Cardador, María José; Gallego, Mercedes
Water used in a food factory is frequently disinfected with chlorine, which originates disinfection by-products: haloacetic acids (HAAs) make up the second most prevalent class of these products. In this paper we propose the first static HS-GC-MS method developed for direct HAA determination in beverages; the method has higher sensitivity, simplicity and reliability than the only alternative available in the literature. From 150 beverages analysed, it is possible to conclude that at least 2 HAAs (dichloro- and trichloroacetic acids, DCAA and TCAA) are always present in beverages prepared with treated water, which remains constant for 2 or 3 months in the beverages. Moreover, beverages of 100% fruit juices and soft drinks prepared with mineral water (free of HAAs) do not contain any HAA at significant values. Therefore, DCAA and TCAA may indicate of the presence of treated water in beverages.
Pisoschi, Aurelia Magdalena; Danet, Andrei Florin; Kalinowski, Slawomir
A method was developed for assessing ascorbic acid concentration in commercial fruit juice by cyclic voltammetry. The anodic oxidation peak for ascorbic acid occurs at about 490 mV on a Pt disc working electrode (versus SCE). The influence of the potential sweep speed on the peak height was studied. The obtained calibration graph shows a linear dependence between peak height and ascorbic acid concentration in the domain (0.1–10 mmol·L−1). The equation of the calibration graph was y = 6.391x + 0.1903 (where y represents the value of intensity measured for the anodic peak height, expressed as μA and x the analyte concentration, as mmol·L−1, r2 = 0.9995, r.s.d. = 1.14%, n = 10, Cascorbic acid = 2 mmol·L−1). The developed method was applied to ascorbic acid assessment in fruit juice. The ascorbic acid content determined ranged from 0.83 to 1.67 mmol·L−1 for orange juice, from 0.58 to 1.93 mmol·L−1 for lemon juice, and from 0.46 to 1.84 mmol·L−1 for grapefruit juice. Different ascorbic acid concentrations (from standard solutions) were added to the analysed samples, the degree of recovery being comprised between 94.35% and 104%. Ascorbic acid determination results obtained by cyclic voltammetry were compared with those obtained by the volumetric method with dichlorophenol indophenol. The results obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. PMID:19343183
Hao, Yi; Gao, Ruixia; Liu, Dechun; He, Gaiyan; Tang, Yuhai; Guo, Zengjun
In this paper, the novel hydrophilic magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles were developed for selective separation and determination of chlorogenic acid in aqueous fruit juices. The polymers were prepared by using amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as carriers, branched polyethyleneimine as functional monomer, and chlorogenic acid as template molecule. Branched polyethyleneimine with abundant active amino groups could react with template sufficiently, and its unique dendritic structure may amplify the number of the imprinted cavities. Meanwhile, it would improve the hydrophilicity of imprinted materials for attaining high extraction efficiency. The resulted polymers exhibit fast kinetics, high adsorption capacity, and favorable selectivity. In addition, the obtained nanoparticles were used as solid-phase extraction sorbents for selective isolation and determination of chlorogenic acid in peach, apple, and grape juices (0.92, 4.21, and 0.75 μg mL(-1), respectively).
Pao, Steven; Davis, Craig L; Friedrich, Loretta M; Parish, Mickey E
This study was undertaken to investigate interference by acids commonly found in fruit juice in Escherichia coli assays involving the use of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) as a fluorogenic substrate for enzyme reaction. Fluorescence intensity was negatively correlated (P < 0.001) with the volume of fresh citrus juice tested by the lauryl tryptose broth (LST)-MUG assay, and the permissible sample sizes were limited to 0.3 and 0.5 ml for fresh citrus juices with pHs of 3.3 and 3.9, respectively. In addition, false-negative results were visually observed under UV light when the E*Colite assay was used to test large volumes (5 to 10 ml per test) of fresh citrus juice or when the test broth used for the LST-MUG assay was supplemented with citric, malic, or tartaric acid at 2 to 4 g/liter. These results suggest that the size and pH of acidic samples should be controlled in MUG-based fluorogenic assays. The inhibitory effect on fluorescence was due to high acidity, which reduces fluorescence from 4-methylumbelliferone. Buffering improved the assays. When sodium bicarbonate was incorporated in the enrichment broth at 10 g/liter, the permissible sample sizes for fresh grapefruit juice (pH 3.1) increased from 0.3 to 1 ml for the LST-MUG (with 9.9 ml of broth) assay and from 3 to 10 ml for the E*Colite (with 99 ml of broth) assay.
Jakmunee, Jaroon; Rujiralai, Thitima; Grudpan, Kate
A simple sequential injection analysis (SIA) with spectrophotometric detection for an assay of acidity in fruit juice was investigated. An alkaline reagent (sodium hydroxide), a sample and an indicator (phenolphthalein) were first aspirated and stacked as adjacent zones in a holding coil. With flow reversal through a reaction coil to the detector, zone penetration occurred, leading to a neutralization reaction that caused a decrease in the color intensity of the indicator being monitored for absorbance at 552 nm. The effects of various parameters were studied. Linear calibration graphs for acidities of 0.2 - 1.0 and 0.5 - 2.5% w/v citric acid as a standard, with a relative standard deviation of 1% (acidity of 0.3 - 0.6% w/v as citric acid, n=11) and a sample throughput of 30 samples h(-1), were achieved. The developed method was validated by a standard titrimetric method for assaying the acidity of fruit juice samples.
Determination of soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA) of intact fruit and juice of Satsuma mandarin was investigated using a hand-held NIR instrument “NIR-Gun” in transmittance mode. The resulting calibration equation measured SSC of intact fruit and juice with a standard error o...
Ruiz-Rico, María; Pérez-Esteve, Édgar; Lerma-García, María J; Marcos, María D; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Barat, José M
Folic acid (FA) is a synthetic vitamin commonly used for food fortification. However, its vulnerability to processing and storage implies loss of efficiency, which would induce over-fortification by processors to obtain a minimum dose upon consumption. Recent studies have indicated potential adverse effects of FA overdoses, and FA protection during processing and storage could lead to more accurate fortification. In addition, sustained vitamin release after consumption would help improve its metabolism. The objective of this work was to study controlled FA delivery and stability in fruit juices to reduce potential over-fortification risks by using gated mesoporous silica particles (MSPs). The obtained results indicated that FA encapsulation in MSPs significantly improved its stability and contributed to controlled release after consumption by modifying vitamin bioaccessibility. These results confirmed the suitability of MSPs as support for controlled release and protection of bioactive molecules in food matrices in different food production and storage stages.
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...
Xu, S X; Qin, X; Liu, B; Zhang, D Q; Zhang, W; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H
The pectin lyase gene pnl-zj5a from Aspergillus niger ZJ5 was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. PNL-ZJ5A was purified by ultrafiltration, anion exchange and gel chromatography. The Km and Vmax values determined using citrus pectin were 0.66 mg ml(-1) and 32.6 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) , respectively. PNL-ZJ5A exhibited optimal activity at 43°C and retained activity over 25-50°C. PNL-ZJ5A was optimally active at pH 5 and effective in apple juice clarification. Compared with controls, PNL-ZJ5A increased the fruit juice yield significantly. Furthermore, PNL-ZJ5A reduced the viscosity of apple juice by 38.8% and increased its transmittance by 86.3%. PNL-ZJ5A combined with a commercial pectin esterase resulted in higher juice volume.
Jirapinyo, P; Phosuya, P; Thammonsiri, N; Pidacha, P; Suwanthol, L; Patrarat, S
Forty kinds of commercial fruit juices sold in Thailand were analyzed for types and contents of carbohydrates, electrolytes as well as osmolarity and pH. Each juice was analyzed three times and the results were averaged. A few kinds of fruit juices have high sorbitol contents (> 10 g/L). There are some juices which have a high fructose to glucose ratio (> 1.5:1). Sodium contents in juices ranged from 19 to 1405 mg/L. The osmolarity of the juices ranged from 500 to 1200 mOsmol/L. Most juices have acid pH which ranged between 2.8 and 5.0. It is concluded that each fruit juice has a unique set of properties. Consumers should know the properties of each juice because chronic intake and large amount intake of the juice could have detrimental effects on the health of the consumer.
Bragança, Victor Luiz Cordoba; Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Z
Fruit juices are widely consumed in tropical countries as part of habitual diet. The concentrations of several minerals in these beverages were evaluated. Four commercially available brands of juices were analyzed for cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, iron, chromium, manganese, and molybdenum. The levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/L for copper, from 0.05 to 0.23 mg/L for zinc, from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L for aluminum, from 0.02 to 0.45 mg/L for iron, and from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L for manganese. The levels of cadmium, lead, and chromium in all samples were very low or undetectable. The metal contents of fruit juices depend on a number of factors, including the soil composition, the external conditions during fruit growing and fruit harvesting, as well as on details of the fruit juice manufacturing processes employed. The concentrations of none of the metals in juice samples analyzed exceeded the limits imposed by local legislation.
... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit... the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of fruit juice in this paragraph is for the purpose of identity as a color additive only and...
Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.
The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruit juices.
Navarro-Pascual-Ahuir, María; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel
An enhanced method for the determination of organic acids in several fruit juices by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with direct UV-Vis detection has been developed in this work. First, a study with simulated real juice samples was done to find the best separation conditions. Next, several commercial fruit juices were analyzed, and the organic acid contents were quantified in less than 12 min using a poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated fused-silica 'bubble cell' capillary. The present method is reliable, fast and provides detection limits comprised between 0.1 and 2.5 μg mL(-1). Moreover, different chemometric techniques, based on CZE data, were examined. Linear discriminant analysis allowed the differentiation of fruit juices according to the fruit type, whereas multiple linear regression models predicted the percentages of orange and pineapple juices in binary blends with grape. Thus, the present methodology is of utmost interest for routine and quality control purposes in food industries.
... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...
... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...
... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...
Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Fernández, Ana; Bernardo, Ana; López, Mercedes
Acid and heat inactivation in orange and apple juices of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo (i.e., Spanish Type Culture Collection) 443 (CECT 443) (Salmonella Typhimurium) and S. enterica serovar Senftenberg CECT 4384 (Salmonella Senftenberg) grown in buffered brain heart infusion (pH 7.0) and acidified brain heart infusion up to pH 4.5 with acetic, citric, lactic, and hydrochloric acids was evaluated. Acid adaptation induced an adaptive response that increased the subsequent resistance to extreme pH conditions (pH 2.5) and to heat, although the magnitude of these responses differed between the two isolates and fruit juices. The acid resistance in orange juice for acid-adapted cells (D-values of 28.3-34.5 min for Salmonella Senftenberg and 30.0-39.2 min for Salmonella Typhimurium) resulted to be about two to three times higher than that corresponding to non-acid-adapted cells. In apple juice, acid-adapted Salmonella Senftenberg cells survived better than those of Salmonella Typhimurium, obtaining mean D-values of 114.8 +/- 12.3 and 41.9 +/- 2.5 min, respectively. The thermotolerance of non-acid-adapted Salmonella Typhimurium in orange (D(58)-value: 0.028 min) and apple juices (D(58)-value: 0.10 min) was approximately double for acid-adapted cells. This cross-protection to heat was more strongly expressed in Salmonella Senftenberg. D(58)-values obtained for non-acid-adapted cells in orange (0.11 min) and apple juices (0.19 min) increased approximately 10 and 5 times, respectively, after their growth in acidified media. The conditions prevailing during bacterial growth and heat treatment did not significantly influence the z-values observed (6.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C for Salmonella Typhimurium and 7.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C for Salmonella Senftenberg). The enhanced acid resistance found for both isolates could enable them to survive for prolonged time periods in the gastrointestinal tract, increasing the risk of illness. Further, it
Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe
Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods.
Herraiz, Tomas; Galisteo, Juan
The novel carbohydrate-derived beta-carboline, 1-pentahydroxypentyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, was identified in fruit- and vegetable-derived products such as juices, jams, and tomato sauces. This compound occurred as two diastereoisomers, a cis isomer (the major compound) and a trans isomer, ranging from undetectable amounts to 6.5 microg/g. Grape, tomato, pineapple, and tropical juices exhibited the highest amount of this alkaloid (up to 3.8 mg/L), whereas apple, banana, and peach juices showed very low or nondetectable levels. This tetrahydro-beta-carboline was also found in jams (up to 0.45 microg/g), and a relative high amount was present in tomato concentrate (6.5 microg/g) and sauce (up to 1.8 microg/g). This beta-carboline occurred in fruit-derived products as a glycoconjugate from a chemical condensation of D-glucose and L-tryptophan that is highly favored at low pH values and high temperature. Production, processing treatments, and storage of fruit juices and jams can then release this beta-carboline. Fruit-derived products and other foods containing this compound might be an exogenous dietary source of this glucose-derived tetrahydro-beta-carboline.
Yapo, Beda M
An environment-friendly procedure, allowing the extraction of safe pectin products with good functional properties from yellow passion fruit by-product, was developed using two natural acid extractants, namely, pure lemon juice and citric acid solvent. The results show that both of them solubilise, from cell wall material, pectins characterised by high galacturonic acid content (64-78% w/w), degree of esterification (52-73), viscosity-average molecular weight (70-95 kDa) and capable of forming gels in the presence of high soluble solids (sucrose) content and acid. However, compared to pure citric acid solvents, lemon natural juice and its concentrate isolate, under similar extraction conditions, pectins of superior quality characteristics, i.e., higher galacturonic acid content, degree of esterification, viscosity-average molecular weight and gelling power.
Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...
Matsumoto, Hikaru; Ikoma, Yoshinori
To elucidate the effect of different postharvest temperatures on the accumulation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids and to determine the best temperature to minimize their postharvest change, their content after harvest was investigated at 5, 10, 20, and 30 °C for 14 days in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Aoshima-unshiu) fruit. In all sugars, the changes were negligible at all temperatures. Organic acids decreased slightly at all temperatures, with the exception of malic acid at 30 °C, which increased slightly. Two amino acids, ornithine and glutamine, increased at 5 °C, but they did not increase at other temperatures. In 11 amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, threonine, lysine, methionine, histidine, and γ-amino butyric acid), the content was higher at 20 and 30 °C than at other temperatures. Thus, the content of amino acids was more variable than that of sugars and organic acids in response to temperatures. Moreover, amino acids responded to temperature differently: two amino acids were cold responsive, and 11 were heat-responsive. The best temperature to minimize the postharvest changes in amino acid profiles in the juice sacs of Aoshima-unshiu was 10 °C. The responsiveness to temperatures in two cold-responsive (ornithine and glutamine) and five heat-responsive (phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine, lysine, and histidine) amino acids was conserved among three different Satsuma mandarin cultivars, Aoshima-unshiu (late-maturing cultivar), Silverhill (midmaturing cultivar), and Miyagawa-wase (early-maturing cultivar). The metabolic responsiveness to temperature stress was discussed on the basis of the changes in the amino acid profile.
Wallace, Alison J; Eady, Sarah L; Hunter, Denise C; Skinner, Margot A; Huffman, Lee; Ansell, Juliet; Blatchford, Paul; Wohlers, Mark; Herath, Thanuja D; Hedderley, Duncan; Rosendale, Douglas; Stoklosinski, Halina; McGhie, Tony; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Redman, Claire
This study examined the effect of a Boysenberry beverage (750 mg polyphenols), an apple fiber beverage (7.5 g dietary fiber), and a Boysenberry plus apple fiber beverage (750 mg polyphenols plus 7.5 g dietary fiber) on gut health. Twenty-five individuals completed the study. The study was a placebo-controlled crossover study, where every individual consumed 1 of the 4 treatments in turn. Each treatment phase was 4-week long and was followed by a 2-week washout period. The trial beverages were 350 g taken in 2 doses every day (ie, 175 mL taken twice daily). The hypothesis for the study was that the combination of polyphenols and fiber would have a greater benefit on gut health than the placebo product or the fiber or polyphenols on their own. There were no differences in fecal levels of total bacteria, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group, Bifidobacteriumspecies, Clostridium perfringens, or Lactobacillus species among any of the treatment groups. Fecal short chain fatty acid concentrations did not vary among treatment groups, although prostaglandin E2 concentrations were higher after consumption of the Boysenberry juice beverage. No significant differences were found in quantitative measures of gut health between the Boysenberry juice beverage, the apple fiber beverage, the Boysenberry juice plus apple fiber beverage, and the placebo beverage.
Pyo, Young-Hee; Jin, Yoo-Jeong; Hwang, Ji-Young
Four Korean kernel fruit (apple, pear, persimmon, and mandarin orange) juices were obtained by household processing techniques (i.e., blending, juicing). Whole and flesh fractions of each fruit were extracted by a blender or a juicer and then examined for phytochemical content (i.e., organic acids, polyphenol compounds). The antioxidant capacity of each juice was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results revealed that juices that had been prepared by blending whole fruits had stronger antioxidant activities and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds than juices that had been prepared by juicing the flesh fraction of the fruit. However, the concentration of ascorbic acid in apple, pear, and mandarin orange juices was significantly (P<0.05) higher in juice that had been processed by juicing, rather than blending. The juices with the highest ascorbic acid (233.9 mg/serving), total polyphenols (862.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/serving), and flavonoids (295.1 mg quercetin equivalents/serving) concentrations were blended persimmon juice, blended mandarin orange juice, and juiced apple juice, respectively. These results indicate that juice extraction techniques significantly (P<0.05) influences the phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacity of fruit juices.
Bakul, G; Unni, V N; Seethaleksmy, N V; Mathew, A; Rajesh, R; Kurien, G; Rajesh, J; Jayaraj, P M; Kishore, D S; Jose, P P
Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management.
