Science.gov

Sample records for acidic fluoride solutions

  1. Uranyl fluoride luminescence in acidic aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Beitz, J.V.; Williams, C.W.

    1996-08-01

    Luminescence emission spectra and decay rates are reported for uranyl species in acidic aqueous solutions containing HF or added NaF. The longest luminescence lifetime, 0.269 {+-} 0.006 ms, was observed from uranyl in 1 M HF + 1 M HClO{sub 4} at 296 K and decreased with increasing temperature. Based on a luminescence dynamics model that assumes equilibrium among electronically excited uranyl fluoride species and free fluoride ion, this long lived uranyl luminescence in aqueous solution is attributed primarily to UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}. Studies on the effect of added LiNO{sub 3} or Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O showed relatively weak quenching of uranyl fluoride luminescence which suggests that high sensitivity determination of the UF{sub 6} content of WF{sub 6} gas should be feasible via uranyl luminescence analysis of hydrolyzed gas samples of impure WF{sub 6}.

  2. New insights into structural alteration of enamel apatite induced by citric acid and sodium fluoride solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojie; Klocke, Arndt; Mihailova, Boriana; Tosheva, Lubomira; Bismayer, Ulrich

    2008-07-24

    Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and complementary scanning electron microscopy were applied to analyze the surface structure of enamel apatite exposed to citric acid and to investigate the protective potential of fluorine-containing reagents against citric acid-induced erosion. Enamel and, for comparison, geological hydroxylapatite samples were treated with aqueous solutions of citric acid and sodium fluoride of different concentrations, ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 mol/L for citric acid solutions and from 0.5 to 2.0% for fluoride solutions. The two solutions were applied either simultaneously or consecutively. The citric acid-induced structural modification of apatite increases with the increase in the citric acid concentration and the number of treatments. The application of sodium fluoride alone does not suppress the atomic level changes in apatite exposed to acidic agents. The addition of sodium fluoride to citric acid solutions leads to formation of surface CaF2 and considerably reduces the changes in the apatite P-O-Ca framework. However, the CaF2 globules deposited on the enamel surface seem to be insufficient to prevent the alteration of the apatite structure upon further exposure to acidic agents. No evidence for fluorine-induced recovery of the apatite structure was found.

  3. Removal of fluoride in aqueous solution by adsorption on acid activated water treatment sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinitnantharat, Soydoa; Kositchaiyong, Sriwilai; Chiarakorn, Siriluk

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports the use of a pellet of adsorbent made from water treatment sludge (S) and acid activated water treatment sludge (SH) for removal of fluoride in the batch equilibration technique. The influence of pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature and effect of other ions were employed to find out the feasibility of acid activated adsorbent to remove fluoride to the permissible concentration of 0.7 mg/L. The results from the adsorption isotherm followed both Langmuir and Freundlich models and the highest fluoride removal was found for adsorbent activated with acetic acid at 2.0 mol/L. The optimum adsorbent dosage was found at 40 g/L, 0.01 mol/L acid activated adsorbent which was able to adsorb fluoride from 10 down to 0.11 mg/L. The adsorption capacity was decreased when the temperature increased. This revealed that the adsorption of fluoride on SH was exothermic. In the presence of nitrate and carbonate ions in the aqueous solution, fluoride removal efficiency of SH decreased from 94.4% to 86.6% and 90.8%, respectively. However, there is no significant effect in the presence of sulfate and chloride ions.

  4. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL USING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS CONTAINING POTASSIUM FLUORIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Crowder, M.; Bronikowski, M.

    2007-10-15

    The deinventory and deactivation of the Savannah River Site's (SRS's) FB-Line facility required the disposition of approximately 2000 items from the facility's vaults. Plutonium (Pu) scraps and residues which do not meet criteria for conversion to a mixed oxide fuel will be dissolved and the solution stored for subsequent disposition. Some of the items scheduled for dissolution are composite materials containing Pu and tantalum (Ta) metals. The preferred approach for handling this material is to dissolve the Pu metal, rinse the Ta metal with water to remove residual acid, and burn the Ta metal. The use of a 4 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution containing 0.2 M potassium fluoride (KF) was initially recommended for the dissolution of approximately 500 g of Pu metal. However, prior to the use of the flowsheet in the SRS facility, a new processing plan was proposed in which the feed to the dissolver could contain up to 1250 g of Pu metal. To evaluate the use of a larger batch size and subsequent issues associated with the precipitation of plutonium-containing solids from the dissolving solution, scaled experiments were performed using Pu metal and samples of the composite material. In the initial experiment, incomplete dissolution of a Pu metal sample demonstrated that a 1250 g batch size was not feasible in the HB-Line dissolver. Approximately 45% of the Pu was solubilized in 4 h. The remaining Pu metal was converted to plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Based on this work, the dissolution of 500 g of Pu metal using a 4-6 h cycle time was recommended for the HB-Line facility. Three dissolution experiments were subsequently performed using samples of the Pu/Ta composite material to demonstrate conditions which reduced the risk of precipitating a double fluoride salt containing Pu and K from the dissolving solution. In these experiments, the KF concentration was reduced from 0.2 M to either 0.15 or 0.175 M. With the use of 4 M HNO{sub 3} and a reduction in the KF

  5. Silicon oxidation in fluoride solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancier, K. M.; Kapur, V.

    1980-01-01

    Silicon is produced in a NaF, Na2SiF6, and Na matrix when SiF4 is reduced by metallic sodium. Hydrogen is evolved during acid leaching to separate the silicon from the accompanying reaction products, NaF and Na2SiF6. The hydrogen evolution reaction was studied under conditions simulating leaching conditions by making suspensions of the dry silicon powder in aqueous fluoride solutions. The mechanism for the hydrogen evolution is discussed in terms of spontaneous oxidation of silicon resulting from the cooperative effects of (1) elemental sodium in the silicon that reacts with water to remove a protective silica layer, leaving clean reactive silicon, and (2) fluoride in solution that complexes with the oxidized silicon in solution and retards formation of a protective hydrous oxide gel.

  6. Inhibition of hydrogen embrittlement of Ni-Ti superelastic alloy in acid fluoride solution by hydrogen peroxide addition.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Ken'ichi; Yazaki, Yushin; Sakai, Jun'ichi

    2011-09-01

    Inhibition of the hydrogen embrittlement of Ni-Ti superelastic alloy in an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) solution has been attempted by adding various amounts of H(2)O(2). In a 0.2% APF solution, hydrogen absorption is markedly inhibited by adding H(2)O(2), although corrosion is slightly enhanced by increasing the amount of added H(2)O(2). By adding a small amount of H(2)O(2) (0.001 M), in the early stage of immersion, hydrogen embrittlement is inhibited and corrosion is only slightly enhanced. Upon adding H(2)O(2), it appears that the dominant cathodic reactions change from hydrogen evolution to H(2)O(2) reduction reactions, or the surface conditions of the alloy are changed by H(2)O(2) with a high oxidation capability, thereby inhibiting hydrogen absorption. The present study clearly indicates that infinitesimal addition of H(2)O(2) into acid fluoride solutions is effective for the inhibition of the hydrogen embrittlement of the alloy.

  7. Interactive effects of soil acidity and fluoride on soil solution aluminium chemistry and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root growth.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, V; Loganathan, P; Tillman, R W; Parfitt, R L

    2007-02-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine if concentrations of fluoride (F), which would be added to acid soils via P fertilisers, were detrimental to barley root growth. Increasing rates of F additions to soil significantly increased the soil solution concentrations of aluminium (Al) and F irrespective of the initial adjusted soil pH, which ranged from 4.25 to 5.48. High rates of F addition severely restricted root growth; the effect was more pronounced in the strongly acidic soil. Speciation calculations demonstrated that increasing rates of F additions substantially increased the concentrations of Al-F complexes in the soil. Stepwise regression analysis showed that it was the combination of the activities of AlF2(1+) and AlF(2+) complexes that primarily controlled barley root growth. The results suggested that continuous input of F to soils, and increased soil acidification, may become an F risk issue in the future.

  8. Preparation of conversion coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy in mixed solution of phytic acid and ammonium fluoride through chemical modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lanlan; He, Jian; Yang, Xu

    2016-05-01

    Conversion coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloy was prepared through chemical modification in phytic acid and ammonium fluoride mixed solution. The influences of pH, time and the composition of solution on the microstructure of alloy surface were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the microstructure. The chemical composition of alloy surface before and after modification was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results indicated that a conversion coating could be formed on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy in a mixed solution of phytic acid and ammonium fluoride, the growth and microstructure of the conversion coatings were critically dependent on the pH, time and concentration of phytic acid and ammonium fluoride. In 100 mg/ml phytic acid containing 125 mg/ml ammonium fluoride solution with a pH of 6, a compact conversion coating with the thickness of about 4.7 μm formed after 30 min immersion on Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface. The preliminary evaluation of bioactivity of conversion coating was performed by in vitro cell experiments. The results showed that this chemical modification method is a promising surface modification technique for Ti-6Al-4V alloy inplants.

  9. Xenon fluoride solutions effective as fluorinating agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyman, H. H.; Quarterman, L. A.; Sheft, I.

    1967-01-01

    Solutions of xenon fluorides in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride have few disruptive effects and leave a residue consisting of gaseous xenon, which can be recovered and refluorinated. This mild agent can be used with materials which normally must be fluorinated with fluorine alone at high temperatures.

  10. PRECIPITATION OF URANIUM PEROXIDE OF LOW FLUORIDE CONTENT FROM SOLUTIONS CONTAINING FLUORIDES

    DOEpatents

    King, E.J.; Clark, H.M.

    1958-08-12

    S>A method is described for the preparation of fluoride free uraniunn peroxide precipitates, even though the solution from which the precipitation is made is contaminated with fluorides. This is accomplished by add ing aluminum ions to the solution, where they complex any fluoride present and prevent its precipitation with the uramum peroxide.

  11. [Chemical form changes of exogenous water solution fluoride and bioavailability in tea garden soil].

    PubMed

    Cai, Hui-Mei; Peng, Chuan-Yi; Chen, Jing; Hou, Ru-Yan; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2013-11-01

    Pot experiments and the sequential extraction method were conducted to study the chemical form changes of exogenous water solution fluoride in tea garden soil and their contribution to fluoride accumulation of tea plant. The results showed that the background concentration of all chemical forms of fluoride had little changes with time treatment, which was in a relatively stable state. The exogenous water solution fluoride adding to the soils was rapidly transformed to other fractions. Under the 10 mg x kg(-1) fluoride treatment, the concentration of water solution fluoride increased firstly and then decreased with time treatment, the concentration of organic matter fluoride and Fe/Mn oxides fluoride decreased, the concentration of exchangeable fluoride was not different before and after the treatment (P > 0.05), and the concentration of residual fluoride was in a relatively stable state; under the 200 mg x kg(-1) fluoride treatment, the concentration of water solution fluoride, Fe/Mn oxides fluoride and organic matter fluoride decreased with time treatment, the concentration of exchangeable fluoride increased firstly and then decreased, showed no difference before and after the treatment (P > 0.05), and the concentration of residual fluoride increased, with some differences compared with 10 mg x kg(-1) fluoride treatment. The concentration of total fluoride in root, stem and leaf had significant differences under 0-10 mg x kg(-1) fluoride treatment (P < 0.05), while showed no difference from 10 to 100 mg x kg(-1) fluoride treatment (P > 0.05). Step regression analysis suggested the contribution of all chemical forms of fluoride to the concentration of water solution fluoride and total fluoride of root, stem and leaf had some differences, there was a remarkable regression relationship among the content of total fluoride in leaf and water solution fluoride, organic matter fluoride, Fe/Mn oxides fluoride and residual fluoride in soil, however, no significant

  12. Biogeochemistry of fluoride in a plant-solution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Grossl, P. R.; Bugbee, B. G.

    2003-01-01

    Fluoride (F-) pollutants can harm plants and the animals feeding on them. However, it is largely unknown how complexing and chelating agents affect F bioavailability. Two studies were conducted that measured F- bioavailability and uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.). In the first study, rice was grown in solution culture (pH 5.0) with 0, 2, or 4 mM F- as KF to compare the interaction of F- with humic acid (HA) and with a conventional chelating agent, N-hydroxyethylenthylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA). In the second study, F was supplied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM KF with an additional 2 mM F- treatment containing solution Ca at 2x (2 mM Ca) the level used in the first study, to test the effect added Ca had on F- availability and uptake. Total biomass was greatest with HEDTA and F- < 1 mM. Leaf and stem F concentrations increased exponentially as solution F- increased linearly, with nearly no F partitioning into the seed. Results suggest that F was taken up as HF0 while F- uptake was likely restricted. Additionally, F- competed with HA for Ca, thus preventing the formation of Ca-HA flocculents. The addition of soluble Ca resulted in the precipitation of CaF2 solids on the root surface, as determined by tissue analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  13. ANTICARIOGENIC POTENCIAL OF ACIDULATE SOLUTIONS WITH LOW FLUORIDE CONCENTRATION

    PubMed Central

    Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Tiano, Gilberto Carlos; Alves, Karina Mirela Ribeiro Pinto; Cunha, Robson Frederico

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to verify the anticariogenic effect of acidulate solutions with low NaF concentration, using pH-cycling model and bovine enamel. Material and methods: Enamel blocks were submitted to the surface microhardness (SMH) test and randomly divided in 12 experimental and one placebo groups. The blocks were submitted to pH cycling for 7 days, with daily applications once/day of 0.05% NaF and 0.1% NaF and twice/day of 0.02% NaF solutions. Four different pH: 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0 were used. Next, SMH test was again used to determine the surface microhardness percentage change (%SMH). Data obtained for %SMH were homogeneous and passed through variance analyses and Tukey's test (5%) as far as fluoride concentrations and pH. Results: The results showed that pH influenced %SMH in 0.02% NaF and 0.05% NaF solutions with pH 4.0, which had less mineral loss compared to pH 7.0 (p<0.05). The 0.02% NaF - pH 4.0, and 0.05% NaF – pH 7.0 groups showed similar results (p>0.05). A dose-response relationship was observed among the tested solutions, with better anticariogenic effect for the 0.1% NaF solution. Conclusion: The results suggest that the addition of citric acid to acidulate mouth rinses reduce mineral loss. PMID:19089268

  14. EQCM analysis of titanium corrosion in peroxide- or fluoride-containing solutions.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Masayuki; Oda, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    Although offering superior resistance to corrosion, titanium is unable to withstand discoloration with exposure to peroxide or fluoride. The mechanism of this discoloration, however, remains to be clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying discoloration of titanium with immersion in peroxide- or fluoride-containing solutions based on electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) analysis. A 9-MHz titanium-deposited quartz crystal was used as for the electrodes. Four test solutions were prepared for immersion of the electrodes: 154 mM (0.9%) NaCl; 150 mM H2O2+154 mM NaCl (pH=4 by addition of lactic acid); 150 mM H2O2+154 mM NaCl (pH=8 by addition of sodium hydroxide solution); and 48 mM (0.2%) NaF+154 mM NaCl (pH=5.0 by addition of lactic acid). A WinEchem electrochemistry software-controlled quartz crystal analyzer (QCA922) and the Potentiostat/Galvanostat (Princeton Applied Research) on Windows XP were used to measure concurrently the resonance frequency and potential of the electrodes. The EQCM data differed among solutions. In the acidulated fluoride-containing solution, the electrode showed lower open circuit potential and a gradual increase in electrode frequency, indicating a loss of mass by titanium dissolution. In the peroxide-containing solution, although open circuit potential showed no marked difference, electrode frequency showed a gentle decrease in acidic solution, indicating a gain in mass by oxidation; but an increase in alkaline solution, indicating a loss of mass by dissolution. These results confirmed that exposure to acidulated fluoride- or alkaline peroxide-containing solutions causes dissolution-induced discoloration, while that to acidulated peroxide-containing solutions resulted in the formation of an oxide film together with discoloration.

  15. TESTING OF 304L STAINLESS STEEL IN NITRIC ACID ENVIRONMENTS WITH FLUORIDES AND CHLORIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.

    2010-10-04

    Impure radioactive material processed in nitric acid solutions resulted in the presence of chlorides in a dissolver fabricated from 304L stainless steel. An experimental program was conducted to study the effects of chloride in nitric acid/fluoride solutions on the corrosion of 304L stainless steel. The test variables included temperature (80, 95, and 110 C) and the concentrations of nitric acid (6, 12, and 14 M), fluoride (0.01, 0.1, and 0.2 M) and chloride (100, 350, 1000, and 2000 ppm). The impact of welding was also investigated. Results showed that the chloride concentration alone was not a dominant variable affecting the corrosion, but rather the interaction of chloride with fluoride significantly affected corrosion.

  16. Effect of strong acids on red mud structural and fluoride adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wentao; Couperthwaite, Sara J; Kaur, Gurkiran; Yan, Cheng; Johnstone, Dean W; Millar, Graeme J

    2014-06-01

    The removal of fluoride using red mud has been improved by acidifying red mud with hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acid. The acidification of red mud causes sodalite and cancrinite phases to dissociate, confirmed by the release of sodium and aluminium into solution as well as the disappearance of sodalite bands and peaks in infrared and X-ray diffraction data. The dissolution of these mineral phases increases the amount of available iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxide sites that are accessible for the adsorption of fluoride. However, concentrated acids have a negative effect on adsorption due to the dissolution of these iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxide sites. The removal of fluoride is dependent on the charge of iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxides on the surface of red mud. Acidifying red mud with hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acid resulted in surface sites of the form ≡SOH2(+) and ≡SOH. Optimum removal is obtained when the majority of surface sites are in the form ≡SOH2(+) as the substitution of a fluoride ion does not cause a significant increase in pH. This investigation shows the importance of having a low and consistent pH for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions using red mud.

  17. Kinetics of sorption of niobium ions by anion-exchangers from mixed chloride-fluoride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Rychkov, V.N.; Pakholkov, V.S.; Kuznetsova, L.D.

    1987-08-10

    The authors showed earlier on the basis of experimental and calculated data obtained in studies of ion-exchange equilibrium that the sorbability and composition of sorbed niobium ions are determined by the content of hydrofluoric acid in mixed chloride-fluoride solutions. Variation of the ionic state of niobium in these solutions should also influence the rate of ion exchange. In this communication they examine the results of a study of the kinetics of exchange of niobium ions on AV-17 x 8, EDE-10P, and AN-2F anion-exchange resins in fluoride-containing solutions. Kinetic curves for sorption of niobium ions and the results of their evaluation are presented.

  18. Calcium fluoride formation on sound enamel using fluoride solutions with and without lactate.

    PubMed

    Harding, A M; Zero, D T; Featherstone, J D; McCormack, S M; Shields, C P; Proskin, H M

    1994-01-01

    The formation of calcium (Ca) fluoride (CaF2) on bovine enamel blocks during clinically relevant treatment times using neutral fluoride (F) solutions (0.26 mol/l F) with and without 0.1 mol/l lactate was investigated. Uncoated and pellicle-coated blocks were evaluated for alkali-soluble (1 mol/l KOH, three consecutive 24-hour treatments) Ca, PO4, and F after treatment by the F solutions for 0, 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. There was an overall time-related increase in F recovery, while Ca tended to remain at baseline levels. Less F was recovered from the pellicle-coated blocks. The addition of lactate to the F treatment solution did not result in an overall increase in alkali-soluble F recovery, but did result in the formation of cuboidal shaped crystals which closely approached the morphology of pure CaF2. A 1:2 stoichiometric ratio Ca:2F (mol:mol) was not established based on chemical analyses. The ultrastructural and elemental composition of surface deposits on the samples, as determined using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy, established the presence of CaF2 after 24-hour F treatments; however, it was not possible to directly demonstrate the formation of CaF2 after clinically relevant treatment times.

  19. Phytic acid plus calcium, but not phytic acid alone, decreases fluoride bioavailability in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Cerklewski, F.L. )

    1991-03-15

    Results of in vitro studies have suggested that fluoride becomes insoluble when some soy-based infant formulas are diluted with fluoridated water because of the presence of phytate, added calcium or a combination of these factors. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis in vivo. Male albino rats were fed a purified diet containing phytic acid, calcium and fluoride for 4 weeks in a factorial design of treatments. Phytic acid was added to the diet by chemically reacting a phytic acid concentrate with casein prior to diet preparation to mimic a soy-protein. Food intake, weight gain and femur P were unaffected by dietary treatments. Both phytic acid and supplemental calcium alone had little or no effect upon fluoride uptake into either bone or teeth. The combination of phytic acid plus supplemental calcium, however, significantly increased % of fluoride intake found in the feces which was reflected in a significant decrease in fluoride concentration of femur, 2nd molar teeth and vertebrate bone. These results provide evidence that insoluble complex formation produced by a calcium and phytate interaction can explain reduced fluoride solubility in some soy-based infant formulas as well as decreased fluoride absorbability in vivo.

  20. Sulfonyl Fluoride Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Alapafuja, Shakiru O.; Nikas, Spyros P.; Bharatan, Indu; Shukla, Vidyanand G.; Nasr, Mahmoud L.; Bowman, Anna L.; Zvonok, Nikolai; Li, Jing; Shi, Xiaomeng; Engen, John R.; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    Sulfonyl fluorides are known to inhibit esterases. Early work from our laboratory has identified hexadecyl sulfonylfluoride (AM374) as a potent in vitro and in vivo inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). We now report on later generation sulfonyl fluoride analogs that exhibit potent and selective inhibition of FAAH. Using recombinant rat and human FAAH we show that 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)pentanesulfonyl fluoride (AM3506) has similar inhibitory activity for both the rat and the human enzyme, while rapid dilution assays and mass spectrometry analysis suggest that the compound is a covalent modifier for FAAH and inhibits its action in an irreversible manner. Our SAR results are highlighted by molecular docking of key analogs. PMID:23083016

  1. PRODUCTION OF THORIUM FLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Zachariasen, W.H.

    1959-08-11

    A process is presented for producing anhydrous thorium fluoride comprising the step of contacting a saturated aqueous solution of thorium nitrate with an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid having a concentration of about 45 to 50% by weight at a temperature above 70 deg C whereby anhydrous thorium fluoride precipitates.

  2. Evaluation of acquired acid resistance of enamel surrounding orthodontic brackets irradiated by laser and fluoride application.

    PubMed

    Fekrazad, Reza; Ebrahimpour, Leila

    2014-11-01

    Demineralization of enamel around orthodontic brackets is a clinical problem which can lead to some esthetic concerns like white spot lesions. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the Er, Cr:YSGG laser and fluoride application on the acid resistance of enamel adjacent to orthodontic brackets. A total of 60 healthy, permanent, human premolars were selected and bonded with brackets, then they were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 15): topical APF gel (1.23% F, pH 3.5, for 4 min); Er,Cr:YSGG laser (P:0.25 W, E:12.5 mJ, RR:20 Hz, PD:140 μs, 11% air, without water, for 10 s); fluoride + laser group (F + L), and control group (C). All specimens were demineralized for 10 days in a 0.2 M acetate buffer solution, and the calcium content were subsequently determined with atomic absorption spectrometry. There were significant differences between the calcium content of F + L and F group in comparison to control group. The least concentration of calcium was seen in F + L group, and the most value was observed in C group. Combination of Er, Cr:YSGG laser with fluoride and fluoride alone decreased enamel solubility significantly more than laser alone. In addition, combination of laser and fluoride leads to less consumption of fluoride amount. And patients can use it at the beginning of treatment instead of daily use of fluoride. So we suggest using it in preventing enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets.

  3. The effect of topical fluorides, after acid etching of enamel, on the bond strength of directly bonded orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Hirce, J D; Sather, A H; Chao, E Y

    1980-10-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of topical fluoride can be realized without reducing the bond strength of the resin adhesive. Twenty-eight groups of four teeth (third molars and premolars) were extracted from twenty-eight patients and stored in distilled water. Twin brackets on Ormesh pads were bonded to all teeth with Endur adhesive. One tooth from each group was bonded according to the manufacturer's instructions. These teeth, Subgroup I, served as controls. Subgroup II teeth were etched for 4 minutes with 50% phosphoric acid containing 2 percent sodium fluoride. Subgroup III teeth received a 3-minute application of a basic phosphate fluoride solution (10(-2)M NA3PO4, 10(3) ppm F) after 1 minute of etching with 50 percent phosphoric acid. Subgroup IV teeth received a 4-minute application of 8 percent stannous fluoride solution after 1 minute of etching with 50 percent phosphoric acid. Each tooth was mounted in a block of improved dental stone; guide wires were used to reproduce bracket orientation. The M.T.S. materials-testing apparatus was used to generate a torsional moment on the bracket at a rate of 1 degree per second. Fluoride uptake by enamel has been shown to be greater in an acid medium or after acid etching. The application of directly bonded orthodontic brackets and pit-and-fissure sealants requires acid etching of the enamel surface. This study supports the use of topical fluoride after acid etching, a procedure that achieves the benefits of increased fluoride uptake without changing the bond strength of the resin adhesive.

  4. Acid demineralization susceptibility of dental enamel submitted to different bleaching techniques and fluoridation regimens.

    PubMed

    Salomão, Dlf; Santos, Dm; Nogueira, Rd; Palma-Dibb, Rg; Geraldo-Martins, Vr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the acid demineralization susceptibility of bleached dental enamel submitted to different fluoride regimens. One hundred bovine enamel blocks (6×6×3 mm) were randomly divided into 10 groups (n=10). Groups 1 and 2 received no bleaching. Groups 3 to 6 were submitted to an at-home bleaching technique using 6% hydrogen peroxide (HP; G3 and G4) or 10% carbamide peroxide (CP; G5 and G6). Groups 7 to 10 were submitted to an in-office bleaching technique using 35% HP (G7 and G8) or 35% CP (G9 and G10). During bleaching, a daily fluoridation regimen of 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF) solution was performed on groups 3, 5, 7, and 9, while weekly fluoridation with a 2% NaF gel was performed on groups 4, 6, 8, and 10. The samples in groups 2 to 10 were pH cycled for 14 consecutive days. The samples from all groups were then assessed by cross-sectional Knoop microhardness at different depths from the outer enamel surface. The average Knoop hardness numbers (KHNs) were compared using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (α=0.05). The comparison between groups 1 and 2 showed that the demineralization method was effective. The comparison among groups 2 to 6 showed the same susceptibility to acid demineralization, regardless of the fluoridation method used. However, the samples from groups 8 and 10 showed more susceptibility to acid demineralization when compared with group 2 (p<0.05). Groups 7 and 9 provided similar results to group 2, but the results of those groups were different when compared with groups 8 and 10. The use of 6% HP and 10% CP associated with daily or weekly fluoridation regimens did not increase the susceptibility of enamel to acid demineralization. However, the use of 35% HP and 35% CP must be associated with a daily fluoridation regimen, otherwise the in-office bleaching makes the bleached enamel more susceptible to acid demineralization.

  5. The interaction of zinc oxide-based dental cements with aqueous solutions of potassium fluoride.

    PubMed

    Pawluk, K; Booth, S E; Coleman, N J; Nicholson, J W

    2008-09-01

    The ability of zinc oxide-based dental cements (zinc phosphate and zinc polycarboxylate) to take up fluoride from aqueous solution has been studied. Only zinc phosphate cement was found to take up any measurable fluoride after 5 h exposure to the solutions. The zinc oxide filler of the zinc phosphate also failed to take up fluoride from solution. The key interaction for this uptake was thus shown to involve the phosphate groups of the set cement. However, whether this took the form of phosphate/fluoride exchange, or the formation of oxyfluoro-phosphate groups was not clear. Fluoride uptake followed radicaltime kinetics for about 2 h in some cases, but was generally better modelled by the Elovich equation, dq(t)/dt = alpha exp(-betaq(t)). Values for alpha varied from 3.80 to 2.48 x 10(4), and for beta from 7.19 x 10(-3) to 0.1946, though only beta showed any sort of trend, becoming smaller with increasing fluoride concentration. Fluoride was released from the zinc phosphate cements in processes that were diffusion based up to M(t)/M(infinity) of about 0.4. No further release occurred when specimens were placed in fresh volumes of deionised water. Only a fraction of the fluoride taken up was re-released, demonstrating that most of the fluoride taken up becomes irreversibly bound within the cement.

  6. Effect of fluoride on the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on acid-etched human enamel.

    PubMed

    Fan, Y; Sun, Z; Moradian-Oldak, J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride ion concentration on the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on acid-etched enamel as a model for tooth enamel erosion. Samples were immersed in calcification solution for 16 h and changes in crystal morphology were monitored by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Without fluoride, plate-like octacalcium phosphate crystals (20 nm thick, 2-10 microm wide) were formed. With 1-10 mg/l fluoride, arrays of denser needle-like nanocrystals (20-30 nm wide, >500 nm in length) were formed. We conclude that there is a minimal fluoride concentration (1 mg/l) that dramatically affects the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on etched enamel in vitro.

  7. Effect of Fluoride on the Morphology of Calcium Phosphate Crystals Grown on Acid-Etched Human Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Y.; Sun, Z.; Moradian-Oldak, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride ion concentration on the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on acid-etched enamel as a model for tooth enamel erosion. Samples were immersed in calcification solution for 16 h and changes in crystal morphology were monitored by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Without fluoride, plate-like octacalcium phosphate crystals (20 nm thick, 2–10 μm wide) were formed. With 1–10 mg/l fluoride, arrays of denser needle-like nanocrystals (20–30 nm wide, >500 nm in length) were formed. We conclude that there is a minimal fluoride concentration (1 mg/l) that dramatically affects the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on etched enamel in vitro. PMID:19321991

  8. Topical fluoride application is able to reduce acid susceptibility of restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Cheng, Hui; Wiegand, Annette; Attin, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of topical fluoride application on the acid susceptibility of restorative materials. Four restorative materials were investigated in this study: 2 composite resins (Tetric EvoCeram and Filtek Silorane), a polyacid-modified resin composite (Dyract Extra), and a conventional glass-ionomer cement (Ketac Fil Plus). The samples were treated once with 1 of 8 different fluoride solutions (TiF4, NaF, AmF, and SnF2, each at native pH or pH 4) for 3 min or remained untreated (control). The samples were then eroded by citric acid (pH 2.6) for 5 days (6×1 min daily). Erosive substance loss, surface topographic and compositional changes were investigated using surface profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively, after fluoride pretreatment and after erosion. The results indicate high-concentrated AmF solution at native pH was effective in inhibiting erosion in the conventional glass-ionomer cement and polyacid-modified resin composite.

  9. Retention of fluoride ions from aqueous solution using porous hydroxyapatite. Structure and conduction properties.

    PubMed

    Hammari, L E L; Laghzizil, A; Barboux, P; Lahlil, K; Saoiabi, A

    2004-10-18

    Synthetic porous calcium hydroxyapatite (noted p-HAp) treated with different fluoride concentrations at room temperature in the presence of carbonate, sodium chloride and phosphate-rich media was investigated. The fluoridation rate of the porous calcium hydroxyapatite was 89% using 1 mol/L [F(-)] solution compared with 30% for crystalline hydroxyapatite (c-HAp). The high specific surface area of p-HAp (235 m(2)g(-1)) compared with c-HAp sample (47 m(2)g(-1)) has an important effect on the removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution, when p-HAp was treated with high fluoride concentration to produce calcium fluorohydroxyapatite materials. Fluoride adsorption on porous hydroxyapatites (p-HAp) modified their structural and conduction properties.

  10. Effect of fluoride concentration in adhesives on morphology of acid-base resistant zones.

    PubMed

    Kirihara, Masaru; Inoue, Go; Nikaido, Toru; Ikeda, Masaomi; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of fluoride concentration in adhesives on morphology of acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ). Seven experimental adhesives with different concentrations of NaF (0 wt%; F0 to 100 wt%: F100) were prepared based on the formulation of a commercially available adhesive (Clearfil Protect Bond, F100). The resin-dentin interface of the bonded specimen was subjected to demineralizing solution and NaOCl, sectioned, polished and argon-ion etched for SEM observation. Fluoride release from each adhesive was measured using an ion-selective electrode. Fluoride ion release from the adhesive linearly increased with higher NaF concentration. The ABRZ area increased significantly with higher NaF concentration except for F0, F10, and F20 (p<0.05). F100 showed the largest ABRZ, where a slope of acid-resistant dentin was clearly observed at the bottom of the ABRZ. The concentration of NaF in the two-step self-etching adhesive resin influenced the amount of dentin structure remaining after acid-challenge.

  11. Brushing abrasion of eroded dentin after application of sodium fluoride solutions.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Zirkel, C; Hellwig, E

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of sodium fluoride solutions on brushing abrasion of eroded dentin. Dentin specimens were prepared from 60 bovine incisors. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin, ground flat, polished and subsequently covered with tape exposing an area of 1.8 mm x 10.0 mm in the center of the exposed dentin. The samples were alternatingly stored in a demineralizing solution (5 min) and a remineralizing solution (1 min) for 5 times. The erosive soft drink Sprite light(R) served as a demineralizing solution and artificial saliva was used as a remineralizing solution. Prior to storage in artificial saliva 15 specimens were each treated for 1 min with 250 and 2,000 ppm fluoride solution, respectively. Fifteen specimens were treated with distilled water instead of the fluoride solution (= eroded controls). The remaining samples were neither eroded with the soft drink nor fluoridated (= uneroded controls). After each immersion in artificial saliva the specimens were submitted to abrasion in a toothbrushing machine. After 5 demineralization-remineralization brushing cycles the total amount of tooth wear due to erosion and subsequent abrasion was profilometrically evaluated. Statistical analysis revealed the significantly lowest wear in the uneroded controls and the highest amount of abrasion in the eroded controls. Application of the fluoride solutions increased the wear resistance of the eroded dentin specimens, showing significantly better protection by the high-concentration compared to the low-concentration solution. The susceptibility to abrasion of the eroded dentin specimens treated with the high-concentration fluoride solution did not differ significantly from the uneroded dentin samples. It is concluded that application of 2,000 ppm sodium fluoride solutions immediately before toothbrushing significantly reduces abrasion of eroded dentin in vitro.

  12. Structure of artificial enamel lesions after topical applications of high-concentration sodium fluoride solution in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wen, H B; Cui, F Z; Chen, X Q; Wang, Q; Li, H D

    1995-01-01

    A three-layer structure, including a columnar layer (CL), a buffer layer, and unaffected intact enamel, was successively formed from the outer to the inner part of artificial enamel lesions (AEL) by topical applications of a high-concentration acidic sodium fluoride solution (10,000 ppm, pH 5.6) in vitro. The AEL was produced in bovine enamel that was decalcified for 5 days in a lactic acid gel system. The morphological observations by using scanning electron microscopy showed that the CL was made of columnar deposits of small globules about 0.5 microns in diameter. It was observed for the first time that small globules filled the demineralized interprismatic regions in the buffer layer. The unaffected intact enamel was protected from further demineralization under the acidic condition. Structure and composition of the CL were investigated by using X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In the CL the atomic ratio was Ca:P = 12.6 and Ca:F = 0.75, and the small globules were mainly a mixture of polycrystalline calcium fluoride and hydroxyapatite. For comparison, the sound enamel and the AEL attained by applications of 0 and 100 ppm acidic sodium fluoride solutions (pH 5.6) were also investigated. The formation mechanism of the three-layer structure and the related cariostatic effects are discussed.

  13. Effect of fluoride in phosphate buffer solution on bonding to artificially carious enamel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Shimada, Yasushi; Tagami, Junji

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride on resin bonding to artificially carious enamel. Specimens from demineralized human enamel sections were prepared using two commercially available adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray; Single Bond, 3M) and a composite resin (Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray) according to manufacturers' instructions. They were then immersed in phosphate buffered saline solution with varied fluoride concentrations at 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 10 ppm. After immersion in each solution for one, three, or seven days, microshear bond strength was measured. The bond strengths of both adhesive systems to artificially carious enamel significantly increased after immersion in fluoride-phosphate buffer solution. Based on the findings obtained, we thus proposed not to remove the white enamel lesions for bonding in the clinic. They might be preserved and treated using fluoride applications.

  14. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT LEAD (II) IN POTABLE WATER? HEXAFLUOROSILICATE AND FLUORIDE EQUILIBRIA IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reports have attempted to show that fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of hexafluorosilicate hydrolysi...

  15. Hydrogen absorption of titanium and nickel-titanium alloys during long-term immersion in neutral fluoride solution.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Ken'ichi; Ogawa, Toshio; Asaoka, Kenzo; Sakai, Jun'ichi

    2006-07-01

    Hydrogen absorption of biomedical titanium and Ni-Ti alloys in a neutral fluoride (2.0% NaF) solution for up to 10,000 h at 37 degrees C has been evaluated by means of hydrogen thermal desorption analysis. For alpha titanium (commercial pure titanium), the amount of absorbed hydrogen was, at most, 10-30 mass ppm, and the corrosion product and hydride formation were revealed on the surface of the specimen by X-ray diffraction analysis. Ni-Ti superelastic alloy absorbed approximately 150 mass ppm of hydrogen, which was probably sufficient to result in the pronounced degradation of the mechanical properties, although corrosion was hardly observed. In contrast, hydrogen absorption of alpha-beta titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) and beta titanium (Ti-11.3Mo-6.6Zr-4.3Sn) alloys was negligible, although general corrosion was observed. The results of the present study indicate that the susceptibility of titanium and Ni-Ti alloys to hydrogen absorption in the neutral fluoride solution is different from that in the acidic fluoride solution reported previously.

  16. Fluoride adsorption from aqueous solution by magnetic core-shell Fe3O4@alginate-La particles fabricated via electro-coextrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yahui; Lin, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Quisheng; Luo, Xuegang

    2016-12-01

    The magnetic core-shell Fe3O4@Alg-La particles were fabricated successfully by a simple method of electro-coextrusion, and employed as an adsorbent for separation of fluoride from aqueous solution. Main factors affecting the removal of fluoride, including pH, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, temperature and contact time were investigated. The adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetics were studied to understand the adsorption process in detail. The experimental data were fitted well by the non-linear Freundlich isotherm and linear pseudo-second-order model, the maximum fluoride adsorption capacity was 45.230 mg/g at pH 4, 298.15 K. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the fluoride adsorption process was feasible and spontaneous. The presence of other anions like Cl-, SO42-, HCO3- and PO43- had almost no effect on the fluoride adsorption. The adsorbent can be easily separated from the solution by a magnet. The magnetic core-shell Fe3O4@Alg-La particles before and after fluoride adsorption were studied by SEM, FTIR, EDX and XPS, which indicated that the adsorption mechanism may be related to electrostatic attraction and Lewis acid-base interaction.

  17. Fluoride removal from groundwater by limestone treatment in presence of phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Sweety; Nath, Suresh K; Bordoloi, Shreemoyee; Dutta, Robin K

    2015-04-01

    Fluoride removal from groundwater has been studied by addition of dilute phosphoric acid (PA) to the influent water before limestone treatment through laboratory plug-flow column experiments and bench-scale plug-flow pilot tests. In this PA-enhanced limestone defluoridation (PAELD) technique, fluoride is removed from 0.526 mM to 0.50-52.60 μM in 3 h with near neutral final pH. The presence of PA increases the fluoride removal capacity of limestone to 1.10 mg/g compared to 0.39 mg/g reported in its absence. The changes in fluoride removal with variation in initial PA concentration, initial fluoride concentration and the final pH have been found to be statistically significant with p < 0.05. The estimated recurring cost is US$ ≈0.58/m(3) water. Simple scrubbing and rinsing is a preferable method for regeneration of limestone as it is almost equally effective with lime or NaOH. Sorption of fluoride by calcium phosphates produced in situ in the reactor is the dominant mechanism of fluoride removal in the PAELD. Precipitation of CaF2 and sorption of fluoride by the limestone also contribute to the fluoride removal. High efficiency, capacity, safety, environment-friendliness, low cost and simplicity of operation make the PAELD a potential technique for rural application.

  18. Discoloration and dissolution of titanium and titanium alloys with immersion in peroxide- or fluoride-containing solutions.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Tatsumi; Takemoto, Shinji; Hattori, Masayuki; Yoshinari, Masao; Kawada, Eiji; Oda, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    This study compared differences in discoloration and dissolution in several titanium alloys with immersion in peroxide- or fluoride-containing solution. Commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and six titanium-based alloys were used: Ti-0.15Pd, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-7Nb-6Al, Ti-55Ni, Ti-10Cu, and Ti-20Cr. Two test solutions were prepared for immersion of polished titanium and titanium alloys: one consisting of 0.2% NaF + 0.9% NaCl (pH 3.8 with lactic acid) and the other of 0.1 mol/l H2O2 + 0.9% NaCl (pH 5.5). Following immersion, color changes were determined with a color meter and released elements were measured using ICP-OES. Discoloration and dissolution rates differed between the two solutions. In the hydrogen peroxide-containing solution, color difference was higher in Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V than in any of the other alloys, and that Ti-55Ni showed the highest degree of dissolution. In the acidulated fluoride-containing solution, CP-Ti, Ti-0.15Pd, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-7Nb-6Al, and Ti-10Cu alloys showed remarkable discoloration and dissolution with immersion. On the contrary, Ti-20Cr alloy showed very little discoloration and dissolution in either solution.

  19. Effect of temperature on the complexation of Uranium(VI) with fluoride in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Guoxin; Rao, Linfeng

    2009-05-18

    Complexation of U(VI) with fluoride at elevated temperatures in aqueous solutions was studied by spectrophotometry. Four successive complexes, UO{sub 2}F{sup +}, UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}(aq), UO{sub 2}F{sub 3}{sup -}, and UO{sub 2}F{sub 4}{sup 2-}, were identified, and the stability constants at 25, 40, 55, and 70 C were calculated. The stability of the complexes increased as the temperature was elevated. The enthalpies of complexation at 25 C were determined by microcalorimetry. Thermodynamic parameters indicate that the complexation of U(VI) with fluoride in aqueous solutions at 25 to 70 C is slightly endothermic and entropy-driven. The Specific Ion Interaction (SIT) approach was used to obtain the thermodynamic parameters of complexation at infinite dilution. Structural information on the U(VI)/fluoride complexes was obtained by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

  20. Application of a new adsorbent for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Srivastav, Arun Lal; Singh, Prabhat K; Srivastava, Varsha; Sharma, Yogesh C

    2013-12-15

    Hydrous bismuth oxides (HBOs) have been investigated as a possible adsorbent for fluoride removal from water. Apart from bismuth trioxide (Bi2O3) compound, three additional HBOs, named as HBO1, HBO2, and HBO3 were synthesized in the laboratory and examined for their relative potentials for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. HBO1 was observed to have highest fluoride removal at 10mg/L initial concentration in aqueous environment. Among competitive anions, sulfate and chloride affect the fluoride removal by HBO1 more adversely than bicarbonate. Characterization of HBOs using X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analyses indicated crystalline structures, and the broad chemical composition of materials showed successive increase of Bi(OH)3 from HBO1 to HBO3, with decrease of BiOCl in the same order. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses indicated presence of Bi-O bond and successively increasing number of peaks corresponding to OH ion from HBO1 to HBO3. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) images of HBOs show rough and porous structure of the materials. Presence of higher proportion of chloride compound in HBO1 with respect to others appears to be the factor responsible for its better performance in fluoride removal from aqueous solutions.

  1. Biochar enhances Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization by increasing organic acid production and alleviating fluoride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2014-05-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F(-)) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F(-) adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F(-) released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F(-) while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F(-) measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F(-) per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter(-1) to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F(-) sink during RP solubilization and led to an F(-) concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F(-) and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F(-), the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP.

  2. Graft polymerization of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) powder in presence of metallic salt and sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Bo; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Bowu; Yang, Xuanxuan; Li, Linfan; Yu, Ming; Li, Jingye

    2011-02-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder was grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) or methacrylic acid (MAA) by the pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization technique. The presence of graft chains was proven by FT-IR spectroscopy. The degree of grafting (DG) was calculated by the acid-base back titration method. The synergistic effect of acid and Mohr's salt on the grafting kinetics was examined. The results indicated that adding sulfuric acid and Mohr's salt simultaneously in AAc or MAA solutions led to a strong enhancement in the degree of grafting. The grafted PVDF powder was cast into microfiltration (MF) membranes using the phase inversion method and some properties of the obtained MF membranes were characterized.

  3. PRECIPITATION OF ZIRCONIUM AND FLUORIDE IONS FROM SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Newby, B.J.

    1963-06-11

    A process is given for removing zirconium and fluorine ions from aqueous solutions also containing uranium(VI). The precipitation is carried out with sodium formate, and the uranium remains in solution. (AEC)

  4. METHOD FOR DISSOLVING LANTHANUM FLUORIDE CARRIER FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Koshland, D.E. Jr.; Willard, J.E.

    1961-08-01

    A method is described for dissolving lanthanum fluoride precipitates which is applicable to lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitation processes for recovery of plutonium values from aqueous solutions. The lanthanum fluoride precipitate is contacted with an aqueous acidic solution containing dissolved zirconium in the tetravalent oxidation state. The presence of the zirconium increases the lanthanum fluoride dissolved and makes any tetravalent plutonium present more readily oxidizable to the hexavalent state. (AEC)

  5. Ion spatial distributions at the liquid-vapor interface of aqueous potassium fluoride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M A; D'Auria, R; Kuo, I W; Krisch, M J; Starr, D E; Bluhm, H; Tobias, D J; Hemminger, J C

    2008-04-23

    X-ray photoemission spectroscopy operating under ambient pressure conditions is used to probe ion distributions throughout the interfacial region of a free-flowing aqueous liquid micro-jet of 6 M potassium fluoride. Varying the energy of the ejected photoelectrons by carrying out experiments as a function of x-ray wavelength measures the composition of the aqueous-vapor interfacial region at various depths. The F{sup -} to K{sup +} atomic ratio is equal to unity throughout the interfacial region to a depth of 2 nm. The experimental ion profiles are compared with the results of a classical molecular dynamics simulation of a 6 M aqueous KF solution employing polarizable potentials. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the simulations when integrated over an exponentially decaying probe depth characteristic of an APPES experiment. First principles molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate the potential of mean force for moving a fluoride anion across the air-water interface. The results show that the fluoride anion is repelled from the interface, and this is consistent with the depletion of F{sup -} at the interface revealed by the APPES experiment and polarizable force field-based molecular dynamics simulation. Together, the APPES and MD simulation data provide a detailed description of the aqueous-vapor interface of alkali fluoride systems. This work offers the first direct observation of the ion distribution at a potassium fluoride aqueous solution interface. The current experimental results are compared to those previously obtained for saturated solutions of KBr and KI to underscore the strong difference in surface propensity between soft/large and hard/small halide ions in aqueous solution.

  6. Ion spatial distributions at the liquid-vapor interface of aqueous potassium fluoride solutions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew A; D'Auria, Raffaella; Kuo, I-F William; Krisch, Maria J; Starr, David E; Bluhm, Hendrik; Tobias, Douglas J; Hemminger, John C

    2008-08-28

    X-Ray photoemission spectroscopy operating under ambient pressure conditions is used to probe ion distributions throughout the interfacial region of a free-flowing aqueous liquid micro-jet of 6 M potassium fluoride. Varying the energy of the ejected photoelectrons by carrying out experiments as a function of X-ray wavelength measures the composition of the aqueous-vapor interfacial region at various depths. The F(-) to K(+) atomic ratio is equal to unity throughout the interfacial region to a depth of 2 nm. The experimental ion profiles are compared with the results of a classical molecular dynamics simulation of a 6 M aqueous KF solution employing polarizable potentials. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the simulations when integrated over an exponentially decaying probe depth characteristic of an APPES experiment. First principles molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate the potential of mean force for moving a fluoride anion across the air-water interface. The results show that the fluoride anion is repelled from the interface, consistent with the depletion of F(-) at the interface revealed by the APPES experiment and polarizable force field-based molecular dynamics simulation. Together, the APPES and MD simulation data provide a detailed description of the aqueous-vapor interface of alkali fluoride systems. This work offers the first direct observation of the ion distribution at an aqueous potassium fluoride solution interface. The current experimental results are compared to those previously obtained for saturated solutions of KBr and KI to underscore the strong difference in surface propensity between soft/large and hard/small halide ions in aqueous solution.

  7. Study of actinide chemistry in saturated potassium fluoride solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, D.; Thalmayer, C. E.

    1969-01-01

    Study concerning the chemistry of actinides in saturated KF solution included work with neptunium, uranium, and americium. Solubilities, absorption spectra, oxidation-reduction reactions, and solid compounds which can be produced in KF solution were examined. The information is used for preparation of various materials from salts of the actinides.

  8. Enamel subsurface lesion remineralisation with casein phosphopeptide stabilised solutions of calcium, phosphate and fluoride.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, N J; Saranathan, S; Cai, F; Cross, K J; Reynolds, E C

    2008-01-01

    Casein phosphopeptide stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate (CPP-ACFP) solutions have been shown to remineralise enamel subsurface lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ion composition of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP solutions on enamel subsurface lesion remineralisation in vitro. CPP-bound and free calcium, phosphate and fluoride ion concentrations in the solutions were determined after ultrafiltration. The ion activities of the free ion species present were calculated using an iterative computational program. The mineral deposited in the subsurface lesions was analysed using transverse microradiography and electron microprobe. CPP was found to stabilise high concentrations of calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions at all pH values (7.0-4.5). Remineralisation of the subsurface lesions was observed at all pH values tested with a maximum at pH 5.5. The CPP-ACFP solutions produced greater remineralisation than the CPP-ACP solutions at pH 5.5 and below. The mineral formed in the subsurface lesions was consistent with hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite for remineralisation with CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP, respectively. The activity gradient of the neutral ion pair CaHPO(4)(0) into the lesion was significantly correlated with remineralisation and together with HF(0) were identified as important species for diffusion.

  9. Effects of fluoride treatment on phosphoric acid-etching in primary teeth: an AFM observation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Samjin; Rhee, Yeri; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Gi-Ja; Kim, Kyung-Sook; Park, Jae-Hong; Park, Young-Guk; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride application on 37% phosphoric acid-etching by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in primary tooth samples based on a clinical protocol used in a pediatric dental hospital. Enamel samples were prepared from 36 exfoliated and non-carious primary teeth. Primary tooth samples were randomly assigned to one of the four groups based on the timing of acid-etching with 37% phosphoric acid after an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) pre-treatment. Group 1 received no fluoride application, Group 2 was pre-treated with fluoride and then received acid-etching 2 weeks later. One week separated the fluoride treatment and the acid-etching in Group 3, while Group 4 received acid-etching immediately after the fluoride treatment. The vestibular enamel surfaces of each primary tooth sample were scanned in air at a resolution of 512 x 512 pixels and a scan speed of 0.8 line/s. On the enamel surfaces of the primary teeth after APF pre-treatment, debris were observed although the teeth were smoother than they were prior to APF. As a result, it was concluded that APF treatment is responsible for decreased primary tooth surface roughness. The enamel surfaces etched for 20s showed that acid-etching was effective not only in removing scratches and debris, but also for evaluating enamel rod characteristics. Primary tooth enamel surfaces after etching showed minute structures caused by the decreased hydroxyapatite nanoparticle space, compared to those before etching. Also, acid-etching showed significantly increased roughness effects (p<0.0001, n=9). Finally, as more time elapsed after APF pre-treatment, the roughness was decreased to a lesser degree (p=0.005, n=9). We suggest that primary teeth etching 2 weeks after APF pre-treatment used clinically in pediatric hospitals may be effective to obtain properly etched enamel surfaces.

  10. Fluorescent molecule incorporated metal-organic framework for fluoride sensing in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xudong; Wang, Yuanyang; Hao, Xiuli; Liu, Wen

    2017-04-01

    In this work, the fluorescent molecule (fluorescein sodium, FS) was successfully incorporated in the zirconium-based MOF (UiO-66) via in-situ synthesis method, which can be confirmed by FTIR spectra and fluorescence microscopic images. Based on this in-situ synthesis strategy, FS molecule can be immobilized tightly in the framework. Furthermore, the resulting FS@UiO-66 demonstrates to be a highly selective, real-time and naked-eye chemical sensor for fluoride in aqueous solution, which is mainly due to the release of FS molecule from FS@UiO-66 into the aqueous solution. Meanwhile, to the best of our knowledge, such Zr-MOF-based fluoride sensor is very rare so far. These results provide a promising approach to rationally design novel MOF-based fluorescent sensor for the target molecules.

  11. Fluoride removal from aqueous solution by Al(III)-Zr(IV) binary oxide adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiuya; Lin, Xiaoyan; Wu, Pengwei; Zhou, Qiusheng; Luo, Xuegang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a novel binary oxide adsorbent of Al2O3-ZrO2 was prepared via coprecipitation followed by calcination method, and the calcination temperatures were investigated. The adsorbent was characterized by XRD, EDX and XPS. The batch adsorption experiments were carried out at different parameters, such as solution pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial fluoride concentration and adsorption temperature, to evaluate the fluoride removal performance. The results showed that the adsorption isotherm was better described by the linear Langmuir model, and a maximum adsorption capacity was 114.54 mg/g. The adsorption kinetics was well fitted by the linear pseudo-second-order, and the correlation coefficient value (R2) was 0.997. The thermodynamic parameters of ΔH0, ΔS0 and ΔG0 were calculated, which showed that the fluoride adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. And the possible adsorption mechanism of the adsorbent for fluoride could involve the ligand-exchange and ion-exchange based on the results in the study.

  12. Effects of the addition of fluoride to a 4-META/MMA-TBB-based resin adhesive on fluoride release, acid resistance of enamel and shear bond strength in vitro.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Masahiro; Ito, Shuichi; Nakagaki, Susumu; Muguruma, Takeshi; Kohda, Naohisa; Saito, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated fluoride release, acid resistance and shear bond strength (SBS) of new 4-META/MMA-TBB-based fluoride-containing resin adhesive (Super-Bond/F3). Super-Bond, Transbond Plus and Fuji Ortho LC were selected for comparison. Fluoride release into distilled water during 6-month period was measured using disk-shaped specimens. Brackets were bonded to human premolars with each material and then the specimens for the nanoindentation test were subjected to alternating immersion (demineralizing and remineralizing solutions); the hardness and elastic modulus of the enamel around bracket were determined. Rest of the specimens was subjected to examine the SBS. Super-Bond/F3 and Fuji Ortho LC showed significantly greater fluoride release compared with the other materials. The reductions in hardness and the elastic modulus for Super-Bond/F3 and Fuji Ortho LC were lower than those for the other materilas. Super-Bond and Super-Bond/F3 showed significantly greater SBS than Fuji Ortho FC. In conclusion, Super-Bond/F3 showed high fluoride-release, cariostatic potential and equivalent SBS.

  13. Criticality experiments and analysis of molybdenum reflected cylindrical uranyl fluoride water solution reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fieno, D.; Fox, T.; Mueller, R.

    1972-01-01

    Clean criticality data were obtained from molybdenum-reflected cylindrical uranyl-fluoride-water solution reactors. Using ENDF/B molybdenum cross sections, a nine energy group two-dimensional transport calculation of a reflected reactor configuration predicted criticality to within 7 cents of the experimental value. For these reactors, it was necessary to compute the reflector resonance integral by a detailed transport calculation at the core-reflector interface volume in the energy region of the two dominant resonances of natural molybdenum.

  14. A solution for stripping antibodies from polyvinylidene fluoride immunoblots for multiple reprobing.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Yee-Guide; Stanley, E Richard

    2009-06-01

    Available protocols for stripping antibodies from immunoblots involve the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or low-pH buffers. SDS was shown to remove transferred proteins from membranes, and low-pH buffer was shown to inefficiently strip off antibodies. A solution containing 6M guanidine hydrochloride, 0.2% nondenaturing detergent, and a reducing agent can rapidly strip off tightly bound antibodies from aged polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) immunoblots at room temperature without removing significant amounts of transferred protein.

  15. An experimental study of the solubility and speciation of tantalum in fluoride-bearing aqueous solutions at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, A.; Migdisov, Art. A.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    The solubility of Ta2O5 (solid) and the speciation of tantalum in HF-bearing aqueous solutions have been determined at temperatures of 100-250 °C and vapour-saturated water pressure. Tantalum is transported as the species Ta(OH)50 at low HF concentration and pH ∼1-3. At higher HF concentration, tantalum mobility is controlled by the species TaF3(OH)3- and TaF50; the presence of TaF50 is only evident at ⩽150 °C. Equilibrium constants range from -17.4 ± 0.45 to -16.4 ± 0.12 for the formation of Ta(OH)50 from crystalline Ta2O5 and from -8.24 ± 0.64 to -8.55 ± 0.68 for the formation of TaF3(OH)3- at 100 and 250 °C, respectively. For TaF50, they were determined to be 0.13 at 100 °C and -0.35 at 150 °C. In many respects, the behaviour of tantalum in acidic fluoride-bearing solutions is similar to that of niobium. The solubility of Ta2O5 (solid) is not dependent on HF concentration in fluoride-poor fluids, but rises rapidly at higher HF concentration. However, at the conditions of our experiments, namely a pH of ∼2, temperature up to 250 °C, and a wide range of HF concentrations, Ta2O5 (solid) solubility is almost invariably lower than that of Nb2O5 (solid). Modelling of Nb and Ta leaching confirmed the preferential mobility of niobium under most conditions expected in natural fluoride-rich hydrothermal systems. This modelling also demonstrated that both niobium and tantalum are rapidly deposited upon removal of fluoride from an acidic brine. As a result of hydrothermal alteration, the Nb/Ta ratios of secondary minerals may increase relative to those of the primary mineral, or remain largely unaffected, depending on the pH of the fluid.

  16. Divalent cations enhance fluoride binding to Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis cells and subsequently inhibit bacterial acid production.

    PubMed

    Domon-Tawaraya, H; Nakajo, K; Washio, J; Ashizawa, T; Ichino, T; Sugawara, H; Fukumoto, S; Takahashi, N

    2013-01-01

    One preventive effect of topical fluoride application is derived from the fact that fluoride can inhibit bacterial acid production. Furthermore, divalent cations such as Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) increase the binding of fluoride to bacterial cells. These findings suggest that exposure of oral bacteria to fluoride in the presence of divalent cations increases fluoride binding to bacterial cells and subsequently enhances fluoride-induced inhibition of bacterial acid production. This study investigated the effects of fluoride exposure (0-20,000 ppm F) in the presence of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) prior to glucose challenge on pH fall ability by bacterial sugar fermentation, as well as fluoride binding to bacterial cells by exposure to fluoride, and fluoride release from bacterial cells during bacterial sugar fermentation, using caries-related bacteria, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis. The pH fall by both streptococci was inhibited by exposure to over 250 ppm F in the presence of Ca(2+) (p < 0.01), whereas in the presence of Mg(2+), the pH fall by S. mutans and S. sanguinis was inhibited after exposure to over 250 and 950 ppm F, respectively (p < 0.05). The amounts of fluoride binding to and released from streptococcal cells increased with the concentration of fluoride the cells were exposed to in the presence of Mg(2+), but were high enough even after 250 ppm F exposure in the presence of Ca(2+). The enhanced inhibition of acid production in the presence of divalent cations is probably due to the improved efficiency of fluoride binding to bacterial cells being improved via these divalent cations.

  17. WET FLUORIDE SEPARATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1958-11-25

    The separation of U/sup 233/ from thorium, protactinium, and fission products present in neutron-irradiated thorium is accomplished by dissolving the irradiated materials in aqueous nitric acid, adding either a soluble fluoride, iodate, phosphate, or oxalate to precipltate the thorium, separating the precipltate from the solution, and then precipitating uranlum and protactinium by alkalizing the solution. The uranium and protactinium precipitate is removcd from the solution and dissolved in nitric acid. The uranyl nitrate may then be extracted from the acid solution by means of ether, and the protactinium recovered from the aqueous phase.

