted DNA as a tag, the ODA3 gene and a full-length cDNA were cloned. The cloned gene rescues the phenotype of oda3 mutants. The cDNA sequence predicts a novel 83.4-kD protein with extensive coiled-coil domains. The ODA-DC contains three polypeptides; direct amino acid sequencing indicates that the largest of these polypeptides corresponds to ODA3. This protein is likely to have an important role in the precise positioning of the outer dynein arms on the flagellar axoneme. PMID:9166407

  16. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Atshaves, B.P.; Martin, G.G.; Hostetler, H.A.; McIntosh, A.L.; Kier, A.B.; Schroeder, F.

    2010-01-01

    While low levels of unesterified long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are normal metabolic intermediates of dietary and endogenous fat, LCFAs are also potent regulators of key receptors/enzymes, and at high levels become toxic detergents within the cell. Elevated levels of LCFAs are associated with diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Consequently, mammals evolved fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) that bind/sequester these potentially toxic free fatty acids in the cytosol and present them for rapid removal in oxidative (mitochondria, peroxisomes) or storage (endoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets) organelles. Mammals have a large (15 member) family of FABPs with multiple members occurring within a single cell type. The first described FABP, liver-FABP (L-FABP, or FABP1), is expressed in very high levels (2-5% of cytosolic protein) in liver as well as intestine and kidney. Since L-FABP facilitates uptake and metabolism of LCFAs in vitro and in cultured cells, it was expected that abnormal function or loss of L-FABP would reduce hepatic LCFA uptake/oxidation and thereby increase LCFAs available for oxidation in muscle and/or storage in adipose. This prediction was confirmed in vitro with isolated liver slices and cultured primary hepatocytes from L-FABP gene-ablated mice. Despite unaltered food consumption when fed a control diet ad libitum, the L-FABP null mice exhibited age- and sex-dependent weight gain and increased fat tissue mass. The obese phenotype was exacerbated in L-FABP null mice pair-fed a high fat diet. Taken together with other findings, these data suggest that L-FABP could have an important role in preventing age- or diet-induced obesity. PMID:20537520

  17. Two microtubule-plus-end binding proteins LIS1-1 and LIS1-2, homologues of human LIS1 in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Callejas-Negrete, Olga A; Plamann, Michael; Schnittker, Robert; Bartnicki-García, Salomon; Roberson, Robert W; Pimienta, Genaro; Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa R

    2015-09-01

    LIS1 is a microtubule (Mt) plus-end binding protein that interacts with the dynein/dynactin complex. In humans, LIS1 is required for proper nuclear and organelle migration during cell growth. Although gene duplication is absent from Neurospora crassa, we found two paralogues of human LIS1. We named them LIS1-1 and LIS1-2 and studied their dynamics and function by fluorescent tagging. At the protein level, LIS1-1 and LIS1-2 were very similar. Although, the characteristic coiled-coil motif was not present in LIS1-2. LIS1-1-GFP and LIS1-2-GFP showed the same cellular distribution and dynamics, but LIS1-2-GFP was less abundant. Both LIS1 proteins were found in the subapical region as single fluorescent particles traveling toward the cell apex, they accumulated in the apical dome forming prominent short filament-like structures, some of which traversed the Spitzenkörper (Spk). The fluorescent structures moved exclusively in anterograde fashion along straight paths suggesting they traveled on Mts. There was no effect in the filament behavior of LIS1-1-GFP in the Δlis1-2 mutant but the dynamics of LIS1-2-GFP was affected in the Δlis1-1 mutant. Microtubular integrity and the dynein-dynactin complex were necessary for the formation of filament-like structures of LIS1-1-GFP in the subapical and apical regions; however, conventional kinesin (KIN-1) was not. Deletion mutants showed that the lack of lis1-1 decreased cell growth by ∼75%; however, the lack of lis1-2 had no effect on growth. A Δlis1-1;Δlis1-2 double mutant showed slower growth than either single mutant. Conidia production was reduced but branching rate increased in Δlis1-1 and the Δlis1-1;Δlis1-2 double mutants. The absence of LIS1-1 had a strong effect on Mt organization and dynamics and indirectly affected nuclear and mitochondrial distribution. The absence of LIS1-1 filaments in dynein mutants (ropy mutants) or in benomyl treated hyphae indicates the strong association between this protein and the

  18. Single-chain protein mimetics of the N-terminal heptad-repeat region of gp41 with potential as anti–HIV-1 drugs

    PubMed Central

    Crespillo, Sara; Cámara-Artigas, Ana; Casares, Salvador; Morel, Bertrand; Cobos, Eva S.; Mateo, Pedro L.; Mouz, Nicolas; Martin, Christophe E.; Roger, Marie G.; El Habib, Raphaelle; Su, Bin; Moog, Christiane; Conejero-Lara, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    During HIV-1 fusion to the host cell membrane, the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) and the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) of the envelope subunit gp41 become transiently exposed and accessible to fusion inhibitors or Abs. In this process, the NHR region adopts a trimeric coiled-coil conformation that can be a target for therapeutic intervention. Here, we present an approach to rationally design single-chain protein constructs that mimic the NHR coiled-coil surface. The proteins were built by connecting with short loops two parallel NHR helices and an antiparallel one with the inverse sequence followed by engineering of stabilizing interactions. The constructs were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified with high yield, and folded as highly stable helical coiled coils. The crystal structure of one of the constructs confirmed the predicted fold and its ability to accurately mimic an exposed gp41 NHR surface. These single-chain proteins bound to synthetic CHR peptides with very high affinity, and furthermore, they showed broad inhibitory activity of HIV-1 fusion on various pseudoviruses and primary isolates. PMID:25489108

  19. Nucleic acids encoding human trithorax protein

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Glen A.; Djabali, Malek; Selleri, Licia; Parry, Pauline

    2001-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, there is provided an isolated peptide having the characteristics of human trithorax protein (as well as DNA encoding same, antisense DNA derived therefrom and antagonists therefor). The invention peptide is characterized by having a DNA binding domain comprising multiple zinc fingers and at least 40% amino acid identity with respect to the DNA binding domain of Drosophila trithorax protein and at least 70% conserved sequence with respect to the DNA binding domain of Drosophila trithorax protein, and wherein said peptide is encoded by a gene located at chromosome 11 of the human genome at q23. Also provided are methods for the treatment of subject(s) suffering from immunodeficiency, developmental abnormality, inherited disease, or cancer by administering to said subject a therapeutically effective amount of one of the above-described agents (i.e., peptide, antagonist therefor, DNA encoding said peptide or antisense DNA derived therefrom). Also provided is a method for the diagnosis, in a subject, of immunodeficiency, developmental abnormality, inherited disease, or cancer associated with disruption of chromosome 11 at q23.

  20. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2009-04-28

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  1. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2008-10-07

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  2. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2012-02-14

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  3. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2011-12-06

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  4. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2011-03-22

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  5. Specific sequences in the fragile X syndrome protein FMR1 and the FXR proteins mediate their binding to 60S ribosomal subunits and the interactions among them.

    PubMed Central

    Siomi, M C; Zhang, Y; Siomi, H; Dreyfuss, G

    1996-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of hereditary mental retardation, usually results from lack of expression of the FMR1 gene. The FMR1 protein is a cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein. The RNA-binding activity of FMR1 is an essential feature of FMR1, as fragile X syndrome can also result from the expression of mutant FMR1 protein that is impaired in RNA binding. Recently, we described two novel cytoplasmic proteins, FXR1 and FXR2, which are both very similar in amino acid sequence to FMR1 and which also interact strongly with FMR1 and with each other. To understand the function of FMR1 and the FXR proteins, we carried out cell fractionation and sedimentation experiments with monoclonal antibodies to these proteins to characterize the complexes they form. Here, we report that the FMR1 and FXR proteins are associated with ribosomes, predominantly with 60S large ribosomal subunits. The FXR proteins are associated with 60S ribosomal subunits even in cells that lack FMR1 and that are derived from a fragile X syndrome patient, indicating that FMR1 is not required for this association. We delineated the regions of FMR1 that mediate its binding to 60S ribosomal subunits and the interactions among the FMR1-FXR family members. Both regions contain sequences predicted to have a high propensity to form coiled coil interactions, and the sequences are highly evolutionarily conserved in this protein family. The association of the FMR1, FXR1, and FXR2 proteins with ribosomes suggests they have functions in translation or mRNA stability. PMID:8668200

  6. A spacer protein in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spindle poly body whose transcript is cell cycle-regulated.

    PubMed

    Kilmartin, J V; Dyos, S L; Kershaw, D; Finch, J T

    1993-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against the 110-kD component of the yeast spindle pole body (SPB) were used to clone the corresponding gene SPC110. SPC110 is identical to NUF1 (Mirzayan, C., C. S. Copeland, and M. Synder. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 116:1319-1332). SPC110/NUF1 has an MluI cell cycle box consensus sequence in its putative promoter region, and we found that the transcript was cell cycle regulated in a similar way to other MluI-regulated transcripts. Spc110p/Nuflp has a long central region with a predicted coiled-coil structure. We expressed this region in Escherichia coli and showed by rotary shadowing that rods of the predicted length were present. The 110-kD component is localized in the SPB to the gap between the central plaque and the sealed ends of the nuclear microtubules near the inner plaque (Rout, M., and J. V. Kilmartin. 1990. J. Cell Biol. 111:1913-1927). We found that rodlike structures bridge this gap. When truncations of SPC110 with deletions in the coiled-coil region of the protein replaced the wild-type gene, the gap between the central plaque and the ends of the microtubules decreased in proportion to the size of the deletion. This suggests that Spc110p connects these two parts of the SPB together and that the coiled-coil domain acts as a spacer element. PMID:7503995

  7. Observing Changes in the Structure and Oligomerization State of a Helical Protein Dimer Using Solid-State Nanopores.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiecki, David J; Lanci, Christopher J; Shemer, Gabriel; Cheng, Phillip S; Saven, Jeffery G; Drndić, Marija

    2015-09-22

    Protein analysis using solid-state nanopores is challenging due to limitations in bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio. Recent improvements of those two aspects have made feasible the study of small peptides using solid-state nanopores, which have an advantage over biological counterparts in tunability of the pore diameter. Here, we report on the detection and characterization of peptides as small as 33 amino acids. Silicon nitride nanopores with thicknesses less than 10 nm are used to provide signal-to-noise (S/N) levels up to S/N ∼ 10 at 100 kHz. We demonstrate differentiation of monomer and dimer forms of the GCN4-p1 leucine zipper, a coiled-coil structure well studied in molecular biology, and compare with the unstructured 33-residue monomer. GCN4-p1 is sequence segment associated with homodimerization of the transcription factor General Control Nonderepressible 4 (GCN4), which is involved in the control of amino acid synthesis in yeast. The differentiation between two oligomeric forms demonstrates the capabilities of improved solid-state nanopore platforms to extract structural information involving short peptide structures.

  8. Regulation of intestinal protein metabolism by amino acids.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Julien; Goichon, Alexis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2013-09-01

    Gut homeostasis plays a major role in health and may be regulated by quantitative and qualitative food intake. In the intestinal mucosa, an intense renewal of proteins occurs, at approximately 50% per day in humans. In some pathophysiological conditions, protein turnover is altered and may contribute to intestinal or systemic diseases. Amino acids are key effectors of gut protein turnover, both as constituents of proteins and as regulatory molecules limiting intestinal injury and maintaining intestinal functions. Many studies have focused on two amino acids: glutamine, known as the preferential substrate of rapidly dividing cells, and arginine, another conditionally essential amino acid. The effects of glutamine and arginine on protein synthesis appear to be model and condition dependent, as are the involved signaling pathways. The regulation of gut protein degradation by amino acids has been minimally documented until now. This review will examine recent data, helping to better understand how amino acids regulate intestinal protein metabolism, and will explore perspectives for future studies.

  9. TACC3 is a microtubule plus end-tracking protein that promotes axon elongation and also regulates microtubule plus end dynamics in multiple embryonic cell types.

    PubMed

    Nwagbara, Belinda U; Faris, Anna E; Bearce, Elizabeth A; Erdogan, Burcu; Ebbert, Patrick T; Evans, Matthew F; Rutherford, Erin L; Enzenbacher, Tiffany B; Lowery, Laura Anne

    2014-11-01

    Microtubule plus end dynamics are regulated by a conserved family of proteins called plus end-tracking proteins (+TIPs). It is unclear how various +TIPs interact with each other and with plus ends to control microtubule behavior. The centrosome-associated protein TACC3, a member of the transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) domain family, has been implicated in regulating several aspects of microtubule dynamics. However, TACC3 has not been shown to function as a +TIP in vertebrates. Here we show that TACC3 promotes axon outgrowth and regulates microtubule dynamics by increasing microtubule plus end velocities in vivo. We also demonstrate that TACC3 acts as a +TIP in multiple embryonic cell types and that this requires the conserved C-terminal TACC domain. Using high-resolution live-imaging data on tagged +TIPs, we show that TACC3 localizes to the extreme microtubule plus end, where it lies distal to the microtubule polymerization marker EB1 and directly overlaps with the microtubule polymerase XMAP215. TACC3 also plays a role in regulating XMAP215 stability and localizing XMAP215 to microtubule plus ends. Taken together, our results implicate TACC3 as a +TIP that functions with XMAP215 to regulate microtubule plus end dynamics.

  10. Solution Structure and DNA-binding Properties of the Winged Helix Domain of the Meiotic Recombination HOP2 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Moktan, Hem; Guiraldelli, Michel F.; Eyster, Craig A.; Zhao, Weixing; Lee, Chih-Ying; Mather, Timothy; Camerini-Otero, R. Daniel; Sung, Patrick; Zhou, Donghua H.; Pezza, Roberto J.

    2014-01-01

    The HOP2 protein is required for efficient double-strand break repair which ensures the proper synapsis of homologous chromosomes and normal meiotic progression. We previously showed that in vitro HOP2 shows two distinctive activities: when it is incorporated into a HOP2-MND1 heterodimer, it stimulates DMC1 and RAD51 recombination activities, and the purified HOP2 alone is proficient in promoting strand invasion. The structural and biochemical basis of HOP2 action in recombination are poorly understood; therefore, they are the focus of this work. Herein, we present the solution structure of the amino-terminal portion of mouse HOP2, which contains a typical winged helix DNA-binding domain. Together with NMR spectral changes in the presence of double-stranded DNA, protein docking on DNA, and mutation analysis to identify the amino acids involved in DNA coordination, our results on the three-dimensional structure of HOP2 provide key information on the fundamental structural and biochemical requirements directing the interaction of HOP2 with DNA. These results, in combination with mutational experiments showing the role of a coiled-coil structural feature involved in HOP2 self-association, allow us to explain important aspects of the function of HOP2 in recombination. PMID:24711446

  11. Flexible, symmetry-directed approach to assembling protein cages.

    PubMed

    Sciore, Aaron; Su, Min; Koldewey, Philipp; Eschweiler, Joseph D; Diffley, Kelsey A; Linhares, Brian M; Ruotolo, Brandon T; Bardwell, James C A; Skiniotis, Georgios; Marsh, E Neil G

    2016-08-01

    The assembly of individual protein subunits into large-scale symmetrical structures is widespread in nature and confers new biological properties. Engineered protein assemblies have potential applications in nanotechnology and medicine; however, a major challenge in engineering assemblies de novo has been to design interactions between the protein subunits so that they specifically assemble into the desired structure. Here we demonstrate a simple, generalizable approach to assemble proteins into cage-like structures that uses short de novo designed coiled-coil domains to mediate assembly. We assembled eight copies of a C3-symmetric trimeric esterase into a well-defined octahedral protein cage by appending a C4-symmetric coiled-coil domain to the protein through a short, flexible linker sequence, with the approximate length of the linker sequence determined by computational modeling. The structure of the cage was verified using a combination of analytical ultracentrifugation, native electrospray mass spectrometry, and negative stain and cryoelectron microscopy. For the protein cage to assemble correctly, it was necessary to optimize the length of the linker sequence. This observation suggests that flexibility between the two protein domains is important to allow the protein subunits sufficient freedom to assemble into the geometry specified by the combination of C4 and C3 symmetry elements. Because this approach is inherently modular and places minimal requirements on the structural features of the protein building blocks, it could be extended to assemble a wide variety of proteins into structures with different symmetries. PMID:27432965

  12. Coactivator TIF1β Interacts with Transcription Factor C/EBPβ and Glucocorticoid Receptor To Induce α1-Acid Glycoprotein Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching-Jin; Chen, Ya-Ling; Lee, Sheng-Chung

    1998-01-01

    The transcription of the α1-acid glycoprotein gene is induced by inflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids. C/EBPβ is a major transcription factor involved in the induction of the agp gene by some cytokines. In this report, we have identified a novel transcriptional intermediary factor, TIF1β, which could enhance the transcription of the agp gene by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and C/EBPβ. TIF1β belongs to a subgroup of RING (really interesting new gene) finger proteins that contain a RING finger preceding two B box-type fingers and a putative coiled-coil domain (RBCC domain). Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that the interaction between GR and TIF1β is ligand independent. The overexpression of the TIF1β gene enhances GR-regulated expression in a ligand- and glucocorticoid-responsive element (GRE)-dependent manner. TIF1β can also augment C/EBPβ-mediated activity on wild-type and GRE-mutated agp genes, but this augmentation is diminished when all three C/EBPβ-binding elements are mutated. Functional and biochemical characterizations indicated that the bZIP domain of C/EBPβ and the RBCC domain, plant homeodomain finger, and bromodomain of TIF1β are crucial for the interactions of these proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that TIF1β serves as a converging mediator of signal transduction pathways of glucocorticoids and some inflammatory cytokines. PMID:9742105

  13. Structural Basis for Dimer Formation of Human Condensin Structural Maintenance of Chromosome Proteins and Its Implications for Single-stranded DNA Recognition.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Susumu; Kawahara, Kazuki; Hosokawa, Yuki; Fukakusa, Shunsuke; Oki, Hiroya; Nakamura, Shota; Kojima, Yukiko; Noda, Masanori; Takino, Rie; Miyahara, Yuya; Maruno, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yuji; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2015-12-01

    Eukaryotic structural maintenance of chromosome proteins (SMC) are major components of cohesin and condensins that regulate chromosome structure and dynamics during cell cycle. We here determine the crystal structure of human condensin SMC hinge heterodimer with ~30 residues of coiled coils. The structure, in conjunction with the hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry analyses, revealed the structural basis for the specific heterodimer formation of eukaryotic SMC and that the coiled coils from two different hinges protrude in the same direction, providing a unique binding surface conducive for binding to single-stranded DNA. The characteristic hydrogen exchange profiles of peptides constituted regions especially across the hinge-hinge dimerization interface, further suggesting the structural alterations upon single-stranded DNA binding and the presence of a half-opened state of hinge heterodimer. This structural change potentially relates to the DNA loading mechanism of SMC, in which the hinge domain functions as an entrance gate as previously proposed for cohesin. Our results, however, indicated that this is not the case for condensins based on the fact that the coiled coils are still interacting with each other, even when DNA binding induces structural changes in the hinge region, suggesting the functional differences of SMC hinge domain between condensins and cohesin in DNA recognition.

  14. Protein, amino acids and the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Tome, Daniel

    2004-08-01

    The influence of protein and amino acid on the control of food intake and the specific control of protein and amino acid intakes remains incompletely understood. The most commonly accepted conclusions are: (1) the existence of an aversive response to diets deficient in or devoid of protein or deficient in at least one essential amino acid; (2) the existence of a mechanism that enables attainment of the minimum requirement for N and essential amino acids by increasing intake of a low-protein diet; (3) a decrease in the intake of a high-protein diet is associated with different processes, including the high satiating effect of protein. Ingested proteins are believed to generate pre- and post-absorptive signals that contribute to the control of gastric kinetics, pancreatic secretion and food intake. At the brain level, two major afferent pathways are involved in protein and amino acid monitoring: the indirect neuro-mediated (mainly vagus-mediated) pathway and the direct blood pathway. The neuro-mediated pathway transfers pre-absorptive and visceral information. This information is for the main part transferred through the vagus nerve that innervates part of the oro-sensory zone: the stomach, the duodenum and the liver. Other information is directly monitored in the blood. It is likely that the system responds precisely when protein and essential amino acid intake is inadequate, but in contrast allows a large range of adaptive capacities through amino acid degradation and substrate interconversion.

  15. Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid binding proteins subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, EgFABP1 and EgFABP2, were isolated from the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. These proteins bind fatty acids and have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo fatty acids synthesis is absent. Therefore platyhelminthes depend on the capture and intracellular distribution of host's lipids and fatty acid binding proteins could participate in lipid distribution. To elucidate EgFABP's roles, we investigated their intracellular distribution in the larval stage by a proteomic approach. Our results demonstrated the presence of EgFABP1 isoforms in cytosolic, nuclear, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, suggesting that these molecules could be involved in several cellular processes.

  16. Topogenesis of a nucleolar protein: determination of molecular segments directing nucleolar association.

    PubMed Central

    Zirwes, R F; Kouzmenko, A P; Peters, J M; Franke, W W; Schmidt-Zachmann, M S

    1997-01-01

    To identify the element(s) in nucleolar proteins which determine nucleolus-specific topogenesis, we have used different kinds of cDNA constructs encoding various chimeric combinations of mutants of the constitutive nucleolar protein NO38 (B23): 1) with an amino terminally placed short "myc tag"; 2) with two different carboxyl terminally attached large alpha-helical coiled coil structures, the lamin A rod domain or the rod domain of vimentin; 3) with the sequence-related nucleoplasmic histone-binding protein nucleo-plasmin; and 4) with the soluble cytoplasmic protein pyruvate kinase. To avoid the problem of formation of complexes with endogenous wild-type (wt) molecules and "piggyback" localization, special care was taken to secure that the mutants and chimeras used did not oligomerize as is typical of protein NO38 (B23). Using microinjection and transfection of cultured cells, we found that the segment comprising the amino-terminal 123 amino acids (aa) alone was sufficient to effect nucleolar accumulation of the construct molecules, including the chimeras with the entire rod domains of lamin A and vimentin. However, when the amino-terminal 109 aa were deleted, the molecules still associated with the nucleolus. The results of further deletion experiments and of domain swaps with nucleoplasmin all point to the topogenic importance of two independent molecular regions located at both the amino- and carboxyl-terminal end. Our definition of dominant elements determining the nucleolar localization of protein NO38 (B23) as well as of diverse nonnucleolar proteins will help to identify its local binding partner(s) and functions, the construction of probes examining other proteins or sequence elements within the nucleolar microenvironment, and the generation of cells with an altered nuclear architecture. Images PMID:9190204

  17. Key Amino Acid Residues of Ankyrin-Sensitive Phosphatidylethanolamine/Phosphatidylcholine-Lipid Binding Site of βI-Spectrin

    PubMed Central

    Wolny, Marcin; Grzybek, Michał; Bok, Ewa; Chorzalska, Anna; Lenoir, Marc; Czogalla, Aleksander; Adamczyk, Klaudia; Kolondra, Adam; Diakowski, Witold; Overduin, Michael; Sikorski, Aleksander F.