Viñas, Pilar; Pastor-Belda, Marta; Torres, Aitor; Campillo, Natalia; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel
Magnetic nanoparticles of cobalt ferrite with oleic acid as the surfactant (CoFe2O4/oleic acid) were used as sorbent material for the determination of alkylphenols in fruit juices. High sensitivity and specificity were achieved by liquid chromatography and detection using both diode-array (DAD) and electrospray-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS/MS) in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode of the negative fragment ions for alkylphenols (APs) and in positive mode for ethoxylate APs (APEOs). The optimized conditions for the different variables influencing the magnetic separation procedure were: mass of magnetic nanoparticles, 50mg, juice volume, 10mL diluted to 25mL with water, pH 6, stirring for 10min at room temperature, separation with an external neodymium magnet, desorption with 3mL of methanol and orbital shaking for 5min. The enriched organic phase was evaporated and reconstituted with 100µL acetonitrile before injecting 30µL into a liquid chromatograph with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile/0.1% (v/v) formic acid under gradient elution. Quantification limits were in the range 3.6 to 125ngmL(-1). The recoveries obtained were in the 91-119% range, with RSDs lower than 14%. The ESI-MS/MS spectra permitted the correct identification of both APs and APEOs in the fruit juice samples.
Shui, Guanghou; Leong, Lai Peng
A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation method with photo-diode array detection has been developed for the simultaneous determination of organic acids and phenolic compounds in juices and drinks. The chromatographic analysis of organic acids and phenolic compounds was carried out after their elution with sulphuric acid solution (pH 2.5) and methanol from C18 stationary phase. The mobile phase employed was sulphuric acid solution working at a flow-rate of 0.35 ml min(-1) for the whole run, while methanol was linearly increased to 0.45 ml min(-1) from 15 to 75 min followed by a 5-min isocratic elution. Ten organic acid acids were eluted in 30 min and 21 phenolic compounds, which include phenolic acids and flavonoids, were eluted in the following 50 min. Target compounds were detected at 215 nm. The repeatability (n=3) and between day precision of peak area (n=3) were all within 5.0% RSD. The within-day repeatability (n=3) and between-day precision (n=10) of retention times were within 0.3 and 1.6% relative standard deviation (RSD), respectively. The accuracy of the method was confirmed with an average recovery ranging between 85 and 106%. The method was successfully used to measure a variety of organic acids and phenolic compounds in juices and beverages. This method could also be used to evaluate the authenticity, spoilage or micronutrient contents of juices.
Ballot, D; Baynes, R D; Bothwell, T H; Gillooly, M; MacFarlane, B J; MacPhail, A P; Lyons, G; Derman, D P; Bezwoda, W R; Torrance, J D
The effects of the chemical composition of fruit juices and fruit on the absorption of iron from a rice (Oryza sativa) meal were measured in 234 parous Indian women, using the erythrocyte utilization of radioactive Fe method. The corrected geometric mean Fe absorptions with different juices varied between 0.040 and 0.129, with the variation correlating closely with the ascorbic acid contents of the juices (rs 0.838, P less than 0.01). Ascorbic acid was not the only organic acid responsible for the promoting effects of citrus fruit juices on Fe absorption. Fe absorption from laboratory 'orange juice' (100 ml water, 33 mg ascorbic acid and 750 mg citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml water and 33 mg ascorbic acid alone (0.097 and 0.059 respectively), while Fe absorption from 100 ml orange juice (28 mg ascorbic acid) was better than that from 100 ml water containing the same amount of ascorbic acid (0.139 and 0.098 respectively). Finally, Fe absorption from laboratory 'lemon juice' (100 ml orange juice and 4 g citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml orange juice (0.226 and 0.166 respectively). The corrected geometric mean Fe absorption from the rice meal was 0.025. Several fruits had little or no effect on Fe absorption from the meal (0.013-0.024). These included grape (Vitis vinifera), peach (Prunus persica), apple (Malus sylvestris) and avocado pear (Persea americana). Fruit with a mild to moderate enhancing effect on Fe absorption (0.031-0.088) included strawberry (Fragaria sp.) (uncorrected values), plum (Prunus domestica), rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum), banana (Musa cavendishii), mango (Mangifera indica), pear (Pyrus communis), cantaloup (Cucumis melo) and pineapple (Ananas comosus) (uncorrected values). Guava (Psidium guajava) and pawpaw (Carica papaya) markedly increased Fe absorption (0.126-0.293). There was a close correlation between Fe absorption and the ascorbic acid content of the fruits tested (rs 0.738, P less
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...
Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish
Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.
Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish
Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721
Crowe, Kristi Michele; Murray, Elizabeth
Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruit juice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruit juice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (P<0.05). Antioxidant density (mmol TE/100 g) of apple, orange, and grapefruit was 23% to 54% higher than the mean antioxidant density of name-brand and store-brand juices for each fruit; however, only apple and grapefruit exhibited significantly greater (P<0.05) antioxidant density than either of their name-brand or store-brand juices. In contrast, the mean antioxidant density of name-brand grape and pineapple juice was higher than fresh grape or pineapple fruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (P<0.05) antioxidants than store-brand grape juice. Regardless of the convenience of fruit juice, results support the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for increasing fruit servings in the whole fruit form due to their provision of beneficial antioxidants and fiber with approximately 35% less sugar.
Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary
More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons.
Gabrovská, Dana; Ouhrabková, Jarmila; Rysová, Jana; Laknerová, Ivana; Fiedlerová, Vlasta; Holasová, Marie; Winterová, Renata; Průchová, Jiřina; Strohalm, Jan; Houška, Milan; Landfeld, Aleš; Erban, Vladimír; Eichlerová, Eva; Němečková, Irena; Kejmarová, Marie; Bočková, Pavlína
The aim of this work was to find sensory suitable combinations of not commonly used vegetables, that is, cabbage, celeriac and parsnip, into mixed fruit-vegetable juices, two-species vegetable juices and vegetable juices with whey. These juices might have the potential to offer consumers new, interesting, tasty and nutritional products. Another interesting variation could be preparation of vegetable juices in combination with sweet whey. Nutritional and sensory evaluations were carried out using juices prepared in the laboratory. The total phenolic content, in addition to ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity, was determined. The developed juices with high nutritional value should increase very low fruit and vegetable consumption in the Czech population. The prepared juices were high pressure pasteurized (410 MPa). This technique retains the desired levels of important nutritional substances, while being destructive to live microbial cell structure. The germination of spores is suppressed by low pH value.
Dennison, B A
The pattern of fruit juice consumption has changed over time. Fifty years ago, orange juice was the major juice produced and it was consumed primarily to prevent scurvy. Now, apple juice is the juice of choice for the under 5 age group. While fruit juice is a healthy, low-fat, nutritious beverage, there have been some health concerns regarding juice consumption. Nursing bottle caries have long been recognized as a consequence of feeding juice in bottles, using the bottle as a pacifier, and prolonged bottle feeding. Non-specific chronic diarrhea or "toddler's" diarrhea has been associated with juice consumption, especially juices high in sorbitol and those with a high fructose to glucose ratio. This relates to carbohydrate malabsorption, which varies by the type, concentration, and mixture of sugars present in different fruit juices. Fruit juice consumption by preschoolers has recently increased from 3.2 to about 5.5 fl oz/day. Consumption of fruit juice helps fulfill the recommendation to eat more fruits and vegetables, with fruit juice accounting for 50% of all fruit servings consumed by children, aged 2 through 18 years, and 1/3 of all fruits and vegetables consumed by preschoolers. Concomitant with the increase in fruit juice consumption has been a decline in milk intake. This is concerning as milk is the major source of calcium in the diet, and at present, only 50% of children, aged 1 through 5 years, meet the RDA for calcium. Studies of newborn infants and preschool-aged children have demonstrated a preference for sweet-tasting foods and beverages. Thus, it is not surprising that some children, if given the opportunity, might consume more fruit juice than is considered optimal. Eleven percent of healthy preschoolers consumed > or = 12 fl oz/day of fruit juice, which is considered excessive. Excess fruit juice consumption has been reported as a contributing factor in some children with nonorganic failure to thrive and in some children with decreased stature. In
Cheng, Zhong; Chen, Dong; Wang, Qingyan; Xian, Liang; Lu, Bo; Wei, Yutuo; Tang, Hongchi; Lu, Zhilong; Zhu, Qixia; Chen, Yunlai; Huang, Ribo
Endo-polygalacturonases play an important role on depectinization in fruit juices industry. A putative endo-polygalacturonase gene PoxaEnPG28A was cloned from Penicillium oxalicum CZ1028. PoxaEnPG28A consisted of a putative signal peptide and a catalytic domain belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 28, and it shared 72% identity with that of a functionally characterized endo-polygalacturonase from Trichoderma harzianum. Gene PoxaEnPG28A was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris with a high yield of 1828.7 U/mL. The purified recombinant enzyme PoxaEnPG28A hydrolyzed polygalacturonic acid in endo-manner releasing oligo-galacturonates. PoxaEnPG28A showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 55°C, and was stable between pH 3.0 to 10.0 and below 45°C. The kinetic constants Km and Vmax of PoxaEnPG28A were calculated as 1.57 g/L and 14,641.29 U/mg, respectively. PoxaEnPG28A significantly improved the yields of fruit juices from banana, plantain, papaya, pitaya and mango. The high production level of the recombinant enzyme PoxaEnPG28A by P. pastoris and remarkable catalytic activity of PoxaEnPG28A toward five kinds of fruit juices made the enzyme a potential application in agriculture and food industries.