  18. Temperature effect on the zeta potential and fluoride adsorption at the alpha-Al2O3/aqueous solution interface.

    PubMed

    López Valdivieso, A; Reyes Bahena, J L; Song, S; Herrera Urbina, R

    2006-06-01

    The effect of temperature and pH on the zeta potential of alpha-Al2O3 and adsorption of fluoride ions at the alpha-Al2O3/aqueous solution interface has been investigated through electrophoretic mobility measurements and adsorption studies, to delineate mechanisms involved in the removal of fluoride ions from water using alumina as adsorbent. When the temperature increases from 10 to 40 degrees C, the pH of the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) shifts to smaller values, indicating proton desorption from the alumina surface. The pH(pzc) increases linearly with 1/T, which allowed estimation of the standard enthalpy change for the surface-deprotonation process. Fluoride ion adsorption follows a Langmuir-type adsorption isotherm and is affected by the electric charge at the alpha-Al2O3/aqueous solution interface and the surface density of hydroxyl groups. Such adsorption occurs through an exchange between fluoride ions and surface-hydroxyl groups and it depends on temperature, pH, and initial fluoride ion concentration. At 25 and 40 degrees C, maximum fluoride adsorption density takes place between pH 5 and 6. Increasing the temperature from 25 to 40 degrees C lowers the adsorption density of fluoride.

  19. The role of fluoride in erosion therapy.

    PubMed

    Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte; Young, Alix; Ganss, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The role of fluoride in erosion therapy has long been questioned. However, recent research has yielded positive results. In this chapter, an overview of the literature is provided regarding the application of fluorides in the prevention and treatment of erosion and erosive wear. The results are presented and discussed for different fluoride sources such as monovalent and polyvalent fluorides, and for different vehicles such as toothpastes, solutions and rinses, as well as varnishes and gels. It is concluded that fluoride applications are very likely to be of use in the preventive treatment of erosive wear. Most promising are high-concentration, acidic formulations and the polyvalent fluoride sources, with the best evidence available for stannous fluoride. However, the evidence base for clinical effectiveness is still small.

  20. Determination of total fluoride in HF/HNO3/H2SiF6 etch solutions by new potentiometric titration methods.

    PubMed

    Weinreich, Wenke; Acker, Jörg; Gräber, Iris

    2007-03-30

    In the photovoltaic industry the etching of silicon in HF/HNO(3) solutions is a decisive process for cleaning wafer surfaces or to produce certain surface morphologies like polishing or texturization. With regard to cost efficiency, a maximal utilisation of etch baths in combination with highest quality and accuracy is strived. To provide an etch bath control realised by a replenishment with concentrated acids the main constituents of these HF/HNO(3) etch solutions including the reaction product H(2)SiF(6) have to be analysed. Two new methods for the determination of the total fluoride content in an acidic etch solution based on the precipitation titration with La(NO(3))(3) are presented within this paper. The first method bases on the proper choice of the reaction conditions, since free fluoride ions have to be liberated from HF and H(2)SiF(6) at the same time to be detected by a fluoride ion-selective electrode (F-ISE). Therefore, the sample is adjusted to a pH of 8 for total cleavage of the SiF(6)(2-) anion and titrated in absence of buffers. In a second method, the titration with La(NO(3))(3) is followed by a change of the pH-value using a HF resistant glass-electrode. Both methods provide consistent values, whereas the analysis is fast and accurate, and thus, applicable for industrial process control.

  1. Corrosion investigations on zircaloy-4 and titanium dissolver materials for MOX fuel dissolution in concentrated nitric acid containing fluoride ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraj, J.; Krishnaveni, P.; Krishna, D. Nanda Gopala; Mallika, C.; Mudali, U. Kamachi

    2016-05-01

    Aqueous reprocessing of plutonium-rich mixed oxide fuels require fluoride as a dissolution catalyst in boiling nitric acid for an effective dissolution of the spent fuel. High corrosion rates were obtained for the candidate dissolver materials zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) and commercial pure titanium (CP-Ti grade 2) in boiling 11.5 M HNO3 + 0.05 M NaF. Complexing the fluoride ions either with Al(NO3)3 or ZrO(NO3)2 aided in decreasing the corrosion rates of Zr-4 and CP-Ti. From the obtained corrosion rates it is concluded that CP-Ti is a better dissolver material than Zr-4 for extended service life in boiling 11.5 M HNO3 + 0.05 M NaF, when complexed with 0.15 M ZrO(NO3)2. XPS analysis confirmed the presence of TiO2 and absence of fluoride on the surface of CP-Ti samples, indicating that effective complexation had occurred in solution leading to passivation of the metal and imparting high corrosion resistance.

  2. Fluoride removal from aqueous solution by direct contact membrane distillation: theoretical and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Boubakri, Ali; Bouchrit, Raja; Hafiane, Amor; Bouguecha, Salah Al-Tahar

    2014-09-01

    Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane was used for fluoride removal from aqueous solution. This study has been carried out on heat and mass transfer analyses in DCMD. The dusty-gas model was used to analyze the mass transfer mechanism and to calculate the permeate flux. The heat transfer is analyzed based on energy balance, and the different layers are considered as a series of thermal resistances. Mass transfer analysis showed that the transition Knudsen-molecular diffusion is the dominant mechanism to describe the transport of water vapor through the pores of the PVDF membrane. The most significant operating parameter is the feed temperature. The permeate increases sensitively with feed temperature and velocity, and it shows insignificant change with feed salts concentration. Heat transfer analysis showed the conduction through the matrix of the membrane presents the major part of available energy. The increasing feed temperature leads to increase thermal efficiency (TE) and decrease temperature polarization coefficient (TPC). The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical values. Therefore, it is suggested to work at high feed temperature, which will benefit both the thermal efficiency and permeate flux. The experimental results proved that DCMD process is able to produce almost fluoride-free water suitable for many beneficial uses.

  3. Corrosion behavior of pure titanium and titanium alloys in fluoride-containing solutions.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, M; Matsuya, S; Udoh, K

    2001-12-01

    The effects of fluoride concentrations and pH on the corrosion behavior of pure titanium, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys and a new Ti alloy adding palladium, which is expected to promote a repassivation of Ti were examined by anodic polarization and corrosion potential measurements. The amount of dissolved Ti was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The surface of the specimen was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy before and after the measurement. Pure Ti, Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys were easily corroded even in a low fluoride concentration in an acidic environment. The corrosion resistance of Ti-0.2Pd alloy was greater than those of pure Ti, Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys in the wide range of pH and fluoride concentrations. The high corrosion resistance of Ti-0.2Pd alloy was caused by the surface enrichment of Pd promoting a repassivation of Ti. The Ti-0.2Pd alloy is expected to be useful as a new Ti alloy with high corrosion resistance in dental use.

  4. Fluoride-sensitivity of growth and acid production of oral Actinomyces: comparison with oral Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Junko; Nakajo, Kazuko; Washio, Jumpei; Mayanagi, Gen; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2013-12-01

    Actinomyces are predominant oral bacteria; however, their cariogenic potential in terms of acid production and fluoride sensitivity has not been elucidated in detail and compared with that of other caries-associated oral bacteria, such as Streptococcus. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate and compare the acid production and growth of Actinomyces and Streptococcus in the presence of bicarbonate and fluoride to mimic conditions in the oral cavity. Acid production from glucose was measured by pH-stat at pH 5.5 and 7.0 under anaerobic conditions. Growth rate was assessed by optical density in anaerobic culture. Although Actinomyces produced acid at a lower rate than did Streptococcus, their acid production was more tolerant of fluoride (IDacid production 50 = 110-170 ppm at pH 7.0 and 10-13 ppm at pH 5.5) than that of Streptococcus (IDacid production 50 = 36-53 ppm at pH 7.0 and 6.3-6.5 ppm at pH 5.5). Bicarbonate increased acid production by Actinomyces with prominent succinate production and enhanced their fluoride tolerance (IDacid production 50 = 220-320 ppm at pH 7.0 and 33-52 ppm at pH 5.5). Bicarbonate had no effect on these variables in Streptococcus. In addition, although the growth rate of Actinomyces was lower than that of Streptococcus, Actinomyces growth was more tolerant of fluoride (IDgrowth 50 = 130-160 ppm) than was that of Streptococcus (IDgrowth 50 = 27-36 ppm). These results indicate that oral Actinomyces are more tolerant of fluoride than oral Streptococcus, and bicarbonate enhances the fluoride tolerance of oral Actinomyces. Because of the limited number of species tested here, further study is needed to generalize these findings to the genus level.

  5. Study of the solubility of petroleum sulfoxides and their extraction from sulfate and fluoride-sulfate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, A.I.; Zalkind, L.M.; Babkin, A.G.; Kasikova, N.I.; Toropov, Y.A.

    1983-02-20

    Study of the influence of the ammonium sulfate and sulfuric and hydrochloric acid concentrations and of temperature on the solubility of petroleum sulfoxides in aqueous solutions showed that the solubility of petroleum sulfoxides is in the range 0.1-2.1 g/liter. The solubility of petroleum sulfoxides under conditions of extraction of metals from fluoride-sulfate solutions was determined with the aid of factorial experimental design. The initial and constant solubilities of petroleum sulfoxides were determined. Washing of the sulfoxides with a 600-fold volume of 1.0 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solution lowers the solubility of petroleum sulfoxides from 1.26-1.02 to 0.12-0.10 g/liter. The conditions for extraction of PSO from aqueous solutions by kerosine were found, and it was shown that under these conditions the extraction of sulfoxides into kerosine reaches 85% in a single stage and more than 96% in three stages.

  6. Purex Processing of Dissolved Sand, Slag, and Crucible Containing High Levels of Boric Acid and Calcium Fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.A.

    1998-05-01

    The plutonium solution obtained from the dissolution of SSC in F- Canyon will be high in fluoride. Flowsheet adjustments must be made to increase the plutonium extraction in the solvent extraction cycle to keep Pu losses from being excessive.

  7. Effects of organic solvent and solution temperature on electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kai; Kim, Han-Ki; Kimura, Naotaka; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Satou, Hidekazu; Lee, Ki-Hoon; Park, Young-Hwan; Kim, Ick-Soo

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoethylene) (PVDF) electrospun fibers were successfully prepared by electrospinning. Processing parameters, such as solvents and solution temperature were varied to study their influence on fiber dimensions. Electrospun PVDF fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The result indicated that the solvent component and temperature have great influence on fiber dimensions. 19% PVDF dissolved in DMF/MEK mixed solvents with the ratio of 8:2 was considered to be most suitable in this study. Furthermore, the increasing of solution temperature can probably induce the formation of beta-phases in electrospun PVDF Fibers.

  8. Study on Fluoride Removal from Aqueous Solutions by a Novel Defluoridation Adsorbent NEWDEF®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chi; Wang, Shui; Cai, An-juan; Wang, Dong; Wang, Wei-Xia; Zhu, Jia-ming; Nong, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Batch experiment was carried out to determine the effectiveness of the novel composite defluorinating agent NEWDEF® for fluoride removal from aqueous solution. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacities for F- were 4.09mg·g-1. Kinetics data obtained for the adsorption process fitted the Lagergren First-order equation. The adsorption kinetics and isotherm were found well fitted by Langmuir isotherm models and a pseudo-second-order kinetic, showing F- removal belonged to monolayer adsorption process. The reaction of F- adsorption from aqueous solutions by NEWDEF® was an endothermic process. Micro-columnand home-used equipment defluoridation test indicated that NEWDEF® can be perfectly suitable defluorinating agent in F- removal for drinking water in small towns.

  9. Tin-containing fluoride solutions as anti-erosive agents in enamel: an in vitro tin-uptake, tissue-loss, and scanning electron micrograph study.

    PubMed

    Schlueter, Nadine; Hardt, Martin; Lussi, Adrian; Engelmann, Frank; Klimek, Joachim; Ganss, Carolina

    2009-08-01

    Tin-containing fluoride solutions can reduce erosive tissue loss, but the effects of the reaction between tin and enamel are still not clear. During a 10-d period, enamel specimens were cyclically demineralized (0.05 M citric acid, pH 2.3, 6 x 5 min d(-1)) and remineralized (between the demineralization cycles and overnight). In the negative-control group, no further treatment was performed. Three groups were treated (2 x 2 min d(-1)) with tin-containing fluoride solutions (400, 1,400 or 2,100 ppm Sn2+, all 1,500 ppm F-, pH 4.5). Three additional groups were treated with test solutions twice daily, but without demineralization. Tissue loss was determined profilometrically. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to measure the tin content on and within three layers (10 mum each) beneath the surface. In addition, scanning electron microscopy was conducted. All test preparations significantly reduced tissue loss. Deposition of tin on surfaces was higher without erosion than with erosion, but no incorporation of tin into enamel was found without demineralization. Under erosive conditions, both highly concentrated solutions led to the incorporation of tin up to a depth of 20 mum; the less-concentrated solution led to small amounts of tin in the outer 10 mum. The efficacy of tin-containing solutions seems to depend mainly on the incorporation of tin into enamel.

  10. The electrochemical behaviour of copper in alkaline solutions containing fluoride, studied by in situ ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlouis, L. E. A.; Mamman, D. A.; Azpuru, I. G.

    1998-06-01

    In situ ellipsometry has been used to reveal a number of interesting features in the growth of passivating films on Cu in 0.1 M KOH containing KF. Fluoride ions are shown to affect the growth of the oxide layer and enhanced dissolution of copper as the Cu II species occurs as a result of stress corrosion cracking. A restructuring of the oxide film within the passive region is attributed to loss of water and this effect becomes less distinct with increasing F - ion concentration in the electrolyte and disorder in the oxide layer. The enhanced reduction of the conductively inhibited bulk CuO/Cu(OH) 2 layer back to copper found in alkaline solutions containing fluoride would indicate that the formation of this layer is the dominant one for passivation of copper in this medium. The difference between the start and the end Δ- Ψ values of the metal surface of the cyclic voltammogram at -1.5 V versus SCE indicates either roughening arising from the oxide formation/reduction or the presence of a residual surface oxide.

  11. Investigating the Lewis acidity of aluminium fluoride surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, C. L.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Wander, A.; Harrison, N. M.

    2008-03-01

    The current study employs state of the art hybrid-exchange density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the Lewis acidic sites on the β-AlF3 (100) surface. It is shown that the strong Lewis base, NH3, binds to the surface with a binding energy of up to 1.9 eV. This demonstrates that the material is strongly Lewis acidic. We also consider the binding of the weak Lewis base CO to the surface. We calculate the shift in its stretch frequency compared to the gas phase molecule. Shifts are compared to experimental data and are shown to be typical of strong Lewis acidity.

  12. Interaction between a transition-metal fluoride and a transition-metal hydride: water-mediated hydrofluoric acid evolution following fluoride solvation.

    PubMed

    Chierotti, Michele R; Rossin, Andrea; Gobetto, Roberto; Peruzzini, Maurizio

    2013-11-04

    The reaction between the nickel(II) PCP pincer fluoride complex ((tBu)PCP)Ni(F) [(tBu)PCP = 2,6-C6H3(CH2P(t)Bu2)2] and the tungsten(II) carbonyl hydride CpW(H)(CO)3 (Cp = η(5)-C5H5(-)) leads to hydrofluoric acid evolution and formation of the bimetallic isocarbonylic species [CpW(CO)2(μ-κ,C:κ,O-CO)···Ni((tBu)PCP)]. The process has been monitored through multinuclear ((19)F, (31)P{(1)H}, (1)H) variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy, collecting (19)F T1 data values for a fluoride ligand bound to a transition metal. The extremely short relaxation time (minimum value of 13 ms at 193 K) is ascribed to the large chemical shift anisotropy of the Ni-F bond (688 ppm). The in-depth NMR analysis has revealed that the fluoride-hydride interaction is not direct but water-mediated, at odds with what was previously observed for the "hydride-hydride" case ((tBu)PCP)Ni(H)/CpW(H)(CO)3. Kinetic measurements have unveiled that the first step of the overall mechanism is thought to be solvation of the fluoride ligand (as a result of Ni-F···H2O hydrogen bonding), while further reaction of the solvated fluoride with CpW(H)(CO)3 is extremely slow and competes with the side reaction of fluoride replacement by a water molecule on the nickel center to form the [((tBu)PCP)Ni(H2O)](+) aquo species. Finally, density functional theory analysis of the solvation process through a discrete + continuum model has been accomplished, at the M06//6-31+G(d,p) level of theory, to support the mechanistic hypothesis.

  13. [Comparative effects of fluoride on three enzymes, hydrolyzing pyrophosphate - acid and alkaline phosphatases and inorganic pyrophosphatase].

    PubMed

    Kasho, V N; Baĭkov, A A; Avaeva, S M

    1982-08-01

    The effects of fluoride on the activities of acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) from potato and alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) from E. coli during pyrophosphate and p-nitrophenylphosphate hydrolysis and on the activities of inorganic pyrophosphatase (EC 3.6.1.1) from baker's yeast during pyrophosphate hydrolysis were compared. For both phosphatases the type of interaction was found to be independent on the nature of substrate. For acid phosphatase and inorganic pyrophosphatase the inhibition was of non-competitive and uncompetitive types, respectively. In the case of alkaline phosphatase fluoride increased the rate of p-nitrophenol release during p-nitrophenylphosphate hydrolysis at pH greater than or equal to 7.9 without affecting the rate of phosphate release, which is indicative of fluorophosphate formation in the course of the transphosphorylation reaction. The data obtained suggest the existence of essential differences in the mechanisms of fluoride effects on the three enzymes under study.

  14. Luminescence and electrical properties of solution-processed ZnO thin films by adding fluorides and annealing atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sungho; Park, Byung-Yoon; Jung, Ha-Kyun

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} Systematic study of the fluorides doped solution-processed ZnO thin films via the luminescence and electrical behaviors. {yields} Defect-related visible emission bands are affected by annealing ambient and fluoride addition. {yields} Adding lithium fluoride followed by annealing in oxygen ambient leads to a controlled defect density with proper TFT performance. -- Abstract: To develop an efficient channel layer for thin film transistors (TFTs), understanding the defect-related luminescence and electrical property is crucial for solution-processed ZnO thin films. Film growth with the fluorides addition, especially using LiF, followed by the oxygen ambient post-annealing leads to decreased defect-related emission as well as enhanced switching property. The saturation mobility and current on/off ratio are 0.31 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} and 1.04 x 10{sup 3}. Consequently, we can visualize an optimized process condition and characterization method for solution-processed TFT based on the fluorine-doped ZnO film channel layer by considering the overall emission behavior.

  15. Stable Drop Formation and Deposition Control in Ink Jet Printing of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, Nathaniel; Yang, Xin; Sun, Ying; Complex Fluids and Multiphase Transport Lab-Drexel University Team

    2013-11-01

    Using inkjet printing as an additive fabrication method is an enabling technology for low-cost, high-throughput production of flexible electronics and photonics. Polymeric materials, such as Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), are widely used as dielectric materials for microelectronics, batteries, among others. However, due to its large molecular weight and incompatibility with moisture in air, the stable drop formation of PVDF solution is quite challenging. In this study, we examine the effects of solute concentration, nozzle back pressure, ejection waveform, and ambient moisture on the formation of PVDF droplets. The deposition dynamics of inkjet-printed PVDF solutions are then examined as a function of the solvent concentration. Bi-solvents of different surface tensions and vapor pressures are used to induce Marangoni flows in order to suppress the coffee-ring effect. The deposition of a single droplet and the interactions between multiple drops are examined for a better control of the deposition uniformity. Printing of lines and patterns with reduced instability is also discussed.

  16. Prevention of Enamel Adjacent to Bracket Demineralization Following Carbon Dioxide Laser Radiation and Titanium Tetra Fluoride Solution Treatment: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirhashemi, Amir Hossein; Hakimi, Sina; Ahmad Akhoundi, Mohammad Sadegh; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the caries-preventive potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser application in conjunction with the use of titanium tetra fluoride solution on the enamel adjacent to bracket. Methods: Seventy-five freshly extracted bovine incisors were used. In order to attach the brackets, the area of examination was covered with adhesive tape to limit acid etching of the entire enamel surface. Metal orthodontic brackets for upper central were bonded to all the teeth following the manufacturer’s instruction. Then all the teeth were painted with 2 layers of acid-resistant nail varnish on all surfaces except the boxes area cervical to the brackets. The teeth were then randomly divided into five groups (n = 15): control group (C); laser group (L); titanium group (T); laser-titanium group (LT) and titanium-laser group (TL). The laser-titanium group was first irradiated with CO2 laser (same as the L group) then TiF4 solution was applied on the enamel (same as the T group). Samples in the TL group were first treated with TiF4 solution (same as the T group) and then irradiated with CO2 laser on the surface (same as the L group). Then, the teeth were immersed in pH-cycling solutions. After that, the amount of calcium released into the two solutions (de- and re-mineralization) was measured with an atomic absorption spectroscopy. The data were analyzed by one-way Analysis of var-iance (ANOVA) and Tukey test. Results: Calcium loss in LT, TL and T groups were significantly lower than those in the L and C groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The application of Titanium tetra fluoride 4% solution on enamel can inhibit as much as 87% of subsequent caries like lesion progression. PMID:28144441

  17. Zirconium fluoride glass - Surface crystals formed by reaction with water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doremus, R. H.; Bansal, N. P.; Bradner, T.; Murphy, D.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrated surfaces of a zirconium barium fluoride glass, which has potential for application in optical fibers and other optical elements, were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline zirconium fluoride was identified by analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns of the surface crystals and found to be the main constituent of the surface material. It was also found that hydrated zirconium fluorides form only in highly acidic fluoride solutions. It is possible that the zirconium fluoride crystals form directly on the glass surface as a result of its depletion of other ions. The solubility of zirconium fluoride is suggested to be probably much lower than that of barium fluoride (0.16 g/100 cu cm at 18 C). Dissolution was determined to be the predominant process in the initial stages of the reaction of the glass with water. Penetration of water into the glass has little effect.

  18. Removal of fluoride from aqueous solution using Zr(IV) immobilized cross-linked chitosan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Zhang, Lujie; Yang, Bingchao; Huang, Ruihua

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, zirconium immobilized cross-linked chitosan (Zr-CCS) was reported for the adsorption of fluoride. Zr-CCS was synthesized by methods of membrane-forming and subsequent cross-linking reaction. Zr-CCS was characterized by FTIR, XRD, and SEM technologies. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate the adsorption capacity of Zr-CCS toward fluoride. The adsorption of fluoride onto the Zr-CCS favored at low pH values, and reduced in the presence of other co-anions. The adsorption equilibrium data had a good agreement with the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was calculated as 48.26mg/g for fluoride at 303K and natural pH (6.0). Thermodynamic parameters indicate that the nature of fluoride adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. The adsorption mechanism of fluoride onto the Zr-CCS was controlled by chemical ion-exchange and electrostatic attraction between Zr-CCS and fluoride.

  19. Utilization of waste phosphogypsum to prepare hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and its application towards removal of fluoride from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deyi; Luo, Heming; Zheng, Liwen; Wang, Kunjie; Li, Hongxia; Wang, Yi; Feng, Huixia

    2012-11-30

    In the present study, waste phosphogypsum (PG) was utilized firstly to prepare hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAp) via microwave irradiation technology. The nHAp derived from PG exhibited a hexagonal structure with the particle size about 20 nm × 60 nm and high purity. Meanwhile, the adsorption behaviour of fluoride onto the nHAp derived from PG was investigated to evaluate the potential application of this material for the treatment of the wastewater polluted with fluoride. The results indicate that the nHAp derived from PG can be used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption capacities calculated from Langmuir-Freundlich model were 19.742, 26.108, 36.914 and 40.818 mg F(-)/g nHAp for 298, 308, 318 and 328 K, respectively. The pseudo-second order kinetic model was found to provide the best correlation of the used experimental data compared to the pseudo-first order and the adsorption isotherm could be well defined by Langmuir-Freundlich equation. The adsorption mechanism investigation shows that electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bond are the main driving force for fluoride uptake onto nHAp derived from waste PG.

  20. Superhydrophobicity of polyvinylidene fluoride membrane fabricated by chemical vapor deposition from solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhenrong; Gu, Zhenya; Huo, Ruiting; Ye, Yonghong

    2009-05-01

    Due to the chemical stability and flexibility, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes are widely used as the topcoat of architectural membrane structures, roof materials of vehicle, tent fabrics, and so on. Further modified PVDF membrane with superhydrophobic property may be even superior as the coating layer surface. The lotus flower is always considered to be a sacred plant, which can protect itself against water, dirt, and dust. The superhydrophobic surface of lotus leaf is rough, showing the micro- and nanometer scale morphology. In this work, the microreliefs of lotus leaf were mimicked using PVDF membrane and the nanometer scale peaks on the top of the microreliefs were obtained by the method of chemical vapor deposition from solution. The surface morphology of PVDF membrane was investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Elemental composition analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the material of the nanostructure of PVDF membrane was polymethylsiloxane. On the lotus-leaf-like PVDF membrane, the water contact angle and sliding angle were 155° and 4°, respectively, exhibiting superhydrophobic property.

  1. DISSOLUTION OF LANTHANUM FLUORIDE PRECIPITATES

    DOEpatents

    Fries, B.A.

    1959-11-10

    A plutonium separatory ore concentration procedure involving the use of a fluoride type of carrier is presented. An improvement is given in the derivation step in the process for plutonium recovery by carrier precipitation of plutonium values from solution with a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate and subsequent derivation from the resulting plutonium bearing carrier precipitate of an aqueous acidic plutonium-containing solution. The carrier precipitate is contacted with a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium carbonate to effect dissolution therein of at least a part of the precipitate, including the plutonium values. Any remaining precipitate is separated from the resulting solution and dissolves in an aqueous solution containing at least 20% by weight of potassium carbonate. The reacting solutions are combined, and an alkali metal hydroxide added to a concentration of at least 2N to precipitate lanthanum hydroxide concomitantly carrying plutonium values.

  2. ELECTROLYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Alter, H.W.; Barney, D.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the treatment of radioactivc waste nitric acid solutions. The nitric acid solution is neutralized with an alkali metal hydroxide in an amount sufficient to precipitate insoluble hydroxides, and after separation of the precipitate the solution is electrolyzed to convert the alkali nitrate formed, to alkali hydroxide, gaseous ammonla and oxygen. The solution is then reusable after reducing the volume by evaporating the water and dissolved ammonia.

  3. Cellulose supported layered double hydroxides for the adsorption of fluoride from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Mandal, S; Mayadevi, S

    2008-06-01

    Cellulose supported layered double hydroxides (CSLDHs) were synthesized and tested for adsorption of fluoride in aqueous medium. Three samples of cellulose supported LDHs were synthesized by varying the LDH loading on cellulose. The raw cellulose, unsupported LDH and cellulose supported LDHs were characterized by XRD, SEM and BET surface area. Batch adsorption as well as fixed-bed column experiments were performed for determining the fluoride adsorption characteristics of CSLDHs. The fluoride adsorption properties of CSLDHs were found to be superior to that of reported adsorbents, including activated alumina and carbon nanotubes. Defluoridation capacity of the CSLDHs was 2-4 times higher than that of unsupported LDH. The cellulose supported LDH, CSLDH-50, having an LDH loading of 27% showed maximum fluoride uptake capacity (5.29 mg g(-1) of CSLDH, 25.18 mg g(-1) of LDH) in fixed-bed column study.

  4. Nitric acid recovery from waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, A. S.

    1959-04-14

    The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acid, ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of ruthenium.

  5. Metal fluorides form strong hydrogen bonds and halogen bonds: measuring interaction enthalpies and entropies in solution.

    PubMed

    Libri, Stefano; Jasim, Naseralla A; Perutz, Robin N; Brammer, Lee

    2008-06-25

    The organometallic compound trans-(tetrafluoropyrid-2-yl)bis(triethylphosphine)-fluoronickel(II) (NiF) is shown to serve as a strong hydrogen bond and halogen bond acceptor in solution via intermolecular interactions with the fluoride ligand. The nature of the interactions has been confirmed by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. Experimental binding constants, enthalpies, and entropies of interaction with hydrogen-bond-donor indole and halogen-bond-donor iodopentafluorobenzene have been determined by 19F NMR titration. In toluene-d8 solution indole forms a 1:1 and 2:1 complex with NiF (K1 = 57.9(3), K2 = 0.58(4)). Interaction enthalpies and entropies are -23.4(2) kJ mol-1 and -44.5(8) J mol-1 K-1, respectively, for the 1:1 complex; -14.8(8) kJ mol-1 and -53(3) J mol-1 K-1, respectively, for the 2:1 complex. In toluene-d8 solution iodopentafluorobenzene forms only a 1:1 complex (K1 = 3.41(9)) with enthalpy and entropy of interaction of -16(1) kJ mol-1 and -42(4) J mol-1 K-1, respectively. A marked solvent effect was observed for the halogen bond interaction. NMR titrations in heptane solution indicated formation of both 1:1 and 2:1 complexes of iodopentafluorobenzene with NiF (K1 = 21.8(2), K2 = 0.22(4)). Interaction enthalpies and entropies are -26(1) kJ mol-1 and -63(4) J mol-1 K-1, respectively, for the 1:1 complex; -21(1) kJ mol-1 and -83(5) J mol-1 K-1, respectively, for the 2:1 complex. There is a paucity of such experimental energetic data particularly for halogen bonds despite substantial structural data. These measurements demonstrate that halogen bonds are competitive with hydrogen bonds as intermolecular interactions and provide a suitable benchmark for theoretical calculations and quantitative input into design efforts in supramolecular chemistry and crystal engineering.

  6. Characteristics of fluoride in pore-water at accidental hydrofluoric acid spillage site, Gumi, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, E. H.; Lee, H. A.; Lee, J.; Kim, D.; Lee, S.; Yoon, H. O.

    2015-12-01

    A leakage accident of hydrofluoric acid (HF) occurred in Gumi, South Korea at Sep. 2012. The study site is located in the borderline between a large-scale industrial complex and a rural area. The HF plume was made immediately, and moved toward the rural area through air. After the accident, 212 ha of farm land were influenced and most of crops were withered. To recover the soil, CaO was applied after six months. Although several studies have done to estimate the extension and movement of HF plume in the air and to assess the impact on human health or plant after the incident, the long-term fate of fluoride (F) in the affected soils is not identified clearly. Thus, this study aimed to understand the behavior of F in the soil after HF releasing from accident site through chemical analysis and geochemical modeling. Within the radius of 1 km of accident site, 16 pore-water and soil samples were collected. The semi-quantitative soil composition (i.e., Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Si, Ti), total F, total P, OM contents in soil, and soil pH have already been measured, and pore-water compositions are also identified. From these experimental and modeling data, we could be evaluate if impact of accident exists until now, and also could be select and identify existing form of fluoride in soil and pore-water.

  7. Inhibition of dentin demineralization by fluoride in vitro.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M; Damen, J J; Buijs, M J

    1998-01-01

    Compared with the knowledge accumulated on enamel-fluoride interactions, relatively little data is available regarding fluoride effects on dentin. This applies to both laboratory and clinical studies into the efficacy of fluoride schemes for the prevention of root surface caries. This study aimed to determine the effects of fluoride and pH on the demineralization of dentin, such as to provide information necessary to develop preventive programmes. Bovine dentin blocks were subjected to undersaturated calcium- and phosphate-containing solutions in the pH range 4.0-6.0 with fluoride added at concentrations between 0.5 and 10 ppm. Non-fluoride solutions served as controls. Mineral loss was assessed chemically and by transversal microradiography. Comparisons were made with similar studies on enamel demineralization. The results showed that demineralization of dentin depends on both pH and fluoride concentration in the demineralizing solution. Inhibition of demineralization that could be relevant from a clinical point of view was found at fluoride values 5-10 times the corresponding values for enamel. Also rapid depletion of fluoride from the solutions was observed, indicating the high uptake capacity of dentin for fluoride. Lesion depth depended on pH of the solution while the fluoride levels were associated with the surface layer, both in mineral content and depth. For dentin we propose a demineralization mechanism where acid penetrates rapidly into the tissue, presumably through the tubules, after which the released calcium and phosphate is partly trapped by the inward diffusing fluoride. This leads to the formation of a surface layer, which may even be hypermineralized compared to sound dentin.

  8. Investigation of effect of fluoride on corrosion of 2S-0 aluminum and 347 stainless steel in fuming nitric acid at 170 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiler, Charles E; Morrell, Gerald

    1954-01-01

    The effect of small additions of fluoride on the corrosion of 2S-0 aluminum and 347 stainless steel by fuming nitric acid at 170 degrees F has been evaluated quantitatively by the determination of the weight loss of metal specimens immersed in the acid. The ratio of metal surface area to volume of acid was approximately 7.5 inch (superscript)-1 in all cases. It was found that for acids containing no fluorides the weight loss of aluminum was approximately 1/5 that of stainless steel. Addition of 1 percent fluoride ion to the acid reduced the weight loss of both metals to practically zero even after 26 days of exposure to the acid at 170 degrees F. The minimum quantity of fluoride ion required to inhibit corrosion was found to be approximately 0.25 and 0.5 percent for aluminum and stainless steel, respectively, in white fuming nitric acid and 0.5 and 1 percent in red fuming nitric acid (18 percent nitrogen dioxide). These fluoride percentages were based on the total weight of acid. Provided the concentration of fluoride ion was sufficient to inhibit corrosion, the source of these ions was immaterial. Additional information concerning the effect of fluorides on corrosion was obtained by measuring the electrode potentials of the metals against a platinum reference electrode.

  9. Solution nonideality related to solute molecular characteristics of amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Keener, C R; Fullerton, G D; Cameron, I L; Xiong, J

    1995-01-01

    By measuring the freezing-point depression for dilute, aqueous solutions of all water-soluble amino acids, we test the hypothesis that nonideality in aqueous solutions is due to solute-induced water structuring near hydrophobic surfaces and solute-induced water destructuring in the dipolar electric fields generated by the solute. Nonideality is expressed with a single solute/solvent interaction parameter I, calculated from experimental measure of delta T. A related parameter, I(n), gives a method of directly relating solute characteristics to solute-induced water structuring or destructuring. I(n)-values correlate directly with hydrophobic surface area and inversely with dipolar strength. By comparing the nonideality of amino acids with progressively larger hydrophobic side chains, structuring is shown to increase with hydrophobic surface area at a rate of one perturbed water molecule per 8.8 square angstroms, implying monolayer coverage. Destructuring is attributed to dielectric realignment as described by the Debye-Hückel theory, but with a constant separation of charges in the amino-carboxyl dipole. By using dimers and trimers of glycine and alanine, this destructuring is shown to increase with increasing dipole strength using increased separation of fixed dipolar charges. The capacity to predict nonideal solution behavior on the basis of amino acid characteristics will permit prediction of free energy of transfer to water, which may help predict the energetics of folding and unfolding of proteins based on the characteristics of constituent amino acids. Images FIGURE 6 PMID:7711253

  10. Recovery of pyruvic acid from biotransformation solutions.

    PubMed

    Ma, C Q; Li, J C; Qiu, J H; Wang, M; Xu, P

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this investigation was to separate pyruvic acid of biotransformation solutions from lactic acid through complex extraction. For this purpose, complex extraction was investigated from model solutions. Tri-n-octanylamine (TOA) was used as the extractant. The effects of various diluents, the stoichiometry of pyruvic acid to TOA, and the initial pH of the aqueous phase on the extraction process were investigated in this study. The effects of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and trimethylamine (TMA) on the back extraction process were also studied, respectively. The optimal conditions attained from the model solutions proved efficient on the biotransformation solutions of different concentrations. A total recovery of 71-82% of pyruvic acid was obtained, whereas 89-92% of lactic acid was removed. The purity of pyruvic acid reached 97% after the removal of TMA by a simple distillation.

  11. Corrosion behavior of pure titanium and titanium alloys in various concentrations of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride (APF) solutions.

    PubMed

    Matono, Yoshinari; Nakagawa, Masaharu; Matsuya, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Kunio; Terada, Yoshihiro

    2006-03-01

    The corrosion behaviors of Ti, Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-6Al-4V alloys, and an experimentally produced Ti-0.5Pt alloy in 0.05% to 2.0% concentrations of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride (APF) solutions (corresponding to 226 to 9,050 ppm fluoride at pH 3.5 or 3.6) were examined. While the corrosion of Ti, Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-6Al-4V alloys might occur easily even in a diluted 0.05% APF solution, dissolution of Ti from the Ti-0.5Pt alloy was observed only in test solutions with APF concentration exceeding 0.2%. When Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-6Al-4V alloys were immersed in 2.0% APF solution, their surfaces were entirely covered by compact corrosion products of Na3TiF6 due to severe corrosion. As a result, Ti dissolution was prevented and the amount of Ti dissolved decreased. However, since Ti was covered by porous, large-sized corrosion products of Na3TiF6 and that Ti-0.5Pt alloy was not covered with any corrosion product, the amount of Ti dissolved increased in the 2.0% APF solution.

  12. Fluoridated Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Fluoridated Water On This Page What is fluoride, and where is it found? What is water fluoridation? When did water fluoridation begin in the ...

  13. Fluoridation Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Water Fluoridation Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... because of tooth decay. History of Fluoride in Water In the 1930s, scientists examined the relationship between ...

  14. Complexation of neptunium(V) with fluoride in aqueous solutions at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Guoxin; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Friese, Judah I.

    2009-02-01

    summarizes the results of the complexation of Np(V) with fluoride in aqueous solutions at 10–70°C studied by spectrophotometry and microcalorimetry.

  15. Effect of a fluoride-releasing self-etch acidic primer on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Bishara, Samir E; Ajlouni, Raed; Laffoon, John F; Warren, John J

    2002-06-01

    Conventional adhesive systems use three different agents--an enamel conditioner, a primer solution, and an adhesive resin--during the bonding of orthodontic brackets to enamel. A unique characteristic of some new bonding systems in operative dentistry is that they combine the conditioning and priming agents into a single application. Combining conditioning and priming saves time and should be more cost-effective to the clinician and indirectly to the patient. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the effects of self-etching primers, including a fluoride-releasing primer, on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. The brackets were bonded to extracted human teeth according to one of four protocols. In group 1 (control), teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid; after the sealant was applied, the brackets were bonded with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) and light cured for 20 seconds. In group 2, a self-etch acidic primer (3M ESPE, St Paul, Minn) was applied as suggested by the manufacturer, and the brackets were then bonded with Transbond XT as in the first group. In group 3, an experimental self-etch primer EXL #547 (3M ESPE) was applied to the teeth as suggested by the manufacturer, and the brackets were then bonded as in groups 1 and 2. In group 4, a fluoride-releasing self-etch primer, One-Up Bond F (J. Mortia, USA Inc. Irvine, Calif) that also has a novel dye-sensitized photo polymerization initiator system was applied as suggested by the manufacturer, and the brackets were then bonded as in the other groups. The present in vitro findings indicated that the shear bond strengths of the four groups were significantly different (P = .001). Duncan multiple range tests indicated that One-Up Bond F (mean +/- SD strength, 5.1+/-2.5 MPa) and Prompt L-Pop (strength, 7.1+/-4.4 MPa) had significantly lower shear bond strengths than both the EXL #547 self-etch primer (strength, 9.7+/-3.7 MPa) or the phosphoric acid etch and the

  16. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Gary Milton

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the characteristics and treatment of acute fluoride toxicity as well as the most common sources of overexposure, the doses that cause acute toxicity, and factors that can influence the clinical outcome. Cases of serious systemic toxicity and fatalities due to acute exposures are now rare, but overexposures causing toxic signs and symptoms are not. The clinical course of systemic toxicity from ingested fluoride begins with gastric signs and symptoms, and can develop with alarming rapidity. Treatment involves minimizing absorption by administering a solution containing calcium, monitoring and managing plasma calcium and potassium concentrations, acid-base status, and supporting vital functions. Approximately 30,000 calls to US poison control centers concerning acute exposures in children are made each year, most of which involve temporary gastrointestinal effects, but others require medical treatment. The most common sources of acute overexposures today are dental products - particularly dentifrices because of their relatively high fluoride concentrations, pleasant flavors, and their presence in non-secure locations in most homes. For example, ingestion of only 1.8 ounces of a standard fluoridated dentifrice (900-1,100 mg/kg) by a 10-kg child delivers enough fluoride to reach the 'probably toxic dose' (5 mg/kg body weight). Factors that may influence the clinical course of an overexposure include the chemical compound (e.g. NaF, MFP, etc.), the age and acid-base status of the individual, and the elapsed time between exposure and the initiation of treatment. While fluoride has well-established beneficial dental effects and cases of serious toxicity are now rare, the potential for toxicity requires that fluoride-containing materials be handled and stored with the respect they deserve.

  17. Effects of combined oleic acid and fluoride at sub-MIC levels on EPS formation and viability of Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jian-Na; Kim, Mi-A; Jung, Ji-Eun; Pandit, Santosh; Song, Kwang-Yeob; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of fluoride, dental caries, a biofilm-related disease, remains an important health problem. This study investigated whether oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, can enhance the effect of fluoride on extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) formation by Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms at sub-minimum inhibitory concentration levels, via microbiological and biochemical methods, confocal fluorescence microscopy, and real-time PCR. The combination of oleic acid with fluoride inhibited EPS formation more strongly than did fluoride or oleic acid alone. The superior inhibition of EPS formation was due to the combination of the inhibitory effects of oleic acid and fluoride against glucosyltransferases (GTFs) and GTF-related gene (gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD) expression, respectively. In addition, the combination of oleic acid with fluoride altered the bacterial biovolume of the biofilms without bactericidal activity. These results suggest that oleic acid may be useful for enhancing fluoride inhibition of EPS formation by S. mutans biofilms, without killing the bacterium.

  18. Protective effect of ascorbic acid and Ginkgo biloba against learning and memory deficits caused by fluoride.

    PubMed

    Jetti, Raghu; Raghuveer, C V; Mallikarjuna, Rao C

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride is present in the ground water, World Health Organization permitted level of fluoride in the ground water is 0.5 ppm. Tooth pastes, mouth washes, tea and sea fish are the sources of fluoride. Exposure to these multiple sources results in several adverse effects in addition to the fluorosis. The present study aimed to test the effect of vitamin C and Ginkgo biloba against the behavioural deficits caused by fluoride. Rats were divided into five groups with six animals in each group (n = 6). Control group received ordinary tap water with 0.5 ppm of fluoride, the remaining groups received 100 ppm of fluoride for 30 days prior to fluoride exposure. Two groups of animals received 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C and G. biloba for 15 days prior to fluoride exposure. After 45 days, behavioural studies (T-Maze, passive avoidance) were conducted on the experimental animals. The results of the present study showed no behavioural deficits in the control group of animals however, the rats that received fluoride water exhibited impairment in their spatial learning and memory deficits. The deficits are not marked in the vitamin C and G. biloba groups. To conclude chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride causes severe impairment in the spatial learning and memory, these deficits can be ameliorated with the vitamin C and G. biloba.

  19. Sorption of doubly charged metal ions from ammonium fluoride solutions by KFP-23 cation-exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Ganyaev, V.P.; Pimneva, L.A.; Pakholkov, V.S.

    1982-10-20

    This report examines the results of a study of sorption of a number of doubly charged cations by the macroporous cation-exchange KFP-12 from 0.1 N MeF/sub 2/ solutions containing NH/sub 4/F in concentrations from 0 to 3.0 M. As the result of an investigation of the sorption, under dynamic conditions, of copper, zinc, cadmium, manganese, cobalt, and nickel ions from ammonium fluoride solutions by KFP-12 cation-exchange resin in the influence of the ionic form (H/sup +/ or NH/sub 4//sup +/) of the resin and of the NH/sub 4/F concentration on the degree of sorption and on the breakthrough capacity was established. The character of bonding and coordination of the sorbed cations with the ionic groups of the resin has been established. The possibilty of thorough purification of ammonium fluoride and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/BeF/sub 4/ solutions with the aid of KFP-12 resin in NH/sub 4//sup +/ form has been demonstrated. The purification co-efficients were calculated.

  20. NIR spectroscopic properties of aqueous acids solutions.

    PubMed

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Atan, Hanafi; Matjafri, Mohd Zubir

    2012-06-15

    Acid content is one of the important quality attributes in determining the maturity index of agricultural product, particularly fruits. Despite the fact that much research on the measurement of acidity in fruits through non-destructive spectroscopy analysis at NIR wavelengths between 700 to 1,000 nm has been conducted, the same response towards individual acids is not well known. This paper presents NIR spectroscopy analysis on aqueous citric, tartaric, malic and oxalic solutions through quantitative analysis by selecting a set of wavelengths that can best be used to measure the pH of the solutions. The aquaphotomics study of the acid solutions has generated R² above 0.9 for the measurement of all acids. The most important wavelengths for pH are located at 918-925 nm and 990-996 nm, while at 975 nm for water.

  1. Reference electrode for strong oxidizing acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Harrar, Jackson E.; Bullock, Sr., Jack C.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    1990-01-01

    A reference electrode for the measurement of the oxidation-reduction potentials of solutions is especially suitable for oxidizing solutions such as highly concentrated and fuming nitric acids, the solutions of nitrogen oxides, N.sub.2 O.sub.4 and N.sub.2 O.sub.5, in nitric acids. The reference electrode is fabricated of entirely inert materials, has a half cell of Pt/Ce(IV)/Ce(III)/70 wt. % HNO.sub.3, and includes a double-junction design with an intermediate solution of 70 wt. % HNO.sub.3. The liquid junctions are made from Corning No. 7930 glass for low resistance and negligible solution leakage.

  2. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Containing Phosphonic Acid as Anticorrosion Coating for Steel.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sanjib; Wehbi, Mohammad; Manseri, Abdellatif; Mehdi, Ahmad; Alaaeddine, Ali; Hachem, Ali; Ameduri, Bruno

    2017-02-22

    Vinylidene fluoride (VDF)-based copolymers bearing pendant phosphonic acid function for potential application as anticorrosion coatings were synthesized via free radical copolymerization of VDF with a new phosphorus containing 2-trifluoromethacrylate monomer, (dimethoxyphosphoryl)methyl 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylate (MAF-DMP). MAF-DMP was prepared from 2-trifluoromethacrylic acid in 60% overall yield. Radical copolymerizations of VDF with MAF-DMP initiated by tert-amyl peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate at varying ([VDF]0/[MAF-DMP]0) feed ratios led to several poly(VDF-co-MAF-DMP) copolymers having different molar percentages of VDF (79-96%) and number-average molecular weights (Mn's) up to ca. 10 000 g mol(-1) in fair yields (47-53%). Determination of the composition and microstructure of all the synthesized copolymers was done by (1)H and (19)F NMR spectroscopies. The monomer reactivity ratios of this new VDF/MAF-DMP pair were also determined (rVDF = 0.76 ± 0.34 and rMAF-DMP = 0 at 74 °C). The resulting poly(VDF-co-MAF-DMP) copolymers exhibited high melting temperature (162-171 °C, with respect to the VDF content), and the degree of crystallinity reached up to 51%. Finally, the pendant dimethyl phosphonate ester groups of the synthesized poly(VDF-co-MAF-DMP) copolymer were quantitatively hydrolyzed, giving rise to novel phosphonic acid-functionalized PVDF (PVDF-PA). In comparison to hydrophobic poly(VDF-co-MAF-DMP) copolymers (the water contact angle, WCA, was 98°), the hydrophilic character of the PVDF-PA was found to be surprisingly rather pronounced, exhibiting low WCA (15°). Finally, steel plates coated with PVDF-PA displayed satisfactory anticorrosion properties under simulated seawater environment.

  3. Polysaccharide-thickened aqueous fluoride solutions for rapid destruction of the nerve agent VX. Introducing the opportunity for extensive decontamination scenarios.

    PubMed

    Elias, Shlomi; Saphier, Sigal; Columbus, Ishay; Zafrani, Yossi

    2014-01-01

    Among the chemical warfare agents, the extremely toxic nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate) is a target of high importance in the development of decontamination methods, due to its indefinite persistence on common environmental surfaces. Liquid decontaminants are mostly characterized by high corrosivity, usually offer poor coverage, and tend to flow and accumulate in low areas. Therefore, the development of a noncorrosive decontaminant, sufficiently viscous to resist dripping from the contaminated surface, is necessary. In the present paper we studied different polysaccharides-thickened fluoride aqueous solutions as noncorrosive decontaminants for rapid and efficient VX degradation to the nontoxic product EMPA (ethyl methylphosphonic acid). Polysaccharides are environmentally benign, natural, and inexpensive. Other known decontaminants cannot be thickened by polysaccharides, due to the sensitivity of the latter toward basic or oxidizing agents. We found that the efficiency of VX degradation in these viscous solutions in terms of kinetics and product identity is similar to that of KF aqueous solutions. Guar gum (1.5 wt %) with 4 wt % KF was chosen for further evaluation. The benign nature, rheological properties, adhering capabilities to different surfaces, and decontamination from a porous matrix were examined. This formulation showed promising properties for implementation as a spray decontaminant for common and sensitive environmental surfaces.

  4. Characteristics of selective fluoride adsorption by biocarbon-Mg/Al layered double hydroxides composites from protein solutions: kinetics and equilibrium isotherms study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Lv, Tengfei; Song, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Zihong; Duan, Shibo; Xin, Gang; Liu, Fujun; Pan, Decong

    2014-03-15

    In the study, two novel applied biocarbon-Mg/Al layered double hydroxides composites (CPLDH and CPLDH-Ca) were successfully prepared and characterized by TEM, ICP-AES, XFS, EDS, FTIR, XRD, BET and pHpzc. The fluoride removal efficiency (RF) and protein recovery ratio (RP) of the adsorbents were studied in protein systems of lysozyme (LSZ) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results showed that the CPLDH-Ca presented remarkable performance for selective fluoride removal from protein solution. It reached the maximum RF of 92.1% and 94.8% at the CPLDH-Ca dose of 2.0g/L in LSZ and BSA system, respectively. The RP in both systems of LSZ and BSA were more than 90%. Additionally, the RP of CPLDH-Ca increased with the increase of ionic strengths, and it almost can be 100% with more than 93% RF. Fluoride adsorption by the CPLDH-Ca with different initial fluoride concentrations was found to obey the mixed surface reaction and diffusion controlled adsorption kinetic model, and the overall reaction rate is probably controlled by intra-particle diffusion, boundary layer diffusion and reaction process. The adsorption isotherms of fluoride in BSA system fit the Langmuir-Freundlich model well. The BSA has synergistic effect on fluoride adsorption and the degree increased with the increase of the initial BSA concentration.

  5. Fluoride exposure from hydrofluoric acid in a motor gasoline alkylation unit

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.G.

    1985-11-01

    To assess the possible health risks associated with occupational exposure to gaseous fluoride, air and biological monitoring surveys were carried out at a motor gasoline alkylation unit within an oil refinery. Pre- and post-shift urinary fluoride measurements were obtained from 27 male operators and maintenance workers attached to the plant; personal fluoride-in-air monitoring was carried out simultaneously for 23 of these men. All readings were below NIOSH recommendations and Australia exposure standards. Significant exposure identified by changes in urine level during the shift could be demonstrated only in sub-groups of workers whose jobs involved higher routine exposures. No significant correlation between air levels and changes in urinary fluoride during the shift could be demonstrated. This survey indicates that the workers in this plant are not at risk of chronic fluorosis.

  6. Optimal Fluoridation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John R.

    1975-01-01

    Optimal fluoridation has been defined as that fluoride exposure which confers maximal cariostasis with minimal toxicity and its values have been previously determined to be 0.5 to 1 mg per day for infants and 1 to 1.5 mg per day for an average child. Total fluoride ingestion and urine excretion were studied in Marin County, California, children in 1973 before municipal water fluoridation. Results showed fluoride exposure to be higher than anticipated and fulfilled previously accepted criteria for optimal fluoridation. Present and future water fluoridation plans need to be reevaluated in light of total environmental fluoride exposure. PMID:1130041

  7. Electrical conductivity of acidic chloride solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majima, Hiroshi; Peters, Ernest; Awakura, Yasuhiro; Park, Sung Kook; Aoki, Masami

    1988-02-01

    The electrical conductivities of aqueous solutions in the system HCl-MCln (where M = K, Na, Mg, Ni, or Cd) were measured at different temperatures. The equivalent electrical conductivity of H+ was calculated on the basis of simple assumptions for these solutions, and show an inverse relationship with water activity in these solutions. The results obtained by varying temperatures, solute ratios, and ionic strength on the electrical conductivity were found to be consistent with a proton jump mechanism for the H+ ion, where the activity of water is the most significant parameter affecting its equivalent conductance, and a viscous (Stokes’ law) drag mechanism (i.e., Walden’s rule is obeyed) for other ions found in acidic solutions.

  8. EXAFS study of the speciation of protactinium(V) in aqueous hydrofluoric acid solutions.

    PubMed

    De Sio, Stéphanie M; Wilson, Richard E

    2014-12-01

    The speciation of protactinium(V) in hydrofluoric acid (HF) solutions was studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements were performed on an aqueous solution of 0.05 M protactinium(V) with various HF concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 27 M in order to probe the protactinium coordination sphere with respect to the identity and number of coordinating ligands. The resulting fits to the spectra suggest the presence of an eight-coordinate homoleptic fluoro complex in highly concentrated fluoride solutions (27 M), with equilibrium between seven- and eight-coordinate fluoro complexes at moderate acidities, and in more dilute solutions, results indicate that one water molecule is likely to replace a fluoride in the first coordination sphere, at a distance of 2.54-2.57 Å. Comparisons of this chemistry with group V metals, niobium and tantalum, are presented, and the potential implications for these results on the hydrolytic behavior of protactinium in aqueous systems are discussed.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Tensile – Bond Strength of An Orthodontic Adhesive with and without Fluoride Application, After Acid Etching -An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Yugandhar, G; Ramana, I Venkata; Srinivas, K; Yadav, S. Sarjeev Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background Fixed appliances hinder the effective control of plaque accumulation and white spot lesions may develop under the ill fitting bands or adjacent to the stainless steel brackets during orthodontic treatment particularly the etching process. Aims and Objectives Comparative study of tensile bond strength of an orthodontic adhesive with and without fluoride application after acid etching to know the effect of fluoride on bond strength. Materials and Methods This study is carried out on 90 non carious human premolar teeth, and divided in 6 groups with each group of 15 specimens. In those Groups I and IV were control group acid etch treatment, Group II and V is 1.23% APF gel (acid etch plus APF gel treatment,) and group III and VI is 8% SnF2 (acid etch plus SnF2 treatment). Samples of Group I, II and III bond strength were tested after 24 h and groups IV, V and VI after one month on microtechtensometer machine. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigation was carried out for the 2 specimens for the control group after acid etch and 4 specimens after acid etch with fluoride application for fluoride groups. Results Control and SnF2 treated groups was found to be nearly similar to the control group whereas APF treated group showed less focal holes than the other 2 groups. Conclusion Fluoride application after acid etching without having an adverse effect on bond strength but we can prevent the white spot lesions and caries. PMID:26023648

  10. Solution of rocks and refractory minerals by acids at high temperatures and pressures. Determination of silica after decomposition with hydrofluoric acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, I.; Rowe, J.J.

    1965-01-01

    A modified Morey bomb was designed which contains a removable nichromecased 3.5-ml platinium crucible. This bomb is particularly useful for decompositions of refractory samples for micro- and semimicro-analysis. Temperatures of 400-450?? and pressures estimated as great as 6000 p.s.i. were maintained in the bomb for periods as long as 24 h. Complete decompositions of rocks, garnet, beryl, chrysoberyl, phenacite, sapphirine, and kyanite were obtained with hydrofluoric acid or a mixture of hydrofluoric and sulfuric acids; the decomposition of chrome refractory was made with hydrochloric acid. Aluminum-rich samples formed difficultly soluble aluminum fluoride precipitates. Because no volatilization losses occur, silica can be determined on sample solutions by a molybdenum-blue procedure using aluminum(III) to complex interfering fluoride. ?? 1965.

  11. Colorimetric and fluorimetric response of Schiff base molecules towards fluoride anion, solution test kit fabrication, logical interpretations and DFT-D3 study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pritam; Roy, Biswajit Gopal; Jana, Saibal; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra Kanti; Banerjee, Priyabrata

    2015-08-21

    Two newly synthesized Schiff base molecules are herein reported as anion sensors. -NO2 substituted receptor (P1) is comparatively more acidic and can sense F(-), OAc(-) and H2PO4(-), whereas -CN substituted receptor (P2) is less acidic and is selective for F(-) only. Reversible UV-Vis response for both receptors with F(-) can mimic multiple logic gate functions, and several complex electronic circuits based on XNOR, XOR, OR, AND, NOT and NOR logic operations with 'Write-Read-Erase-Read' options have been executed. Interesting 'turn on and off' fluorescence responses were noticed for the receptors with F(-). Intracellular F(-) detection as a diagnosis of non-skeletal fluorosis was successful using a fluorescence microscope with Candida albicans (prokaryotic cell, a diploid fungus) and pollen grains of Tecoma stans (eukaryotic cell) incubated in 10(-6) M fluoride-contaminated hand-pump water collected from Bankura, West Bengal, India. Furthermore, a solution test kit was fabricated for easy and selective detection of F(-) in an aqueous solvent.

  12. Designing of a fluoride selective receptor through molecular orbital engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rakesh K.; Kumar, Virendra; Diwan, Uzra; Upadhyay, K. K.; Roy Chowdhury, P. K.

    2012-11-01

    The stepwise substitution of appropriate groups over the 3-[(2,4-dinitro-phenyl)-hydrazono]-butyric acid ethyl ester (R3) lead receptor R1 which showed selectivity towards fluoride in DMSO. The UV-vis and 1H NMR titration studies revealed the details of the binding between receptor R1 and fluoride. The receptor R1 also recognized fluoride in a toothpaste solution to as low as 50 ppm. The theoretical simulations of recognition event at Density Functional Theory (DFT) level using B3LYP/6-31G** basis set and polarizable continuum model (PCM) approach lead a semi-quantitative match with the experimental results.

  13. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned...

  14. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned...

  15. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned...

  16. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned...

  17. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned...

  18. Crystallizaion and surface morphology of poly(vinylidene fluoride)/poly(methylmethacrylate) films by solution casting on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wenzhong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaolin

    2008-03-01

    The dependence of surface structure of the poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) films by solution casting on properties of seven substrates was investigated by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was revealed that the polyblend films obtained by casting onto each substrate contained exclusively β phase PVDF. Higher crystallinity of the film was obtained by casting onto ceramic, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), copper (Cu), stainless steel and glass substrates than that by casting onto aluminium (Al) and polypropylene (PP) substrates, depending on the degree of close lattice matching. The surface crystalline structure of PVDF was strongly affected by the wettability of substrate. The largest size of PVDF spherulitic crystal structure with about 6 μm presented in the casting film grown at the air/solution interface on glass substrate, while the smallest spherulite size with about 3 μm was generated by casting onto PTFE, stainless steel and PP substrates. It implied that the higher surface tension the substrate had, the larger PVDF spherulite grew at the air/solution interface.

  19. Systemic fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Levy, Steven Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that fluoride, through different applications and formulas, works to control caries development. The first observations of fluoride's effects on dental caries were linked to fluoride naturally present in the drinking water, and then from controlled water fluoridation programs. Other systemic methods to deliver fluoride were later suggested, including dietary fluoride supplements such as salt and milk. These systemic methods are now being questioned due to the fact that many studies have indicated that fluoride's action relies mainly on its post-eruptive effect from topical contact with the tooth structure. It is known that even the methods of delivering fluoride known as 'systemic' act mainly through a topical effect when they are in contact with the teeth. The effectiveness of water fluoridation in many geographic areas is lower than in previous eras due to the widespread use of other fluoride modalities. Nevertheless, this evidence should not be interpreted as an indication that systemic methods are no longer relevant ways to deliver fluoride on an individual basis or for collective health programs. Caution must be taken to avoid excess ingestion of fluoride when prescribing dietary fluoride supplements for children in order to minimize the risk of dental fluorosis, particularly if there are other relevant sources of fluoride intake - such as drinking water, salt or milk and/or dentifrice. Safe and effective doses of fluoride can be achieved when combining topical and systemic methods.

  20. Speciation in aqueous solutions of nitric acid.

    PubMed

    Hlushak, S; Simonin, J P; De Sio, S; Bernard, O; Ruas, A; Pochon, P; Jan, S; Moisy, P

    2013-02-28

    In this study, speciation in aqueous solutions of nitric acid at 25 °C was assessed in two independent ways. First, Raman experiments were carried out and interpreted in terms of free nitrate ions, ion pairs and neutral HNO(3) molecules. In parallel, a model was developed to account for the formation of these two kinds of pairs. It was based on an extension of the binding mean spherical approximation (BiMSA), or associative MSA (AMSA), in which the size and the charge of the ions in the chemical pair may differ from those of the free ions. A simultaneous fit of the osmotic coefficient and of the proportion of free ions (obtained from Raman spectroscopy experiments) led to an estimation of the speciation in nitric acid solutions. The result obtained using this procedure was compared with the estimation obtained from the Raman experiments.