    2011-01-01

    It was shown previously that an ankyrin-sensitive, phosphatidylethanolamine/phosphatidylcholine (PE/PC) binding site maps to the N-terminal part of the ankyrin-binding domain of β-spectrin (ankBDn). Here we have identified the amino acid residues within this domain which are responsible for recognizing monolayers and bilayers composed of PE/PC mixtures. In vitro binding studies revealed that a quadruple mutant with substituted hydrophobic residues W1771, L1775, M1778 and W1779 not only failed to effectively bind PE/PC, but its residual PE/PC-binding activity was insensitive to inhibition with ankyrin. Structure prediction and analysis, supported by in vitro experiments, suggests that “opening” of the coiled-coil structure underlies the mechanism of this interaction. Experiments on red blood cells and HeLa cells supported the conclusions derived from the model and in vitro lipid-protein interaction results, and showed the potential physiological role of this binding. We postulate that direct interactions between spectrin ankBDn and PE-rich domains play an important role in stabilizing the structure of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton. PMID:21738695

  18. ALDH16A1 is a novel non-catalytic enzyme that may be involved in the etiology of gout via protein–protein interactions with HPRT1

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliou, Vasilis; Sandoval, Monica; Backos, Donald S.; Jackson, Brian C.; Chen, Ying; Reigan, Philip; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Johnson, Richard J.; Koppaka, Vindhya; Thompson, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Gout, a common form of inflammatory arthritis, is strongly associated with elevated uric acid concentrations in the blood (hyperuricemia). A recent study in Icelanders identified a rare missense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the ALDH16A1 gene, ALDH16A1*2, to be associated with gout and serum uric acid levels. ALDH16A1 is a novel and rather unique member of the ALDH superfamily in relation to its gene and protein structures. ALDH16 genes are present in fish, amphibians, protista, bacteria but absent from archaea, fungi and plants. In most mammalian species, two ALDH16A1 spliced variants (ALDH16A1, long form and ALDH16A1_v2, short form) have been identified and both are expressed in HepG-2, HK-2 and HK-293 human cell lines. The ALDH16 proteins contain two ALDH domains (as opposed to one in the other members of the superfamily), four transmembrane and one coiled-coil domains. The active site of ALDH16 proteins from bacterial, frog and lower animals contain the catalytically important cysteine residue (Cys-302); this residue is absent from the mammalian and fish orthologs. Molecular modeling predicts that both the short and long forms of human ALDH16A1 protein would lack catalytic activity but may interact with the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT1) protein, a key enzyme involved in uric acid metabolism and gout. Interestingly, such protein-protein interactions with HPRT1 are predicted to be impaired for the long or short forms of ALDH16A1*2. These results lead to the intriguing possibility that association between ALDH16A1 and HPRT1 may be required for optimal HPRT activity with disruption of this interaction possibly contributing to the hyperuricemia seen in ALDH16A1*2 carriers. PMID:23348497

  19. Amino acid sequences of proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona.

    PubMed

    Alves, S F; Lefebvre, R B; Probert, W

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a partial amino acid sequences from three putative outer envelope proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona. In order to obtain internal fragments for protein sequencing, enzymatic and chemical digestion was performed. The enzyme clostripain was used to digest the proteins 32 and 45 kDa. In situ digestion of 40 kDa molecular weight protein was accomplished using cyanogen bromide. The 32 kDa protein generated two fragments, one of 21 kDa and another of 10 kDa that yielded five residues. A fragment of 24 kDa that yielded nineteen residues of amino acids was obtained from 45 kDa protein. A fragment with a molecular weight of 20 kDa, yielding a twenty amino acids sequence from the 40 kDa protein.

  20. Protein quality of supplements and meal replacements. Amino acids and calculated indicators of protein quality.

    PubMed

    Marable, N L; Hinners, M L; Hardison, N W; Kehrberg, N L

    1980-09-01

    The amino acid composition of several types of dietary supplements and meal replacements was measured and compared with label values when available and to published values for egg. Calculated indicators of protein quality, such as chemical score, protein calorie:total calorie ratio, individual essential amino acid:total essential amino acid ratio, and total essential amino acid:total amino acid ratio were also compared for products, egg, and the estimated pattern of adult requirements. Predigested liquid protein products were notably lower in protein quality than other products. All non-predigested products compared favorably with egg in terms of protein quality, but were more expensive and had no advantages over regular meals in terms of protein quality as reducing aids or protein supplements.

  1. Protein and amino acid metabolism and requirements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the major structural and functional components of all cells of the body. Enzymes, membrane carriers, blood transport molecules, intracellular matrix, and even hair and fingernails are proteins, as are many hormones. Proteins also constitute a major portion of all membranes, and the cons...

  2. The protein kinase C-responsive inhibitory domain of CARD11 functions in NF-kappaB activation to regulate the association of multiple signaling cofactors that differentially depend on Bcl10 and MALT1 for association.

    PubMed

    McCully, Ryan R; Pomerantz, Joel L

    2008-09-01

    The activation of NF-kappaB by T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling is critical for T-cell activation during the adaptive immune response. CARD11 is a multidomain adapter that is required for TCR signaling to the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex. During TCR signaling, the region in CARD11 between the coiled-coil and PDZ domains is phosphorylated by protein kinase Ctheta (PKCtheta) in a required step in NF-kappaB activation. In this report, we demonstrate that this region functions as an inhibitory domain (ID) that controls the association of CARD11 with multiple signaling cofactors, including Bcl10, TRAF6, TAK1, IKKgamma, and caspase-8, through an interaction that requires both the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) and the coiled-coil domain. Consistent with the ID-mediated control of their association, we demonstrate that TRAF6 and caspase-8 associate with CARD11 in T cells in a signal-inducible manner. Using an RNA interference rescue assay, we demonstrate that the CARD, linker 1, coiled-coil, linker 3, SH3, linker 4, and GUK domains are each required for TCR signaling to NF-kappaB downstream of ID neutralization. Requirements for the CARD, linker 1, and coiled-coil domains in signaling are consistent with their roles in the association of CARD11 with Bcl10, TRAF6, TAK1, caspase-8, and IKKgamma. Using Bcl10- and MALT1-deficient cells, we show that CARD11 can recruit signaling cofactors independently of one another in a signal-inducible manner.

  3. Phosphate acceptor amino acid residues in structural proteins of rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Sokol, F; Tan, K B; McFalls, M L; Madore, P

    1974-07-01

    Partial acid hydrolysates of the [(32)P]phosphate- or [(3)H]serine-labeled proteins of purified vesicular stomatitis, rabies, Lagos bat, Mokola, or spring viremia of carp virions and of purified intracellular nucleocapsids of these viruses have been analyzed by paper electrophoresis for the presence of phosphorylated amino acids. Both phosphoserine and phosphothreonine, with the former predominant, were present in virion and nucleocapsid preparations that contained phosphoproteins. An exception was the fish rhabdovirus, which contained only phosphoserine. When vesicular stomatitis or rabies virus proteins were phosphorylated in a cell-free system by the virion-associated protein kinase and analyzed for the presence of phosphorylated amino acid residues, phosphoserine was again found to be more abundant than phosphothreonine. After in vitro protein phosphorylation, another phospho-compound, possibly a third phosphoamino acid, was detected in the partial acid hydrolysates of these viruses. PMID:4365328

  4. Measuring protein-protein and protein-nucleic Acid interactions by biolayer interferometry.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Azmiri; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2015-01-01

    Biolayer interferometry (BLI) is a simple, optical dip-and-read system useful for measuring interactions between proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, small molecules, and/or lipids in real time. In BLI, a biomolecular bait is immobilized on a matrix at the tip of a fiber-optic sensor. The binding between the immobilized ligand and another molecule in an analyte solution produces a change in optical thickness at the tip and results in a wavelength shift proportional to binding. BLI provides direct binding affinities and rates of association and dissociation. This unit describes an efficient approach using streptavidin-based BLI to analyze DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions. A quantitative set of equilibrium binding affinities (K(d)) and rates of association and dissociation (k(a)/k(d)) can be measured in minutes using nanomole quantities of sample.

  5. Interaction of milk whey protein with common phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-01-01

    Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of α-helix and an increase in the amounts of β-sheet and turn structures.

  6. Automated protein hydrolysis delivering sample to a solid acid catalyst for amino acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akiko; Dohmae, Naoshi

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we developed an automatic protein hydrolysis system using strong cation-exchange resins as solid acid catalysts. Examining several kinds of inorganic solid acids and cation-exchange resins, we found that a few cation-exchange resins worked as acid catalysts for protein hydrolysis when heated in the presence of water. The most efficient resin yielded amounts of amino acids that were over 70% of those recovered after conventional hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid and resulted in amino acid compositions matching the theoretical values. The solid-acid hydrolysis was automated by packing the resin into columns, combining the columns with a high-performance liquid chromatography system, and heating them. The amino acids that constitute a protein can thereby be determined, minimizing contamination from the environment.

  7. Cadaverine covalently linked to peptidoglycan is required for interaction between the peptidoglycan and the periplasm-exposed S-layer-homologous domain of major outer membrane protein Mep45 in Selenomonas ruminantium.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Seiji; Ko, Kyong-Cheol; Takatsuka, Yumiko; Abe, Naoki; Kaneko, Jun; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

    2010-11-01

    The peptidoglycan of Selenomonas ruminantium is covalently bound to cadaverine (PG-cadaverine), which likely plays a significant role in maintaining the integrity of the cell surface structure. The outer membrane of this bacterium contains a 45-kDa major protein (Mep45) that is a putative peptidoglycan-associated protein. In this report, we determined the nucleotide sequence of the mep45 gene and investigated the relationship between PG-cadaverine, Mep45, and the cell surface structure. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that Mep45 is comprised of an N-terminal S-layer-homologous (SLH) domain followed by α-helical coiled-coil region and a C-terminal β-strand-rich region. The N-terminal SLH domain was found to be protruding into the periplasmic space and was responsible for binding to peptidoglycan. It was determined that Mep45 binds to the peptidoglycan in a manner dependent on the presence of PG-cadaverine. Electron microscopy revealed that defective PG-cadaverine decreased the structural interactions between peptidoglycan and the outer membrane, consistent with the proposed role for PG-cadaverine. The C-terminal β-strand-rich region of Mep45 was predicted to be a membrane-bound unit of the 14-stranded β-barrel structure. Here we propose that PG-cadaverine possesses functional importance to facilitate the structural linkage between peptidoglycan and the outer membrane via specific interaction with the SLH domain of Mep45.

  8. Analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid in Acetobacter: molecular mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria are used for industrial vinegar production because of their remarkable ability to oxidize ethanol and high resistance to acetic acid. Although several molecular machineries responsible for acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria have been reported, the entire mechanism that confers acetic acid resistance has not been completely understood. One of the promising methods to elucidate the entire mechanism is global analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Recently, two proteins whose production was greatly enhanced by acetic acid in Acetobacter aceti were identified to be aconitase and a putative ABC-transporter, respectively; furthermore, overexpression or disruption of the genes encoding these proteins affected acetic acid resistance in A. aceti, indicating that these proteins are involved in acetic acid resistance. Overexpression of each gene increased acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter, which resulted in an improvement in the productivity of acetic acid fermentation. Taken together, the results of the proteomic analysis and those of previous studies indicate that acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria is conferred by several mechanisms. These findings also provide a clue to breed a strain having high resistance to acetic acid for vinegar fermentation.

  9. Role of fimbriae expressed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in pathogenesis of and protection against otitis media and relatedness of the fimbrin subunit to outer membrane protein A.

    PubMed Central

    Sirakova, T; Kolattukudy, P E; Murwin, D; Billy, J; Leake, E; Lim, D; DeMaria, T; Bakaletz, L

    1994-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a primary pathogen in both acute otitis media (OM) and chronic OM, yet the pathogenesis of this disease is not fully understood. Although fimbriae have been observed on all clinical OM isolates examined to date, their role in pathogenesis remains unclear. Therefore, the gene which codes for the fimbrial subunit protein (fimbrin) in nontypeable H. influenzae 1128 was isolated, cloned, and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of the fimbrin gene was found to contain an open reading frame of 1,077 bp which would encode a mature fimbrin protein consisting of 338 amino acid with a calculated molecular mass of 36.4 kDa. The translated amino acid sequence was found to be homologous with various OmpA proteins of other gram-negative bacteria, and algorithmic analysis predicted that this protein is organized as a coiled coil. To directly test whether fimbriae are involved in pathogenesis, the fimbrin gene was disrupted, and the biological consequences of disruption were absence of both expression of the fimbrial appendage and the specific immunogold labeling thereof with antisera directed against isolated fimbrial protein, reduced adherence to human oropharyngeal cells in vitro, augmented clearance from the tympanum post-transbullar inoculation, and significantly reduced induction of OM post-intranasal inoculation in a chinchilla model compared with the fimbriated parent strain. We additionally find that either passive immunization or active immunization against isolated fimbrial protein confers partial protection against transbullar challenge. A Western blot (immunoblot) indicated a degree of serological relatedness among fimbrin proteins of 15 nontypeable and type b isolates. These data suggest that fimbrin could be useful as a component of a vaccine to protect against OM. Images PMID:7909539

  10. Four C1q domain-containing proteins involved in the innate immune response in Hyriopsis cumingii.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling-Ling; Jin, Min; Li, Xin-Cang; Ren, Qian; Lan, Jiang-Feng

    2016-08-01

    C1q is a key subcomponent of the complement C1 complex. This subcomponent contains a globular C1q (gC1q) domain with remarkable ligand binding properties. C1q domain-containing (C1qDC) proteins are composed of all proteins with a gC1q domain. C1qDC proteins exist in many invertebrates and recognize non-self-ligands. In our study, four C1qDC genes, namely, HcC1qDC1-HcC1qDC4, were identified from Hyriopsis cumingii. HcC1qDC1-HcC1qDC4 encode a protein of 224, 204, 305, and 332 amino acids, respectively. All C1qDC proteins consist of a gC1q domain at the C terminal. In addition to the gC1q domain, a coiled-coil region is found in HcC1qDC4. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the C1qDC proteins highly differ from one another. Tissue distribution analysis demonstrated that HcC1qDC1-HcC1qDC4 are widely distributed in hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, mantle, and foot. These C1qDC genes are regulated by bacteria to varying degrees. These recombinant HcC1qDC proteins exhibit a binding activity against different bacterial species. Our results may suggest the roles of HcC1qDC genes in anti-bacterial immune defense. PMID:27288256

  11. Protein and amino acid metabolism in the human newborn.

    PubMed

    Kalhan, Satish C; Bier, Dennis M

    2008-01-01

    Birth and adaptation to extrauterine life involve major shifts in the protein and energy metabolism of the human newborn. These include a shift from a state of continuous supply of nutrients including amino acids from the mother to cyclic periodic oral intake, a change in the redox state of organs, thermogenesis, and a significant change in the mobilization and use of oxidative substrates. The development of safe, stable isotopic tracer methods has allowed the study of protein and amino acid metabolism not only in the healthy newborn but also in those born prematurely and of low birth weight. These studies have identified the unique and quantitative aspects of amino acid/protein metabolism in the neonate, thus contributing to rational nutritional care of these babies. The present review summarizes the contemporary data on some of the significant developments in essential and dispensable amino acids and their relationship to overall protein metabolism. Specifically, the recent data of kinetics of leucine, phenylalanine, glutamine, sulfur amino acid, and threonine and their relation to whole-body protein turnover are presented. Finally, the physiological rationale and the impact of nutrient (amino acids) interventions on the dynamics of protein metabolism are discussed.

  12. Fatty acid transfer between multilamellar liposomes and fatty acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Brecher, P; Saouaf, R; Sugarman, J M; Eisenberg, D; LaRosa, K

    1984-11-10

    A simple experimental system was developed for studying the movement of long-chain fatty acids between multilamellar liposomes and soluble proteins capable of binding fatty acids. Oleic acid was incorporated into multilamellar liposomes containing cholesterol and egg yolk lecithin and incubated with albumin or hepatic fatty acid-binding protein. It was found that the fatty acid transferred from the liposomes to either protein rapidly and selectively under conditions where phospholipid and cholesterol transfer did not occur. More than 50% of the fatty acid contained within liposomes could become protein bound, suggesting that the fatty acid moved readily between and across phospholipid bilayers. Transfer was reduced at low pH, and this reduction appeared to result from decreased dissociation of the protonated fatty acid from the bilayer. Liposomes made with dimyristoyl or dipalmitoyl lecithin and containing 1 mol per cent palmitic acid were used to show the effect of temperature on fatty acid transfer. Transfer to either protein did not occur at temperatures where the liposomes were in a gel state but occurred rapidly at temperatures at or above the transition temperatures of the phospholipid used. PMID:6490659

  13. Conformational Entropy of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins from Amino Acid Triads

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Anupaul; Rani, Pooja; Biswas, Parbati

    2015-01-01

    This work quantitatively characterizes intrinsic disorder in proteins in terms of sequence composition and backbone conformational entropy. Analysis of the normalized relative composition of the amino acid triads highlights a distinct boundary between globular and disordered proteins. The conformational entropy is calculated from the dihedral angles of the middle amino acid in the amino acid triad for the conformational ensemble of the globular, partially and completely disordered proteins relative to the non-redundant database. Both Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are used to characterize the conformational ensemble of the representative proteins of each group. The results show that the globular proteins span approximately half of the allowed conformational states in the Ramachandran space, while the amino acid triads in disordered proteins sample the entire range of the allowed dihedral angle space following Flory’s isolated-pair hypothesis. Therefore, only the sequence information in terms of the relative amino acid triad composition may be sufficient to predict protein disorder and the backbone conformational entropy, even in the absence of well-defined structure. The predicted entropies are found to agree with those calculated using mutual information expansion and the histogram method. PMID:26138206

  14. Conformational Entropy of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins from Amino Acid Triads.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Anupaul; Rani, Pooja; Biswas, Parbati

    2015-07-03

    This work quantitatively characterizes intrinsic disorder in proteins in terms of sequence composition and backbone conformational entropy. Analysis of the normalized relative composition of the amino acid triads highlights a distinct boundary between globular and disordered proteins. The conformational entropy is calculated from the dihedral angles of the middle amino acid in the amino acid triad for the conformational ensemble of the globular, partially and completely disordered proteins relative to the non-redundant database. Both Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are used to characterize the conformational ensemble of the representative proteins of each group. The results show that the globular proteins span approximately half of the allowed conformational states in the Ramachandran space, while the amino acid triads in disordered proteins sample the entire range of the allowed dihedral angle space following Flory's isolated-pair hypothesis. Therefore, only the sequence information in terms of the relative amino acid triad composition may be sufficient to predict protein disorder and the backbone conformational entropy, even in the absence of well-defined structure. The predicted entropies are found to agree with those calculated using mutual information expansion and the histogram method.

  15. HALOACETIC ACIDS PERTURB PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION IN MOUSE EMBRYOS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    HALOACETIC ACIDS PERTURB PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION IN MOUSE EMBRYOS IN VITRO. MR Blanton and ES Hunter. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.
    Sponsor: JM Rogers.
    Haloacetic Acids (HAAs) formed during the disinfection process are present in drin...

  16. TACC3 protein regulates microtubule nucleation by affecting γ-tubulin ring complexes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Puja; Thomas, Geethu Emily; Gireesh, Koyikulangara K; Manna, Tapas K

    2014-11-14

    Centrosome-mediated microtubule nucleation is essential for spindle assembly during mitosis. Although γ-tubulin complexes have primarily been implicated in the nucleation process, details of the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that a member of the human transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) protein family, TACC3, plays a critical role in microtubule nucleation at the centrosome. In mitotic cells, TACC3 knockdown substantially affected the assembly of microtubules in the astral region and impaired microtubule nucleation at the centrosomes. The TACC3 depletion-induced mitotic phenotype was rescued by expression of the TACC3 C terminus predominantly consisting of the TACC domain, suggesting that the TACC domain plays an important role in microtubule assembly. Consistently, experiments with the recombinant TACC domain of TACC3 demonstrated that this domain possesses intrinsic microtubule nucleating activity. Co-immunoprecipitation and sedimentation experiments revealed that TACC3 mediates interactions with proteins of both the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) and the γ-tubulin small complex (γ-TuSC). Interestingly, TACC3 depletion resulted in reduced levels of γ-TuRC and increased levels of γ-TuSC, indicating that the assembly of γ-TuRC from γ-TuSC requires TACC3. Detailed analyses suggested that TACC3 facilitates the association of γ-TuSC-specific proteins with the proteins known to be involved in the assembly of γ-TuRC. Consistent with such a role for TACC3, the suppression of TACC3 disrupted localization of γ-TuRC proteins to the centrosome. Our findings reveal that TACC3 is involved in the regulation of microtubule nucleation at the centrosome and functions in the stabilization of the γ-tubulin ring complex assembly. PMID:25246530

  17. A novel scaffold protein, TANC, possibly a rat homolog of Drosophila rolling pebbles (rols), forms a multiprotein complex with various postsynaptic density proteins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuo; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Tian, Qing-Bao; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Usuda, Nobuteru; Usada, Nobuteru; Kondo, Hisatake; Fujii, Toshihiro; Endo, Shogo

    2005-01-01

    We cloned from the rat brain a novel gene, tanc (GenBank Accession No. AB098072), which encoded a protein containing three tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs), ten ankyrin repeats and a coiled-coil region, and is possibly a rat homolog of Drosophila rolling pebbles (rols). The tanc gene was expressed widely in the adult rat brain. Subcellular distribution, immunohistochemical study of the brain and immunocytochemical studies of cultured neuronal cells indicated the postsynaptic localization of TANC protein of 200 kDa. Pull-down experiments showed that TANC protein bound PSD-95, SAP97, and Homer via its C-terminal PDZ-binding motif, -ESNV, and fodrin via both its ankyrin repeats and the TPRs together with the coiled-coil domain. TANC also bound the alpha subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. An immunoprecipitation study showed TANC association with various postsynaptic proteins, including guanylate kinase-associated protein (GKAP), alpha-internexin, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor 2B and AMPA-type glutamate receptor (GluR1) subunits. These results suggest that TANC protein may work as a postsynaptic scaffold component by forming a multiprotein complex with various postsynaptic density proteins. PMID:15673434

  18. Predicting protein disorder by analyzing amino acid sequence

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jack Y; Yang, Mary Qu

    2008-01-01

    Background Many protein regions and some entire proteins have no definite tertiary structure, presenting instead as dynamic, disorder ensembles under different physiochemical circumstances. These proteins and regions are known as Intrinsically Unstructured Proteins (IUP). IUP have been associated with a wide range of protein functions, along with roles in diseases characterized by protein misfolding and aggregation. Results Identifying IUP is important task in structural and functional genomics. We exact useful features from sequences and develop machine learning algorithms for the above task. We compare our IUP predictor with PONDRs (mainly neural-network-based predictors), disEMBL (also based on neural networks) and Globplot (based on disorder propensity). Conclusion We find that augmenting features derived from physiochemical properties of amino acids (such as hydrophobicity, complexity etc.) and using ensemble method proved beneficial. The IUP predictor is a viable alternative software tool for identifying IUP protein regions and proteins. PMID:18831799

  19. Identification of protein IT of the intestinal cytoskeleton as a novel type I cytokeratin with unusual properties and expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    A major cytoskeletal polypeptide (Mr approximately 46,000; protein IT) of human intestinal epithelium was characterized by biochemical and immunological methods. The polypeptide, which was identified as a specific and genuine mRNA product by translation in vitro, reacted, in immunoblotting after SDS-PAGE, only with one of numerous cytokeratin (CK) antisera tested but with none of many monoclonal CK antibodies. In vitro, it formed heterotypic complexes with the type II CK 8, as shown by blot binding assays and gel electrophoresis in 4 M urea, and these complexes assembled into intermediate filaments (IFs) under appropriate conditions. A chymotrypsin-resistant Mr approximately 38,000 core fragment of protein IT could be obtained from cytoskeletal IFs, indicating its inclusion in a coiled coil. Antibodies raised against protein IT decorated typical CK fibril arrays in normal and transformed intestinal cells. Four proteolytic peptide fragments obtained from purified polypeptide IT exhibited significant amino acid sequence homology with corresponding regions of coils I and II of the rod domain of several other type I CKs. Immunocytochemically, the protein was specifically detected as a prominent component of intestinal and gastric foveolar epithelium, urothelial umbrella cells, and Merkel cells of epidermis. Sparse positive epithelial cells were noted in the thymus, bronchus, gall bladder, and prostate gland. The expression of protein IT was generally maintained in primary and metastatic colorectal carcinomas as well as in cell cultures derived therefrom. A corresponding protein was also found in several other mammalian species. We conclude that polypeptide IT is an integral IF component which is related, though somewhat distantly, to type I CKs, and, therefore, we propose to add it to the human CK catalogue as CK 20. PMID:1696264

  20. IR-UV photochemistry of protein-nucleic acid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kozub, J.; Edwards, G.