... html Fruit Juice for Kids: A Serving a Day OK Review of studies finds 1 glass of 100-percent juice a day not linked with weight gain To use the ... one serving [of 100-percent fruit juice] a day contributes to weight gain in children," said study ...
Cloudy fruit juices, particularly from tropical fruit, are becoming a fast-growing part of the fruit juice sector. The classification of cloud as coarse and fine clouds by centrifugation and composition of cloud from apple, pineapple, orange, guava, and lemon juice are described. Fine particulate is shown to be the true stable cloud and to contain considerable protein, carbohydrate, and lipid components. Often, tannin is present as well. The fine cloud probably arises from cell membranes and appears not to be simply cell debris. Factors relating to the stability of fruit juice cloud, including particle sizes, size distribution, and density, are described and discussed. Factors promoting stable cloud in juice are presented.
García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan Carlos; Aaby, Kjersti; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Heinonen, Marina; Jacobs, Griet; Voorspoels, Stefan; Koivumäki, Tuuli; Kroon, Paul A; Pelvan, Ebru; Saha, Shikha; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A
Pomegranates are one of the main highly valuable sources of ellagitannins. Despite the potential health benefits of these compounds, reliable data on their content in pomegranates and derived extracts and food products is lacking, as it is usually underestimated due to their complexity, diversity, and lack of commercially available standards. This study describes a new method for the analysis of the extractable and nonextractable ellagitannins based on the quantification of the acid hydrolysis products that include ellagic acid, gallic acid, sanguisorbic acid dilactone, valoneic acid dilactone, and gallagic acid dilactone in pomegranate samples. The study also shows the occurrence of ellagitannin C-glycosides in pomegranates. The method was optimized using a pomegranate peel extract. To quantify nonextractable ellagitannins, freeze-dried pomegranate fruit samples were directly hydrolyzed with 4 M HCl in water at 90 °C for 24 h followed by extraction of the pellet with dimethyl sulfoxide/methanol (50:50, v/v). The method was validated and reproducibility was assessed by means of an interlaboratory trial, showing high reproducibility across six laboratories with relative standard deviations below 15%. Their applicability was demonstrated in several pomegranate extracts, different parts of pomegranate fruit (husk, peels, and mesocarp), and commercial juices. A large variability has been found in the ellagitannin content (150-750 mg of hydrolysis products/g) and type (gallagic acid/ellagic acid ratios between 4 and 0.15) of the 11 pomegranate extracts studied.
Gunathilake, K D P P; Yu, Li Juan; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha
Reverse osmosis (RO) as a potential technique to improve the antioxidant properties of cranberry, blueberry and apple juices was evaluated for the formulation of a functional beverage. The effects of temperature (20-40 °C) and trans-membrane pressure (25-35 bars) on physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of fruit juices were evaluated to optimize the operating parameters for each fruit juice. There was no significant effect on any quality parameters of fruit juices under studied operating parameters of RO. However, total soluble solid, total acidity and colour (a(∗)) of the concentrated juices increased in proportion to their volumetric concentrations. Antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay of concentrated apple, blueberry and cranberry juice was increased by 40%, 34%, and 30%, respectively. LDL oxidation inhibition by concentrated blueberry and cranberry juice was increased up to 41% and 45%, respectively. The results suggest that RO can be used for enhancing the health promoting properties of fruit juices.
Samoylenko, Volodymyr; Zhao, Jianping; Dunbar, D Chuck; Khan, Ikhlas A; Rushing, James W; Muhammad, Ilias
Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae), known as noni, has a long history of traditional use in the Hawaiian and Tahitian islands. More recently, an array of commercial noni fruit juice products are gaining popularity as dietary supplements, with claims of anticancer and immunostimulant activities. The biologically active principles of noni are not fully known. In continuation of work on the isolation of markers from dietary supplements, this paper reports the isolation of three new markers, namely, 1-O-(3'-methylbut-3'-enyl)-beta-D-glucopyranose (1), 1-n-butyl-4-(5'-formyl-2'-furanyl)methyl succinate (2), and 4-epi-borreriagenin (3), together with the known iridoid glycosides asperulosidic acid (4) and deacetylasperulosidic acid (5) and a mixture of 1-n-butyl-4-methyl-2-hydroxysuccinate (6a) and 1-n-butyl-4-methyl-3-hydroxysuccinate (6b), as well as a mixture of alpha- and beta-glucopyranose from noni fruit juice obtained from Puerto Rico. The structures of compounds were based on 1H and 13C NMR, mainly 2D NMR COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY experiments, and HRMS. Furthermore, samples from fresh-squeezed noni fruit juice from Japan revealed the presence of scopoletin (7), in addition to compounds 1-6, indicating no significant differences in the marker constituents of noni collected from Atlantic and Pacific regions.
Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew
Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p <0.01), central pulse pressure (F (2, 134) = 4.16, p <0.05), central augmentation pressure (F (2, 134) = 5.98, p <0.01) and central augmentation index (F (2, 134) = 3.29, p <0.05) as well as lower pulse pressure amplification (F (2, 134) = 4.36, p <0.05). There were no differences in brachial BP. Central systolic BP was 3-4 mmHg higher for those who consumed fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs.
Hu, Xin; Xie, Lianwu; Guo, Junfang; Li, Hui; Jiang, Xinyu; Zhang, Yuping; Shi, Shuyun
Hydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for gallic acid (GA) were prepared with excellent recognition ability in an aqueous solution. The proposed MIPs were designed by self-polymerization of dopamine (DA) on magnetic mesoporous silica (Fe3O4@SiO2@mSiO2, MMS) using GA as template. Resulting Fe3O4@SiO2@mSiO2@MIPs (MMS-MIPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and evaluated by adsorption isotherms/kinetics and competitive adsorption. The adsorption behavior between GA and MMS-MIPs followed Langmuir and Sips adsorption isotherms with a maximum adsorption capacity at 88.7 mg/g and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics with fast binding (equilibrium time at 100 min). In addition, MMS-MIPs showed rapid magnetic separation (10 s) and stability (retained 95.2% after six cycles). Subsequently, MMS-MIPs were applied for the selective extraction and determination of GA from grape, apple, peach and orange juices (4.02, 3.91, 5.97, and 0.67 μg/g, respectively). Generally, the described method may pave the way towards rationally designing more advanced hydrophilic MIPs.
Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane
Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations.
Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane
Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266
... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...
... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...
... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...
Ryu, J H; Beuchat, L R
A study was done to determine survival and growth characteristics of acid-adapted, acid-shocked, and control cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated into tryptic soy broth (TSB) acidified with organic acids and three commercial brands of apple cider and orange juice. The three types of cells behaved similarly in TSB acidified with acetic acid; however, in TSB (pH 3.9) acidified with lactic acid, acid-adapted cells were more tolerant than acid-shocked cells which, in turn, were more tolerant than control cells. The ability of the three types of cells to grow after inoculation into acidified TSB, then plated on tryptic soy agar containing sodium chloride was determined. Tolerance of acid-adapted cells and, less markedly, acid-shocked cells to sodium chloride was diminished, compared to control cells. The pathogen showed extraordinary tolerance to the low pH of apple cider and orange juice held at 5 or 25 degrees C for up to 42 days. Growth occurred in one brand of apple cider (pH 3.98) incubated at 25 degrees C. Regardless of test parameters, there was no indication that cell types differed in tolerance to the acidic environment in apple cider or orange juice. Survival of control, acid-adapted, and acid-shocked cells heated in apple cider and orange juice was studied. Within each apple cider or orange juice, D(52 degrees C)-values of acid-adapted cells were considerably higher than those of acid-shocked or control cells, which indicates that heat tolerance can be substantially enhanced by acid adaptation compared to acid shock.