  1. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  2. Study on Treatment of acidic and highly concentrated fluoride waste water using calcium oxide-calcium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, T.; Gao, X. R.; Zheng, T.; Wang, P.

    2016-08-01

    There are problems with treating acidic waste water containing high concentration fluorine by chemical precipitation, including the low sludge setting velocity and the high difficulty of reaching the criterion. In Heilongjiang province, a graphite factory producing high-purity graphite generates acidic waste water with a high concentration of fluorine. In this paper, the effect of removals on the concentration of fluoride with the combined treatment of calcium oxide and calcium chloride were discussed with regard to acid waste water. The study improved the sludge characteristics by using polyacrylamide (PAM) and polymeric aluminum chloride (PAC). The effect of different coagulants on sludge was evaluated by the sludge settlement ratio (SV), sludge volume index (SVI) and sludge moisture content. The results showed that the optimal combination for 100 ml waste water was calcium oxide addition amount of 14 g, a calcium chloride addition amount of 2.5 g, a PAM addition amount of 350 mg/L, and the effluent fluoride concentration was below 6 mg/L. PAM significantly improved the sludge settling velocity. The sludge settlement ratio reduced from 87.6% to 60%. The process for wastewater treatment was easily operated and involved low expenditure.

  3. Wet oxidation of salicylic acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Diaz, Mario

    2010-11-15

    Salicylic acid is a frequent pollutant in several industrial wastewaters. Uncatalyzed wet air oxidation, which is a promising technique for the treatment of phenolic effluents, has not been analyzed yet for the removal of salicylic acid. The effect of different conditions of pH (1.3-12.3), pressure (1.0-4.1 MPa), temperature (413-443 K), and initial concentrations (1.45-14.50 mM) on the wet oxidation of salicylate/salicylic acid solutions have here been investigated. The pH value of the reaction media was found to be a key parameter for the rate of the oxidation process with an optimum at pH 3.1, when the concentrations of salicylic acid and salicylate were similar. The oxidation reaction followed pseudofirst-order kinetics with respect to salicylic acid and 0.82 order with respect to dissolved oxygen. Additionally, the evolution of the color during the wet oxidation was analyzed and discussed in relation with the formation of intermediate compounds. Then, a reaction pathway for the noncatalytic wet oxidation of the salicylic acid was proposed.

  4. Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) results from subprompt critical experiments with uranyl fluoride fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cappiello, C.C.; Butterfield, K.B.; Sanchez, R.G.; Bounds, J.A.; Kimpland, R.H.; Damjanovich, R.P.; Jaegers, P.J.

    1997-08-01

    Experiments were performed to measure a variety of parameters for SHEBA: behavior of the facility during transient and steady-state operation; characteristics of the SHEBA fuel; delayed-critical solution height vs solution temperature; initial reactor period and reactivity vs solution height; calibration of power level vs reactor power instrumentation readings; flux profile in SHEBA; radiation levels and neutron spectra outside the assembly for code verification and criticality alarm and dosimetry purposes; and effect on reactivity of voids in the fuel.

  5. Caesium fluoride-promoted Stille coupling reaction: an efficient synthesis of 9Z-retinoic acid and its analogues using a practical building block.

    PubMed

    Okitsu, Takashi; Iwatsuka, Kinya; Wada, Akimori

    2008-12-21

    A highly efficient and rapid total synthesis of 9Z-retinoic acid was accomplished by caesium fluoride-promoted Stille coupling reaction; using a common building block, 9Z-retinoic acid analogues were also prepared by the same method without isomerisation of the Z-double bond.

  6. Hopping rates and concentrations of mobile fluoride ions in Pb1-xSnxF2 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mohamad M.; Yamada, Koji

    2007-09-01

    In the present paper, the ion dynamics and relaxation of fluoride ions in Pb1-xSnxF2 (with x =0.2-0.6) solid solutions, prepared by mechanochemical milling, are studied in the conductivity formalism over wide ranges of frequencies and temperatures. The conductivity spectra of the investigated materials are analyzed by the Almond-West (AW) power-law model. The estimated values of the hopping rates and the dc conductivity of different compositions are thermally activated with almost the same activation energy. The calculated values of the concentration of mobile ions, nc, are almost independent of temperature and composition for x =0.2-0.4. The maximum value of nc is obtained for the x =0.6 sample, although it does not show the maximum conductivity. Therefore, the composition dependence of the ionic conductivity of these solid solutions could be explained based on the extracted parameters. The results presented in the current work indicate that the AW model represents a reasonable approximation of the overall frequency-dependent conductivity behavior of the investigated materials. The conductivity spectra at different temperatures for each composition are successfully scaled to a single master curve, indicating a temperature-independent relaxation mechanism. For different compositions, however, the conductivity spectra cannot be scaled properly, indicating composition-dependent relaxation dynamics.

  7. Electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride)/poly(aminophenylboronic acid) composite nanofibrous membrane as a novel glucose sensor.

    PubMed

    Manesh, K M; Santhosh, P; Gopalan, A; Lee, Kwang-Pill

    2007-01-15

    Electrospinning was used to prepare the nanofibrous membrane (NFM) of the composite comprising poly(vinylidene fluoride) and poly(aminophenylboronic acid) (PVdF/PAPBA-NFM). The PVdF/PAPBA-NFM displayed an excellent linear response to the detection of glucose for the concentration range of 1 to 15mM with a response time of less than 6s. Further experiments on amperometric sensing of glucose were performed in the presence of interferents such as uric acid, ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, fructose, mannose, etc. using PVdF/PAPBA-NFM. The interferents did not give significant overlapping current signal during the determination of glucose. Also, PVdF/PAPBA-NFM possesses better reproducibility toward glucose detection and storage stability.

  8. Adsorption of fluoride in aqueous solutions using KMnO4-modified activated carbon derived from steam pyrolysis of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Daifullah, A A M; Yakout, S M; Elreefy, S A

    2007-08-17

    Fluoride in drinking water above permissible levels is responsible for human and skeletal fluorosis. In this study, activated carbons (AC) prepared by one-step steam pyrolysis of rice straw at 550, 650, 750 degrees C, respectively, were modified by liquid-phase oxidation using HNO3, H2O2 and KMnO4. Characterization of these 12 carbons was made by their surface area, porosity, acidity, basicity, pH(pzc), pH and ability to remove fluoride anion. Based on the data of the latter factor, the RS2/KMnO4 carbon was selected. Along with batch adsorption studies, which involve effect of pH, adsorbate concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature, and Co-ions (SO4(2-), Cl-, Br-). The effects of natural organic matter (NOM) were also made to remove the fluoride from natural water. On the basis of kinetic studies, specific rate constants involved in the adsorption process using RS2/KMnO4 carbon was calculated and second-order adsorption kinetics was observed. Equation isotherms such as Langmuir (L), Freundlich (F), Langmuir-Freundlich (LF) and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) were successfully used to model the experimental data. From the DR isotherm parameters, it was considered that the uptake of F- by RS2/KMnO4 carbon proceeds by an ion-exchange mechanism (E=10.46 kJ mol(-1)). The thermodynamic parameters of fluoride sorption were calculated and the sorption process was chemical in nature. The ability of RS2/KMnO4 to remove F- from Egyptian crude phosphoric acid (P(2)O(5)=48.42%) was tested and the adsorption capacity of F- in H(3)PO(4) was greater than that in distilled water. This is may be due to fluoride adsorption enhanced at lower pH of crude acid.

  9. Acidities of Water and Methanol in Aqueous Solution and DMSO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Daqing

    2009-01-01

    The relative acidities of water and methanol have been a nagging issue. In gas phase, methanol is more acidic than water by 36.0 kJ/mol; however, in aqueous solution, the acidities of methanol and water are almost identical. The acidity of an acid in solution is determined by both the intrinsic gas-phase ionization Gibbs energy and the solvent…

  10. Mechanism of action of tin-containing fluoride solutions as anti-erosive agents in dentine - an in vitro tin-uptake, tissue loss, and scanning electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Ganss, Carolina; Hardt, Martin; Lussi, Adrian; Cocks, Ann-Kristin; Klimek, Joachim; Schlueter, Nadine

    2010-08-01

    Solutions containing tin and fluoride exhibit remarkable anti-erosive properties with tin ions as a major agent. To elucidate its mechanism of action in dentine, the tin uptake on and in the tissue was investigated and related to histological findings and substance loss. Samples were treated twice daily, each treatment lasting for 2 min, with fluoride solutions [pH 4.5; 1,500 parts per million (p.p.m.) F] containing 2,100, 1,400, or 400 p.p.m. Sn as SnCl(2). In experiments 1 and 2, samples were eroded with citric acid (pH 2.3) six times each day, each treatment lasting for 5 min; in experiment 2, the demineralized organic matrix was continuously digested by collagenase; in experiment 3, no erosive challenges were performed. Sample surfaces and cross-sections were investigated using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and profilometry. Surface retention of tin was found in almost all treatment groups and was highest in experiment 2. On cross-sections, tin was retained within the organic matrix; in mineralized areas, tin was found mainly within a depth of 10 mum. Test solutions inhibited substance loss significantly; in experiment 2, the effect was dose-dependent. Erosion inhibition seemed to depend mainly on the incorporation of tin in the mineralized dentine when the organic portion was preserved, but on surface precipitation when the organic portion was continuously digested.

  11. Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) results from subprompt critical experiments with uranyl fluoride fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cappiello, C.C.; Butterfield, K.B.; Sanchez, R.G.

    1997-10-01

    The Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) was originally constructed during 1980 and was designed to be a clean free-field geometry, right-circular, cylindrically symmetric critical assembly employing U(5%)O{sub 2}F{sub 2} solution as fuel. A second version of SHEBA, employing the same fuel but equipped with a fuel pump and shielding pit, was commissioned in 1993. This report includes data and operating experience for the 1993 SHEBA only. Solution-fueled benchmark work focused on the development of experimental measurements of the characterization of SHEBA; a summary of the results are given. A description of the system and the experimental results are given in some detail in the report. Experiments were designed to: (1) study the behavior of nuclear excursions in a low-enrichment solution, (2) evaluate accidental criticality alarm detectors for fuel-processing facilities, (3) provide radiation spectra and dose measurements to benchmark radiation transport calculations on a low-enrichment solution system similar to centrifuge enrichment plants, and (4) provide radiation fields to calibrate personnel dosimetry. 15 refs., 37 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Reactive solute transport in acidic streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broshears, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Spatial and temporal profiles of Ph and concentrations of toxic metals in streams affected by acid mine drainage are the result of the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. This paper describes a reactive solute transport model that provides a physically and thermodynamically quantitative interpretation of these profiles. The model combines a transport module that includes advection-dispersion and transient storage with a geochemical speciation module based on MINTEQA2. Input to the model includes stream hydrologic properties derived from tracer-dilution experiments, headwater and lateral inflow concentrations analyzed in field samples, and a thermodynamic database. Simulations reproduced the general features of steady-state patterns of observed pH and concentrations of aluminum and sulfate in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream near Leadville, Colorado. These patterns were altered temporarily by injection of sodium carbonate into the stream. A transient simulation reproduced the observed effects of the base injection.

  13. Effects of fluoride on in vitro enamel demineralization analyzed by ¹⁹F MAS-NMR.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, N R; Kent, N W; Lynch, R J M; Karpukhina, N; Hill, R; Anderson, P

    2013-01-01

    The mechanistic action of fluoride on inhibition of enamel demineralization was investigated using (19)F magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR). The aim of this study was to monitor the fluoride-mineral phase formed on the enamel as a function of the concentration of fluoride ions [F(-)] in the demineralizing medium. The secondary aim was to investigate fluorapatite formation on enamel in the mechanism of fluoride anti-caries efficacy. Enamel blocks were immersed into demineralization solutions of 0.1 M acetic acid (pH 4) with increasing concentrations of fluoride up to 2,262 ppm. At and below 45 ppm [F(-)] in the solution, (19)F MAS-NMR showed fluoride-substituted apatite formation, and above 45 ppm, calcium fluoride (CaF2) formed in increasing proportions. Further increases in [F(-)] caused no further reduction in demineralization, but increased the proportion of CaF2 formed. Additionally, the combined effect of strontium and fluoride on enamel demineralization was also investigated using (19)F MAS-NMR. The presence of 43 ppm [Sr(2+)] in addition to 45 ppm [F(-)] increases the fraction of fluoride-substituted apatite, but delays formation of CaF2 when compared to the demineralization of enamel in fluoride-only solution.

  14. Adsorption of fluoride onto crystalline titanium dioxide: effect of pH, ionic strength, and co-existing ions.

    PubMed

    Babaeivelni, Kamel; Khodadoust, Amid P

    2013-03-15

    Adsorption of fluoride from water onto titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) powder was investigated. The sorbent was crystalline TiO(2) composed of mostly anatase with a specific surface area of 56 m(2)/g. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm experiments were performed using an aqueous solution with bicarbonate alkalinity representative of natural waters. Adsorption kinetics data showed that maximum adsorption of fluoride occurred within 3h, following a pseudo-second order kinetics model. Adsorption isotherm data followed the Langmuir equation, indicating favorable adsorption of fluoride onto TiO(2), while results from the Dubinin-Radushkevich model are indicative of physical adsorption of fluoride. Adsorption of fluoride increased with decreasing solution pH. Maximum adsorption of fluoride occurred within the pH range of 2-5, while approximately 75% of maximum adsorption was obtained in the pH range of 7-8 with rapidly declining adsorption above pH 9. The pH(pzc) data for TiO(2) indicated the preferred adsorption of fluoride onto the acidic surface of TiO(2). Higher bicarbonate concentrations in solution increased the solution pH which was conducive to a decrease in adsorption of fluoride onto the surface of TiO(2) at higher pH. Overall, the solution pH was the main factor controlling the uptake of fluoride by TiO(2).

  15. Mechanochemical synthesis, structure, and properties of solid solutions of alkaline earth metal fluorides: Ma1-xMbxF2 (M: Ca, Sr, Ba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, M.; Scholz, G.; Düvel, A.; Heitjans, P.; Kemnitz, E.

    2016-10-01

    The capability of mechanochemical synthesis for the formation of solid solutions of alkaline earth metal fluorides Ma1-xMbxF2 (M: Ca, Sr, Ba) was tested by fluorination of metal acetates and metal hydroxides with ammonium fluoride directly at milling. Evidence was found for a mutual substitution of cations on their lattice positions in Ca1-xSrxF2 and Ba1-xSrxF2 samples. For the Ba/Ca-system this synthesis route is only partially successful. X-ray diffraction and 19F MAS NMR spectroscopy were used to characterize all samples concerning their crystal structure and local fluorine coordination. Calculations of 19F chemical shifts with the superposition model along with probability calculations for the intensity of the individual 19F lines, performed in dependence on the molar composition of the samples, perfectly agree with the experimental findings. The fluoride ion conductivity of as-prepared samples, determined by temperature dependent DC conductivity measurements, is significantly higher than those of crystalline binary fluorides. Moreover, a higher F- ion conductivity is observed for samples with higher mixing grade in the Ca/Sr-and the Ba/Sr-systems.

  16. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  17. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  18. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  19. Optimizing the crystallinity and acidity of H-SAPO-34 by fluoride for synthesizing Cu/SAPO-34 NH3-SCR catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Si, Zhichun; Wu, Xiaodong; Weng, Duan; Ma, Yue

    2016-03-01

    A series of H-SAPO-34 zeolites were synthesized by a hydrothermal method in fluoride media. The as-synthesized H-SAPO-34 zeolites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 physisorption, temperature-programmed desorption of NH3 (NH3-TPD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. The results showed that a certain concentration of F(-) anions promoted the nucleation and crystallization of H-SAPO-34. The H-SAPO-34 synthesized in the fluoride media showed high crystallinity, uniform particle size distribution, large specific surface area and pore volume, and enhanced acidity. Therefore, Cu/SAPO-34 based on the fluoride-assisted zeolite showed a broadened temperature window for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3 (NH3-SCR) reaction due to the enhanced acidity of the zeolite and the improved dispersion of copper species.

  20. A simple ratiometric and colorimetric chemosensor for the selective detection of fluoride in DMSO buffered solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Hu; Shu, Qinghai; Jin, Shaohua; Li, Bingjun; Zhu, Jiaping; Li, Lijie; Chen, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    A derivative of squaramide (cyclobuta[b]quinoxaline-1, 2(3H, 8H)-dione) has been synthesized for the ratiometric and colorimetric sensing of F- in aqueous solution in competitive fashion. With F-, probe 1 showed a highly selective naked-eye detectable color change along with a characteristic UV-Vis absorbance over other tested ions, which probably originates from the deprotonation occurred between 1 and F-, as proved by the 1H NMR titration experiments and DFT calculations.

  1. Dissolution of powdered human enamel suspended in acid solutions at a high solid/solution ratio under a 5% CO2 atmosphere at 20 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Larsen, M J; Pearce, E I; Ravnholt, G

    1997-09-01

    The aim was to examine the nature of enamel dissolution in aqueous suspensions with a high solid/solution ratio and in a CO2-rich atmosphere. Before experimentation, a water-saturated mixture of 95% N2-5% CO2 was passed through the acid solutions for 24 hr. Samples of 2 g of powdered enamel were suspended in 7 ml of either 5 or 10 mmol/l HClO4, with or without 2 parts/10(6) fluoride and kept gently agitated for 24 hr in the above atmosphere. The same enamel samples were repeatedly exposed to fresh acid for 26 runs. All experiments were duplicated. The aqueous phase was analysed after 20 min and 24 hr for calcium, phosphate, fluoride, chloride, sodium and magnesium. It was found that after 20 min the fluoride was invariably taken up in the enamel and the solution was supersaturated with respect to hydroxyapatite with pH ranging 6.7-5.6. During the following 24 hr pH increased further, the supersaturation remained unchanged and the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in solution decreased. In contrast, sodium, magnesium and chloride were released from enamel during the entire period. In the later runs, the supersaturation with respect to hydroxyapatite was only modest and the decrease of calcium and phosphate concentrations limited, as were the release of sodium, magnesium and chloride. It is concluded that despite a CO2-rich atmosphere, calcium, phosphate and carbonate were released from enamel and quickly established a supersaturation with respect to hydroxyapatite with a secondary reprecipitation of mineral. It indicates that within the dental caries lesion in vivo, lesion fluid cannot exist undersaturated with respect to enamel apatite.

  2. Investigation of Chemical Durability Mechanism in Fluoride Glasses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    ammonium bifluoride . 3 In general, therefore, it appears that in deionized water the leach rate of fluorozirconate glasses is contzolled by both the...fluorozirconates leach rapidly in water, their solution * pH becomes acidic quickly, a thick hydrated surface layer forms which absorbs a large amount of water...layer. 9. The pH drift of the solution into an acidic region during tbe leaching raises the solubility of zirconium fluoride, which accelerates the

  3. Sonolysis of Short-Chain Organic Dicarboxylic Acid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruke, Yukio; Harada, Hisashi

    2011-07-01

    Sonolyses of C4 (carbon number 4) dicarboxylic acids (succinic acid, maleic acid, and fumaric acid) were performed in aqueous solution. They changed one into the other during sonication, affording carbon-number-conserving transformations. Maleic acid and fumaric acid were produced from saccinic acid by dehydrogenation. Furthermore, malic acid and tartaric acid were obtained by hydroxylation. The sonochemical reaction processes are discussed in terms of the time dependences of products and the addition of radical scavengers. In addition, mutual isomerization of fumaric acid and maleic acid was observed during sonication without the use of mediators.

  4. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses: surface reactivity in simulated body fluids solutions.

    PubMed

    Lusvardi, G; Malavasi, G; Menabue, L; Aina, V; Morterra, C

    2009-11-01

    The issue of the contribution of the addition of F to glass bioactivity is not well resolved. This work reports on the surface reactivity in different solutions (DMEM and Tris) for some potentially bioactive glasses based on the composition of 45S5 glass, in which CaF(2) is substituted alternately for (part of) CaO and Na(2)O. The reactivity of F-containing glasses has been compared with that of the reference 45S5 system. The aim of this study is to explain in detail the mechanism of formation of an apatitic crystalline phase at the interface between the inorganic material and simulated biological media. A multi-technique investigation approach proposes a set of reactions involving Ca-carbonate formation, which are somewhat different from that formerly proposed by Hench for 45S5 bioactive glass, and which occur when a F-containing glass surface is in contact with a SBF. The usefulness of IR spectroscopy in recognizing the starting step of apatite (and/or FA) formation with respect to XRD technique is well established here.

  5. Zirconium-carbon hybrid sorbent for removal of fluoride from water: oxalic acid mediated Zr(IV) assembly and adsorption mechanism.

    PubMed

    Velazquez-Jimenez, Litza Halla; Hurt, Robert H; Matos, Juan; Rangel-Mendez, Jose Rene

    2014-01-21

    When activated carbon (AC) is modified with zirconium(IV) by impregnation or precipitation, the fluoride adsorption capacity is typically improved. There is significant potential to improve these hybrid sorbents by controlling the impregnation conditions, which determine the assembly and dispersion of the Zr phases on carbon surfaces. Here, commercial activated carbon was modified with Zr(IV) together with oxalic acid (OA) used to maximize the zirconium dispersion and enhance fluoride adsorption. Adsorption experiments were carried out at pH 7 and 25 °C with a fluoride concentration of 40 mg L(-1). The OA/Zr ratio was varied to determine the optimal conditions for subsequent fluoride adsorption. The data was analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. FTIR, XPS, and the surface charge distribution were performed to elucidate the adsorption mechanism. Potentiometric titrations showed that the modified activated carbon (ZrOx-AC) possesses positive charge at pH lower than 7, and FTIR analysis demonstrated that zirconium ions interact mainly with carboxylic groups on the activated carbon surfaces. Moreover, XPS analysis demonstrated that Zr(IV) interacts with oxalate ions, and the fluoride adsorption mechanism is likely to involve -OH(-) exchange from zirconyl oxalate complexes.

  6. Zirconium-carbon hybrid sorbent for removal of fluoride from water: oxalic acid mediated Zr(IV) assembly and adsorption mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Halla, Velazquez-Jimenez Litza; Hurt Robert, H; Juan, Matos; Rene, Rangel-Mendez Jose

    2014-01-01

    When activated carbon (AC) is modified with zirconium(IV) by impregnation or precipitation, the fluoride adsorption capacity is typically improved. There is significant potential to improve these hybrid sorbent by controlling the impregnation conditions, which determine the assembly and dispersion of the Zr phases on carbon surfaces. Here, commercial activated carbon was modified with Zr(IV) together with oxalic acid (OA) used to maximize the zirconium dispersion and enhance fluoride adsorption. Adsorption experiments were carried out at pH 7 and 25 °C with a fluoride concentration of 40 mg L−1. The OA/Zr ratio was varied to determine the optimal conditions for subsequent fluoride adsorption. The data was analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. FTIR, XPS and the surface charge distribution were performed to elucidate the adsorption mechanism. Potentiometric titrations showed that the modified activated carbon (ZrOx-AC) possesses positive charge at pH lower than 7, and FTIR analysis demonstrated that zirconium ions interact mainly with carboxylic groups on the activated carbon surfaces. Moreover, XPS analysis demonstrated that Zr(IV) interacts with oxalate ions, and the fluoride adsorption mechanism is likely to involve –OH− exchange from zirconyl oxalate complexes. PMID:24359079

  7. Dentifrice Fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakita, Philip E.

    2004-05-01

    The effectiveness of the fluoride ion in lowering the incidence of dental caries is a major factor in the field of dental health. Observations and research studies in the first half of the 20th century have lead to the widespread adoption of fluoridated water and the use of inorganic fluoride compounds in oral care products, such as toothpaste and dental rinses. This article provides a brief review of the types of compounds used and the chemistry involved.

  8. Nitric acid uptake by sulfuric acid solutions under stratospheric conditions - Determination of Henry's Law solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reihs, Christa M.; Golden, David M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of nitric acid by sulfuric acid solutions representative of stratospheric particulate at low temperatures was measured to determine the solubility of nitric acid in sulfuric acid solutions as a function of H2SO4 concentration and solution temperature. Solubilities are reported for sulfuric acid solutions ranging from 58 to 87 wt pct H2SO4 over a temperature range from 188 to 240 K, showing that, in general, the solubility of nitric acid increases with decreasing sulfuric acid concentration and with decreasing temperature. The measured solubilities indicate that nitric acid in the global stratosphere will be found predominantly in the gas phase.

  9. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Bottled Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Consumers drink ... questions about bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, ...

  10. Fluoride - is it capable of fighting old and new dental diseases? An overview of existing fluoride compounds and their clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, E

    2001-01-01

    Since researchers first became aware of the anticaries action of fluoride, they have been investigating the effect of this preventive agent in inhibiting or arresting caries development. Many forms of systemic or topical fluoride have been studied and tested for clinical application. Water, salt, milk fluoridation and the use of fluoride supplements were introduced for systemic fluoridation mainly using sodium fluoride. Solutions, gels, toothpastes and rinses of sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, amine fluorides, acidulated phosphate fluoride and monofluorophosphate were used for topical fluoridation. More recently nonaqueous fluoride varnishes in an alcoholic solution of natural resins and difluorosilane agents in a polyurethane matrix were introduced. Although all of these fluoridation methods have a caries-preventive action, these benefits and the ease of application is variable. As fluoride is a key component of oral health promotion a coordinated approach on a community and individual basis seems to be needed to maximize the cost-benefit ratio of prevention.

  11. Preventive effect of a high fluoride toothpaste and arginine-carbonate toothpaste on dentinal tubules exposure followed by acid challenge: a dentine permeability evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Considering the current high use of high fluoride toothpastes, the aim of the study was to quantify alterations in the root dentine permeability submitted to treatment with a high fluoride toothpaste and 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste as a preventive treatment for dentinal tubules exposure followed by acid challenge. Methods Thirty-third molars were sectioned below the cementoenamel. The root segments were connected to a hydraulic pressure apparatus to measure dentine permeability after the following sequential steps (n = 10 per group): I) Baseline; II) treatment with phosphoric acid for 30 s (maximum permeability); III) Toothbrushing (1 min) according to the experimental groups (G1- control; G2- 5000 ppm fluoride toothpaste; G3- 8% arginine-calcium carbonate toothpaste); IV) acid challenge for 5 min (orange juice). The data were converted into percentage, considering stage II as 100%. Results The results have shown a statistically significant decreasing on dentine permeability after treatment with toothpaste (Friedman test and Dunn’s post hoc test). Comparison among groups demonstrated a high increasing on dentine permeability when acid challenge was performed after toothbrushing with distilled water (control group) (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s post hoc test). Conclusion The toothpaste treatment may provide sufficient resistance on dentine surface, preventing dentinal tubules exposure after acid challenge. PMID:24958423

  12. Fluoride Programs in the School Setting: Preventive Dental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebich, Theodore, Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Two types of school-based programs that increase students' use of fluoride for preventive dental health are described. In fluoride mouthrinse programs, teachers give their students a fluoride solution once a week in a paper cup. In areas where the level of fluoride in the water supply is insufficient, the flouride tablet program is used. (JN)

  13. Electrode kinetics at a platinum anode in chloroacetic acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Lotvin, B.M.; Vasil'ev, Yu.B.

    1987-02-01

    It was shown by direct comparison of kinetic and adsorption data that at platinum in solutions of mono- and trichloroacetic acid, the anodic processes are entirely analogous in character to the processes occurring in acetate solutions. The lack of Kolbe electrosynthesis products in the electrolysis of chloroacetic acids is to the special reaction features of the secondary chloroalkyl radicals.

  14. Fatality due to acute fluoride poisoning following dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid in a palynology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Muriale, L; Lee, E; Genovese, J; Trend, S

    1996-12-01

    A fatal accident involving concentrated hydrofluoric acid in a palynological laboratory is described. Similar deaths due to dermal exposure to concentrated hydrofluoric acid have been reported in the literature. It is evident that rigorous control measures including proper personal protective equipment and first aid are of utmost importance in the prevention of death and injury when handling hydrofluoric acid. Possible factors that may have contributed to the accident are reviewed.

  15. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; McKenzie, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  16. Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    relatively low refractive Indices in the visible range of about 1.5-1.9 and fairly good chemical resistance towards water and weak acids. Their...particularly interesting to compare with crystalline fluorides (Refs. 25, 37) such as 7800 spinel-type Li2NiF4 ; 7700 rutile-type NiF2 ; 7500 perovskite-type

  17. Do Fluoride Ions Protect Teeth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Begins with the procedure and results from an investigation on the effect of fluoride on the reaction between eggshell (substitute teeth) and dilute ethanoic acid. Describes an elegantly modified and improvised apparatus. (DDR)

  18. Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  19. Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-03-31

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 5 figs.

  20. Divalent fluoride doped cerium fluoride scintillator

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Sparrow, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The use of divalent fluoride dopants in scintillator materials comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. The preferred divalent fluoride dopants are calcium fluoride, strontium fluoride, and barium fluoride. The preferred amount of divalent fluoride dopant is less than about two percent by weight of the total scintillator. Cerium fluoride scintillator crystals grown with the addition of a divalent fluoride have exhibited better transmissions and higher light outputs than crystals grown without the addition of such dopants. These scintillators are useful in radiation detection and monitoring applications, and are particularly well suited for high-rate applications such as positron emission tomography (PET).

  1. Removal of fluoride ions from water by adsorption onto carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tominaga, Hisato; Yabutani, Hitoshi; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2011-01-01

    Carbonaceous material for the removal of fluoride ions from water was prepared from coffee grounds (CGs) by calcination and subsequent HCl treatment. The characteristics of the CGs, including the surface area, mean pore diameter, pore volume, and surface functional groups were determined, and the morphological characteristics were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption isotherms, saturated amount of fluoride ions adsorbed, and the effect of contact time and temperature on the adsorption of fluoride ions were investigated for a sample of tap water. The specific surface area of CG calcined at 600° (CG600) was larger than that of CGs calcined at 400, 800, and 1000°. Phenolic, lactonic, and carboxyl groups were detected on the CG600 surface. The adsorption capacity of the carbonized CGs for fluoride was ranked in the order CG400 < CG1000 < CG800 < CG600 (where the numeral indicates the carbonization temperature), whereas virgin CG and CG600-NAT (not treated with hydrochloric acid solution) did not exhibit any adsorption ability for fluoride ions. The amount of fluoride ions adsorbed onto CG600 increased with increasing temperature and was consistent with chemical adsorption. The mechanism of adsorption of fluoride ions onto CG600 proceeded via ion exchange with chloride ions (1:1) present on the surface of CG600. The adsorption isotherms were fitted to the Freundlich and Langmuir equations. Moreover, CG600 showed an acceptable adsorption capacity for fluoride ions present in tap water.

  2. REDUCTION OF ACIDITY OF NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS BY USE OF FORMALDEHYDE

    DOEpatents

    Healy, T.V.

    1958-05-20

    A continuous method is described of concentrating by evaporation and reducing the nitrate ion content of an aqueous solution of metallic salts containing nitric acid not in excess of 8N. It consists of heating the solution and then passing formaldehyde into the heated solution to bring about decomposition of the nitric acid. The evolved gases containing NO are contacted countercurrently with an aqueous metal salt solution containing nitric acid in excess of 8N so as to bring about decomposition of the nitric acid and lower the normality to at least 8N, whereupon it is passed into the body of heated solution.

  3. FLUORIDATION CHEMISTRY: EQUILIBRIA AND KINETICS OF FLUORIDE AND FLUORO-COMPLEXES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most common fluoridating agents used by major American waterworks are hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) and sodium hexxafluorosilicate (Na2SiF6). According to the 1992 Water Fluoridation Census where 10,002 utilities responded affirmatively to fluoridating their water, 59
    % ...

  4. Some Unusual Rheological Responses of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride-Co-Hexafluoropropylene) Solutions in Dimethyl Acetamide and Their Effects on the Electrospinning Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jae Sik; Lee, Ki Hyun; Kim, Byoung Chul

    2008-07-01

    The rheological properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) in dimethyl acetamide (DMAc) were investigated to obtain preliminary data for electrospinning. Intrinsic viscosity data suggested that solubility of PVDF-HFP was reduced with increasing temperature. Over the temperature range of 30 to 70 °C, the dynamic viscosity of the concentrated solutions was increased with increasing temperature and Bingham behavior became more noticed. In addition, increase of temperature and concentration of the solutions increased yield stress and relaxation time. Although the dynamic viscosity was increased with increasing temperature, electrospinning temperature had little effects on the resultant fiber morphology on the condition that other spinning conditions were identical.

  5. Method for liquid chromatographic extraction of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  6. Soil washing of fluorine contaminated soil using various washing solutions.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Jo, Raehyun; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-03-01

    Bench-scale soil washing experiments were conducted to remove fluoride from contaminated soils. Five washing solutions including hydrochloric acid (HCl), nitric acid (HNO3), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and tartaric acid (C4H6O6) were tested. The concentration of the washing solutions used ranged from 0.1 to 3 M with a liquid to solid ratio of 10. The soil washing results showed that the most effective washing solution for the removal of fluoride from contaminated soils was HCl. The highest fluoride removal results of approximately 97 % from the contaminated soil were obtained using 3 M HCl. The fluoride removal efficiency of the washing solution increases in the following order: C4H6O6 < NaOH < H2SO4 < HNO3 < HCl.

  7. The key role of the composition and structural features in fluoride ion conductivity in tysonite Ce1-xSrxF3-x solid solutions.

    PubMed

    Dieudonné, Belto; Chable, Johann; Body, Monique; Legein, Christophe; Durand, Etienne; Mauvy, Fabrice; Fourcade, Sébastien; Leblanc, Marc; Maisonneuve, Vincent; Demourgues, Alain

    2017-03-14

    Pure tysonite-type Ce1-xSrxF3-x solid solutions for 0 ≤ x < 0.15 were prepared by a solid-state route at 900 °C. The cell parameters follow Vegard's laws for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10 and the solubility limit is identified (0.10 < xlimit < 0.15). For 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05, the F2-(Ce,Sr) and F3-(Ce,Sr) bond distances into [Ce1-xSrxF]((2-x)+) slabs strongly vary with x. This slab buckling is maximum around x = 0.025 and strongly affects the more mobile F1 fluoride ions located between the slabs. The (19)F MAS NMR spectra show the occurrence of F1-F2,3 exchange at 64 °C. The fraction of mobile F2,3 atoms deduced from the relative intensity of the NMR resonance is maximum for Ce0.99Sr0.01F2.99 (22% at 64 °C) while this fraction linearly increases with x for La1-xAExF3-x (AE = Ba, Sr). The highest conductivity found for Ce0.975Sr0.025F2.975 (3 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) at RT, Ea = 0.31 eV) is correlated to the largest dispersion of F2-(Ce,Sr) and F3-(Ce,Sr) distances which induces the maximum sheet buckling. Such a relationship between composition, structural features and fluoride ion conductivity is extended to other tysonite-type fluorides. The key role of the difference between AE(2+) and RE(3+) ionic radii and of the thickness of the slab buckling is established and could allow designing new ionic conductors.

  8. Structure and properties of quartz crystals grown from fluoride solutions: I. The morphology of basal pinacoid habit

    SciTech Connect

    Chuvyrov, A. N.; Mazitov, R. M.

    2008-09-15

    The mechanism of growth of quartz crystals from fluoride media has been investigated. It is shown by different independent methods (selective etching, X-ray diffraction analysis, optical microscopy) that the faceted forms of autonomous growth regions (trigonal pyramids formed on nonsingular crystal faces) are unstable and degenerate during growth. This degeneracy is accompanied by torsion deformation of autonomous growth regions and, as a result, formation of a series of hollow helical channels at boundaries of autonomous growth regions, whose axes make an angle of {approx}16{sup o} with the OZ axis, and their projections on the XOY plane are directed along the +X axes.

  9. An experimental study of the solubility and speciation of niobium in fluoride-bearing aqueous solutions at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, A.; Migdisov, Art. A.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2015-06-01

    The solubility of Nb2O5 and the speciation of niobium in HF-bearing aqueous solutions have been determined at temperatures of 150, 200, and 250 °C and saturated water pressure. At a pH of ∼2 and at low HF concentration, niobium is transported primarily as the species Nb(OH)4+ and at high HF concentration, as the species NbF2(OH)3°. Equilibrium constants for the formation of Nb(OH)4+ range from -11.23 ± 0.26 to -10.86 ± 0.24 and for the formation of NbF2(OH)3° from -3.84 ± 0.20 to -5.08 ± 0.42, at 150 and 250 °C. The results of this study show that the solubility of Nb2O5 (solid) in aqueous fluids increases with increasing HF concentration, but is not strongly affected by temperature. The influence of pH is variable; at low pH and HF concentration, a decrease in pH increases the solubility of Nb2O5 (solid). At higher pH, the reverse may be true. Modeling of the transport and deposition of niobium suggests that simple mixing with a brine is not an effective method for removing niobium from solution. By contrast, interaction of an acidic fluid with carbonate rock results in a rapid reduction in the capacity of the fluid to mobilize niobium.

  10. Acid rain: Engineering solutions, regulatory aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, R.G.; Elliott, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Keeping up with efforts to control acid rain, this reference presents current scientific aspects associated with the problem of political and legislative concerns and ideas for developing effective mitigation programs at reasonable cost. The contributors are the authorities in attendance at the Second International Conference on Acid Rain - and this work represents the first time engineers and managers with firsthand knowledge of systems and equipment to reduce SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions gathered in one place. Throughout the book, some 200 tables, charts, diagrams, and photographs augment the textual material.

  11. Decomposition Studies of Triphenylboron, Diphenylborinic Acid and Phenylboric Acid in Aqueous Alkaline Solutions Containing Copper

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.L.; Peterson, R. A.

    1997-02-11

    This report documents the copper-catalyzed chemical kinetics of triphenylboron, diphenylborinic acid and phenylboric acid (3PB, 2PB and PBA) in aqueous alkaline solution contained in carbon-steel vessels between 40 and 70 degrees C.

  12. Vacuum-jacketed hydrofluoric acid solution calorimeter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.

    1965-01-01

    A vacuum-jacketed metal calorimeter for determining heats of solution in aqueous HF was constructed. The reaction vessel was made of copper and was heavily gold plated. The calorimeter has a cooling constant of 0.6 cal-deg -1-min-1, approximately 1/4 that of the air-jacketed calorimeters most commonly used with HF. It reaches equilibrium within 10 min after turning off the heater current. Measurements of the heat of solution of reagent grade KCl(-100 mesh dried 2 h at 200??C) at a mole ratio of 1 KCl to 200 H2O gave ??H = 4198??11 cal at 25??C. ?? 1965 The American Institute of Physics.

  13. Decomposition of pertoluic acid in chlorobenzene solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ariko, N.G.; Kornilova, N.N.; Mitskevich, N.I.

    1985-09-01

    The kinetics and composition of the decomposition products of pertoluic acid in chlorobenzene at 353-403 K were studied. The activation energy of the gross decomposition is 82.4 is identical to 6 kJ/mole; the main products are pertoluic acid and CO/sub 2/. On the basis of the dependence of the yields of CO/sub 2/ on the concentration of the peracid (0.01-0.05 M), it was concluded that the peracid undergoes radical breakdown, and induced breakdown with abstraction of a H atom from OOH group occurs. The formation of toluence (conversion product of the CH/sub 3/-C/sub 6/H/sub 4/. radical) and O/sub 2/ was demonstrated.

  14. Plasma-induced graft copolymerization of poly(methacrylic acid) on electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber membrane.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Satinderpal; Ma, Zuwei; Gopal, Renuga; Singh, Gurdev; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Matsuura, Takeshi

    2007-12-18

    Electrospun nanofibrous membranes (ENM) which have a porous structure have a huge potential for various liquid filtration applications. In this paper, we explore the viability of using plasma-induced graft copolymerization to reduce the pore sizes of ENMs. Poly(vinylidene) fluoride (PVDF) was electrospun to produce a nonwoven membrane, comprised of nanofibers with diameters in the range of 200-600 nm. The surface of the ENM was exposed to argon plasma and subsequently graft-copolymerized with methacrylic acid. The effect of plasma exposure time on grafting was studied for both the ENM and a commercial hydrophobic PVDF (HVHP) membrane. The grafting density was quantitatively measured with toluidine blue-O. The degree of grafting increased steeply with an increase in plasma exposure time for the ENM, attaining a maximum of 180 nmol/mg after 120 s of plasma treatment. However, the increase in the grafting density on the surface of the HVHP membrane was not as drastic, reaching a plateau of 65 nmol/mg after 60 s. The liquid entry permeation of water dropped extensively for both membranes, indicating a change in surface properties. Field emission scanning electron microscopy micrographs revealed an alteration in the surface pore structure for both membranes after grafting. Bubble point measurements of the ENM reduced from 3.6 to 0.9 um after grafting. The pore-size distribution obtained using the capillary flow porometer for the grafted ENM revealed that it had a similar profile to that of a commercial hydrophilic commercial PVDF (HVLP) membrane. More significantly, water filtration studies revealed that the grafted ENM had a better flux throughput than the HVLP membrane. This suggests that ENMs can be successfully engineered through surface modification to achieve smaller pores while retaining their high flux performance.

  15. Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

    1983-07-26

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  16. Polymerization of beta-amino acids in aqueous solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, R.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    We have compared carbonyl diimidazole (CDI) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as activating agents for the oligomerization of negatively-charged alpha- and beta-amino acids in homogeneous aqueous solution. alpha-Amino acids can be oligomerized efficiently using CDI, but not by EDAC. beta-Amino acids can be oligomerized efficiently using EDAC, but not by CDI. Aspartic acid, an alpha- and beta-dicarboxylic acid is oligomerized efficiently by both reagents. These results are explained in terms of the mechanisms of the reactions, and their relevance to prebiotic chemistry is discussed.

  17. Method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, G.A.; Smith, J.W.; Ihle, N.C.

    1982-07-08

    A method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete is described wherein the phosphoric acid is reacted with Ca(OH)/sub 2/ to form a precipitate of hydroxyapatite and the hydroxyapatite is mixed with Portland cement to form concrete.

  18. Method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, Gary A [Kennewick, WA; Smith, Jeffrey W [Lancaster, OH; Ihle, Nathan C [Walla Walla, WA

    1984-01-01

    A method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete is described wherein the phosphoric acid is reacted with Ca(OH).sub.2 to form a precipitate of hydroxyapatite and the hydroxyapatite is mixed with portland cement to form concrete.

  19. Phosphorylation of glyceric acid in aqueous solution using trimetaphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Vera; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1996-02-01

    The phosphorylation of glyceric acid is an interesting prebiotic reaction because it converts a simple, potentially prebiotic organic molecule into phosphate derivatives that are central to carbohydrate metabolism. We find that 0.05 M glyceric acid in the presence of 0.5 M trimetaphosphate in alkaline solution gives a mixture of 2- and 3-phosphoglyceric acids in combined yields of up to 40%.

  20. Phosphorylation of Glyceric Acid in Aqueous Solution Using Trimetaphosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Vera; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1996-01-01

    The phosphorylation of glyceric acid is an interesting prebiotic reaction because it converts a simple, potentially prebiotic organic molecule into phosphate derivatives that are central to carbohydrate metabolism. We find that 0.05 M glyceric acid in the presence of 0.5 M trimetaphosphate in alkaline solution gives a mixture of 2- and 3-phosphoglyceric acids in combined yields of up to 40%.

  1. Physiologic conditions affect toxicity of ingested industrial fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  2. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23840230

  3. Hydrogen fluoride saccharification of wood: lignin fluoride content, isolation of. cap alpha. -D-glucopyranosyl fluoride and posthydrolysis of reversion products

    SciTech Connect

    Hardt, H.; Lamport, D.J.A.

    1982-04-01

    Wood chips from bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata Michx.) were saccharified by reaction with hydrogen fluoride either anhydrous or containing up to 10% v/v water. The reaction products were separated into a solid lignin fraction and a water-soluble saccharide fraction. The fluoride content of the lignin (determined after alkaline fusion) was initially about 1 mg/g wood, but was lowered to 0.1 mg/g wood by grinding and washing. Thus little or no chemical binding of fluoride to lignin occurred during hydrogen fluoride (HF) solvolysis. Analysis of the water-soluble fraction by gel filtration on Biogel P2 columns showed a range of low-molecular-weight oligosaccharides an only 10-20% sugar monomers. Thus considerable reversion occurred during HF evacuation. Posthydrolysis conditions were optimized for these reversion products by varying temperature and acid concentration. Optimal conditions at 1 h were 140/sup 0/C with 100mN sulfuric acid or 225mN hydrofluoric acid resulting in monomer yields of > 90% for 0.5% sugar solutions and > 80% for 10% sugar solutions. After reaction of pure cellulose (filter paper) with hydrogen fluoride in the absence of water, and terminating the reaction with calcium carbonate, the reaction intermediate ..cap alpha..-D-glucopyranosylfluride was isolated with a maximal yield of 0.2 g/g paper. Upon purification via paper chromatography glucosyfluoride was identified by its specific rotation and also by gas chromotography-mass spectrometer of its tetra-O-trimethylsilyl derivative.

  4. Reduction of Plutonium in Acidic Solutions by Mesoporous Carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons-Moss, Tashi; Jones, Stephen; Wang, Jinxiu; Wu, Zhangxiong; Uribe, Eva; Zhao, Dongyuan; Nitsche, Heino

    2015-12-19

    Batch contact experiments with several porous carbon materials showed that carbon solids spontaneously reduce the oxidation state of plutonium in 1-1.5 M acid solutions, without significant adsorption. The final oxidation state and rate of Pu reduction varies with the solution matrix, and also depends on the surface chemistry and surface area of the carbon. It was demonstrated that acidic Pu(VI) solutions can be reduced to Pu(III) by passing through a column of porous carbon particles, offering an easy alternative to electrolysis with a potentiostat.

  5. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM ACIDIC SOLUTIONS USING NO2

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A; Robert Pierce, R; James Laurinat, J

    2006-08-22

    Chloride (Cl{sup -}) salt processing in strong acids is used to recycle plutonium (Pu) from pyrochemical residues. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is studying the potential application of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) gas to effectively convert dissolved pyrochemical salt solutions to chloride-free solutions and improve recovery operations. An NO{sub 2} sparge has been shown to effectively remove Cl{sup -} from solutions containing 6-8 M acid (H{sup +}) and up to 5 M Cl{sup -}. Chloride removal occurs as a result of the competition of at least two reactions, one which is acid-dependent. Below 4 M H+, NO2 reacts with Cl- to produce nitrosyl chloride (ClNO). Between 6 M and 8 M H{sup +}, the reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), facilitated by the presence of NO{sub 2}, strongly affects the rate of Cl{sup -} removal. The effect of heating the acidic Cl{sup -} salt solution without pre-heating the NO{sub 2} gas has minimal effect on Cl{sup -} removal rates when the contact times between NO{sub 2} and the salt solution are on the order of seconds.

  6. 2-Acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic Acid Grafted Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)-Based Acid-/Oxidative-Resistant Cation Exchange for Membrane Electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ravi P; Das, Arindam K; Shahi, Vinod K

    2015-12-30

    For developing acid-/oxidative-resistant aliphatic-polymer-based cation-exchange membrane (CEM), macromolecular modification of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-co-HFP) was carried out by controlled chemical grafting of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS). To introduce the unsaturation suitable for chemical grafting, dehydrofluorination of commercially available PVDF-co-HFP was achieved under alkaline medium. Sulfonated copolymer (SCP) was prepared by the free radical copolymerization of dehydofluorinated PVDF-co-HFP (DHPVDF-co-HFP) and AMPS in the presence of free radical initiator. Prepared SCP-based CEMs were analyzed for their morphological characteristics, ion-exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, conductivity, and stabilities (mechanical, chemical, and thermal) in comparison with state-of-art Nafion117 membrane. High bound water content avoids the membrane dehydration, and most optimal (SCP-1.33) membrane exhibited about ∼2.5-fold high bound water content in comparison with that of Nafion117 membrane. Bunsen reaction of iodine-sulfur (I-S) was successfully performed by direct-contact-mode membrane electrolysis in a two-compartment electrolytic cell using different SCP membranes. High current efficiency (83-99%) confirmed absence of any side reaction and 328.05 kJ mol-H2(-1) energy was required for to produce 1 mol of H2 by electrolytic cell with SCP-1.33 membrane. In spite of low conductivity for reported SCP membrane in comparison with that of Nafion117 membrane, SCP-1.33 membrane was assessed as suitable candidate for electrolysis because of its low-cost nature and excellent stabilities in highly acidic environment may be due to partial fluorinated segments in the membrane structure.

  7. PROCESS OF PREPARING A FLUORIDE OF TETRAVLENT URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Wheelwright, E.J.

    1959-02-17

    A method is described for producing a fluoride salt pf tetravalent uranium suitable for bomb reduction to metallic uranium. An aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate is treated with acetic acid and a nitrite-suppressor and then contacted with metallic lead whereby uranium is reduced from the hexavalent to the tetravalent state and soluble lead acetate is formed. Sulfate ions are then added to the solution to precipitate and remove the lead values. Hydrofluoric acid and alkali metal ions are then added causing the formation of an alkali metal uranium double-fluoride in which the uranium is in the tetravalent state. After recovery, this precipitate is suitable for using in the limited production of metallic uranium.

  8. Stability of fluoride complex with silica and its distribution in natural water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberson, C.E.; Barnes, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Fluoride reacts with silicic acid to form SiF2-6. A fluoride electrode was used to obtain an equilibrium constant of 1030.18 for the reaction:Si(OH) 0 6 + 6F-+4H+ = SiF 2- 6 + 4H2O at 25??C. Although there may be some experimental evidence for existence of traces of species containing less than six F- ions per silicon (n = 6), the species SiF2-6 predominates for n values from about 0.1 to 6. Silicic-acid complexing with fluoride is important only in solutions which have rather low pH and low concentrations of other cations which compete with silicon for fluoride. Computations for cold volcanic condensates from Hawaii indicate that for some samples much of the silicon is complexed by fluoride as SiF2-6. However, in most cooled acidic natural water samples Al and Fe are more important than Si in complexing fluoride. ?? 1978.

  9. Coulometric determination of berkelium in sulfuric acid and nitric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeev, G.A.; Chistyakov, V.M.; Erin, E.A.

    1987-03-01

    Results are reported on the study and quantitative determination of berkelium by the coulometric method in 1 M sulfuric acid, in solutions of nitric acid, and in mixtures of these acids. The best results in the determination of berkelium were obtained in solutions of a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids. In 1 M HNO/sub 3/ + 0.1 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solutions, berkelium can be determined with an accuracy within approx. +/- 2%, when its content is 10 ..mu..g/ml.

  10. Population and size distribution of solute-rich mesospecies within mesostructured aqueous amino acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Jawor-Baczynska, Anna; Moore, Barry D; Lee, Han Seung; McCormick, Alon V; Sefcik, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of highly soluble substances such as small amino acids are usually assumed to be essentially homogenous systems with some degree of short range local structuring due to specific interactions on the sub-nanometre scale (e.g. molecular clusters, hydration shells), usually not exceeding several solute molecules. However, recent theoretical and experimental studies have indicated the presence of much larger supramolecular assemblies or mesospecies in solutions of small organic and inorganic molecules as well as proteins. We investigated both supersaturated and undersaturated aqueous solutions of two simple amino acids (glycine and DL-alanine) using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Brownian Microscopy/Nanoparticles Tracking Analysis (NTA) and Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (Cryo-TEM). Colloidal scale mesospecies (nanodroplets) were previously reported in supersaturated solutions of these amino acids and were implicated as intermediate species on non-classical crystallization pathways. Surprisingly, we have found that the mesospecies are also present in significant numbers in undersaturated solutions even when the solute concentration is well below the solid-liquid equilibrium concentration (saturation limit). Thus, mesopecies can be observed with mean diameters ranging from 100 to 300 nm and a size distribution that broadens towards larger size with increasing solute concentration. We note that the mesospecies are not a separate phase and the system is better described as a thermodynamically stable mesostructured liquid containing solute-rich domains dispersed within bulk solute solution. At a given temperature, solute molecules in such a mesostructured liquid phase are subject to equilibrium distribution between solute-rich mesospecies and the surrounding bulk solution.

  11. Decontamination of soils and materials containing medium-fired PuO{sub 2} using inhibited fluorides with polymer filtration technology

    SciTech Connect

    Temer, D.J.; Villarreal, R.; Smith, B.F.

    1997-10-01

    The decontamination of soils and/or materials from medium-fired plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) with an effective and efficient decontamination agent that will not significantly dissolve the matrix requires a new and innovative technology. After testing several decontamination agents and solutions for dissolution of medium-fired PuO{sub 2}, the most successful decontamination solutions were fluoride compounds, which were effective in breaking the Pu-oxide bond but would not extensively dissolve soil constituents and other materials. The fluoride compounds, tetra fluoboric acid (HBF{sub 4}) and hydrofluorosilicic acid (H{sub 2}F{sub 6}Si), were effective in dissolving medium-fired PuO{sub 2}, and did not seem to have the potential to dissolve the matrix. In both compounds, the fluoride atom is attached to a boron or silicon atom that inhibits the reactivity of the fluoride towards other compounds or materials containing atoms less attracted to the fluoride atom in an acid solution. Because of this inhibition of the reactivity of the fluoride ion, these compounds are termed inhibited fluoride compounds or agents. Both inhibited fluorides studied effectively dissolved medium-fired PuO{sub 2} but exhibited a tendency to not attack stainless steel or soil. The basis for selecting inhibited fluorides was confirmed during leaching tests of medium-fired PuO{sub 2} spiked into soil taken from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). When dissolved in dilute HNO{sub 3}, HCl, or HBr, both inhibited fluoride compounds were effective at solubilizing the medium-fired PuO{sub 2} from spiked INEL soil.

  12. Kinetics and equilibrium studies on Mg-Al oxide for removal of fluoride in aqueous solution and its use in recycling.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tomohito; Oba, Jumpei; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2015-06-01

    Mg-Al oxide obtained by the thermal decomposition of Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) intercalated with CO3(2-) (CO3·Mg-Al LDH) was found to take up fluoride from aqueous solution. Fluoride was removed by rehydration of Mg-Al oxide accompanied by combination with F(-). Using five times the stoichiometric quantity of Mg-Al oxide, the residual concentration of F was decreased from 100 to 6.3 mg/L in 480 min, which was below the effluent standard in Japan (8 mg/L). Removal of F(-) can be represented by pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics. The apparent rate constants at 10 °C, 30 °C, and 60 °C were 2.3 × 10(-3), 2.2 × 10(-2), and 2.5 × 10(-1) g mmol(-1) min(-1), respectively. The apparent activation energy was 73.3 kJ mol(-1). The rate-determining step for F removal by Mg-Al oxide was consistent with chemical adsorption involving intercalation of F(-) into the reconstructed Mg-Al LDH due to electrostatic attraction. The adsorption of F by Mg-Al oxide follows a Langmuir-type adsorption. The values of the maximum adsorption and the equilibrium adsorption constant were 3.0 mmol g(-1) and 1.1 × 10(3), respectively, for Mg-Al oxide. The F(-) in the F·Mg-Al LDH thus produced was found to be anion-exchanged with CO3(2-) in solution. The Mg-Al oxide after regeneration treatment had excellent properties for removal of F in aqueous solution. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that Mg-Al oxide has potential for use in recycling to remove F in aqueous solution.

  13. Dephosphorization of Steelmaking Slag by Leaching with Acidic Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yong; Diao, Jiang; Liu, Xuan; Li, Xiaosa; Zhang, Tao; Xie, Bing

    2016-09-01

    In the present paper, dephosphorization of steelmaking slag by leaching with acidic aqueous solution composed of citric acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and ion-exchanged water was investigated. The buffer solution of C6H8O7-NaOH-HCl system prevented changes in the pH values. Kinetic parameters including leaching temperature, slag particle size and pH values of the solution were optimized. The results showed that temperature has no obvious effect on the dissolution ratio of phosphorus. However, it has a significant effect on the dissolution ratio of iron. The dephosphorization rate increases with the decrease of slag particle size and the pH value of the solution. Over 90% of the phosphorus can be dissolved in the solution while the corresponding leaching ratio of iron was only 30% below the optimal condition. Leaching kinetics of dephosphorization follow the unreacted shrinking core model with a rate controlled step by the solid diffusion layer, the corresponding apparent activation energy being 1.233 kJ mol-1. A semiempirical kinetic equation was established. After leaching, most of the nC2S-C3P solid solution in the steelmaking slag was selectively dissolved in the aqueous solution and the iron content in the solid residue was correspondingly enriched.

  14. Effects of daily fluoride exposures on fluoride release by glass ionomer-based restoratives.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Rick; Diefenderfer, Kim E

    2003-01-01

    It is well documented that glass ionomer cements absorb and release fluoride following single fluoride exposures. This study examined fluoride release among three glass ionomer-based restorative materials following multiple daily exposures to three topical fluoride regimens. Using a Delrin mold, 32 cylindrical specimens, each of a glass ionomer (Ketac-Fil), resin-modified glass ionomer (Photac-Fil) and polyacid-modified resin (Dyract AP) were created. Each specimen was subjected to one of four daily treatments (n = 8): (1) no fluoride treatment (control); (2) application of a fluoride dentifrice (1000 ppm) for one minute once daily; (3) application of the same dentifrice for one minute twice daily; (4) the same regimen as (3), plus immersion in a 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF) mouth rinse (225 ppm) for one minute immediately following the second dentifrice application. Each specimen was suspended in a polyethylene test tube containing 1.0 ml demineralizing solution (pH 4.3) at 37 degrees C for six hours, then transferred to a new test tube containing 1.0 ml remineralizing solution (pH 7.0) at 37 degrees C for 18 hours. Fluoride treatments were completed at the time of transfer daily for seven days. Media solutions were buffered with equal volumes of TISAB II; fluoride levels were measured using a digital ion analyzer and fluoride electrode. Fluoride release decreased significantly from Day 1 to Day 3 for all materials regardless of fluoride treatment (Repeated Measures ANOVA, Tukey HSD, p < 0.05). All specimens released significantly more fluoride in demineralizing solution than in remineralizing solution. For Days 2-7, Treatment 4 produced greater fluoride release than both the control and Treatment 2 for all three materials (p < 0.05); For each material, the fluoride release produced by Treatments 3 and 4 was statistically similar on most days throughout the study. By Day 7, Photac-Fil demonstrated both the greatest total fluoride release and the greatest

  15. Coprecipitation of thorium and uranium peroxides from acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    McTaggart, D.R.; Mailen, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The factors affecting successful coprecipitation of thorium and uranium peroxides from acid media were studied. Variables considered in this work were H/sup +/ concentration, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ concentration, duration of contact, and rate of feed solution addition. In all experiments, stock solutions of Th(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/ and UO/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ were fed at a controlled rate into H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ solutions with constant stirring. Samples were taken as a function of time to follow the H/sup +/ concentration of the solution, uranium precipitation, thorium precipitation, precipitant weight/volume of solution, and crystalline structure and growth. The optimum conditions for maximum coprecipitation are low H/sup +/ concentration, high H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ concentration, and extended contact time between the solutions.

  16. γ-Irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negron-Mendoza, Alicia; Graff, Rebecca L.; Ponnamperuma, Cyril

    1980-12-01

    The γ-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions was studied under initially oxygenated and oxygen-free conditions in an attempt to determine the possible interconversion of malic acid into other carboxylic acids, specifically those associated with Krebs cycle. The effect of dose on product formation of the system was investigated. Gas-liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry was used as the principal means of identification of the non-volatile products. Thin layer chromotography and direct probe mass spectroscopy were also employed. The findings show that a variety of carboxylic acids are formed, with malonic and succinic acids in greatest abundance. These products have all been identified as being formed in the γ-irradiation of acetic acid, suggesting a common intermediary. Since these molecules fit into a metabolic cycle, it is strongly suggestive that prebiotic pathways provided the basis for biological systems.