    1995-12-31

    UV light has often been used to induce the formation of covalent bonds between DNA (or RNA) and tightly-bound protein molecules. However, the internal photoreactions of nucleic acids and proteins limit the yield and complicate the analysis of intermolecular crosslinks. In an ongoing search for improved reaction specificity or new photoreactions in these systems, we have employed UV photons from a Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser and mid-IR photons from the Vanderbilt FEL. Having crosslinked several protein-nucleic acid systems with nanosecond UV laser pulses, we are currently studying the effect of various IR wavelengths on a model system (gene 32 protein and poly[dT]). We have found that irradiation with sufficiently intense FEL macropulses creates an altered form of gene 32 protein which was not observed with UV-only irradiation. The electrophoretic nobility of the product is consistent with the formation of a specific protein-protein crosslink. No evidence of the non-specific protein damage typically induced by UV light is found. The yield of the new photoproduct is apparently enhanced by exposure to FEL macropulses which are synchronized with UV laser pulses. With ideal exposure parameters, the two-color reaction effectively competes with UV-only reactions. Experiments designed to determine the reaction mechanism and to demonstrate FEL-induced reactions in other protein-nucleic acid systems are currently underway.

  1. Molecular Evolution Directs Protein Translation Using Unnatural Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Cox, Vanessa E; Gaucher, Eric A

    2015-12-02

    Unnatural amino acids have in recent years established their importance in a wide range of fields, from pharmaceuticals to polymer science. Unnatural amino acids can increase the number of chemical groups within proteins and thus expand or enhance biological function. Our ability to utilize these important building blocks, however, has been limited by the inherent difficulty in incorporating these molecules into proteins. To address this challenge, researchers have examined how the canonical twenty amino acids are incorporated, regulated, and modified in nature. This review focuses on achievements and techniques used to engineer the ribosomal protein-translation machinery, including the introduction of orthogonal translation components, how directed evolution enhances the incorporation of unnatural amino acids, and the potential utility of ancient biomolecules for this process.

  2. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refsgaard, Hanne H. F.; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(III)/O2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(II) led to a substantial increase in the formation of protein carbonyls. These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (α,β-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues (Michael addition reactions) and also by interactions with alkoxyl radicals obtained by Fe(II) cleavage of lipid hydroperoxides that are formed. In addition, saturated aldehydes derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids likely react with lysine residues to form Schiff base adducts.

  3. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    PubMed Central

    Refsgaard, Hanne H. F.; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(III)/O2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(II) led to a substantial increase in the formation of protein carbonyls. These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (α,β-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues (Michael addition reactions) and also by interactions with alkoxyl radicals obtained by Fe(II) cleavage of lipid hydroperoxides that are formed. In addition, saturated aldehydes derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids likely react with lysine residues to form Schiff base adducts. PMID:10639127

  4. Chemical approaches to detect and analyze protein sulfenic acids

    PubMed Central

    Furdui, Cristina M.; Poole, Leslie B.

    2013-01-01

    Orchestration of many processes relying on intracellular signal transduction is recognized to require the generation of hydrogen peroxide as a second messenger, yet relatively few molecular details of how this oxidant acts to regulate protein function are currently understood. This review describes emerging chemical tools and approaches that can be applied to study protein oxidation in biological systems, with a particular emphasis on a key player in protein redox regulation, cysteine sulfenic acid. While sulfenic acids (within purified proteins or simple mixtures) are detectable by physical approaches like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, the propensity of these moieties to undergo further modification in complex biological systems has necessitated the development of chemical probes, reporter groups and analytical approaches to allow for their selective detection and quantification. Provided is an overview of techniques that are currently available for the study of sulfenic acids, and some of the biologically meaningful data that have been collected using such approaches. PMID:24105931

  5. Chemical approaches to detect and analyze protein sulfenic acids.

    PubMed

    Furdui, Cristina M; Poole, Leslie B

    2014-01-01

    Orchestration of many processes relying on intracellular signal transduction is recognized to require the generation of hydrogen peroxide as a second messenger, yet relatively few molecular details of how this oxidant acts to regulate protein function are currently understood. This review describes emerging chemical tools and approaches that can be applied to study protein oxidation in biological systems, with a particular emphasis on a key player in protein redox regulation, cysteine sulfenic acid. While sulfenic acids (within purified proteins or simple mixtures) are detectable by physical approaches like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, the propensity of these moieties to undergo further modification in complex biological systems has necessitated the development of chemical probes, reporter groups and analytical approaches to allow for their selective detection and quantification. Provided is an overview of techniques that are currently available for the study of sulfenic acids, and some of the biologically meaningful data that have been collected using such approaches.

  6. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  7. Detailed computational analysis of a comprehensive set of group A rotavirus NSP4 proteins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuo Liang; Tian, Peng

    2003-05-01

    Rotavirus infection causes diarrhea to humans, animals and birds. The NSP4 protein of Group A rotavirus has been recognized as a viral enterotoxin. This single protein plays important roles in viral pathogenesis and morphogenesis. Domains involved in structure and biologic functions have been proposed mainly based on the SA11 strain, a prototype of group A rotavirus. NSP4 has been classified into different genotypes based on sequence homology. These analyses are based on representative strains selected but not comprehensive. In this paper, we collected all NSP4 sequences in the GenBank and performed a detailed computational analysis. Our analysis of 176 NSP4 proteins in Groups A, B and C rotaviruses confirms that the recently published avian NSP4 sequences belong to a new genotype (Mori Y., Borgan M.A., Ito N., Sugiyama M. and Minamoto N., Virus Res 89, 145-151, 2002), besides the four known NSP4 genotypes of Group A mammalian rotaviruses. Significant differences were discovered in the physicochemical properties between the avian and mammalian NSP4 proteins. In particular, lack of a highly probable coiled-coil region in the avian sequences implies a diversion of the NSP4 quaternary structure from the latter, although the secondary and tertiary structures may be similar. Fourteen amino acids are found absolutely conserved in the Group A NSP4 sequences, regardless of genotype. Of the conserved residues, two are glycosylation sites, one is in the middle of the transmembrane segment, seven span the VP4 binding domain, and five are clustered in the middle of the toxic peptide region, indicating the functional importance of the conservation. PMID:12876455

  8. Mapping protein and nucleic acid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednyakov, I. V.; Zrelov, P. V.; Ivanov, V. V.; Polozov, R. V.; Sivozhelezov, V. S.; Stepanenko, V. A.; Chirgadze, Yu. N.

    2013-09-01

    Methods and algorithms to analyze surfaces of globular and fibrillar proteins, DNA, and RNA have been developed. These methods for the construction of maps of fragments of these objects in the original cylindrical projection developed herein essentially broaden the possibilities for studying the distribution of charges and surface topography of biological structures. This approach significantly supplements the qualitative characteristics of methods of visualizing biopolymer structures.

  9. FLU, an amino acid substitution model for influenza proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The amino acid substitution model is the core component of many protein analysis systems such as sequence similarity search, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic inference. Although several general amino acid substitution models have been estimated from large and diverse protein databases, they remain inappropriate for analyzing specific species, e.g., viruses. Emerging epidemics of influenza viruses raise the need for comprehensive studies of these dangerous viruses. We propose an influenza-specific amino acid substitution model to enhance the understanding of the evolution of influenza viruses. Results A maximum likelihood approach was applied to estimate an amino acid substitution model (FLU) from ~113, 000 influenza protein sequences, consisting of ~20 million residues. FLU outperforms 14 widely used models in constructing maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees for the majority of influenza protein alignments. On average, FLU gains ~42 log likelihood points with an alignment of 300 sites. Moreover, topologies of trees constructed using FLU and other models are frequently different. FLU does indeed have an impact on likelihood improvement as well as tree topologies. It was implemented in PhyML and can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.sanger.ac.uk/pub/1000genomes/lsq/FLU or included in PhyML 3.0 server at http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/phyml/. Conclusions FLU should be useful for any influenza protein analysis system which requires an accurate description of amino acid substitutions. PMID:20384985

  10. Review: the liver bile acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Hugo L

    2009-12-01

    The liver bile acid-binding proteins, L-BABPs, formerly called the liver "basic" fatty acid-binding proteins, are a subfamily of the fatty acid-binding proteins, FABPs. All the members of this protein group share the same fold: a 10 stranded beta barrel in which two short helices are inserted in between the first and the second strand of antiparallel beta sheet. The barrel encloses the ligand binding cavity of the protein while the two helices are believed to be involved in ligand accessibility to the binding site. The L-BABP subfamily has been found to be present in the liver of several vertebrates: fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds but not in mammals. The members of the FABP family present in mammals that appear to be more closely related to the L-BABPs are the liver FABPs and the ileal BABPs, both very extensively studied. Several L-BABP X-ray structures are available and chicken L-BABP has also been studied using NMR spectroscopy. The stoichiometry of ligand binding for bile acids, first determined by X-ray crystallography for the chicken liver protein, is of two cholates per protein molecule with the only exception of zebrafish L-BABP which, due to the presence of a disulfide bridge, has a stoichiometry of 1:1. The stoichiometry of ligand binding for fatty acids, determined with several different techniques, is 1:1. An unanswered question of great relevance is the identity of the protein that in mammals performs the function that in other vertebrates is carried out by the L-BABPS.

  11. [Fractional and amino acid composition of krill proteins and the potential for obtaining protein preparations].

    PubMed

    Orlova, T A; Churina, E E; Kuranova, L K

    1985-01-01

    Studies of the fractional composition of krill proteins demonstrated that the content of protein fractions changes depending on the time of krill catch. The highest amount of water-soluble proteins is contained by krill caught in December (64%), of salt-soluble by krill caught in June (12%), base-soluble by krill caught in May, September and February (34%). Krill protein contains from 50 to 60% of water- and salt-soluble fractions. Analysis of the amino acid composition of krill proteins showed that it does not differ essentially from that of adequate food proteins.

  12. Proteins, Peptides and Amino Acids: Role in Infant Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nutten, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are polymers composed of 30 or more amino acids; some of them are essential dietary components, since they are not synthetized by human metabolic processes. They are crucial for healthy growth and development and influence major functions of the body. The infant's first year is a critical time of rapid growth and development, which must be supported by a high rate of protein synthesis. Breast milk, as a single specific food source in the first months of life, is providing the total protein and essential amino acids required. Infant formulas have been designed for infants who cannot be breastfed. They should be similar to breast milk in their composition and their functional outcomes, insuring appropriate growth, optimal development, maturation of the immune system, easy digestion and healthy metabolic programming. By modifying their protein components, specific infant formulas have also been developed for specific needs. For example, partially hydrolyzed (prevention of atopic dermatitis) and extensively hydrolyzed or amino-acid-based infant formulas (reduction in allergy symptoms) have been designed for the management of cow's milk protein allergy. In conclusion, proteins provided via breast milk or infant formula are essential components of the infant's diet; therefore, the specific quality, quantity and conformation of proteins are of utmost importance for healthy growth and development. PMID:27336588

  13. Proteins, Peptides and Amino Acids: Role in Infant Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nutten, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are polymers composed of 30 or more amino acids; some of them are essential dietary components, since they are not synthetized by human metabolic processes. They are crucial for healthy growth and development and influence major functions of the body. The infant's first year is a critical time of rapid growth and development, which must be supported by a high rate of protein synthesis. Breast milk, as a single specific food source in the first months of life, is providing the total protein and essential amino acids required. Infant formulas have been designed for infants who cannot be breastfed. They should be similar to breast milk in their composition and their functional outcomes, insuring appropriate growth, optimal development, maturation of the immune system, easy digestion and healthy metabolic programming. By modifying their protein components, specific infant formulas have also been developed for specific needs. For example, partially hydrolyzed (prevention of atopic dermatitis) and extensively hydrolyzed or amino-acid-based infant formulas (reduction in allergy symptoms) have been designed for the management of cow's milk protein allergy. In conclusion, proteins provided via breast milk or infant formula are essential components of the infant's diet; therefore, the specific quality, quantity and conformation of proteins are of utmost importance for healthy growth and development.

  14. Structure and regulation of the c-Fes protein-tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Sabine; Smithgall, Thomas E

    2011-06-01

    The c-Fes protein-tyrosine kinase is the normal cellular ortholog of several avian and feline retroviral oncoproteins. Unlike its transforming viral counterparts, c-Fes tyrosine kinase activity is tightly regulated in vivo through a mechanism involving coiled-coil oligomerization domains and other unique structural features found in its long N-terminal region. This review is focused on the regulatory features and structural biology of c-Fes, which has been implicated in normal cellular growth regulation, the innate immune response, and tumorigenesis.

  15. A general method of protein purification for recombinant unstructured non-acidic proteins.

    PubMed

    Campos, Francisco; Guillén, Gabriel; Reyes, José L; Covarrubias, Alejandra A

    2011-11-01

    Typical late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate in response to water deficit imposed by the environment or by plant developmental programs. Because of their physicochemical properties, they can be considered as hydrophilins and as a paradigm of intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs) in plants. To study their biophysical and biochemical characteristics large quantities of highly purified protein are required. In this work, we report a fast and simple purification method for non-acidic recombinant LEA proteins that does not need the addition of tags and that preserves their in vitro protective activity. The method is based on the enrichment of the protein of interest by boiling the bacterial protein extract, followed by a differential precipitation with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Using this procedure we have obtained highly pure recombinant LEA proteins of groups 1, 3, and 4 and one recombinant bacterial hydrophilin. This protocol will facilitate the purification of this type of IUPs, and could be particularly useful in proteomic projects/analyses.

  16. BILBO1 Is a Scaffold Protein of the Flagellar Pocket Collar in the Pathogen Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Florimond, Célia; Sahin, Annelise; Vidilaseris, Keni; Dong, Gang; Landrein, Nicolas; Dacheux, Denis; Albisetti, Anna; Byard, Edward H.; Bonhivers, Mélanie; Robinson, Derrick R.

    2015-01-01

    The flagellar pocket (FP) of the pathogen Trypanosoma brucei is an important single copy structure that is formed by the invagination of the pellicular membrane. It is the unique site of endo- and exocytosis and is required for parasite pathogenicity. The FP consists of distinct structural sub-domains with the least explored being the annulus/horseshoe shaped flagellar pocket collar (FPC). To date the only known component of the FPC is the protein BILBO1, a cytoskeleton protein that has a N-terminus that contains an ubiquitin-like fold, two EF-hand domains, plus a large C-terminal coiled-coil domain. BILBO1 has been shown to bind calcium, but in this work we demonstrate that mutating either or both calcium-binding domains prevents calcium binding. The expression of deletion or mutated forms of BILBO1 in trypanosomes and mammalian cells demonstrate that the coiled-coil domain is necessary and sufficient for the formation of BILBO1 polymers. This is supported by Yeast two-hybrid analysis. Expression of full-length BILBO1 in mammalian cells induces the formation of linear polymers with comma and globular shaped termini, whereas mutation of the canonical calcium-binding domain resulted in the formation of helical polymers and mutation in both EF-hand domains prevented the formation of linear polymers. We also demonstrate that in T. brucei the coiled-coil domain is able to target BILBO1 to the FPC and to form polymers whilst the EF-hand domains influence polymers shape. This data indicates that BILBO1 has intrinsic polymer forming properties and that binding calcium can modulate the form of these polymers. We discuss whether these properties can influence the formation of the FPC. PMID:25822645

  17. Acidic Shell Proteins of the Mediterranean Fan Mussel Pinna nobilis.

    PubMed

    Marin, Frédéric; Narayanappa, Prabakaran; Motreuil, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    In molluscs, the shell secretion process is controlled by a set of extracellular macromolecules collectively called the shell matrix. The shell matrix, which is produced by the mantle epithelial cells during mineralization, is predominantly composed of proteins, glycoproteins, acidic polysaccharides, and chitin that precisely regulate the deposition of calcium carbonate outside the mantle cells. In the present paper, we focus on the shell of Pinna nobilis, the giant Mediterranean fan mussel, usually considered as a model for studying molluscan biomineralization processes. P. nobilis exhibits indeed a nacro-prismatic shell, the outer layer of which is constituted of the so-called "regular simple calcitic prisms," according to Carter and Clark (1985). We review here the microstructural characteristics of the prisms and nacre and the biochemical properties of their associated matrices. In particular, the calcitic prisms of P. nobilis are characterized by a cortege of unusually acidic intraprismatic proteins, while the ones of the nacreous layer seem less acidic. A brief description of the molecular characterization of three acidic proteins, caspartin, calprismin and mucoperlin, is given. In particular, we show that extremely acidic intracrystalline proteins such as caspartin interact with calcium carbonate at different scales, from micrometric to crystal lattice levels.

  18. Analysis of single nucleic acid molecules with protein nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Maglia, Giovanni; Heron, Andrew J.; Stoddart, David; Japrung, Deanpen; Bayley, Hagan

    2011-01-01

    We describe the methods used in our laboratory for the analysis of single nucleic acid molecules with protein nanopores. The technical section is preceded by a review of the variety of experiments that can be done with protein nanopores. The end goal of much of this work is single-molecule DNA sequencing, although sequencing is not discussed explicitly here. The technical section covers the equipment required for nucleic acid analysis, the preparation and storage of the necessary materials, and aspects of signal processing and data analysis. PMID:20627172

  19. Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in β-aminobutyric acid enhanced Arabidopsis thaliana tolerance to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingwu; Jiang, Xinwu; Shi, Wuliang; Chen, Juan; Pei, Zhenming; Zheng, Hailei

    2011-05-01

    Acid rain is a worldwide environmental issue that has seriously destroyed forest ecosystems. As a highly effective and broad-spectrum plant resistance-inducing agent, β-aminobutyric acid could elevate the tolerance of Arabidopsis when subjected to simulated acid rain. Using comparative proteomic strategies, we analyzed 203 significantly varied proteins of which 175 proteins were identified responding to β-aminobutyric acid in the absence and presence of simulated acid rain. They could be divided into ten groups according to their biological functions. Among them, the majority was cell rescue, development and defense-related proteins, followed by transcription, protein synthesis, folding, modification and destination-associated proteins. Our conclusion is β-aminobutyric acid can lead to a large-scale primary metabolism change and simultaneously activate antioxidant system and salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid signaling pathways. In addition, β-aminobutyric acid can reinforce physical barriers to defend simulated acid rain stress.

  20. Suppression of muscle protein turnover and amino acid degradation by dietary protein deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawa, N. E. Jr; Goldberg, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    To define the adaptations that conserve amino acids and muscle protein when dietary protein intake is inadequate, rats (60-70 g final wt) were fed a normal or protein-deficient (PD) diet (18 or 1% lactalbumin), and their muscles were studied in vitro. After 7 days on the PD diet, both protein degradation and synthesis fell 30-40% in skeletal muscles and atria. This fall in proteolysis did not result from reduced amino acid supply to the muscle and preceded any clear decrease in plasma amino acids. Oxidation of branched-chain amino acids, glutamine and alanine synthesis, and uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyrate also fell by 30-50% in muscles and adipose tissue of PD rats. After 1 day on the PD diet, muscle protein synthesis and amino acid uptake decreased by 25-40%, and after 3 days proteolysis and leucine oxidation fell 30-45%. Upon refeeding with the normal diet, protein synthesis also rose more rapidly (+30% by 1 day) than proteolysis, which increased significantly after 3 days (+60%). These different time courses suggest distinct endocrine signals for these responses. The high rate of protein synthesis and low rate of proteolysis during the first 3 days of refeeding a normal diet to PD rats contributes to the rapid weight gain ("catch-up growth") of such animals.

  1. The interaction of amino acids, peptides, and proteins with DNA.

    PubMed

    Solovyev, Andrey Y; Tarnovskaya, Svetlana I; Chernova, Irina A; Shataeva, Larisa K; Skorik, Yury A

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids that carry charges on their side groups can bind to double stranded DNA (dsDNA) and change the strength of the double helix. Measurement of the DNA melting temperature (Tm) confirmed that acidic amino acids (Glu, Asp) weaken the H-bonds between DNA strands, whereas basic amino acids (Arg, Lys) strengthen the interaction between the strands. A rank correlation exists between the amino acid isoelectric points and the observed changes in Tm. A similar dependence of the hyperchromic effect on the isoelectric point of a protein (pepsin, insulin, cortexin, and protamine) was observed for DNA-protein complexes at room temperature. Short peptides (KE, AEDG, and KEDP) containing a mixture of acidic and basic amino acid residues also affect Tm and the stability of the double helix. A model for binding Glu and Lys to dsDNA was explored by a docking simulation. The model shows that Glu, in an untwisted shape, binds to dsDNA in its major groove and disrupts three H-bonds between the strands, thereby destabilizing the double helix. Lys, in an untwisted shape, binds to the external side of the dsDNA and forms two bonds with O atoms of neighboring phosphodiester groups, thereby strengthening the DNA helix.

  2. (-)-Hydroxycitric Acid Nourishes Protein Synthesis via Altering Metabolic Directions of Amino Acids in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Ningning; Li, Longlong; Peng, Mengling; Ma, Haitian

    2016-08-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a major active ingredient of Garcinia Cambogia extracts, had shown to suppress body weight gain and fat accumulation in animals and humans. While, the underlying mechanism of (-)-HCA has not fully understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of long-term supplement with (-)-HCA on body weight gain and variances of amino acid content in rats. Results showed that (-)-HCA treatment reduced body weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio in rats. The content of hepatic glycogen, muscle glycogen, and serum T4 , T3 , insulin, and Leptin were increased in (-)-HCA treatment groups. Protein content in liver and muscle were significantly increased in (-)-HCA treatment groups. Amino acid profile analysis indicated that most of amino acid contents in serum and liver, especially aromatic amino acid and branched amino acid, were higher in (-)-HCA treatment groups. However, most of the amino acid contents in muscle, especially aromatic amino acid and branched amino acid, were reduced in (-)-HCA treatment groups. These results indicated that (-)-HCA treatment could reduce body weight gain through promoting energy expenditure via regulation of thyroid hormone levels. In addition, (-)-HCA treatment could promote protein synthesis by altering the metabolic directions of amino acids. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27145492

  3. Characterization and amino acid sequence of a fatty acid-binding protein from human heart.

    PubMed Central

    Offner, G D; Brecher, P; Sawlivich, W B; Costello, C E; Troxler, R F

    1988-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of a fatty acid-binding protein from human heart was determined by automated Edman degradation of CNBr, BNPS-skatole [3'-bromo-3-methyl-2-(2-nitrobenzenesulphenyl)indolenine], hydroxylamine, Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase, tryptic and chymotryptic peptides, and by digestion of the protein with carboxypeptidase A. The sequence of the blocked N-terminal tryptic peptide from citraconylated protein was determined by collisionally induced decomposition mass spectrometry. The protein contains 132 amino acid residues, is enriched with respect to threonine and lysine, lacks cysteine, has an acetylated valine residue at the N-terminus, and has an Mr of 14768 and an isoelectric point of 5.25. This protein contains two short internal repeated sequences from residues 48-54 and from residues 114-119 located within regions of predicted beta-structure and decreasing hydrophobicity. These short repeats are contained within two longer repeated regions from residues 48-60 and residues 114-125, which display 62% sequence similarity. These regions could accommodate the charged and uncharged moieties of long-chain fatty acids and may represent fatty acid-binding domains consistent with the finding that human heart fatty acid-binding protein binds 2 mol of oleate or palmitate/mol of protein. Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequences of the peptides has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50143 (23 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained as indicated in Biochem. J. (1988) 249, 5. PMID:3421901

  4. Minimum protein intake for the preterm neonate determined by protein and amino acid kinetics.

    PubMed

    Zello, Gordon A; Menendez, Cesar E; Rafii, Mahroukh; Clarke, Ruth; Wykes, Linda J; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2003-02-01

    Lower limits of protein needs in prematurely born neonates have not been adequately studied, yet providing protein in amounts maximizing accretion without excess is a goal in these infants' nutritional care. We hypothesized that with the use of amino acid oxidation methodology, it would be possible to define minimum protein requirement. Our objective was to investigate protein kinetics during short-term changes in protein intake by measurement of nitrogen balance and amino acid flux and oxidation using [(15)N]glycine, [(13)C]phenylalanine, and [(13)C]leucine tracers. Protein kinetics were examined in 21 preterm infants (gestational age: 29 +/- 3 wk; birth weight: 1091 +/- 324 g) at five protein intakes (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) with 1 d of adaptation to the test intakes. From nitrogen balance data, a protein need of 0.74 g x kg(-1 x -1) was estimated to achieve zero balance. For all three amino acids, flux and oxidation estimates were not different across protein intakes. Whole-body protein synthesis and breakdown estimates from [(15)N]ammonia data were 14.6 +/- 3.4 and 14.4 +/- 4.1 g x kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively. Glycine flux (680 +/- 168 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) was greater than leucine flux (323 +/- 115 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)), which was greater than phenylalanine flux (84.3 +/- 35.2 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)). Leucine oxidation (36.7 +/- 15.6 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) was also greater than phenylalanine oxidation (6.64 +/- 4.41 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)). Infants in our study were able to adapt to short-term changes in protein intake with little consequence to the overall whole-body protein economy, as measured by the three test amino acids.