Sharma, Harsh P; Patel, Hiral; Sugandha
Enzymatic treatment for juice extraction is most commonly used now a days. The enzymatic process is claimed to offer a number of advantages over mechanical-thermal comminution of several fruit pulps. Enzymes are an integral component of modern fruit juice manufacturing and are highly suitable for optimizing processes. Their main purposes are: increase extraction of juice from raw material, increase processing efficiency (pressing, solid settling or removal), and generate a final product that is clear and visually attractive. Juice extraction can be done by using various mechanical processes, which may be achieved through diffusion extraction, decanter centrifuge, screw type juice extractor, fruit pulper and by different types of presses. Enzymatic treatment prior to mechanical extraction significantly improves juice recovery compared to any other extraction process. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cell walls increases the extraction yield, reducing sugars, soluble dry matter content and galacturonic acid content and titrable acidity of the products. Enzymatic degradation of the biomaterial depends upon the type of enzyme, incubation time, incubation temperature, enzyme concentration, agitation, pH and use of different enzyme combinations. We can conclude from the technical literature that use of the enzymes i.e. cellulases, pectinases, amylases and combination of these enzymes can give better juice yield with superior quality of the fruit juice. Pectinase enzyme can give maximum juice yield i.e. 92.4% at 360 minutes incubation time, 37°C incubation temperature and 5 mg/100 g of enzyme concentration. Whereas the combination of two enzymes i.e. pectin methyl esterase (PME) and polygalacturonase (PG) at 120 minutes of incubation time, 50°C of incubation temperature and 0.05 mg/100 gm of enzymatic concentration can give the maximum yield of 96.8% for plum fruits. This paper discusses the use of enzymes in fruit juice production focusing on the juice recovery
Grande, Maria J; Lucas, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Abriouel, Hikmate; Maqueda, Mercedes; Omar, Nabil Ben; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvezi, Antonio
Enterocin AS-48 is a candidate bacteriocin for food biopreservation. Before addressing application of AS-48 to vegetable-based foods, the interaction between AS-48 and vegetable food components and the stability of AS-48 were studied. Enterocin AS-48 had variable interactions with fruit and vegetable juices, with complete, partial, or negligible loss of activity. For some juices, loss of activity was ameliorated by increasing the bacteriocin concentration, diluting the juice, or applying a heat pretreatment. In juices obtained from cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, green beans, celery, and avocado, AS-48 was very stable for the first 24 to 48 h of storage under refrigeration, and decay of activity was markedly influenced by storage temperature. In fresh-made fruit juices (orange, apple, grapefruit, pear, pineapple, and kiwi) and juice mixtures, AS-48 was very stable for at least 15 days at 4 degrees C, and bacteriocin activity was still detectable after 30 days of storage. Gradual and variable loss of activity occurred in juices stored at 15 and 28 degrees C; inactivation was faster at higher temperatures. In commercial fruit juices (orange, apple, peach, and pineapple) stored at 4 degrees C, the bacteriocin was completely stable for up to 120 days, and over 60% of initial activity was still present in juices stored at 15 degrees C for the same period. Commercial fruit juices stored at 28 degrees C for 120 days retained between 31.5% (apple) and 67.71% (peach) of their initial bacteriocin activity. Solutions of AS-48 in sterile distilled water were stable (120 days at 4 to 28 degrees C). Limited loss of activity was observed after mixing AS-48 with some food-grade dyes and thickening agents. Enterocin AS-48 added to lettuce juice incubated at 15 degrees C reduced viable counts of Listeria monocytogenes CECT 4032 and Bacillus cereus LWL1 to below detection limits and markedly reduced viable counts of Staphylococcus aureus CECT 976.
Moukarzel, A A; Sabri, M T
The stomach stores food and starts digesting protein and fat. Lipids, sugars, certain amino acids, and nutrients of high osmolality trigger sensory mechanisms from the intestine which inhibit gastric emptying. Food rich in carbohydrates leaves the stomach slower than protein-rich food, and emptying is slowest after a meal containing lipid. For carbohydrate beverages, the gastric emptying rate is primarily determined by the volume, caloric content, and osmolality of fluid ingested. Gastric emptying rates vary among isocaloric beverages of different type (e.g., sucrose, fructose, galactose) or forms (e.g., maltodextrins, starches) of carbohydrate. For instance, gastric emptying is faster for a fructose solution compared with isocaloric glucose and galactose solutions. A maltodextrin or a sucrose solution empties faster than a glucose solution. This is possibly due to the greater inhibitory feedback associated with the introduction of glucose in the duodenum. In addition, fruit juices contain soluble fibers which further modulate the gastric emptying. Noninvasive methods to study gastric emptying have recently been developed. The pattern of the myoelectric activity of the gastric contraction and the effect of meals on this pattern can now be recorded by cutaneous electrodes. In healthy children ingesting different juices, the myoelectric pattern of the stomach (indicator of the gastric emptying) correlates with the carbohydrate absorption (measured by breath hydrogen excretion). Fast gastric emptying was associated with greater production of breath hydrogen. The malabsorption of juice carbohydrates may in part be related to their effect on gastric motility.
McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita
Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds.
Noël, Harold; Hofhuis, Agnetha; De Jonge, Rob; Heuvelink, Annet E; De Jong, Aarieke; Heck, Max E O C; De Jager, Carolien; van Pelt, Wilfrid
In spring 2008, 15 Salmonella Panama laboratory-confirmed cases were reported within 2 weeks, twice the average annual number of reported cases of this infrequent serotype in The Netherlands. To identify the source responsible for this national outbreak, we carried out an epidemiological, microbiological, and trace-back investigation. In total, 33 cases were reported, and a matched case-control study (23 cases/24 controls) identified consumption of fresh (unpasteurized) fruit juice purchased from a large retailer (X) as the only significant risk factor for illness (matched odds ratio: 7.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.5-37.2). Though the bacterium could not be isolated from fruit juice, the minimal pH value for growth of the causative strain of the outbreak (3.4) was compatible with survival in fruit juice from X. The outbreak strain showed acid resistance and adaptive properties that may explain how it could have caused infection through fresh orange juice. To our knowledge, this is the first documented outbreak related to fresh fruit juice consumption in western Europe since 1922. A growing number of consumers who are seeking healthy food practices are exposed to the infectious risks related to unpasteurized fresh fruit juice. Labeling regulations should be adapted to properly indicate to the consumers that unpasteurized fresh fruit juices remain vulnerable to microbial contamination. Frequent microbiological screening and strict compliance with food safety procedures should reduce the infectious hazards of fresh fruit juices.
Guyot, Sylvain; Marnet, Nathalie; Sanoner, Philippe; Drilleau, Jean-François
Five French cider apple varieties were compared on the basis of their detailed polyphenol profile in the cortex and in the juices. Among the factors studied, variety was the most important variability factor in fruits, whereas polyphenol profiles showed an overall stability from one year to another, and a limited decrease of polyphenol concentration was observed during the starch regression period of fruit maturation. In juices, procyanidins remained the preponderant polyphenol class with concentrations up to 2.4 g/L even in centrifuged juices. Compared to the fruits, the average degree of polymerization of procyanidins was significantly reduced in the juice. Centrifugation of the crude juice had only minor effects on the polyphenol composition. For one variety, highly polymerized procyanidins with average degrees of polymerization of 25 were shown to be soluble in the centrifuged juice at a concentration of close to 1.2 g/L. Oxygenation of the juices during processing resulted in a significant decrease of all classes of native polyphenols. Catechins and procyanidins were particularly affected by oxidation, whereas caffeoylquinic acid was partly preserved. The transfer of polyphenols after pressing was maximal for dihydrochalcones and minimal for procyanidins with extraction yield values close to 80 and 30%, respectively.
Monforte, Maria T; Fimiani, Vincenzo; Lanuzza, Francesco; Naccari, Clara; Restuccia, Salvatore; Galati, Enza M
Feijoa sellowiana Berg var. coolidge fruit juice was studied in vivo for the anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw edema test and in vitro for the effects on superoxide anion release from neutrophils in human whole blood. The fruit juice was analyzed by the high-performance liquid chromatography method, and quercetin, ellagic acid, catechin, rutin, eriodictyol, gallic acid, pyrocatechol, syringic acid, and eriocitrin were identified. The results showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity of F. sellowiana fruit juice, sustained also by an effective antioxidant activity observed in preliminary studies on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. In particular, the anti-inflammatory activity edema inhibition is significant since the first hour (44.11%) and persists until the fifth hour (44.12%) of the treatment. The effect on superoxide anion release was studied in human whole blood, in the presence of activators affecting neutrophils by different mechanisms. The juice showed an inhibiting response on neutrophils basal activity in all experimental conditions. In stimulated neutrophils, the higher inhibition of superoxide anion generation was observed at concentration of 10(-4) and 10(-2) mg/mL in whole blood stimulate with phorbol-myristate-13-acetate (PMA; 20% and 40%) and with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP; 15% and 48%). The significant reduction of edema and the inhibition of O2(-) production, occurring mainly through interaction with protein-kinase C pathway, confirm the anti-inflammatory effect of F. sellowiana fruit juice.
Bakul, G.; Unni, V. N.; Seethaleksmy, N. V.; Mathew, A.; Rajesh, R.; Kurien, G.; Rajesh, J.; Jayaraj, P. M.; Kishore, D. S.; Jose, P. P.
Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management. PMID:23960349
Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B
The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children.
Heyman, Melvin B.