  17. On the structure of aqueous cesium fluoride and cesium iodide solutions: diffraction experiments, molecular dynamics simulations, and reverse Monte Carlo modeling.

    PubMed

    Mile, Viktória; Gereben, Orsolya; Kohara, Shinji; Pusztai, László

    2012-08-16

    A detailed study of the microscopic structure of two electrolyte solutions, cesium fluoride (CsF) and cesium iodide (CsI) in water, is presented. For revealing the influence of salt concentration on the structure, CsF solutions at concentrations of 15.1 and 32.3 mol % and CsI solutions at concentrations of 1.0 and 3.9 mol % are investigated. For each concentration, we combine total scattering structure factors from neutron and X-ray diffraction and 10 partial radial distribution functions from molecular dynamics simulations in one single structural model, generated by reverse Monte Carlo modeling. For the present solutions we show that the level of consistency between simulations that use simple pair potentials and experimental structure factors is at least semiquantitative for even the extremely highly concentrated CsF solutions. Remaining inconsistencies seem to be caused primarily by water-water distribution functions, whereas slightly problematic parts appear on the ion-oxygen partials, too. As a final result, we obtained particle configurations from reverse Monte Carlo modeling that were in quantitative agreement with both sets of diffraction data and most of the MD simulated partial radial distribution functions. From the particle coordinates, distributions of the number of first neighbors as well as angular correlation functions were calculated. The average number of water molecules around cations in both materials decreases from about 8.0 to about 5.1 as concentration increases, whereas the same quantity for the anions (X) changes from about 5.3 to about 3.7 in the case of CsF and from about 6.2 to about 4.0 in the case of CsI. The average angle of X···H-O particle arrangements, characteristic of anion-water hydrogen bonds, is closer to 180° than that found for O···H-O arrangements (water-water hydrogen bonds) at higher concentrations.

  18. Highly accurate boronimeter assay of concentrated boric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, R.M. )

    1992-01-01

    The Random-Walk Boronimeter has successfully been used as an on-line indicator of boric acid concentration in an operating commercial pressurized water reactor. The principle has been adapted for measurement of discrete samples to high accuracy and to concentrations up to 6000 ppm natural boron in light water. Boric acid concentration in an aqueous solution is a necessary measurement in many nuclear power plants, particularly those that use boric acid dissolved in the reactor coolant as a reactivity control system. Other nuclear plants use a high-concentration boric acid solution as a backup shutdown system. Such a shutdown system depends on rapid injection of the solution and frequent surveillance of the fluid to ensure the presence of the neutron absorber. The two methods typically used to measure boric acid are the chemical and the physical methods. The chemical method uses titration to determine the ionic concentration of the BO[sub 3] ions and infers the boron concentration. The physical method uses the attenuation of neutrons by the solution and infers the boron concentration from the neutron absorption properties. This paper describes the Random-Walk Boronimeter configured to measure discrete samples to high accuracy and high concentration.

  19. Polymerization of Pu(IV) in aqueous nitric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Friedman, H.A.; Osborne, M.M.

    1980-10-01

    The polymerization of Pu(IV) in aqueous nitric acid solutions has been studied spectrophotometrically both to establish the influence of large UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} concentrations on the polymerization rates and, more generally, to review the influence of the major parameters on the polymer reaction. Typically, experiments have been performed at 50{sup 0}C and with 0.05 M Pu in nitric acid solutions that vary in acidity from 0.07 to 0.4 M. An induction period usually precedes the polymer growth stage during which time nucleation of primary hydrolysis products occurs. Uranyl nitrate retards the polymerization reaction by approximately 35% in spite of the counteracting influence of the nitrate ions associated with this solute. The rate of polymer formation, expressed as d(percent polymer)/dt, has been shown to depend on the total plutonium concentration in reactions where the Pu(IV) concentration remained constant; and it is therefore suggested that the polymer reaction rate is not first order with respect to the concentration of plutonium as was previously thought. It has been shown further that accurate acid determinations on stock reagents are essential in order to obtain reliable polymerization experiments. Satisfactory procedures for these analyses did not exist, so appropriate modifications to the iodate precipitation methods were developed. The most ideal plutonium reagent material has been shown to be crystalline Pu(IV) nitrate because it can be added directly to acid solutions without the occurrence of unintentional hydrolysis reactions.

  20. [Sorption of amino acids from aqueous solutions on activated charcoal].

    PubMed

    Nekliudov, A D; Tsibanov, V V

    1985-03-01

    Various methods for quantitative description of amino acid sorption from solutions for parenteral nutrition on activated charcoal were studied under dynamic and static conditions. With the use of the well-known Freindlich and Langmuir absorption isotherms it was shown to be possible to describe in a simplified way the complex multicomponent process of sorption of the amino acids and to estimate their loss at the filtration stage.

  1. Chemical emergency preparedness and prevention advisory: Hydrogen fluoride, series 8, No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The advisory recommends ways Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) and chemical facilities can reduce risks posed by the presence of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in their communities. Hydrogen fluoride, a strong inorganic acid, is produced and used as a gas or liquid without water (i.e., in anhydrous form), or in a water (aqueous) solution. Inhalation of hydrogen fluoride vapor, either in anhydrous form or from water solutions, can cause irritation if the exposure is mild (i.e., low concentration in air for a short time), or severe damage to the respiratory system or death in the case of exposure to high concentrations. Contact with the liquid or vapor can severely burn the skin, eyes, and other tissue. The largest use of hydrogen fluoride is in the manufacture of fluorine-containing chemicals, particularly chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Hydrogen fluoride may be used in some petroleum refinery operations, aluminum production, nuclear applications, glass etching and polishing, and metal treating and cleaning. Hydrogen fluoride's acute toxicity prompted EPA to list it as an extremely hazardous substance (EHS), with a threshold planning quantity (TPQ) of 100 pounds, under Section 302 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (commonly known as SARA Title III).

  2. Review on fluoride, with special emphasis on calcium fluoride mechanisms in caries prevention.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M

    1997-10-01

    Low concentrations of fluoride have a beneficial effect on enamel and dentin de- and remineralization. After fluoride treatments, such as topical applications, rinses or dentifrices, salivary fluoride concentrations decrease exponentially in a biphasic manner to very low concentrations within a few hours. For treatments to be effective over periods longer than the brushing and the following salivary clearance, fluoride needs to be deposited and slowly released. Calcium fluoride (or like) deposits act in such a way, owing to a surface covering of phosphate and/or proteins, which makes the CaF2 less soluble under in vivo conditions than in a pure form in inorganic solutions. Moreover, due to the phosphate groups on the surface of the calcium fluoride globules, fluoride is assumed to be released with decreasing pH when the phosphate groups are protonated in the dental plaque.

  3. Cocoa shells for heavy metal removal from acidic solutions.

    PubMed

    Meunier, N; Laroulandie, J; Blais, J F; Tyagi, R D

    2003-12-01

    The development of economic and efficient processes for the removal of heavy metals present in acidic effluents from industrial sources or decontamination technologies has become a priority. The purpose of this work was to study the efficiency with which cocoa shells remove heavy metals from acidic solutions (pH 2) and to investigate how the composition of these solutions influences heavy metal uptake efficiency. Adsorption tests were conducted in agitated flasks with single-metal solutions (0.25 mM Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), multi-metal solution (comprised of 0.25 mM of each of the cations above) and an effluent obtained from chemical leaching of metal-contaminated soil, in the presence of different cocoa shell concentrations (5-40 g/l). Results from the single-metal solution assays indicated that the fixation capacity of heavy metals by cocoa shells followed a specific order: Pb>Cr>Cd=Cu=Fe>Zn=Co>Mn=Ni=Al. Cocoa shells are particularly efficient in the removal of lead from very acidic solutions (q(max)=6.2 mg Pb/g, pH(i)=2.0 and T=22 degrees C). The presence of other metals and cations in solution did not seem to affect the recovery of lead. It was also observed that the maximum metal uptake was reached in less than 2 h. This research has also demonstrated that the removal of metals caused a decline in solution proton concentration (pH increase) and release of calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium from the cocoa shells.

  4. [Investigation on mechanism of pyrite oxidation in acidic solutions].

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Yi, Xiao-Yun; Dang, Zhi; Liu, Yun

    2012-11-01

    The mechanism of pyrite oxidation in acidic solutions was investigated by electrochemical analysis methods, such as open-circuit potential, cyclic voltammetry, Tafel polarization curve and anodic polarization curve, using a pyrite-carbon paste electrode as working electrode. The results showed that the oxidation process of pyrite in acidic solutions was via a two-step reaction: the first step was the dissolution of iron moiety and formation of a passivation film composed of elemental sulphur, metal-deficient sulfide and polysulfide; the second step was the further oxidation of these intermediate products to SO4(2-). The final reaction products of pyrite oxidation were Fe3+ and SO4(2-) in acidic solutions. In addition, the open-circuit potential and corrosion potential were positively shifted, the peak current and the corrosion current were increased with the increase in concentration of H2SO4 solutions. This indicated that increased acidity of the system was advantageous to the oxidation of pyrite.

  5. Methanol Uptake by Low Temperature Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, L. T.; Essin, A. M.; Golden, D. M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The global methanol budget is currently unbalanced, with source terms significantly larger than the sinks terms. To evaluate possible losses of gaseous methanol to sulfate aerosols, the solubility and reactivity of methanol in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions representative of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols is under investigation. Methanol will partition into sulfate aerosols according to its Henry's law solubility. Using standard uptake techniques in a Knudsen cell reactor, we have measured the effective Henry's law coefficient, H*, for cold (196 - 220 K) solutions ranging between 45 and 70 wt % H2SO4. We have found that methanol solubility ranges from approx. 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 7) M/atm for UT/LS conditions. Solubility increases with decreasing temperature and with increasing sulfuric acid content. Although methanol is slightly more soluble than are acetone and formaldehyde, current data indicate that uptake by clean aqueous sulfuric acid particles will not be a significant sink for methanol in the UT/LS. These solubility measurements include uptake due to physical solvation and any rapid equilibria which are established in solution. Reaction between primary alcohols and sulfuric acid does occur, leading to the production of alkyl sulfates. Literature values for the rate of this reaction suggest that formation of CH3OSO3H is not significant over our experimental time scale for solutions below 80 wt % H2SO4. To confirm this directly, results obtained using a complementary equilibrium measurement technique will also be presented.

  6. Role of the P-F bond in fluoride-promoted aqueous VX hydrolysis: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Marciano, Daniele; Columbus, Ishay; Elias, Shlomi; Goldvaser, Michael; Shoshanim, Ofir; Ashkenazi, Nissan; Zafrani, Yossi

    2012-11-16

    Following our ongoing studies on the reactivity of the fluoride ion toward organophosphorus compounds, we established that the extremely toxic and environmentally persistent chemical warfare agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate) is exclusively and rapidly degraded to the nontoxic product EMPA (ethyl methylphosphonic acid) even in dilute aqueous solutions of fluoride. The unique role of the P-F bond formation in the reaction mechanism was explored using both experimental and computational mechanistic studies. In most cases, the "G-analogue" (O-ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate, Et-G) was observed as an intermediate. Noteworthy and of practical importance is the fact that the toxic side product desethyl-VX, which is formed in substantial quantities during the slow degradation of VX in unbuffered water, is completely avoided in the presence of fluoride. A computational study on a VX-model, O,S-diethyl methylphosphonothioate (1), clarifies the distinctive tendency of aqueous fluoride ions to react with such organophosphorus compounds. The facility of the degradation process even in dilute fluoride solutions is due to the increased reactivity of fluoride, which is caused by the significant low activation barrier for the P-F bond formation. In addition, the unique nucleophilicity of fluoride versus hydroxide toward VX, in contrast to their relative basicity, is discussed. Although the reaction outcomes were similar, much slower reaction rates were observed experimentally for the VX-model (1) in comparison to VX.

  7. Long-term in vitro fluoride release and rerelease from orthodontic bonding materials containing fluoride.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Warren J; Wiltshire, William A; Dawes, Colin; Lavelle, Chris L B

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare in vitro long-term (30 month) fluoride release and rerelease rates (after fluoride exposure) from 3 orthodontic bonding materials containing fluoride and 1 without fluoride. Ten samples of each material (Python, TP Orthodontics, LaPorte, Ind; Assure, Reliance Orthodontic Products, Itasca, Ill; Fuji Ortho LC, GC America, Alsip, Ill; and Transbond XT, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) were fabricated and stored in deionized distilled water at 37 degrees C. Five samples had fluoride-release rates measured at days 546, 637, 730, 821, and 913 after initial fabrication, and 5 samples were exposed to fluoride (Nupro 2% NaF gel, Dentsply Canada, Woodbridge, Ontario, Canada) for 4 minutes at day 535 and had measurements taken on days 546, 548, 552, 575, 637, 730, 821, and 913. To prevent cumulative measurements, the storage solutions were changed 24 hours before measurement. Statistically significant differences were found in fluoride-release rates (P <.0001), with Fuji Ortho LC releasing the most fluoride, followed by Python and Assure at all time points in the nonfluoride exposed group. In the fluoride-exposed group, there were significant differences in fluoride release (P <.0001), with Fuji Ortho LC releasing the most fluoride. A "burst-effect" pattern of fluoride release was seen after fluoride exposure for all materials. It was concluded that Fuji Ortho LC, Assure, and Python might have sufficient long-term fluoride-release rates to reduce white spot formation, and all are recommended as suitable fluoride-releasing orthodontic bonding materials.

  8. COMPLEX FLUORIDES OF PLUTONIUM AND AN ALKALI METAL

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for precipitating alkali metal plutonium fluorides. such as KPuF/sub 5/, KPu/sub 2/F/sub 9/, NaPuF/sub 5/, and RbPuF/sub 5/, from an aqueous plutonium(IV) solution by adding hydrogen fluoride and alkali-metal- fluoride.

  9. Fluoride absorption: independence from plasma fluoride levels

    SciTech Connect

    Whitford, G.M.; Williams, J.L.

    1986-04-01

    The concept that there are physiologic mechanisms to homeostatically regulate plasma fluoride concentrations has been supported by results in the literature suggesting an inverse relationship between plasma fluoride levels and the absorption of the ion from the gastrointestinal tract of the rat. The validity of the relationship was questioned because of possible problems in the experimental design. The present work used four different methods to evaluate the effect of plasma fluoride levels on the absorption of the ion in rats: (i) the percentage of the daily fluoride intake that was excreted in the urine; (ii) the concentration of fluoride in femur epiphyses; (iii) the net areas under the time-plasma fluoride concentration curves after intragastric fluoride doses; and (iv) the residual amounts or fluoride in the gastrointestinal tracts after the intragastric fluoride doses. None of these methods indicated that plasma fluoride levels influence the rate or the degree or fluoride absorption. It was concluded that, unless extremely high plasma fluoride levels are involved (pharmacologic or toxic doses), the absorption of the ion is independent of plasma levels. The results provide further evidence that plasma fluoride concentrations are not homeostatically regulated.

  10. 40 CFR 60.212 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.212 Section... Industry: Superphosphoric Acid Plants § 60.212 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on which... facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 5.0 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5...

  11. 40 CFR 60.212 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.212 Section... Industry: Superphosphoric Acid Plants § 60.212 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on which... facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 5.0 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5...

  12. Differences in loosely bound fluoride formation and anticaries effect of resin-based fluoride varnishes.

    PubMed

    Maas, Jorge R S; Junior, Italo M Faraco; Lodi, Carolina S; Delbem, Alberto C B

    2013-05-01

    OBJECTIVE.  Our in vitro study evaluated calcium fluoride formation in enamel and the anticaries effect of seven resin-based varnishes under cariogenic challenge. METHODS.  Enamel blocks were subjected to pH cycling. The experimental groups received fluoride varnish application, the positive control received topical fluoride gel treatment, and the negative control did not receive any treatment. The pH cycling surface hardness (SH1 ) and integrated loss of subsurface hardness (ΔKHN) were then determined. We measured the amount of fluoride released into the demineralizing and remineralizing (DE-RE) solutions used in pH cycling. The fluoride concentration in the enamel was determined 24 h after application of the products as loosely bound fluoride and firmly bound fluoride. RESULTS.  Higher deposits of loosely bound fluoride were observed for Duofluorid, followed by Biophat. For Duraphat, Bifluorid, Duraflur, and Duofluorid, no difference was observed in the SH1 and ΔKHN values, with the lowest mineral loss compared to the other groups. The Bifluorid and Duofluorid groups released high fluoride amounts into the DE-RE, and statistically significant difference was noted between them. CONCLUSIONS.  The anticaries effect showed no correlation with higher deposited fluoride amounts, resin type, or fluoride source.

  13. PROCESS FOR TREATING VOLATILE METAL FLUORIDES

    DOEpatents

    Rudge, A.J.; Lowe, A.J.

    1957-10-01

    This patent relates to the purification of uranium hexafluoride, made by reacting the metal or its tetrafluoride with fluorine, from the frequently contained traces of hydrofluoric acid. According to the present process, UF/sub 6/ containing as an impurity a small amount of hydrofluoric acid, is treated to remove such impurity by contact with an anhydrous alkali metal fluoride such as sodium fluoride. In this way a non-volatile complex containing hydrofluoric acid and the alkali metal fluoride is formed, and the volatile UF /sub 6/ may then be removed by distillation.

  14. Comparative evaluation of microhardness of dentin treated with 4% titanium tetrafluoride and 1.23% acidic phosphate fluoride gel before and after exposure to acidic pH: An ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Kandanuru, Vivek; Madhusudhana, Koppolu; Ramachandruni, Vamsi Krishna; Vitta, Harish Madhav; Babu, Lenin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the effect of 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) and 1.23% acidic phosphate fluoride (APF) gel on the microhardness of human coronal dentin. Materials and Methods: Thirty noncarious extracted premolars were collected and sectioned buccolingually with the help of diamond disk. Exposing the sectioned surface, teeth were embedded in self-cure acrylic. Exposed coronal dentin was polished with abrasive papers starting with 220–5000 grit. Microhardness was evaluated by Vickers microhardness evaluator, at four different stages as follows - stage 1: Baseline values, Stage 2: Exposure of specimens to acidic environment at a pH 1 for 5 min, Stage 3: Application of 1.23% APF gel and 4% TiF4 (after dividing the specimens into two groups, i.e., Group A and B, respectively), and Stage 4: Followed by exposure of fluoridated specimens to acidic protocol as mentioned above. Results: Paired t-test was used to compare the readings between Groups A and B. Group B has shown greater resistance to decrease in microhardness of coronal dentin (P < 0.05) on exposure to acidic protocol. Conclusion: Due to acidic pH (1.5) of 4% TiF4, amount of increase in microhardness of dentin is <1.23% APF gel. 4% TiF4 was more effective in resisting demineralization than 1.23% APF gel. PMID:27994319

  15. Evaporation kinetics of acetic acid-water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffey, K.; Wong, N.; Saykally, R.; Cohen, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    The transport of water molecules across vapor-liquid interfaces in the atmosphere is a crucial step in the formation and evolution of cloud droplets. Despite decades of study, the effects of solutes on the mechanism and rate of evaporation and condensation remain poorly characterized. The present work aims to determine the effect of atmospherically-relevant solutes on the evaporation rate of water. In our experiments, we create a train of micron-sized droplets and measure their temperature via Raman thermometry as they undergo evaporation without condensation. Analysis of the cooling rate yields the evaporation coefficient (γ). Previous work has shown that inorganic salts have little effect on γ, with surface-adsorbing anions causing a slight reduction in the coefficient from that measured for pure water. Organic acids are ubiquitous in aqueous aerosol and have been shown to disrupt the surface structure of water. Here we describe measurements of the evaporation rate of acetic acid solutions, showing that acetic acid reduces γ to a larger extent than inorganic ions, and that γ decreases with increasing acetic acid concentration.

  16. Solution Preserves Nucleic Acids in Body-Fluid Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond P.

    2004-01-01

    A solution has been formulated to preserve deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) in specimens of blood, saliva, and other bodily fluids. Specimens of this type are collected for diagnostic molecular pathology, which is becoming the method of choice for diagnosis of many diseases. The solution makes it possible to store such specimens at room temperature, without risk of decomposition, for subsequent analysis in a laboratory that could be remote from the sampling location. Thus, the solution could be a means to bring the benefits of diagnostic molecular pathology to geographic regions where refrigeration equipment and diagnostic laboratories are not available. The table lists the ingredients of the solution. The functions of the ingredients are the following: EDTA chelates divalent cations that are necessary cofactors for nuclease activity. In so doing, it functionally removes these cations and thereby retards the action of nucleases. EDTA also stabilizes the DNA helix. Tris serves as a buffering agent, which is needed because minor contaminants in an unbuffered solution can exert pronounced effects on pH and thereby cause spontaneous degradation of DNA. SDS is an ionic detergent that inhibits ribonuclease activity. SDS has been used in some lysis buffers and as a storage buffer for RNA after purification. The use of the solution is straightforward. For example, a sample of saliva is collected by placing a cotton roll around in the subject's mouth until it becomes saturated, then the cotton is placed in a collection tube. Next, 1.5 mL of the solution are injected directly into the cotton and the tube is capped for storage at room temperature. The effectiveness of the solution has been demonstrated in tests on specimens of saliva containing herpes simplex virus. In the tests, the viral DNA, as amplified by polymerase chain reaction, was detected even after storage for 120 days.

  17. A mechanistic study of copper electropolishing in phosphoric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansson, Andrew

    The microelectronics industry is using copper as the interconnect material for microchips. A study of copper electropolishing is important for the process development of a new, low downforce approach, which is being developed to replace chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of the copper overburden. A promising technology is a combination of electropolishing with conventional CMP. Electropolishing of copper in phosphoric acid has been studied for, more than 70 years. Previous work has shown that the polishing rate, as measured by current density is directly related to the viscosity of the electrolyte. Also, the limiting species is water. In this study, a multidimensional design of experiments was performed to develop an in-depth model of copper electropolishing. Phosphoric acid was mixed with alcohols of different molecular weight and related viscosity to investigate how the solvents' properties affected polishing. The alcohols used were methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, butanol, ethylene glycol, and glycerol. The limiting current densities and electrochemical behavior of each solution was measured by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic experiments. Also, the kinematic viscosity and density were measured to determine the dynamic viscosity to investigate the relationship of current density and viscosity. Water, methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol solutions were also examined at 20°C to 60°C. Next, the relative percentage of dissociated phosphoric acid was measured by Raman spectroscopy for each polishing solution. Raman spectroscopy was also used to measure the relative dissociation of phosphoric acid inside the polishing film. Additionally, wafers were electropolished and electrochemical mechanically polished to investigate the effects of the different solvents, fluid flow, current, and potential. The results of these experiments have shown that the molecular mass and the ability of the solvent to dissociate phosphoric acid are the primary electrolyte properties that

  18. Solution influence on biomolecular equilibria - Nucleic acid base associations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, A.; Pratt, L. R.; Burt, S. K.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Various attempts to construct an understanding of the influence of solution environment on biomolecular equilibria at the molecular level using computer simulation are discussed. First, the application of the formal statistical thermodynamic program for investigating biomolecular equilibria in solution is presented, addressing modeling and conceptual simplications such as perturbative methods, long-range interaction approximations, surface thermodynamics, and hydration shell. Then, Monte Carlo calculations on the associations of nucleic acid bases in both polar and nonpolar solvents such as water and carbon tetrachloride are carried out. The solvent contribution to the enthalpy of base association is positive (destabilizing) in both polar and nonpolar solvents while negative enthalpies for stacked complexes are obtained only when the solute-solute in vacuo energy is added to the total energy. The release upon association of solvent molecules from the first hydration layer around a solute to the bulk is accompanied by an increase in solute-solvent energy and decrease in solvent-solvent energy. The techniques presented are expectd to displace less molecular and more heuristic modeling of biomolecular equilibria in solution.

  19. Influence of fluoride content and pH on the corrosion resistance of titanium and its alloys.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Nicolas; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Lissac, Michele; Dalard, Francis

    2002-05-01

    In the last decade, new titanium alloys have been developed in different areas of dentistry, such as TiAl6V4 and NiTi. Concurrently, treatments using fluoride supplementation, such as odontology fluoride containing gels, have also been widely used in odontology. The aim of this study was to compare the NiTi, NiTiCo and TiAl6V4 alloys with the titanium, regarding the corrosion resistance in Fusayama Meyer artificial saliva with different pH and fluoride contents. In the experimental methods, the corrosion potential was measured over time, then a linear sweep voltametric analysis measured the polarization resistances and corrosion currents. Our results have shown that TiAl6V4 alloys have a good corrosion resistance as good as that of titanium in Fusayama Meyer saliva and acid salivary solution, except NiTi and NiTiCo alloys. Conversely, we noticed, as for the titanium, a remarkable localized corrosion phenomenon of those new alloys in fluoride and acid-fluoride salivary solutions. The fluoride ions could cause the breakdown of the protective passivation layer that normally exists on the titanium and its alloys, leading to pit corrosion.

  20. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose in zinc chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, N.J.; Xu, Q.; Chen, L.F.

    1995-12-31

    The efficient conversion of cellulosic materials to ethanol has been hindered by the low yield of sugars, the high energy consumption in pretreatment processes, and the difficulty of recycling the pre-treatment agents. Zinc chloride may provide an alternative for pre-treating biomass prior to the hydrolysis of cellulose. The formation of a zinc-cellulose complex during the pretreatment of cellulose improves the yield of glucose in both the enzymatic and acid hydrolysis of cellulose. Low-temperature acid hydrolysis of cellulose in zinc chloride solution is carried out in two stages, a liquefaction stage and a saccharification stage. Because of the formation of zinc-cellulose complex in the first stage, the required amount of acid in the second stage has been decreased significantly. In 67% zinc chloride solution, a 99.5% yield of soluble sugars has been obtained at 70{degrees}C and 0.5M acid concentration. The ratio of zinc chloride to cellulose has been reduced from 4.5 to 1.5, and the yield of soluble sugars is kept above 80%. The rate of hydrolysis is affected by the ratio of zinc chloride to cellulose, acid concentration, and temperature.

  1. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Kalina, Dale G.; Kaplan, Louis; Mason, George W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions with an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  2. DC diaphragm discharge in water solutions of selected organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyhnankova, Edita J.; Hammer, Malte U.; Reuter, Stephan; Krcma, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    Effect of four simple organic acids water solution on a DC diaphragm discharge was studied. Efficiency of the discharge was quantified by the hydrogen peroxide production determined by UV-VIS spectrometry of a H2O2 complex formed with specific titanium reagent. Automatic titration was used to study the pH behaviour after the plasma treatment. Optical emission spectroscopy overview spectra were recorded and detailed spectra of OH band and Hβ line were used to calculate the rotational temperature and comparison of the line profile (reflecting electron concentration) in the acid solutions. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  3. Interaction of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor with Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) vapor by sulfuric acid solutions over the range approx.40 to approx.80 wt % H2SO4 and temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies used a fast flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and reaction products. The uptake coefficients ((gamma)) were measured and found to vary from 0.019 to 0.072, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. At concentrations greater than approx.70 wt % and in dilute solutions colder than 220 K, the values approached approx.0.07. We also determined the effective solubility constant of ethanol in approx.40 wt % H2SO4 in the temperature range 203-223 K. The potential implications to the budget of ethanol in the global troposphere are briefly discussed.

  4. Recovery of rhenium from sulfuric acid solutions with activated coals

    SciTech Connect

    Troshkina, I.D.; Naing, K.Z.; Ushanova, O.N.; P'o, V.; Abdusalomov, A.A.

    2006-09-15

    Equilibrium and kinetic characteristics of rhenium sorption from sulfuric acid solutions (pH 2) by activated coals produced from coal raw materials (China) were studied. Constants of the Henry equation describing isotherms of rhenium sorption by activated coals were calculated. The effective diffusion coefficients of rhenium in the coals were determined. The dynamic characteristics of rhenium sorption and desorption were determined for the activated coal with the best capacity and kinetic characteristics.

  5. Fast hybridization solution for the detection of immobilized nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Yang, T T; Kain, S R

    1995-03-01

    We have developed a fast hybridization solution, termed ExpressHyb, for the rapid and sensitive detection of nucleic acids immobilized on membrane supports. This solution reduces typical hybridization times of 12-24 h to as little as 1 h while simultaneously increasing the sensitivity of detection in many applications. Using ExpressHyb, human beta-actin mRNA was detected on a human multiple tissue Northern (MTN) blot following a 30-min hybridization, with optimal detection occurring with a 1-h hybridization interval. The moderately abundant human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) mRNA was detected using similar hybridization conditions and yielded improved signal-to-background characteristics relative to overnight hybridizations in conventional solutions. ExpressHyb can be used with either 32P- or digoxigenin-labeled probes and works effectively with both cDNA and oligonucleotide probes. For non-isotopic detection in particular, ExpressHyb reduces the nonspecific background commonly encountered with this technique. In cDNA library screening, ExpressHyb was found to both reduce the time required for effective hybridizations and to increase the number of positive colonies obtained relative to conventional overnight procedures. Taken together, these results illustrate the broad capability of ExpressHyb Hybridization Solution to improve nucleic acid detection in a variety of important techniques.

  6. Methanol Uptake By Low Temperature Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Essin, Andrew M.; Golden, David M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the role of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols in the global budget of methanol, the solubility and reactivity of CH3OH in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions are under investigation. Using standard uptake techniques in a Knudsen cell reactor, we have measured the effective Henry's law coefficient, H(*), for methanol dissolution into 45 to 70 percent by weight H2SO4. We find that methanol solubility ranges from 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 8) M/atm and increases with decreasing temperature and with increasing sulfuric acid content. These solubility measurements include uptake due to physical solvation and all rapid equilibria which are established in solution. Our data indicate that simple uptake by aqueous sulfuric acid particles will not be a significant sink for methanol in the UT/LS. These results differ from those recently reported in the literature, and an explanation of this disparity will be presented. In addition to solvation, reaction between primary alcohols and sulfuric acid does occur, leading to the production of alkyl sulfates. Literature values for the rate of this reaction suggest that formation of CH3OSO3H may proceed in the atmosphere but is not significant under our experimental conditions. Results obtained using a complementary equilibrium measurement technique confirm this directly. In addition, the extent of methanol sequestration via formation of mono- and dimethylsulfate will be evaluated under several atmospheric conditions.

  7. Sonolysis of an oxalic acid solution under xenon lamp irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hisashi; Harada, Hisashi

    2010-06-01

    The photosonolysis of oxalic acid was carried out in an Ar atmosphere. The detectable products of sonolysis were CO(2), CO, H(2), and H(2)O(2). The yield of CO(2) was higher than that for the sum of sonolysis and photolysis reactions. Namely, a synergistic effect was observed during simultaneous irradiations of 200 kHz ultrasound and Xe lamp. The degradation of oxalic acid was promoted by active species such as H(2)O(2) produced from water by sonolysis. An oxalic acid-H(2)O(2) complex is likely to be present in the solution, but could not be detected. The effects of not only the photo-irradiation but also the thermal or incident energy during Xe lamp illumination were also considered.

  8. Sulfonic Acid- and Lithium Sulfonate-Grafted Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Electrospun Mats As Ionic Liquid Host for Electrochromic Device and Lithium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Liu, Wanshuang; Leong, Yew Wei; Xu, Jianwei; Lu, Xuehong

    2015-08-05

    Electrospun polymer nanofibrous mats loaded with ionic liquids (ILs) are promising nonvolatile electrolytes with high ionic conductivity. The large cations of ILs are, however, difficult to diffuse into solid electrodes, making them unappealing for application in some electrochemical devices. To address this issue, a new strategy is used to introduce proton conduction into an IL-based electrolyte. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) copolymer is functionalized with sulfonic acid through covalent attachment of taurine. The sulfonic acid-grafted P(VDF-HFP) electrospun mats consist of interconnected nanofibers, leading to remarkable improvement in dimensional stability of the mats. IL-based polymer electrolytes are prepared by immersing the modified mats in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM(+)BF4(-)). It is found that the SO3(-) groups can have Lewis acid-base interactions with the cations (BMIM(+)) of IL to promote the dissociation of ILs, and provide additional proton conduction, resulting in significantly improved ionic conductivity. Using this novel electrolyte, polyaniline-based electrochromic devices show higher transmittance contrast and faster switching behavior. Furthermore, the sulfonic acid-grafted P(VDF-HFP) electrospun mats can also be lithiated, giving additional lithium ion conduction for the IL-based electrolyte, with which Li/LiCoO2 batteries display enhanced C-rate performance.

  9. Chronic fluoride toxicity: dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Denbesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation. Enamel fluorosis and primary dentin fluorosis can only occur when teeth are forming, and therefore fluoride exposure (as it relates to dental fluorosis) occurs during childhood. In the permanent dentition, this would begin with the lower incisors, which complete mineralization at approximately 2-3 years of age, and end after mineralization of the third molars. The white opaque appearance of fluorosed enamel is caused by a hypomineralized enamel subsurface. With more severe dental fluorosis, pitting and a loss of the enamel surface occurs, leading to secondary staining (appearing as a brown color). Many of the changes caused by fluoride are related to cell/matrix interactions as the teeth are forming. At the early maturation stage, the relative quantity of amelogenin protein is increased in fluorosed enamel in a dose-related manner. This appears to result from a delay in the removal of amelogenins as the enamel matures. In vitro, when fluoride is incorporated into the mineral, more protein binds to the forming mineral, and protein removal by proteinases is delayed. This suggests that altered protein/mineral interactions are in part responsible for retention of amelogenins and the resultant hypomineralization that occurs in fluorosed enamel. Fluoride also appears to enhance mineral precipitation in forming teeth, resulting in hypermineralized bands of enamel, which are then followed by hypomineralized bands. Enhanced mineral precipitation with local increases in matrix acidity may affect maturation stage ameloblast modulation, potentially explaining the dose-related decrease in cycles of ameloblast modulation from ruffle-ended to smooth-ended cells that occur with fluoride exposure in rodents. Specific cellular effects of fluoride have been implicated, but more research is needed to determine which of these changes are relevant to the formation of fluorosed teeth. As further

  10. Chronic Fluoride Toxicity: Dental Fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    DenBesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2012-01-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation. Enamel fluorosis and primary dentin fluorosis can only occur when teeth are forming, and therefore fluoride exposure (as it relates to dental fluorosis) occurs during childhood. In the permanent dentition, this would begin with the lower incisors, which complete mineralization at approximately 2–3 years of age, and end after mineralization of the third molars. The white opaque appearance of fluorosed enamel is caused by a hypomineralized enamel subsurface; with more severe dental fluorosis, pitting and a loss of the enamel surface occurs, leading to secondary staining (appearing as a brown color). Many of the changes caused by fluoride are related to cell/matrix/mineral interactions as the teeth are forming. At the early maturation stage, the relative quantity of amelogenin protein is increased in fluorosed enamel in a dose-related manner. This appears to result from a delay in the removal of amelogenins as the enamel matures. In vitro, when fluoride is incorporated into the mineral, more protein binds to the forming mineral, and protein removal by proteinases is delayed. This suggests that altered protein/mineral interactions are in part responsible for retention of amelogenins and the resultant hypomineralization that occurs in fluorosed enamel. Fluoride also appears to enhance mineral precipitation in forming teeth, resulting in hypermineralized bands of enamel, which are then followed by hypomineralized bands. Enhanced mineral precipitation with local increases in matrix acidity may affect maturation stage ameloblast modulation, potentially explaining the doserelated decrease in cycles of ameloblast modulation from ruffleended to smooth-ended cells that occur with fluoride exposure in rodents. Specific cellular effects of fluoride have been implicated, but more research is needed to determine which of these changes are relevant to the formation of fluorosed teeth. As

  11. Fluoride release and recharge abilities of contemporary fluoride-containing restorative materials and dental adhesives.

    PubMed

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Koliniotou-Koumpia, Eugenia; Helvatzoglou-Antoniades, Maria; Kotsanos, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride release of five fluoride-releasing restorative materials and three dental adhesives, before and after NaF solution treatment. Five restorative materials (Fuji IX GP, GC Corp.; Ketac N100, 3M ESPE; Dyract Extra, Dentsply; Beautifil II, Shofu Inc.; Wave, SDI) and three dental adhesives (Stae, SDI; Fluorobond II - Shofu Inc.; Prime & Bond NT, Dentsply) were investigated before and after NaF solution treatment. A fluoride ion-selective electrode was to measure fluoride concentrations. During the 86-day period before NaF solution treatment, Fuji IX GP released the highest amount of fluoride among the restorative materials while Prime & Bond NT was the highest among the dental adhesives. After NaF solution treatment, Fuji IX GP again ranked the highest in fluoride release among the restorative materials while Fluorobond II ranked the highest among dental adhesives. It was concluded that the compositions and setting mechanisms of fluoride-containing dental materials influenced their fluoride release and recharge abilities.

  12. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the effect of fluoride on the acquired enamel pellicle.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Walter L; Bakkal, Meltem; Xiao, Yizhi; Sutton, Jennifer N; Mendes, Fausto M

    2012-01-01

    The acquired enamel pellicle (AEP) is a thin film formed by the selective adsorption of salivary proteins onto the enamel surface of teeth. The AEP forms a critical interface between the mineral phase of teeth (hydroxyapatite) and the oral microbial biofilm. This biofilm is the key feature responsible for the development of dental caries. Fluoride on enamel surface is well known to reduce caries by reducing the solubility of enamel to acid. Information on the effects of fluoride on AEP formation is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of fluoride treatment on hydroxyapatite on the subsequent formation of AEP. In addition, this study pioneered the use of label-free quantitative proteomics to better understand the composition of AEP proteins. Hydroxyapatite discs were randomly divided in 4 groups (n = 10 per group). Each disc was exposed to distilled water (control) or sodium fluoride solution (1, 2 or 5%) for 2 hours. Discs were then washed and immersed in human saliva for an additional 2 hours. AEP from each disc was collected and subjected to liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for protein identification, characterization and quantification. A total of 45 proteins were present in all four groups, 12 proteins were exclusively present in the control group and another 19 proteins were only present in the discs treated with 5% sodium fluoride. Relative proteomic quantification was carried out for the 45 proteins observed in all four groups. Notably, the concentration of important salivary proteins, such as statherin and histatin 1, decrease with increasing levels of fluoride. It suggests that these proteins are repulsed when hydroxyapatite surface is coated with fluoride. Our data demonstrated that treatment of hydroxyapatite with fluoride (at high concentration) qualitatively and quantitatively modulates AEP formation, effects which in turn will likely impact the formation of oral biofilms.

  13. Thermochemical comparisons of homogeneous and heterogeneous acids and bases. 1. Sulfonic acid solutions and resins as prototype Broensted acids

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, E.M.; Haaksma, R.A.; Chawla, B.; Healy, M.H.

    1986-08-06

    Heats of ionization by thermometric titration for a series of bases (or acids) can be used to compare solid acids (or bases) with liquid analogues bearing the same functionalities in homogeneous solutions. The method is demonstrated for Broensted acids by reacting a series of substituted nitrogen bases with solutions of p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) in acetonitrile and with suspensions of the microporous polymeric arylsulfonic acid resin-Dowex 50W-X8 in the same solvent. Under well-controlled anhydrous conditions there is a good correlation (r = 0.992) between the heats of reaction of the bases with the homogeneous and heterogeneous acid systems, but the homogeneous system gives a more exothermic interaction by 3-4 kcal mol/sup -1/ for a series of 29 substituted pyrimidines, anilines, and some other amines. This difference may be attributed to homohydrogen bonding interactions between excess acid and sulfonate anion sites which are more restricted geometrically in the resin than in solution. Other factors which affect the enthalpy change for the acid-base interaction are the acid/base ratio, the water content of the sulfonic acid, the solvent, and the resin structure (e.g., microporous vs. macroporous). Steric hindrance in the base does not differentiate solid from homogeneous acid. In addition to the use of titration calorimetry, heats of immersion are reported for the Dowex-arylsulfonic acid resins and the Nafion-perfluorinated sulfonic acid resin in a series of basic liquids. The results are compared with each other and with those from a previous study of several varieties of coal.

  14. Recovery of hydrochloric acid from the waste acid solution by diffusion dialysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Lu, Shuguang; Fu, Dan

    2009-06-15

    Diffusion dialysis using a series of anion exchange membranes was employed to recover HCl acid from the waste acid solution. Effects of flow rate, flow rate ratio of water to feed, and Fe ion concentration on the recovery of HCl were investigated. It was found that the flow rate ratio was an important factor in the diffusion dialysis operation, and the recovered HCl concentration and Fe ion concentration in diffusate decreased significantly with the change of flow rate ratio from 0.4 to 1.7. In addition, the higher the Fe ion concentration in the feed, the higher the Fe leakage in the recovered acid solution. The HCl recovery efficiency was influenced not only by the recovered acid concentration, but also the outlet flow rate. While using the actual pot galvanizing waste HCl solution with the co-existence of 2.70 mol/L of Fe and 0.07 mol/L of Zn ions, over 88% HCl recovery efficiency could be achieved and Fe leakage was within the range of 11-23%. However, over 56% of Zn leakage was found due to the formation of negative Zn complexes in solution, which was unfavorable for the recovered acid reuse.

  15. An experimental study of the solubility and speciation of tantalum in fluoride-bearing aqueous solutions at elevated temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Timofeev, Alexander; Migdisov, Art. A.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2016-10-27

    Here, the solubility of Ta2O5 (solid) and the speciation of tantalum in HF-bearing aqueous solutions have been determined at temperatures of 100-250 °C and vapour-saturated water pressure. Tantalum is transported as the species Ta(OH)50 at low HF concentration and pH ~1-3. At higher HF concentration, tantalum mobility is controlled by the species TaF3(OH)3- and TaF5; the presence of TaF50 is only evident at ≤150 °C. Equilibrium constants range from -17.4 ± 0.45 to -16.4 ± 0.12 for the formation of Ta(OH)5 from crystalline Ta2O5 and from -8.24 ± 0.64 to -8.55 ± 0.68 for the formation of TaF3(OH)3- at 100more » and 250 °C, respectively. For TaF50, they were determined to be 0.13 at 100 °C and -0.35 at 150 °C.« less

  16. An experimental study of the solubility and speciation of tantalum in fluoride-bearing aqueous solutions at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeev, Alexander; Migdisov, Art. A.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2016-10-27

    Here, the solubility of Ta2O5 (solid) and the speciation of tantalum in HF-bearing aqueous solutions have been determined at temperatures of 100-250 °C and vapour-saturated water pressure. Tantalum is transported as the species Ta(OH)50 at low HF concentration and pH ~1-3. At higher HF concentration, tantalum mobility is controlled by the species TaF3(OH)3- and TaF5; the presence of TaF50 is only evident at ≤150 °C. Equilibrium constants range from -17.4 ± 0.45 to -16.4 ± 0.12 for the formation of Ta(OH)5 from crystalline Ta2O5 and from -8.24 ± 0.64 to -8.55 ± 0.68 for the formation of TaF3(OH)3- at 100 and 250 °C, respectively. For TaF50, they were determined to be 0.13 at 100 °C and -0.35 at 150 °C.

  17. Toluene nitration in irradiated nitric acid and nitrite solution

    SciTech Connect

    Gracy Elias; Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk; Jim Muller; Leigh R. Martin

    2011-04-01

    The kinetics, mechanisms, and stable products produced for the aryl alkyl mild ortho-para director - toluene, in irradiated nitric acid and neutral nitrite solutions were investigated using ?, and pulse radiolysis. Electron pulse radiolysis was used to determine the bimolecular rate constants for the reaction of toluene with different transient species produced by irradiation. HPLC with UV detection was primarily used to assess the stable reaction products. GC-MS and LC-MS were used to confirm the results from HPLC. Free-radical nitration reaction products were found in irradiated acidic and neutral media. In acidic medium, the ring substitution and side chain substitution and oxidation produced different nitro products. In ring substitution, nitrogen oxide radicals were added mainly to hydroxyl radical-produced cyclohexadienyl radical, and in side chain substitution they were added to the carbon-centered benzyl radical produced by H-atom abstraction. In neutral nitrite toluene solution, radiolytic ring nitration products approached a statistically random distribution, suggesting a free-radical reaction involving addition of the •NO2 radical.

  18. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF AMMONIUM URANIUM FLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, A.S.; Mooney, R.B.

    1953-08-25

    This patent relates to the preparation of ammonium uranium fluoride. The process comprises adding a water soluble fluoride to an aqueous solution of a uranous compound containing an ammonium salt, and isolating the resulting precipitate. This patent relates to the manufacture of uranium tetnafluoride from ammonium uranium fluoride, NH/sub 4/UF/sub 5/. Uranium tetrafluoride is prepared by heating the ammonium uranium fluoride to a temperature at which dissociation occurs with liberation of ammonium fluoride. Preferably the process is carried out under reduced pressure, or in a current of an inert gas.

  19. GADOLINIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.

    2012-02-22

    HB-Line will begin processing Pu solutions during FY2012 that will involve the recovery of Pu using oxalate precipitation and filtration. After the precipitation and filtration processes, the filtrate solution will be transferred from HB-Line to H-Canyon. The presence of excess oxalate and unfiltered Pu oxalate solids in these solutions create a criticality safety issue if they are sent to H-Canyon without controls in H-Canyon. One approach involves H-Canyon receiving the filtrate solution into a tank that is poisoned with soluble gadolinium (Gd). Decomposition of the oxalate will occur within a subsequent H-Canyon vessel. The receipt of excess oxalate into the H-Canyon receipt tanks has the potential to precipitate a portion of the Gd poison in the receipt tanks. Because the amount of Gd in solution determines the maximum amount of Pu solids that H-Canyon can receive, H-Canyon Engineering requested that SRNL determine the solubility of Gd in aqueous solutions of 4-10 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 4-12 g/L Gd, and 0.15-0.25 M oxalic acid (H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at 25 C. The target soluble Gd concentration is 6 g/L. The data indicate that the target can be achieved above 6 M HNO{sub 3} and below 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}. For 6 M HNO{sub 3}, 10.5 g/L and 7 g/L Gd are soluble in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. In 4 M HNO{sub 3}, the Gd solubility drops significantly to 2 g/L and 0.25 g/L in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. The solubility of Gd at 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} exceeds the solubility at 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The data for 4 M HNO{sub 3} showed good agreement with data in the literature. To achieve a target of 6 g/L soluble Gd in solution in the presence of 0.15-0.25 M oxalate, the HNO{sub 3} concentration must be maintained at or above 6 M HNO{sub 3}.

  20. Fluoride and Water (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Fluoride and Water KidsHealth > For Parents > Fluoride and Water A A ... to 19-year-olds continue Fluoride and the Water Supply For more than 60 years, water fluoridation ...

  1. Fluoride and Water (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Fluoride and Water KidsHealth > For Parents > Fluoride and Water Print A ... to 19-year-olds continue Fluoride and the Water Supply For more than 60 years, water fluoridation ...

  2. Plutonium and Americium Alpha Radiolysis of Nitric Acid Solutions.

    PubMed

    Horne, Gregory P; Gregson, Colin R; Sims, Howard E; Orr, Robin M; Taylor, Robin J; Pimblott, Simon M

    2017-02-02

    The yield of HNO2, as a function of absorbed dose and HNO3 concentration, from the α-radiolysis of aerated HNO3 solutions containing plutonium or americium has been investigated. There are significant differences in the yields measured from solutions of the two different radionuclides. For 0.1 mol dm(-3) HNO3 solutions, the radiolytic yield of HNO2 produced by americium α-decay is below the detection limit, whereas for plutonium α-decay the yield is considerably greater than that found previously for γ-radiolysis. The differences between the solutions of the two radionuclides are a consequence of redox reactions involving plutonium and the products of aqueous HNO3 radiolysis, in particular H2O2 and HNO2 and its precursors. This radiation chemical behavior is HNO3 concentration dependent with the differences between plutonium and americium α-radiolysis decreasing with increasing HNO3 concentration. This change may be interpreted as a combination of α-radiolysis direct effects and acidity influencing the plutonium oxidation state distribution, which in turn affects the radiation chemistry of the system.

  3. Adsorption of organic acids from dilute aqueous solution onto activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.W.

    1980-06-01

    The radioisotope technique was used to study the removal of organic acid contaminants from dilute aqueous solutions onto activated carbon. Acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, n-hexanoic acid and n-heptanoic acid were studied at 278, 298, and 313/sup 0/K. Three bi-solute acid mixtures (acetic and propionic acids, acetic and butanoic acids, and propionic and butanoic acids) were studied at 278 and 298/sup 0/K. Isotherms of the single-solute systems were obtained at three different temperatures in the very dilute concentration region (less than 1% by weight). These data are very important in the prediction of bi-solute equilibrium data. A Polanyi-based competitive adsorption potential theory was used to predict the bi-solute equilibrium uptakes. Average errors between calculated and experimental data ranges from 4% to 14%. It was found that the competitive adsorption potential theory gives slightly better results than the ideal adsorbed solution theory.

  4. Systems solutions by lactic acid bacteria: from paradigms to practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are among the powerhouses of the food industry, colonize the surfaces of plants and animals, and contribute to our health and well-being. The genomic characterization of LAB has rocketed and presently over 100 complete or nearly complete genomes are available, many of which serve as scientific paradigms. Moreover, functional and comparative metagenomic studies are taking off and provide a wealth of insight in the activity of lactic acid bacteria used in a variety of applications, ranging from starters in complex fermentations to their marketing as probiotics. In this new era of high throughput analysis, biology has become big science. Hence, there is a need to systematically store the generated information, apply this in an intelligent way, and provide modalities for constructing self-learning systems that can be used for future improvements. This review addresses these systems solutions with a state of the art overview of the present paradigms that relate to the use of lactic acid bacteria in industrial applications. Moreover, an outlook is presented of the future developments that include the transition into practice as well as the use of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic biology and other next generation applications. PMID:21995776

  5. Resin-modified glass ionomer cements: fluoride release and uptake.

    PubMed

    Forsten, L

    1995-08-01

    The aim was to study the short- and long-term fluoride release from resin-modified glass ionomer cements (GIC). The aim was also to determine the effect of fluoride treatment of 9-month-old specimens, consistency of the mix, and pH of the environment on the fluoride release. GIC test specimens were continually exposed to running water, and the fluoride release was measured periodically by storing the specimens in 5 ml deionized water for 1 week and measuring the fluoride content of the solution. After 24 h, 1 month, 9 months, and 11 months in running water four of the six resin-modified GICs released as much as or more fluoride than the auto-curing GIC tested for comparison. Fluoride treatment after 9 months also increased the fluoride release of these four brands, as was the case with the conventional GIC. At 24 h and 1 month two of the resin-modified GICs released smaller amounts of fluoride than the other materials, and the fluoride treatment used on those had no or only a minimal effect. Thin consistency of a mix resulted in higher fluoride release for one resin-modified material than a thick mix. Low pH increased the fluoride release for all materials.

  6. Characterization and adsorption properties of a lanthanum-loaded magnetic cationic hydrogel composite for fluoride removal.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shuoxun; Wang, Yili

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel lanthanum-loaded magnetic cationic hydrogel (MCH-La) was synthesized for fluoride adsorption from drinking water. The adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and effects of pH and co-existing anions on fluoride uptake by MCH-La were evaluated. FTIR, Raman and XPS were used to analyze the fluoride adsorption mechanism of MCH-La. Results showed that MCH-La had positive zeta potential values of 23.6-8.0 mV at pH 3.0-11.0, with the magnitude of saturation magnetization up to 10.3 emu/g. The fluoride adsorption kinetics by MCH-La fitted well with the fractal-like-pseudo-second-order model, and the adsorption capacity reached 93% of the ultimate adsorption capacity within the first 10 min. The maximum fluoride adsorption capacity for MCH-La was 136.78 mg F(-)/g at an equilibrium fluoride concentration of 29.3 mg/L and pH 7.0. Equilibrium adsorption data showed that the Sips model was more suitable than the Langmuir and Freundlich models. MCH-La still had more than 100 mg of F(-)/g adsorption capacity at a strongly alkaline solution (pH > 10). The adsorption process was highly pH-dependent, and the optimal adsorption was attained at pH 2.8-4.0, corresponding to ligand exchange, electrostatic interactions, and Lewis acid-base interactions. With the exception of both anions of HCO3(-) and SiO4(4-), Cl(-), NO3(-), and SO4(2-) did not evidently prevent fluoride removal by MCH-La at their real concentrations in natural groundwater. The fluoride adsorption capacity of the regenerated MCH-La approached 70% of the fresh MCH-La from the second to fifth recycles. FTIR and Raman spectra revealed that C-O and CO functional groups on MCH contributed to the fluoride adsorption, this finding was also confirmed by the XPS F 1s spectra. Deconvolution of C 1s spectra before and after fluoride adsorption indicated that the carboxyl, anhydride, and phenol groups of MCH were involved in the fluoride removal.

  7. Solution and gas-phase acidities of all-trans (all-E) retinoic acid: an experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Abboud, José-Luis M; Koppel, Ilmar A; Uggerud, Einar; Leito, Ivo; Koppel, Ivar; Sekiguchi, Osamu; Kaupmees, Karl; Saame, Jaan; Kütt, Karl; Mishima, Masaaki

    2015-07-27

    Retinoic acid is of fundamental biological importance. Its acidity was determined in the gas phase and in acetonitrile solution by means of mass spectrometry and UV/Vis spectrophotometry, respectively. The intrinsic acidity is slightly higher than that of benzoic acid. In solution, the situation is opposite. The experimental systems were described theoretically applying quantum chemical methods (wave function theory and density functional theory). This allowed the determination of the molecular structure of the acid and its conjugate base, both in vacuo and in solution, and for computational estimates of its acidity in both phases.

  8. Nanomechanical Behavior of Human Molars Soaked in Slight Acid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Te-Hua; Chang, Win-Jin; Kang, Shao-Hui; Chu, Chia-Chun

    This paper studied the mechanical and chemical properties of hydroxyl apatite (HA) crystal structure in the teeth when human molars were soaked in slight acid solution. First, we soaked the ground and polished molars respectively in the liquor of 30 wt.% H2CO3 and the liquor of 30 wt.% H2O2 for 10, 20, or 60 minutes. Next, we used a nanoindenter to measure the hardness and Young's modulus. Finally, we used a scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to analyze the variation of Ca, P and Na in teeth, a high resolution transmitting electron microscope (HRTEM) to observe the arrangement of crystallization phase of HA, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to analyze the crystallinity of the hexagonal phase of HA. The results showed that the demineralization phenomenon of the calcium-phosphorous compound in teeth made the teeth reduce sharply in hardness and Young's modulus after they were soaked in the two slight acid solutions for 10 minutes, but the re-mineralization phenomenon made the hardness and Young's modulus ascend gradually when the time lasted longer. With the same period of time, the teeth soaked in H2CO3 were lower in the hardness and Young's modulus than that in H2O2.

  9. Electrocatalytic hydrogenation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in acidic solution.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Youngkook; Birdja, Yuvraj Y; Raoufmoghaddam, Saeed; Koper, Marc T M

    2015-05-22

    Electrocatalytic hydrogenation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is studied on solid metal electrodes in acidic solution (0.5 M H2 SO4 ) by correlating voltammetry with on-line HPLC product analysis. Three soluble products from HMF hydrogenation are distinguished: 2,5-dihydroxymethylfuran (DHMF), 2,5-dihydroxymethyltetrahydrofuran (DHMTHF), and 2,5-dimethyl-2,3-dihydrofuran (DMDHF). Based on the dominant reaction products, the metal catalysts are divided into three groups: (1) metals mainly forming DHMF (Fe, Ni, Cu, and Pb), (2) metals forming DHMF and DMDHF depending on the applied potentials (Co, Ag, Au, Cd, Sb, and Bi), and (3) metals forming mainly DMDHF (Pd, Pt, Al, Zn, In, and Sb). Nickel and antimony are the most active catalysts for DHMF (0.95 mM cm(-2) at ca. -0.35 VRHE and -20 mA cm(-2) ) and DMDHF (0.7 mM cm(-2) at -0.6 VRHE and -5 mA cm(-2) ), respectively. The pH of the solution plays an important role in the hydrogenation of HMF: acidic condition lowers the activation energy for HMF hydro-genation and hydrogenates the furan ring further to tetrahydrofuran.

  10. Precipitation of sodium acid urate from electrolyte solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füredi-Milhofer, Helga; Babić-Ivaniĉić, Vesna; Milat, Ognjen; Brown, Walter E.; Gregory, Thomas M.

    1987-07-01

    The precipitation of soduim urate from solutions containing uric acid, soduim hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and water was investigated at constant pH (7.5±0.1) and temperature (308 K). Precipitates were observed by lights and electron microscopy and characterized by electron and X-ray diffraction. The results are presented in the form of "precipitation" and "chemical potential" diagrams, the latter giving the soduim-to-urate molar ratios of the precipitates. Two types of precipitation boundaries were observed, both of which had indicated soduim-to-urate moral ratios of 1:1. The ion activity product, (Na +)(HU -), associated with boundary I was AP I=(4.8±1.1)×10 -5 and with boundary II was with boundary II was AP II=(6.5±0.4)×10 -4. The supersaturation, S, at boundary II was S=AP II/ Ksp=12.3, in which Ksp is the solubility product of soduim acid urate monohydrate. The latter precipitated as well-formed crystals at supersaturations of 12.3 and above. The ion activity product associated with boundary I is approximately equal to the solubility product of soduim acid urate monohydrate. Small amounts of several morphologically different sodium urate crystals formed in the range of supersaturations (1≤ S≤12.3). Crystals formed in this range may include the monohydrate of sodium acid urate and possibly a higher hydrate. The findings have relevance to pathological renal stone formation and gouty arthritis.

  11. Dentifrice fluoride and abrasivity interplay on artificial caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Hani M; Lippert, Frank; Eckert, George J; Hara, Anderson T

    2014-01-01

    Incipient caries lesions on smooth surfaces may be subjected to toothbrushing, potentially leading to remineralization and/or abrasive wear. The interplay of dentifrice abrasivity and fluoride on this process is largely unknown and was investigated on three artificially created lesions with different mineral content/distribution. 120 bovine enamel specimens were randomly allocated to 12 groups (n = 10), resulting from the association of (1) lesion type [methylcellulose acid gel (MeC); carboxymethylcellulose solution (CMC); hydroxyethylcellulose gel (HEC)], (2) slurry abrasive level [low (REA 4/ RDA 69); high (REA 7/RDA 208)], and (3) fluoride concentration [0/275 ppm (14.5 mM) F as NaF]. After lesion creation, specimens were brushed in an automated brushing machine with the test slurries (50 strokes 2×/day). Specimens were kept in artificial saliva in between brushings and overnight. Enamel surface loss (SL) was determined by optical profilometry after lesion creation, 1, 3 and 5 days. Two enamel sections (from baseline and post-brushing areas) were obtained and analyzed microradiographically. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α = 5%). Brushing with high-abrasive slurry caused more SL than brushing with low-abrasive slurry. For MeC and CMC lesions, fluoride had a protective effect on SL from day 3 on. Furthermore, for MeC and CMC, there was a significant mineral gain in the remaining lesions except when brushed with high-abrasive slurries and 0 ppm F. For HEC, a significant mineral gain took place when low-abrasive slurry was used with fluoride. The tested lesions responded differently to the toothbrushing procedures. Both slurry fluoride content and abrasivity directly impacted SL and mineral gain of enamel caries lesions.

  12. How Does Fluoride Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work? A A A There's fluoride in your toothpaste and even in your water. But how does ... enamel from plaque and sugars. By using fluoride toothpaste, for instance, everyone can enjoy some cavity protection. ...