  5. Nurit, a novel leucine-zipper protein, expressed uniquely in the spermatid flower-like structure.

    PubMed

    Feige, Erez; Chen, Aviva; Motro, Benny

    2002-09-01

    Spermatozoa formation involves drastic morphological and cellular reconstructions. However, the molecular mechanisms driving this process remain elusive. We describe the cloning of a novel murine spermatid-specific gene, designated nurit, identified in a two-hybrid screen for proteins that binds the Nek1 kinase. Nurit protein harbors a leucine-zipper motif, and two additional coiled-coil regions. The C-terminal coiled-coil domain mediates homodimerization of the protein. Nurit homologues are found in primates, pig and rodents. nurit is transcribed through the elongation stage of the spermatids, but is absent from mature spermatozoa. Interestingly, immunogold electron microscopy revealed that the protein is restricted, from its first detectable appearance, to a unique spermatid organelle called the 'flower-like structure'. The function of this structure is unknown, though it may be involved in transporting proteins designated to be discarded via the residual bodies. Nurit is the first marker of the flower-like structure, and its study may provide an excellent opportunity to dissect the function of this organelle. PMID:12204287

  6. Characterization of the Interaction between the Salmonella Type III Secretion System Tip Protein SipD and the Needle Protein PrgI by Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancement*

    PubMed Central

    Rathinavelan, Thenmalarchelvi; Tang, Chun; De Guzman, Roberto N.

    2011-01-01

    Many Gram-negative bacteria that cause major diseases and mortality worldwide require the type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject virulence proteins into their hosts and cause infections. A structural component of the T3SS is the needle apparatus, which consists of a base, an external needle, and a tip complex. In Salmonella typhimurium, the external needle is assembled by the polymerization of the needle protein PrgI. On top of this needle sits a tip complex, which is partly formed by the tip protein SipD. How SipD interacts with PrgI during the assembly of the T3SS needle apparatus remains unknown. The central region of PrgI forms an α-helical hairpin, whereas SipD has a long central coiled-coil, which is a defining structural feature of other T3SS tip proteins as well. Using NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement, we have identified a specific region on the SipD coiled-coil that interacts directly with PrgI. We present a model of how SipD might dock at the tip of the needle based on our paramagnetic relaxation enhancement results, thus offering new insight about the mechanism of assembly of the T3SS needle apparatus. PMID:21138848

  7. Stimulation of protein synthesis by phosphatidic acid in rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y J; Yau, L; Yu, L P; Elimban, V; Zahradka, P; Dhalla, N S

    1996-12-13

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) was observed to stimulate protein synthesis in adult cardiomyocytes in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The maximal stimulation in protein synthesis (142 +/- 12% vs 100% as the control) was achieved at 10 microM PA within 60 min and was inhibited by actinomycin D (107 +/- 4% of the control) or cycloheximide (105 +/- 6% of the control). The increase in protein synthesis due to PA was attenuated or abolished by preincubation of cardiomyocytes with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein (94 +/- 9% of the control), phospholipase C inhibitors 2-nitro-4-carboxyphenyl N,N-diphenyl carbamate or carbon-odithioic acid O-(octahydro-4,7-methanol-1H-inden-5-yl (101 +/- 6 and 95 +/- 5% of the control, respectively), protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine or polymyxin B (109 +/- 3 and 93 +/- 3% of the control), and chelators of extracellular and intracellular free Ca2+ EGTA or BAPTA/AM (103 +/- 6 and 95 +/- 6% of the control, respectively). PA at different concentrations (0.1 to 100 microM) also caused phosphorylation of a cell surface protein of approximately 24 kDa. In addition, mitogen-activated protein kinase was stimulated by PA in a concentration-dependent manner; maximal stimulation (217 +/- 6% of the control) was seen at 10 microM PA. These data suggest that PA increases protein synthesis in adult rat cardiomyocytes and thus may play an important role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy.

  8. [Photochemistry and UV Spectroscopy of Proteins and Nucleic Acids].

    PubMed

    Wierzchowski, Kazimierz Lech

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a short history of David Shugar studies in the field of photochemistry and UV spectroscopy of proteins and nucleic acids, carried out since the late 1940s. to the beginning of the 1970s. of the 20th century, with some references to the state of related research in those days.

  9. RET finger protein is a transcriptional repressor and interacts with enhancer of polycomb that has dual transcriptional functions.

    PubMed

    Shimono, Y; Murakami, H; Hasegawa, Y; Takahashi, M

    2000-12-15

    RET finger protein (RFP) belongs to the large B-box RING finger protein family and is known to become oncogenic by fusion with RET tyrosine kinase. Although RFP is reported to be a nuclear protein that is present in the nuclear matrix, its function is largely unknown. Here we show that RFP interacts with Enhancer of Polycomb (EPC) and strongly represses the gene transcription. Yeast two-hybrid assays revealed that the coiled-coil domain of RFP was associated with the EPcA domain and the carboxyl-terminal region of EPC. In addition, both proteins were co-precipitated from the lysates of human cells and mostly colocalized in the nucleus. Using the luciferase reporter-gene assay, we found that they repress the gene transcription activity independent of the differences of enhancers and promoters used, although the repressive activity of RFP was much stronger than that of EPC. The coiled-coil domain of RFP and the carboxyl-terminal region of EPC were most important for the repressive activity of each protein, whereas the EPcA domain had the transcription activating ability that is unique as the Polycomb group protein function. These results suggested that RFP may be involved in the epigenetic gene silencing mechanism cooperating with Polycomb group proteins and that EPC is a unique molecule with both repressive and transactivating activities.

  10. Role of fatty acid binding protein on hepatic palmitate uptake.

    PubMed

    Burczynski, F J; Zhang, M N; Pavletic, P; Wang, G Q

    1997-12-01

    Expression of hepatic fatty acid binding protein (FABP) mRNA is regulated by growth hormone. In the absence of growth hormone, there is a 60% reduction in FABP mRNA levels (S.A. Berry, J.-B Yoon, U. List, and S. Seelig. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 12:638-642. 1995). Previous work in our laboratory focused on the role of extracellular binding proteins in the hepatic uptake of long chain fatty acids. In the present study we were interested to determine the role of FABP in the transmembrane flux of long chain fatty acids. Using hepatocyte monolayers from control (n = 9) and hypophysectomized (n = 6) rats, we investigated the uptake of [3H]palmitate in the presence and absence of albumin. In the absence of albumin, total hepatocyte [3H]palmitate clearance rates from control (17.2 +/- 1.5 microL.mg-1 protein.s-1; mean +/- SEM; n = 9) and hypophysectomized (15.5 +/- 2.1 microL.mg-1 protein.s-1; n = 6) animals were similar (p > 0.05). In the presence of 2 microM albumin the total [3H]palmitate clearance rate from control hepatocytes (1.63 +/- 0.11 microL.mg-1 protein.s-1; n = 9) was significantly larger (40%) than from hepatocytes obtained from hypophysectomized (0.97 +/- 0.15 microL.mg-1 protein.s-1; n = 6; p < 0.01) animals. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis revealed that plasma membrane FABP levels from control and hypophysectomized animals were similar. However, there was a 49% decrease in the cytosolic FABP levels of hepatocytes isolated from hypophysectomized as compared with control animals. The decreased cytosolic FABB levels paralleled the decrease in palmitate uptake. We conclude that in the absence of extracellular binding proteins the rate-limiting step in the overall uptake of long chain fatty acids is diffusion to the cell surface. However, in the presence of albumin, the rate of palmitate uptake is determined primarily by cytosolic FABP levels.

  11. Leukocyte protease binding to nucleic acids promotes nuclear localization and cleavage of nucleic acid binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marshall P; Whangbo, Jennifer; McCrossan, Geoffrey; Deutsch, Aaron J; Martinod, Kimberly; Walch, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

    2014-06-01

    Killer lymphocyte granzyme (Gzm) serine proteases induce apoptosis of pathogen-infected cells and tumor cells. Many known Gzm substrates are nucleic acid binding proteins, and the Gzms accumulate in the target cell nucleus by an unknown mechanism. In this study, we show that human Gzms bind to DNA and RNA with nanomolar affinity. Gzms cleave their substrates most efficiently when both are bound to nucleic acids. RNase treatment of cell lysates reduces Gzm cleavage of RNA binding protein targets, whereas adding RNA to recombinant RNA binding protein substrates increases in vitro cleavage. Binding to nucleic acids also influences Gzm trafficking within target cells. Preincubation with competitor DNA and DNase treatment both reduce Gzm nuclear localization. The Gzms are closely related to neutrophil proteases, including neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G. During neutrophil activation, NE translocates to the nucleus to initiate DNA extrusion into neutrophil extracellular traps, which bind NE and cathepsin G. These myeloid cell proteases, but not digestive serine proteases, also bind DNA strongly and localize to nuclei and neutrophil extracellular traps in a DNA-dependent manner. Thus, high-affinity nucleic acid binding is a conserved and functionally important property specific to leukocyte serine proteases. Furthermore, nucleic acid binding provides an elegant and simple mechanism to confer specificity of these proteases for cleavage of nucleic acid binding protein substrates that play essential roles in cellular gene expression and cell proliferation.

  12. A conserved patch of hydrophobic amino acids modulates Myb activity by mediating protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Dukare, Sandeep; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor c-Myb plays a key role in the control of proliferation and differentiation in hematopoietic progenitor cells and has been implicated in the development of leukemia and certain non-hematopoietic tumors. c-Myb activity is highly dependent on the interaction with the coactivator p300 which is mediated by the transactivation domain of c-Myb and the KIX domain of p300. We have previously observed that conservative valine-to-isoleucine amino acid substitutions in a conserved stretch of hydrophobic amino acids have a profound effect on Myb activity. Here, we have explored the function of the hydrophobic region as a mediator of protein-protein interactions. We show that the hydrophobic region facilitates Myb self-interaction and binding of the histone acetyl transferase Tip60, a previously identified Myb interacting protein. We show that these interactions are affected by the valine-to-isoleucine amino acid substitutions and suppress Myb activity by interfering with the interaction of Myb and the KIX domain of p300. Taken together, our work identifies the hydrophobic region in the Myb transactivation domain as a binding site for homo- and heteromeric protein interactions and leads to a picture of the c-Myb transactivation domain as a composite protein binding region that facilitates interdependent protein-protein interactions of Myb with regulatory proteins.

  13. A SAS-6-like protein suggests that the Toxoplasma conoid complex evolved from flagellar components.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Jessica Cruz; Scheumann, Nicole; Beatty, Wandy; Beck, Josh R; Tran, Johnson Q; Yau, Candace; Bradley, Peter J; Gull, Keith; Wickstead, Bill; Morrissette, Naomi S

    2013-07-01

    SAS-6 is required for centriole biogenesis in diverse eukaryotes. Here, we describe a novel family of SAS-6-like (SAS6L) proteins that share an N-terminal domain with SAS-6 but lack coiled-coil tails. SAS6L proteins are found in a subset of eukaryotes that contain SAS-6, including diverse protozoa and green algae. In the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, SAS-6 localizes to the centriole but SAS6L is found above the conoid, an enigmatic tubulin-containing structure found at the apex of a subset of alveolate organisms. Loss of SAS6L causes reduced fitness in Toxoplasma. The Trypanosoma brucei homolog of SAS6L localizes to the basal-plate region, the site in the axoneme where the central-pair microtubules are nucleated. When endogenous SAS6L is overexpressed in Toxoplasma tachyzoites or Trypanosoma trypomastigotes, it forms prominent filaments that extend through the cell cytoplasm, indicating that it retains a capacity to form higher-order structures despite lacking a coiled-coil domain. We conclude that although SAS6L proteins share a conserved domain with SAS-6, they are a functionally distinct family that predates the last common ancestor of eukaryotes. Moreover, the distinct localization of the SAS6L protein in Trypanosoma and Toxoplasma adds weight to the hypothesis that the conoid complex evolved from flagellar components.

  14. A Novel Basal Apparatus Protein of 90 kD (BAp90) from the Flagellate Green Alga Spermatozopsis similis is a Component of the Proximal Plates and Identifies the d-(dexter)Surface of the Basal Body.

    PubMed

    Geimer, S; Lechtreck, K F; Melkonian, M

    1998-05-01

    The flagellar basal apparatus consists of the basal bodies and associated fibrous structures, and represents the organizing center for the microtubular cytoskeleton in many flagellate protists. To identify novel proteins associated with the basal bodies, basal apparatuses from the flagellate green alga Spermatozopsis similis (Chlorophyceae) were isolated and purified. A polyclonal antibody raised against a 95kD protein band enriched in purified basal apparatuses was used to screen a cDNA library of S. similis which resulted in the isolation of a full length clone coding for a novel protein of 812 amino acids (85.3kD). Sequence analysis of this clone identified extended a-helical regions and predicted several coiled-coil forming domains interrupted by spacer segments of variable lengths. A polyclonal antibody (anti-BAp90) raised against the bacterially expressed protein recognized a 90kD band (BAp90) in SDS-PAGE of isolated basal apparatuses of S. similis. Immunogold labeling using anti-BAp90 decorated the proximal plates (two striated, triangular fibers which serve as spacers between the basal bodies in their proximal region) and parts of the d-fibers (df) which interconnect the basal bodies with the microtubular d-roots and the striated microtubule-associated fibers (SMAFs). Thus, the 90kD basal apparatus protein of S. similis represents a biochemical landmark for the lateral asymmetry of the basal body identifying its d-(dexter)surface. Cytoskeletal elements containing BAp90 or structurally related proteins may be involved in the organization and/or maintenance of the positional relationship between basal bodies and the cellular cytoskeleton, and hence cell polarity.

  15. The 52 000 MW Ro/SS-A autoantigen in Sjögren's syndrome/systemic lupus erythematosus (Ro52) is an interferon-γ inducible tripartite motif protein associated with membrane proximal structures

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Davd A; Ihrke, Gudrun; Reinicke, Anna T; Malcherek, Georg; Towey, Michael; Isenberg, David A; Trowsdale, John

    2002-01-01

    The 52 000 MW Ro/SS-A (Ro52) protein is a major target of autoantibodies in autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome. Recent genomic and bioinformatic studies have shown that Ro52 belongs to a large family of related RING/Bbox/coiled-coil (RBCC) tripartite motif proteins sharing overall domain structure and 40–50% identity at the amino acid level. Ro52 also has a B30.2 domain at the C-terminus. Using the human genome draft sequence, the genomic organization of the Ro52 gene on human chromosome 11p15.5 has been deduced and related to the protein domain structure. We show that the steady-state levels of Ro52 mRNA are normally very low but are induced by cell activation with interferon-γ. In transient transfection of HeLa cells, epitope-tagged Ro52 protein was localized to unidentified membrane proximal rod-like structures. Using in vitro coupled transcription/translation followed by immunoprecipitation, the autoimmune response to Ro52 protein was investigated and two distinct interactions were resolved. The Ro52 C-terminal B30.2 domain interacts with human immunoglobulin independently of antibody specificities. Sera derived from patients with Sjögren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus, in addition, contained specific autoantibodies directed towards the rest of the Ro52 molecule. The majority of these autoimmune sera also immunoprecipitated the Ro52-related molecule RNF15. A possible role for Ro52 protein in alterations of plasma membranes during cellular activation or apoptosis is discussed. PMID:12047754

  16. Molecular dynamics analysis of conformational change of paramyxovirus F protein during the initial steps of membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Garcia, Fernando; Mendieta-Moreno, Jesus Ignacio; Mendieta, Jesus

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial conformational change of paramyxovirus F protein is caused only by mechanical forces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HRA region undergoes a structural change from a beta + alpha conformation to an extended coil and then to an all-alpha conformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HRS domains of F protein form three single {alpha}-helices prior to generation of the coiled coil. -- Abstract: The fusion of paramyxovirus to the cell membrane is mediated by fusion protein (F protein) present in the virus envelope, which undergoes a dramatic conformational change during the process. Unlike hemagglutinin in orthomyxovirus, this change is not mediated by an alteration of environmental pH, and its cause remains unknown. Steered molecular dynamics analysis leads us to suggest that the conformational modification is mediated only by stretching mechanical forces once the transmembrane fusion peptide of the protein is anchored to the cell membrane. Such elongating forces will generate major secondary structure rearrangement in the heptad repeat A region of the F protein; from {beta}-sheet conformation to an elongated coil and then spontaneously to an {alpha}-helix. In addition, it is proposed that the heptad repeat A region adopts a final three-helix coiled coil and that this structure appears after the formation of individual helices in each monomer.

  17. In Silico Classification of Proteins from Acidic and Neutral Cytoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yaping; Middaugh, C. Russell; Fang, Jianwen

    2012-01-01

    Protein acidostability is a common problem in biopharmaceutical and other industries. However, it remains a great challenge to engineer proteins for enhanced acidostability because our knowledge of protein acidostabilization is still very limited. In this paper, we present a comparative study of proteins from bacteria with acidic (AP) and neutral cytoplasms (NP) using an integrated statistical and machine learning approach. We construct a set of 393 non-redundant AP-NP ortholog pairs and calculate a total of 889 sequence based features for these proteins. The pairwise alignments of these ortholog pairs are used to build a residue substitution propensity matrix between APs and NPs. We use Gini importance provided by the Random Forest algorithm to rank the relative importance of these features. A scoring function using the 10 most significant features is developed and optimized using a hill climbing algorithm. The accuracy of the score function is 86.01% in predicting AP-NP ortholog pairs and is 76.65% in predicting non-ortholog AP-NP pairs, suggesting that there are significant differences between APs and NPs which can be used to predict relative acidostability of proteins. The overall trends uncovered in the study can be used as general guidelines for designing acidostable proteins. To best of our knowledge, this work represents the first systematic comparative study of the acidostable proteins and their non-acidostable orthologs. PMID:23049817

  18. Transcriptional regulation of muscle fatty acid-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, J O; Neufer, P D; Farrar, R P; Veerkamp, J H; Dohm, G L

    1994-01-01

    Heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is present in a wide variety of tissues but is found in the highest concentration in cardiac and red skeletal muscle. It has been proposed that the expression of H-FABP correlates directly with the fatty acid-oxidative capacity of the tissue. In the present study, the expression of H-FABP was measured in red and white skeletal muscle under two conditions in which fatty acid utilization is known to be increased: streptozotocin-induced diabetes and fasting. Protein concentration, mRNA concentration and transcription rate were measured under both conditions. The level of both protein and mRNA increased approximately 2-fold under each condition. The transcription rate was higher in red skeletal muscle than in white muscle, was increased 2-fold during fasting, but was unchanged by streptozotocin-induced diabetes. In addition to supporting the hypothesis that H-FABP is induced during conditions of increased fatty acid utilization, these findings demonstrate that the regulation of H-FABP expression may or may not be at the level of transcription depending on the stimulus. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8141774

  19. Rpi-blb2-Mediated Hypersensitive Cell Death Caused by Phytophthora infestans AVRblb2 Requires SGT1, but not EDS1, NDR1, Salicylic Acid-, Jasmonic Acid-, or Ethylene-Mediated Signaling.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Choi, Doil

    2014-09-01

    Potato Rpi-blb2 encodes a protein with a coiled-coil-nucleotide binding site and leucine-rich repeat (CC-NBS-LRR) motif that recognizes the Phytophthora infestans AVRblb2 effector and triggers hypersensitive cell death (HCD). To better understand the components required for Rpi-blb2-mediated HCD in plants, we used virus-induced gene silencing to repress candidate genes in Rpi-blb2-transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants and assayed the plants for AVRblb2 effector. Rpi-blb2 triggers HCD through NbSGT1-mediated pathways, but not NbEDS1- or NbNDR1-mediated pathways. In addition, the role of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET) in Rpi-blb2-mediated HCD were analyzed by monitoring of the responses of NbICS1-, NbCOI1-, or NbEIN2-silenced or Rpi-blb2::NahG-transgenic plants. Rpi-blb2-mediated HCD in response to AVRblb2 was not associated with SA accumulation. Thus, SA affects Rpi-blb2-mediated resistance against P. infestans, but not Rpi-blb2-mediated HCD in response to AVRblb2. Additionally, JA and ET signaling were not required for Rpi-blb2-mediated HCD in N. benthamiana. Taken together, these findings suggest that NbSGT1 is a unique positive regulator of Rpi-blb2-mediated HCD in response to AVRblb2, but EDS1, NDR1, SA, JA, and ET are not required.

  20. Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    The World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization have worked to quantify the energy and nutrient needs of populations since 1949. This is the latest in a series of reports that aim to provide: updates on protein and amino acid requirements in health and disease for all age groups and pregnant and lactating mothers; recommendations on protein requirements in health and disease, including their implications for developing countries; recommendations on protein quality and labelling for worldwide use. This report provides the tools to address practical questions on the adequacy of food supplies, targets for food and nutrition policy, and labelling of protein quality. It contains specific recommendations for infant, child and adult nutrition. This report is an essential reference for those who need to determine the adequacy of population food intakes; set national food and nutrition guidelines and regulations on the protein and amino acid content of industrially processed foods; determine nutrient needs, and evaluate and ensure the adequacy of rations for vulnerable groups. The tools in this report can also be used to map and monitor global food shortages and under-nutrition through early warning systems.

  1. Fatty acid binding protein in the intestine of the chicken.

    PubMed

    Katongole, J B; March, B E

    1979-03-01

    The mucosa of the mesenteric intestine of the chicken has been found to contain a fatty acid binding protein (FABP) with a molecular weight of less than 12,400. The protein is present in the newly hatched chick before ingestion of feed and in the adult bird. When a low-fat diet is fed, the concentration of the FABP is highest in the proximal portion of the intestine and decreases posteriorly. When a high-fat diet is fed, an increase occurs in the amount of FABP in the lower section of the intestine.

  2. Peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates as nanoscale building blocks for assembly of an artificial three-helix protein mimic.

    PubMed

    Lou, Chenguang; Martos-Maldonado, Manuel C; Madsen, Charlotte S; Thomsen, Rasmus P; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Christensen, Niels Johan; Kjems, Jørgen; Thulstrup, Peter W; Wengel, Jesper; Jensen, Knud J

    2016-07-28

    Peptide-based structures can be designed to yield artificial proteins with specific folding patterns and functions. Template-based assembly of peptide units is one design option, but the use of two orthogonal self-assembly principles, oligonucleotide triple helix and a coiled coil protein domain formation have never been realized for de novo protein design. Here, we show the applicability of peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates for self-assembly of higher-ordered protein-like structures. The resulting nano-assemblies were characterized by ultraviolet-melting, gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. These studies revealed the formation of the desired triple helix and coiled coil domains at low concentrations, while a dimer of trimers was dominating at high concentration. CD spectroscopy showed an extraordinarily high degree of α-helicity for the peptide moieties in the assemblies. The results validate the use of orthogonal self-assembly principles as a paradigm for de novo protein design.

  3. Peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates as nanoscale building blocks for assembly of an artificial three-helix protein mimic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Chenguang; Martos-Maldonado, Manuel C.; Madsen, Charlotte S.; Thomsen, Rasmus P.; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Christensen, Niels Johan; Kjems, Jørgen; Thulstrup, Peter W.; Wengel, Jesper; Jensen, Knud J.

    2016-07-01

    Peptide-based structures can be designed to yield artificial proteins with specific folding patterns and functions. Template-based assembly of peptide units is one design option, but the use of two orthogonal self-assembly principles, oligonucleotide triple helix and a coiled coil protein domain formation have never been realized for de novo protein design. Here, we show the applicability of peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates for self-assembly of higher-ordered protein-like structures. The resulting nano-assemblies were characterized by ultraviolet-melting, gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. These studies revealed the formation of the desired triple helix and coiled coil domains at low concentrations, while a dimer of trimers was dominating at high concentration. CD spectroscopy showed an extraordinarily high degree of α-helicity for the peptide moieties in the assemblies. The results validate the use of orthogonal self-assembly principles as a paradigm for de novo protein design.