The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture’s Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children. PMID:22813423
Danyluk, Michelle D; Friedrich, Loretta M; Jouquand, Celine; Goodrich-Schneider, Renee; Parish, Mickey E; Rouseff, Russell
The presence of Alicyclobacillus in fruit juices and concentrates poses a serious problem for the juice industry. This study was undertaken to determine the (i) prevalence, concentration, and species of Alicyclobacillus in tropical and subtropical concentrates; (ii) efficacy of aqueous chlorine dioxide in reducing Alicyclobacillus spp. spores on tropical and subtropical fruit surfaces; and (iii) fate of and off-flavor production by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in mango and pineapple juices. One hundred and eighty tropical and subtropical juice concentrates were screened for the presence and concentration of Alicyclobacillus spp. If found, the species of Alicyclobacillus was determined by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis with NCI BLAST. Of these samples, 6.1% were positive for Alicyclobacillus, and nine A. acidoterrestris strains and two Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius strains were identified. A five-strain cocktail of Alicyclobacillus spp. was inoculated onto the surface of fruits (grapefruit, guava, limes, mangoes, oranges and pineapple), which were then washed with 0, 50, or 100 ppm aqueous chlorine dioxide. Significant reductions due to chlorine dioxide were only seen on citrus fruits. A five-strain cocktail of A. acidoterrestris was inoculated into mango and pineapple juices. Microbial populations were enumerated over a 16-day period. Aroma compounds in the juice were analyzed by GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and confirmed using GC-MS. GC-O of mango juice identified previously reported medicinal/antiseptic compounds. GC-O of pineapple juice revealed an unexpected "cheese" off-aroma associated with 2-methylbutyric acid and 3-methylbutyric acid.
Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.
The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical "sugar-like" spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.
Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir
The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work.
Valente, A; Sanches-Silva, A; Albuquerque, T G; Costa, H S
Reference materials are useful for the quality control of analytical procedures and to evaluate the performance of laboratories. There are few and expensive certified reference materials commercially available for vitamin C or ascorbic acid analysis in food matrices. In this study, the preparation and the suitability assessment of an orange juice in-house reference material (RM) for vitamin C analysis in fruits, juices and in fruit pulps is described. This RM was used for the development and full validation of an HPLC method. The results showed excellent linearity (r(2)=0.9995), good accuracy (96.6-97.3%) and precision, as relative standard deviation, ranged from 0.70% to 3.67%. The in-house RM was homogenous and stable at storage conditions (-80°C) during 12 months. According to our results, this in-house RM is an excellent tool to use in quality control and method verification purposes for vitamin C analysis of fruits, juices and fruit pulps matrices. Furthermore, a stabilization solution with perchloric and metaphosphoric acids was developed which prevents degradation of ascorbic acid for a period of 12 months at -80°C.
Dehelean, A.; Magdas, D. A.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the heavy metal content of 21 Romanian single strength fruit (plum, apple, sour cherry) juices. The samples were collected from five Romanian areas namely: Alba, Maramures, Cluj, Salaj and Moldova. The results indicated macro (Na, Mg, Ca, P) and micro (Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, etc) elements in the selected samples. The determination was performed by ICP-MS. Our results for fruit juice were compared with allowable limits for drinking water in the United Kingdom (NS30).
Strohl, Arthur N.
Provides procedures to measure the calcium concentration in fruit juice by atomic absorption. Fruit juice is used because: (1) it is an important consumer product; (2) large samples are available; and (3) calcium exists in fruit juice at concentrations that do not require excessive dilution or preconcentration prior to measurement. (JN)
Shah, Nor Nadiah Abdul Karim; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Shamsuddin, Rosnah; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd
The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes occured on phenolic compounds between two Malaysian varieties of pummelo fruit juice: Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52) post-enzymatic clarification. The changes in polyphenols composition were monitored using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection and Folin Ciocalteu's method. Clarification treatment of pummelo fruit juice with a commercial pectinase was optimized based on incubation temperature, time and enzyme concentration. Both varieties of pummelo fruit juice were treated with different optimized variables which produced the highest clarities with the least effect to the juice physical quality. Tambun variety was found to have significantly more total phenolic compounds (p <0.05) in comparison to Ledang variety, possibly due to the amount of naringin. Three types of hydroxycinnamic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic and coumaric acid) and three compounds of flavanones (naringin, hesperidin and narirutin) were found in both fruit juices, where naringin and chlorogenic acid were the major contributor to the total phenolic content. Naringin, which gave out bitter aftertaste to the juice, was found to decrease, 1.6 and 0.59 % reduction in Ledang and Tambun respectively, post-enzymatic treatment. The decrease in naringin, albeit nominal, could be a potential benefit to the juice production in reducing the bitterness of the juice. Post-enzymatic analysis furthermore resulted in no significance differences (p <0.05) on the total phenolic compounds of both varieties. This study in summary provides a compositional database for Malaysian pummelo fruit juice of various phenolic compounds, which can provide useful information for evaluating the authenticity and the health benefits from the juice.
Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Tomassen, Monic M M; Hall, Robert D; Mes, Jurriaan J; Beekwilder, Jules
Anthocyanins can contribute to human health through preventing a variety of diseases. The uptake of these compounds from food and the parameters determining uptake efficiency within the human body are still poorly understood. Here we have employed a Caco-2 cell based system to investigate the transport of key antioxidant food components from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across the intestinal epithelial barrier. Anthocyanins and (-)-epicatechin were supplied in three contrasting matrices: fruit, processed fruit cherry juice, and polyphenolic fractions obtained by solid-phase extraction. Results show that both compound types behave differently. Fruit or juice matrices display comparable transport across the epithelial cell layer. The juice supplements sucrose and citric acid, which are regularly added to processed foods, have a positive effect on stability and transport. Polyphenolic fractions display a lower transport efficiency, relative to that of the fruit or juice, indicating the importance of food matrix components for intestinal absorption of polyphenols.
Rice, S L; Beuchat, L R; Worthington, R E
Ten strains of Byssochlamys fulva and three strains of B. nivea were cultured in a laboratory medium and tested for their ability to produce patulin. Two strains of B. fulva and all three strains of B. nivea produced the mycotoxin. One strain of B. fulva produced patulin in 11 of 13 processed fruit juices, with greatest amounts being produced in blueberry, red raspberry, and boysenberry juices, whereas no patulin was detected in prune or tomato juices. Grown in Concord grape juice at 18, 25, 30, and 38 degrees C, this strain produced the highest patulin concentration at 18 degrees C after 25 days, whereas biomass production was greatest at 25 and 30 degrees C after 20 and 25 days. PMID:596876
Ninfali, Paolino; Chiarabini, Andrea; Angelino, Donato
Fruit beverages are source of antioxidants, but their sugar content plays an important role in the epidemic of obesity. In this study, we considered 32 fruit beverages consumed in Italy (13 fruit juices, 11 nectars, and 8 fruit drinks), which were analyzed for caloric intake, total phenols (TP), ascorbic acid, and antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method). Results showed that the caloric intake was almost completely provided by the sugar content, ranging from 5.5 to 19%. The ORAC/kcal ratio was taken as an indicator of the antioxidant performance of fruit beverages. Fruit juices containing berries, red orange, and goji showed the best performances, together with berries or pears nectars and fruit drinks made with rose hips or tea extracts. The 95% of antioxidant capacity was provided by TP, which showed a significant linear correlation with the net ORAC values. Overall, the results indicate that the ORAC/kcal ratio is a suitable parameter to rank the quality of fruit beverages.
Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti
The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages.
Ohsawa, Koh-ichi; Nakagawa, Shin-ya; Kimura, Masaaki; Shimada, Chihiro; Tsuda, Shuji; Kabasawa, Kazumi; Kawaguchi, Satomi; Sasaki, Yu F
The genotoxicity of endogenously formed N-nitrosamines from secondary amines and sodium nitrite (NaNO(2)) was evaluated in multiple organs of mice, using comet assay. Groups of four male mice were orally given dimethylamine, proline, and morpholine simultaneously with NaNO(2). The stomach, colon, liver, kidney, urinary bladder, lung, brain, and bone marrow were sampled 3 and 24 h after these compounds had been ingested. Although secondary amines and the NaNO(2) tested did not yield DNA damage in any of the organs tested, DNA damage was observed mainly in the liver following simultaneous oral ingestion of these compounds. The administration within a 60 min interval also yielded hepatic DNA damage. It is considered that DNA damage induced in mouse organs with the coexistence of amines and nitrite in the acidic stomach is due to endogenously formed nitrosamines. Ascorbic acid reduced the liver DNA damage induced by morpholine and NaNO(2). Reductions in hepatic genotoxicity of endogenously formed N-nitrosomorpholine by tea polyphenols, such as catechins and theaflavins, and fresh apple, grape, and orange juices were more effective than was by ascorbic acid. In contrast with the antimutagenicity of ascorbic acid in the liver, ascorbic acid yielded stomach DNA damage in the presence of NaNO(2) (in the presence and absence of morpholine). Even if ascorbic acid acts as an antimutagen in the liver, nitric oxide (NO) formed from the reduction of NaNO(2) by ascorbic acid damaged stomach DNA.