  13. Properties of heterogeneous apatites containing magnesium, fluoride, and carbonate.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, M; LeGeros, R Z

    1996-11-01

    Biological apatites present in the mineral phases of normal and pathological calcifications contain magnesium, Mg, and carbonate, CO3. As a consequence of fluctuations in the composition of the micro-environment, these apatites may sometimes form by heterogeneous precipitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of (Mg, CO3)-apatites formed heterogeneously in the presence of fluoride, F. Two types of fluoridated (Mg, CO3)-apatites formed from solutions with low and high levels of Mg were prepared at 80 degrees C, pH 7.4. We prepared FMgCO3-MgCO3AP (Type 1) by adding the F-containing solution to those containing calcium, Mg, and phosphate ions during the first half of the precipitation period. We prepared MgCO3-FMgCO3Ap (Type 2) by adding the F-containing solution during the final half of the period. The apatites were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared absorption spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM and XRD analyses showed evidence of mixed crystals in the heterogeneous apatites. The presence of Mg inhibits, while F promotes, apatite crystal growth. In addition, Mg incorporation increased with increasing fluoride concentration. The extent of dissolution in acid buffer of both types of heterogeneous apatites increased with Mg: Type 1 > Type 2. These results suggest that the crystal and dissolution properties of heterogeneous fluoridated (Mg, CO3)-apatites are greatly affected by the mode of F incorporation and Mg concentrations in the environment.

  14. Corrosion behavior of mild steel in acetic acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.M.; Gupta, A.

    2000-04-01

    The corrosion behavior of mild steel in acetic acid (CH{sub 3}COOH) solutions was studied by weight loss and potentiostatic polarization techniques. The variation in corrosion rate of mild steel with concentrations of CH{sub 3}COOH, evaluated by weight loss and electrochemical techniques, showed marked resemblance. From both techniques, the maximum corrosion rate was observed for 20% CH{sub 3}COOH solution at all three experimental temperatures (25, 35, and 45 C). Anodic polarization curves showed active-passive behavior at each concentration, except at 80% CH{sub 3}COOH. Critical current density (i{sub c}) passive current density (I{sub n}), primary passivation potential (E{sub pp}), and potential for passivity (E{sub p}) had their highest values in 20% CH{sub 3}COOH solution. With an increase in temperature, while the anodic polarization curves shifted toward higher current density region at each concentration, the passive region became progressively less distinguishable. With the addition of sodium acetate (NaCOOCH{sub 3}) as a supporting electrolyte, the passive range was enlarged substantially. However, the transpassive region commenced at more or less the same potential. Cathodic polarization curves were almost identical irrespective of the concentration of CH{sub 3}COOH or temperature.

  15. Conformation of poly(γ-glutamic acid) in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Muroga, Yoshio; Nakaya, Asami; Inoue, Atsuki; Itoh, Daiki; Abiru, Masaya; Wada, Kaori; Takada, Masako; Ikake, Hiroki; Shimizu, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    Local conformation and overall conformation of poly(γ-DL-glutamic acid) (PγDLGA) and poly(γ-L-glutamic acid) (PγLGA) in aqueous solution was studied as a function of degree of ionization ε by (1) H-NMR, circular dichroism, and potentiometric titration. It was clarified that their local conformation is represented by random coil over an entire ε range and their overall conformation is represented by expanded random-coil in a range of ε > ε(*) , where ε(*) is about 0.3, 0.35, 0.45, and 0.5 for added-salt concentration of 0.02M, 0.05M, 0.1M, and 0.2M, respectively. In a range of ε < ε(*) , however, ε dependence of their overall conformation is significantly differentiated from each other. PγDLGA tends to aggregate intramolecularly and/or intermolecularly with decreasing ε, but PγLGA still behaves as expanded random-coil. It is speculated that spatial arrangement of adjacent carboxyl groups along the backbone chain essentially affects the overall conformation of PγGA in acidic media.

  16. A comparative study of removal of fluoride from contaminated water using shale collected from different coal mines in India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Gargi; Dutta, Manjari; Dutta, Susmita; Adhikari, Kalyan

    2016-05-01

    Low-cost water defluoridation technique is one of the most important issues throughout the world. In the present study, shale, a coal mine waste, is employed as novel and low-cost adsorbent to abate fluoride from simulated solution. Shale samples were collected from Mahabir colliery (MBS) and Sonepur Bazari colliery (SBS) of Raniganj coalfield in West Bengal, India, and used to remove fluoride. To increase the adsorption efficiency, shale samples were heat activated at a higher temperature and samples obtained at 550 °C are denoted as heat-activated Mahabir colliery shale (HAMBS550) and heat-activated Sonepur Bazari colliery shale (HASBS550), respectively. To prove the fluoride adsorption onto different shale samples and ascertain its mechanism, natural shale samples, heat-activated shale samples, and their fluoride-loaded forms were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction study, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effect of different parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, size of particles, and initial concentration of fluoride was investigated during fluoride removal in a batch contactor. Lower pH shows better adsorption in batch study, but it is acidic in nature and not suitable for direct consumption. However, increase of pH of the solution from 3.2 to 6.8 and 7.2 during fluoride removal process with HAMBS550 and HASBS550, respectively, confirms the applicability of the treated water for domestic purposes. HAMBS550 and HASBS550 show maximum removal of 88.3 and 88.5 %, respectively, at initial fluoride concentration of 10 mg/L, pH 3, and adsorbent dose of 70 g/L.

  17. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... polymerization of vinyl fluoride. (b) The poly(vinyl fluoride) basic resins have an intrinsic viscosity of not... Dilute Solution Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride Polymers,” which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be... Solution Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride Polymers,” which is incorporated by reference; see paragraph (b)...

  18. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... polymerization of vinyl fluoride. (b) The poly(vinyl fluoride) basic resins have an intrinsic viscosity of not... Dilute Solution Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride Polymers,” which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be... Solution Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride Polymers,” which is incorporated by reference; see paragraph (b)...

  19. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polymerization of vinyl fluoride. (b) The poly(vinyl fluoride) basic resins have an intrinsic viscosity of not... Dilute Solution Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride Polymers,” which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be... Solution Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride Polymers,” which is incorporated by reference; see paragraph (b)...

  20. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... polymerization of vinyl fluoride. (b) The poly(vinyl fluoride) basic resins have an intrinsic viscosity of not... Dilute Solution Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride Polymers,” which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be... Solution Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride Polymers,” which is incorporated by reference; see paragraph (b)...

  1. Infrared optical constants of H2O ice, amorphous nitric acid solutions, and nitric acid hydrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Koehler, Birgit G.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.; Jordon, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    We determined the infrared optical constants of nitric acid trihydrate, nitric acid dihydrate, nitric acid monohydrate, and solid amorphous nitric acid solutions which crystallize to form these hydrates. We have also found the infrared optical constants of H2O ice. We measured the transmission of infrared light throught thin films of varying thickness over the frequency range from about 7000 to 500/cm at temperatures below 200 K. We developed a theory for the transmission of light through a substrate that has thin films on both sides. We used an iterative Kramers-Kronig technique to determine the optical constants which gave the best match between measured transmission spectra and those calculated for a variety of films of different thickness. These optical constants should be useful for calculations of the infrared spectrum of polar stratospheric clouds.

  2. Adsorbent synthesis of polypyrrole/TiO2 for effective fluoride removal from aqueous solution for drinking water purification: Adsorbent characterization and adsorption mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Shu, Chiajung; Wang, Ning; Feng, Jiangtao; Ma, Hongyu; Yan, Wei

    2017-06-01

    More than 20 countries are still suffering problems of excessive fluoride containing water, and greater than 8mg/L fluoride groundwater has been reported in some villages in China. In order to meet the challenge in the drinking water defluoridation engineering, a high efficiency and affinity defluoridation adsorbent PPy/TiO2 composite was designed and synthetized by in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction Investigator (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Thermogravimetric analysis (TG), N2 isotherm analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Zeta potential analysis were conducted to characterize surface and textural properties of the as-prepared PPy/TiO2, and the possibility of fluoride adsorption was carefully estimated by adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies. Characterization investigations demonstrate the uniqueness of surface and textural properties, such as suitable specific surface area and abundant positively charged nitrogen atoms (N(+)), which indicate the composite is a suitable material for the fluoride adsorption. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics follow better with Langmuir and pseudo-second-order model, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity reaches 33.178mg/g at 25°C according to Langmuir model, and particular interest was the ability to reduce the concentration of fluoride from 11.678mg/L to 1.5mg/L for drinking water at pH of 7 within 30min. Moreover, the adsorbent can be easily recycled without the loss of adsorption capacity after six cycles, greatly highlighting its outstanding affinity to fluoride, low-cost and novel to be used in the purification of fluoride containing water for drinking. Furthermore, the adsorption mechanism was extensively investigated and discussed by FTIR investigation and batch adsorption studies including effect of pH, surface potential and thermodynamics. The adsorption is confirmed to be a spontaneous and exothermic process

  3. Chemico-therapeutic approach to prevention of dental caries. [using stannous fluoride gel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, I. L.

    1975-01-01

    The program of chemical preventive dentistry is based primarily upon the development of a procedure for stabilizing stannous fluoride in solution by forcing it into glycerin. New topical fluoride treatment concentrates, fluoride containing gels and prophylaxis pastes, as well as a completely stable stannous fluoride dentifrice are made possible by the development of a rather complicated heat application method to force stannous fluoride into solution in glycerin. That the stannous fluoride is clinically effective in such a preparation is demonstrated briefly on orthodontic patients.

  4. The solvent effect on the acidities of haloacetic acids in aqueous solution. A RISM-SCF study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Masaaki; Ten-no, Seiichiro; Kato, Shigeki; Hirata, Fumio

    1995-06-01

    The acidities of acetic, fluoracetic and chloroacetic acids in aqueous solution are calculated by means of the ab initio method combined with the reference interaction site method in the statistical mechanics of molecular liquids (the RISM-SCF method). The inversion in the order of acidities experimentally observed when a series of haloacetic acids is immersed into aqueous solution is reproduced. It is shown that the inversion is caused by competition between substitution and solvation effects. The solvation effect is discussed in molecular detail in terms of the charge distribution of the solute and the solute-solvent radial distribution functions.

  5. The extraction of actinides from nitric acid solutions with diamides of dipicolinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapka, Joseph L.; Paulenova, Alena; Alyapyshev, Mikhail Yu; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Law, Jack D.; Herbst, R. Scott

    2010-03-01

    Diamides of dipicolinic acid (N,N'-diethyl-N,N'-ditolyl-dipicolinamide, EtTDPA) were synthesized and evaluated for their extraction capability for actinides. In this work the extractions of neptunium(V), protactinium(V), and thorium(IV) with EtTDPA in a polar fluorinated diluent from nitric acid were investigated. EtTDPA shows a high affinity for Th(IV) even at millimolar concentrations. Np(V) and Pa(V) are both reasonably extractable with EtTDPA; however, near saturated solutions are required to achieve appreciable distribution ratios. A comparison with previously published actinide extraction data is given.

  6. Properties of aluminum-fluoride catalysts prepared by the fluoridation of aluminum oxide with trifluoromethane

    SciTech Connect

    McVicker, G.B.; Kim, C.J.; Eggert, J.J.

    1983-04-01

    High-purity AlF/sub 3/ has been prepared by allowing ..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to react with gaseous trifluoromethane at 670-770 K under 101 kPa total pressure. The use of gaseous trifluoromethane is a new, general method for preparing metal fluorides from metal oxides. AlF/sub 3/ prepared using this procedure retained the physical form of the starting ..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. A 1/16-in. ..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ extrudate, for example, yielded an AlF/sub 3/ extrudate with comparable physical dimensions and crush strengths. X-Ray diffraction, BET surface area, pore volume, and surface acidity measurements were employed to characterize various AlF/sub 3/ samples. Significant decreases in surface area and pore volume as well as surface acidity occurred upon increasing the concentration of AlF/sub 3/ from 90 to 100%. This behavior presumably results from the fluoridation of residual ..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. AlF/sub 3/ extrudates were utilized as supports for Pt and Pd catalysts. Specific benzene hydrogenation activities of these catalysts are comparable to those of Pt and Pd on ..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. In a unique application, Pd/AlF/sub 3/ was used to hydrogenate m-diethylbenzene in superacid (HF/TaF/sub 5/) solution.

  7. Effect of Fluoride-Releasing Adhesive Systems on the Mechanical Properties of Eroded Dentin.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Ana Paula Albuquerque; Moda, Mariana Dias; Suzuki, Thaís Yumi Umeda; Godas, André Gustavo de Lima; Sundfeld, Renato Herman; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Santos, Paulo Henrique dos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of erosive pH cycling with solutions that simulate dental erosion on Martens hardness (HMV) and elastic modulus (Eit) of dentin restored with fluoride-releasing adhesive systems. Twenty-seven bovine dentin slabs were restored with three adhesive systems: Adper Single Bond 2 total-etch adhesive system, One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect fluoride-containing self-etching adhesive systems. The restorations were made with Filtek Z250. The HMV and Eit values at distances of 10, 30, 50 and 70 µm from the interface were evaluated using a dynamic ultra microhardness tester before and after immersion in deionized water, citric acid and hydrochloric acid (n=9). Data were submitted to repeated-measures ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD tests (=0.05). After erosive cycling, HMV values of dentin decreased in all groups. For dentin restored with Adper Single Bond 2, the lowest values were found closer to the hybrid layer, while for One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect, the values remained unaltered at all distances. For dentin restored with fluoride-releasing adhesive systems, a decrease in Eit was found, but after 30 µm this difference was not significant. The acid substances were able to alter HMV and Eit of the underlying dentin. For fluoride-releasing adhesives, the greater the distance from bonded interface, the lower the Eit values. The fluoride in One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect was able to protect the underlying dentin closer to the materials. In this way, the fluoride from adhesive systems could have some positive effect in the early stages of erosive lesions.

  8. GADOLINIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.

    2012-03-12

    HB-Line will begin processing Pu solutions during FY2012 that will involve the recovery of Pu using oxalate precipitation and filtration. After the precipitation and filtration processes, the filtrate solution will be transferred from HB-Line to H-Canyon. The presence of excess oxalate and unfiltered Pu oxalate solids in these solutions create a criticality safety issue if they are sent to H-Canyon without controls in H-Canyon. One approach involves H-Canyon receiving the filtrate solution into a tank that is poisoned with soluble gadolinium (Gd). Decomposition of the oxalate will occur within a subsequent H-Canyon vessel. The receipt of excess oxalate into the H-Canyon receipt tanks has the potential to precipitate a portion of the Gd poison in the receipt tanks. Because the amount of Gd in solution determines the maximum amount of Pu solids that H-Canyon can receive, H-Canyon Engineering requested that SRNL determine the solubility of Gd in aqueous solutions of 4-10 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 4-12 g/L Gd, and 0.15-0.25 M oxalic acid (H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at 25 °C. The target soluble Gd concentration is 6 g/L. The data indicate that the target can be achieved above 6 M HNO{sub 3} and below 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}. At 25 °C, for 6 M HNO{sub 3}, 11 g/L and 7 g/L Gd are soluble in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. In 4 M HNO{sub 3}, the Gd solubility drops significantly to 2.5 g/L and 0.8 g/L in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. The solubility of Gd at 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} exceeds the solubility at 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The data for 4 M HNO{sub 3} showed good agreement with data in the literature. To achieve a target of 6 g/L soluble Gd in solution in the presence of 0.15-0.25 M oxalate, the HNO{sub 3} concentration must be maintained at or above 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The solubility of Gd in 4 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.15 M oxalate at 10 °C is about 1.5 g/L. For 6 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.15 M oxalate, the solubility of Gd at 10

  9. Radiolysis gases from nitric acid solutions containing HSA and HAN

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1994-10-28

    The concentration of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) in the radiolytically produced off-gas from 2.76-4.25M HNO{sub 3}/PU solutions has been found to be greatly reduced in the presence of sulfamic acid (HSA) and hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN). The H{sub 2} concentration ([H{sub 2}]) is reduced from 35 percent to about 4 percent by dilution caused from an increase in the production rates of nitrogen (N{sub 2}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and oxygen (O{sub 2}) gases. The generation rate of H{sub 2} was not affected by HSA or HAN giving a measured radiolytic yield, G(H{sub 2}), value of 0.201 molecules/100 eV for 2.765M NO{sub 3}{sup -} solution (a value of 0.213 is predicted from previous data). The G(H{sub 2}) values are dependent on the solution nitrate concentration ([NO{sub 3}{sup -}]). The generation rates of N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2} are not dependent on the [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] in this narrow range, but are dependent on the presence of HSA and the concentration of HAN. The percentage [H{sub 2}] for the 2.5 to 3.0M NO{sub 3}{sup -} range expected in the off- from the FB-Line Pu{sup +3} Hold Tanks is conservatively estimated to be about 3.5 to 4.5 % for Pu + 3 solutions initially containing 0.023M HAN/0.165M HSA. The upper limit [H{sub 2}] may actually be about 4.1 % (4.3 % at 90 % confidence limits) but more {open_quotes}initial{close_quotes} off-gas rate data is needed at about 2.9M [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] in Pu{sup +3} solution for verification. Addition of ascorbic acid had no effect on the off-gas rate of Pu{sup +3} solutions containing HSA and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations higher than those expected in the hold tanks. The maximum {open_quotes}hold time{close_quotes} for 50 grams/liter Pu{sup +3}/0.165M HSA/0.023M HAN/2.5-3.0M HNO{sub 3} solution is 20.3{+-}2.1 days. After this time the HSA initially present will become exhausted and the [H{sub 2}] will increase to 35 %. This hold time may be longer in [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] < 3.0M, but again more study is needed.

  10. Optical properties of chitosan in aqueous solution of L- and D-ascorbic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinkina, Olga N.; Shipovskaya, Anna B.; Kazmicheva, Olga F.

    2016-04-01

    The optical properties of aqueous chitosan solutions in L- and D-ascorbic acids were studied by optical rotatory dispersion and spectrophotometry. The specific optical rotation [α] of all chitosan solutions tested was positive, in contrast to aqueous solutions of the ascorbic acid enantiomers, which exhibit an inverse relationship of [α] values. Significant differences in the absolute values of [α] of the chitosan solutions at polymer-acid ratios exceeding the equimolar one were found.

  11. Fluoride overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... cream (also called acid cream, used to etch designs in drinking glasses) Roach powders Other products may ... the mouth into the lungs, and a breathing machine (ventilator) Calcium or milk Chest x-ray EKG ( ...

  12. Amelogenin-assisted ex vivo remineralization of human enamel: Effects of supersaturation degree and fluoride concentration.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuwei; Nelson, James R; Alvarez, Jason R; Hagan, Joseph; Berrier, Allison; Xu, Xiaoming

    2011-05-01

    The formation of organized nanocrystals that resemble enamel is crucial for successful enamel remineralization. Calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions, and amelogenin are important ingredients for the formation of organized hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals in vitro. However, the effects of these remineralization agents on the enamel crystal morphology have not been thoroughly studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fluoride ions, supersaturation degree and amelogenin on the crystal morphology and organization of ex vivo remineralized human enamel. Extracted third molars were sliced thin and acid-etched to provide the enamel surface for immersion in different remineralization solutions. The crystal morphology and mineral phase of the remineralized enamel surface were analyzed by field emission-scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transformed infrared and X-ray diffraction. The concentration of fluoride and the supersaturation degree of hydroxyapatite had significant effects on the crystal morphology and crystal organization, which varied from plate-like loose crystals to rod-like densely packed nanocrystal arrays. Densely packed arrays of fluoridated hydroxyapatite nanorods were observed under the following conditions: σ(HAP)=10.2±2.0 with 1.5±0.5 mg l(-1) fluoride and 40±10 μg ml(-1) amelogenin, pH 6.8±0.4. A phase diagram summarizes the conditions that form dense or loose hydroxyapatite nanocrystal structures. This study provides the basis for the development of novel dental materials for caries management.

  13. Amelogenin-assisted ex vivo remineralization of human enamel: effects of supersaturation degree and fluoride concentration

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yuwei; Nelson, James R.; Alvarez, Jason R.; Hagan, Joseph; Berrier, Allison; Xu, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    The formation of organized nanocrystals that resemble enamel is crucial for successful enamel remineralization. Calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions and amelogenin are important ingredients for the formation of organized hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals in vitro. However, the effects of these remineralization agents on the enamel crystal morphology have not been thoroughly studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fluoride ions, supersaturation degree and amelogenin on the crystal morphology and organization of ex vivo remineralized human enamel. Extracted third molars were sliced thin and acid-etched to provide the enamel surface for immersion in different remineralization solutions. The crystal morphology and mineral phase of the remineralized enamel surface were analyzed by FE-SEM, ATR-FTIR and XRD. The concentration of fluoride and supersaturation degree of hydroxyapatite had significant effects on the crystal morphology and crystal organization, which varied from plate-like loose crystals to rod-like densely packed nanocrystal arrays. Densely packed arrays of fluoridated hydroxyapatite nanorods were observed under the following conditions: σ(HAP) = 10.2±2.0 with fluoride 1.5±0.5 mg/L and amelogenin 40±10 µg/mL, pH 6.8±0.4. A phase diagram summarized the conditions that form dense or loose hydroxyapatite nanocrystal structures. This study provides the basis for the development of novel dental materials for caries management. PMID:21256987

  14. Effects of Systemic Fluoride and in vitro Fluoride Treatment on Enamel Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, H.; Czajka-Jakubowska, A.; Spencer, N.J.; Mansfield, J.F.; Robinson, C.; Clarkson, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    Systemically administered fluoride at a concentration of 75 ppm increases the surface roughness of developing enamel crystals in rats, which may be significant in advancing our understanding of the biological mechanism of fluorosis. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the increased surface roughness may be a result of surface restructuring by the direct action of fluoride at the crystal surface. We examined the fluoride dose-dependent roughening of enamel crystal surfaces in vivo, in the rat, and whether this roughening could be mimicked by the in vitro treatment of rat enamel crystals with neutral pH fluoride solutions. Our results showed that enamel crystal surface roughness increased after treatment with increasing fluoride ion concentrations, whether applied in vitro or administered systemically. This suggests a mechanism, alongside others, for the increased surface roughness of crystals in fluorotic enamel. PMID:17062747

  15. Fluoride Plus Functionalized β-TCP

    PubMed Central

    Karlinsey, R.L.; Pfarrer, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    With more than 50 years of clinical success, fluoride serves as the gold standard agent for preventing tooth decay. In particular, the action of fluoride facilitates saliva-driven remineralization of demineralized enamel and alters solubility beneficially. Still, tooth decay remains problematic, and one way to address it may be through the development of new mineralizing agents. Laboratory and clinical studies have demonstrated that the combination of fluoride and functionalized β-tricalcium phosphate (fTCP) produces stronger, more acid-resistant mineral relative to fluoride, native β-TCP, or fTCP alone. In contrast to other calcium-based approaches that seem to rely on high levels of calcium and phosphate to drive remineralization, fTCP is a low-dose system designed to fit within existing topical fluoride preparations. The functionalization of β-TCP with organic and/or inorganic molecules provides a barrier that prevents premature fluoride-calcium interactions and aids in mineralization when applied via common preparations and procedures. While additional clinical studies are warranted, supplementing with fTCP to enhance fluoride-based nucleation activity, with subsequent remineralization driven by dietary and salivary calcium and phosphate, appears to be a promising approach. PMID:22899679

  16. Effect of pH, fluoride and hydrofluoric acid concentration on ion release from NiTi wires with various coatings.

    PubMed

    Katic, Visnja; Curkovic, Lidija; Bosnjak, Magdalena Ujevic; Peros, Kristina; Mandic, Davor; Spalj, Stjepan

    2017-03-31

    Aim was to determine effect of pH, fluoride (F(-)) and hydrofluoric acid concentration (HF) on dynamic of nickel (Ni(2+)) and titanium (Ti(4+)) ions release. Nickel-titanium wires with untreated surface (NiTi), rhodium (RhNiTi) and nitride (NNiTi) coating were immersed once a week for five min in remineralizing agents, followed by immersion to artificial saliva. Ion release was recorded after 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Pearson correlations and linear regression were used for statistical analysis. Release of Ni(2+) from NiTi and NNiTi wires correlated highly linearly positively with HF (r=0.948 and 0.940, respectively); for RhNiTi the correlation was lower and negative (r=-0.605; p<0.05). The prediction of Ti(4+) release was significant for NiTi (r=0.797) and NNiTi (r=0.788; p<0.05) wire. Association with F(-) was lower; for pH it was not significant. HF predicts the release of ions from the NiTi wires better than the pH and F(-) of the prophylactic agents.

  17. Preparation and characterization of pH-sensitive and antifouling poly(vinylidene fluoride) microfiltration membranes blended with poly(methyl methacrylate-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Ju, Junping; Wang, Chao; Wang, Tingmei; Wang, Qihua

    2014-11-15

    Functional terpolymer of poly(methyl methacrylate-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) (P(MMA-HEMA-AA)) was synthesized via a radical polymerization method. The terpolymer could be directly blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) to prepare the microfiltration (MF) membranes via phase separate process. The synthesized polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), the nuclear magnetic resonance proton spectra ((1)H NMR). The membrane had the typical asymmetric structure and the hydrophilic side chains tended to aggregate on the membrane surface. The surface enrichment of amphiphilic copolymer and morphology of MF membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The contact angle (CA) and water uptake were also tested to assess the hydrophilicity and wetting characteristics of the polymer surface. The water filtration properties were measured. It was found the modified membranes showed excellent pH-sensitivity and pH-reversibility behavior. Furthermore, the hydrophilicity of the blended membranes increased, and the membranes showed good protein antifouling property.

  18. Determination of fluoride and oxalate using the indicator reaction of Zr(IV) with methylthymol blue adsorbed on silica gel.

    PubMed

    Zaporozhets, Olga A; Tsyukalo, Lyudmila Ye

    2007-07-30

    Solid-phase spectrophotometric and visual test-methods of fluoride and oxalate determination are proposed. The methods are based on the competitive reactions of ZrOCl2 with methylthymol blue immobilized on silica gel and fluoride or oxalate in solution. Absorbance of the solid-phase reagent at 590 nm decreases with the growth of fluoride and oxalate contents in solution. The developed methods demonstrate high selectivity. The interference of Bi(III) and SO4(2-), PO4(3-) is eliminated by the addition of 0.01 mol L(-1) solution of ascorbic acid and 0.01 mol L(-1) of BaCl2, respectively. To eliminate the fluoride interference with oxalate determination 1x10(-3) mol L(-1) solution of Ca(NO3)2 at pH 1.5 was added. The anions of the organic acids were destructed prior to F- determination by ultrasonic exposition (44 kHz, intensity of < or = 10 W cm(-2) for 3 min). The proposed methods were applied to the analysis of mineral water, toothpaste and biological fluids.

  19. Uptake of ozone to mixed sodium bromide/ citric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Tao; Steimle, Emilie; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Kato, Shunsuke; Lampimäki, Markus; Brown, Matthew; van Bokhoven, Jeroen; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Türler, Andreas; Ammann, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Sea-salt solution - air interfaces play an important role in the chemistry of the marine boundary layer. The reaction of ozone (O3) with bromide is of interest in the context of formation of photolabile halogens (Br2, BrCl) in the marine boundary layer. Recent experiments have suggested that the bromide oxidation rate is related to the surface concentration of bromide [1] and inversely related to the gas phase concentration of O3, an indication for a precursor mediated reaction at the surface [2]. So far, the effect of organics (such as those occurring at the ocean surface or in marine aerosols) on the reaction of O3 with bromide aerosols has not been studied yet. In our study we investigate the uptake kinetics of O3 to a mixed solution of sodium bromide (NaBr) and citric acid (CA), which represents highly oxidized organic compounds present in the environment, with a well-established coated wall flow tube technique, which leads to exposure of the film to O3 allowing the heterogeneous reactions to take place and the loss of O3 being measured. The results indicate that the uptake of O3 to the films with the higher bromide concentrations (0.34M and 4M) is independent of the gas phase concentration and roughly consistent with uptake limited by reaction in the bulk. For the lower bromide concentration (84mM), however, we observe a trend of the uptake coefficient to decrease with increasing O3 concentration, indicating an increasing importance of a surface reaction. In an attempt to constrain the kinetic data, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to get insight into the surface composition of the aqueous solution - air interface. Previous XPS studies have shown that halide ion concentrations are enhanced at the aqueous solution air interface [3-4], which likely promotes the surface reactions of bromide or iodide with O3. A first XPS study of ternary solutions of KI with butanol indicated the importance of specific interactions of the cation with the alcohol

  20. Novel fluorogenic probe for fluoride ion based on the fluoride-induced cleavage of tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2007-06-01

    A highly sensitive and selective fluorogenic probe for fluoride ion, 4-methylumbelliferyl tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether (4-MUTBS), was designed and synthesized. 4-MUTBS was a weakly fluorescent compound and was synthesized via the one-step reaction of 4-MU with tert-butyldimethylsilyl chloride. Upon incubation with fluoride ion in acetone-water solution (7:3, v/v), the Si-O bond of 4-MUTBS was cleaved and highly fluorescent 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) was released, hence leading to the fluorescence increase of the reaction solution. The fluorescence increase is linearly with fluoride concentration in the range 50-8000 nmol l -1 with a detection limit of 19 nmol l -1 (3 σ). Because of the high affinity of silicon toward fluoride ion, the proposed probe shows excellent selectivity toward fluoride ion over other anions. The method has been successfully applied to the fluoride determination in toothpaste and tap water samples.

  1. Corrosion behavior of zirconia in acidulated phosphate fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Anie; Sridhar, Sathyanarayanan; Aghyarian, Shant; Watkins-curry, Pilanda; Chan, Julia Y.; Pozzi, Alessandro; Rodrigues, Danieli C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The corrosion behavior of zirconia in acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) representing acidic environments and fluoride treatments was studied. Material and Methods Zirconia rods were immersed in 1.23% and 0.123% APF solutions and maintained at 37°C for determined periods of time. Surfaces of all specimens were imaged using digital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sample mass and dimensions were measured for mass loss determination. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) to detect changes in crystallinity. A biosensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to detect ion dissolution of material into the immersion media. Results Digital microscopy revealed diminishing luster of the materials and SEM showed increased superficial corrosion of zirconia submerged in 1.23% APF. Although no structural change was found, the absorption of salts (sodium phosphate) onto the surface of the materials bathed in 0.123% APF was significant. EIS indicated a greater change of impedance for the immersion solutions with increasing bathing time. Conclusion Immersion of zirconia in APF solutions showed deterioration limited to the surface, not extending to the bulk of the material. Inferences on zirconia performance in acidic oral environment can be elucidated from the study. PMID:27008257

  2. 40 CFR 60.202 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.202 Section... Industry: Wet-Process Phosphoric Acid Plants § 60.202 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on... facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 10.0 g/Mg of equivalent P2O5 feed (0.020...

  3. 40 CFR 60.202 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.202 Section... Industry: Wet-Process Phosphoric Acid Plants § 60.202 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on... facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 10.0 g/Mg of equivalent P2O5 feed (0.020...

  4. Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics. PMID:18522725

  5. HYDROGEN CHEMISORPTION ON Pt SINGLE CRYSTAL SURFACES IN ACIDIC SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1980-04-01

    Hydrogen chemisorption from dilute acidic solution onto Pt single crystal surfaces was examined using an electrochemical cell directly coupled to LEED/Auger analytical system. No pre-anodization was used prior to observing hydrogen adsorption by cyclic voltammetry so that clean surfaces having the ordered structures indicated by LEED were studied. The problem of contributions from non-ordered parts of the electrode like support wires and edges was solved by using a gold evaporation masking technique. The specific contribution of atomic imperfections to the voltammetry curve was deduced from the ordered and countable imperfections occurring on high Miller index single crystal surfaces that have a stepped structure. The H-Pt bond energy Has found to be structure sensitive, and sensitive both to local site geometry and long range order in the surface. The bond strength was found to vary systematically: n(111)x(100) > (100) > n(111)x(111) > (110) > (111). Distinct states for hydrogen at steps versus hydrogen on terraces could be distinguished. The (110) surface is shown to be a (111) vicinal, probably the [3(111) x 2(111)] microfacetted surface. The zero coverage heat of adsorption on the well-ordered (111) surface (48 kJ/mol) in solutions is the same as the value reported by Ertl and co-workers for adsorption on a (111) surface in vacuum. Adsorption Isotherms for hydrogen on the (111) and (100) surfaces is adequately fit by the classical model for immobile adsorption at single sites with nearest neighbor repulsive interaction.

  6. Enhanced removal of fluoride by polystyrene anion exchanger supported hydrous zirconium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bingcai; Xu, Jingsheng; Wu, Bing; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Xitong

    2013-08-20

    Here we fabricated a novel nanocomposite HZO-201, an encapsulated nanosized hydrous zirconium oxide (HZO) within a commercial porous polystyrene anion exchanger D201, for highly efficient defluoridation of water. HZO-201 exhibited much higher preference than activated alumina and D201 toward fluoride removal when competing anions (chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and bicarbonate) coexisted at relatively high levels. Fixed column adsorption indicated that the effective treatable volume of water with HZO-201 was about 7-14 times as much as with D201 irrespective of whether synthetic solution or groundwater was the feeding solution. In addition, HZO-201 could treat >3000 BV of the acidic effluent (around 3.5 mg F(-)/L) per run at pH 3.5, compared to only ∼4 BV with D201. The exhausted HZO-201 could be regenerated by NaOH solution for repeated use without any significant capacity loss. Such attractive performance of HZO-201 resulted from its specific hybrid structure, that is, the host anion exchanger D201 favors the preconcentration of fluoride ions inside the polymer based on the Donnan principle, and the encapsulated nanosized HZO exhibits preferable sequestration of fluoride through specific interaction, as further demonstrated by XPS spectra. The influence of solution pH, competitive anions, and contact time was also examined. The results suggested that HZO-201 has a great potential in efficient defluoridation of groundwater and acidic mine drainage.

  7. Temperature induced denaturation of collagen in acidic solution.

    PubMed

    Mu, Changdao; Li, Defu; Lin, Wei; Ding, Yanwei; Zhang, Guangzhao

    2007-07-01

    The denaturation of collagen solution in acetic acid has been investigated by using ultra-sensitive differential scanning calorimetry (US-DSC), circular dichroism (CD), and laser light scattering (LLS). US-DSC measurements reveal that the collagen exhibits a bimodal transition, i.e., there exists a shoulder transition before the major transition. Such a shoulder transition can recover from a cooling when the collagen is heated to a temperature below 35 degrees C. However, when the heating temperature is above 37 degrees C, both the shoulder and major transitions are irreversible. CD measurements demonstrate the content of triple helix slowly decreases with temperature at a temperature below 35 degrees C, but it drastically decreases at a higher temperature. Our experiments suggest that the shoulder transition and major transition arise from the defibrillation and denaturation of collagen, respectively. LLS measurements show the average hydrodynamic radius R(h), radius of gyration R(g)of the collagen gradually decrease before a sharp decrease at a higher temperature. Meanwhile, the ratio R(g)/R(h) gradually increases at a temperature below approximately 34 degrees C and drastically increases in the range 34-40 degrees C, further indicating the defibrillation of collagen before the denaturation.

  8. Hyaluronic acid solution injection for upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding after failed conventional endoscopic therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyung Hun

    2014-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid solution injection can be an additional endoscopic modality for controlling bleeding in difficult cases when other techniques have failed. We evaluated 12 cases in which we used hyaluronic acid solution injection for stopping bleeding. Immediately following hyaluronic acid solution injection, bleeding was controlled in 11 out of 12 cases. There was no clinical evidence of renewed bleeding in 11 cases during follow up.Hyaluronic acid solution injection can be a simple and efficient additional method for controlling upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding after failed endoscopic therapy.

  9. Large-scale production of anhydrous nitric acid and nitric acid solutions of dinitrogen pentoxide

    DOEpatents

    Harrar, Jackson E.; Quong, Roland; Rigdon, Lester P.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for a large scale, electrochemical production of anhydrous nitric acid and N.sub.2 O.sub.5. The method includes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /aqueous-HNO.sub.3 at the anode, while reducing aqueous HNO.sub.3 at the cathode, in a flow electrolyzer constructed of special materials. N.sub.2 O.sub.4 is produced at the cathode and may be separated and recycled as a feedstock for use in the anolyte. The process is controlled by regulating the electrolysis current until the desired products are obtained. The chemical compositions of the anolyte and catholyte are monitored by measurement of the solution density and the concentrations of N.sub.2 O.sub.4.

  10. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.

  11. Uptake of Hypobromous Acid (HOBr) by Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions: Low-Temperature Solubility and Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Michelsen, Rebecca R.; Ashbourn, Samatha F. M.; Rammer, Thomas A.; Golden, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Hypobromous acid (HOBr) is a key species linking inorganic bromine to the chlorine and odd hydrogen chemical families. We have measured the solubility of HOBr in 45 - 70 wt% sulfuric acid solutions representative of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol composition. Over the temperature range 201 - 252 K, HOBr is quite soluble in sulfuric acid, with an effective Henry's law coefficient, H* = 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 7) mol/L/atm. H* is inversely dependent on temperature, with Delta H = -46.2 kJ/mol and Delta S = -106.2 J/mol/K for 55 - 70 wt% H2SO4 solutions. Our study includes temperatures which overlap both previous measurements of HOBr solubility. For uptake into aqueous 45 wt% H2SO4, the solubility can be described by log H* = 3665/T - 10.63. For 55 - 70 wt% H2SO4, log H* = 2412/T - 5.55. At temperatures colder than approx. 213 K, the solubility of HOBr in 45 wt% H2SO4 is noticeably larger than in 70 wt% H2SO4. The solubility of HOBr is comparable to that of HBr, indicating that upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols should contain equilibrium concentrations of HOBr which equal or exceed those of HBr. Our measurements indicate chemical reaction of HOBr upon uptake into aqueous sulfuric acid in the presence of other brominated gases followed by evolution of gaseous products including Br2O and Br2, particularly at 70 wt% H2SO4.

  12. Arsenic from community water fluoridation: quantifying the effect.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Emily; Shapiro, Howard; Li, Ye; Minnery, John G; Copes, Ray

    2016-04-01

    Community water fluoridation is a WHO recommended strategy to prevent dental carries. One debated concern is that hydrofluorosilicic acid, used to fluoridate water, contains arsenic and poses a health risk. This study was undertaken to determine if fluoridation contributes to arsenic in drinking water, to estimate the amount of additional arsenic associated with fluoridation, and compare this to the National Sanitation Foundation/American National Standards Institute (NSF/ANSI) standard and estimates from other researchers. Using surveillance data from Ontario drinking water systems, mixed effects linear regression was performed to examine the effect of fluoridation status on the difference in arsenic concentration between raw water and treated water samples. On average, drinking water treatment was found to reduce arsenic levels in water in both fluoridated and non-fluoridated systems by 0.2 μg/L. However, fluoridated systems were associated with an additional 0.078 μg/L (95% CI 0.021, 0.136) of arsenic in water when compared to non-fluoridated systems (P = 0.008) while controlling for raw water arsenic concentrations, types of treatment processes, and source water type. Our estimate is consistent with concentrations expected from other research and is less than 10% of the NSF/ANSI standard of 1 μg/L arsenic in water. This study provides further information to inform decision-making regarding community water fluoridation.

  13. Extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from nitric acid solutions by di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid dissolved in kerosene.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hung-Sheng; Tsai, Teh-Hua

    2012-01-04

    The extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from a nitric acid solution using di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as an acidic extractant of organophosphorus compounds dissolved in kerosene was studied. By graphical and numerical analysis, the compositions of indium-D2EHPA complexes in organic phase and stoichiometry of the extraction reaction were examined. Nitric acid solutions with various indium concentrations at 25 °C were used to obtain the equilibrium constant of InR₃ in the organic phase. The experimental results showed that the extraction distribution ratios of indium(III) between the organic phase and the aqueous solution increased when either the pH value of the aqueous solution and/or the concentration of the organic phase extractant increased. Finally, the recovery efficiency of indium(III) in nitric acid was measured.

  14. Effects of long chain fatty acids on solute absorption: perfusion studies in the human jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Ammon, H V; Thomas, P J; Phillips, S F

    1977-01-01

    Perfusion studies were performed in healthy volunteers to test the hypothesis that net fluid secretion induced by fatty acids is accompanied by parallel reduction in solute transport. Ricinoleic acid provoked a marked net secretion of fluid and concomitantly inhibited the absorption of all solutes tested; these included glucose, xylose, L-leucine, L-lysine, Folic acid, and 2-mono-olein. Oleic acid also reduced net fluid and solute transport, but was less potent in reducing solute absorption than was ricinoleic acid. When fluid secretion was induced osmotically with mannitol, glucose and xylose absorption was not affected. The mechanism for this generalised effect of fatty acids on solute absorption is uncertain, possibly nonspecific, and might be related to mucosal damage and altered mucosal permeability induced by these agents. PMID:590838

  15. Raman study of molecular dynamics of inorganic fluoroxidizers in nonaqueous solutions. Part 4. Xenon tetrafluoride and xenon hexafluoride in hydrogen fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabiev, S. S.

    2000-07-01

    Raman spectra of XeF 4 and XeF 6 in the nonaqueous HF solutions at various concentrations and vibrational spectra of the [XeF 5] + cation in the solid state and in the HF solutions over a wide range of vibrational frequencies have been studied. The assignments of the observed vibrational bands of the [XeF 5] + cation and XeF 6-HF system has been made. A number of associates or solvates being formed as a result of the donor-acceptor interaction between Lewis base and Lewis acid has been shown to exist alongside with ionized monomeric and polymeric modifications of XeF 6 in the HF solution such as ([XeF 5] +F -) n ( n=1, 2, 4). The contours of the ν1( A1 g) band of XeF 4 with frequency 552 cm -1 and bands of stretching modes of ([XeF 5] +F -) n ( n=1, 2, 4) with frequency in the range of 600-670 cm -1 are analysed. The correlation functions of the vibrational and rotational relaxation as well as the corresponding characteristic time for these processes have been calculated. A conclusion has been driven at that it is vibrational dephasing that makes the major contribution to the formation of ([XeF 5] +F) 4 and ([XeF 5] +F -) 2 band contours, while in the case of [XeF 5] +F - and XeF 4 the contributions of vibrational dephasing and rotational relaxation nearly coincide.

  16. Isothermal heat measurements of TBP-nitric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; Cavin, W.S.

    1994-12-16

    Net heats of reaction were measured in an isothermal calorimeter for both single phase (organic) and two phase (organic and aqueous) TBP/HNO{sub 3} reacting solutions at temperatures above 100 C. The oxidation rate constant was determined to be 5.4E-4 min{sup {minus}1} at 110 C for an open ``vented`` system as compared to 1.33 E-3 min{sup {minus}1} in the closed system. The heat released per unit material oxidized was also reduced. The oxidation in both phases was found to be first order in nitric acid and pseudo-zero order in butylnitrate and water. The hydrolysis (esterification) rate constant determined by Nichols` (1.33E-3 min{sup {minus}1}) fit the experimental data from this work well. Forced evaporation of the volatile components by the product gases from oxidation resulted in a cooling mechanism which more than balanced the heat from the oxidation reaction in the two-phased systems. Rate expressions were derived and rate constants determined for both the single and two phase systems. An approximating mathematical model was developed to fit the experimental data and to extrapolate beyond the experimental conditions. This model shows that one foot of ``reacting`` 14.3M HNO{sub 3} aqueous phase solution at 121 C will transport sufficient water to the organic phase to replace evaporative losses, maintaining endothermicity, for organic layers up to 12.2 + 6.0 feet deep. If the pressure in a reacting system is allowed to increase due to insufficient venting the temperature of the organic phase would increase in temperature to reach a new equilibrium. The rate of oxidation would increase not only due to the increase in temperature but also from the increased concentration of dissolved HNO{sub 3} reduction products. Another important factor is that the cooling system described in this work becomes less effective as the total pressure increases. These factors probably contributed to the explosion at Tomsk.

  17. Uptake of isoprene, methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate into aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze; Ge, Maofa; Wang, Weigang

    2012-01-01

    Multiphase acid-catalyzed oxidation by hydrogen peroxide has been suggested to be a potential route to secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene and its gas-phase oxidation products, but the lack of kinetics data significantly limited the evaluation of this process in the atmosphere. Here we report the first measurement of the uptake of isoprene, methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate into aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Isoprene cannot readily partition into the solution because of its high volatility and low solubility, which hinders its further liquid-phase oxidation. Both methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate can enter the solutions and be oxidized by hydrogen peroxide, and steady-state uptake was observed with the acidity of solution above 30 wt.% and 70 wt.%, respectively. The steady-state uptake coefficient of methacrylic acid is much larger than that of methyl methacrylate for a solution with same acidity. These observations can be explained by the different reactivity of these two compounds caused by the different electron-withdrawing conjugation between carboxyl and ester groups. The atmospheric lifetimes were estimated based on the calculated steady-state uptake coefficients. These results demonstrate that the multiphase acid-catalyzed oxidation of methacrylic acid plays a role in secondary organic aerosol formation, but for isoprene and methyl methacrylate, this process is not important in the troposphere.

  18. Effect of citric acid on the acidification of artificial pepsin solution for metacercariae isolation from fish.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ki; Pyo, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Young-Sang; Chun, Hyang Sook; Park, Ki Hwan; Ko, Seong-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil; Shin, Eun-Hee

    2013-11-15

    Artificial digestive solution based on pepsin is essential for collecting metacercariae from fish. To promote the enzymatic reactivity of pepsin, the pH of the solution has to be adjusted to pH 1.0-2.0. Hydrochloride (HCl) is usually used for this purpose, but the use of HCl raises safety concerns. The aim of this work was to address the usefulness of citric acid as an alternative for HCl for the acidification of pepsin solution, and to examine its potential to damage metacercariae during in vitro digestion as compared with HCl. Changes in pH after adding 1-9% of citric acid (m/v) to pepsin solution were compared to a 1% HCl (v/v) addition. Digestion of fish muscle was evaluated by measuring released protein concentrations by spectrophotometry. In addition, survival rates of metacercariae in pepsin solution were determined at different citric acid concentrations and were compared that of with 1% HCl. The present study shows that addition of citric acid reduced the pH of pepsin solutions to the required level. Addition of more than 5% of citric acid resulted in the effective digestion of fish muscle over 3h in vitro, and 5% citric acid was less lethal to metacercariae than 1% HCl in pepsin solution. Pepsin solution containing 5% citric acid had digestive capacity superior to pepsin solution containing 1% HCl after 3h incubation with released protein concentrations of 12.0 ng/ml for 5% citric acid and 9.6 ng/ml for 1% HCl. Accordingly, the present study suggests that the addition of 5% citric acid to pepsin solution is a good alternative to 1% HCl in infection studies because citric acid is a stable at room temperature and has a good safety profile. In addition, we suggest that the use of citric acid enables the preparation of commercial digestive solutions for the detection of microorganisms in fish and other vertebrate muscle tissue.

  19. Impact of Fluorescent Lighting on Oxidation of Model Wine Solutions Containing Organic Acids and Iron.

    PubMed

    Grant-Preece, Paris; Barril, Celia; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Clark, Andrew C

    2017-03-22

    Previous studies have provided evidence that light exposure can increase oxygen consumption in wine and that the photodegradation of iron(III) tartrate could contribute to this process. In the present study, model wine solutions containing iron(III) and various organic acids, either alone or combined, were stored in sealed clear glass wine bottles and exposed to light from fluorescent lamps. Dissolved oxygen was monitored, and afterward the organic acid degradation products were determined and the capacity of the solutions to bind sulfur dioxide, the main wine preservative, was assessed. In the dark controls, little or no dissolved oxygen was consumed and the organic acids were stable. In the irradiated solutions, dissolved oxygen was consumed at a rate that was dependent on the specific organic acid present, and the latter were oxidized to various carbonyl compounds. For the solutions containing tartaric acid, malic acid, and/or citric acid, irradiation increased their sulfur dioxide-binding capacity.

  20. Corrosion Behavior of Titanium Grade 7 in Fluoride-Containing NaCl Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, T; Whalen, M T; Wong, L

    2004-10-25

    The effects of fluoride on the corrosion behavior of Titanium Grade 7 (0.12-0.25% Pd) have been investigated. Up to 0.1 mol/L fluoride was added to the NaCl brines at 95 C, and three pH values of 4, 8, and 11 were selected for studying pH dependence of fluoride effects. It was observed that fluoride significantly altered the anodic polarization behavior, at all three pH values of 4, 8, and 11. Under acidic condition fluoride caused active corrosion. The corrosion of Titanium grade 7 was increased by three orders of magnitude when a 0.1 mol/L fluoride was added to the NaCl brines at pH 4, and the Pd ennoblement effect was not observed in acidic fluoride-containing environments. The effects of fluoride were reduced significantly when pH was increased to 8 and above.

  1. Thermodynamic modeling of hydrogen fluoride production relevant to actinide residue treatment

    SciTech Connect

    West, M.H.; Axler, K.M.

    1995-02-01

    This report addresses issues specific to generation of hydrogen fluoride via reaction of calcium fluoride with sulfuric acid. This process has been established on a commercial scale and is under consideration for treatment of calcium fluoride residues from uranium processing. Magnesium fluoride slags are also available as a product of uranium processing. The technique of using sulfuric acid for the production of hydrogen fluoride from magnesium fluoride is also under consideration as a residue processing scheme. In the current study, thermodynamic modeling was used to investigate these chemical processing systems. Results presented herein reveal information relevant to selection of processing temperatures and conditions. Details include predicted effects in system composition based on operating temperatures for both the calcium fluoride and the magnesium fluoride systems.

  2. Ion-selective electrode in determining fluorine in binary fluorides of metals of groups II-V

    SciTech Connect

    Mishchenko, V.T.; Mukomel', V.L.; Polvektov, N.S.; Shilova, L.P.; Tselik, E.I.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a method of determining fluorine by ion-selective electrode techniques in specimens containing mixtures of the fluorides of magnesium and the rare-earth elements (REE), as well as scandium and bismuth. The specimens after treatment at high temperatures are sparingly soluble at room temperature in water and also in aqueous solutions of acids and bases. The authors found that a mixture of KNaCO/sub 3/ and K/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 8/ with a mass ratio of 2:1 was an effective flux for MgF/sub 2/-MeF/sub 3/ specimens, where Me is an REE ion. The combined method of analyzing binary mixtures of fluorides (Mg and REE, Sc and Bi) which provides satisfactory accuracy and reliability in determining the fluoride and two different metals whose compounds may have various ratios in the samples.

  3. Surface chemistry of Cu(100) in acidic sulfate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Charles B.; Stickney, John L.

    1990-12-01

    The surface chemistry of Cu(100), in H 2SO 4 and acidic K 2SO 4 solutions, has been studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Experiments were conducted in an electrochemical cell coupled directly to a UHV surface analysis chamber. Structures formed on the Cu(100) surface emersed (removed) from sulfate solutions were the principal focus of this study. Structures and coverages were primarily dependent on sulfate concentration and the presence of coadsorbates such as Cl and K +. Emersion of Cu(100) from 1 mM H 2SO 4 resulted in a Cu(100)(2 × 2)-SO 2-4 adlattice with a {1}/{4} coverage of sulfate. A {1}/{5} coverage Cu(100)( 5 × 5) R26.6°- SO2-4 structure formed upon emersion mM H 2SO 4 containing trace Cl - contaminants, and a {1}/{3} coverage Cu(100)(2 × 100)- SO2-4 structure formed following e from 10 mM H 2SO 4. Emersion of Cu(100) from 1 mM K 2SO 4 (pH = 3.6) resulted in a Cu(100)(4 × 2 5)- SO2-4, K + surface structure, with K + and SO 2-4 coadsorbed in a 1:1 stoichiometry, each at {1}/{4} coverage. No significant potential-dependent variatio in surface structure or coverage was observed when the electrode was emersed from H 2SO 4 at potentials in the double-layer charging region. For emersion from 1 mM K 2SO 4 (pH = 3.6), a reduction in K + coverage along with a change in the surface structure to a (2 × 2) occurred at positive potentials. Comparisons were made of sulfate adsorption on the low-index planes of Cu using a Cu single crystal polished on three different faces to the (111), (110) and (100) planes. This electrode was emersed from 1 mM K 2SO 4 (pH = 3.6) at several potentials. A c(8 × 2) and a diffuse (1 × 1) LEED pattern were observed on Cu(110) and Cu(111), respectively. The K + and SO 2-4 coverages differed appreciably between the three surfaces. Significant differences were observed in the thermal desorption spectra of Cu(100) emersed from H 2SO 4 and K 2SO

  4. Fluorides and non-fluoride remineralization systems.

    PubMed

    Amaechi, Bennett T; van Loveren, Cor

    2013-01-01

    Caries develops when the equilibrium between de- and remineralization is unbalanced favoring demineralization. De- and remineralization occur depending on the degree of saturation of the interstitial fluids with respect to the tooth mineral. This equilibrium is positively influenced when fluoride, calcium and phosphate ions are added favoring remineralization. In addition, when fluoride is present, it will be incorporated into the newly formed mineral which is then less soluble. Toothpastes may contain fluoride and calcium ions separately or together in various compounds (remineralization systems) and may therefore reduce demineralization and promote remineralization. Formulating all these compounds in one paste may be challenging due to possible premature calcium-fluoride interactions and the low solubility of CaF2. There is a large amount of clinical evidence supporting the potent caries preventive effect of fluoride toothpastes indisputably. The amount of clinical evidence of the effectiveness of the other remineralization systems is far less convincing. Evidence is lacking for head to head comparisons of the various remineralization systems.

  5. Comparison of in vitro fluoride uptake from whitening toothpastes and a conventional toothpaste in demineralised enamel.

    PubMed

    Altenburger, Markus J; Bernhart, Jasmin; Schicha, Thurid D; Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Hellwig, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the compatibility of abrasives and fluoride compounds deal exclusively with fluoride uptake and remineralization after storing the enamel specimens in a toothpaste-saliva mixture. The influence of brushing on the fluoride uptake when highly abrasive toothpastes are used has hardly been investigated so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate fluoride uptake in initially demineralised dental enamel after storage in, or brushing with, whitening toothpaste slurries, compared to a conventional toothpaste. For this purpose two widely available whitening toothpastes with ionically bound fluoride (sodium fluoride NaF), two with covalently-bound fluoride toothpastes (sodium monofluorophosphate, NaMFP) and a conventional amine fluoride toothpaste (AmF) were compared. The fluoride uptake after use of the AmF toothpaste was shown to be statistically significantly higher than that after application of the NaF toothpastes, which in turn was statistically significantly higher than the uptake resulting from NaMFP application. The fluoride uptake was slightly higher when the enamel samples were brushed with NaF toothpaste, rather than just stored in the respective toothpaste slurry. Brushing with highly abrasive toothpastes did not negatively influence fluoride uptake in demineralised dental enamel. The ionic form of the fluoride in toothpastes appears to be critical for increased fluoride uptake. The acidic components of the AmF toothpaste improved fluoride uptake compared to alkaline NaF toothpastes.

  6. Influences of charcoal and bamboo charcoal amendment on soil-fluoride fractions and bioaccumulation of fluoride in tea plants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongjian; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun

    2012-10-01

    High levels of fluoride in tea plants pose a potential health risk to humans who drink tea. It has been demonstrated that tea plant fluoride is closely related to the available fluoride in soil. But approaches that could be used to regulate the availability of fluoride in soil have been rarely seen. This study aims to investigate how the addition of charcoal and bamboo charcoal affected soil fluoride availability and bioaccumulation of fluoride in tea plants. In a microcosm experiment, tea plants were grown in the tea garden soil mixed with different amounts of charcoal and bamboo charcoal [that is, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 % (w/w)]. Soil-fluoride fractions and fluoride accumulated in tea plants were determined using the sequential extraction and ion selective electrode method. Obtained results showed that both charcoal and bamboo charcoal additions significantly enhanced the concentrations of Fe/Mn oxide-bound fluoride, but significantly reduced the concentrations of water-soluble and exchangeable fluoride (p < 0.05) in soil. Charcoal and bamboo charcoal additions also significantly decreased the amounts of fluoride in tea roots and tea leaves (p < 0.05). However, the additions of charcoal and bamboo charcoal had no impacts on the tea quality, as indexed by the concentrations of polysaccharides, polyphenols, amino acids, and caffeine in tea leaves. These results suggested that application of charcoal and bamboo charcoal may provide a useful method to reduce the availability of fluoride in soil and the subsequent fluoride uptake by tea plants.

  7. 49 CFR 173.229 - Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. 173.229 Section 173.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.229 Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. When...

  8. 49 CFR 173.229 - Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. 173.229 Section 173.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.229 Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. When...

  9. 49 CFR 173.229 - Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. 173.229 Section 173.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.229 Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. When...

  10. 49 CFR 173.229 - Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. 173.229 Section 173.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.229 Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. When...

  11. 49 CFR 173.229 - Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. 173.229 Section 173.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.229 Chloric acid solution or chlorine dioxide hydrate, frozen. When...

  12. Calcium fluoride window mounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, D. Douglas

    1982-10-01

    A technique has been developed for joining a large calcium fluoride crystal to a stainless-steel flange by means of a silver transition ring. The process involves both vacuum brazing using a copper-silver alloy and air brazing using silver chloride. This paper describes the procedure used in fabricating a high-vacuum leak-tight calcium fluoride window assembly.

  13. Indium fluoride glass fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Mohammed

    2012-03-01

    Fluoride glasses are the only material that transmit light from ultraviolet to mid-infrared and can be drawn into industrial optical fibers. The mechanical and optical properties of new indium fluoride glass fibers have been investigated. Multimode fiber 190 microns, has very high mechanical strength greater than 100 kpsi and optical loss as low as 45 dB/km between 2 and 4 microns. Unlike chalcogenide glass fibers, indium fluoride fiber has a wide transmission window from 0.3 to 5.5 microns without any absorption peak. Indium fluoride glass fibers are the technology of choice for all application requiring transmission up to 5 micron such as infrared contour measure (IRCM) and chemical sensing. Furthermore, Indium fluoride glasses have low phonon energy and can be heavily doped and co-doped whit rare-earth elements. Therefore they are very promising candidates for infrared fiber lasers.

  14. Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Chloride Solutions Containing Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Carranza, R M; Giordano, C M; Rodr?guez, M A; Rebak, R B

    2005-11-04

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is a nickel based alloy containing alloying elements such as chromium, molybdenum and tungsten. It is highly corrosion resistant both under reducing and under oxidizing conditions. Electrochemical studies such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed to determine the corrosion behavior of Alloy 22 in 1M NaCl solutions at various pH values from acidic to neutral at 90 C. Tests were also carried out in NaCl solutions containing oxalic acid or acetic acid. It is shown that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 was higher in a solution containing oxalic acid than in a solution of the same pH acidified with HCl. Acetic acid was not corrosive to Alloy 22. The corrosivity of oxalic acid was attributed to its capacity to form stable complex species with metallic cations from Alloy 22.

  15. Facile preparation of acid-resistant magnetite particles for removal of Sb(Ⅲ) from strong acidic solution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Guan, Kaiwen; Bai, Zhiping; Liu, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new facile coating strategy based on the hydrophobicity of methyl groups was developed to prevent nano-sized magnetite particles from strong acid corrosion. In this method, three steps of hydrolysis led to three layers of protection shell coating Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Filled with hydrophobic methyl groups, the middle layer mainly prevented the magnetic core from strong acid corrosion. These magnetite particles managed to resist 1 M HCl solution and 2.5 M H2SO4 solution. The acid resistant ability was higher than those reported previously. After further modification with amino-methylene-phosphonic groups, these magnetite particles successfully adsorbed Sb(III) in strong acid solution. This new strategy can also be applied to protect other materials from strong acid corrosion. PMID:27877860

  16. Thermochemical study of the reactions of acid-base interaction in an aqueous solution of α-aminobutyric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytkin, A. I.; Chernikov, V. V.; Krutova, O. N.; Skvortsov, I. A.; Korchagina, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    The heat effects of the interaction between a solution of α-aminobutyric acid and solutions of HNO3 and KOH are measured by means of calorimetry in different ranges of pH at 298.15 K and values of ionic strength of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 (KNO3). The heat effects of the stepwise dissociation of the amino acid are determined. Standard thermodynamic characteristics (Δr H 0, Δr G 0, and Δr S 0) of the reactions of acid-base interaction in aqueous solutions of α-aminobutyric acid are calculated. The connection between the thermodynamic characteristics of the dissociation of the amino acid and the structure of this compound is considered.