  4. Peptide–oligonucleotide conjugates as nanoscale building blocks for assembly of an artificial three-helix protein mimic

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Chenguang; Martos-Maldonado, Manuel C.; Madsen, Charlotte S.; Thomsen, Rasmus P.; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Christensen, Niels Johan; Kjems, Jørgen; Thulstrup, Peter W.; Wengel, Jesper; Jensen, Knud J.

    2016-01-01

    Peptide-based structures can be designed to yield artificial proteins with specific folding patterns and functions. Template-based assembly of peptide units is one design option, but the use of two orthogonal self-assembly principles, oligonucleotide triple helix and a coiled coil protein domain formation have never been realized for de novo protein design. Here, we show the applicability of peptide–oligonucleotide conjugates for self-assembly of higher-ordered protein-like structures. The resulting nano-assemblies were characterized by ultraviolet-melting, gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. These studies revealed the formation of the desired triple helix and coiled coil domains at low concentrations, while a dimer of trimers was dominating at high concentration. CD spectroscopy showed an extraordinarily high degree of α-helicity for the peptide moieties in the assemblies. The results validate the use of orthogonal self-assembly principles as a paradigm for de novo protein design. PMID:27464951

  5. Bacterial beta-lactamase fragmentation complementation strategy can be used as a method for identifying interacting protein pairs.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwa; Back, Jung Ho; Hahm, Soo Hyun; Shim, Hye-Young; Park, Min Ju; Ko, Sung Il; Han, Ye Sun

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the applicability of the TEM-1 beta- lactamase fragment complementation (BFC) system to develop a strategy for the screening of protein-protein interactions in bacteria. A BFC system containing a human Fas-associated death domain (hFADD) and human Fas death domain (hFasDD) was generated. The hFADD-hFasDD interaction was verified by cell survivability in ampicillin-containing medium and the colorimetric change of nitrocefin. It was also confirmed by His pull-down assay using cell lysates obtained in selection steps. A coiled-coil helix coiled-coil domain-containing protein 5 (CHCH5) was identified as an interacting protein of human uracil DNA glycosylase (hUNG) from the bacterial BFC cDNA library strategy. The interaction between hUNG and CHCH5 was further confirmed with immunoprecipitation using a mammalian expression system. CHCH5 enhanced the DNA glycosylase activity of hUNG to remove uracil from DNA duplexes containing a U/G mismatch pair. These results suggest that the bacterial BFC cDNA library strategy can be effectively used to identify interacting protein pairs.

  6. Peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates as nanoscale building blocks for assembly of an artificial three-helix protein mimic.

    PubMed

    Lou, Chenguang; Martos-Maldonado, Manuel C; Madsen, Charlotte S; Thomsen, Rasmus P; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Christensen, Niels Johan; Kjems, Jørgen; Thulstrup, Peter W; Wengel, Jesper; Jensen, Knud J

    2016-01-01

    Peptide-based structures can be designed to yield artificial proteins with specific folding patterns and functions. Template-based assembly of peptide units is one design option, but the use of two orthogonal self-assembly principles, oligonucleotide triple helix and a coiled coil protein domain formation have never been realized for de novo protein design. Here, we show the applicability of peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates for self-assembly of higher-ordered protein-like structures. The resulting nano-assemblies were characterized by ultraviolet-melting, gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. These studies revealed the formation of the desired triple helix and coiled coil domains at low concentrations, while a dimer of trimers was dominating at high concentration. CD spectroscopy showed an extraordinarily high degree of α-helicity for the peptide moieties in the assemblies. The results validate the use of orthogonal self-assembly principles as a paradigm for de novo protein design. PMID:27464951

  7. Trapping the dynamic acyl carrier protein in fatty acid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Chi; Haushalter, Robert W.; Lee, D. John; Markwick, Phineus R. L.; Bruegger, Joel; Caldara-Festin, Grace; Finzel, Kara; Jackson, David R.; Ishikawa, Fumihiro; O’Dowd, Bing; McCammon, J. Andrew; Opella, Stanley J.; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Burkart, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) transports the growing fatty acid chain between enzyme domains of fatty acid synthase (FAS) during biosynthesis.1 Because FAS enzymes operate upon ACP-bound acyl groups, ACP must stabilize and transport the growing lipid chain.2 The transient nature of ACP-enzyme interactions imposes a major obstacle to gaining high-resolution structural information about fatty acid biosynthesis, and a new strategy is required to properly study protein-protein interactions. In this work, we describe the application of a mechanism-based probe that allows site-selective covalent crosslinking of AcpP to FabA, the E. coli ACP and fatty acid 3-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase. We report the 1.9 Å crystal structure of the crosslinked AcpP=FabA complex as a homo-dimer, in which AcpP exhibits two different conformations likely representing snapshots of ACP in action: the 4′-phosphopantetheine (PPant) group of AcpP first binds an arginine-rich groove of FabA, followed by an AcpP helical conformational change that locks the AcpP and FabA in place. Residues at the interface of AcpP and FabA are identified and validated by solution NMR techniques, including chemical shift perturbations and RDC measurements. These not only support our interpretation of the crystal structures but also provide an animated view of ACP in action during fatty acid dehydration. Combined with molecular dynamics simulations, we show for the first time that FabA extrudes the sequestered acyl chain from the ACP binding pocket before dehydration by repositioning helix III. Extensive sequence conservation among carrier proteins suggests that the mechanistic insights gleaned from our studies will prove general for fatty acid, polyketide and non-ribosomal biosyntheses. Here the foundation is laid for defining the dynamic action of carrier protein activity in primary and secondary metabolism, providing insight into pathways that can play major roles in the treatment of cancer, obesity and infectious

  8. Streptococcal M protein: molecular design and biological behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Fischetti, V A

    1989-01-01

    M protein is a major virulence determinant for the group A streptococcus by virtue of its ability to allow the organism to resist phagocytosis. Common in eucaryotes, the fibrillar coiled-coil design for the M molecule may prove to be a common motif for surface proteins in gram-positive organisms. This type of structure offers the organism several distinct advantages, ranging from antigenic variation to multiple functional domains. The close resemblance of this molecular design to that of certain mammalian proteins could help explain on a molecular level the formation of epitopes responsible for serological cross-reactions between microbial and mammalian proteins. Many of the approaches described in the elucidation of the M-protein structure may be applied for characterizing similar molecules in other microbial systems. Images PMID:2670192

  9. An amino acid depleted cell-free protein synthesis system for the incorporation of non-canonical amino acid analogs into proteins.

    PubMed

    Singh-Blom, Amrita; Hughes, Randall A; Ellington, Andrew D

    2014-05-20

    Residue-specific incorporation of non-canonical amino acids into proteins is usually performed in vivo using amino acid auxotrophic strains and replacing the natural amino acid with an unnatural amino acid analog. Herein, we present an efficient amino acid depleted cell-free protein synthesis system that can be used to study residue-specific replacement of a natural amino acid by an unnatural amino acid analog. This system combines a simple methodology and high protein expression titers with a high-efficiency analog substitution into a target protein. To demonstrate the productivity and efficacy of a cell-free synthesis system for residue-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids in vitro, we use this system to show that 5-fluorotryptophan and 6-fluorotryptophan substituted streptavidin retain the ability to bind biotin despite protein-wide replacement of a natural amino acid for the amino acid analog. We envisage this amino acid depleted cell-free synthesis system being an economical and convenient format for the high-throughput screening of a myriad of amino acid analogs with a variety of protein targets for the study and functional characterization of proteins substituted with unnatural amino acids when compared to the currently employed in vivo methodologies.

  10. Characterization of E3 ubiquitin ligase neuregulin receptor degradation protein-1 (Nrdp1) in the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) and its immune responses to Cryptocaryon irritans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong Ling; Han, Fang; Yu, Da Hui; Xiao, Shi Jun; Li, Ming Yun; Chen, Jian; Wang, Zhi Yong

    2015-02-10

    Neuregulin receptor degradation protein-1 (Nrdp1) was recently identified in humans as an important immune factor responding to the challenge of virus, LPS or cytokine. Its role in fish immune defense and whether it is involved in anti-parasite immunity have not been proven yet. In this report, the full-length cDNA sequence and genomic structure of Nrdp1 in the large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea (LcNrdp1) were identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LcNrdp1 was 1248bp, including a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 32bp, a 3' UTR of 259bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 937bp, encoding a polypeptide of 318 amino acid residues. The full-length genomic DNA sequence of LcNrdp1 was composed of 2635 nucleotides, including four exons and three introns. The putative LcNrdp1 protein had no signal peptide sequence and contained a characteristic Nrdp1 consensus motif C3HC3D ring finger and a Coiled-coil domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Nrdp1 in fish was closer with that in other vertebrates (79%-90% amino acid identity) than in invertebrates and bacteria (27%-65%). In fishes, Nrdp1 in large yellow croaker was closer with that in Takifugu rubripes. The expression profile showed that LcNrdp1 was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues, especially highly expressed in brain, muscle and kidney. Post-infection (PI) with Cryptocaryon irritans, an increased expression of LcNrdp1 was induced in infection sites (skin and gill), whereas in immune organs, the expression of LcNrdp1 was up-regulated in spleen (except the 1st d and 10th d PI) but suppressed in head kidney. These results suggested that LcNrdp1 might play an important immune role in the finfish L. crocea in the defense against the parasite C. irritans. PMID:25447921

  11. Characterization of E3 ubiquitin ligase neuregulin receptor degradation protein-1 (Nrdp1) in the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) and its immune responses to Cryptocaryon irritans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong Ling; Han, Fang; Yu, Da Hui; Xiao, Shi Jun; Li, Ming Yun; Chen, Jian; Wang, Zhi Yong

    2015-02-10

    Neuregulin receptor degradation protein-1 (Nrdp1) was recently identified in humans as an important immune factor responding to the challenge of virus, LPS or cytokine. Its role in fish immune defense and whether it is involved in anti-parasite immunity have not been proven yet. In this report, the full-length cDNA sequence and genomic structure of Nrdp1 in the large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea (LcNrdp1) were identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LcNrdp1 was 1248bp, including a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 32bp, a 3' UTR of 259bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 937bp, encoding a polypeptide of 318 amino acid residues. The full-length genomic DNA sequence of LcNrdp1 was composed of 2635 nucleotides, including four exons and three introns. The putative LcNrdp1 protein had no signal peptide sequence and contained a characteristic Nrdp1 consensus motif C3HC3D ring finger and a Coiled-coil domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Nrdp1 in fish was closer with that in other vertebrates (79%-90% amino acid identity) than in invertebrates and bacteria (27%-65%). In fishes, Nrdp1 in large yellow croaker was closer with that in Takifugu rubripes. The expression profile showed that LcNrdp1 was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues, especially highly expressed in brain, muscle and kidney. Post-infection (PI) with Cryptocaryon irritans, an increased expression of LcNrdp1 was induced in infection sites (skin and gill), whereas in immune organs, the expression of LcNrdp1 was up-regulated in spleen (except the 1st d and 10th d PI) but suppressed in head kidney. These results suggested that LcNrdp1 might play an important immune role in the finfish L. crocea in the defense against the parasite C. irritans.

  12. Fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase is a heme protein.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Y; Matsui, K; Kajiwara, T; Hatanaka, A

    1995-02-01

    Fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase (HPO lyase) is an enzyme that cleaves hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids to form short chain aldehydes and omega-oxoacids. Spectrophotometric analyses of HPO lyase highly purified from green bell pepper fruits indicate that it is a heme protein. The heme species was revealed to be heme b (protoheme IX) from the absorption spectrum of the pyridine hemochromogen. Although the spectrum highly resembles that of a plant cytochrome P450, allene oxide synthase from flaxseed, CO treatment of the enzyme caused no appearance of a peak at 450 nm, which is an essential diagnostic feature of a cytochrome P450. Internal amino acid sequences determined with peptide fragments obtained from the lyase showed no homology with any reported sequences.

  13. The Central Polybasic Region of the Soluble SNARE (Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor) Vam7 Affects Binding to Phosphatidylinositol 3-Phosphate by the PX (Phox Homology) Domain.

    PubMed

    Miner, Gregory E; Starr, Matthew L; Hurst, Logan R; Sparks, Robert P; Padolina, Mark; Fratti, Rutilio A

    2016-08-19

    The yeast vacuole requires four SNAREs to trigger membrane fusion including the soluble Qc-SNARE Vam7. The N-terminal PX domain of Vam7 binds to the lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) and the tethering complex HOPS (homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting complex), whereas the C-terminal SNARE motif forms SNARE complexes. Vam7 also contains an uncharacterized middle domain that is predicted to be a coiled-coil domain with multiple helices. One helix contains a polybasic region (PBR) composed of Arg-164, Arg-168, Lys-172, Lys-175, Arg-179, and Lys-186. Polybasic regions are often associated with nonspecific binding to acidic phospholipids including phosphoinositides. Although the PX (phox homology) domain alone binds PI3P, we theorized that the Vam7 PBR could bind to additional acidic phospholipids enriched at fusion sites. Mutating each of the basic residues in the PBR to an alanine (Vam7-6A) led to attenuated vacuole fusion. The defective fusion of Vam7-6A was due in part to inefficient association with its cognate SNAREs and HOPS, yet the overall vacuole association of Vam7-6A was similar to wild type. Experiments testing the binding of Vam7 to specific signaling lipids showed that mutating the PBR to alanines augmented binding to PI3P. The increased binding to PI3P by Vam7-6A likely contributed to the observed wild type levels of vacuole association, whereas protein-protein interactions were diminished. PI3P binding was inhibited when the PX domain mutant Y42A was introduced into Vam7-6A to make Vam7-7A. Thus the Vam7 PBR affects PI3P binding by the PX domain and in turn affects binding to SNAREs and HOPS to support efficient fusion. PMID:27365394

  14. Fatty acids exacerbate tubulointerstitial injury in protein-overload proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mark E; Harris, Kevin P G; Walls, John; Furness, Peter N; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2002-10-01

    The role of the albumin-carried fatty acids in the induction of tubulointerstitial injury was studied in protein-overload proteinuria. Rats were injected with fatty acid-carrying BSA [FA(+)BSA], fatty acid-depleted BSA [FA(-)BSA], or saline. Macrophage infiltration was measured by immunohistochemical staining, apoptotic cells were detected by in situ end labeling, and proliferating cells were identified by in situ hybridization for histone mRNA. Macrophage infiltration was significantly greater in the FA(+)BSA group than in the FA(-)BSA and saline groups. The infiltrate was largely restricted to the outer cortex. Apoptosis was greater in the FA(+)BSA group than in the FA(-)BSA and saline groups. Compared with the saline group, apoptosis was significantly increased in the FA(+)BSA group but not in the FA(-)BSA group. Cortical cells proliferated significantly more in the FA(+)BSA and FA(-)BSA groups than in the saline group. FA(+)BSA is therefore a more potent inducer of macrophage infiltration and cell death than FA(-)BSA. The fatty acids carried on albumin may be the chief instigators of tubulointerstitial injury in protein-overload proteinuria. PMID:12217854

  15. A green fluorescent protein solubility screen in E. coli reveals domain boundaries of the GTP-binding domain in the P element transposase

    PubMed Central

    Sabogal, Alex; Rio, Donald C

    2010-01-01

    Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding and hydrolysis events often act as molecular switches in proteins, modulating conformational changes between active and inactive states in many signaling molecules and transport systems. The P element transposase of Drosophila melanogaster requires GTP binding to proceed along its reaction pathway, following initial site-specific DNA binding. GTP binding is unique to P elements and may represent a novel form of transpositional regulation, allowing the bound transposase to find a second site, looping the transposon DNA for strand cleavage and excision. The GTP-binding activity has been previously mapped to the central portion of the transposase protein; however, the P element transposase contains little sequence identity with known GTP-binding folds. To identify soluble, active transposase domains, a GFP solubility screen was used testing the solubility of random P element gene fragments in E. coli. The screen produced a single clone spanning known GTP-binding residues in the central portion of the transposase coding region. This clone, amino acids 275–409 in the P element transposase, was soluble, highly expressed in E.coli and active for GTP-binding activity, therefore is a candidate for future biochemical and structural studies. In addition, the chimeric screen revealed a minimal N-terminal THAP DNA-binding domain attached to an extended leucine zipper coiled-coil dimerization domain in the P element transposase, precisely delineating the DNA-binding and dimerization activities on the primary sequence. This study highlights the use of a GFP-based solubility screen on a large multidomain protein to identify highly expressed, soluble truncated domain subregions. PMID:20842711

  16. Direct protein-protein interactions and substrate channeling between cellular retinoic acid binding proteins and CYP26B1.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Cara H; Peng, Chi-Chi; Lutz, Justin D; Yeung, Catherine K; Zelter, Alex; Isoherranen, Nina

    2016-08-01

    Cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABPs) bind all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) tightly. This study aimed to determine whether atRA is channeled directly to cytochrome P450 (CYP) CYP26B1 by CRABPs, and whether CRABPs interact directly with CYP26B1. atRA bound to CRABPs (holo-CRABP) was efficiently metabolized by CYP26B1. Isotope dilution experiments showed that delivery of atRA to CYP26B1 in solution was similar with or without CRABP. Holo-CRABPs had higher affinity for CYP26B1 than free atRA, but both apo-CRABPs inhibited the formation of 4-OH-RA by CYP26B1. Similar protein-protein interactions between soluble binding proteins and CYPs may be important for other lipophilic CYP substrates.

  17. CCDC115 Deficiency Causes a Disorder of Golgi Homeostasis with Abnormal Protein Glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jos C; Cirak, Sebahattin; van Scherpenzeel, Monique; Timal, Sharita; Reunert, Janine; Rust, Stephan; Pérez, Belén; Vicogne, Dorothée; Krawitz, Peter; Wada, Yoshinao; Ashikov, Angel; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia; Medrano, Celia; Arnoldy, Andrea; Hoischen, Alexander; Huijben, Karin; Steenbergen, Gerry; Quelhas, Dulce; Diogo, Luisa; Rymen, Daisy; Jaeken, Jaak; Guffon, Nathalie; Cheillan, David; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Maeda, Yusuke; Kaiser, Olaf; Schara, Ulrike; Gerner, Patrick; van den Boogert, Marjolein A W; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Sokal, Etienne; Salomon, Jody; van den Bogaart, Geert; Drenth, Joost P H; Huynen, Martijn A; Veltman, Joris A; Wevers, Ron A; Morava, Eva; Matthijs, Gert; Foulquier, François; Marquardt, Thorsten; Lefeber, Dirk J

    2016-02-01

    Disorders of Golgi homeostasis form an emerging group of genetic defects. The highly heterogeneous clinical spectrum is not explained by our current understanding of the underlying cell-biological processes in the Golgi. Therefore, uncovering genetic defects and annotating gene function are challenging. Exome sequencing in a family with three siblings affected by abnormal Golgi glycosylation revealed a homozygous missense mutation, c.92T>C (p.Leu31Ser), in coiled-coil domain containing 115 (CCDC115), the function of which is unknown. The same mutation was identified in three unrelated families, and in one family it was compound heterozygous in combination with a heterozygous deletion of CCDC115. An additional homozygous missense mutation, c.31G>T (p.Asp11Tyr), was found in a family with two affected siblings. All individuals displayed a storage-disease-like phenotype involving hepatosplenomegaly, which regressed with age, highly elevated bone-derived alkaline phosphatase, elevated aminotransferases, and elevated cholesterol, in combination with abnormal copper metabolism and neurological symptoms. Two individuals died of liver failure, and one individual was successfully treated by liver transplantation. Abnormal N- and mucin type O-glycosylation was found on serum proteins, and reduced metabolic labeling of sialic acids was found in fibroblasts, which was restored after complementation with wild-type CCDC115. PSI-BLAST homology detection revealed reciprocal homology with Vma22p, the yeast V-ATPase assembly factor located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Human CCDC115 mainly localized to the ERGIC and to COPI vesicles, but not to the ER. These data, in combination with the phenotypic spectrum, which is distinct from that associated with defects in V-ATPase core subunits, suggest a more general role for CCDC115 in Golgi trafficking. Our study reveals CCDC115 deficiency as a disorder of Golgi homeostasis that can be readily identified via screening for abnormal

  18. CCDC115 Deficiency Causes a Disorder of Golgi Homeostasis with Abnormal Protein Glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jos C; Cirak, Sebahattin; van Scherpenzeel, Monique; Timal, Sharita; Reunert, Janine; Rust, Stephan; Pérez, Belén; Vicogne, Dorothée; Krawitz, Peter; Wada, Yoshinao; Ashikov, Angel; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia; Medrano, Celia; Arnoldy, Andrea; Hoischen, Alexander; Huijben, Karin; Steenbergen, Gerry; Quelhas, Dulce; Diogo, Luisa; Rymen, Daisy; Jaeken, Jaak; Guffon, Nathalie; Cheillan, David; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Maeda, Yusuke; Kaiser, Olaf; Schara, Ulrike; Gerner, Patrick; van den Boogert, Marjolein A W; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Sokal, Etienne; Salomon, Jody; van den Bogaart, Geert; Drenth, Joost P H; Huynen, Martijn A; Veltman, Joris A; Wevers, Ron A; Morava, Eva; Matthijs, Gert; Foulquier, François; Marquardt, Thorsten; Lefeber, Dirk J

    2016-02-01

    Disorders of Golgi homeostasis form an emerging group of genetic defects. The highly heterogeneous clinical spectrum is not explained by our current understanding of the underlying cell-biological processes in the Golgi. Therefore, uncovering genetic defects and annotating gene function are challenging. Exome sequencing in a family with three siblings affected by abnormal Golgi glycosylation revealed a homozygous missense mutation, c.92T>C (p.Leu31Ser), in coiled-coil domain containing 115 (CCDC115), the function of which is unknown. The same mutation was identified in three unrelated families, and in one family it was compound heterozygous in combination with a heterozygous deletion of CCDC115. An additional homozygous missense mutation, c.31G>T (p.Asp11Tyr), was found in a family with two affected siblings. All individuals displayed a storage-disease-like phenotype involving hepatosplenomegaly, which regressed with age, highly elevated bone-derived alkaline phosphatase, elevated aminotransferases, and elevated cholesterol, in combination with abnormal copper metabolism and neurological symptoms. Two individuals died of liver failure, and one individual was successfully treated by liver transplantation. Abnormal N- and mucin type O-glycosylation was found on serum proteins, and reduced metabolic labeling of sialic acids was found in fibroblasts, which was restored after complementation with wild-type CCDC115. PSI-BLAST homology detection revealed reciprocal homology with Vma22p, the yeast V-ATPase assembly factor located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Human CCDC115 mainly localized to the ERGIC and to COPI vesicles, but not to the ER. These data, in combination with the phenotypic spectrum, which is distinct from that associated with defects in V-ATPase core subunits, suggest a more general role for CCDC115 in Golgi trafficking. Our study reveals CCDC115 deficiency as a disorder of Golgi homeostasis that can be readily identified via screening for abnormal

  19. Phytic acid reduction in soy protein improves zinc bioavailability

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.R.; Wong, M.S.; Burns, R.A.; Erdman, J.W. Jr. Mead Johnson Research Center, Evansville, IN )

    1991-03-15

    The objective of this study was to confirm previous studies that have suggested that reduction of phytic acid in soy improved zinc bioavailability (BV). Two commercially-produced soybean isolates containing either a normal phytic acid level or a reduced level were formulated into diets so as to provide 6 or 9 ppm zinc. Control diets were egg white protein-based and contained 3, 6 or 9 ppm zinc from zinc carbonate. Weanling male rats were fed these diets for 21 days and food intake and weight gain monitored. Slope ratio analysis of total tibia zinc content compared to total zinc intake revealed that zinc BV from reduced phytic acid soy isolate-containing diets was indistinguishable from control egg white diets. In contrast, zinc BV from normal soy isolate diets was significantly reduced compared to reduced phytic acid and control diets. These results coupled with other results indicate that phytic acid is the inhibitory factor in soybean products that results in reduced zinc BV.