Nonga, Hezron E; Simforian, Edeltruds A; Ndabikunze, Bernadette K
Fresh fruit juice is an essential component of human diet and there is considerable evidence of health and nutritional benefits. However, nature of the fruits used in juicing and unhygienic processes in the value chain may cause poor quality of juice. This cross- sectional study was conducted to assess physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 90 juice vendors were interviewed. Ninety juice samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical quality. The pH of juices ranged between 2.7 and 6.4, acidity 0.01% and 1.3% and, total soluble solids ranged between -1.5 and 18.04 °Brix. Most juices (67.8%) had -Brix levels below Codex recommended values classified as weak and watery. Juices were made of mango, passion, tamarind, sugar cane and mixture of these fruits sourced from open markets in the city. Water for washing of fruits and dilution of juices was from deep wells (53.3%) and taps (46.7%). About one third (37.8%) of the juice vendors didn't wash the fruits before juicing and 44.4% didn't boil water for juice dilution. Juice extraction was done by kitchen blenders, boiling in water and squeezing by simple machines. Juice pasteurization was not done. The majority of vendors (78.9%) stored juices in plastic buckets and juice was sold in glass cups, reused plastic bottles and disposable cups. Vending sites were restaurants, bus stands and along roadsides. The majority of premises (78.9%) were in unhygienic condition that likely encouraged or introduced contaminants to the juices. It is concluded that, the overall handling, preparation practices and physicochemical quality of raw fruit juices vended in Dare es Salaam City are poor. The government should educate the vendors on food safety and hygiene as well as enforcing regular monitoring of the quality of street fruit juices.
Ilame, Susmit A; Satyavir, V Singh
Fruit and vegetable juices are used due to convenience. The juices are rich in various minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. To process the juices and their clarification and/or concentration is required. The membranes are being used for these purposes. These processes are preferred over others because of high efficiency and low temperature. Membranes and their characteristics have been discussed in brief for knowing suitability of membranes for fruit and vegetable juices. Membrane separation is low temperature process in which the organoleptic quality of the juice is almost retained. In this review, different membrane separation methods including Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, and Reverse osmosis for fruit juices reported in the literature are discussed. The major fruit and vegetable juices using membrane processes are including the Reverse osmosis studies for concentration of Orange juice, Carrot juice, and Grape juice are discusses. The Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration are used for clarification of juices of mosambi juice, apple juice, pineapple juice, and kiwifruit juice. The various optimized parameters in membranes studies are pH, TAA, TSS, and AIS. In this review, in addition to above the OD is also discussed, where the membranes are used.
Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Valcheva-Kuzmanova, Stefka; Markova, Tsvetelina; Mitcheva, Mitka; Belcheva, Anna
Background: Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot fruits are very rich in polyphenols – procyanidins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Objective: On rat hepatocytes, isolated by two-stepped collagenase perfusion, we investigated the effect of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) in two models of liver toxicity caused by (i) metabolic bioactivation of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and (ii) tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH)-induced oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Isolated rat hepatocytes are a suitable model for hepatotoxicity studies. We determined the main parameters of the functional and metabolic status of rat hepatocytes: Cell viability (measured by trypan blue exclusion) and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA). These parameters were used to investigate the protective effects of AMFJ in the two toxicity models. The effects of AMFJ were compared with those of silymarin. The cells were treated either with AMFJ or silymarin at increasing concentrations of 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 30 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, and 100 μg/ml which were used for measuring of IC50. Results: In both toxicity models – CCl4 and t-BuOOH, AMFJ showed statistically significant cytoprotective and antioxidant activities. AMFJ prevented the loss of cell viability and GSH depletion, decreased LDH leakage and MDA production. The effects of AMFJ at the concentrations of 5, 10, 30, and 50 μg/ml were similar to those of the same concentrations of silymarin, while the effect of the highest AMFJ concentration of 100 μg/ml was higher than that of the same silymarin concentration. The effects were concentration-dependent and more prominent in the t-BuOOH model, compared to those in the CCl4 model. Conclusion: The cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of AMFJ established in this study might be due to its polyphenolic ingredients, which could influence the cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of the experimental hepatotoxic substances (CCl4 and t
Sojitra, Uttam V; Nadar, Shamraja S; Rathod, Virendra K
The major complications in fruit juice quality improvement are the presence of polysaccharides components in the form of disrupted fruit cell wall and cell materials. Hence, breakdown of cellulose along with pectin and starch is important for the juice processing. In this context, magnetic tri-enzyme nanobiocatalyst was prepared by simultaneously co-immobilizing three enzymes; α-amylase, pectinase and cellulase onto amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle by 60mM glutaraldehyde concentration with 10h cross-linking time for one pot juice clarification. The prepared nanobiocatalyst was characterized by FT-IR, SEM and XRD. The thermal (50-70°C) and pH (3-6) stability studies indicated more than two folds increment in half-life and enhanced tolerance to lower pH. The immobilized enzymes retained up to 75% of residual activity even after eight consecutive cycles of reuse. Finally, the clarification of apple, grapes and pineapple juices using magnetic tri-enzyme showed 41%, 46% and 53% respective reduction in turbidity till 150min treatment.
Singh, Smita; Jindal, Rahul
Aims and Objective: The purpose of this study is to measure the initial pH of various commonly used beverages and to determine their ability to maintain a low pH by measuring their buffering capacities. Materials and Methods: Twelve commercially available drinks were taken and divided into four groups (preserved fruit juices, tea, mineral water and carbonated drinks. Each group comprised of three drinks. Their initial pH were measured with pH meter and their buffering capacities were measured by adding 1M NaOH in the increments of 0.2 ml into 100 ml of each drink till the pH raised to 5.5 and 7 respectively. Statistical Analysis: The volume of NaOH required to raise the pH to 5.5 and 7 were recorded in all the groups. This data was subjected to statistical analysis using Mann- Whitney tests. Results: Total titratable acidity measurement shows that among all the drinks, there was no significant difference between carbonated drinks and preserved fruit juices while a significant difference was present between carbonated drinks, preserved fruit juices and tea. Conclusion: In this in vitro study, it was found that packaged apple juice had the most buffering capacity with maximum erosive potential whereas green tea had the least. PMID:21116386
Palu, Afa; Deng, Shixin; West, Brett; Jensen, Jarakae
Morinda citrifolia L. (noni), family Rubiaceae, has been used in Polynesia for over 2000 years for its reputed health benefits, one of which is its therapeutic effects on gout (langa e hokotanga hui). However, its healing mechanism has not been elucidated. This study showed that in an in vitro bioassay that Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ) inhibited xanthine oxidase (XO) concentration dependently. Concentrations of 1, 5 and 10 mg/mL of TNJ inhibited XO by 11%, 113% and 148%, respectively, with an IC50 of 3.8 mg compared with an IC50 of 2.4 microm for allopurinol. Noni fruit juice concentrate (NFJC) also inhibited XO concentration dependently. Concentrations of 1 and 5 mg/mL NFJC inhibited XO in vitro by 184% and 159%, respectively. A 0.1 mg/mL methanol extract (NFJME) from the fractionation of noni fruit puree inhibited XO by 64%. It was elucidated that the noni fruit juice inhibitory effect on XO enzymes is the mechanism by which noni ameliorates gout and gout-like diseases. Further, the results also support the traditional usage of noni in the treatment of gout.
Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are a group of membrane transport proteins that facilitate the influx of endogenous and exogenous substances across biological membranes. OATPs are found in enterocytes and hepatocytes and in brain, kidney, and other tissues. In enterocytes, OATPs facilitate the gastrointestinal absorption of certain orally administered drugs. Fruit juices such as grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice contain substances that are OATP inhibitors. These fruit juices diminish the gastrointestinal absorption of certain antiallergen, antibiotic, antihypertensive, and β-blocker drugs. While there is no evidence, so far, that OATP inhibition affects the absorption of psychotropic medications, there is no room for complacency because the field is still nascent and because the necessary studies have not been conducted. Patients should therefore err on the side of caution, taking their medications at least 4 hours distant from fruit juice intake. Doing so is especially desirable with grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice; with commercial fruit juices in which OATP-inhibiting substances are likely to be present in higher concentrations; with calcium-fortified fruit juices; and with medications such as atenolol and fexofenadine, the absorption of which is substantially diminished by concurrent fruit juice intake.
Stander, Marietjie A; Kühn, Wernich; Hiten, Nicholas F
Adulteration of fruit juices--by the addition of sugar or other less expensive fruit juices as well as preservatives, artificial sweeteners and colours--was tested for by using a developed screening method. The method employs hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) using electrospray ionisation in the negative mode and ultraviolet light detection. Different fruit juices can be differentiated by the content of marker compounds like sorbitol, certain phenolic molecules and their saccharide profile. This method was used to test 46 fruit juice samples from the retail market as well as 12 control samples. The study focused on the main types of fruit juices consumed on the South African market including apple, orange, grape and blends of these juices with other fruits like mango, pear and guava. Overall, the 46 samples tested mostly agreed with label claims. One grape juice sample was adulterated, probably with apple juice. Natamycin above the legal limits was found in two samples. In addition, two samples contained natamycin and one sample benzoate without it being indicated on the label. The method is well suited as a quick screening method for fruit juice adulteration and if used routinely would reduce fruit juice adulteration without the cost of the current array of tests needed for authenticity testing.