  17. The ototoxic effect of boric acid solutions applied into the middle ear of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Oztürkcan, Sedat; Dündar, Riza; Katilmis, Hüseyin; Ilknur, Ali Ekber; Aktaş, Sinem; Haciömeroğlu, Senem

    2009-05-01

    This study analyzed the ototoxic effects of boric acid solutions. Boric acid solutions have been used as otologic preparations for many years. Boric acid is commonly found in solutions prepared with alcohol or distilled water but can also be found in a powder form. These preparations are used for both their antiseptic and acidic qualities in external and middle ear infections. We investigated the ototoxic effect of boric acid solutions on guinea pigs. We are unaware of any similar, previously published study of this subject in English. The study was conducted on 28 young albino guinea pigs. Prior to application of the boric acid solution under general anesthesia, an Auditory Brainstem Response (ABRs) test was applied to the right ear of the guinea pigs. Following the test, a perforation was created on the tympanic membrane of the right ear of each guinea pig and small gelfoam pieces were inserted into the perforated area. Test solutions were administered to the middle ear for 10 days by means of a transcanal route. Fifteen days after inserting the gelfoams in all of the guinea pigs, we anasthesized the guinea pigs and removed the gelfoams from the perforated region of the ear and then performed an ABRs on each guinea pig. The ABRs were within the normal range before the applications. After the application, no significant changes were detected in the ABRs thresholds in neither the saline group nor the group administered boric acid and distilled water solution; however, significant changes were detected in the ABRs thresholds of the Gentamicine and boric acid and alcohol solution groups. We believe that a 4% boric acid solution prepared with distilled water can be a more reliable preparation than a 4% boric acid solution prepared with alcohol.

  18. The standard enthalpies of formation of crystalline N-(carboxymethyl)aspartic acid and its aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytkin, A. I.; Chernyavskaya, N. V.; Volkov, A. V.; Nikol'Skii, V. M.

    2007-07-01

    The energy of combustion of N-(carboxymethyl)aspartic acid (CMAA) was determined by bomb calorimetry in oxygen. The standard enthalpies of combustion and formation of crystalline N-(carboxymethyl)aspartic acid were calculated. The heat effects of solution of crystalline CMAA in water and a solution of sodium hydroxide were measured at 298.15 K by direct calorimetry. The standard enthalpies of formation of CMAA and its dissociation products in aqueous solution were determined.

  19. Oxalic acid complexes: promising draw solutes for forward osmosis (FO) in protein enrichment.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qingchun; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-03-21

    Highly soluble oxalic acid complexes (OACs) were synthesized through a one-pot reaction. The OACs exhibit excellent performance as draw solutes in FO processes with high water fluxes and negligible reverse solute fluxes. Efficient protein enrichment was achieved. The diluted OACs can be recycled via nanofiltration and are promising as draw solutes.

  20. Solution properties and taste behavior of lactose monohydrate in aqueous ascorbic acid solutions at different temperatures: Volumetric and rheological approach.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Sinha, Biswajit

    2016-11-15

    The densities and viscosities of lactose monohydrate in aqueous ascorbic acid solutions with several molal concentrations m=(0.00-0.08)molkg(-1) of ascorbic acid were determined at T=(298.15-318.15)K and pressure p=101kPa. Using experimental data apparent molar volume (ϕV), standard partial molar volume (ϕV(0)), the slope (SV(∗)), apparent specific volumes (ϕVsp), standard isobaric partial molar expansibility (ϕE(0)) and its temperature dependence [Formula: see text] the viscosity B-coefficient and solvation number (Sn) were determined. Viscosity B-coefficients were further employed to obtain the free energies of activation of viscous flow per mole of the solvents (Δμ1(0≠)) and of the solute (Δμ2(0≠)). Effects of molality, solute structure and temperature and taste behavior were analyzed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions; results revealed that the solutions are characterized predominantly by solute-solvent interactions and lactose monohydrate behaves as a long-range structure maker.

  1. An exclusive fluoride receptor: Fluoride-induced proton transfer to a quinoline-based thiourea

    PubMed Central

    Basaran, Ismet; Khansari, Maryam Emami; Pramanik, Avijit; Wong, Bryan M.; Hossain, Alamgir

    2014-01-01

    A new quinoline-based tripodal thiourea has been synthesized, which exclusively binds fluoride anion in DMSO, showing no affinity for other anions including, chloride, bromide, iodide, perchlorate, nitrate and hydrogen sulfate. As investigated by 1H NMR, the receptor forms both 1:1 and 1:2 complex yielding the binding constants of 2.32(3) (in log β1) and 4.39(4) (in log β2), respectively; where quinoline groups are protonated by the fluoride-induced proton transfer from the solution to the host molecule. The 1:2 binding is due to the interactions of one fluoride with NH binding sites of urea sites and another fluoride with secondary +NH binding sites within the tripodal pocket. The formation of both 1:1 and 1:2 complexes has been confirmed by the theoretical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). PMID:24753636

  2. Biosorption of acidic textile dyestuffs from aqueous solution by Paecilomyces sp. isolated from acidic mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Çabuk, Ahmet; Aytar, Pınar; Gedikli, Serap; Özel, Yasemin Kevser; Kocabıyık, Erçin

    2013-07-01

    Removal of textile dyestuffs from aqueous solution by biosorption onto a dead fungal biomass isolated from acidic mine drainage in the Çanakkale Region of Turkey was investigated. The fungus was found to be a promising biosorbent and identified as Paecilomyces sp. The optimal conditions for bioremediation were as follows: pH, 2.0; initial dyestuff concentration, 50 mg l(-1) for Reactive Yellow 85 and Reactive Orange 12, and 75 mg l(-1) for Reactive Black 8; biomass dosage, 2 g l(-1) for Reactive Yellow 85, 3 g l(-1) for Reactive Orange 12, 4 g l(-1) for Reactive Black 8; temperature, 25 °C; and agitation rate, 100 rpm. Zeta potential measurements indicated an electrostatic interaction between the binding sites and dye anions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that amine, hydroxyl, carbonyl, and amide bonds were involved in the dyestuff biosorption. A toxicity investigation was also carried out before and after the biosorption process. These results showed that the toxicities for the reactive dyestuffs in aqueous solutions after biosorption studies decreased. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium, and isotherm constants were evaluated for each dyestuff. Equilibrium data of biosorption of RY85 and RO12 dyestuffs fitted well to both models at the studied concentration and temperature.

  3. Chemical equilibrium of minced turkey meat in organic acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Goli, T; Abi Nakhoul, P; Zakhia-Rozis, N; Trystram, G; Bohuon, P

    2007-02-01

    The distribution of acid (HA), anions (A(-)), free protons (H(3)O(+)) and bound protons (H(b)), in homogenized turkey meat was evaluated at various meat/water mass ratios of (1/4-1/10) during titration with acetic acid (0.25N) or lactic acid (0.2N). H(b) concentration was determined by titration with hydrochloric acid (0.075N) and a correlation for [H(b)]=f(pH) was proposed. A procedure was used to calculate the fractions of the various species in equilibrium, starting from an initial acid concentration in a meat/water system and assuming the accuracy of the pK(a) value of the pure weak acids despite the chemical complexity of meat. Calculated results were in very good agreement (±0.15) with experimental pH values, whatever the acid, meat batch or meat/water mass ratios used. Less than 1% of the total protons were free (H(3)O(+)) and determined the meat pH.

  4. Quantitative determination of lattice fluoride effects on the solubility and crystallinity of carbonated apatites with incorporated fluoride.

    PubMed

    Yan, G; Moribe, K; Otsuka, M; Papangkorn, K; Higuchi, W I

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the effects of fluoride on the solubility and crystallinity of carbonated apatites (CAPs) after its incorporation into the crystal lattice using the metastable equilibrium solubility (MES) distribution method. Fluoride-incorporated CAPs (F-CAPs) of two different carbonate levels (3 and 5%) and fluoride contents from 0 to 20,000 µg/g were synthesized. X-ray diffraction experiments and Rietveld analysis were conducted to obtain crystallite microstrain and unit cell parameters. Acetate buffer MES solution media were prepared at two solution fluoride concentrations (0.2 and 2.0 mg/l) and at two pHs (5.0 and 5.7). The unit cell a-axis values of the F-CAPs were found to decrease as the fluoride content increased, consistent with the fluoride being incorporated into the crystal lattice. The fluoride concentrations in the MES solution media were high enough to provide a 'swamping' effect such that the fluoride released from the F-CAPs during dissolution was minimal in changing the solution fluoride concentration. Employing the MES distribution superposition method, it was shown that the surface complex possessing the fluorapatite (FAP) stoichiometry [Ca10(PO4)6F2] accounted for the MES distribution behavior of all experiments. In addition, the mean pIFAP [the value of -log(aCa(10)aPO4(6)aF(2)) calculated from the ionic activity product based on FAP stoichiometry of the MES dissolution media in which 50% of the F-CAPs had dissolved] correlated well with the crystallite microstrain parameters of the F-CAPs. The incorporated fluoride in the F-CAPs showed only modest effects on F-CAP crystallinity and solubility.

  5. Process for the removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same

    DOEpatents

    Scheitlin, F.M.

    The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of /sup 226/Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

  6. Removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same by adsorption on coal fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Scheitlin, Frank M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of .sup.226 Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

  7. Discoloration of titanium alloy in acidic saline solutions with peroxide.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Shinji; Hattori, Masayuki; Yoshinari, Masao; Kawada, Eiji; Oda, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare corrosion behavior in several titanium alloys with immersion in acidulated saline solutions containing hydrogen peroxide. Seven types of titanium alloy were immersed in saline solutions with varying levels of pH and hydrogen peroxide content, and resulting differences in color and release of metallic elements determined in each alloy. Some alloys were characterized using Auger electron spectroscopy. Ti-55Ni alloy showed a high level of dissolution and difference in color. With immersion in solution containing hydrogen peroxide at pH 4, the other alloys showed a marked difference in color but a low level of dissolution. The formation of a thick oxide film was observed in commercially pure titanium showing discoloration. The results suggest that discoloration in titanium alloys immersed in hydrogen peroxide-containing acidulated solutions is caused by an increase in the thickness of this oxide film, whereas discoloration of Ti-55Ni is caused by corrosion.

  8. Effect of fluoridated water on intelligence in 10-12-year-old school children

    PubMed Central

    Aravind, A.; Dhanya, R. S.; Narayan, Ajay; Sam, George; Adarsh, V. J.; Kiran, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of drinking water fluoride levels with children's intelligence quotient (IQ). Materials and Methods: Water was collected from initially identified endemic fluoride regions according to the geological research of Government of India. Fluoride concentration of the water was assessed by utilizing fluoride ion selective electrode, Orion 9609BN, and categorized on the basis of fluoride concentration into low, medium, and high-fluoride regions, i.e., Virajpet (low fluoride level < 1.2 ppm), Banavara (Medium fluoride level 1.2–2 ppm), and Mastihalli (High fluoride levels > 3 ppm). Government school from all three villages were selected randomly and IQ levels were assessed by using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. This test was conducted on each child in the study sample. Results: A significant inverse relationship was found between the fluoride concentration in drinking water and IQ (r value = −0.204; P < 0.000). It was observed that IQ level was negatively correlated with fluoride concentration in drinking water. Conclusion: It is concluded that IQ level was negatively correlated with fluoride level in drinking water. Factors that might affect children's IQ need to be considered, and it is necessary to devise solutions for preventing the harmful effects of excessive intake of fluoride ion to the body. PMID:28217543

  9. Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Advisory: Hydrogen Fluoride

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This advisory recommends ways Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) and chemical facilities can reduce risks posed by the presence of hydrogen fluoride (HF), a strong inorganic acid used to manufacture CFCs, in their communities.

  10. Separation of ions in acidic solution by capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Michelle

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is an effective method for separating ionic species according to differences in their electrophoretic mobilities. CE separations of amino acids by direct detection are difficult due to their similar electrophoretic mobilities and low absorbances. However, native amino acids can be separated by CE as cations at a low pH by adding an alkanesulfonic acid to the electrolyte carrier which imparts selectivity to the system. Derivatization is unnecessary when direct UV detection is used at 185 nm. Simultaneous speciation of metal cations such as vanadium (IV) and vanadium (V) can easily be performed without complexation prior to analysis. An indirect UV detection scheme for acidic conditions was also developed using guanidine as the background carrier electrolyte (BCE) for the indirect detection of metal cations. Three chapters have been removed for separate processing. This report contains introductory material, references, and general conclusions. 80 refs.

  11. Near infrared photochemistry of pyruvic acid in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Molly C; Vaida, Veronica

    2012-06-21

    Recent experimental and theoretical results have suggested that organic acids such as pyruvic acid, can be photolyzed in the ground electronic state by the excitation of the OH stretch vibrational overtone. These overtones absorb in the near-infrared and visible regions of the spectrum where the solar photons are plentiful and could provide a reaction pathway for the organic acids and alcohols that are abundant in the earth's atmosphere. In this paper the overtone initiated photochemistry of aqueous pyruvic acid is investigated by monitoring the evolution of carbon dioxide. In these experiments CO(2) is being produced by excitation in the near-infrared, between 850 nm and ∼1150 nm (11,765-8696 cm(-1)), where the second OH vibrational overtone (Δν = 3) of pyruvic acid is expected to absorb. These findings show not only that the overtone initiated photochemical decarboxylation reaction occurs but also that in the aqueous phase it occurs at a lower energy than was predicted for the overtone initiated reaction of pyruvic acid in the gas phase (13,380 cm(-1)). A quantum yield of (3.5 ± 1.0) × 10(-4) is estimated, suggesting that although this process does occur, it does so with a very low efficiency.

  12. Effects of electrolytes on virus inactivation by acidic solutions.

    PubMed

    Nishide, Mitsunori; Tsujimoto, Kazuko; Uozaki, Misao; Ikeda, Keiko; Yamasaki, Hisashi; Koyama, A Hajime; Arakawa, Tsutomu

    2011-06-01

    Acidic pH is frequently used to inactivate viruses. We have previously shown that arginine synergizes with low pH in enhancing virus inactivation. Considering a potential application of the acid inactivation of viruses for the prevention and treatment of superficial virus infection at body surfaces and fixtures, herein we have examined the effects of various electrolytes on the acid-induced inactivation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), the influenza A virus (IAV) and the poliovirus upon their incubation at 30˚C for 5 min. Eight electrolytes, i.e., phosphate, NaCl, glutamate, aspartate, pyrrolidone carboxylate, citrate, malate and acetate were tested. No detectable inactivation of the poliovirus was observed under the conditions examined, reflecting its acid-resistance. HSV-1 and HSV-2 responded similarly to the acid-treatment and electrolytes. Some electrolytes showed a stronger virus inactivation than others at a given pH and concentration. The effects of the electrolytes were virus-dependent, as IAV responded differently from HSV-1 and HSV-2 to these electrolytes, indicating that certain combinations of the electrolytes and a low pH can exert a more effective virus inactivation than other combinations and that their effects are virus-specific. These results should be useful in designing acidic solvents for the inactivation of viruses at various surfaces.

  13. Investigation of Chemical Durability Mechanisms and Structure of Fluoride Glasses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    coatings on fluoride glasses , it is possible to state the following conclusions: ()Coatings are necessary for both bulk and fiber optics to avoid major...interest for fiber optics applications.’ The chemicalSp . b g rdurability behavior of fluoride glasses not containing zirconium will be reported in later... fiber optics glass containing the base ZBL composition with where X = ppm in solution. V = solution volume (mL), S = additives of Al, Li, and Pb (Fig. 2

  14. PROCESS OF SECURING PLUTONIUM IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS IN ITS TRIVALENT OXIDATION STATE

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, J.R.

    1958-08-26

    >Various processes for the recovery of plutonium require that the plutonium be obtalned and maintained in the reduced or trivalent state in solution. Ferrous ions are commonly used as the reducing agent for this purpose, but it is difficult to maintain the plutonium in a reduced state in nitric acid solutions due to the oxidizing effects of the acid. It has been found that the addition of a stabilizing or holding reductant to such solution prevents reoxidation of the plutonium. Sulfamate ions have been found to be ideally suitable as such a stabilizer even in the presence of nitric acid.

  15. Reprocessing system with nuclide separation based on chromatography in hydrochloric acid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Tatsuya; Tachibana, Yu; Koyama, Shi-ichi

    2013-07-01

    We have proposed the reprocessing system with nuclide separation processes based on the chromatographic technique in the hydrochloric acid solution system. Our proposed system consists of the dissolution process, the reprocessing process, the minor actinide separation process, and nuclide separation processes. In the reprocessing and separation processes, the pyridine resin is used as a main separation media. It was confirmed that the dissolution in the hydrochloric acid solution is easily achieved by the plasma voloxidation and by the addition of oxygen peroxide into the hydrochloric acid solution.

  16. RECOVERY OF PROTACTINIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Elson, R.E.

    1959-07-14

    The recovery of fluoride complexed protactinium from aqueous acidic solutions by solvent extraction is described. Generally the prccess of the invention com rises mixing an aqueous solution containing protactinium in a complexed form with an organic solvent which is specific for protactinium, such as diisopropyl carbinol, then decomposing the protactinium complex by adjusting the acidity of the aqueous solution to between 0-3 to 0-9 M in hydrogen ion concentration, and introducing a source of aluminum ions in sufficient quantity to establish a concentration of 0.5 to 1.2 M aluminum ion, whereupon decomposition of the protactinium fluoride complex takes place and the protactinium ion is taken up by the organic solvent phase.

  17. Stability against brushing abrasion and the erosion-protective effect of different fluoride compounds.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, A; Schneider, S; Sener, B; Roos, M; Attin, T

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the impact of brushing on the protective effect of different fluoride solutions on enamel and dentin erosion. Bovine enamel and dentin specimens were rinsed once with TiF4, AmF, SnF2 (0.5 M F, 2 min) or water (control). Specimens were either left unbrushed or brushed with 10, 20, 50, 100 or 500 brushing strokes in an automatic brushing machine (2 N, non-fluoridated toothpaste slurry). Ten specimens per group were eroded with hydrochloric acid (HCl) (pH 2.3) for 60 s, and calcium release into the acid was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, enamel and dentin surfaces were analysed by X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) (n = 6/group) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (n = 2/group) before brushing and after 500 brushing strokes. Statistical analysis (p < 0.05) was performed by three- and one-way ANOVA (calcium release) or repeated measures ANOVA (EDS). TiF4, AmF and SnF2 reduced the erosive calcium loss in unbrushed specimens to 58-67% (enamel) and 23-31% (dentin) of control. Calcium release increased with increasing brushing strokes prior to erosion and amounted to 70-88% (enamel) and 45-78% (dentin) of control after 500 brushing strokes. Brushing reduced the surface concentration of fluoride (AmF), tin (SnF2) and titanium (TiF4). SEM revealed that surface precipitates were affected by long-term brushing. Brushing reduced the protective potential of TiF4, AmF and SnF2 solutions. However, considering a small number of brushing strokes, the protective effect of fluoride solutions is only slightly affected by brushing abrasion.

  18. Novel salicylic acid-oriented thiourea-type receptors as colorimetric chemosensor: Synthesis, characterizations and selective naked-eye recognition properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaowei; Cao, Xiufang; Chen, Changshui; Ke, Shaoyong

    2012-10-01

    Based on the salicylic acid backbone, three highly sensitive and selective colorimetric chemosensors with an acylthiourea binding unit have been designed, synthesized and characterized. These chemosensors have been utilized for selective recognition of fluoride anions in dry DMSO solution by typical spectroscopic titration techniques. Furthermore, the obtained chemosensors AR1-3 have shown naked-eye sensitivity for detection of biologically important fluoride ion over other anions in solution.

  19. Fluoride in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... broken through the gums have changes in the enamel that covers the teeth. Faint white lines or ... regarding fluoride intake from reconstituted infant formula and enamel fluorosis: a report of the American Dental Association ...

  20. Other Fluoride Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... relatively infrequent, generally at 3 to 12–month intervals, fluoride gel poses little risk for dental fluorosis, ... many hours. Varnishes must be reapplied at regular intervals with at least 2 applications per year required ...

  1. How Does Fluoride Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fluoride is a natural element found in the earth's crust as well as in water and air. ... Activity: Teeth What Are Dentures? Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend Permissions Guidelines About KidsHealth ...

  2. Effect of acidic solutions on the surface degradation of a micro-hybrid composite resin.

    PubMed

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Ferreira, Ana Cláudia A; Machado, Raissa M M; Ramos, Tatiana S; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval A; Zanchi, Cesar H

    2014-01-01

    Composite resins may undergo wear by the action of chemical substances (e.g., saliva, alcohol, bacterial acids) of the oral environment, which may affect the material's structure and surface properties. This study evaluated the effect of acidic substances on the surface properties of a micro-hybrid composite resin (Filtek Z-250). Eighty specimens were prepared, and baseline hardness and surface roughness (KMN0 and Ra0, respectively) were measured. The specimens were subjected to sorption (SO) and solubility (SL) tests according to ISO 4049:2009, but using different storage solutions: deionized water; 75/25 vol% ethanol/water solution; lactic acid; propionic acid; and acetic acid. The acids were used in two concentrations: PA and 0.02 N. pH was measured for all solutions and final hardness (KMN1) and surface roughness (Ra1) were measured. Data were analyzed with paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=5%). All solutions decreased hardness and increased the Ra values, except for the specimens stored in water and 0.02 N lactic acid, which maintained the hardness. All solutions produced similar SO and SL phenomena, except for the 0.02 N lactic acid, which caused lower solubility than the other solutions. Ethanol showed the highest pH (6.6) and the 0.02 N lactic acid the lowest one (2.5). The solutions affected negatively the surface properties of the composite resin; in addition, an acidic pH did not seem to be a significant factor that intensifies the surface degradation phenomena.

  3. Process for converting magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, A.B.; Palmer, D.A.

    1984-12-21

    This invention is a process for the conversion of magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride whereby magnesium fluoride is decomposed by heating in the presence of calcium carbonate, calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. Magnesium fluoride is a by-product of the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride to form uranium metal and has no known commercial use, thus its production creates a significant storage problem. The advantage of this invention is that the quality of calcium fluoride produced is sufficient to be used in the industrial manufacture of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, steel mill flux or ceramic applications.

  4. Thermodynamics of the complexation of arabinogalactan with salicylic and p-aminobenzoic acids in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudarisova, R. Kh.; Badykova, L. A.

    2016-03-01

    The thermodynamics of complexation of arabinogalactan with salicylic and p-aminobenzoic acids in aqueous solutions is studied by means spectroscopy. The standard thermodynamic characteristics (Δ H°; Δ G°; Δ S°) of complexation are calculated.

  5. Part 2. Comparison of emergency washing solutions in 70% hydrofluoric acid-burned human skin in an established ex vivo explants model

    PubMed Central

    Burgher, François; Mathieu, Laurence; Lati, Elian; Gasser, Philippe; Peno-Mazzarino, Laurent; Blomet, Joël; Hall, Alan H; Maibach, Howard I

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a small and partially dissociated acid (pKa 3.2), able to deeply penetrate into human skin in addition to the corrosiveness of the hydrogen ion (H+) and the toxicity of the fluoride ion (F-). However, there has been a lack of experimental studies to objectively characterize the results of human HF skin exposure decontamination. Methodology/principal findings: A previously established experimental method using a human skin explants ex vivo model (Part 1. Experimental 70% hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns: Histological observations in an established human skin explants ex vivo model) described the lesions that appeared following 70% HF penetration. Within 5min, 70% HF penetrates to the dermis. Using the same experimental conditions, a comparison study of two different washing protocols was performed: water + topical calcium gluconate (CaG) versus Hexafluorine®. In these conditions, washing for 15min with running tap water followed by topical CaG ointment only delayed burn onset, while severe tissue damage appeared later. In contrast, after washing with Hexafluorine® over 10 min, no histological lesions developed. These results are in accordance with the results of accidental human industrial case reports. Conclusion/significance: Amphoteric and hypertonic Hexafluorine® can deactivate H+ and chelate F- ions. Based on these results, it should be considered as a promising first-aid decontamination solution to prevent or minimize significant local and systemic consequences of concentrated HF skin exposures. PMID:21083510

  6. Thermodynamic and ultrasonic properties of ascorbic Acid in aqueous protic ionic liquid solutions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vickramjeet; Sharma, Gyanendra; Gardas, Ramesh L

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report the thermodynamic and ultrasonic properties of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in water and in presence of newly synthesized ammonium based protic ionic liquid (diethylethanolammonium propionate) as a function of concentration and temperature. Apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compression, which characterize the solvation state of ascorbic acid (AA) in presence of protic ionic liquid (PIL) has been determined from precise density and speed of sound measurements at temperatures (293.15 to 328.15) K with 5 K interval. The strength of molecular interactions prevailing in ternary solutions has been discussed on the basis of infinite dilution partial molar volume and partial molar isentropic compression, corresponding volume of transfer and interaction coefficients. Result has been discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions occurring between ascorbic acid and PIL in ternary solutions (AA + water + PIL).

  7. Behaviors of acrylamide/itaconic acid hydrogels in uptake of uranyl ions from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Karadag, E.; Saraydin, D.; Gueven, O.

    1995-12-01

    In this study, adsorptions of uranyl ions from two different aqueous uranyl solutions by acrylamide-itaconic acid hydrogels were investigated by a spectroscopic method. The hydrogels were prepared by irradiating with {gamma}-radiation. In the experiment of uranyl ions adsorption, Type II adsorption was found. One gram of acrylamide-itaconic acid hydrogels sorbed 178-219 mg uranyl ions from the solutions of uranyl acetate, 42-76 mg uranyl ions from the aqueous solutions of uranyl nitrate, while acrylamide hydrogel did not sorb any uranyl ion. For the hydrogel containing 40 mg of itaconic acid and irradiated to 3.73 kGy, swelling of the hydrogels was observed in water (1660%), in the aqueous solution of uranyl acetate (730%), and in the aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate (580%). Diffusions of water onto hydrogels were a non-Fickian type of diffusion, whereas diffusions of uranyl ions were a Fickian type of diffusion.

  8. Process for recovering uranium using an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid and alkaline stripping solution

    SciTech Connect

    Worthington, R.E.; Magdics, A.

    1987-03-24

    A process is described for stripping uranium from a pregnant organic extractant comprising an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in a substantially water-immiscible organic diluent. The organic extractant contains tetravalent uranium and an alcohol or phenol modifier in a quantity sufficient to retain substantially all the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid in solution in the diluent during stripping. The process comprises adding an oxidizing agent to the organic extractant to and thereby oxidizing the tetravalent uranium to the +6 state in the organic extractant, and contacting the organic extractant containing the uranium in the +6 state with a stripping solution comprising an aqueous solution of an alkali metal or ammonium carbonate, nonsaturated in uranium. The uranium is stripped from, the organic extractant into the stripping solution, and the resulting barren organic extractant containing substantially all of the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in the diluent is separated from the stripping solution containing the stripped uranium, the barren extractant being suitable for recycle.

  9. Process for recovering uranium using an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid and alkaline stripping solution

    SciTech Connect

    Worthington, R.E.; Magdics, A.

    1987-03-24

    A process is described for stripping uranium for a pregnant organic extractant comprising an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in a substantially water-immiscible organic diluent. The organic extractant contains tetravalent uranium and an alcohol or phenol modifier in a quantity sufficient to retain substantially all the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid in solution in the diluent during stripping. The process comprises adding an oxidizing agent to the organic extractant and thereby oxidizing the tetravalent uranium to the +6 state in the organic extractant, and contacting the organic extractant containing the uranium in the +6 state with a stripping solution comprising an aqueous solution of an alkali metal or ammonium carbonate or hydroxide thereby stripping uranium from the organic extractant into the stripping solution. The resulting barren organic extractant containing substantially all of the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in the diluent is separated from the stripping solution containing the stripped uranium, the barren extractant being suitable for recycle.

  10. Thermodynamic and Ultrasonic Properties of Ascorbic Acid in Aqueous Protic Ionic Liquid Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vickramjeet; Sharma, Gyanendra; Gardas, Ramesh L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report the thermodynamic and ultrasonic properties of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in water and in presence of newly synthesized ammonium based protic ionic liquid (diethylethanolammonium propionate) as a function of concentration and temperature. Apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compression, which characterize the solvation state of ascorbic acid (AA) in presence of protic ionic liquid (PIL) has been determined from precise density and speed of sound measurements at temperatures (293.15 to 328.15) K with 5 K interval. The strength of molecular interactions prevailing in ternary solutions has been discussed on the basis of infinite dilution partial molar volume and partial molar isentropic compression, corresponding volume of transfer and interaction coefficients. Result has been discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions occurring between ascorbic acid and PIL in ternary solutions (AA + water + PIL). PMID:26009887

  11. Moving single bubble sonoluminescence in phosphoric acid and sulphuric acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Troia, A; Ripa, D Madonna; Spagnolo, R

    2006-04-01

    The phenomenon of sonoluminescence still presents some unsolved aspects. Recently [Y.T. Didenko, K. Suslick, Molecular Emission during Single Bubble Sonoluminescence, Nature 407 (2000) 877-879.], it was found that a single cavitating air bubble in polar aprotic liquids (including formamide and adiponitrile) can produce very strong sonoluminescence while undergoing macroscopic translation movements in the resonator, a condition known as moving single bubble sonoluminescing (MSBSL). Here we describe some experiments conducted in aqueous solutions of phosphoric and sulphuric acid. In these liquid media, it is possible to reproduce MSBSL and luminescence is emitted even if a trapped bubble is subjected to a strong shape instability, named in the literature "jittering phase". When a moving and luminescing bubble was present and the acoustic pressure gradually increased, we observed the generation of a discrete lattice of trapped bubbles. The bubbles in the lattice emit very intense light flashes and can change their position while maintaining the overall spatial distribution in time. Some preliminary results, obtained from Mie-scattering and measurements of relative light intensity, are reported.

  12. The future of water fluoridation and other systemic fluorides.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, H S

    1990-02-01

    School and community water fluoridation, salt fluoridation, and use of dietary fluoride supplements have abundant scientific support as effective caries-preventive methods. Because caries has declined greatly in many developed countries from use of topical fluorides, the absolute caries reduction will be considerably smaller when systemic fluoride methods are implemented now than it was 20 to 40 years ago. For countries with most of the population living in cities with communal water supplies, community fluoridation is the most logical approach from the standpoints of cost-effectiveness and total caries-preventive impact. In countries with a mostly rural population without central water supplies, salt fluoridation is more practical. Dietary fluoride supplements can be recommended only for regions where neither water fluoridation nor salt fluoridation is possible, or as a temporary measure. Although divergent views exist concerning the relative caries-preventive effects of pre-eruptive and post-eruptive fluoride administration, the effectiveness of systemic fluoride methods for preventing dental caries remains unchallenged. Persuasive scientific and public health arguments exist to justify implementing and sustaining their use. The future of these methods will be influenced by the findings of new clinical and epidemiological research. Social, political, economic, and educational factors will be of equal, if not greater, importance. Perceptions of the current severity of dental caries as a health problem and of risks associated with preventing the problem may affect the future uses of systemic fluorides more than will recommendations of scientists.

  13. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK CLEANING: CORROSION RATE FOR ONE VERSUS EIGHT PERCENT OXALIC ACID SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2011-01-20

    Until recently, the use of oxalic acid for chemically cleaning the Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste tanks focused on using concentrated 4 and 8-wt% solutions. Recent testing and research on applicable dissolution mechanisms have concluded that under appropriate conditions, dilute solutions of oxalic acid (i.e., 1-wt%) may be more effective. Based on the need to maximize cleaning effectiveness, coupled with the need to minimize downstream impacts, SRS is now developing plans for using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution. A technology gap associated with using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution was a dearth of suitable corrosion data. Assuming oxalic acid's passivation of carbon steel was proportional to the free oxalate concentration, the general corrosion rate (CR) from a 1-wt% solution may not be bound by those from 8-wt%. Therefore, after developing the test strategy and plan, the corrosion testing was performed. Starting with the envisioned process specific baseline solvent, a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution, with sludge (limited to Purex type sludge-simulant for this initial effort) at 75 C and agitated, the corrosion rate (CR) was determined from the measured weight loss of the exposed coupon. Environmental variations tested were: (a) Inclusion of sludge in the test vessel or assuming a pure oxalic acid solution; (b) acid solution temperature maintained at 75 or 45 C; and (c) agitation of the acid solution or stagnant. Application of select electrochemical testing (EC) explored the impact of each variation on the passivation mechanisms and confirmed the CR. The 1-wt% results were then compared to those from the 8-wt%. The immersion coupons showed that the maximum time averaged CR for a 1-wt% solution with sludge was less than 25-mils/yr for all conditions. For an agitated 8-wt% solution with sludge, the maximum time averaged CR was about 30-mils/yr at 50 C, and 86-mils/yr at 75 C. Both the 1-wt% and the 8-wt% testing demonstrated that if the sludge was removed from

  14. Fluoride-mediated capture of a noncovalent bound state of a reversible covalent enzyme inhibitor: X-ray crystallographic analysis of an exceptionally potent α-ketoheterocycle inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Mileni, Mauro; Garfunkle, Joie; Ezzili, Cyrine; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Stevens, Raymond C; Boger, Dale L

    2011-03-23

    Two cocrystal X-ray structures of the exceptionally potent α-ketoheterocycle inhibitor 1 (K(i) = 290 pM) bound to a humanized variant of rat fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are disclosed, representing noncovalently and covalently bound states of the same inhibitor with the enzyme. Key to securing the structure of the noncovalently bound state of the inhibitor was the inclusion of fluoride ion in the crystallization conditions that is proposed to bind the oxyanion hole precluding inhibitor covalent adduct formation with stabilization of the tetrahedral hemiketal. This permitted the opportunity to detect important noncovalent interactions stabilizing the binding of the inhibitor within the FAAH active site independent of the covalent reaction. Remarkably, noncovalently bound 1 in the presence of fluoride appears to capture the active site in the same "in action" state with the three catalytic residues Ser241-Ser217-Lys142 occupying essentially identical positions observed in the covalently bound structure of 1, suggesting that this technique of introducing fluoride may have important applications in structural studies beyond inhibiting substrate or inhibitor oxyanion hole binding. Key insights to emerge from the studies include the observations that noncovalently bound 1 binds in its ketone (not gem diol) form, that the terminal phenyl group in the acyl side chain of the inhibitor serves as the key anchoring interaction overriding the intricate polar interactions in the cytosolic port, and that the role of the central activating heterocycle is dominated by its intrinsic electron-withdrawing properties. These two structures are also briefly compared with five X-ray structures of α-ketoheterocycle-based inhibitors bound to FAAH recently disclosed.

  15. Fluoride-Mediated Capture of a Noncovalent Bound State of a Reversible Covalent Enzyme Inhibitor: X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of an Exceptionally Potent α-Ketoheterocycle Inhibitor of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Mileni, Mauro; Garfunkle, Joie; Ezzili, Cyrine; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Boger, Dale L.

    2011-01-01

    Two cocrystal X-ray structures of the exceptionally potent α-ketoheterocycle inhibitor 1 (Ki = 290 pM) bound to a humanized variant of rat fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are disclosed, representing noncovalently and covalently bound states of the same inhibitor with the enzyme. Key to securing the structure of the noncovalently bound state of the inhibitor was the inclusion of fluoride ion in the crystallization conditions that is proposed to bind the oxyanion hole precluding inhibitor covalent adduct formation with stabilization of the tetrahedral hemiketal. This permitted the opportunity to detect important noncovalent interactions stabilizing the binding of the inhibitor within the FAAH active site independent of the covalent reaction. Remarkably, noncovalently bound 1 in the presence of fluoride appears to capture the active site in the same “in action” state with the three catalytic residues Ser241–Ser217–Lys142 occupying essentially identical positions observed in the covalently bound structure of 1, suggesting that this technique of introducing fluoride may have important applications in structural studies beyond inhibiting substrate or inhibitor oxyanion hole binding. Key insights to emerge from the studies include the observations that noncovalently bound 1 binds in its ketone (not gem diol) form, that the terminal phenyl group in the acyl side chain of the inhibitor serves as the key anchoring interaction overriding the intricate polar interactions in the cytosolic port, and that the role of the central activating heterocycle is dominated by its intrinsic electron-withdrawing properties. These two structures are also briefly compared with five X-ray structures of α-ketoheterocycle-based inhibitors bound to FAAH recently disclosed. PMID:21355555

  16. Coulometric determination of americium in acetonitrile solution of phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Perevalov, S.A.; Kulyakov, Yu.M.; Lebedev, I.A.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1986-10-20

    A procedure was developed for the coulometric determination of americium using the electrochemical couple Am(IV)-Am(III). An acetonitrile solution of 0.3-0.2 M H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ was used as the electrolyte. Americium can be determined in the presence of large amounts of Cm, Pu, Ce, and other impurities; limit of detection approx. 10 ..mu..g.

  17. The dissolution of quartz in dilute aqueous solutions of organic acids at 25°C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, P.C.; Melcer, M.E.; Siegel, D.I.; Hassett, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    The dissolution of quartz in dilute aqueous solutions of organic acids at 25° and standard pressure was investigated by the batch dissolution method. The bulk dissolution rate of quartz in 20 mmole/Kg citrate solutions at pH 7 was 8 to 10 times faster than that in pure water. After 1750 hours the concentration of dissolved silica in the citrate solution was 167 μmole/Kg compared to 50 μmole/Kg in water and a 20 mmole/Kg solution of acetate at pH 7. Solutions of salicylic, oxalic, and humic acids also accelerated the dissolution of quartz in aqueous solution at pH 7. The rate of dissolution in organic acids decreased sharply with decreasing pH.The possibility of a silica-organic acid complex was investigated using UV-difference spectroscopy. Results suggest that dissolved silica is complexed by citrate, oxalate and pyruvate at pH 7 by an electron-donor acceptor complex, whereas no complexation occurs between silica and acetate, lactate, malonate, or succinate. Three models are proposed for the solution and surface complexation of silica by organic acid anions which result in the accelerated dissolution and increased solubility of quartz in organic rich water.

  18. Treatment of infectious skin defects or ulcers with electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, S; Ohmori, K; Harii, K

    1997-01-01

    A chronic ulcer with an infection such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is hard to heal. Plastic and reconstructive surgeons often encounter such chronic ulcers that are resistant to surgical or various conservative treatments. We applied conservative treatment using an electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution and obtained satisfactory results. The lesion was washed with the solution or soaked in a bowl of the solution for approximately 20 min twice a day. Fresh electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution is unstable and should be stored in a cool, dark site in a sealed bottle. It should be used within a week after it has been produced. Here we report on 15 cases of infectious ulcers that were treated by electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution. Of these cases, 7 patients were healed, 3 were granulated, and in 5, infection subsided. In most cases the lesion became less reddish and less edematous. Discharge or foul odor from the lesion was decreased. Electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution was especially effective for treating a chronic refractory ulcer combined with diabetes melitus or peripheral circulatory insufficiency. This clinically applied therapy of electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution was found to be effective so that this new therapeutic technique for ulcer treatment can now be conveniently utilized.

  19. The dissolution of quartz in dilute aqueous solutions of organic acids at 25 degree C

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Melcer, M.E.; Siegel, D.I.; Hassett, J.P. )

    1988-06-01

    The dissolution of quartz in dilute aqueous solutions of organic acids at 25{degree}C and standard pressure was investigated by the batch dissolution method. The bulk dissolution rate of quartz in 20 mmole/Kg citrate solutions at pH 7 was 8 to 10 times faster than that in pure water. After 1750 hours the concentration of dissolved silica in the citrate solution was 167 {mu}mole/Kg compared to 50 {mu}mole/Kg in water and a 20 mmole/Kg solution of acetate at pH 7. Solutions of salicylic, oxalic, and humic acids also accelerated the dissolution of quartz in aqueous solution at pH 7. The rate of dissolution in organic acids decreased sharply with decreasing pH. The possibility of a silica-organic acid complex was investigated using UV-difference spectroscopy. Results suggest that dissolved silica is complexed by citrate, oxalate and pyruvate at pH 7 by an electron-donor acceptor complex, whereas no complexation occurs between silica and acetate, lactate, malonate, or succinate. Three models are proposed for the solution and surface complexation of silica by organic acid which result in the accelerated dissolution and increased solubility of quartz in organic rich water.

  20. Fluoride geochemistry of thermal waters in Yellowstone National Park: I. Aqueous fluoride speciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deng, Y.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Blaine, McCleskey R.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal water samples from Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have a wide range of pH (1-10), temperature, and high concentrations of fluoride (up to 50mg/l). High fluoride concentrations are found in waters with field pH higher than 6 (except those in Crater Hills) and temperatures higher than 50??C based on data from more than 750 water samples covering most thermal areas in YNP from 1975 to 2008. In this study, more than 140 water samples from YNP collected in 2006-2009 were analyzed for free-fluoride activity by ion-selective electrode (ISE) method as an independent check on the reliability of fluoride speciation calculations. The free to total fluoride concentration ratio ranged from <1% at low pH values to >99% at high pH. The wide range in fluoride activity can be explained by strong complexing with H+ and Al3+ under acidic conditions and lack of complexing under basic conditions. Differences between the free-fluoride activities calculated with the WATEQ4F code and those measured by ISE were within 0.3-30% for more than 90% of samples at or above 10-6 molar, providing corroboration for chemical speciation models for a wide range of pH and chemistry of YNP thermal waters. Calculated speciation results show that free fluoride, F-, and major complexes (HF(aq)0, AlF2+, AlF2+ and AlF30) account for more than 95% of total fluoride. Occasionally, some complex species like AlF4-, FeF2+, FeF2+, MgF+ and BF2(OH)2- may comprise 1-10% when the concentrations of the appropriate components are high. According to the simulation results by PHREEQC and calculated results, the ratio of main fluoride species to total fluoride varies as a function of pH and the concentrations and ratios of F and Al. ?? 2011.

  1. Interfacial structures of acidic and basic aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, C.; Ji, N.; Waychunas, G.; Shen, Y.R.

    2008-10-20

    Phase-sensitive sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy was used to study water/vapor interfaces of HCl, HI, and NaOH solutions. The measured imaginary part of the surface spectral responses provided direct characterization of OH stretch vibrations and information about net polar orientations of water species contributing to different regions of the spectrum. We found clear evidence that hydronium ions prefer to emerge at interfaces. Their OH stretches contribute to the 'ice-like' band in the spectrum. Their charges create a positive surface field that tends to reorient water molecules more loosely bonded to the topmost water layer with oxygen toward the interface, and thus enhances significantly the 'liquid-like' band in the spectrum. Iodine ions in solution also like to appear at the interface and alter the positive surface field by forming a narrow double-charge layer with hydronium ions. In NaOH solution, the observed weak change of the 'liquid-like' band and disappearance of the 'ice-like' band in the spectrum indicates that OH{sup -} ions must also have excess at the interface. How they are incorporated in the interfacial water structure is however not clear.

  2. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of phosphoric acid solution compared to other root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    PRADO, Maíra; da SILVA, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; DUQUE, Thais Mageste; ZAIA, Alexandre Augusto; FERRAZ, Caio Cezar Randi; de ALMEIDA, José Flávio Affonso; GOMES, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoric acid has been suggested as an irrigant due to its effectiveness in removing the smear layer. Objectives : The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of a 37% phosphoric acid solution to other irrigants commonly used in endodontics. Material and Methods : The substances 37% phosphoric acid, 17% EDTA, 10% citric acid, 2% chlorhexidine (solution and gel), and 5.25% NaOCl were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was tested against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Actinomyces meyeri, Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella nigrescens according to the agar diffusion method. The cytotoxicity of the irrigants was determined by using the MTT assay. Results : Phosphoric acid presented higher antimicrobial activity compared to the other tested irrigants. With regard to the cell viability, this solution showed results similar to those with 5.25% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine (gel and solution), whereas 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid showed higher cell viability compared to other irrigants. Conclusion : Phosphoric acid demonstrated higher antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity similar to that of 5.25% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine (gel and solution). PMID:26018307

  3. Environment and solute-solvent interaction effects on photo-physical behaviors of Folic acid and Folinic acid drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadem Sadigh, M.; Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Seyed Ahmadian, S. M.; Johari-Ahar, M.; Zare Haghighi, L.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, spectral properties of Folic acid and Folinic acid as widely used drugs in the treatment of some diseases have been studied in various environments with different polarity. Our results show that the absorption, emission and stokes shifts of solute molecules depend strongly on molecular surrounding characteristics, solute-solvent interactions and, different active groups in their chemical structures. In order to investigate the contribution of specific and nonspecific interactions on various properties of drug samples, the linear solvation energy relationships concept is used. Moreover, the calculated dipole moments by means of solvatochromic method show that the high values of dipole moments in excited state are due to local intramolecular charge transfer. Furthermore, the obtained results about molecular interactions can be extended to biological systems and can indicate completely the behaviors of Folic acid and Folinic acid in polar solvents such as water in body system.

  4. Effect of doping of calcium fluoride nanoparticles on the photoluminescence properties of europium complexes with benzoic acid derivatives as secondary ligands and 2-aminopyridine as primary ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Garima; Narula, Anudeep Kumar

    2015-08-01

    The present article reports the synthesis of three Eu(III) complexes [Eu(BA)3(2-ap)] (1), [Eu(HBA)3(2-ap)] (2) and [Eu(ABA)3(2-ap)] (3) (BA = benzoic acid, HBA = 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, ABA = 2-amino benzoic acid and 2-ap = 2-aminopyridine) carried out in ethanol solution. The complexes were further doped with CaF2 nanoparticles and a change in the photoluminescence properties was observed. The compositions and structural investigation of the complexes were determined by elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which suggest the coordination of ligands with the central Eu(III) ion. The optical properties of the complexes were studied by Ultraviolet Visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence studies (PL). The relative PL intensity was enhanced in the Eu(III) complexes doped with CaF2 nanoparticles as compared to the pure Eu(III) complexes, however the increase in intensity varied in the order of ligands ABA > HBA > BA. The photoluminescence lifetime decay curves also revealed the longer lifetime (τ) and higher quantum efficiency (η) for europium complexes with ABA ligands suggesting the efficient energy transfer and better sensitizing ability of the ligand to europium ion. The morphology of the synthesized compounds were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealing spherical morphology with agglomeration of the nanoparticles.

  5. Liquid chromatographic assay of diatrizoic acid and its diiodo degradation products in radio-opaque solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Farag, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    A liquid chromatographic method is described for the analysis of diatrizoic acid (2,4,6-triiodo-3,5-diacetamidobenzoic acid) and its 2,4- and 2,6-diiodo degradation products in radio-opaque injection solutions. The method is accurate, precise, and linear at a concentration range of 5-50 ppm. 12 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Novel one-pot synthesis of dicarboxylic acids mediated alginate-zirconium biopolymeric complex for defluoridation of water.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Subbaiah Muthu; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2015-04-20

    The present investigation explains the fluoride removal from aqueous solution using alginate-zirconium complex prepared with respective dicarboxylic acids like oxalic acid (Ox), malonic acid (MA) and succinic acid (SA) as a medium. The complexes viz., alginate-oxalic acid-zirconium (Alg-Ox-Zr), alginate-malonic acid-zirconium (Alg-MA-Zr) and alginate-succinic acid-zirconium (Alg-SA-Zr) were synthesized and studied for fluoride removal. The synthesized complexes were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM with EDAX and mapping images. The effects of various operating parameters were optimized. The result showed that the maximum removal of fluoride 9653mgF(-)/kg was achieved by Alg-Ox-Zr complex at acidic pH in an ambient atmospheric condition. Equilibrium data of Alg-Ox-Zr complex was fitted well with Freundlich isotherm. The calculated values of thermodynamic parameters indicated that the fluoride adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The mechanism of fluoride removal behind Alg-Ox-Zr complex has been proposed in detail. The suitability of the Alg-Ox-Zr complex has been tested with the field sample collected in a nearby fluoride endemic area.

  7. Fluoride content of infant foods.

    PubMed

    Steele, Jaime L; Martinez-Mier, E Angeles; Sanders, Brian J; Jones, James E; Jackson, Richard D; Soto-Rojas, Armando E; Tomlin, Angela M; Eckert, George J

    2014-01-01

    Excessive fluoride consumption during the first 2 years of life is associated with an increased risk of dental fluorosis. Estimates of fluoride intake from various sources may aid in determining a child's risk for developing fluorosis. This study sought to assess the fluoride content of commercially available foods for infants, and to guide dentists who are advising parents of young children about fluoride intake. Three samples each of 20 different foods (including fruits and vegetables, as well as chicken, turkey, beef/ham, and vegetarian dinners) from 3 manufacturers were analyzed (in duplicate) for their fluoride content. Among the 360 samples tested, fluoride concentration ranged from 0.007-4.13 μg fluoride/g food. All foods tested had detectable amounts of fluoride. Chicken products had the highest mean levels of fluoride, followed by turkey products. Consuming >1 serving per day of the high fluoride concentration products in this study would place children over the recommended daily fluoride intake. Fluoride from infant foods should be taken into account when determining total daily fluoride intake.

  8. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Celik, Z Ceylan; Can, B Z; Kocakerim, M Muhtar

    2008-03-21

    In this study, the removal of boric acid from aqueous solution by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid was studied in batch system. pH, adsorbent amount, initial boron concentration, temperature, shaking rate and salicylic acid film thickness were chosen as parameters. Boron removal efficiencies increased with increasing adsorbent amount, temperature and pH, decreasing initial boron concentration. As thickness of salicylic acid film on activated carbon becomes thin up to 0.088nm, the efficiency increased, and then, the efficiency decreased with becoming thinner than 0.088nm of salicylic acid film. Shaking rate was no effect on removal efficiency. In result, it was determined that the use of salicylic acid as an impregnant for activated carbon led to the increase of the amount of boron adsorbed. A lactone ring, being the most appropriate conformation, forms between boric acid and -COOH and -OH groups of salicylic acid.

  9. Permeability and fluoride release of lining materials containing amine fluorides.

    PubMed

    Nordbö, H; Eriksen, H M

    1976-11-01

    The addition of amine fluorides to a copal recin (Copalite) and a chlorine caoutchouc varnish (Pergut S-40) has been studied. The permeability of Copalite films was only slightly increased whereas the excellent film-forming qualities of Pergut S-40 were destroyed by the addition of fluorides. A high fluoride release was found initially from test films of the materials but within 2-3 weeks a decrease to very low fluoride levels was observed.

  10. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1984-05-21

    A process has been developed for the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from acidic waste solutions, and for the separation of these values from fission product and other values, which utilizes a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N, N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides, in combination with a phase modifier to form an extraction solution. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  11. The amino acid's backup bone - storage solutions for proteomics facilities.

    PubMed

    Meckel, Hagen; Stephan, Christian; Bunse, Christian; Krafzik, Michael; Reher, Christopher; Kohl, Michael; Meyer, Helmut Erich; Eisenacher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Proteomics methods, especially high-throughput mass spectrometry analysis have been continually developed and improved over the years. The analysis of complex biological samples produces large volumes of raw data. Data storage and recovery management pose substantial challenges to biomedical or proteomic facilities regarding backup and archiving concepts as well as hardware requirements. In this article we describe differences between the terms backup and archive with regard to manual and automatic approaches. We also introduce different storage concepts and technologies from transportable media to professional solutions such as redundant array of independent disks (RAID) systems, network attached storages (NAS) and storage area network (SAN). Moreover, we present a software solution, which we developed for the purpose of long-term preservation of large mass spectrometry raw data files on an object storage device (OSD) archiving system. Finally, advantages, disadvantages, and experiences from routine operations of the presented concepts and technologies are evaluated and discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics in the Post-Identification Era. Guest Editors: Martin Eisenacher and Christian Stephan.

  12. Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Oxalic Acid and Sodium Chloride Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Day, S D; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2003-06-24

    Nickel based Alloy 22 (NO6022) is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solution and to compare its behavior to sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solutions increased rapidly as the temperature and the acid concentration increased. Extrapolation studies show that even at a concentration of 10{sup -4}M oxalic acid, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 would be higher in oxalic acid than in 1 M NaCl solution. Alloy 22 was not susceptible to localized corrosion in oxalic acid solutions. Cyclic polarization tests in 1 M NaCl showed that Alloy 22 was susceptible to crevice corrosion at 90 C but was not susceptible at 60 C.

  13. Solute-enhanced production of gamma-valerolactone (GVL) from aqueous solutions of levulinic acid

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A.; Wettstein, Stephanie G.; Alonso, David Martin; Gurbuz, Elif Ispir

    2016-06-28

    A method to produce levulinic acid (LA) and gamma-valerolactone (GVL) from biomass-derived cellulose or lignocellulose by selective extraction of LA using GVL and optionally converting the LA so isolated into GVL, with no purifications steps required to yield the GVL.

  14. Solute-enhanced production of gamma-valerolactone (GVL) from aqueous solutions of levulinic acid

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A; Wettstein, Stephanie G; Alonso, David Martin; Gurbuz, Elif Ispir

    2015-02-24

    A method to produce levulinic acid (LA) and gamma-valerolactone (GVL) from biomass-derived cellulose or lignocellulose by selective extraction of LA using GVL and optionally converting the LA so isolated into GVL, with no purifications steps required to yield the GVL.

  15. Growth behavior of anodic porous alumina formed in malic acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2013-11-01

    The growth behavior of anodic porous alumina formed on aluminum by anodizing in malic acid solutions was investigated. High-purity aluminum plates were electropolished in CH3COOH/HClO4 solutions and then anodized in 0.5 M malic acid solutions at 293 K and constant cell voltages of 200-350 V. The anodic porous alumina grew on the aluminum substrate at voltages of 200-250 V, and a black, burned oxide film was formed at higher voltages. The nanopores of the anodic oxide were only formed at grain boundaries of the aluminum substrate during the initial stage of anodizing, and then the growth region extended to the entire aluminum surface as the anodizing time increased. The anodic porous alumina with several defects was formed by anodizing in malic acid solution at 250 V, and oxide cells were approximately 300-800 nm in diameter.

  16. Time dependent inhibition of xanthine oxidase in irradiated solutions of folic acid, aminopterin and methotrexate

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, K.; Pilot, T.F.; Meany, J.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The xanthine oxidase catalyzed oxidation of hypoxanthine was followed by monitoring the formation of uric acid at 290 nm. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase occurs in aqueous solutions of folic acid methotrexate and aminopterin. These compounds are known to dissociate upon exposure to ultraviolet light resulting in the formation of their respective 6-formylpteridine derivatives. The relative rates of dissociation were monitored spectrophotometrically by determining the absorbance of their 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatives at 500 nm. When aqueous solutions of folic acid, aminopterin and methotrexate were exposed to uv light, a direct correlation was observed between the concentrations of the 6-formylpteridine derivatives existing in solution and the ability of these solutions to inhibit xanthine oxidase. The relative potency of the respective photolysis products were estimated.

  17. THE KINETICS OF SAPONIFICATION OF IODOACETIC ACID BY SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND BY CERTAIN ALKALINE BUFFER SOLUTIONS.

    PubMed

    Brdicka, R

    1936-07-20

    1. The rate of the saponification of iodoacetic acid in sodium hydroxide and alkaline buffer solutions yielding glycollic acid was measured by means of Heyrovský's polarographic method. 2. From the bimolecular velocity constants, increasing with the ionic strength of the solution, the Brönsted factor, F, which characterizes the primary salt effect, was calculated. 3. In the borate buffer solutions the monomolecular constants of the saponification were determined which, at values above the pH of neutralization of boric acid, show a proportionality to the concentration of hydroxyl anions. Below the pH of neutralization of boric acid, they are proportional to the concentration of borate anions.

  18. Evaluation of a taurine containing amino acid solution in parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, L; Griffin, E

    1991-01-01

    Vaminolact, an amino acid solution containing taurine, was given to 15 sick newborn babies. They were compared with a group of 10 babies who received a solution that did not contain taurine (Vamin glucose). Efficacy and safety were evaluated by monitoring plasma amino acid patterns, growth patterns, nitrogen balance, and biochemical and haematological profiles. No serious abnormalities in amino acid concentrations were found. After an initial fall the taurine concentration recovered more rapidly in those receiving the taurine supplement, though this difference was not significant. Phenylalanine concentrations were within the reference range in the group receiving Vaminolact, and were significantly lower than in the group receiving Vamin glucose. Metabolic acidosis, which occurred in several subjects in each group, was not a serious problem. Liver function tests remained satisfactory. Nitrogen retention was greater among those receiving Vaminolact than in the control group. Vaminolact is a safe and effective amino acid solution for use in critically ill babies. PMID:1899989

  19. Acid gas absorption in aqueous solutions of mixed amines

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, E.B.; Ashour, S.S.; Sandall, O.C.

    1996-12-31

    A mass transfer model has been developed to describe the rate of absorption (or desorption) of H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} in aqueous blends of a tertiary and a secondary or a primary amine. The model is based on penetration theory, and all significant chemical reactions are incorporated in the model. The reactions are taken to be reversible, with reactions involving only a proton transfer considered to be at equilibrium. The particular amines studied in this research were methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), a tertiary amine, and diethanolamine (DEA), a secondary amine. Key physicochemical data needed in the model, such as diffusion coefficients, kinetic rate constants, and gas solubilities, were measured. Experimental absorption rates of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S were measured in a model gas-liquid contacting device and were compared with model predictions. Experiments were carried out for single amine solutions (both MDEA and DEA) and for amine blends.

  20. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-08-30

    A process is described for the preparation of trifluoroacetic acid. Acetone vapor diluted wlth nitrogen and fluorine also diluted with nltrogen are fed separately at a temperature of about 210 deg C into a reaction vessel containing a catalyst mass selected from-the group consisting of silver and gold. The temperature in the reaction vessel is maintained in the range of 200 deg to 250 deg C. The reaction product, trifluoroacetyl fluoride, is absorbed in aqueous alkali solution. Trifluoroacetic acid is recovered from the solution by acidification wlth an acid such as sulfuric followed by steam distillation.

  1. MOLTEN FLUORIDE NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Barton, C.J.; Grimes, W.R.

    1960-01-01

    Molten-salt reactor fuel compositions consisting of mixtures of fluoride salts are reported. In its broadest form, the composition contains an alkali fluoride such as sodium fluoride, zirconium tetrafluoride, and a uranium fluoride, the latter being the tetrafluoride or trifluoride or a mixture of the two. An outstanding property of these fuel compositions is a high coeffieient of thermal expansion which provides a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity in reactors in which they are used.

  2. Methylene blue adsorption from aqueous solution by activated carbon: effect of acidic and alkaline solution treatments.

    PubMed

    Ijagbemi, Christianah O; Chun, Ji I; Han, Da H; Cho, Hye Y; O, Se J; Kim, Dong S

    2010-01-01

    The removal of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution using activated carbon (AC) has been investigated. Adsorption experiments were conducted and the maximum adsorption capacity was determined. The effect of experimental parameters such as pH, dye concentration and temperature were studied on the adsorption process. Equilibrium data were mathematically modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models to describe the equilibrium isotherms at different dye concentrations and temperature. Parameters of best-fit model were calculated and discussed. To understand the mechanism of adsorption, kinetic models were employed to follow the adsorption processes; the pseudo-first-order best described the adsorption of MB onto AC. It was found that pH plays a major role in the adsorption process; adsorption capacity was influenced by the physical and surface chemical properties of carbon and the pH of the solution. 99.0% MB removal was achieved at equilibrium.

  3. Photodegradation of Mercaptopropionic Acid- and Thioglycollic Acid-Capped CdTe Quantum Dots in Buffer Solutions.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yanping; Yang, Ping; Zhao, Jie; Du, Yingying; He, Haiyan; Liu, Yunshi

    2015-06-01

    CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and thioglycollic acid (TGA) as capping agents. It is confirmed that TGA and MPA molecules were attached on the surface of the QDs using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. The movement of the QDs in agarose gel electrophoresis indicated that MPA-capped CdTe QDs had small hydrodynamic diameter. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of TGA-capped QDs is higher than that of MPA-capped QDs at same QD concentration because of the surface passivation of TGA. To systemically investigate the photodegradation, CdTe QDs with various PL peak wavelengths were dispersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and Tris-borate-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (TBE) buffer solutions. It was found that the PL intensity of the QDs in PBS decreased with time. The PL peak wavelengths of the QDs in PBS solutions remained unchanged. As for TGA-capped CdTe QDs, the results of PL peak wavelengths in TBE buffer solutions indicated that S(2-) released by TGA attached to Cd(2+) and formed CdS-like clusters layer on the surface of aqueous CdTe QDs. In addition, the number of TGA on the CdTe QDs surface was more than that of MPA. When the QDs were added to buffer solutions, agents were removed from the surface of CdTe QDs, which decreased the passivation of agents thus resulted in photodegradation of CdTe QDs in buffer solutions.