  20. Characterization of a fatty acid-binding protein from rat heart.

    PubMed

    Offner, G D; Troxler, R F; Brecher, P

    1986-04-25

    A fatty acid-binding protein has been isolated from rat heart and purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-75 and anion-exchange chromatography on DE52. The circular dichroic spectrum of this protein was not affected by protein concentration, suggesting that it does not aggregate into multimers. Computer analyses of the circular dichroic spectrum predicted that rat heart fatty acid-binding protein contains approximately 22% alpha-helix, 45% beta-form and 33% unordered structure. Immunological studies showed that the fatty acid-binding proteins from rat heart and rat liver are immunochemically unrelated. The amino acid composition and partial amino acid sequence of the heart protein indicated that it is structurally related to, but distinct from, other fatty acid-binding proteins from liver, intestine, and 3T3 adipocytes. Using a binding assay which measures the transfer of fatty acids between donor liposomes and protein (Brecher, P., Saouaf, R., Sugarman, J. M., Eisenberg, D., and LaRosa, K. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 13395-13401), it was shown that both rat heart and liver fatty acid-binding proteins bind 2 mol of oleic acid or palmitic acid/mol of protein. The structural and functional relationship of rat heart fatty acid-binding protein to fatty acid-binding proteins from other tissues is discussed. PMID:3957934

  1. Protein folding trajectories can be described quantitatively by one-dimensional diffusion over measured energy landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Krishna; Manuel, Ajay P.; Woodside, Michael T.

    2016-07-01

    Protein folding features a diffusive search over a multidimensional energy landscape in conformational space for the minimum-energy structure. Experiments, however, are usually interpreted in terms of a one-dimensional (1D) projection of the full landscape onto a practical reaction coordinate. Although simulations have shown that folding kinetics can be described well by diffusion over a 1D projection, 1D approximations have not yet been fully validated experimentally. We used folding trajectories of single molecules held under tension in optical tweezers to compare the conditional probability of being on a transition path, calculated from the trajectory, with the prediction for ideal 1D diffusion over the measured 1D landscape, calculated from committor statistics. We found good agreement for the protein PrP (refs ,) and for one of the structural transitions in a leucine-zipper coiled-coil, but not for a second transition in the coiled-coil, owing to poor reaction-coordinate quality. These results show that 1D descriptions of folding can indeed be good, even for complex tertiary structures. More fundamentally, they also provide a fully experimental validation of the basic physical picture of folding as diffusion over a landscape.

  2. Formation, reactivity and detection of protein sulfenic acids

    PubMed Central

    Kettenhofen, Nicholas J.; Wood, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    It has become clear in recent decades that the post-translational modification of protein cysteine residues is a crucial regulatory event in biology. Evidence supports the reversible oxidation of cysteine thiol groups as a mechanism of redox-based signal transduction while the accumulation of proteins with irreversible thiol oxidations is a hallmark of stress-induced cellular damage. The initial formation of cysteine sulfenic acid (SOH) derivatives, along with the reactive properties of this functional group, serves as a crossroads whereby the local redox environment may dictate the progression of either regulatory or pathological outcomes. Protein-SOH are established as transient intermediates in the formation of more stable cysteine oxidation products both under basal conditions and in response to several redox-active extrinsic compounds. This review details both direct and multi-step chemical routes proposed to generate protein-SOH, the spectrum of secondary reactions that may follow their initial formation and the arsenal of experimental tools available for their detection. Both the pioneering studies that have provided a framework for our current understanding of protein-SOH as well as state-of-the-art proteomic strategies designed for global assessments of this post-translational modification are highlighted. PMID:20845928

  3. Modelling and Characterization of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein

    PubMed Central

    Deka, Hemchandra; Sarmah, Rajeev; Sharma, Ankita; Biswas, Sagarika

    2015-01-01

    Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) is an intermediate-filament (IF) protein that maintains the astrocytes of the Central Nervous System in Human. This is differentially expressed during serological studies in inflamed condition such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Therefore, it is of interest to glean molecular insight using a model of GFAP (49.88 kDa) due to its crystallographic nonavailability. The present study has been taken into consideration to construct computational protein model using Modeller 9.11. The structural relevance of the protein was verified using Gromacs 4.5 followed by validation through PROCHECK, Verify 3D, WHAT-IF, ERRAT and PROVE for reliability. The constructed three dimensional (3D) model of GFAP protein had been scrutinized to reveal the associated functions by identifying ligand binding sites and active sites. Molecular level interaction study revealed five possible surface cavities as active sites. The model finds application in further computational analysis towards drug discovery in order to minimize the effect of inflammation. PMID:26420920

  4. Retinoic acid binding protein in normal and neopolastic rat prostate.

    PubMed

    Gesell, M S; Brandes, M J; Arnold, E A; Isaacs, J T; Ueda, H; Millan, J C; Brandes, D

    1982-01-01

    Sucrose density gradient analysis of cytosol from normal and neoplastic rat prostatic tissues exhibited a peak of (3H) retinoic acid binding in the 2S region, corresponding to the cytoplasmic retinoic acid binding protein (cRABP). In the Fisher-Copenhagen F1 rat, cRABP was present in the lateral lobe, but could not be detected in the ventral nor in the dorsal prostatic lobes. Four sublines of the R-3327 rat prostatic tumor contained similar levels of this binding protein. The absence of cRABP in the normal tissue of origin of the R-3327 tumor, the rat dorsal prostate, and reappearance in the neoplastic tissues follows a pattern described in other human and animal tumors. The occurrence of cRABP in the well-differentiated as well as in the anaplastic R-3327 tumors in which markers which reflect a state of differentiation and hormonal regulation, such as androgen receptor, 5 alpha reductase, and secretory acid phosphatase are either markedly reduced or absent, points to cRABP as a marker of malignant transformation.

  5. Retinoic acid binding protein in normal and neopolastic rat prostate.

    PubMed

    Gesell, M S; Brandes, M J; Arnold, E A; Isaacs, J T; Ueda, H; Millan, J C; Brandes, D

    1982-01-01

    Sucrose density gradient analysis of cytosol from normal and neoplastic rat prostatic tissues exhibited a peak of (3H) retinoic acid binding in the 2S region, corresponding to the cytoplasmic retinoic acid binding protein (cRABP). In the Fisher-Copenhagen F1 rat, cRABP was present in the lateral lobe, but could not be detected in the ventral nor in the dorsal prostatic lobes. Four sublines of the R-3327 rat prostatic tumor contained similar levels of this binding protein. The absence of cRABP in the normal tissue of origin of the R-3327 tumor, the rat dorsal prostate, and reappearance in the neoplastic tissues follows a pattern described in other human and animal tumors. The occurrence of cRABP in the well-differentiated as well as in the anaplastic R-3327 tumors in which markers which reflect a state of differentiation and hormonal regulation, such as androgen receptor, 5 alpha reductase, and secretory acid phosphatase are either markedly reduced or absent, points to cRABP as a marker of malignant transformation. PMID:6283503

  6. Foamy Virus Protein-Nucleic Acid Interactions during Particle Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Martin V; Lindemann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Compared with orthoretroviruses, our understanding of the molecular and cellular replication mechanism of foamy viruses (FVs), a subfamily of retroviruses, is less advanced. The FV replication cycle differs in several key aspects from orthoretroviruses, which leaves established retroviral models debatable for FVs. Here, we review the general aspect of the FV protein-nucleic acid interactions during virus morphogenesis. We provide a summary of the current knowledge of the FV genome structure and essential sequence motifs required for RNA encapsidation as well as Gag and Pol binding in combination with details about the Gag and Pol biosynthesis. This leads us to address open questions in FV RNA engagement, binding and packaging. Based on recent findings, we propose to shift the point of view from individual glycine-arginine-rich motifs having functions in RNA interactions towards envisioning the FV Gag C-terminus as a general RNA binding protein module. We encourage further investigating a potential new retroviral RNA packaging mechanism, which seems more complex in terms of the components that need to be gathered to form an infectious particle. Additional molecular insights into retroviral protein-nucleic acid interactions help us to develop safer, more specific and more efficient vectors in an era of booming genome engineering and gene therapy approaches. PMID:27589786

  7. Protein-protein interactions in the synaptonemal complex.

    PubMed Central

    Tarsounas, M; Pearlman, R E; Gasser, P J; Park, M S; Moens, P B

    1997-01-01

    In mammalian systems, an approximately M(r) 30,000 Cor1 protein has been identified as a major component of the meiotic prophase chromosome cores, and a M(r) 125,000 Syn1 protein is present between homologue cores where they are synapsed and form the synaptonemal complex (SC). Immunolocalization of these proteins during meiosis suggests possible homo- and heterotypic interactions between the two as well as possible interactions with yet unrecognized proteins. We used the two-hybrid system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to detect possible protein-protein associations. Segments of hamsters Cor1 and Syn1 proteins were tested in various combinations for homo- and heterotypic interactions. In the cause of Cor1, homotypic interactions involve regions capable of coiled-coil formation, observation confirmed by in vitro affinity coprecipitation experiments. The two-hybrid assay detects no interaction of Cor1 protein with central and C-terminal fragments of Syn1 protein and no homotypic interactions involving these fragments of Syn1. Hamster Cor1 and Syn1 proteins both associate with the human ubiquitin-conjugation enzyme Hsubc9 as well as with the hamster Ubc9 homologue. The interactions between SC proteins and the Ubc9 protein may be significant for SC disassembly, which coincides with the repulsion of homologs by late prophase I, and also for the termination of sister centromere cohesiveness at anaphase II. Images PMID:9285814

  8. Drought tolerance established by enhanced expression of the CC-NBS-LRR gene, ADR1, requires salicylic acid, EDS1 and ABI1.

    PubMed

    Chini, Andrea; Grant, John J; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Loake, Gary J

    2004-06-01

    An activation-tagged allele of activated disease resistance 1 (ADR1) has previously been shown to convey broad spectrum disease resistance. ADR1 was found to encode a coiled-coil (CC)-nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein, which possessed domains of homology with serine/threonine protein kinases. Here, we show that either constitutive or conditional enhanced expression of ADR1 conferred significant drought tolerance. This was not a general feature of defence-related mutants because cir (constitutive induced resistance)1, cir2 and cpr (constitutive expressor of PR genes)1, which constitutively express systemic acquired resistance (SAR), failed to exhibit this phenotype. Cross-tolerance was not a characteristic of adr1 plants, rather they showed increased sensitivity to thermal and salinity stress. Hence, adr1-activated signalling may antagonise some stress responses. Northern analysis of abiotic marker genes revealed that dehydration-responsive element (DRE)B2A but not DREB1A, RD (response to dehydration)29A or RD22 was expressed in adr1 plant lines. Furthermore, DREB2A expression was salicylic acid (SA) dependent but NPR (non-expressor of PR genes)1 independent. In adr1/ADR1 nahG (naphthalene hydroxylase G), adr1/ADR1 eds (enhanced disease susceptibility)1 and adr1/ADR1 abi1 double mutants, drought tolerance was significantly reduced. Microarray analyses of plants containing a conditional adr1 allele demonstrated that a significant number of the upregulated genes had been previously implicated in responses to dehydration. Therefore, biotic and abiotic signalling pathways may share multiple nodes and their outputs may have significant functional overlap.

  9. Amino acid profiles and digestible indispensable amino acid scores of proteins from the prioritized key foods in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Nazma; Islam, Saiful; Munmun, Sarah; Mohiduzzaman, Md; Longvah, Thingnganing

    2016-12-15

    Concentrations of standard amino acids were determined in the composite samples (representing 30 agro-ecological zones of Bangladesh) of six prioritized key dietary protein sources: Oryza sativa (rice), Triticum aestivum (wheat flour), Lens culinaris (lentils), Pangusius pangusius (pangas), Labeo rohita (rohu) and Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia). Digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) was calculated using published data on amino acids' digestibility to evaluate the protein quality of these foods. Indispensable amino acid (IAA) contents (mg IAA/g protein), found to be highest in pangas (430) and lowest in wheat (336), of all these analyzed foods exceeded the FAO recommended daily allowance (277mg IAA/g protein) and contributed on average 40% to total amino acid contents. Untruncated DIAAS values ranged from 51% (lysine) in wheat to 106% (histidine) in pangas and distinguished pangas, rohu, and tilapia containing 'excellent quality' protein (DIAAS>100%) with potential to complement lower quality protein of cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:27451158

  10. Photolabeling of brain membrane proteins by lysergic acid diethylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Mahon, A.C.; Hartig, P.R.

    1982-04-05

    /sup 3/H-Lysergic acid diethylamide (/sup 3/H-LSD) is irreversibly incorporated into bovine caudate membranes during ultraviolet light illumination. The incorporated radioligand apparently forms a covalent bond with a sub-population of the membrane proteins. Although the photolabeling pattern differs significantly from the Coomassie blue staining pattern on SDS gels, the photolabeling is apparently not specific for LSD binding sites associated with neurotransmitter receptors. /sup 3/H-LSD photolabeling can occur during prolonged exposure of membrane samples to room lighting and thus may introduce artifacts into receptor binding assays.

  11. Acid-base chemistry of frustrated water at protein interfaces.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Water molecules at a protein interface are often frustrated in hydrogen-bonding opportunities due to subnanoscale confinement. As shown, this condition makes them behave as a general base that may titrate side-chain ammonium and guanidinium cations. Frustration-based chemistry is captured by a quantum mechanical treatment of proton transference and shown to remove same-charge uncompensated anticontacts at the interface found in the crystallographic record and in other spectroscopic information on the aqueous interface. Such observations are untenable within classical arguments, as hydronium is a stronger acid than ammonium or guanidinium. Frustration enables a directed Grotthuss mechanism for proton transference stabilizing same-charge anticontacts.

  12. Structure and function analysis of protein-nucleic acid complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, S. A.; Oretskaya, T. S.

    2016-05-01

    The review summarizes published data on the results and achievements in the field of structure and function analysis of protein-nucleic acid complexes by means of main physical and biochemical methods, including X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electron and atomic force microscopy, small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering, footprinting and cross-linking. Special attention is given to combined approaches. The advantages and limitations of each method are considered, and the prospects of their application for wide-scale structural studies in vivo are discussed. The bibliography includes 145 references.

  13. Acid-base chemistry of frustrated water at protein interfaces.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Water molecules at a protein interface are often frustrated in hydrogen-bonding opportunities due to subnanoscale confinement. As shown, this condition makes them behave as a general base that may titrate side-chain ammonium and guanidinium cations. Frustration-based chemistry is captured by a quantum mechanical treatment of proton transference and shown to remove same-charge uncompensated anticontacts at the interface found in the crystallographic record and in other spectroscopic information on the aqueous interface. Such observations are untenable within classical arguments, as hydronium is a stronger acid than ammonium or guanidinium. Frustration enables a directed Grotthuss mechanism for proton transference stabilizing same-charge anticontacts. PMID:26762189

  14. Non-standard amino acid incorporation into proteins using Escherichia coli cell-free protein synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seok Hoon; Kwon, Yong-Chan; Jewett, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Incorporating non-standard amino acids (NSAAs) into proteins enables new chemical properties, new structures, and new functions. In recent years, improvements in cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems have opened the way to accurate and efficient incorporation of NSAAs into proteins. The driving force behind this development has been three-fold. First, a technical renaissance has enabled high-yielding (>1 g/L) and long-lasting (>10 h in batch operation) CFPS in systems derived from Escherichia coli. Second, the efficiency of orthogonal translation systems has improved. Third, the open nature of the CFPS platform has brought about an unprecedented level of control and freedom of design. Here, we review recent developments in CFPS platforms designed to precisely incorporate NSAAs. In the coming years, we anticipate that CFPS systems will impact efforts to elucidate structure/function relationships of proteins and to make biomaterials and sequence-defined biopolymers for medical and industrial applications.

  15. Separation of membranes from acid-solubilized fish muscle proteins with the aid of calcium ions and organic acids.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yong; Hultin, Herbert O

    2005-04-20

    Calcium chloride, and to a lesser extent MgCl2, aided in the separation of membranes by centrifugation from cod (Gadus morhua) muscle homogenates solubilized at pH 3 in the presence of citric acid or malic acid but not lactic acid. Adding citric acid and Ca2+ before solubilizing the cod muscle homogenates was needed for the effect. At 1 mM citric acid, 70-80% of the phospholipid and 25-30% of the protein were removed at 10 mM Ca2+. At 8 mM Ca2+, citric acid showed an optimal effect on phospholipid removal at 5 mM with 90% of the phospholipid and 35% of the protein removed. The treatment with citric acid and Ca2+ was also effective in separating the membrane from solubilized herring (Clupea harengus) muscle homogenate. Ca2+ and citric acid might exert their influence by disconnecting linkages between membranes and cytoskeletal proteins.

  16. Molecular evolution of monotreme and marsupial whey acidic protein genes.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Julie A; Lefèvre, Christophe; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2007-01-01

    Whey acidic protein (WAP), a major whey protein present in milk of a number of mammalian species has characteristic cysteine-rich domains known as four-disulfide cores (4-DSC). Eutherian WAP, expressed in the mammary gland throughout lactation, has two 4-DSC domains, (DI-DII) whereas marsupial WAP, expressed only during mid-late lactation, contains an additional 4-DSC (DIII), and has a DIII-D1-DII configuration. We report the expression and evolution of echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and platypus (Onithorhynchus anatinus) WAP cDNAs. Predicted translation of monotreme cDNAs showed echidna WAP contains two 4-DSC domains corresponding to DIII-DII, whereas platypus WAP contains an additional domain at the C-terminus with homology to DII and has the configuration DIII-DII-DII. Both monotreme WAPs represent new WAP protein configurations. We propose models for evolution of the WAP gene in the mammalian lineage either through exon loss from an ancient ancestor or by rapid evolution via the process of exon shuffling. This evolutionary outcome may reflect differences in lactation strategy between marsupials, monotremes, and eutherians, and give insight to biological function of the gene products. WAP four-disulfide core domain 2 (WFDC2) proteins were also identified in echidna, platypus and tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) lactating mammary cells. WFDC2 proteins are secreted proteins not previously associated with lactation. Mammary gland expression of tammar WFDC2 during the course of lactation showed WFDC2 was elevated during pregnancy, reduced in early lactation and absent in mid-late lactation.

  17. Assembly defects of desmin disease mutants carrying deletions in the alpha-helical rod domain are rescued by wild type protein.

    PubMed

    Bär, Harald; Mücke, Norbert; Katus, Hugo A; Aebi, Ueli; Herrmann, Harald

    2007-04-01

    Most mutations of desmin that cause severe autosomal dominant forms of myofibrillar myopathy are point mutations and locate in the central alpha-helical coiled-coil rod domain. Recently, two in-frame deletions of one and three amino acids, respectively, in the alpha-helix have been described and discussed to drastically interfere with the architecture of the desmin dimer and possibly also the formation of tetramers and higher order complexes [Kaminska, A., Strelkov, S.V., Goudeau, B., Olive, M., Dagvadorj, A., Fidzianska, A., Simon-Casteras, M., Shatunov, A., Dalakas, M.C., Ferrer, I., Kwiecinski, H., Vicart, P., Goldfarb, L.G., 2004. Small deletions disturb desmin architecture leading to breakdown of muscle cells and development of skeletal or cardioskeletal myopathy. Hum. Genet. 114, 306-313.]. Therefore, it was proposed that they may poison intermediate filament (IF) assembly. We have now recombinantly synthesized both mutant proteins and subjected them to comprehensive in vitro assembly experiments. While exhibiting assembly defects when analyzed on their own, both one-to-one mixtures of the respective mutant protein with wild type desmin facilitated proper filament formation. Transient transfection studies complemented this fundamental finding by demonstrating that wild type desmin is also rescuing these assembly defects in vivo. In summary, our findings strongly question the previous hypothesis that it is assembly incompetence due to molecular rearrangements caused by the mutations, which triggers the development of disease. As an alternative, we propose that these mutations cause subtle age-dependent structural alterations of desmin IFs that eventually lead to disease. PMID:17188893

  18. An effective all-atom potential for proteins

    PubMed Central

    Irbäck, Anders; Mitternacht, Simon; Mohanty, Sandipan

    2009-01-01

    We describe and test an implicit solvent all-atom potential for simulations of protein folding and aggregation. The potential is developed through studies of structural and thermodynamic properties of 17 peptides with diverse secondary structure. Results obtained using the final form of the potential are presented for all these peptides. The same model, with unchanged parameters, is furthermore applied to a heterodimeric coiled-coil system, a mixed α/β protein and a three-helix-bundle protein, with very good results. The computational efficiency of the potential makes it possible to investigate the free-energy landscape of these 49–67-residue systems with high statistical accuracy, using only modest computational resources by today's standards. PACS Codes: 87.14.E-, 87.15.A-, 87.15.Cc PMID:19356242

  19. A protein interaction node at the neurotransmitter release site: domains of Aczonin/Piccolo, Bassoon, CAST, and rim converge on the N-terminal domain of Munc13-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolu; Hu, Bin; Zieba, Agata; Neumann, Nicole G; Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Honsbein, Annegret; Hultqvist, Greta; Conze, Tim; Witt, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christoph; Geitmann, Matthis; Danielson, Helena; Kolarow, Richard; Niemann, Gesa; Lessmann, Volkmar; Kilimann, Manfred W

    2009-10-01

    Multidomain scaffolding proteins organize the molecular machinery of neurotransmitter vesicle dynamics during synaptogenesis and synaptic activity. We find that domains of five active zone proteins converge on an interaction node that centers on the N-terminal region of Munc13-1 and includes the zinc-finger domain of Rim1, the C-terminal region of Bassoon, a segment of CAST1/ELKS2, and the third coiled-coil domain (CC3) of either Aczonin/Piccolo or Bassoon. This multidomain complex may constitute a center for the physical and functional integration of the protein machinery at the active zone. An additional connection between Aczonin and Bassoon is mediated by the second coiled-coil domain of Aczonin. Recombinant Aczonin-CC3, expressed in cultured neurons as a green fluorescent protein fusion protein, is targeted to synapses and suppresses vesicle turnover, suggesting involvements in synaptic assembly as well as activity. Our findings show that Aczonin, Bassoon, CAST1, Munc13, and Rim are closely and multiply interconnected, they indicate that Aczonin-CC3 can actively participate in neurotransmitter vesicle dynamics, and they highlight the N-terminal region of Munc13-1 as a hub of protein interactions by adding three new binding partners to its mechanistic potential in the control of synaptic vesicle priming.

  20. Identification of a new protein in the centrosome-like "atractophore" of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Bricheux, Geneviève; Coffe, Gérard; Brugerolle, Guy

    2007-06-01

    The human parasite Trichomonas vaginalis has specific structural bodies, atractophores, associated at one end to the kinetosomes and at the other to the spindle during division. A monoclonal antibody specific for a component of this structure was obtained. It recognizes a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 477 kDa. Sequence analysis of this protein shows that P477 belongs to the family of large coiled-coil proteins, sharing a highly versatile protein folding motif adaptable to many biological functions. P477-might act as an anchor to localize cellular activities and components to the golgi centrosomal region. It may represent a new class of structural proteins, since similar proteins were found in many protozoans. PMID:17418436

  1. Ribonucleic Acid Regulation in Permeabilized Cells of Escherichia coli Capable of Ribonucleic Acid and Protein Synthesis1

    PubMed Central

    Atherly, Alan G.

    1974-01-01

    A cell permeabilization procedure is described that reduces viability less than 10% and does not significantly reduce the rates of ribonucleic acid and protein synthesis when appropriately supplemented. Permeabilization abolishes the normal stringent coupling of protein and ribonucleic acid synthesis. PMID:4364330

  2. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a plasma membrane-associated, uronide binding phosphoprotein with physical properties similar to viral movement proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Reymond, P; Kunz, B; Paul-Pletzer, K; Grimm, R; Eckerskorn, C; Farmer, E E

    1996-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides are structural and regulatory homopolymers from the extracellular pectic matrix of plants. In vitro micromolar concentrations of oligogalacturonates and polygalacturonates were shown previously to stimulate the phosphorylation of a small plasma membrane-associated protein in potato. Immunologically cross-reactive proteins were detected in plasma membrane-enriched fractions from all angiosperm subclasses in the Cronquist system. Polygalacturonate-enhanced phosphorylation of the protein was observed in four of the six dicotyledon subclasses but not in any of the five monocotyledon subclasses. A cDNA for the protein was cloned from potato. The deduced protein is extremely hydrophilic and has a proline-rich N terminus. The C-terminal half of the protein was predicted to be a coiled coil, suggesting that the protein interacts with other macromolecules. The recombinant protein was found to bind both simple and complex galacturonides. The behavior of the protein suggests several parallels with viral proteins involved in intercellular communication. PMID:8989883

  3. Structure of the entire cytoplasmic portion of a sensor histidine-kinase protein

    PubMed Central

    Marina, Alberto; Waldburger, Carey D; Hendrickson, Wayne A

    2005-01-01

    The large majority of histidine kinases (HKs) are multifunctional enzymes having autokinase, phosphotransfer and phosphatase activities, and most of these are transmembrane sensor proteins. Sensor HKs possess conserved cytoplasmic phosphorylation and ATP-binding kinase domains. The different enzymatic activities require participation by one or both of these domains, implying the need for different conformational states. The catalytic domains are linked to the membrane through a coiled-coil segment that sometimes includes other domains. We describe here the first crystal structure of the complete cytoplasmic region of a sensor HK, one from the thermophile Thermotoga maritima in complex with ADPβN at 1.9 Å resolution. The structure reveals previously unidentified functions for several conserved residues and reveals the relative disposition of domains in a state seemingly poised for phosphotransfer. The structure thereby inspires hypotheses for the mechanisms of autophosphorylation, phosphotransfer and response-regulator dephosphorylation, and for signal transduction through the coiled-coil segment. Mutational tests support the functional relevance of interdomain contacts. PMID:16319927

  4. Structure of the Entire Cytoplasmic Portion of a Sensor Histidine-kinase Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Marina,A.; Waldburger, C.; Hendrickson, W.