  4. The synthesis and structural characterization of novel transition metal fluorides

    SciTech Connect

    Casteel, W.J. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    High purity KMF[sub 6] and K[sub 2]MF[sub 6] salts (M = Mo,Re, Ru, Os, Ir, Pt) are obtained from reduction hexafluorides. A rhombohedral unit cell is observed for KReF[sub 6]. Fluoride ion capture by Lewis acids from the hexafluorometallate (IV) salts affords high purity tetrafluorides for M = Mo, Re, Ru, Os, and Pd. The structure of RuF[sub 4] is determined from X-ray synchrotron and neutron powder data. Unit cells based on theorthorhombic PdF[sub 4] type cell are derived from X-ray powder data for ReF[sub 4] and OsF[sub 4]. Fluoride ion capture from KAgF[sub 4] provides the thermally unstable trifluoride as a bright, red, diamagnetic solid. The structure solution of AgF[sub 3] and redetermination of the AuF[sub 3] structure from X-ray synchrotron and neutron powder data demonstrate that the two are isostnictural. Thermal decomposition product of AgF[sub 3] is the mixed valence compound Ag[sup II]Ag[sub 2][sup III]F[sub 8]. Several new salts containing the (Ag - F)[sub n][sup n+] chain cation are prepared. The first linear (Ag - F)[sub n][sup n+] chain is observed in AgF[sup +]BF[sub 4 [sup [minus

  5. Metabolic engineering of yeast to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels: bottlenecks and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Feng, Xueyang

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid-derived biofuels can be a better solution than bioethanol to replace petroleum fuel, since they have similar energy content and combustion properties as current transportation fuels. The environmentally friendly microbial fermentation process has been used to synthesize advanced biofuels from renewable feedstock. Due to their robustness as well as the high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors and phage contamination, yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica have attracted tremendous attention in recent studies regarding the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, including fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty alkanes. However, the native yeast strains cannot produce fatty acids and fatty acid-derived biofuels in large quantities. To this end, we have summarized recent publications in this review on metabolic engineering of yeast strains to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, identified the bottlenecks that limit the productivity of biofuels, and categorized the appropriate approaches to overcome these obstacles. PMID:26106371

  6. Extraction of palladium from acidic solutions with the use of carbon adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    O.N. Kononova; N.G. Goryaeva; N.B. Dostovalova; S.V. Kachin; A.G. Kholmogorov

    2007-08-15

    We studied the sorption of palladium(II) on LKAU-4, LKAU-7, and BAU carbon adsorbents from model hydrochloric acid solutions and the solutions of spent palladium-containing catalysts. It was found that sorbents based on charcoal (BAU) and anthracite (LKAU-4) were characterized by high sorption capacities for palladium. The kinetics of the saturation of carbon adsorbents with palladium(II) ions was studied, and it was found that more than 60% of the initial amount of Pd(II) was recovered in a 1-h contact of an adsorbent with a model solution. This value for the solutions of spent catalysts was higher than 35%.

  7. Precipitation pathways for ferrihydrite formation in acidic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mengqiang; Frandsen, Cathrine; Wallace, Adam F.; Legg, Benjamin; Khalid, Syed; Zhang, Hengzhong; Mørup, Steen; Banfield, Jillian F.; Waychunas, Glenn A.

    2016-01-01

    Iron oxides and oxyhydroxides form via Fe3+ hydrolysis and polymerization in many aqueous environments, but the pathway from Fe3+ monomers to oligomers and then to solid phase nuclei is unknown. In this work, using combined X-ray, UV-vis, and Mössbauer spectroscopic approaches, we were able to identify and quantify the long-time sought ferric speciation over time during ferric oxyhydroxide formation in partially-neutralized ferric nitrate solutions ([Fe3+] = 0.2 M, 1.8 < pH < 3). Results demonstrate that Fe exists mainly as Fe(H2O)63+, μ-oxo aquo dimers and ferrihydrite, and that with time, the μ-oxo dimer decreases while the other two species increase in their concentrations. No larger Fe oligomers were detected. Given that the structure of the μ-oxo dimer is incompatible with those of all Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides, our results suggest that reconfiguration of the μ-oxo dimer structure occurs prior to further condensation leading up to the nucleation of ferrihydrite. The structural reconfiguration is likely the rate-limiting step involved in the nucleation process.

  8. Precipitation pathways for ferrihydrite formation in acidic solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Mengqiang; Khalid, Syed; Frandsen, Cathrine; Wallace, Adam F.; Legg, Benjamin; Zhang, Hengzhong; Morup, Steen; Banfield, Jillian F.; Waychunas, Glenn A.

    2015-10-03

    In this study, iron oxides and oxyhydroxides form via Fe3+ hydrolysis and polymerization in many aqueous environments, but the pathway from Fe3+ monomers to oligomers and then to solid phase nuclei is unknown. In this work, using combined X-ray, UV–vis, and Mössbauer spectroscopic approaches, we were able to identify and quantify the long-time sought ferric speciation over time during ferric oxyhydroxide formation in partially-neutralized ferric nitrate solutions ([Fe3+] = 0.2 M, 1.8 < pH < 3). Results demonstrate that Fe exists mainly as Fe(H2O)63+, μ-oxo aquo dimers and ferrihydrite, and that with time, the μ-oxo dimer decreases while the other two species increase in their concentrations. No larger Fe oligomers were detected. Given that the structure of the μ-oxo dimer is incompatible with those of all Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides, our results suggest that reconfiguration of the μ-oxo dimer structure occurs prior to further condensation leading up to the nucleation of ferrihydrite. The structural reconfiguration is likely the rate-limiting step involved in the nucleation process.

  9. Precipitation pathways for ferrihydrite formation in acidic solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Mengqiang; Khalid, Syed; Frandsen, Cathrine; ...

    2015-10-03

    In this study, iron oxides and oxyhydroxides form via Fe3+ hydrolysis and polymerization in many aqueous environments, but the pathway from Fe3+ monomers to oligomers and then to solid phase nuclei is unknown. In this work, using combined X-ray, UV–vis, and Mössbauer spectroscopic approaches, we were able to identify and quantify the long-time sought ferric speciation over time during ferric oxyhydroxide formation in partially-neutralized ferric nitrate solutions ([Fe3+] = 0.2 M, 1.8 < pH < 3). Results demonstrate that Fe exists mainly as Fe(H2O)63+, μ-oxo aquo dimers and ferrihydrite, and that with time, the μ-oxo dimer decreases while the othermore » two species increase in their concentrations. No larger Fe oligomers were detected. Given that the structure of the μ-oxo dimer is incompatible with those of all Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides, our results suggest that reconfiguration of the μ-oxo dimer structure occurs prior to further condensation leading up to the nucleation of ferrihydrite. The structural reconfiguration is likely the rate-limiting step involved in the nucleation process.« less

  10. Comparison of XAD macroporous resins for the concentration of fulvic acid from aqueous solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    Five macroreticular, nonlonlc AmberlHe XAD resins were evaluated for concentration and Isolation of fulvlc acid from aqueous solution. The capacity of each resin for fulvlc acid was measured by both batch and column techniques. Elution efficiencies were determined by desorptlon with 0.1 N NaOH. Highest recoveries were obtained with the acrylic ester resins which proved to be most efficient for both adsorption and elution of fulvlc acid. Compared to the acrylic ester resins, usefulness of the styrene dvlnybenzene resins to remove fulvlc acid is limited because of slow diffusion-controlled adsorption and formation of charge-transfer complexes, which hinders elution. ?? 1979 American Chemical Society.

  11. The kinetics of oxidation of bilirubin and ascorbic acid in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonov, A. V.; Rumyantsev, E. V.; Kochergin, B. A.; Antina, E. V.

    2012-07-01

    The results of a comparative study of the oxidation of bilirubin, ascorbic acid, and their mixture in aqueous solutions under the action of air oxygen and hydrogen peroxide are presented. The observed and true rate constants for the oxidation reactions were determined. It was shown that the oxidation of tetrapyrrole pigment occurred under these conditions bypassing the stage of biliverdin formation to monopyrrole products. Simultaneous oxidation of bilirubin and ascorbic acid was shown to be accompanied by the inhibition of ascorbic acid oxidation by bilirubin, whereas ascorbic acid itself activated the oxidation of bilirubin.

  12. Separation of thorium and uranium in nitric acid solution using silica based anion exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanliang; Wei, Yuezhou; He, Linfeng; Tang, Fangdong

    2016-09-30

    To separate thorium and uranium in nitric acid solution using anion exchange process, a strong base silica-based anion exchange resin (SiPyR-N4) was synthesized. Batch experiments were conducted and the separation factor of thorium and uranium in 9M nitric acid was about 10. Ion exchange chromatography was applied to separate thorium and uranium in different ratios. Uranium could be eluted by 9M nitric acid and thorium was eluted by 0.1M nitric acid. It was proved that thorium and uranium can be separated and recovered successfully by this method.

  13. Cholesterol reduces the effects of dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids on water and solute transport in the human jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Broor, S L; Slota, T; Ammon, H V

    1980-01-01

    Jejunal perfusion studies were performed in 16 healthy volunteers to test the hypothesis that intraluminal cholesterol can mitigate the fluid secretion induced by dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids. Fluid secretion in the presence of 5 mM taurodeoxycholate was somewhat reduced by 4 mM mono-olein which was used for the solubilization of cholesterol. Addition of 0.8 mM cholesterol reduced fluid secretion further (P less than 0.05). Fluid secretion induced by 4 mM oleic acid was changed to net absorption in a linear fashion with increasing cholesterol concentration in the perfusion solutions. 1 mM cholesterol reduced fluid secretion induced by 6 mM oleic acid (P less than 0.005), but had no effect on fluid secretion induced by 6 mM linolenic acid. Glucose absorption was generally affected in a similar manner as water transport. In vitro, 1 mM cholesterol reduced monomer activity of 6 mM oleic acid to 72.3 +/- 0.9% of control and that of linolenic acid to 81.1 +/- 1.7% of control. Although statistically significant (P less than 0.001), the difference in the effects of cholesterol on monomer activities of the two fatty acids was rather small and it is unlikely that changes in monomer concentration of fatty acids and bile acids account for the protective effect of cholesterol. The in vivo observations point to a new physiological role for biliary cholesterol: the modification of the response of the small intestine to the effects of dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids. PMID:7358850

  14. Hydrogen peroxide generation in a model paediatric parenteral amino acid solution.

    PubMed

    Brawley, V; Bhatia, J; Karp, W B

    1993-12-01

    1. Parenteral amino acid solutions undergo photooxidation, which may be an important factor in total parenteral nutrition-associated hepatic dysfunction. Light-exposed parenteral solutions containing amino acids, in addition to vitamins and trace minerals, generate free radicals, which, in turn, may contribute to this type of injury. This study examined the characteristics of H2O2 production in a parenteral amino acid solution modelled on a commercially available paediatric parenteral amino acid solution. 2. The solution was exposed to light in the presence of riboflavin-5'-monophosphate (riboflavin), and peroxide formation in the presence and absence of catalase (H2O2 formation) was assayed using potassium iodide/molybdate. 3. Peak H2O2 production occurred at a light intensity of 8 microW cm-2 nm-1 in the 425-475 nm waveband and was linear to 2 h of light exposure. H2O2 production reached 500 mumol/l at 24 h. 4. H2O2 was directly related to a riboflavin concentration of up to 20 mumol/l and was maximal at 30 mumol/l. 5. H2O2 production was greatest in the amino acid/riboflavin solution at a pH of between 5 and 6. 6. Under the conditions of light exposure intensity, light exposure time, riboflavin concentration and pH found during the administration of parenteral nutrition in neonatal intensive care units, net H2O2 production occurs in solutions modelled on a paediatric parenteral amino acid preparation.

  15. Poly(N-vinylimidazole) gels as insoluble buffers that neutralize acid solutions without dissolving.

    PubMed

    Horta, Arturo; Piérola, Inés F

    2009-04-02

    Typical buffers are solutions containing weak acids or bases. If these groups were anchored to insoluble gels, what would be their behavior? Simple thermodynamics is used to calculate the pH in two-phase systems that contain the weak acid or base fixed to only one of the phases and is absent in the other. The experimental reference of such systems are pH sensitive hydrogels and heterogeneous systems of biological interest. It is predicted that a basic hydrogel immersed in slightly acidic solutions should absorb the acid and leave the external solution exactly neutral (pH 7). This is in accordance with experimental results of cross-linked poly(N-vinylimidazole). The pH 7 cannot be obtained if the system were homogeneous; the confinement of the weak base inside the gel phase is a requisite for this neutral pH in the external solution. The solution inside the gel is regulated to a much higher pH, which has important implications in studies on chemical reactions and physical processes taking place inside a phase insoluble but in contact with a solution.

  16. Characterization of a novel light-cured star-shape poly(acrylic acid)-composed glass-ionomer cement: fluoride release, water sorption, shrinkage, and hygroscopic expansion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Platt, Jeffrey A; Xie, Dong

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluated the fluoride release, water sorption, curing shrinkage, and hygroscopic expansion of a novel experimental light-cured glass-ionomer cement. The effects of glycidyl methacrylate (GM) grafting, polymer : water (P : W) and powder : liquid (P : L) ratios were investigated. Commercial Fuji II and Fuji II LC cements were used as controls for comparison. All the specimens were conditioned in deionized water at 37 degrees C before testing. The results demonstrated that the experimental cement showed lower burst and slower bulk fluoride release than Fuji II and Fuji II LC. The experimental cement absorbed more water than Fuji II and Fuji II LC as a result of its hydroxyl and carboxyl functional group content. The lower water-diffusion rate and reduced hygroscopic expansion of the experimental cement suggest that it had a highly crosslinked network. Both Fuji II and Fuji II LC exhibited much higher shrinkage values (2.8% and 4.7%) than the experimental cement (0.8%). It appears that this novel cement will be a clinically attractive dental restorative because not only has it shown superior mechanical strength, it has also demonstrated satisfactory physical properties.

  17. Extraction of gallium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by trioctylammonium-based mixed ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, Shoichi; Okai, Miho; Yoshimoto, Yuki; Kudo, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    The extractabilities of aluminium(III), gallium(III), and indium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions were investigated using a mixture of two protic ionic liquids, trioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([TOAH][NTf(2)]) and trioctylammonium nitrate ([TOAH][NO(3)]). At a HCl concentration of 4 mol L(-1) or more, gallium(III) was nearly quantitatively extracted and the extractability order was Ga > Al > In. The extractability of gallium(III) increased with increasing [TOAH][NO(3)] content in the mixed ionic liquid. The extracted gallium(III) was quantitatively stripped with aqueous nitric acid solutions. The separation and recovery of gallium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions containing excess indium(III) was demonstrated using the mixed ionic liquid.

  18. Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Resistance to Sulfuric Acid Solution of Mortars with Quaternary Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhloufi, Zoubir; Bederina, Madani; Bouhicha, Mohamed; Kadri, El-Hadj

    This research consists to study the synergistic action of three mineral additions simultaneously added to the cement. This synergistic effect has a positive effect on the sustainability of limestone mortars. Tests were performed on mortars based on crushed limestone sand and manufactured by five quaternary binders (ordinary Portland cement and CPO mixed simultaneously with filler limestone, blast-furnace and natural pozzolan). The purpose of this research was to identify the resistance of five different mortars to the solution of sulfuric acid. Changes in weight loss and compressive strength measured at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 days for each acid solution were studied. We followed up on the change in pH of the sulfuric acid solution at the end of each month up to 180 days.

  19. Effect of xylitol and fluoride on enamel erosion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chunmuang, Siriwan; Jitpukdeebodintra, Suwanna; Chuenarrom, Chanya; Benjakul, Pojjanut

    2007-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the anti-erosive effects of xylitol, fluoride and a xylitol/fluoride combination used as an additive in an acidic drink or as mouthrinse after enamel was exposed to an acidic drink, in vitro. Human third molars were divided into 7 groups (A-G). Samples from groups A to D were immersed for 5 min in orange juice only (A), orange juice plus either 25% xylitol (B), F(-) 1 ppm (C) or a 25% xylitol/F(-) 1 ppm combination (D), respectively. Samples from groups E to G were immersed in orange juice for 5 min and then in either 40% xylitol (E), F(-) 227 ppm (F) or a 40% xylitol/F(-) 227 ppm combination (G), for 1 min respectively. This process was performed four times daily for 14 days. Mineral loss was determined from the lesion depth and surface hardness. Erosion depth progressively increased in all groups, except E, where erosion depth was significantly lower than group A. Surface microhardness progressively decreased in all groups, except E, where hardness was significantly higher than group A. This study demonstrated that addition of xylitol, fluoride or a xylitol/fluoride combination to an acidic drink or post-treatment with fluoride or a xylitol/fluoride combination could reduce, but not prevent, enamel erosion.

  20. The effect of different fluoride application methods on the remineralization of initial carious lesions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of single and combined applications of fluoride on the amount of fluoride release, and the remineralization and physical properties of enamel. Materials and Methods Each of four fluoride varnish and gel products (Fluor Protector, FP, Ivoclar Vivadent; Tooth Mousse Plus, TM, GC; 60 Second Gel, A, Germiphene; CavityShield, CS, 3M ESPE) and two fluoride solutions (2% sodium fluoride, N; 8% tin(ii) fluoride, S) were applied on bovine teeth using single and combined methods (10 per group), and then the amount of fluoride release was measured for 4 wk. The electron probe microanalysis and the Vickers microhardness measurements were conducted to assess the effect of fluoride application on the surface properties of bovine teeth. Results The amount of fluoride release was higher in combined applications than in single application (p < 0.05). Microhardness values were higher after combined applications of N with FP, TM, and CS than single application of them, and these values were also higher after combined applications of S than single application of A (p < 0.05). Ca and P values were higher in combined applications of N with TM and CS than single application of them (p < 0.05). They were also increased after combined applications of the S with A than after single application (p < 0.05). Conclusions Combined applications of fluoride could be used as a basis to design more effective methods of fluoride application to provide enhanced remineralization. PMID:27200280

  1. Effect of fluoride addition on the properties of dental alginate impression materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Lim, Bum-Soon; Kim, Cheol-We

    2004-03-01

    Fluoride-containing dental alginate impression materials can exert a considerable reduction in enamel solubility. The objective was to evaluate the effects of fluoride addition in the alginate impression materials on the properties and subsequent release of fluoride. Four experimental alginate impression materials were studied. Materials were mixed with distilled water (control) or 100-ppm fluoride solution. One or two percent NaF, or 1% SnF2 was added to the materials, which were mixed with distilled water. Fluoride release, flexibility, recovery from deformation, setting time, compressive strength and elastic modulus were determined in accordance with the ISO 1563 and ANSI/ADA Spec. 18. Fluoride release increased after addition of fluoride, and the released amount was 0.762-14.761 ppm. Addition of NaF or SnF2 resulted in higher fluoride release than the control group (p < 0.05). After fluoride addition, flexibility was 15.45-20.27%, and the recovery from deformation did not change except one material. Compressive strength after fluoride addition was 0.36-1.12 MPa. Addition of NaF or SnF2 in an alginate impression material may result in effective release of fluoride without deteriorating the properties of material itself.

  2. Visualization of Fluoride Ions In Vivo Using a Gadolinium(III)-Coumarin Complex-Based Fluorescence/MRI Dual-Modal Probe

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Song, Renfeng; Feng, Huan; Guo, Ke; Meng, Qingtao; Chi, Haijun; Zhang, Run; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    A new Gadolinium(III)–coumarin complex, DO3A-Gd-CA, was designed and prepared as a dual-modal probe for simultaneous fluorescence and relaxivity responses to fluoride ions (F−) in aqueous media and mice. DO3A-Gd-CA was designed by using Gd(III) center as an MRI signal output unit and fluoride binding site, and the 4-(diethylamino)-coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (CA) as a fluorescence reporter. Upon the addition of fluoride ions to the solution of DO3A-Gd-CA, the liberation of the coordinated CA ligand led to a 5.7-fold fluorescence enhancement and a 75% increase in the longitudinal relaxivity (r1). The fluorescent detection limit for fluoride ions was determined to be 8 μM based on a 3σ/slope. The desirable features of the proposed DO3A-Gd-CA, such as high sensitivity and specificity, reliability at physiological pH and low cytotoxicity enable its application in visualization of fluoride ion in mice. The successful in vivo imaging indicates that DO3A-Gd-CA could be potentially used in biomedical diagnosis fields. PMID:27999298

  3. Guanine and inosine nucleotides, nucleosides and oxypurines in snail muscles as potential biomarkers of fluoride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rać, Monika E; Safranow, Krzysztof; Dołegowska, Barbara; Machoy, Zygmunt

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the toxicity of fluorides on energy metabolism in muscles of the Helix aspersa maxima snail. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of purine compounds was performed in slices of foot from mature snails with high-performance liquid chromatography. Fluoride concentrations were measured using an ion-selective electrode and gas chromatography. The results show that exposure to fluoride pollution was accompanied by a statistically significant increase in fluoride concentrations in soft tissues. This effect was already noticeable with the smallest fluoride dose. Accumulation was greatest in the shell. There is a significant and positive correlation between fluoride concentrations in foot muscles and guanine and inosine nucleotides or uridine content. The content of low-energy guanylate, inosylate and oxypurine in foot muscles significantly increased with rising dose of fluoride. The difference as compared with controls was significant only for the highest dose of fluoride. Interestingly, uric acid, the final product of purine catabolism, dominated quantitatively in the foot muscles of snails. In conclusion, increased low-energy guanylate and inosylate as well as decreased xanthine concentrations in snail muscle can be indicators of the toxic influence of fluoride on the organism. The measuring of fluoride accumulation in the shell is the most suitable bioindicator of fluoride pollution in the environment.

  4. Gamma-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions. [prebiotic significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Graff, R. L.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions was studied under initially oxygenated and oxygen-free conditions in an attempt to determine the possible interconversion of malic acid into other carboxylic acids, specifically those associated with Krebs cycle. The effect of dose on product formation of the system was investigated. Gas-liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry was used as the principal means of identification of the nonvolatile products. Thin layer chromatography and direct probe mass spectroscopy were also employed. The findings show that a variety of carboxylic acids are formed, with malonic and succinic acids in greatest abundance. These products have all been identified as being formed in the gamma-irradiation of acetic acid, suggesting a common intermediary. Since these molecules fit into a metabolic cycle, it is strongly suggestive that prebiotic pathways provided the basis for biological systems.

  5. Formation of amino acids by cobalt-60 irradiation of hydrogen cyanide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweeney, M. A.; Toste, A. P.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the pathway for the prebiotic origin of amino acids from hydrogen cyanide (HCN) under the action of ionizing radiation considered as an effective source of energy on the primitive earth. The irradiations were performed in a cobalt-60 source with a dose rate of 200,000 rad/hr. Seven naturally occurring amino acids are identified among the products formed by the hydrolysis of gamma-irradiated solutions of HCN: glycine, alanine, valine, serine, threonine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. The identity of these amino acids is established by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Control experiments provided evidence that the amino acids are not the result of contamination.

  6. Reorientation of the ‘free OH’ group in the top-most layer of air/water interface of sodium fluoride aqueous solution probed with sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Ran-Ran; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-09-17

    Many experimental and theoretical studies have established the specific anion, as well as cation effects on the hydrogen-bond structures at the air/water interface of electrolyte solutions. However, the ion effects on the top-most layer of the air/water interface, which is signified by the non-hydrogen-bonded so-called ‘free O-H’ group, has not been discussed or studied. In this report, we present the measurement of changes of the orientational angle of the ‘free O-H’ group at the air/water interface of the sodium fluoride (NaF) solutions at different concentrations using the interface selective sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) in the ssp and ppp polarizations. The polarization dependent SFG-VS results show that the average tilt angle of the ‘free O-H’ changes from about 35.3 degrees ± 0.5 degrees to 43.4 degrees ± 2.1degrees as the NaF concentration increase from 0 to 0.94M (nearly saturated). Such tilt angle change is around the axis of the other O-H group of the same water molecule at the top-most layer at the air/water interface that is hydrogen-bonded to the water molecules below the top-most layer. These results provide quantitative molecular details of the ion effects of the NaF salt on the structure of the water molecules at the top-most layer of the air/water interfacial, even though both the Na+ cation and the F- anion are believed to be among the most excluded ions from the air/water interface.

  7. Small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James W; Plummer, Mark S; Blount, Kenneth F; Ames, Tyler D; Breaker, Ronald R

    2015-04-23

    Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here, we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride.

  8. Small Molecule Fluoride Toxicity Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Nelson1, James W.; Plummer, Mark S.; Blount, Kenneth F.; Ames, Tyler D.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch-reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. PMID:25910244

  9. Ferrimyoglobin-Fluoride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an experiment which is designed to investigate the reaction of the protein ferrimyoglobin with fluoride. The activity uses readily available apparatus and the technique of optical absorbance for measurement of concentrations. Experimental design, procedures, and treatment of the equilibrium data are detailed. (CW)

  10. Fluorine (soluble fluoride)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Fluorine ( soluble fluoride ) ; CASRN 7782 - 41 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  11. Urinary solute transport by ileal segments. I. Effects of nicotinic acid.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Piñeiro, L; Mateos, F; Montero, A; Madero, R; Martínez-Piñeiro, J A

    1993-12-01

    This study was conducted to quantify urinary solute transport by the ileum, using an in vivo human model, and to determine the effect of nicotinic acid on this process. Patients were studied under both basal conditions and niacin therapy. The rates of solute transport were established by analysis of excretion indexes for each solute. Potassium and ammonium were absorbed by the ileum, while phosphorus, sodium and bicarbonate were secreted. The percentage excretion index of sodium and bicarbonate increased by approximately 100 and 600% respectively, causing a significant rise in urinary pH. Although not statistically significant, there was a tendency for chloride to be absorbed and for water to pass into the bowel lumen. Nicotinic acid 3 g/day had no significant effect on urinary solute transport.

  12. Examination of Organic Reactions in UT/LS Aerosols: Temperature Dependence in Sulfuric Acid Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iraci, L. T.; Michelsen, R. R.

    2004-12-01

    Sulfuric acid has been used for decades as an industrial catalyst for organic reactions, but its parallel role in atmospheric aerosols is relatively unexplored, despite identification of a wide array of organic compounds in particles. Several recent studies have demonstrated possible reactions in acidic particles, generally involving carbonyl groups (C=O) and leading to the formation of larger molecules. Reactions of oxygenated organic compounds in acidic solution are most often studied near room temperature, while the sulfate particles of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are significantly colder. Our studies of ethanal (acetaldehyde) suggest that reactivity in ~50 wt% H2SO4 solutions may be enhanced at lower temperatures, contrary to expectations. We will present temperature-dependent results of acid catalyzed condensation reactions, leading to formation of higher molecular weight products. Implications for aerosol composition and reactivity will be discussed.

  13. Distribution of zirconium in petroleum sulfoxides during extraction and sorption from nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Turanov, A.N.

    1988-11-20

    Petroleum sulfoxides (PSO) are effective extractants for several metals. We discussed the distribution of petroleum sulfoxides and zirconium between aqueous solutions of hydrochloric and nitric acid and organic solvents, and also the macroporous sorbent impregnated with PSO. For the investigation we used a macroposous copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene. Our investigation showed a noticeable decrease in the contamination of the raffinates by petroleum sulfoxides and their more complete utilization as extractant of metals from solutions of acids when PSO is deposited on a macroporous copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene.

  14. Sum frequency generation surface spectra of ice, water, and acid solution investigated by an exciton model.

    PubMed

    Buch, V; Tarbuck, T; Richmond, G L; Groenzin, H; Li, I; Shultz, M J

    2007-11-28

    A new computational scheme is presented for calculation of sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra, based on the exciton model for OH bonds. The scheme is applied to unified analysis of the SFG spectra in the OH-stretch region of the surfaces of ice, liquid water, and acid solution. A significant role of intermolecularly coupled collective modes is pointed out. SFG intensity amplification observed for acid solutions in the H-bonded OH-stretch region is reproduced qualitatively and accounted for by enhanced orientational preference "into the surface" of the H(2)O bisectors within the hydronium solvation shell.

  15. Recovery of water and acid from leach solutions using direct contact membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Kesieme, Uchenna K; Milne, Nicholas; Cheng, Chu Yong; Aral, Hal; Duke, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes for the first time the use of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) for acid and water recovery from a real leach solution generated by a hydrometallurgical plant. The leach solutions considered contained H2SO4 or HCl. In all tests the temperature of the feed solution was kept at 60 °C. The test work showed that fluxes were within the range of 18-33 kg/m(2)/h and 15-35 kg/m(2)/h for the H2SO4 and HCl systems, respectively. In the H2SO4 leach system, the final concentration of free acid in the sample solution increased on the concentrate side of the DCMD system from 1.04 M up to 4.60 M. The sulfate separation efficiency was over 99.9% and overall water recovery exceeded 80%. In the HCl leach system, HCl vapour passed through the membrane from the feed side to the permeate. The concentration of HCl captured in the permeate was about 1.10 M leaving behind only 0.41 M in the feed from the initial concentration of 2.13 M. In all the experiments, salt rejection was >99.9%. DCMD is clearly viable for high recovery of high quality water and concentrated H2SO4 from spent sulfuric acid leach solution where solvent extraction could then be applied to recover the sulfuric acid and metals. While HCl can be recovered for reuse using only DCMD.

  16. Stability of antimicrobial activity of peracetic acid solutions used in the final disinfection process.

    PubMed

    Costa, Solange Alves da Silva; Paula, Olívia Ferreira Pereira de; Silva, Célia Regina Gonçalves E; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira dos

    2015-01-01

    The instruments and materials used in health establishments are frequently exposed to microorganism contamination, and chemical products are used before sterilization to reduce occupational infection. We evaluated the antimicrobial effectiveness, physical stability, and corrosiveness of two commercial formulations of peracetic acid on experimentally contaminated specimens. Stainless steel specimens were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, blood, and saliva and then immersed in a ready peracetic acid solution: 2% Sekusept Aktiv (SA) or 0.25% Proxitane Alpha (PA), for different times. Then, washes of these instruments were plated in culture medium and colony-forming units counted. This procedure was repeated six times per day over 24 non-consecutive days. The corrosion capacity was assessed with the mass loss test, and the concentration of peracetic acid and pH of the solutions were measured with indicator tapes. Both SA and PA significantly eliminated microorganisms; however, the SA solution was stable for only 4 days, whereas PA remained stable throughout the experiment. The concentration of peracetic acid in the SA solutions decreased over time until the chemical was undetectable, although the pH remained at 5. The PA solution had a concentration of 500-400 mg/L and a pH of 2-3. Neither formulation induced corrosion and both reduced the number of microorganisms (p = 0.0001). However, the differences observed in the performance of each product highlight the necessity of establishing a protocol for optimizing the use of each one.

  17. Adsorption of acid dyes from aqueous solution on activated bleaching earth.

    PubMed

    Tsai, W T; Chang, C Y; Ing, C H; Chang, C F

    2004-07-01

    In the present study, activated bleaching earth was used as clay adsorbent for an investigation of the adsorbability and adsorption kinetics of acid dyes (i.e., acid orange 51, acid blue 9, and acid orange 10) with three different molecular sizes from aqueous solution at 25 degrees C in a batch adsorber. The rate of adsorption has been investigated under the most important process parameters (i.e., initial dye concentration). A simple pseudo-second-order model has been tested to predict the adsorption rate constant, equilibrium adsorbate concentration, and equilibrium adsorption capacity by the fittings of the experimental data. The results showed that the adsorbability of the acid acids by activated bleaching earth follows the order: acid orange 51 > acid blue 9 > acid orange 10, parallel to the molecular weights and molecular sizes of the acid dyes. The adsorption removals (below 3%) of acid blue 9 and acid orange 10 onto the clay adsorbent are far lower than that (approximately 24%) of acid orange 51. Further, the adsorption kinetic of acid orange 51 can be well described by the pseudo-second-order reaction model. Based on the isotherm data obtained from the fittings of the adsorption kinetics, the Langmuir model appears to fit the adsorption better than the Freundlich model. The external coefficients of mass transfer of the acid orange 51 molecule across the boundary layer of adsorbent particle have also been estimated at the order of 10(-4)-10(-5) cm s(-1) based on the film-pore model and pseudo-second-order reaction model.

  18. Radiation-induced degradation of cyclohexanebutyric acid in aqueous solutions by gamma ray irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Wenbao; He, Yanquan; Ling, Yongsheng; Hei, Daqian; Shan, Qing; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jiatong

    2015-04-01

    The radiation-induced degradation of cyclohexanebutyric acid under gamma ray irradiation was investigated. Degradation experiments were performed with 100 mL sealed Pyrex glass vessels loaded with 80 mL of cyclohexanebutyric acid solutions at various initial concentrations of 10, 20, and 40 mg L-1. The absorbed doses were controlled at 0, 0.65, 1.95, 3.25, 6.5, 9.75, and 13 kGy. The results showed that gamma ray irradiation could effectively degrade cyclohexanebutyric acid in aqueous solutions. The removal rate of cyclohexanebutyric acid increased significantly with the increase of absorbed dose and the decrease of its initial concentration. At the same time, the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was as effective as that of cyclohexanebutyric acid. The kinetic studies showed that the degradation of cyclohexanebutyric acid followed pseudo first-order reaction. Above all, the proposed mechanism obtained when NaNO2, NaNO3 and tert-butanol were added showed that the •OH radical played a major role in the gamma degradation process of cyclohexanebutyric acid, while •H and eaq- played a minor role in the gamma degradation process. The degradation products were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) during cyclohexanebutyric acid degradation.

  19. The indicator amino acid oxidation method identified limiting amino acids in two parenteral nutrition solutions in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Brunton, Janet A; Shoveller, Anna K; Pencharz, Paul B; Ball, Ronald O

    2007-05-01

    Recent studies using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique in TPN-fed piglets and infants have been instrumental in defining parenteral amino acid requirements. None of the commercial products in use are ideal when assessed against these new data. Our objectives were to determine whether the oxidation of an indicator amino acid would decline with the addition of amino acids that were limiting in the diets of TPN-fed piglets, and to use this technique to identify limiting amino acids in a new amino acid profile. Piglets (n = 26) were randomized to receive TPN with amino acids provided by Vaminolact (VM) or by a new profile (NP). After 5 d of TPN administration, lysine oxidation was measured using a constant infusion of L- [1-(14)C]-lysine. Immediately following the first IAAO study, the piglets were further randomized within diet group to receive either 1) supplemental aromatic amino acids (AAA), 2) sulfur amino acids (SAA) or 3) both (AAA+SAA) (n = 4-5 per treatment group). A second IAAO study was carried out 18 h later. In the first IAAO study, lysine oxidation was high for both groups (18 vs. 21% for VM and NP, respectively, P = 0.055). The addition of AAA to VM induced a 30% decline in lysine oxidation compared with baseline (P < 0.01). Similarly, SAA added to NP lowered lysine oxidation by approximately 30% (P < 0.01). The application of the IAAO technique facilitates rapid evaluation of the amino acids that are limiting to protein synthesis in parenteral solutions.

  20. Resistance to protein and oil fouling of sulfobetaine-grafted Poly(vinylidene Fluoride) hollow fiber membrane and the electrolyte-responsive behavior in NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian; Bi, Qiu-Yan; Liu, Tian-Yin; Wang, Xiao-Lin

    2012-07-01

    An excellent protein-fouling-resistance performance of the sulfobetaine-grafted PVDF hollow fiber membrane was obtained and the potential of sulfobetaine-grafted PVDF membrane to resist the oil fouling was confirmed in the filtration solution which contained inorganic electrolyte, sodium chloride (NaCl). The electrolyte-responsive behavior of the sulfobetaine-modified PVDF membrane was demonstrated by the filtration of NaCl aqueous solution. The grafting amount of the modified PVDF hollow fiber membrane showed a stable value as 680 μg/cm2. An almost complete coverage of the membrane surface by the grafted sulfobetaine polymer contributed to the high hydrophilicity and membrane strength. The membrane surface became denser and the permeate flux reduced with the increase of NaCl concentration. The cyclic filtration experiment showed that during the filtration of the protein solution with 0.05 mol/L of NaCl, the sulfobetaine-grafted PVDF membrane exhibited an excellent protein-fouling-resistance performance with a high relative flux recovery of 98.2% and a low irreversible fouling extent which was lower 10 times than that of the nascent PVDF hollow fiber membrane. In addition, the sulfobetaine-grafted PVDF hollow fiber membrane showed an oil-fouling-resistance property during the filtration experiment of the oil-in-water emulsion with 0.05 mol/L of NaCl, resulting in an relative flux recovery of about twice that of the nascent PVDF membrane. The results extended the application of poly(sulfobetaine)-g-PVDF hollow fiber membrane in the fields of bio-separation, artificial oil and wastewater treatment.

  1. Alkali Treatment of Acidic Solution from Hanford K Basin Sludge Dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    AA Bessonov; AB Yusov; AM Fedoseev; AV Gelis; AY Garnov; CH Delegard; GM Plavnik; LN Astafurova; MS Grigoriev; NA Budantseva; NN Krot; SI Nikitenko; TP Puraeva; VP Perminov; VP Shilov

    1998-12-22

    Nitric acid solutions will be created from the dissolution of Hanford K Basin sludge. These acidic dissolver solutions must be made alkaline by treatment with NaOH solution before they are disposed to ~ the Tank Waste Remediation System on the Hanford Site. During the alkali treatments, sodium diuranate, hydroxides of iron and aluminum, and radioelements (uranium, plutonium, and americium) will precipitate from the dissolver solution. Laboratory tests, discussed here, were pefiormed to provide information on these precipitates and their precipitation behavior that is important in designing the engineering flowsheet for the treatment process. Specifically, experiments were conducted to determine the optimum precipitation conditions; the completeness of uranium, plutonium, and americium precipitation; the rate of sedimentation; and the physico-chemical characteristics of the solids formed by alkali treatment of simulated acidic dissolver solutions. These experiments also determined the redistribution of uranium, plutonium, and americium flom the sodium di~ate and iron and al&inurn hydroxide precipitates upon contact with carbonate- and EDTA-bearing simulated waste solutions. Note: EDTA is the tetrasodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

  2. Energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence determination of thorium in phosphoric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirashi, N. N.; Dhara, Sangita; Kumar, S. Sanjay; Chaudhury, Satyajeet; Misra, N. L.; Aggarwal, S. K.

    2010-07-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence studies on determination of thorium (in the range of 7 to 137 mg/mL) in phosphoric acid solutions obtained by dissolution of thoria in autoclave were made. Fixed amounts of Y internal standard solutions, after dilution with equal amount of phosphoric acid, were added to the calibration as well as sample solutions. Solution aliquots of approximately 2-5 µL were deposited on thick absorbent sheets to absorb the solutions and the sheets were presented for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence measurements. A calibration plot was made between intensity ratios (Th Lα/Y Kα) against respective amounts of thorium in the calibration solutions. Thorium amounts in phosphoric acid samples were determined using their energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectra and the above calibration plot. The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence results, thus obtained, were compared with the corresponding gamma ray spectrometry results and were found to be within average deviation of 2.6% from the respective gamma ray spectrometry values. The average precision obtained in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence determinations was found to be 4% (1 σ). The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method has an advantage over gamma ray spectrometry for thorium determination as the amount of sample required and measurement time is far less compared to that required in gamma ray spectrometry.

  3. Mapping of fluoride endemic areas and assessment of fluoride exposure.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Gopalan; Jaswanth, A; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva ilango, S

    2009-02-15

    The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to find out the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures to the people on the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study are to estimate the fluoride exposure through drinking water from people of different age group and to elucidate the fluoride endemic areas through mapping. Assessment of fluoride exposure was achieved through the estimation fluoride level in drinking water using fluoride ion selective electrode method. Google earth and isopleth technique were used for mapping of fluoride endemic areas. From the study it was observed that Nilakottai block of Dindigul district in Tamil Nadu is highly fluoride endemic. About 88% of the villages in this block have fluoride level more than the prescribed permissible limit in drinking water. Exposure of fluoride among different age groups was calculated in this block, which comprises 32 villages. The maximum estimated exposure doses were 0.19 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.17 mg/kg/day for children and 0.10 mg/kg/day for adults. When compared with adequate intake of minimal safe level exposure dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, a health risk due to fluorosis to the people in Nilakottai block has become evident. From the results, the people in Nilakottai block are advised to consume drinking water with fluoride level less than 1 mg/l. It has been recommended to the government authorities to take serious steps to supply drinking water with low fluoride concern for the fluorosis affected villages.

  4. The synthesis and structural characterization of novel transition metal fluorides

    SciTech Connect

    Casteel, W.J. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    High purity KMF{sub 6} and K{sub 2}MF{sub 6} salts (M = Mo,Re, Ru, Os, Ir, Pt) are obtained from reduction hexafluorides. A rhombohedral unit cell is observed for KReF{sub 6}. Fluoride ion capture by Lewis acids from the hexafluorometallate (IV) salts affords high purity tetrafluorides for M = Mo, Re, Ru, Os, and Pd. The structure of RuF{sub 4} is determined from X-ray synchrotron and neutron powder data. Unit cells based on theorthorhombic PdF{sub 4} type cell are derived from X-ray powder data for ReF{sub 4} and OsF{sub 4}. Fluoride ion capture from KAgF{sub 4} provides the thermally unstable trifluoride as a bright, red, diamagnetic solid. The structure solution of AgF{sub 3} and redetermination of the AuF{sub 3} structure from X-ray synchrotron and neutron powder data demonstrate that the two are isostnictural. Thermal decomposition product of AgF{sub 3} is the mixed valence compound Ag{sup II}Ag{sub 2}{sup III}F{sub 8}. Several new salts containing the (Ag - F){sub n}{sup n+} chain cation are prepared. The first linear (Ag - F){sub n}{sup n+} chain is observed in AgF{sup +}BF{sub 4 {sup {minus}}} which crystallizes in a tetragonal unit. AgFAuF{sub 4} has a triclinic unit cell and is isostructural with CuFAuF{sub 4}. AgFAuF{sub 6} has an orthorhombic unit cell and appears to be isostructural with AgFAsF{sub 6}. A second mixed valence silver fluoride, Ag{sup II}Ag{sup III}F{sub 5}, is prepared, which magnetic measurements indicate is probably an AgF{sup +} salt. Magnetic data for all of the AgF{sup +} salts exhibit low magnitude, temperature independent paramagnetism characteristic of metallic systems. Cationic AG(II) in acidic AHF solutions is a powerful oxidizer, capable of oxidizing Xe to Xe(II) and O{sub 2} to O{sub 2}{sup +}. Reactions with C{sub 6}F{sub 6} and C{sub 3}F{sub 6} suggest an electron capture mechanism for cationic AG(II) oxidations.

  5. Laboratory evaluation of limestone and lime neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings solution. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate a two-step neutralization scheme for treatment of acidic uranium mill tailings solutions. Tailings solutions from the Lucky Mc Mill and Exxon Highland Mill, both in Wyoming, were neutralized with limestone, CaCO/sub 3/, to an intermediate pH of 4.0 or 5.0, followed by lime, Ca(OH)/sub 2/, neutralization to pH 7.3. The combination limestone/lime treatment methods, CaCO/sub 3/ neutralization to pH 4 followed by neutralization with Ca(OH)/sub 2/ to pH 7.3 resulted in the highest quality effluent solution with respect to EPA's water quality guidelines. The combination method is the most cost-effective treatment procedure tested in our studies. Neutralization experiments to evaluate the optimum solution pH for contaminant removal were performed on the same two tailings solutions using only lime Ca(OH)/sub 2/ as the neutralizing agent. The data indicate solution neutralization above pH 7.3 does not significantly increase removal of pH dependent contaminants from solution. Column leaching experiments were performed on the neutralized sludge material (the precipitated solid material which forms as the acidic tailings solutions are neutralized to pH 4 or above). The sludges were contacted with laboratory prepared synthetic ground water until several effluent pore volumes were collected. Effluent solutions were analyzed for macro ions, trace metals and radionuclides in an effort to evaluate the long term effectiveness of attenuating contaminants in sludges formed during solution neutralization. Neutralized sludge leaching experiments indicate that Ca, Na, Mg, Se, Cl, and SO/sub 4/ are the only constituents which show solution concentrations significantly higher than the synthetic ground water in the early pore volumes of long-term leaching studies.

  6. Synthesis of complex fluorides for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepleton, Seth Eugene

    Large single crystals of alkali metal fluorides are desirable for many reasons. Fluoride laser crystals have a wide transmission range and on account of their low phonon energies, many efficient laser emissions have been obtained from 285 nm to 4.34 microm.1,2 Inorganic fluoride single crystals feature large bandgaps, very wide optical transmittance ranges from vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) to mid-IR wavelength regions, lower refractive indices than those of oxides, and typically lower phonon energies (which drastically reduce multiphonon relaxation rates of rare earth ions).3 The main goal of this work was to investigate the hydrothermal synthesis of alkali metal fluorides. Melt techniques have been used thoroughly to research a variety of fluoride systems and showed many phases that were inaccessible due to incongruent melting or phase stability. The existence of these phases was shown but never characterized or grown as a crystalline material. Solution growth in supercritical water was an ideal way to attempt the synthesis of novel compounds and phases. New synthetic routes to known phases and compounds also arose as a part of this work. Optically clear colorless crystals of K2BeF4 were synthesized up to 2 mm in size, and showed no phase transitions up to 1029 K, which suggests paraelectricitys at room temperature, contradicting previous reports.4 Attempts to incorporate a rare earth ion into the fluoroberyllate lattice proved unsuccessful however reactions between beryllium fluoride and lanthanide fluorides could be exploited as a synthetic route to single crystal rare earth fluorides. Hydrothermal reactions with KF produced crystals of three different phases: hexagonal KY2F7, trigonal KYF4 and orthorhombic K2YF5. All were optically clear, colorless crystals, with the K2YF5 crystals growing the largest. This compound is beneficial due to its application as a radiation dosimeter and laser host. 5,6 Optical quality colorless crystals of RbY2F7 and CsY2F7 up to 4 mm in

  7. Electrochemical formation of hydroxide for enhancing carbon dioxide and acid gas uptake by a solution

    DOEpatents

    Rau, Gregory Hudson [Castro Valley, CA

    2012-05-15

    A system is described for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate utilizing a water electrolysis cell having an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode immersed in a water solution of sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the hydroxyl-producing cathode and the acid-producing anode. A metal carbonate, in particular water-insoluble calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate, is placed in close proximity to the acid-producing anode. A direct current electrical voltage is provided across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode sufficient to generate acid at the acid-producing anode and hydroxyl ions at the hydroxyl-producing cathode. The acid dissolves at least part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions allowing the metal ions to travel toward the hydroxyl-producing cathode and to combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the acid-producing anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide. Among other uses, the metal hydroxide formed can be employed to absorb acid gases such as carbon dioxide from a gas mixture. The invention can also generate hydrogen and oxidative gases such as oxygen or chlorine.

  8. Primary Action of Indole-3-acetic Acid in Crown Gall Tumors: Increase of Solute Uptake.

    PubMed

    Rausch, T; Kahl, G; Hilgenberg, W

    1984-06-01

    Exogenously added indole-3-acetic acid at a concentration of 100 micromolars stimulates d-glucose uptake (or 3-O-methyl-d-glucose uptake) by 25% in crown gall tumors induced on potato tuber tissue by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C 58. The titration of the endogenous IAA with the auxin antagonist 2-naphthaleneacetic acid at 100 micromolars reduces d-glucose uptake by about 80%. The apparent inhibition constant K(i) is 21 micromolars. Other auxin antagonists like 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid show similar effects. The uptake of the amino acids leucine, methionine, tryptophan, lysine, and aspartic acid is also inhibited by 2-naphthaleneacetic acid to similar degrees. The auxins 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid at concentrations between 10 and 100 micromolars inhibit solute uptake only slightly (inhibition less than 20%). The impact of the results on the postulated role of indole-3-acetic acid as a modifier of the electrochemical proton gradient across the plasmalemma in crown gall tumor tissue is discussed.

  9. Length Scale Dependence of the Dynamic Properties of Hyaluronic Acid Solutions in the Presence of Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Horkay, Ferenc; Falus, Peter; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik

    2010-12-07

    In solutions of the charged semirigid biopolymer hyaluronic acid in salt-free conditions, the diffusion coefficient D{sub NSE} measured at high transfer momentum q by neutron spin echo is more than an order of magnitude smaller than that determined by dynamic light scattering, D{sub DLS}. This behavior contrasts with neutral polymer solutions. With increasing salt content, D{sub DLS} approaches D{sub NSE}, which is independent of ionic strength. Contrary to theoretical expectation, the ion-polymer coupling, which dominates the low q dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions, already breaks down at distance scales greater than the Debye-Hueckel length.

  10. REDUCTION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES IN AN ACIDIC AQUEOUS SOLUTION WITH FORMALDEHYDE

    DOEpatents

    Olson, C.M.

    1959-06-01

    A method is given for reducing Pu to the tetravalent state and lowering the high acidity of dissolver solutions containing U and Pu. Formaldehyde is added to the HNO/sub 3/ solution of U and Pu to effect a formaldehyde to HNO/sub 3/ molar ratio of 0.375:1 to 1.5:1. The Pu can then be removed from the solution by carrier precipitation using BiPO/sub 4/ or by ion exchange. (T.R.H.)

  11. Current concepts on the theories of the mechanism of action of fluoride.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M

    1999-12-01

    The caries-preventive effect of fluoride is mainly attributed to the effects on demineralization/remineralization at the tooth oral fluids interface. Sub ppm levels of fluoride in saliva are effective in shifting the balance from demineralization, leading to caries, to remineralization. This is attributed to the fluoride-enhanced precipitation of calcium phosphates, and the formation of fluorhydroxyapatite in the dental tissues. Low fluoride levels are found in saliva after toothbrushing with fluoride containing dentifrices. Similar concentrations are ineffective in interfering with processes of growth and metabolism of bacteria, and also do not result in a significantly reduced dissolution of tooth mineral as a result of (firmly bound) fluoride incorporation. Comparative studies of fluoride efficacy have shown that higher concentrations in solution are needed in pH-cycling studies of dentine than in enamel to maintain the mineral balance or to induce remineralization. This is attributed to the greater solubility of the dentine and the smaller size of the dentine crystallites compared to enamel. Fluoride slow-release devices, in the form of fluoride-releasing restorative materials, may serve to increase the fluoride levels in saliva and plaque to levels at which caries can be prevented, also in high-risk patients. Research questions for the next millennium and future perspectives for fluoride applications should be found in the retention and slow release of fluoride after various combinations of fluoride treatment, the combination of fluoride and anti-microbial treatment, the individualization of caries prevention, and the combination of preventive schemes with new developments in caries diagnosis.

  12. Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Virginia L.

    1979-01-01

    Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

  13. [Catalytic ozonation by ceramic honeycomb for the degradation of oxalic acid in aqueous solution].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Sun, Zhi-Zhong; Ma, Jun

    2007-11-01

    Comparative experiments for the degradation of oxalic acid in aqueous solution were carried out in the three processes of ozonation alone, ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation and ceramic honeycomb adsorption. The results show that the degradation rates of oxalic acid in the ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation, ozonation alone and ceramic honeycomb adsorption systems are 37.6%, 2.2% and 0.4%, and the presence of ceramic honeycomb catalyst significantly improves the degradation rate of oxalic acid compared to the results from non-catalytic ozonation and adsorption. With the addition of tert-butanol, the degradation rates of oxalic acid in catalytic ozonation system decrease by 24.1%, 29.0% and 30.1%, respectively, at the concentration of 5, 10 and 15 mg x L(-1). This phenomenon indicates that ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation for the degradation of oxalic acid in aqueous solution follows the mechanism of *OH oxidation, namely the heterogeneous surface of catalyst enhances the initiation of *OH. The results of TOC analysis demonstrate that the process of ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation can achieve the complete mineralization level without the formation of intermediary degradation products. The experimental results suggest that the reaction temperature has positive relationship with the degradation rate of oxalic acid. The degradation rates of oxalic acid in the ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation system are 16.4%, 37.6%, 61.3% and 68.2%, at the respective reaction temperature of 10, 20, 30 and 40 degrees C.

  14. The mechanism of the dehydration of alcohols and the hydration of alkenes in acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnik, M. I.; Obraztsov, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Kinetic data for the hydration of unsaturated compounds, the dehydration of alcohols, and the isotope exchange of the oxygen atom in alcohols and aqueous solutions of strong acids are analysed to establish the detailed mechanisms of these reactions. The catalytic action of the acid is caused not only by its ability to protonate the reactant but also by the possibility of the formation of reactive complexes of the reactant with the acid hydrates or the molecules of the undissociated acids. Equations are presented whereby the influence of the ionising capacity of the medium on the effective rate constants for the reactions indicated can be taken into account quantitatively. The question of the involvement of carbonium ions as reactive intermediates in reactions involving the dehydration of alcohols, the hydration of unsaturated compounds, and the isotope exchange of the oxygen atom in alcohols is examined. Complexes of the reactant with a solvated proton, the acid molecules, and the acid hydrates are the intermediates in these reactions. The relative contributions of the complexes to the effective rate constant depend on the acid concentration in the aqueous solution. The bibliography includes 65 references

  15. Complexation of Plutonium (IV) with Fluoride at Variable Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Yuanxian; Rao, Linfeng; Friese, Judah I.; Moore, Dean A.; Bachelor, Paula P.

    2010-02-02

    The complexation of Pu(IV) with fluoride at elevated temperatures was studied by solvent extraction technique. A solution of NaBrO3 was used as holding oxidant to maintain the oxidation state of plutonium throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of fluoride were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-F- complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase under the experimental conditions, were calculated from the effect of fluoride ions on the distribution ratio. The thermodynamic parameters, including enthalpy and entropy of complexation between Pu(IV) and fluoride at 25 degrees C - 55 degrees C were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures by using the Van’t Hoff equation.

  16. Adipic and malonic acid aqueous solutions: surface tensions and saturation vapor pressures.

    PubMed

    Riipinen, Ilona; Koponen, Ismo K; Frank, Göran P; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Vanhanen, Joonas; Lihavainen, Heikki; Lehtinen, Kari E J; Bilde, Merete; Kulmala, Markku

    2007-12-20

    The surface tension of adipic aqueous solutions was measured as a function of temperature (T=278-313 K) and adipic acid mole fraction (X=0.000-0.003) using the Wilhelmy plate method. A parametrization fitted to these data is presented. The evaporation rates of binary water-malonic and water-adipic acid droplets were measured with a TDMA technique at different temperatures (T=293-300 K) and relative humidities (58-80%), and the saturation vapor pressures of subcooled liquid malonic and adipic acids were derived from the data using a binary evaporation model. The temperature dependence of the vapor pressures was obtained as least-squares fits to the derived vapor pressures: ln(Psat,l) (Pa)=220.2389-22634.96/T (K)-26.66767 ln T (K) for malonic acid and ln(Psat,l) (Pa)=140.6704-18230.97/T (K)-15.48011 ln T (K) for adipic acid.

  17. The effect of Pt and Pd alloying additions on the corrosion behavior of titanium in fluoride-containing environments.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, M; Matono, Y; Matsuya, S; Udoh, K; Ishikawa, K

    2005-05-01

    In this study, we examined the corrosion behaviors of pure titanium, the alloys Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb, and the new experimental alloys Ti-Pt and Ti-Pd using anodic polarization and corrosion potential measurements in an environment containing fluoride. Before and after immersion in the test solutions, we made observations using a scanning electron microscope. The test solutions included an artificial saliva containing 0.2% NaF (corresponding to 905 ppm F) and an artificial saliva with a low concentration of oxygen. Although the surfaces of the Ti-Pt and Ti-Pd alloys were not affected by an acidic environment containing fluoride, the surfaces of the pure titanium, the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and the Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy were markedly roughened by corrosion. The surfaces of the pure titanium, the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and the Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy were microscopically damaged by corrosion when they were immersed in the solution containing a low concentration of dissolved oxygen, even with a fluoride concentration included in the commercial dentifrices. In this situation, however, the surfaces of the new Ti-Pt and Ti-Pd alloys were not affected. These alloys are expected to be of use in dental work as new titanium alloys with high corrosion resistances.

  18. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...(vinyl fluoride) basic resins have an intrinsic viscosity of not less than 0.75 deciliter per gram as determined by ASTM method D1243-79, “Standard Test Method for Dilute Solution Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride... (ASTM method D1243-79, “Standard Test Method for Dilute Solution Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride...

  19. Statistical mechanics of hydrophobic amino acids in aqueous solution: A joint experimental scattering and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Lingshuang; Yang, Lin; Huang, Wei; Meng, Jie; Yang, Sichun

    How hydrophobic amino acids interact with each other is still a fundamental question in understanding protein dynamics and folding. Here, we describe an integrative experimental-computational approach of combining x-ray solution scattering and atomistic molecular simulations to determine the molecular properties of a hydrophobic leucine amino acid in an aqueous solution. First, scattering data were acquired at a series of amino acid and salt concentrations and these scattering profiles were further used to calibrate atomistic molecular simulations via a single parameter for solute-solvent interaction. Second, these accurate data of atomistic leucine simulations were used to quantify the effective interacting potentials via a structural simplification of one-bead-per-residue and two-bead-per-residue representations. Third, comparative energetic analyses between the one-bead and two-bead representations were performed to reach a simple picture of residue-residue interactions with an accurate energy function. Taken together, this joint experimental-computational study provides critical insights into microscopic interactions of hydrophobic amino acids in solution with a profound application for studying molecular dynamics of, e.g., intrinsically disordered proteins and their folding.

  20. Effect of acid solutions on plants studied by the optical beam deflection method.

    PubMed

    Nie, Liangjiao; Kuboda, Mitsutoshi; Inoue, Tomomi; Wu, Xingzheng

    2013-12-01

    The optical beam deflection method was applied to study the effects of acid solution on both a terrestial and aquatic plants Egeria and Cerastium, which are common aquatic plant and terrestial weed respectively. A probe beam from a He-Ne laser was passed through a vicinity of a leaf of the plants, which were put in culture dishes filled with acid solutions. Deflection signals of the probe beam were monitored and compared for acid solutions with different pH values. The results of Egria showed that the deflection signals changed dramatically when pH values of acid solutions were 2.0 and 3.0, while little at pH of 4.0 and 5.0. For Cerastium when pH were below 3.0, deflection signals changed greatly with time at the begining. After a certain period of time, deflection signals changed little with time. When pH value was above 4.0, deflection signals of Cerastium were still changing with time even after 20 hours. The results suggested that the damage threshold of pH was between 3.0 and 4.0 for both the land and aquatic plants.

  1. Long-term stability of earthen materials in contact with acidic tailings solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S.R.; Erikson, R.L.; Gee, G.W.

    1982-11-01

    The objectives of the studies documented in this report were to use experimental and geochemical computer modeling tools to assess the long-term environmental impact of leachate movement from acidic uranium mill tailings. Liner failure (i.e., an increase in the permeability of the liner material) was not found to be a problem when various acidic tailings solutions leached through liner materials for periods up to 3 years. On the contrary, materials that contained over 30% clay showed a decrease in permeability with time in the laboratory columns. The high clay materials tested appear suitable for lining tailings impoundment ponds. The decreases in permeability are attributed to pore plugging resulting from the precipitation of minerals and solids. This precipitation takes place due to the increase in pH of the tailings solution brought about by the buffering capacity of the soil. Geochemical modeling predicts, and x-ray characterization confirms, that precipitation of solids from solution is occurring in the acidic tailings solution/liner interactions studied. In conclusion the same mineralogical changes and contaminant reactions predicted by geochemical modeling and observed in laboratory studies were found at a drained evaporation pond (Lucky Mc in Wyoming) with a 4 year history of acid attack.