    2005-01-01

    The large majority of histidine kinases (HKs) are multifunctional enzymes having autokinase, phosphotransfer and phosphatase activities, and most of these are transmembrane sensor proteins. Sensor HKs possess conserved cytoplasmic phosphorylation and ATP-binding kinase domains. The different enzymatic activities require participation by one or both of these domains, implying the need for different conformational states. The catalytic domains are linked to the membrane through a coiled-coil segment that sometimes includes other domains. We describe here the first crystal structure of the complete cytoplasmic region of a sensor HK, one from the thermophile Thermotoga maritima in complex with ADP{beta}N at 1.9 Angstrom resolution. The structure reveals previously unidentified functions for several conserved residues and reveals the relative disposition of domains in a state seemingly poised for phosphotransfer. The structure thereby inspires hypotheses for the mechanisms of autophosphorylation, phosphotransfer and response-regulator dephosphorylation, and for signal transduction through the coiled-coil segment. Mutational tests support the functional relevance of interdomain contacts.

  5. Acid-degradable polyurethane particles for protein-based vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Bachelder, Eric M.; Beaudette, Tristan T.; Broaders, Kyle E.; Paramonov, Sergey E.; Dashe, Jesse; Fréchet, Jean M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Acid-degradable particles containing a model protein antigen, ovalbumin, were prepared from a polyurethane with acetal moieties embedded throughout the polymer, and characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The small molecule degradation by-product of the particles was synthesized and tested in vitro for toxicity indicating an LC50 of 12,500 μg/ml. A new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique was developed to monitor the in vitro degradation of these particles. The degradation by-product inside RAW macrophages was at its highest level after 24 hours of culture and was efficiently exocytosed until it was no longer detectable after four days. When tested in vitro, these particles induced a substantial increase in the presentation of the immunodominant ovalbumin-derived peptide SIINFEKL in both macrophages and dendritic cells. In addition, vaccination with these particles generated a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response that was superior to both free ovalbumin and particles made from an analogous but slower-degrading acid-labile polyurethane polymer. Overall, we present a fully degradable polymer system with non-toxic by-products, which may find use in various biomedical applications including protein-based vaccines. PMID:18710254

  6. Shedding light on proteins, nucleic acids, cells, humans and fish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Setlow, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    I was trained as a physicist in graduate school. Hence, when I decided to go into the field of biophysics, it was natural that I concentrated on the effects of light on relatively simple biological systems, such as proteins. The wavelengths absorbed by the amino acid subunits of proteins are in the ultraviolet (UV). The wavelengths that affect the biological activities, the action spectra, also are in the UV, but are not necessarily parallel to the absorption spectra. Understanding these differences led me to investigate the action spectra for affecting nucleic acids, and the effects of UV on viruses and cells. The latter studies led me to the discovery of the important molecular nature of the damages affecting DNA (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) and to the discovery of nucleotide excision repair. Individuals with the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are extraordinarily sensitive to sunlight-induced skin cancer. The finding, by James Cleaver, that their skin cells were defective in DNA repair strongly suggested that DNA damage was a key step in carcinogenesis. Such information was important for estimating the wavelengths in sunlight responsible for human skin cancer and for predicting the effects of ozone depletion on the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer. It took experiments with backcross hybrid fish to call attention to the probable role of the longer UV wavelengths not absorbed by DNA in the induction of melanoma. These reflections trace the biophysicist's path from molecules to melanoma.

  7. Shedding light on proteins, nucleic acids, cells, humans and fish.

    PubMed

    Setlow, Richard B

    2002-03-01

    I was trained as a physicist in graduate school. Hence, when I decided to go into the field of biophysics, it was natural that I concentrated on the effects of light on relatively simple biological systems, such as proteins. The wavelengths absorbed by the amino acid subunits of proteins are in the ultraviolet (UV). The wavelengths that affect the biological activities, the action spectra, also are in the UV, but are not necessarily parallel to the absorption spectra. Understanding these differences led me to investigate the action spectra for affecting nucleic acids, and the effects of UV on viruses and cells. The latter studies led me to the discovery of the important molecular nature of the damages affecting DNA (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) and to the discovery of nucleotide excision repair. Individuals with the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are extraordinarily sensitive to sunlight-induced skin cancer. The finding, by James Cleaver, that their skin cells were defective in DNA repair strongly suggested that DNA damage was a key step in carcinogenesis. Such information was important for estimating the wavelengths in sunlight responsible for human skin cancer and for predicting the effects of ozone depletion on the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer. It took experiments with backcross hybrid fish to call attention to the probable role of the longer UV wavelengths not absorbed by DNA in the induction of melanoma. These reflections trace the biophysicist's path from molecules to melanoma.

  8. ARG1 (altered response to gravity) encodes a DnaJ-like protein that potentially interacts with the cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedbrook, J. C.; Chen, R.; Masson, P. H.

    1999-01-01

    Gravitropism allows plant organs to direct their growth at a specific angle from the gravity vector, promoting upward growth for shoots and downward growth for roots. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying gravitropic signal transduction. We found that mutations in the ARG1 locus of Arabidopsis thaliana alter root and hypocotyl gravitropism without affecting phototropism, root growth responses to phytohormones or inhibitors of auxin transport, or starch accumulation. The positional cloning of ARG1 revealed a DnaJ-like protein containing a coiled-coil region homologous to coiled coils found in cytoskeleton-interacting proteins. These data suggest that ARG1 participates in a gravity-signaling process involving the cytoskeleton. A combination of Northern blot studies and analysis of ARG1-GUS fusion-reporter expression in transgenic plants demonstrated that ARG1 is expressed in all organs. Ubiquitous ARG1 expression in Arabidopsis and the identification of an ortholog in Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that ARG1 is involved in other essential processes.

  9. Idas, a novel phylogenetically conserved geminin-related protein, binds to geminin and is required for cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Pefani, Dafni-Eleutheria; Dimaki, Maria; Spella, Magda; Karantzelis, Nickolas; Mitsiki, Eirini; Kyrousi, Christina; Symeonidou, Ioanna-Eleni; Perrakis, Anastassis; Taraviras, Stavros; Lygerou, Zoi

    2011-07-01

    Development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms relies on an intricate balance between cell proliferation and differentiation. Geminin regulates the cell cycle by directly binding and inhibiting the DNA replication licensing factor Cdt1. Geminin also interacts with transcriptional regulators of differentiation and chromatin remodelling factors, and its balanced interactions are implicated in proliferation-differentiation decisions during development. Here, we describe Idas (Idas being a cousin of the Gemini in Ancient Greek Mythology), a previously uncharacterised coiled-coil protein related to Geminin. We show that human Idas localizes to the nucleus, forms a complex with Geminin both in cells and in vitro through coiled-coil mediated interactions, and can change Geminin subcellular localization. Idas does not associate with Cdt1 and prevents Geminin from binding to Cdt1 in vitro. Idas depletion from cells affects cell cycle progression; cells accumulate in S phase and are unable to efficiently progress to mitosis. Idas protein levels decrease in anaphase, whereas its overexpression causes mitotic defects. During development, we show that Idas exhibits high level expression in the choroid plexus and the cortical hem of the mouse telencephalon. Our data highlight Idas as a novel Geminin binding partner, implicated in cell cycle progression, and a putative regulator of proliferation-differentiation decisions during development. PMID:21543332

  10. Investigation of protein-fatty acid interactions in zein films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin

    Zein, the prolamin of corn, has shown potential as industrial biopolymer for packaging and agricultural uses. Previous researchers plasticized zein with oleic acid and extruded it into sheets and films. Such products showed reasonable tensile and water barrier properties. However, those properties were affected by film structure, which is believed controlled by the interaction between zein and plasticizer. The nature of those interactions is still not well understood. Protein-fatty acid interactions in zein resin films were investigated by surface plasmon resonance and atomic force microscopy in this work. Preliminary research was conducted to establish the effect of solvent systems on the plasticization of zein by oleic acid. Although slight differences were observed, it was concluded that the use of 75% ethanol or 75% 2-propanol produced similar results. Surface plasmon resonance was employed to investigate zein static and dynamic adsorption on surfaces of hydrophilic and hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) generated by 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid or 1-octanethiol, respectively, and representing the two end groups of oleic acid. Results indicated that zein was adsorbed to both surfaces but showed higher affinity for hydrophilic groups. The corresponding thickness of zein specific binding layer on hydrophilic and hydrophobic SAMs was around 4.7 nm and 4.6 nm. Zein exhibited higher affinity for hydrophilic than for hydrophobic SAMs evidenced from the higher initial adsorption rate and ultimate surface coverage at all zein concentrations. Flushing surface with buffer would leave an apparent monolayer of zein, which is 5 times higher for hydrophilic than hydrophobic SAMs. This observation suggested that zein may use different sides of its molecule to interact with hydrophobic or hydrophilic groups. The surface topography of zein deposits on both SAMs was examined by atomic force microscopy. It was found that zein formed distinct ring-shaped structures with

  11. Bile salt recognition by human liver fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Favretto, Filippo; Santambrogio, Carlo; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Molinari, Henriette; Grandori, Rita; Assfalg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) act as intracellular carriers of lipid molecules, and play a role in global metabolism regulation. Liver FABP (L-FABP) is prominent among FABPs for its wide ligand repertoire, which includes long-chain fatty acids as well as bile acids (BAs). In this work, we performed a detailed molecular- and atomic-level analysis of the interactions established by human L-FABP with nine BAs to understand the binding specificity for this important class of cholesterol-derived metabolites. Protein-ligand complex formation was monitored using heteronuclear NMR, steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. BAs were found to interact with L-FABP with dissociation constants in the narrow range of 0.6-7 μm; however, the diverse substitution patterns of the sterol nucleus and the presence of side-chain conjugation resulted in complexes endowed with various degrees of conformational heterogeneity. Trihydroxylated BAs formed monomeric complexes in which single ligand molecules occupied similar internal binding sites, based on chemical-shift perturbation data. Analysis of NMR line shapes upon progressive addition of taurocholate indicated that the binding mechanism departed from a simple binary association equilibrium, and instead involved intermediates along the binding path. The co-linear chemical shift behavior observed for L-FABP complexes with cholate derivatives added insight into conformational dynamics in the presence of ligands. The observed spectroscopic features of L-FABP/BA complexes, discussed in relation to ligand chemistry, suggest possible molecular determinants of recognition, with implications regarding intracellular BA transport. Our findings suggest that human L-FABP is a poorly selective, universal BA binder. PMID:25639618

  12. Bile salt recognition by human liver fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Favretto, Filippo; Santambrogio, Carlo; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Molinari, Henriette; Grandori, Rita; Assfalg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) act as intracellular carriers of lipid molecules, and play a role in global metabolism regulation. Liver FABP (L-FABP) is prominent among FABPs for its wide ligand repertoire, which includes long-chain fatty acids as well as bile acids (BAs). In this work, we performed a detailed molecular- and atomic-level analysis of the interactions established by human L-FABP with nine BAs to understand the binding specificity for this important class of cholesterol-derived metabolites. Protein-ligand complex formation was monitored using heteronuclear NMR, steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. BAs were found to interact with L-FABP with dissociation constants in the narrow range of 0.6-7 μm; however, the diverse substitution patterns of the sterol nucleus and the presence of side-chain conjugation resulted in complexes endowed with various degrees of conformational heterogeneity. Trihydroxylated BAs formed monomeric complexes in which single ligand molecules occupied similar internal binding sites, based on chemical-shift perturbation data. Analysis of NMR line shapes upon progressive addition of taurocholate indicated that the binding mechanism departed from a simple binary association equilibrium, and instead involved intermediates along the binding path. The co-linear chemical shift behavior observed for L-FABP complexes with cholate derivatives added insight into conformational dynamics in the presence of ligands. The observed spectroscopic features of L-FABP/BA complexes, discussed in relation to ligand chemistry, suggest possible molecular determinants of recognition, with implications regarding intracellular BA transport. Our findings suggest that human L-FABP is a poorly selective, universal BA binder.

  13. Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter protein levels are down-regulated through ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation induced by bile acids.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Hayashi, Kenjiro; Kuribayashi, Hideaki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2013-08-15

    The ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT or SLC10A2) has a crucial role in intestinal bile acid absorption. We previously reported that enterobacteria-mediated bile acid conversion was involved in the alteration of ileal ASBT expression levels. In the present study, to investigate the hypothesis that ileal ASBT protein levels are post-translationally regulated by enterobacteria-associated bile acids, alteration of ileal ASBT protein levels was analysed in mice 12 h and 24 h after anti-bacterial drug ampicillin (ABPC) treatment (100 mg/kg, single shot) that altered bile acid composition in the intestinal lumen. In ABPC-treated mice, enterobacteria-biotransformed bile acid, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) and cholic acid (CA) levels were decreased, whereas taurocholic acid (TCA) and tauro-β-muricholic acid levels were increased in the intestinal lumen. Ileal ASBT protein levels in brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMVs), but not ileal Asbt mRNA levels, were significantly increased in the ABPC-treated mice, and the extent of ubiquitination of the ileal ASBT protein was reduced in the ABPC-treated mice. Treatment of ABPC-pretreated mice with CA or TDCA, but not TCA, significantly decreased ileal ASBT protein levels and increased the extent of ubiquitination of ileal ASBT protein. Treatment of mice with the lysosome inhibitor, chloroquine, or the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, increased ileal ASBT protein levels in BBMVs. CA-mediated reduction of ASBT protein levels in the ABPC-pretreated mice was attenuated by co-treatment with chloroquine or MG132. These results suggest that ileal ASBT protein is degraded by a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in response to enterobacteria-associated bile acids. PMID:23872411

  14. Prediction of protein-protein interactions with clustered amino acids and weighted sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiaoying; You, Zhuhong; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Yong

    2015-01-01

    With the completion of the Human Genome Project, bioscience has entered into the era of the genome and proteome. Therefore, protein-protein interactions (PPIs) research is becoming more and more important. Life activities and the protein-protein interactions are inseparable, such as DNA synthesis, gene transcription activation, protein translation, etc. Though many methods based on biological experiments and machine learning have been proposed, they all spent a long time to learn and obtained an imprecise accuracy. How to efficiently and accurately predict PPIs is still a big challenge. To take up such a challenge, we developed a new predictor by incorporating the reduced amino acid alphabet (RAAA) information into the general form of pseudo-amino acid composition (PseAAC) and with the weighted sparse representation-based classification (WSRC). The remarkable advantages of introducing the reduced amino acid alphabet is being able to avoid the notorious dimensionality disaster or overfitting problem in statistical prediction. Additionally, experiments have proven that our method achieved good performance in both a low- and high-dimensional feature space. Among all of the experiments performed on the PPIs data of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the best one achieved 90.91% accuracy, 94.17% sensitivity, 87.22% precision and a 83.43% Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) value. In order to evaluate the prediction ability of our method, extensive experiments are performed to compare with the state-of-the-art technique, support vector machine (SVM). The achieved results show that the proposed approach is very promising for predicting PPIs, and it can be a helpful supplement for PPIs prediction. PMID:25984606

  15. Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of three Mediterranean cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Feist, Christian; Sagredos, Angelos

    2006-10-01

    Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) in three commercially important cephalopods of the Mediterranean sea (cuttlefish, octopus and squid) were determined. The results of the proximate analysis showed that these species had very high protein:fat ratios similar to lean beef. Docosahexaenoic, palmitic and eicosipentaenoic acid were the most abundant fatty acids among analyzed species. The amount of n-3 fatty acids was higher than that of saturated, monounsaturated and n-6 fatty acids. Despite the fact that cephalopods contain small amounts of fat they were found quite rich in n-3 fatty acids. Finally, PDCAAS indicated that these organisms had a very good protein quality.

  16. Free amino acids in crocodilians fed proteins of different biological value.

    PubMed

    Herbert, J D; Coulson, R A

    1975-05-01

    Changes in plasma levels of amino acids derived from fed protein were determined by feeding crocodilians (Caiman crocodilus crocodilus and Alligator mississipiensis) 7.5 g protein/kg body weight and by monitoring the plasma free amino acids for several days. Zein and several other vegetable proteins produced no rise in plasma amino acids and were excreted intact in the feces. Casein and fish muscle were rapidly digested but produced little rise in plasma amino acids, and the increases showed no relationship to the composition of the protein fed. Gelatin feeding led to large increases in plasma amino acids that persisted for more than a week, and the resulting pattern was nearly identical to the composition of gelatin with the exception of aspartic and glutamic acids, and several animals died. Equivalent quantities of fish muscle protein were assimilated without difficulty by the crocodilians. Endogenous protein secreted into the gut apparently contributed little to the amino acid mixture absorbed.

  17. Mitogen-activated protein kinase and abscisic acid signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S; Testerink, C; Wang, M

    2000-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a classical plant hormone, responsible for regulation of abscission, diverse aspects of plant and seed development, stress responses and germination. It was found that ABA signal transduction in plants can involve the activity of type 2C-phosphatases (PP2C), calcium, potassium, pH and a transient activation of MAP kinase. The ABA signal transduction cascades have been shown to be tissue-specific, the transient activation of MAP kinase has until now only been found in barley aleurone cells. However, type 2C phosphatases are involved in the induction of most ABA responses, as shown by the PP2C-deficient abi-mutants. These phosphatases show high homology with phosphatases that regulate MAP kinase activity in yeast. In addition, the role of farnesyl transferase as a negative regulator of ABA responses also indicates towards involvement of MAP kinase in ABA signal transduction. Farnesyl transferase is known to regulate Ras proteins, Ras proteins in turn are known to regulate MAP kinase activation. Interestingly, Ras-like proteins were detected in barley aleurone cells. Further establishment of the involvement of MAP kinase in ABA signal transduction and its role therein, still awaits more study.

  18. Nucleic Acids for Ultra-Sensitive Protein Detection

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Kris P. F.; Knez, Karel; Spasic, Dragana; Lammertyn, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    Major advancements in molecular biology and clinical diagnostics cannot be brought about strictly through the use of genomics based methods. Improved methods for protein detection and proteomic screening are an absolute necessity to complement to wealth of information offered by novel, high-throughput sequencing technologies. Only then will it be possible to advance insights into clinical processes and to characterize the importance of specific protein biomarkers for disease detection or the realization of “personalized medicine”. Currently however, large-scale proteomic information is still not as easily obtained as its genomic counterpart, mainly because traditional antibody-based technologies struggle to meet the stringent sensitivity and throughput requirements that are required whereas mass-spectrometry based methods might be burdened by significant costs involved. However, recent years have seen the development of new biodetection strategies linking nucleic acids with existing antibody technology or replacing antibodies with oligonucleotide recognition elements altogether. These advancements have unlocked many new strategies to lower detection limits and dramatically increase throughput of protein detection assays. In this review, an overview of these new strategies will be given. PMID:23337338

  19. Inhibition of the Hematopoietic Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase by Phenoxyacetic Acids.

    PubMed

    Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Liu, Wallace H; Colayco, Sharon; Rascon, Justin; Vasile, Stefan; Gasior, Carlton; Critton, David A; Chan, Xochella; Dahl, Russell; Su, Ying; Sergienko, Eduard; Chung, Thomas D Y; Mustelin, Tomas; Page, Rebecca; Tautz, Lutz

    2011-02-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) have only recently become the focus of attention in the search for novel drug targets despite the fact that they play vital roles in numerous cellular processes and are implicated in many human diseases. The hematopoietic protein tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP) is often found dysregulated in preleukemic myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), as well as in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Physiological substrates of HePTP include the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) ERK1/2 and p38. Specific modulators of HePTP catalytic activity will be useful for elucidating mechanisms of MAPK regulation in hematopietic cells, and may also provide treatments for hematopoietic malignancies such as AML. Here we report the discovery of phenoxyacetic acids as inhibitors of HePTP. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis and in silico docking studies reveal the molecular basis of HePTP inhibition by these compounds. We also show that these compounds are able to penetrate cell membranes and inhibit HePTP in human T lymphocytes.

  20. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase. PMID:16631439

  1. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase.

  2. Defining meal requirements for protein to optimize metabolic roles of amino acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary protein provides essential amino acids (EAAs) for the synthesis of new proteins plus an array of other metabolic functions; many of these functions are sensitive to postprandial plasma and intracellular amino acid concentrations. Recent research has focused on amino acids as metabolic signal...

  3. Defining meal requirements for protein to optimize metabolic roles of amino acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary protein provides essential amino acids (EAA) for the synthesis of new proteins plus an array of other metabolic functions; many of these functions are sensitive to post-prandial plasma and intracellular amino acid concentrations. Recent research has focused on amino acids as metabolic signal...

  4. Limiting amino acid for protein synthesis with mammary cells in tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Park, C S; Chandler, P T; Norman, A W

    1976-05-01

    To identify the limiting amino acid in the minimal essential medium as published by Eagle (Science 130:432, 1959) for milk protein synthesis in rat mammary cells in tissue culture, two different experimental approaches were used. The first study involved the reduction of amino acids singly from the total amino acid complement of the medium for milk protein synthesis. The second study was to investigate the effect on milk protein synthesis of single amino acid addition to the basic complement of amino acids. Order of limiting amino acids was lysine (first) and possible methionine, valine, or arginine (second).