  2. Improved process for the production of cellulose sulfate using sulfuric acid/ethanol solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Hongwen

    2013-06-05

    An improved process for production of cellulose sulfate (CS) was developed by using sulfuric acid/ethanol solution as sulfonating agent and Na2SO4 as water absorbent. The FTIR, SEM and TG analysis were used to characterize the CS prepared. The total degree of substitution and viscosity of the product solution (2%, w/v) were ranging from 0.28 to 0.77 and from 115 to 907 mPa s, respectively, by changing the process parameters such as the amount of Na2SO4, the reaction time, the temperature, the sulfuric acid/alcohol ratio and liquid/solid ratio. The results indicated that the product with DS (0.28-0.77) and η2% (115-907) mPa s could be produced by using this improved process and more cellulose sulfate could be produced when cellulose was sulfonated for 3-4 h at -2 °C in sulfuric acid/ethanol (1.4-1.6) solution with addition of 0.8 g Na2SO4. The (13)C NMR indicated that the sulfate group of CS produced using sulfuric acid/ethanol solution was at C6 position.

  3. Assessment of the Effects Exerted by Acid and Alkaline Solutions on Bone: Is Chemistry the Answer?

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Camici, Arianna; Porta, Davide; Cucca, Lucia; Merli, Daniele; Milanese, Chiara; Profumo, Antonella; Rassifi, Nabila; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    The treatment of corpses with extremely acid or basic liquids is sometimes performed in criminal contexts. A thorough characterization by chemical analysis may provide further help to macroscopic and microscopic analysis; 63 porcine bone samples were treated with solutions at different pH (1-14) for immersion periods up to 70 days, as well as in extremely acidic sulfuric acid solutions (9 M/18 M) and extremely basic sodium hydroxide. Inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)/plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that only the sulfuric acid solution 18 M was able to completely dissolve the sample. In addition, chemical analysis allowed to recognize the contact between bone and substances. Hydrated calcium sulfate arose from extreme pH. The possibility of detecting the presence of human material within the residual solution was demonstrated, especially with FT-IR, ICP-OES, and EDX.

  4. PHYSICAL SOLUTIONS FOR ACID ROCK DRAINAGE AT REMOTE SITES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program, Activity III, Project 42, Physical Solutions for Acid Rock Drainage at Remote Sites, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy. A...

  5. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  6. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  7. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  8. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  9. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  10. [Effects of UV Radiation on the Physicochemical Properties and Coagulation Properties of Humic Acid Solution].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-dong; Zhang, Ke; Fan, Qing-hai; Zheng, Dan

    2016-03-15

    To investigate the mechanism of UV light in promoting the removal of humic acid ( HA) by coagulation, the variations of the physical and chemical properties of the HA solution before and after UV light radiation were investigated. The effects of the changes in water quality conditions on the removal performance of HA in coagulation were also observed. Experimental results showed that except zeta potential, pH, chromaticity and viscosity of the HA solution exhibited varying degrees of decline after UV radiation. Further study showed that the impact of changes in viscosity of the solution on humic acid coagulation performance was relatively small. Under acidic conditions, the coagulation performance of HA significantly increased. The increase of zeta potential led to easy gathering of colloidal particles and improved the coagulation performance. Furthermore, except for HA with relative molecular mass of between (10-30) x 10³ and less than 10³, there was little variation in the proportion of low molecular weight HA, which may be an important reason that the coagulation performance of the humic acid solution increased after UV radiation.

  11. IMPROVEMENT UPON THE CARRIER PRECIPITATION OF PLUTONIUM IONS FROM NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    James, R.A.; Thompson, S.G.

    1958-12-23

    A process is reported for improving the removal of plutonlum by carrier precipitation by the addition of nitrite ions to a nitrlc acid solutlon of neutronirradiated unanium so as to destroy any hydrazine that may be present in the solution since the hydrazine tends to complex the tetravalent plutonium and prevents removal by the carrier precipltate, such as bismuth phospbate.

  12. Modification of vital wheat gluten with phosphoric acid to produce high free-solution capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten reacts with phosphoric acid to produce natural superabsorbent gels. The gel properties are defined by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), and uptake of water, salt solutions, and aqueous ethanol. Temperatures above 120'C and dry cond...

  13. Solution blow spun Poly(lactic acid)/Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose nanofibers with antimicrobial properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanofibers containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and tetracycline hydrochloride (THC) were solution blow spun from two different solvents, chloroform/acetone (CA, 80:20 v/v) and 2,2,2-triflouroethanol (TFE). The diameter distribution, chemical, thermal, thermal stab...

  14. New approach in the treatment of refractory vitiligo: CO2 laser combined with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Paulo Rowilson; Scabine Pessotti, Nabila; Bonati Mattos, Camila; Salai, Ana Flavia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of fractional carbon dioxide laser (CO2 ) with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution in the treatment of patients with refractory vitiligo in hands. Each hand of the patient was randomly assigned to one of two groups: lesion treated with fractional carbon dioxide laser associated with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution administration or lesion treated only with betamethasone and salicylic acid solution. We conclude that combined treatment with fractional carbon dioxide laser and betamethasone associated with salicylic acid solution could effectively and safely be used in the treatment of refractory vitiligo.

  15. Citric Acid-Modified Fenton's Reaction for the Oxidation of Chlorinated Ethylenes in Soil Solution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Seol, Yongkoo; Javandel, Iraj

    2008-03-15

    Fenton's reagent, a solution of hydrogen peroxide and ferrous iron catalyst, is used for an in-situ chemical oxidation of organic contaminants. Sulfuric acid is commonly used to create an acidic condition needed for catalytic oxidation. Fenton's reaction often involves pressure buildup and precipitation of reaction products, which can cause safety hazards and diminish efficiency. We selected citric acid, a food-grade substance, as an acidifying agent to evaluate its efficiencies for organic contaminant removal in Fenton's reaction, and examined the impacts of using citric acid on the unwanted reaction products. A series of batch and column experiments were performed with varying H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations to decompose selected chlorinated ethylenes. Either dissolved iron from soil or iron sulfate salt was added to provide the iron catalyst in the batch tests. Batch experiments revealed that both citric and sulfuric acid systems achieved over 90% contaminant removal rates, and the presence of iron catalyst was essential for effective decontamination. Batch tests with citric acid showed no signs of pressure accumulation and solid precipitations, however the results suggested that an excessive usage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} relative to iron catalysts (Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} < 1/330) would result in lowering the efficiency of contaminant removal by iron chelations in the citric acid system. Column tests confirmed that citric acid could provide suitable acidic conditions to achieve higher than 55% contaminant removal rates.

  16. Electrochemical formation of hydroxide for enhancing carbon dioxide and acid gas uptake by a solution

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, Gregory Hudson

    2014-07-01

    A system for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate utilizes a water electrolysis cell having an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode immersed in a water solution of sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the hydroxyl-producing cathode and the acid-producing anode. A metal carbonate is placed in close proximity to the acid-producing anode. A direct current electrical voltage is provided across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode sufficient to generate acid at the acid-producing anode and hydroxyl ions at the hydroxyl-producing cathode. The acid dissolves at least part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions allowing the metal ions to travel toward the hydroxyl-producing cathode and to combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the acid-producing anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide.

  17. An overview of the recovery of acid from spent acidic solutions from steel and electroplating industries.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Archana; Sahu, K K

    2009-11-15

    Every metal and metallurgical industry is associated with the generation of waste, which may be a solid, liquid or gaseous in nature. Their impacts on the ecological bodies are noticeable due to their complex and hazardous nature affecting the living and non-living environment which is an alarming issue to the environmentalist. The increasingly stringent regulations regarding the discharge of acid and metal into the environment, and the increasing stress upon the recycling/reuse of these effluents after proper treatment have focused the interest of the research community on the development of new approaches for the recovery of acid and metals from industrial wastes. This paper is a critical review on the acidic waste streams generated from steel and electroplating industries particularly from waste pickle liquor and spent bleed streams. Various aspects on the generation of these streams and the methods used for their treatment either for the recovery of acid for reuse or disposal are being dealt with. Major stress is laid upon the hydrometallurgical methods such as solvent extraction.

  18. Comparative study of the stability of saxitoxin and neosaxitoxin in acidic solutions and lyophilized samples.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, A; Louzao, M C; Vieytes, M R; Botana, L M

    1994-12-01

    Paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) has historically been a problem for the shellfish industry. In order to prevent the marketing of contaminated seafood products, governments have implemented monitoring programs where standards of toxins are necessary. The stability of these standard toxins is very important. In this paper we analysed the stability of saxitoxin (STX) and neosaxitoxin in acidic solution and lyophilized samples. Individual toxins were determined in each sample using a high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure employing post-column oxidation of the toxins to form fluorescent derivatives. Our results demonstrate that STX is very stable in solution samples and could be adopted as a reference standard. This toxin can be kept in dilute acidic solutions for 18 months without loss of potency. However, neosaxitoxin is unstable, possibly due to transformation to other toxins.

  19. Corrosion behavior of niobium coated 304 stainless steel in acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, T. J.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, B.; Hu, J.; Li, C.

    2016-04-01

    The niobium coating is fabricated on the surface of AISI Type 304 stainless steel (304SS) by using a high energy micro arc alloying technique in order to improvecorrosion resistance of the steel against acidic environments. The electrochemical corrosion resistance of the niobium coating in 0.7 M sulfuric acid solutions is evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization and the open circuit potential versus time. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the niobium coating increases the free corrosion potential of the substrate by 110 mV and a reduction in the corrosion rate by two orders of magnitude compared to the substrate alone. The niobium coating maintains large impedance and effectively offers good protection for the substrate during the long-term exposure tests, which is mainly ascribed to the niobium coating acting inhibiting permeation of corrosive species. Finally, the corresponding electrochemical impedance models are proposed to elucidate the corrosion resistance behavior of the niobium coating in acid solutions.

  20. Protonation of Alcohols in Sulfuric Acid Solutions at UT/LS Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsen, R. R.; Vernier, K.; Axson, J.; Morley, D.

    2007-12-01

    The protonation of several small alcohols (ethanol, 2-propanol, and 1-butanol) in cold sulfuric acid aqueous solutions was measured using variable temperature 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The acidity of the sulfuric acid + deuterium oxide solutions ranged from 43 to 81 weight percent (wt %) H2SO4. The pKBH+ values, which are a measure of the acidity of each alcohol, range from -2.0 for butanol at room temperature to -2.2 for ethanol at -20°C. The protonation enthalpies of the three alcohols over the temperature range of 22°C to -35°C were found to be small and negative, ranging from -1.8 kJ mol-1 for 2-propanol to -2.3 kJ mol-1 for ethanol. A small, negative protonation enthalpy means that the degree of protonation of the alcohol slightly decreases as temperature decreases. The pKBH+values and protonation enthalpies are used to predict the form of dissolved alcohols in sulfate aerosols. For typical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) conditions (40-70 wt % H2SO4 and 220 K), all three alcohols increase from approximately 10% protonated in 40 wt % H2SO4 to over 60% protonated in 70 wt % H2SO4. The percent of protonated alcohol depends more strongly on m*, the slope factor of the excess acidity treatment, than on pKBH+ values. This relationship may reflect solvation effects. The treatment of strongly acidic, non-ideal solutions as applied to organic solutes in sulfate aerosol particles will be discussed.

  1. Corrosion-wear behavior of nanocrystalline Fe88Si12 alloy in acid and alkaline solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Li-cai; Qin, Wen; Yang, Jun; Liu, Wei-min; Zhou, Ling-ping

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion-wear behavior of a nanocrystalline Fe88Si12 alloy disc coupled with a Si3N4 ball was investigated in acid (pH 3) and alkaline (pH 9) aqueous solutions. The dry wear was also measured for reference. The average friction coefficient of Fe88Si12 alloy in the pH 9 solution was approximately 0.2, which was lower than those observed for Fe88Si12 alloy in the pH 3 solution and in the case of dry wear. The fluctuation of the friction coefficient of samples subjected to the pH 9 solution also showed similar characteristics. The wear rate in the pH 9 solution slightly increased with increasing applied load. The wear rate was approximately one order of magnitude less than that in the pH 3 solution and was far lower than that in the case of dry wear, especially at high applied load. The wear traces of Fe88Si12 alloy under different wear conditions were examined and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the tribo-chemical reactions that involve oxidation of the worn surface and hydrolysis of the Si3N4 ball in the acid solution were restricted in the pH 9 aqueous solution. Thus, water lubrication can effectively improve the wear resistance of nanocrystalline Fe88Si12 alloy in the pH 9 aqueous solution.

  2. Adsorptions of some heavy metal ions in aqueous solutions by acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Saraydin, D.; Karadag, E.; Gueven, O.

    1995-10-01

    In this study, acrylamide-maleic acid (AAm/MA) hydrogels in the form of rod have been prepared by {gamma}-radiation. They have been used for adsorption of some heavy metal ions such as uranium, iron, and copper. For the hydrogel containing 40 mg of maleic acid and irradiated at 3.73 kGy, maximum and minimum swellings in the aqueous solutions of the heavy metal ions have been observed with water (1480%) and the aqueous solution of iron(III) nitrate (410%), respectively. Diffusions of water and heavy metal ions onto hydrogels have been found to be of the non-Fickian type of diffusion. In experiments of uranyl ions adsorption, Type II adsorption has been found. One gram of AAa/MA hydrogels sorbed 14-86 mg uranyl ions from solutions of uranyl acetate, 14-90 mg uranyl ions from solutions of uranyl nitrate, 16-39 mg iron ions from solutions of iron(IV) nitrate, and 28-81 mg copper ions from solutions of copper acetate, while acrylamide hydrogel did not sorb any heavy metals ions.

  3. Histopathological changes of renal tissue following sodium fluoride administration in two consecutive generations of mice. Correlation with the urinary elimination of fluoride.

    PubMed

    Dimcevici Poesina, Nicoleta; Bălălău, Cristian; Nimigean, Vanda Roxana; Nimigean, Victor; Ion, Ion; Baconi, Daniela; Bârcă, Maria; Băran Poesina, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the toxic effects (evaluated as histopathological changes) of sodium fluoride on the kidney in two consecutive generations of NMRI mice. An attempt to correlate the toxicity with the urinary elimination of fluoride has been made, as urinary fluoride excretion has been widely used as an indicator of fluoride intake and exposure. Six mixed (males and females) animal groups have been constituted by dividing the populations of mice derived from pregnant females (named "mothers" 0.5 mg sodium fluoride) treated with 0.5 mg sodium fluoride by daily gavage and pregnant females (named "mothers" 0.25 mg sodium fluoride) treated with 0.25 mg sodium fluoride by daily gavage; three types of sodium fluoride treatments were administrated: homeopathic, allopathic-homeopathic and allopathic. When the animals reached the adulthood, by randomization, they were selected in pairs for giving birth to the second generation of mice. No treatments were administrated to the second generation of mice; thus, the urinary elimination of fluoride in the second generation is attributed to exposure at sodium fluoride before birth. The administration of sodium fluoride to the first generation (F1) is realized until the mice reached the adulthood. For the first generation, the urine was collected at three times, every three weeks: at the age of four weeks, seven weeks and 11 weeks; single sampling urine, at the age of four weeks, has been conducted for the second generation. The urine samples have been analyzed using the ion selective electrode method for fluoride. For the histopathological examination, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation; the kidneys were collected in a 10% formalin solution. The preparation of samples for optical microscopy was realized with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. The results indicate that the elimination of fluoride was similar (at the second evaluation, at 7-week-old of the first generation) for the both generations

  4. Effective Removal of Tetracycline from Aqueous Solution by Organic Acid-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Liang, Yuyan; Chen, Xuelan; Xu, Wei; Wu, Kesheng; Wei, Hua; Xiong, Yonghua

    2016-03-01

    Self-assembled iron oxide nanocomposites are good magnetic nano-adsorbents that can be prepared using simple methods. Four types of organic acid-functionalised (oleic acid, undecenoic acid, caprylic acid or hexanoic acid) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesised through a one-pot chemisorption method for the removal of tetracycline (TC) from aqueous solution. The undecenoic acid-coated MNPs (UA-MNPs) exhibited the highest adsorption efficiency and can be easily retrieved with a low-gradient magnetic separator (0.4 Tesla) at pH 5.0 aqueous solution. The TC adsorption process on the UA-MNPs followed the Langmuir isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacities increased from 86.96 mg g(-1) to 222.2 mg g(-1) with the increase in temperature from 288 K to 318 K. The kinetics of adsorption fits pseudo-second-order model perfectly with a rate constant, 5.946 g mg(-1) min(-1) at 298 K. The positive values of the enthalpy (AH) and the negative value of the free energy (AG) indicated an endothermic and spontaneous adsorption process of TC on the UA-MNPs. Moreover, the UA-MNPs possessed excellent ability to adsorb the other three major types of TC antibiotics, including chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline and doxycycline.

  5. Electrolyte diodes with weak acids and bases. I. Theory and an approximate analytical solution.

    PubMed

    Iván, Kristóf; Simon, Péter L; Wittmann, Mária; Noszticzius, Zoltán

    2005-10-22

    Until now acid-base diodes and transistors applied strong mineral acids and bases exclusively. In this work properties of electrolyte diodes with weak electrolytes are studied and compared with those of diodes with strong ones to show the advantages of weak acids and bases in these applications. The theoretical model is a one dimensional piece of gel containing fixed ionizable groups and connecting reservoirs of an acid and a base. The electric current flowing through the gel is measured as a function of the applied voltage. The steady-state current-voltage characteristic (CVC) of such a gel looks like that of a diode under these conditions. Results of our theoretical, numerical, and experimental investigations are reported in two parts. In this first, theoretical part governing equations necessary to calculate the steady-state CVC of a reverse-biased electrolyte diode are presented together with an approximate analytical solution of this reaction-diffusion-ionic migration problem. The applied approximations are quasielectroneutrality and quasiequilibrium. It is shown that the gel can be divided into an alkaline and an acidic zone separated by a middle weakly acidic region. As a further approximation it is assumed that the ionization of the fixed acidic groups is complete in the alkaline zone and that it is completely suppressed in the acidic one. The general solution given here describes the CVC and the potential and ionic concentration profiles of diodes applying either strong or weak electrolytes. It is proven that previous formulas valid for a strong acid-strong base diode can be regarded as a special case of the more general formulas presented here.

  6. [Efficient killing of anthrax spores using aqueous and alcoholic peracetic acid solutions].

    PubMed

    Nattermann, H; Becker, S; Jacob, D; Klee, S R; Schwebke, I; Appel, B

    2005-08-01

    We analysed the sporicidal effect of different concentrations of aqueous and alcoholic peracetic acid (PAA) solutions on anthrax spores in suspension and germ carrier tests. In activation of anthrax spores in suspension assays was achieved in less than 2 min using 1% PAA solution and in less than 3 min using 0.5% PAA solution, respectively. In contrast, in germ carrier as says, a test under practical conditions, spores on 38% of the germ carriers survived treatment with 1% PAA solution for 15 min. The use of PAA in 80% ethyl alcohol outclassed the sporicidal effect of aqueous PAA solutions in both suspension and germ carrier assays. Anthrax spores on 14% of germ carriers tested survived 30 min of treatment with a 1% aqueous PAA solution. In contrast anthrax spores were reliably inactivated under the same test procedure using a 1% alcoholic PAA solution for 30 min. The proven enhancement of the sporicidal effect of alcoholic PAA solutions should be kept in mind when using disinfectants in practice. In further surveys we will optimise the test conditions.

  7. Fluoride bioaccumulation by hydroponic cultures of camellia (Camellia japonica spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum spp.).

    PubMed

    Camarena-Rangel, Nancy; Rojas Velázquez, Angel Natanael; Santos-Díaz, María del Socorro

    2015-10-01

    The ability of hydroponic cultures of camellia and sugar cane adult plants to remove fluoride was investigated. Plants were grown in a 50% Steiner nutrient solution. After an adaptation period to hydroponic conditions, plants were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L(-1)). Fluoride concentration in the culture medium and in tissues was measured. In sugar cane, fluoride was mainly located in roots, with 86% of it absorbed and 14% adsorbed. Sugar cane plants removed 1000-1200 mg fluoride kg(-1) dry weight. In camellia plants the highest fluoride concentration was found in leaf. Roots accumulated fluoride mainly through absorption, which was 2-5 times higher than adsorption. At the end of the experiment, fluoride accumulation in camellia plants was 1000-1400 mgk g(-1) dry weight. Estimated concentration factors revealed that fluoride bioaccumulation is 74-221-fold in camellia plants and 100-500-fold in sugar cane plants. Thus, the latter appear as a suitable candidate for removing fluoride from water due to their bioaccumulation capacity and vigorous growth rate; therefore, sugar cane might be used for phytoremediation.

  8. Interaction of Atmospheric-Pressure Air Microplasmas with Amino Acids as Fundamental Processes in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhuang, Jinxing; Zong, Zichao; Zhang, Xianhui; Liu, Dongping; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-01-01

    Plasma medicine is a relatively new field that investigates potential applications of cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas in bioengineering, such as for bacterial inactivation and degradation of organic molecules in water. In order to enunciate mechanisms of bacterial inactivation at molecular or atomic levels, we investigated the interaction of atmospheric-pressure air microplasmas with amino acids in aqueous solution by using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Results show that the oxidation effect of plasma-induced species on the side chains of the amino acids can be categorized into four types, namely hydroxylation, nitration, dehydrogenation and dimerization. In addition, relative activities of amino acids resulting from plasma treatment come in descending order as follows: sulfur-containing carbon-chain amino acids > aromatic amino acids > five-membered ring amino acids > basic carbon-chain amino acids. Since amino acids are building blocks of proteins vital to the growth and reproduction of bacteria, these results provide an insight into the mechanism of bacterial inactivation by plasma.

  9. Interaction of Atmospheric-Pressure Air Microplasmas with Amino Acids as Fundamental Processes in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhuang, Jinxing; Zong, Zichao; Zhang, Xianhui; Liu, Dongping; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-01-01

    Plasma medicine is a relatively new field that investigates potential applications of cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas in bioengineering, such as for bacterial inactivation and degradation of organic molecules in water. In order to enunciate mechanisms of bacterial inactivation at molecular or atomic levels, we investigated the interaction of atmospheric-pressure air microplasmas with amino acids in aqueous solution by using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Results show that the oxidation effect of plasma-induced species on the side chains of the amino acids can be categorized into four types, namely hydroxylation, nitration, dehydrogenation and dimerization. In addition, relative activities of amino acids resulting from plasma treatment come in descending order as follows: sulfur-containing carbon-chain amino acids > aromatic amino acids > five-membered ring amino acids > basic carbon-chain amino acids. Since amino acids are building blocks of proteins vital to the growth and reproduction of bacteria, these results provide an insight into the mechanism of bacterial inactivation by plasma. PMID:27183129

  10. Sustainable approach for recycling waste lamb and chicken bones for fluoride removal from water followed by reusing fluoride-bearing waste in concrete.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zainab Z; AbdelKareem, Hala N

    2015-11-01

    Sustainable management of waste materials is an attractive approach for modern societies. In this study, recycling of raw waste lamb and chicken bones for defluoridation of water has been estimated. The effects of several experimental parameters including contact time, pH, bone dose, fluoride initial concentration, bone grains size, agitation rate, and the effect of co-existing anions in actual samples of wastewater were studied for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. Results indicated excellent fluoride removal efficiency up to 99.4% and 99.8% using lamb and chicken bones, respectively at fluoride initial concentration of 10 mg F/L and 120 min contact time. Maximum fluoride uptake was obtained at neutral pH range 6-7. Fluoride removal kinetic was well described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Both, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models could fit the experimental data well with correlation coefficient values >0.99 suggesting favorable conditions of the process. Furthermore, for complete sustainable management of waste bones, the resulted fluoride-bearing sludge was reused in concrete mixes to partially replace sand. Tests of the mechanical properties of fluoride sludge-modified concrete mixes indicated a potential environmentally friendly approach to dispose fluoride sludge in concrete and simultaneously enhance concrete properties.

  11. Dilute nitric or nitrous acid solution containing halide ions as effective media for pure gold dissolution.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Masashi; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Okamura, Kei

    2015-08-14

    The greatly enhanced oxidation ability of dilute aqueous nitric acid (0.10-2.0 mol L(-1)) containing bromide and iodide salts as well as chloride salts has been examined based on the dissolution kinetics of pure gold at 30-60 °C. It has been found that bromide salts are more effective than chloride salts in gaining the ability of dissolving gold in dilute aqueous nitric acid solution. At 60 °C, a piece of gold-wire (ca. 20 mg) is dissolved in 20 mL of as low as 0.10 mol L(-1) HNO3 solution containing 1.0-5.0 mol L(-1) NaBr and the dissolution rate constant, log(k/s(-1)), increases linearly (from -5.78 to -4.52) with the increasing NaBr concentration. The addition of organic solvents, such as acetonitrile and acetic acid, causes acceleration of gold dissolution in LiBr and NaBr solutions. With increasing MeCN contents, for instance, the log(k/s(-1)) value of 0.10 mol L(-1) HNO3 solution containing 2.0 mol L(-1) NaBr increases linearly from -5.30 to -4.61 at 30% (v/v) MeCN. The bromide salts affect the gold dissolution rate constant in the order of KBr < NaBr < LiBr < CaBr2. With increasing NaI concentration (0.20-3.0 mol L(-1)), some acceleration in log(k/s(-1)) of 0.50 or 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 solution has been observed; however, the slope of acceleration as the function of NaI concentration is much smaller than that of NaCl or NaBr. The gold dissolution ability has been examined also for nitrous acid containing chloride and bromide ions at 35 °C. The NaNO2 solution containing twice or more amounts of HX (X = Cl, Br) gives the maximum efficiency for gold dissolution, according to the log(k/s(-1)) values of the mixed solutions of NaNO2 (0.10-2.0 mol L(-1)) and HX of various concentrations. The influence of oxidation by dilute nitric and nitrous acids on the gold dissolution is discussed from the standpoint of the redox potentials in "modified" aqueous solutions and not of the changes in the activity coefficients of ions.

  12. Ab initio aqueous thermochemistry: application to the oxidation of hydroxylamine in nitric acid solution.

    PubMed

    Ashcraft, Robert W; Raman, Sumathy; Green, William H

    2007-10-18

    Ab initio molecular orbital calculations were performed and thermochemical parameters estimated for 46 species involved in the oxidation of hydroxylamine in aqueous nitric acid solution. Solution-phase properties were estimated using the several levels of theory in Gaussian03 and using COSMOtherm. The use of computational chemistry calculations for the estimation of physical properties and constants in solution is addressed. The connection between the pseudochemical potential of Ben-Naim and the traditional standard state-based thermochemistry is shown, and the connection of these ideas to computational chemistry results is established. This theoretical framework provides a basis for the practical use of the solution-phase computational chemistry estimates for real systems, without the implicit assumptions that often hide the nuances of solution-phase thermochemistry. The effect of nonidealities and a method to account for them is also discussed. A method is presented for estimating the solvation enthalpy and entropy for dilute aqueous solutions based on the solvation free energy from the ab initio calculations. The accuracy of the estimated thermochemical parameters was determined through comparison with (i) enthalpies of formation in the gas phase and in solution, (ii) Henry's law data for aqueous solutions, and (iii) various reaction equilibria in aqueous solution. Typical mean absolute deviations (MAD) for the solvation free energy in room-temperature water appear to be ~1.5 kcal/mol for most methods investigated. The MAD for computed enthalpies of formation in solution was 1.5-3 kcal/mol, depending on the methodology employed and the type of species (ion, radical, closed-shell) being computed. This work provides a relatively simple and unambiguous approach that can be used to estimate the thermochemical parameters needed to build detailed ab initio kinetic models of systems in aqueous solution. Technical challenges that limit the accuracy of the estimates are

  13. Solution of Azelaic Acid (20%), Resorcinol (10%) and Phytic Acid (6%) Versus Glycolic Acid (50%) Peeling Agent in the Treatment of Female Patients with Facial Melasma

    PubMed Central

    Faghihi, Gita; Taheri, Azam; Shahmoradi, Zabihollah; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Melasma, a common acquired disorder of hyperpigmentation, especially in women, is often resistant to therapy. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic acid solution in chemical peeling of melasma in comparison to 50% glycolic acid. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed, on 42 female patients with bilateral melasma. Severity of melasma was assessed by melasma area and severity index (MASI). Combination of (20% azelaic acid + 10% resorcinol + 6% phytic acid) was used as a new peeling agent on the right side of the face and 50% glycolic acid on the left side every 2 weeks for 6 times. Follow-up was carried out for 3 months after the last session. Any decrease in MASI score and unwanted complications following peeling were evaluated and compared during the trial. Results: Patients showed marked improvement as calculated with MASI score before and after treatment in both sides of the face. The efficacy of combination formula (azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic acid) was similar to glycolic acid, but with fewer complications. There was no statistically difference in improvement between two groups (P > 0.05). However, the patient's discomfort following procedures was significantly lower with azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic compared with the glycolic acid peels (P < 0.05) and there was the same duration in the beginning of the therapeutic response in both groups. Conclusion: Results showed that triple-combination was found to be an effective and safe peeling agent in the treatment of melasma and it was as effective as 50% glycolic acid peel. PMID:28299301

  14. Palladium fluoride complexes: one more step toward metal-mediated C-F bond formation.

    PubMed

    Grushin, Vladimir V

    2002-03-01

    The first molecular complexes of palladium containing a Pd-F bond, both fluorides and bifluorides, were synthesized and fully characterized in the solid state and in solution. Reactivity studies of the Pd fluoride complexes revealed their unexpected stability and unusual chemical properties, different from the hydroxo, chloro, bromo, and iodo analogues. A novel efficient method to generate "naked fluoride" was developed using [(Ph(3)P)(2)Pd(F)Ph]. The naked fluoride from the Pd source fluorinated dichloromethane, deprotonated chloroform, and catalyzed di- and trimerization of hexafluoropropene under uncommonly mild conditions.

  15. Aquatic photolysis: photolytic redox reactions between goethite and adsorbed organic acids in aqueous solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, M.C.; Cunningham, K.M.; Weiner, Eugene R.

    1993-01-01

    Photolysis of mono and di-carboxylic acids that are adsorbed onto the surface of the iron oxyhydroxide (goethite) results in an oxidation of the organic material and a reduction from Fe(III) to Fe(II) in the iron complex. There is a subsequent release of Fe2+ ions into solution. At constant light flux and constant solution light absorption, the factors responsible for the degree of photolytic reaction include: the number of lattice sites that are bonded by the organic acid; the rate of acid readsorption to the surface during photolysis; the conformation and structure of the organic acid; the degree of oxidation of the organic acid; the presence or absence of an ??-hydroxy group on the acid, the number of carbons in the di-acid chain and the conformation of the di-acid. The ability to liberate Fe(III) at pH 6.5 from the geothite lattice is described by the lyotropic series: tartrate>citrate> oxalate > glycolate > maleate > succinate > formate > fumarate > malonate > glutarate > benzoate = butanoate = control. Although a larger amount of iron is liberated, the series is almost the same at pH 5.5 except that oxalate > citrate and succinate > maleate. A set of rate equations are given that describe the release of iron from the goethite lattice. It was observed that the pH of the solution increases during photolysis if the solutions are not buffered. There is evidence to suggest the primary mechanism for all these reactions is an electron transfer from the organic ligand to the Fe(III) in the complex. Of all the iron-oxyhydroxide materials, crystalline goethite is the least soluble in water; yet, this study indicates that in an aqueous suspension, iron can be liberated from the goethite lattice. Further, it has been shown that photolysis can occur in a multiphase system at the sediment- water interface which results in an oxidation of the organic species and release of Fe2+ to solution where it becomes available for further reaction. ?? 1993.

  16. [Water fluoridation and public health].

    PubMed

    Barak, Shlomo

    2003-11-01

    Fluoridation in Israel was first mooted in 1973 and finally incorporated into law in November 2002 obligating the Ministry of Health to add fluoride to the nation's water supply. Epidemiology studies in the USA have shown that the addition of one part per million of fluoride to the drinking water reduced the caries rate of children's teeth by 50% to 60% with no side effects. Both the WHO in 1994 and the American Surgeon General's report of 2000 declared that fluoridation of drinking water was the safest and most efficient way of preventing dental caries in all age groups and populations. Opposition to fluoridation has arisen from "antifluoridation" groups who object to the "pollution" of drinking water by the addition of chemicals and mass medication in violation of the "Patient's Rights" law and the Basic Law of Human Dignity and Liberty. A higher prevalence of hip fractures in elderly osteoporotic women and osteosarcoma in teenagers has been reported in areas where excess fluoride exists in the drinking water. However, none of the many independent professional committees reviewing the negative aspects of fluoridation have found any scientific evidence associating fluoridation with any ill-effects or health problems. In Israel, where dental treatment is not included in the basket of Health Services, fluoridation is the most efficient and cheapest way of reducing dental disease, especially for the poorer members of the population.

  17. Palladium-catalyzed substitution and cross-coupling of benzylic fluorides.

    PubMed

    Blessley, George; Holden, Patrick; Walker, Matthew; Brown, John M; Gouverneur, Véronique

    2012-06-01

    Benzylic fluorides are suitable substrates for Pd(0)-catalyzed Tsuji-Trost substitution using carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur nucleophiles and for cross-coupling with phenylboronic acid. For the bifunctional substrate 4-chlorobenzyl fluoride, fine-tuning of the reaction conditions allows for the regioselective displacement of either the chlorine or fluorine substituent. The leaving group ability of fluoride vs other groups displaced in substitution is CF(3)CO(2) ≈ p-NO(2)C(6)H(4)CO(2) ≈ OCO(2)CH(3) > F > CH(3)CO(2), a ranking similar to allylic fluorides under Pd catalysis.

  18. Effect of tritium on corrosion behavior of chromium in 0.01 N sulfuric acid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Oyaidzu, M.; Isobe, K.; Hayashi, T.

    2015-03-15

    The effects of tritium on the corrosion behavior of chromium in 0.01 N sulfuric solution have been investigated in the present study. Electrochemical experiments have been carried our for pure chromium. At first, the concentration dependence of sulfuric acid solution on anodic polarization behavior of chromium was experimented, resulting in that 0.01 N one was found appropriate. The dependence of both dissolved oxygen and tritium concentration on anodic behavior of chromium were performed. It was found from that the self-passivation of chromium induced by dissolved oxygen was inhibited in tritiated solution resulting in the enhancement of the corrosion. As a consequence it is highly likely that the elution of chromium by highly oxidative radiolysis products would explain the passivation inhibitory effect of SUS304 stainless steel observed in tritiated solutions.

  19. Interfacial reactions and microstructure of BaTiO 3 films prepared using fluoride precursor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujihara, Shinobu; Schneller, Theodor; Waser, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    Interfacial reactions of BaF 2 and TiO 2 were investigated in preparing BaTiO 3 thin films using a fluoride precursor method. Trifluoroacetate solutions were prepared from barium acetate, titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP), and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA, CF 3COOH) with additives such as water and acetylacetone. The solutions were deposited on platinized Si wafers by spin-coating, were pyrolysed at 400 °C in air and were finally heated typically at 700 °C in a water vapor atmosphere. The perovskite BaTiO 3 phase was obtained although a small portion of BaF 2 remained unreacted. Thus, the films were characterized as the mixture of BaTiO 3, BaF 2, and amorphous TiO 2. Influence of the solution chemistry on the phase evolution and microstructure was examined in order to discuss the reaction pathway of the perovskite phase.

  20. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of acetic acid in the presence of Na-montmorillonite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos, S.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1990-01-01

    The gamma-irradiation of 0.8 mol dm-3 aqueous, oxygen-free acetic acid solutions was investigated in the presence or absence of Na-montmorillonite. H2, CH4, CO, CO2, and several polycarboxylic acids were formed in all systems. The primary characteristics observed in the latter system were: (1) Higher yield of the decomposition of acetic acid; (2) Lower yield of the formation of polycarboxylic acids; (3) No effect on the formation of methane; (4) Higher yield of the formation of carbon dioxide; and (5) The reduction of Fe3+ in the octahedral sites of Na-montmorillonite. A possible reaction scheme was proposed to account for the observed changes. The results are important in understanding heterogeneous processes in radiation catalysis and might be significant to prebiotic chemistry.

  1. Spectrofluorimetric study of the interaction of ciprofloxacin with amino acids in aqueous solution following solvatochromic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Kamal; Mobarrez, Mahsa; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    Complexation of a fluoroquinolone derivative (ciprofloxacin), L, and some amino acids has been studied using spectrofluorimetric method. Results indicated that ciprofloxacin have a greater tendency to form a 1:1 complex with aspartic acid and arginine than the other tested molecules. The fluorescence of ciprofloxacin exhibits quenching process while it has been titrated with these amino acids. Formation constant values (Kf) for complex formed between ciprofloxacin and amino acids were also calculated. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were studied too. Possible reasons for the observed stability sequence were discussed based on the structures proposed for the resulting complexes. Besides the solution studies, solvatochromic properties of the ciprofloxacin are discussed by studying its spectra in a selection of different solvents.

  2. Viscometric study of chitosan solutions in acetic acid/sodium acetate and acetic acid/sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cristiane N; Teixeira, Viviane G; Delpech, Marcia C; Souza, Josefa Virginia S; Costa, Marcos A S

    2015-11-20

    A viscometric study was carried out at 25°C to assess the physical-chemical behavior in solution and the mean viscometric molar mass (M¯v) of chitosan solutions with different deacetylation degrees, in two solvent mixtures: medium 1-acetic acid 0.3mol/L and sodium acetate 0.2mol/L; and medium 2-acetic acid 0.1mol/L and sodium chloride 0.2mol/L. Different equations were employed, by graphical extrapolation, to calculate the intrinsic viscosities [η] and the viscometric constants, to reveal the solvent's quality: Huggins (H), Kraemer (K) and Schulz-Blaschke (SB). For single-point determination, the equations used were SB, Solomon-Ciuta (SC) and Deb-Chanterjee (DC), resulting in a faster form of analysis. The values of ̄M¯v were calculated by applying the equation of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada. The SB and SC equations were most suitable for single-point determination of [η] and ̄M¯v and the Schulz-Blachke constant (kSB), equal to 0.28, already utilized for various systems, can also be employed to analyze chitosan solutions under the conditions studied.

  3. Regularities of extracting humic acids from soils using sodium pyrophosphate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakina, L. G.; Drichko, V. F.; Orlova, N. E.

    2017-02-01

    Regularities of extracting humic acids from different soil types (soddy-podzolic soil, gray forest soil, and all chernozem subtypes) with sodium pyrophosphate solutions at different pH values (from 5 to 13) have been studied. It is found that, regardless of soil type, the process occurs in two stages through the dissociation of carboxylic groups and phenolic hydroxyls, each of which can be described by a logistic function. Parameters of the logistic equations approximating the extraction of humic acids from soils at different pH values are independent of the content and composition of humus in soils. Changes in the optical density of humic acids extracted from soils using sodium pyrophosphate solutions with different pH values are described in the first approximation by the Gaussian function. The optically densest humic acids are extracted using sodium pyrophosphate solutions at pH 10. Therefore, it is proposed to use an extract with pH 10 for the characterization of organic matter with the maximum possible degree of humification in the given soil.

  4. Effects of Solution Hydrodynamics on Corrosion Inhibition of Steel by Citric Acid in Cooling Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashassi-Sorkhabi, H.; Asghari, E.; Mohammadi, M.

    2014-08-01

    Corrosion is a major problem in cooling water systems, which is often controlled using corrosion inhibitors. Solution hydrodynamics is one of the factors affecting corrosion inhibition of metals in these systems. The present work focuses on the study of the combined effects of citric acid concentration (as a green corrosion inhibitor) and fluid flow on corrosion of steel in simulated cooling water. Electrochemical techniques including Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used for corrosion studies. Laminar flow was simulated using a rotating disk electrode. The effects of solution hydrodynamics on inhibition performance of citric acid were discussed. The citric acid showed low inhibition performance in quiescent solution; however, when the electrode rotated at 200 rpm, inhibition efficiency increased remarkably. It was attributed mainly to the acceleration of inhibitor mass transport toward metal surface. The efficiencies were then decreased at higher rotation speeds due to enhanced wall shear stresses on metal surface and separation of adsorbed inhibitor molecules. This article is first part of authors' attempts in designing green inhibitor formulations for industrial cooling water. Citric acid showed acceptable corrosion inhibition in low rotation rates; thus, it can be used as a green additive to the corrosion inhibitor formulations.

  5. The infrared optical constants of sulfuric acid at 250 K. [spectral reflectance measurement of aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkley, L. W.; Williams, D.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for measurements of the IR spectral reflectance at near-normal incidence of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid with acid concentrations of 75% and 95.6% by weight. Kramers-Kronig analyses of the reflectance data are employed to obtain values of the optical constants n(nu) and k(nu) in the spectral range from 400 to 6000 cm to the -1 power. The optical constants of these solutions at 250 K and 300 K are compared. It is found that in spectral regions remote from strong absorption bands, the values of the n(nu) indices obtained at 250 K agree with the values given by Lorentz-Lorenz correction of the same indices at 300 K. All absorption bands observed at 300 K are found to be present at 250 K with slight shifts in frequency and with significant differences in the k(nu) indices at the band maxima. Based on these results, it is concluded that the clouds of Venus probably consist of droplets of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid with acid concentrations of about 75% by weight.

  6. Action of combined magnetic fields on aqueous solution of glutamic acid: the further development of investigations.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Livio; Grimaldi, Settimio; Lisi, Antonella; D'Emilia, Enrico; Bobkova, Natalia; Zhadin, Mikhail

    2008-01-25

    In the present work the results of the known investigation of the influence of combined static (40 microT) and alternating (amplitude of 40 nT) parallel magnetic fields on the current through the aqueous solution of glutamic acid, were successfully replicated. Fourteen experiments were carried out by the application of the combined magnetic fields to the solution placed into a Plexiglas reaction vessel at application of static voltage to golden electrodes placed into the solution. Six experiments were carried out by the application of the combined magnetic fields to the solution placed in a Plexiglas reaction vessel, without electrodes, within an electric field, generated by means of a capacitor at the voltage of 27 mV. The frequency of the alternating field was scanned within the bounds of 1.0 Hz including the cyclotron frequency corresponding to a glutamic acid ion and to the applied static magnetic field. In this study the prominent peaks with half-width of approximately 0.5 Hz and with different heights (till 80 nA) were registered at the alternating magnetic field frequency equal to the cyclotron frequency (4.2 Hz). The general reproducibility of the investigated effects was 70% among the all solutions studied by us and they arose usually after 40-60 min. after preparation of the solution. In some made-up solutions the appearance of instability in the registered current was noted in 30-45 min after the solution preparation. This instability endured for 20-40 min. At the end of such instability period the effects of combined fields action appeared practically every time. The possible mechanisms of revealed effects were discussed on the basis of modern quantum electrodynamics.

  7. Rare earth fluoride nano-/microstructures: hydrothermal synthesis, luminescent properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Xu, Zhenhe; Sun, Yaguang

    2014-02-01

    Rare earth fluoride materials have attracted wide interest and come to the forefront in nanophotonics due to their distinct electrical, optical and magnetic properties as well as their potential applications in diverse fields such as optical telecommunication, lasers, biochemical probes, infrared quantum counters, and medical diagnostics. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the flourishing field of rare earth fluorides materials in the past decade. We summarize the recent research progress on the preparation, morphology, luminescent properties and application of rare earth fluoride-based luminescent materials by hydrothermal systems. Various rare earth fluoride materials are obtained by fine-tuning of experimental conditions, such as capping agents, fluoride source, acidity, temperature and reaction time. The controlled morphology, luminescent properties and application of the rare earth fluorides are briefly discussed with typical examples.

  8. Sorption of As(V) from aqueous solution using acid modified carbon black.

    PubMed

    Borah, Dipu; Satokawa, Shigeo; Kato, Shigeru; Kojima, Toshinori

    2009-03-15

    The sorption performance of a modified carbon black was explored with respect to arsenic removal following batch equilibrium technique. Modification was accomplished by refluxing the commercial carbon black with an acid mixture comprising HNO(3) and H(2)SO(4). Modification resulted in the substantial changes to the inherent properties like surface chemistry and morphology of the commercial carbon black to explore its potential as sorbent. The suspension pH as well as the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) of the material was found to be highly acidic. The material showed excellent sorption performance for the removal of arsenic from a synthetic aqueous solution. It removed approximately 93% arsenic from a 50mg/L solution at equilibration time. The modified carbon black is capable of removing arsenic in a relatively broad pH range of 3-6, invariably in the acidic region. Both pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetics were applied to search for the best fitted kinetic model to the sorption results. The sorption process is best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic. It has also been found that intra-particle diffusion is the rate-controlling step for the initial phases of the reaction. Modelling of the equilibrium data with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms revealed that the correlation coefficient is more satisfactory with the Langmuir model although Freundlich model predicted a good sorption process. The sorption performance has been found to be strongly dependent on the solution pH with a maximum display at pH of 5.0. The temperature has a positive effect on sorption increasing the extent of removal with temperature up to the optimum temperature. The sorption process has been found to be spontaneous and endothermic in nature, and proceeds with the increase in randomness at the solid-solution interface. The spent sorbent was desorbed with various acidic and basic extracting solutions with KOH demonstrating the best result ( approximately 85% desorption).

  9. Aluminum contamination of parenteral nutrition additives, amino acid solutions, and lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Popińska, K; Kierkuś, J; Lyszkowska, M; Socha, J; Pietraszek, E; Kmiotek, W; Ksiazyk, J

    1999-09-01

    Contamination of parenteral nutrition solutions with aluminum may result in accumulation of this element in bones and, in premature infants, may inhibit bone calcium uptake and induce cholestasis. We measured the aluminum concentration of small-volume parenterals, amino acid solutions, lipid emulsions, and special solutions containing glucose, amino acids, electrolytes, and trace elements (standard I for children with a body weight of 3-5 kg, standard II for children with a body weight of 5-10 kg). The method used was graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry GTA-AAS (SpectrAA-400 Plus, Varian, PtY Ltd., Mulgrave, Australia). Quality control was run with the use of control serum (Seronorm, Nycomed, Oslo, Norway). The aluminum contents of parenterally administered solutions were: pediatric trace elements, 130 micrograms/L, and pediatric trace elements, 3000 micrograms/L; phosphorus salts: K-phosphates, 9800 micrograms/L, and Na/K phosphates, 13,000 micrograms/L; 10% calcium gluconate, 4400 micrograms/L; 6.5% amino acids, 30 micrograms/L; 10% amino acids, 120 micrograms/L; 12.5% amino acids, 121 micrograms/L; 20% lipid emulsion, 30 micrograms/L; 20% lipid emulsion, 180 micrograms/L; water-soluble vitamins, 12 micrograms/L; lipid soluble vitamins, 360 micrograms/L; standard I, 55 micrograms/L; standard II, 90 micrograms/L; The aluminum intake from parenteral nutrition was 6.6-10.8 micrograms.kg-1.d-1--a dose exceeding the safety limit of 2 micrograms.kg-1.d-1. The possible association of aluminum not only with metabolic bone disease, but also with encephalopathy, dictates caution when dealing with the pediatric population on long-term parenteral nutrition. In the absence of reliable label information, it seems proper to monitor the aluminum concentration in parenteral nutrition products and to report it in professional journals.

  10. Effects of individual and combined exposure to sodium arsenite and sodium fluoride on tissue oxidative stress, arsenic and fluoride levels in male mice.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Megha; Flora, S J S

    2006-08-25

    Arsenic and fluoride are potent toxicants, widely distributed through drinking water and food and often result in adverse health effects. The present study examined the effects of sodium meta-arsenite (100 mg/l in drinking water) and sodium fluoride (5 mg/kg, oral, once daily), administered either alone or in combination for 8 weeks, on various biochemical variables indicative of tissue oxidative stress and cell injury in Swiss albino male mice. A separate group was first exposed to arsenic for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of fluoride exposure. Exposure to arsenic or fluoride led to a significant depletion of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and glutathione (GSH) level. These changes were accompanied by increased level of blood and tissues reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. An increase in the level of liver and kidney thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) along with a concomitant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced GSH content were observed in both arsenic and fluoride administered mice. The changes were significantly more pronounced in arsenic exposed animals than in fluoride. It was interesting to observe that during combined exposure the toxic effects were less pronounced compared to the effects of arsenic or fluoride alone. In some cases antagonistic effects were noted following co-exposure to arsenic and fluoride. Arsenic and fluoride concentration increased significantly on exposure. Interestingly, their concentration decreased significantly on concomitant exposure for 8 weeks. However, the group which was administered arsenic for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of fluoride administration showed no such protection suggesting that the antagonistic effect of fluoride on arsenic or vice versa is possible only during interaction at the gastro intestinal sites. These results are new and interesting and require further exploration.

  11. [Studies on carbonization of saccharides by using aqueous solution of various acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; He, An-Qi; Kang, Ting-Guo; Xia, Jin-Ming; Weng, Shi-Fu; Xu, Yi-Zhuang; Wu, Jin-Guang

    2014-09-01

    The authors tried to establish an approach to use acids to convert biomass into a fuel with higher carbon content and lower oxygen content in a zero-energy-consumption fashion. Considering that biomass is composed of monosaccharide, we used aqueous solutions of variation acids including hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and perchloric acid to treat 2-deoxy-ribose and fructose at ambient temperature and pressure. Black substances were produced after a period of time when 2-deoxy-ribose and fructose were mixed with aqueous solutions containing 8 mol · L(-1) acids. The black substance was collected and characterized by using elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Elemental analysis results indicate that the contents of carbon increases significantly in the black substances in comparison with 2-deoxy-ribose and fructose. Moreover, XPS results indicate that the content of oxygen in the black substance undergoes a significant decrease compared with pure 2-deoxy-ribose and fructose. In the XPS spectra, the is peaks of 2-deoxy-ribose, strong sub peak at 286. 05 eV, which is assigned to carbon linked to oxygen directly, dominate in the C is peak envelop. After treatment by HClO4, the peak decreased dramatically. This result also supports the conclusion that the content of oxygen in mono-saccharide is significantly reduced after treatment by acids. In the FTIR spectra of the black substances, strong peaks can be observed around 1 600 cm(-1), indicating that C==C bond is formed in the product. The above results suggest that treatments with acids may be developed as a new zero-energy-consumption approach to convert biomass in a new fuel with improved energy output efficiency.

  12. Water fluoridation and osteoporotic fracture.

    PubMed

    Hillier, S; Inskip, H; Coggon, D; Cooper, C

    1996-09-01

    Osteoporotic fractures constitute a major public health problem. These fractures typically occur at the hip, spine and distal forearm. Their pathogenesis is heterogeneous, with contributions from both bone strength and trauma. Water fluoridation has been widely proposed for its dental health benefits, but concerns have been raised about the balance of skeletal risks and benefits of this measure. Fluoride has potent effects on bone cell function, bone structure and bone strength. These effects are mediated by the incorporation of fluoride ions in bone crystals to form fluoroapatite, and through an increase in osteoblast activity. It is believed that a minimum serum fluoride level of 100 ng/ml must be achieved before osteoblasts will be stimulated. Serum levels associated with drinking water fluoridated to 1 ppm are usually several times lower than this value, but may reach this threshold at concentrations of 4 ppm in the drinking water. Animal studies suggest no effect of low-level (0-3 ppm) fluoride intake on bone strength, but a possible decrease at higher levels. Sodium fluoride has been used to treat established osteoporosis for nearly 30 years. Recent trials of this agent, prescribed at high doses, have suggested that despite a marked increase in bone mineral density, there is no concomitant reduction in vertebral fracture incidence. Furthermore, the increase in bone density at the lumbar spine may be achieved at the expense of bone mineral in the peripheral cortical skeleton. As a consequence, high dose sodium fluoride (80 mg daily) is not currently used to treat osteoporosis. At lower doses, recent trials have suggested a beneficial effect on both bone density and fracture. The majority of epidemiological evidence regarding the effect of fluoridated drinking water on hip fracture incidence is based on ecological comparisons. Although one Finnish study suggested that hip fracture rates in a town with fluoridated water were lower than those in a matching town

  13. Energy efficiency of iron–boron–silicon metallic glasses in sulfuric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, K.; Jiang, W.; Rahman, B. M. A.; Grattan, K. T. V.

    2017-03-01

    A criterion of the energy efficiency of iron–boron–silicon metallic glasses in sulfuric acid solutions is proposed for the first time. The criterion has been derived based on calculating the limit of the ratio value of the conductivity of a metallic glass in aqueous solution to the conductivity of the metallic glass in air. In other words, the conductivity ratio of a metallic glass in aqueous solution to the conductivity of the metallic glass in air  = 1, was applied to determine the energy efficiency of the metallic glass in the aqueous solution when the conductivity of a metallic glass in air became equal (decreased) to the steady conductivity of the metallic glass in aqueous solution as a function of time of the exposure of the metallic glass to the aqueous solution. This criterion was not only used to determine the energy efficiency of different metallic glasses, but also, the criterion was used to determine the energy efficiency of metallic glasses exposed to a wide range of sulfuric acid concentrations. These conductivity values were determined by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In addition, the criterion can be applied under diverse test conditions with a predetermined period of the operational life of the metallic glasses as functional materials. Furthermore, variations of the energy efficiency of the metallic glasses as a function of the acid concentration and time were produced by fitting the experimental data to a numerical model using a nonlinear regression method. The profiles of the metallic glasses exhibit a less conservative behavior of the energy efficiency than the proposed analytical criterion.

  14. Organic amendments increase soil solution phosphate concentrations in an acid soil: A controlled environment study

    SciTech Connect

    Schefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, R.

    2008-04-15

    Soil acidification affects at least 4 million hectares of agricultural land in Victoria, Australia. Low soil pH can inhibit plant growth through increased soluble aluminum (Al) concentrations and decreased available phosphorus (P). The addition of organic amendments may increase P availability through competition for P binding sites, solubilization of poorly soluble P pools, and increased solution pH. The effect of two organic amendments (lignite and compost) on P solubility in an acid soil was determined through controlled environment (incubation) studies. Three days after the addition of lignite and compost, both treatments increased orthophosphate and total P measured in soil solution, with the compost treatments having the greatest positive effect. Increased incubation time (26 days) increased soil solution P concentrations in both untreated and amended soils, with the greatest effect seen in total P concentrations. The measured differences in solution P concentrations between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were likely caused by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment with lignite or compost also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. Based on the results presented, it is proposed that the measured increase in soil solution P with amendment addition was likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including biotic and abiotic P solubilization reactions, and the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  15. Copper-Sulfate Pentahydrate as a Product of the Waste Sulfuric Acid Solution Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, Radmila; Stevanović, Jasmina; Avramović, Ljiljana; Nedeljković, Dragutin; Jugović, Branimir; Stajić-Trošić, Jasna; Gvozdenović, Milica

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is synthesis of copper-sulfate pentahydrate from the waste sulfuric acid solution-mother liquor generated during the regeneration process of copper bleed solution. Copper is removed from the mother liquor solution in the process of the electrolytic treatment using the insoluble lead anodes alloyed with 6 mass pct of antimony on the industrial-scale equipment. As the result of the decopperization process, copper is removed in the form of the cathode sludge and is precipitated at the bottom of the electrolytic cell. By this procedure, the content of copper could be reduced to the 20 mass pct of the initial value. Chemical characterization of the sludge has shown that it contains about 90 mass pct of copper. During the decopperization process, the very strong poison, arsine, can be formed, and the process is in that case terminated. The copper leaching degree of 82 mass pct is obtained using H2SO4 aqueous solution with the oxygen addition during the cathode sludge chemical treatment at 80 °C ± 5 °C. Obtained copper salt satisfies the requirements of the Serbian Standard for Pesticide, SRPS H.P1. 058. Therefore, the treatment of waste sulfuric acid solutions is of great economic and environmental interest.

  16. Investigations on the mechanism of superlubricity achieved with phosphoric acid solution by direct observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinjin; Ma, Liran; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhang, Chenhui; Liu, Yuhong; Luo, Jianbin

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the contact region between a Si3N4 ball and a SiO2 plate with the lubrication of phosphoric acid solution is observed directly by an optical microscope combined with a Raman microscope to understand the superlubricity mechanism. It is found that the wear on the friction surfaces mainly occurs at the beginning of the test and nearly disappears after the friction coefficient reduces to 0.05. When the superlubricity appears (μ = 0.004), there is only a limited amount of solution available to the contact (forming starvation state), resulting in an "H" distribution surrounding the contact region. Moreover, it is observed that the hydrogen bond effect in the solution is enhanced with time going by, and finally a thin film with hydrogen bond network among H3PO4, H2PO4-, and H2O is formed on the friction surfaces, leading to the superlubricity. By employing this direct observation approach, the structure of the confined solution and the superlubricity mechanism of phosphoric acid solution are finally investigated and discussed.

  17. Preparation of fluoride substituted apatite cements as the building blocks for tooth enamel restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jie; Wang, Jiecheng; Liu, Xiaochen; Ma, Jian; Liu, Changsheng; Fang, Jing; Wei, Shicheng

    2011-06-01

    Fluoride substituted apatite cement (fs-AC) was synthesized by using the cement powders of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and sodium fluoride (NaF), and the cement powders were mixed with diluted phosphoric acid (H 3PO 4) as cement liquid to form fs-AC paste. The fs-AC paste could be directly filled into the carious cavities to repair damaged dental enamel. The results indicated that the fs-AC paste was changed into fluorapatite crystals with the atom molar ratio for calcium to phosphorus of 1.66 and the F ion amount of 3 wt% after self-hardening for 2 days. The solubility of fs-AC in Tris-HCl solution (pH 6) was slightly lower than hydroxyapatite cement (HAC) that was similar to the apatite in enamel, indicating the fs-AC was much insensitive to the weakly acidic solution than the apatite in enamel. The fs-AC was tightly combined with the enamel surface because of the chemical reaction between the fs-AC and the apatite in enamel after the caries cavities was filled with fs-AC. The extracts of fs-AC caused no cytotoxicity on L929 cells, which satisfied the relevant criterion on dental biomaterials, revealing good cytocompatibility. The fs-AC had potential prospect for the reconstitution of carious lesion of dental enamel.

  18. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.B.

    1995-08-01

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660{plus_minus}0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46{plus_minus}0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 {times} 10{sup 6}{plus_minus}3.56 {times} 10{sup 4} at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610{plus_minus}0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412{plus_minus}0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72{plus_minus}1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured.

  19. PROCESS FOR EXTRACTING NEPTUNIUM AND PLUTONIUM FROM NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS OF SAME CONTAINING URANYL NITRATE WITH A TERTIARY AMINE

    DOEpatents

    Sheppard, J.C.

    1962-07-31

    A process of selectively extracting plutonium nitrate and neptunium nitrate with an organic solution of a tertiary amine, away from uranyl nitrate present in an aqueous solution in a maximum concentration of 1M is described. The nitric acid concentration is adjusted to about 4M and nitrous acid is added prior to extraction. (AEC)

  20. Degradation of hydroxycinnamic acid mixtures in aqueous sucrose solutions by the Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Danny M T; Zhang, Zhanying; Doherty, William O S

    2015-02-11

    The degradation efficiencies and behaviors of caffeic acid (CaA), p-coumaric acid (pCoA), and ferulic acid (FeA) in aqueous sucrose solutions containing the mixture of these hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) were studied by the Fenton oxidation process. Central composite design and multiresponse surface methodology were used to evaluate and optimize the interactive effects of process parameters. Four quadratic polynomial models were developed for the degradation of each individual acid in the mixture and the total HCAs degraded. Sucrose was the most influential parameter that significantly affected the total amount of HCA degraded. Under the conditions studied there was a <0.01% loss of sucrose in all reactions. The optimal values of the process parameters for a 200 mg/L HCA mixture in water (pH 4.73, 25.15 °C) and sucrose solution (13 mass %, pH 5.39, 35.98 °C) were 77% and 57%, respectively. Regression analysis showed goodness of fit between the experimental results and the predicted values. The degradation behavior of CaA differed from those of pCoA and FeA, where further CaA degradation is observed at increasing sucrose and decreasing solution pH. The differences (established using UV/vis and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy) were because, unlike the other acids, CaA formed a complex with Fe(III) or with Fe(III) hydrogen-bonded to sucrose and coprecipitated with lepidocrocite, an iron oxyhydroxide.