  5. The 68-kDa Telomeric Repeat Binding Factor 1 (TRF1)-associated Protein (TAP68) Interacts with and Recruits TRF1 to the Spindle Pole during Mitosis*

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Jianping; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Xu, Leilei; Yu, Huijuan; Yu, Jian; Liu, Xing; Fu, Chuanhai; Wang, Xiaogang; Ke, Yuwen; Huang, He; Dou, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The telomere capping protein TRF1 is a component of the multiprotein complex “shelterin,” which organizes the telomere into a high order structure. Besides telomere maintenance, telomere-associated proteins also have nontelomeric functions. For example, tankyrase 1 and TRF1 are required for the maintenance of faithful mitotic progression. However, the functional relevance of their centrosomal localization has not been established. Here, we report the identification of a TRF1-binding protein, TAP68, that interacts with TRF1 in mitotic cells. TAP68 contains two coiled-coil domains and a structural maintenance of chromosome motifs and co-localizes with TRF1 to telomeres during interphase. Immediately after nuclear envelope breakdown, TAP68 translocates toward the spindle poles followed by TRF1. Dissociation of TAP68 from the telomere is concurrent with the Nek2A-dependent phosphorylation at Thr-221. Biochemical characterization demonstrated that the first coiled-coil domain of TAP68 binds and recruits TRF1 to the centrosome. Inhibition of TAP68 expression by siRNA blocked the localization of TRF1 and tankyrase 1 to the centrosome. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated depletion of TAP68 perturbed faithful chromosome segregation and genomic stability. These findings suggest that TAP68 functions in mediating TRF1-tankyrase 1 localization to the centrosome and in mitotic regulation. PMID:24692559

  6. Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 5 Facilitates the Blood-Brain Barrier Transport of Docosahexaenoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yijun; Scanlon, Martin J; Owada, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yui; Porter, Christopher J H; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2015-12-01

    The brain has a limited ability to synthesize the essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from its omega-3 fatty acid precursors. Therefore, to maintain brain concentrations of this PUFA at physiological levels, plasma-derived DHA must be transported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). While DHA is able to partition into the luminal membrane of brain endothelial cells, its low aqueous solubility likely limits its cytosolic transfer to the abluminal membrane, necessitating the requirement of an intracellular carrier protein to facilitate trafficking of this PUFA across the BBB. As the intracellular carrier protein fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) is expressed at the human BBB, the current study assessed the putative role of FABP5 in the brain endothelial cell uptake and BBB transport of DHA in vitro and in vivo, respectively. hFAPB5 was recombinantly expressed and purified from Escherichia coli C41(DE3) cells and the binding affinity of DHA to hFABP5 assessed using isothermal titration calorimetry. The impact of FABP5 siRNA on uptake of (14)C-DHA into immortalized human brain microvascular endothelial (hCMEC/D3) cells was assessed. An in situ transcardiac perfusion method was optimized in C57BL/6 mice and subsequently used to compare the BBB influx rate (Kin) of (14)C-DHA between FABP5-deficient (FABP5(-/-)) and wild-type (FABP5(+/+)) C57BL/6 mice. DHA bound to hFABP5 with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 155 ± 8 nM (mean ± SEM). FABP5 siRNA transfection decreased hCMEC/D3 mRNA and protein expression of FABP5 by 53.2 ± 5.5% and 44.8 ± 13.7%, respectively, which was associated with a 14.1 ± 2.7% reduction in (14)C-DHA cellular uptake. By using optimized conditions for the in situ transcardiac perfusion (a 1 min preperfusion (10 mL/min) followed by perfusion of (14)C-DHA (1 min)), the Kin of (14)C-DHA was 0.04 ± 0.01 mL/g/s. Relative to FABP5(+/+) mice, the Kin of (14)C-DHA decreased 36.7 ± 12.4% in FABP5(-/-) mice

  7. Requirement for the heart-type fatty acid binding protein in cardiac fatty acid utilization.

    PubMed

    Binas, B; Danneberg, H; McWhir, J; Mullins, L; Clark, A J

    1999-05-01

    Nonenzymatic cytosolic fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are abundantly expressed in many animal tissues with high rates of fatty acid metabolism. No physiological role has been demonstrated for any FABP, although these proteins have been implicated in transport of free long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and protection against LCFA toxicity. We report here that mice lacking heart-type FABP (H-FABP) exhibit a severe defect of peripheral (nonhepatic, non-fat) LCFA utilization. In these mice, the heart is unable to efficiently take up plasma LCFAs, which are normally its main fuel, and switches to glucose usage. Altered plasma levels of LCFAs, glucose, lactate and beta-hydroxybutyrate are consistent with depressed peripheral LCFA utilization, intensified carbohydrate usage, and increased hepatic LCFA oxidation; these changes are most pronounced under conditions favoring LCFA oxidation. H-FABP deficiency is only incompletely compensated, however, causing acute exercise intolerance and, at old age, a localized cardiac hypertrophy. These data establish a requirement for H-FABP in cardiac intracellular lipid transport and fuel selection and a major role in metabolic homeostasis. This new animal model should be particularly useful for investigating the significance of peripheral LCFA utilization for heart function, insulin sensitivity, and blood pressure.

  8. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Induces TGF-β2 in Intestinal Epithelial Cells via RhoA- and p38α MAPK-Mediated Activation of the Transcription Factor ATF2

    PubMed Central

    Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan; MohanKumar, Krishnan; Arbach, Dima; Jagadeeswaran, Ramasamy; Jain, Sunil K.; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Mehta, Dolly; Jankov, Robert P.; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2015-01-01

    Objective We have shown previously that preterm infants are at risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), an inflammatory bowel necrosis typically seen in infants born prior to 32 weeks’ gestation, because of the developmental deficiency of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 in the intestine. The present study was designed to investigate all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) as an inducer of TGF-β2 in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and to elucidate the involved signaling mechanisms. Methods AtRA effects on intestinal epithelium were investigated using IEC6 cells. TGF-β2 expression was measured using reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blots. Signaling pathways were investigated using Western blots, transiently-transfected/transduced cells, kinase arrays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and selective small molecule inhibitors. Results AtRA-treatment of IEC6 cells selectively increased TGF-β2 mRNA and protein expression in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, and increased the activity of the TGF-β2 promoter. AtRA effects were mediated via RhoA GTPase, Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1), p38α MAPK, and activating transcription factor (ATF)-2. AtRA increased phospho-ATF2 binding to the TGF-β2 promoter and increased histone H2B acetylation in the TGF-β2 nucleosome, which is typically associated with transcriptional activation. Conclusions AtRA induces TGF-β2 expression in IECs via RhoA- and p38α MAPK-mediated activation of the transcription factor ATF2. Further studies are needed to investigate the role of atRA as a protective/therapeutic agent in gut mucosal inflammation. PMID:26225425

  9. Site-specific incorporation of redox active amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Alfonta, Lital; Schultz, Peter G.; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2009-02-24

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate redox active amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with redox active amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  10. Site-specific incorporation of redox active amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Alfonta; Lital , Schultz; Peter G. , Zhang; Zhiwen

    2010-10-12

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate redox active amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with redox active amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  11. Site-specific incorporation of redox active amino acids into proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonta, Lital; Schultz, Peter G.; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2012-02-14

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate redox active amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with redox active amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  12. Site-specific incorporation of redox active amino acids into proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonta, Lital; Schultz, Peter G.; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2011-08-30

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate redox active amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with redox active amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  13. An amphiphilic conjugate approach toward the design and synthesis of betulinic acid-polyphenol conjugates as inhibitors of the HIV-1 gp41 fusion core formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Ke, Zhuofeng; Wu, Kwok Yiu; Liu, Shuwen; Chen, Wen-Hua; Jiang, Shibo; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2011-09-01

    Exploration of potent inhibitors of the HIV-1 gp41 fusion core formation is a promising strategy to discover small-molecule HIV-1 entry inhibitors for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. In this paper, a series of novel betulinic acid-polyphenol conjugates was designed, guided by molecular modeling of the binding of betulinic acid (BA) and phenolic galloyl/caffeoyl groups in the groove on the gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) trimeric coiled coil. These conjugates were synthesized via conjugation of galloyl and caffeoyl groups with BA at the C-28 position. Their inhibitory activities of HIV gp41 six-helix bundle (6-HB) formation between the NHR peptide N36 and the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) peptide C34 were evaluated with size-exclusion HPLC. Conjugates bearing a galloyl group were found to exhibit four to sixfold higher inhibitory activities than that of parent compound BA, suggesting that they may be exploitable as HIV-1 fusion/entry inhibitors targeting gp41. The docking study on BA and its derivatives suggests that hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding pockets exist in the groove of the gp41 NHR trimeric coiled coil and that a potent inhibitor should have amphiphilic structures to cooperatively interact with both pockets. This possibility was explored by incorporating both lipophilic and hydrophilic groups into the conjugates in a well-defined orientation to bind with both pockets in the gp41 NHR-trimer.

  14. The Inner Centromere Protein (INCENP) Coil Is a Single α-Helix (SAH) Domain That Binds Directly to Microtubules and Is Important for Chromosome Passenger Complex (CPC) Localization and Function in Mitosis*

    PubMed Central

    Samejima, Kumiko; Platani, Melpomeni; Wolny, Marcin; Ogawa, Hiromi; Vargiu, Giulia; Knight, Peter J.; Peckham, Michelle; Earnshaw, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The chromosome passenger complex (CPC) is a master regulator of mitosis. Inner centromere protein (INCENP) acts as a scaffold regulating CPC localization and activity. During early mitosis, the N-terminal region of INCENP forms a three-helix bundle with Survivin and Borealin, directing the CPC to the inner centromere where it plays essential roles in chromosome alignment and the spindle assembly checkpoint. The C-terminal IN box region of INCENP is responsible for binding and activating Aurora B kinase. The central region of INCENP has been proposed to comprise a coiled coil domain acting as a spacer between the N- and C-terminal domains that is involved in microtubule binding and regulation of the spindle checkpoint. Here we show that the central region (213 residues) of chicken INCENP is not a coiled coil but a ∼32-nm-long single α-helix (SAH) domain. The N-terminal half of this domain directly binds to microtubules in vitro. By analogy with previous studies of myosin 10, our data suggest that the INCENP SAH might stretch up to ∼80 nm under physiological forces. Thus, the INCENP SAH could act as a flexible “dog leash,” allowing Aurora B to phosphorylate dynamic substrates localized in the outer kinetochore while at the same time being stably anchored to the heterochromatin of the inner centromere. Furthermore, by achieving this flexibility via an SAH domain, the CPC avoids a need for dimerization (required for coiled coil formation), which would greatly complicate regulation of the proximity-induced trans-phosphorylation that is critical for Aurora B activation. PMID:26175154

  15. The Inner Centromere Protein (INCENP) Coil Is a Single α-Helix (SAH) Domain That Binds Directly to Microtubules and Is Important for Chromosome Passenger Complex (CPC) Localization and Function in Mitosis.

    PubMed

    Samejima, Kumiko; Platani, Melpomeni; Wolny, Marcin; Ogawa, Hiromi; Vargiu, Giulia; Knight, Peter J; Peckham, Michelle; Earnshaw, William C

    2015-08-28

    The chromosome passenger complex (CPC) is a master regulator of mitosis. Inner centromere protein (INCENP) acts as a scaffold regulating CPC localization and activity. During early mitosis, the N-terminal region of INCENP forms a three-helix bundle with Survivin and Borealin, directing the CPC to the inner centromere where it plays essential roles in chromosome alignment and the spindle assembly checkpoint. The C-terminal IN box region of INCENP is responsible for binding and activating Aurora B kinase. The central region of INCENP has been proposed to comprise a coiled coil domain acting as a spacer between the N- and C-terminal domains that is involved in microtubule binding and regulation of the spindle checkpoint. Here we show that the central region (213 residues) of chicken INCENP is not a coiled coil but a ∼ 32-nm-long single α-helix (SAH) domain. The N-terminal half of this domain directly binds to microtubules in vitro. By analogy with previous studies of myosin 10, our data suggest that the INCENP SAH might stretch up to ∼ 80 nm under physiological forces. Thus, the INCENP SAH could act as a flexible "dog leash," allowing Aurora B to phosphorylate dynamic substrates localized in the outer kinetochore while at the same time being stably anchored to the heterochromatin of the inner centromere. Furthermore, by achieving this flexibility via an SAH domain, the CPC avoids a need for dimerization (required for coiled coil formation), which would greatly complicate regulation of the proximity-induced trans-phosphorylation that is critical for Aurora B activation.

  16. Interconnection between the protein solubility and amino acid and dipeptide compositions.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaohui; Li, Nana; Chen, Dinyan; Wang, Zengzhen

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining soluble proteins in sufficient concentrations helps increase the overall success rate in various experimental studies. Protein solubility is an individual trait ultimately determined by its primary protein sequence. Exploring the interconnection between the protein solubility and the compositions of protein sequence is instrumental for setting priorities on targets in large scale proteomics projects. In this paper, amino acid composition (20 dimensions) and the dipeptide composition (400 dimensions) were extracted to form the total candidate feature pool (420 dimensions), and each feature was selected into the feature vectors one by one, which were sorted by the absolute value of the correlation coefficient. Finally, we evaluated and recorded the 420 results of Support Vector Machine (SVM) as the prediction engine. According to the results of SVM, the first 208 features were chosen from the 420 dimensions, which were considered as the efficient ones. By analyzing the composition of the former 208 features, we found that the protein solubility was significantly influenced by the occurrence frequencies of the acidic amino acids, basic amino acids, non-polar hydrophobic amino acids and the two polar neutral amino acids(C, Q) in the protein sequences. Additionally, we detected that the dipeptides composed by the acidic amino acids (D, E) and basic amino acids (K, R and H), especially the dipeptide composed by the acidic amino acids (D, E), had strong interconnection with the protein solubility.

  17. On combining protein sequences and nucleic acid sequences in phylogenetic analysis: the homeobox protein case.

    PubMed

    Agosti, D; Jacobs, D; DeSalle, R

    1996-01-01

    Amino acid encoding genes contain character state information that may be useful for phylogenetic analysis on at least two levels. The nucleotide sequence and the translated amino acid sequences have both been employed separately as character states for cladistic studies of various taxa, including studies of the genealogy of genes in multigene families. In essence, amino acid sequences and nucleic acid sequences are two different ways of character coding the information in a gene. Silent positions in the nucleotide sequence (first or third positions in codons that can accrue change without changing the identity of the amino acid that the triplet codes for) may accrue change relatively rapidly and become saturated, losing the pattern of historical divergence. On the other hand, non-silent nucleotide alterations and their accompanying amino acid changes may evolve too slowly to reveal relationships among closely related taxa. In general, the dynamics of sequence change in silent and non-silent positions in protein coding genes result in homoplasy and lack of resolution, respectively. We suggest that the combination of nucleic acid and the translated amino acid coded character states into the same data matrix for phylogenetic analysis addresses some of the problems caused by the rapid change of silent nucleotide positions and overall slow rate of change of non-silent nucleotide positions and slowly changing amino acid positions. One major theoretical problem with this approach is the apparent non-independence of the two sources of characters. However, there are at least three possible outcomes when comparing protein coding nucleic acid sequences with their translated amino acids in a phylogenetic context on a codon by codon basis. First, the two character sets for a codon may be entirely congruent with respect to the information they convey about the relationships of a certain set of taxa. Second, one character set may display no information concerning a phylogenetic

  18. Clustering amino acid contents of protein domains: biochemical functions of proteins and implications for origin of biological macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Torshin, I Y

    2001-04-01

    Structural classes of protein domains correlate with their amino acid compositions. Several successful algorithms (that use only amino acid composition) have been elaborated for the prediction of structural class or potential biochemical significance. This work deals with dynamic classification (clustering) of the domains on the basis of their amino acid composition. Amino acid contents of domains from a non-redundant PDB set were clustered in 20-dimensional space of amino acid contents. Despite the variations of an empirical parameter and non-redundancy of the set, only one large cluster (tens-hundreds of proteins) surrounded by hundreds of small clusters (1-5 proteins), was identified. The core of the largest cluster contains at least 64% DNA (nucleotide)-interacting protein domains from various sources. About 90% of the proteins of the core are intracellular proteins. 83% of the DNA/nucleotide interacting domains in the core belong to the mixed alpha-beta folds (a+b, a/b), 14% are all-alpha (mostly helices) and all-beta (mostly beta-strands) proteins. At the same time, when core domains that belong to one organism (E.coli) are considered, over 80% of them prove to be DNA/nucleotide interacting proteins. The core is compact: amino acid contents of domains from the core lie in relatively narrow and specific ranges. The core also contains several Fe-S cluster-binding domains, amino acid contents of the core overlap with ferredoxin and CO-dehydrogenase clusters, the oldest known proteins. As Fe-S clusters are thought to be the first biocatalysts, the results are discussed in relation to contemporary experiments and models dealing with the origin of biological macromolecules. The origin of most primordial proteins is considered here to be a result of co-adsorption of nucleotides and amino acids on specific clays, followed by en-block polymerization of the adsorbed mixtures of amino acids.

  19. Chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry targeting acidic residues in proteins and protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Alexander; Joachimiak, Lukasz A; Unverdorben, Pia; Walzthoeni, Thomas; Frydman, Judith; Förster, Friedrich; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2014-07-01

    The study of proteins and protein complexes using chemical cross-linking followed by the MS identification of the cross-linked peptides has found increasingly widespread use in recent years. Thus far, such analyses have used almost exclusively homobifunctional, amine-reactive cross-linking reagents. Here we report the development and application of an orthogonal cross-linking chemistry specific for carboxyl groups. Chemical cross-linking of acidic residues is achieved using homobifunctional dihydrazides as cross-linking reagents and a coupling chemistry at neutral pH that is compatible with the structural integrity of most protein complexes. In addition to cross-links formed through insertion of the dihydrazides with different spacer lengths, zero-length cross-link products are also obtained, thereby providing additional structural information. We demonstrate the application of the reaction and the MS identification of the resulting cross-linked peptides for the chaperonin TRiC/CCT and the 26S proteasome. The results indicate that the targeting of acidic residues for cross-linking provides distance restraints that are complementary and orthogonal to those obtained from lysine cross-linking, thereby expanding the yield of structural information that can be obtained from cross-linking studies and used in hybrid modeling approaches. PMID:24938783

  20. Chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry targeting acidic residues in proteins and protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Alexander; Joachimiak, Lukasz A.; Unverdorben, Pia; Walzthoeni, Thomas; Frydman, Judith; Förster, Friedrich; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2014-01-01

    The study of proteins and protein complexes using chemical cross-linking followed by the MS identification of the cross-linked peptides has found increasingly widespread use in recent years. Thus far, such analyses have used almost exclusively homobifunctional, amine-reactive cross-linking reagents. Here we report the development and application of an orthogonal cross-linking chemistry specific for carboxyl groups. Chemical cross-linking of acidic residues is achieved using homobifunctional dihydrazides as cross-linking reagents and a coupling chemistry at neutral pH that is compatible with the structural integrity of most protein complexes. In addition to cross-links formed through insertion of the dihydrazides with different spacer lengths, zero-length cross-link products are also obtained, thereby providing additional structural information. We demonstrate the application of the reaction and the MS identification of the resulting cross-linked peptides for the chaperonin TRiC/CCT and the 26S proteasome. The results indicate that the targeting of acidic residues for cross-linking provides distance restraints that are complementary and orthogonal to those obtained from lysine cross-linking, thereby expanding the yield of structural information that can be obtained from cross-linking studies and used in hybrid modeling approaches. PMID:24938783

  1. Abscisic acid (ABA) regulation of Arabidopsis SR protein gene expression.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Tiago M D; Carvalho, Raquel F; Richardson, Dale N; Duque, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are major modulators of alternative splicing, a key generator of proteomic diversity and flexible means of regulating gene expression likely to be crucial in plant environmental responses. Indeed, mounting evidence implicates splicing factors in signal transduction of the abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone, which plays pivotal roles in the response to various abiotic stresses. Using real-time RT-qPCR, we analyzed total steady-state transcript levels of the 18 SR and two SR-like genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in seedlings treated with ABA and in genetic backgrounds with altered expression of the ABA-biosynthesis ABA2 and the ABA-signaling ABI1 and ABI4 genes. We also searched for ABA-responsive cis elements in the upstream regions of the 20 genes. We found that members of the plant-specific SC35-Like (SCL) Arabidopsis SR protein subfamily are distinctively responsive to exogenous ABA, while the expression of seven SR and SR-related genes is affected by alterations in key components of the ABA pathway. Finally, despite pervasiveness of established ABA-responsive promoter elements in Arabidopsis SR and SR-like genes, their expression is likely governed by additional, yet unidentified cis-acting elements. Overall, this study pinpoints SR34, SR34b, SCL30a, SCL28, SCL33, RS40, SR45 and SR45a as promising candidates for involvement in ABA-mediated stress responses. PMID:25268622

  2. Small acid soluble proteins for rapid spore identification.

    SciTech Connect

    Branda, Steven S.; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2006-12-01

    This one year LDRD addressed the problem of rapid characterization of bacterial spores such as those from the genus Bacillus, the group that contains pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis. In this effort we addressed the feasibility of using a proteomics based approach to spore characterization using a subset of conserved spore proteins known as the small acid soluble proteins or SASPs. We proposed developing techniques that built on our previous expertise in microseparations to rapidly characterize or identify spores. An alternative SASP extraction method was developed that was amenable to both the subsequent fluorescent labeling required for laser-induced fluorescence detection and the low ionic strength requirements for isoelectric focusing. For the microseparations, both capillary isoelectric focusing and chip gel electrophoresis were employed. A variety of methods were evaluated to improve the molecular weight resolution for the SASPs, which are in a molecular weight range that is not well resolved by the current methods. Isoelectric focusing was optimized and employed to resolve the SASPs using UV absorbance detection. Proteomic signatures of native wild type Bacillus spores and clones genetically engineered to produce altered SASP patterns were assessed by slab gel electrophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing with absorbance detection as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection.

  3. Coffee bean arabinogalactans: acidic polymers covalently linked to protein.

    PubMed

    Redgwell, Robert J; Curti, Delphine; Fischer, Monica; Nicolas, Pierre; Fay, Laurent B

    2002-02-11

    The arabinogalactan content of green coffee beans (Coffea arabica var. Yellow Caturra) was released by a combination of chemical extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis of the mannan-cellulose component of the wall. Several arabinogalactan fractions were isolated, purified by gel-permeation and ion-exchange chromatography and characterised by compositional and linkage analysis. The AG fractions contained between 6 and 8% glucuronic acid, and gave a positive test for the beta-glucosyl-Yariv reagent, a stain specific for arabinogalactan-proteins. The protein component accounted for between 0.5 and 2.0% of the AGPs and contained between 7 and 12% hydroxyproline. The AG moieties displayed considerable heterogeneity with regard to their degree of arabinosylation and the extent and composition of their side-chains. They possessed a MW average of 650 kDa which ranged between 150 and 2000 kDa. An investigation of the structural features of the major AG fraction, released following enzymatic hydrolysis of the mannan-cellulose polymers, allowed a partial structure of coffee arabinogalactan to be proposed.

  4. Abscisic Acid (ABA) Regulation of Arabidopsis SR Protein Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Tiago M. D.; Carvalho, Raquel F.; Richardson, Dale N.; Duque, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are major modulators of alternative splicing, a key generator of proteomic diversity and flexible means of regulating gene expression likely to be crucial in plant environmental responses. Indeed, mounting evidence implicates splicing factors in signal transduction of the abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone, which plays pivotal roles in the response to various abiotic stresses. Using real-time RT-qPCR, we analyzed total steady-state transcript levels of the 18 SR and two SR-like genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in seedlings treated with ABA and in genetic backgrounds with altered expression of the ABA-biosynthesis ABA2 and the ABA-signaling ABI1 and ABI4 genes. We also searched for ABA-responsive cis elements in the upstream regions of the 20 genes. We found that members of the plant-specific SC35-Like (SCL) Arabidopsis SR protein subfamily are distinctively responsive to exogenous ABA, while the expression of seven SR and SR-related genes is affected by alterations in key components of the ABA pathway. Finally, despite pervasiveness of established ABA-responsive promoter elements in Arabidopsis SR and SR-like genes, their expression is likely governed by additional, yet unidentified cis-acting elements. Overall, this study pinpoints SR34, SR34b, SCL30a, SCL28, SCL33, RS40, SR45 and SR45a as promising candidates for involvement in ABA-mediated stress responses. PMID:25268622

  5. Crystallogenesis of bacteriophage P22 tail accessory factor gp26 at acidic and neutral pH

    SciTech Connect

    Cingolani, Gino Andrews, Dewan; Casjens, Sherwood

    2006-05-01

    The crystallogenesis of bacteriophage P22 tail-fiber gp26 is described. To study possible pH-induced conformational changes in gp26 structure, native trimeric gp26 has been crystallized at acidic pH (4.6) and a chimera of gp26 fused to maltose-binding protein (MBP-gp26) has been crystallized at neutral and alkaline pH (7-10). Gp26 is one of three phage P22-encoded tail accessory factors essential for stabilization of viral DNA within the mature capsid. In solution, gp26 exists as an extended triple-stranded coiled-coil protein which shares profound structural similarities with class I viral membrane-fusion protein. In the cryo-EM reconstruction of P22 tail extracted from mature virions, gp26 forms an ∼220 Å extended needle structure emanating from the neck of the tail, which is likely to be brought into contact with the cell’s outer membrane when the viral DNA-injection process is initiated. To shed light on the potential role of gp26 in cell-wall penetration and DNA injection, gp26 has been crystallized at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH. Crystals of native gp26 grown at pH 4.6 diffract X-rays to 2.0 Å resolution and belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with a dimer of trimeric gp26 molecules in the asymmetric unit. To study potential pH-induced conformational changes in the gp26 structure, a chimera of gp26 fused to maltose-binding protein (MBP-gp26) was generated. Hexagonal crystals of MBP-gp26 were obtained at neutral and alkaline pH using the high-throughput crystallization robot at the Hauptman–Woodward Medical Research Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA. These crystals diffract X-rays to beyond 2.0 Å resolution. Struc