Redox spectrophotometric method involving electrolytically generated manganese(III) sulphate with diphenylamine for the determination of ascorbic acid present in the samples of various fruits, commercial juices and sprouted food grains.
Shyla, B; Nagendrappa, G
A spectrophotometric method was developed for ascorbic acid present in various fruits, commercial fruit juices and sprouted food grains. The method involves the oxidation of ascorbic acid with excess manganese(III) following reduction of unreacted manganese(III) with diphenylamine or barium diphenylamine sulphonate forming a product λ(max) 570 nm the system 1 or 540 nm the system 2 and decrease in the colour intensity is proportional to the concentration of vitamin C with quantification range 0.3-3.0 μg ml(-1). The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity values of the system 1 and the system 2 were 1.829 × 10(4) and 1.813 × 10(4)mol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.0096 and 0.0097 μg cm(-2) respectively. The stoichiometry was 4:1 between manganese(III) and diphenylamine. The ascorbic acid contents of the same samples were determined separately following the procedures of the developed method as well as the reference method and the results were comparable.
Alternatives to conventional thermal treatments in fruit-juice processing. Part 2: Effect on composition, phytochemical content, and physicochemical, rheological, and organoleptic properties of fruit juices.
Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto
Traditional thermal techniques may cause losses in nutritional quality and phytochemical contents, and also in physicochemical, rheological, and organoleptic properties of processed fruit juices. This paper provides an overview of the effect on these qualities by the use of alternatives to traditional thermal treatments in fruit-juice processing, for three key operations in fruit-juice production such as microbial inactivation, enzyme inactivation, and juice-yield improvement. These alternatives are UV light, high-intensity light pulses, γ-irradiation, pulsed electric fields, radiofrequency electric fields, Ohmic heating, microwave heating, ultrasound, high hydrostatic pressure, supercritical carbon dioxide, ozonation, and flash-vacuum expansion. Although alternatives to heat treatments seem to be less detrimental than the thermal treatment, there are many parameters and conditions that influence the output, as well as the nature of the juice itself, hampering comparisons between different studies. Additionally, future research should focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying the changes in the overall quality of fruit juices, and also on scaled-up processes, process design, and optimization that need to be deal with in detail to maximize their potential as alternative nonthermal technologies in fruit-juice processing while maintaining fruit-juice attributes to the maximum.
Valcheva-Kuzmanova, Stefka; Blagović, Branka; Valić, Srećko
Background: The fruits of Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot contain large amounts of phenolic substances, mainly procyanidins, anthocyanins and other flavonoids, and phenolic acids. The ability of phenolic substances to act as antioxidants has been well established. Objective: In this study, we investigated the radical scavenging activity of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ). Materials and Methods: The method used was electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The galvinoxyl free radical was used as a scavenging object. AMFJ was added to the galvinoxyl free radical solution. The measure of the radical scavenging activity was the decrease of signal intensity. Results: AMFJ showed a potent antiradical activity causing a strong and rapid decrease of signal intensity as a function of time and juice concentration. This effect of AMFJ was probably due to the activity of its phenolic constituents. Conclusion: The ESR measurements in this study showed a pronounced radical scavenging effect of AMFJ, an important mechanism of its antioxidant activity. PMID:22701293
Rajavardhan, K; Sankar, AJS; Kumar, MGM; Kumar, KR; Pranitha, K; Kishore, KK
Background: Erosion is a common condition which manifests due to consumption of high caloric and low pH acidic food stuffs such as carbonated drinks and fruit juices which cause irreversible damage to dental hard tissues and early deterioration of the dental restorations. Aim: The main aim of this study is to evaluate and to compare the erosive potential of carbonated drink (cola) and fruit juice (orange fruit juice) by measuring the surface roughness (Ra) values on two commonly used dental restorative materials. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 specimens each were prepared using both testing materials, compomer (Group I) and giomer (Group II). Six specimens in each group were discarded due to wide variation in pre exposed Ra values and the remaining 30 specimens in each group were further sub divided into 10 samples each according to the testing media used. Immersion regime was followed according to Von Fraunhofer and Rogers. The pre and post immersion surface roughness values were recorded using a profilometer. Results: Both tested materials showed statistically-significant surface erosion (P < 0.01) when exposed to cola and orange fruit juice than the control group (water). Discussion: Compomer showed more surface roughness when compared to giomer when exposed to the three tested media which can be attributed to the variation in filler content, decomposition of resin matrix and fallout of the fillers in composites when exposed to acidic drinks. Other factors responsible for this significant erosion were also discussed. Conclusions: Significant surface changes of the dental restorative materials can take place when exposed to low pH drinks for a prolonged period. PMID:25364590
Osopale, Babasola Adewunmi; Witthuhn, Cornelia Regina; Albertyn, Jacobus; Oguntoyinbo, Folarin Anthony
Alicyclobacillus is a genus of thermo-acidophilic, endospore-forming, bacteria species which occasionally cause spoilage of heat-processed fruit juices by producing guaiacol taint. In this study, Alicyclobacillus contamination of commercial fruit juices in West Africa was investigated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Firstly, a total of 225 fruit juice products from Ghana (n = 39) and Nigeria (n = 186) were enriched with yeast-starch-glucose (YSG) broth (pH 3.7) following heat shock at 80 °C for 10 min. Alicyclobacillus was detected in 11.6% (26) of samples. Isolates were identified to the genus taxonomic level by genus-specific PCR which targeted the squalene-hopene-cyclase (shc) gene followed by analysis of the almost-complete 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences that identified 16 Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, 7 Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and 3 Alicyclobacillus genomic species 1 (Alicyclobacillus sp. 1). Whole-genome fingerprinting using PCR-RAPD primers Ba-10, F-61 and F-64 grouped the 16 A. acidoterrestris isolates into two genetic clusters. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analyses revealed the activity of vanillic-acid decarboxylase (vdc) in all A. acidoterrestris isolates due to guaiacol production from vanillic-acid. Lastly, species-specific PCR-DGGE targeting the 16S rRNA gene clearly discriminated between the guaiacol-producing A. acidoterrestris and the non-spoilage A. acidocaldarius group. Information provided by this study is fundamental to the development of effective strategies for the improvement of quality and shelf-life of processed tropical fruit juices in W. Africa.
de Sylos, C M; Rodriguez-Amaya, D B
One hundred and eleven samples of processed fruit juices (apple, grape, pineapple, papaya, guava, banana and mango) and 38 samples of sound fruits (apple, papaya, mango, pear and peach) produced and marketed in Brazil, were analysed for patulin by HPLC. Only one out of 30 samples of apple juice was found positive at 17 micrograms/l. Patulin was not detected in the other foodstuffs. It was found in 14 samples of spoiled fruit samples of apple (150-267 micrograms/kg), pear (134-245 micrograms/kg) and peach (92-174 micrograms/kg). Confirmation of the identity of patulin was based on the UV spectrum obtained by the HPLC diode array detector, compared with that of standard patulin, TLC developed by several solvent systems and sprayed with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone, and by acetylation with acetic anhydride.
Filannino, P.; Cardinali, G.; Rizzello, C. G.; Buchin, S.; De Angelis, M.; Gobbetti, M.
Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were grown and stored in cherry (ChJ), pineapple (PJ), carrot (CJ), and tomato (TJ) juices to mimic the chemical composition of the respective matrices. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), whey milk (W), and MRS broth were also used as representatives of other ecosystems. The growth rates and cell densities of L. plantarum strains during fermentation (24 h at 30°C) and storage (21 days at 4°C) differed only in part, being mainly influenced by the matrix. ChJ and PJ were the most stressful juices for growth and survival. Overall, the growth in juices was negatively correlated with the initial concentration of malic acid and carbohydrates. The consumption of malic acid was noticeable for all juices, but mainly during fermentation and storage of ChJ. Decreases of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)—with the concomitant increase of their respective branched alcohols—and His and increases of Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were the main traits of the catabolism of free amino acids (FAA), which were mainly evident under less acidic conditions (CJ and TJ). The increase of Tyr was found only during storage of ChJ. Some aldehydes (e.g., 3-methyl-butanal) were reduced to the corresponding alcohols (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol). After both fermentation and storage, acetic acid increased in all fermented juices, which implied the activation of the acetate kinase route. Diacetyl was the ketone found at the highest level, and butyric acid increased in almost all fermented juices. Data were processed through multidimensional statistical analyses. Except for CJ, the juices (mainly ChJ) seemed to induce specific metabolic traits, which differed in part among the strains. This study provided more in-depth knowledge on the metabolic mechanisms of growth and maintenance of L. plantarum in vegetable and fruit habitats, which also provided helpful information to select the most suitable starters for fermentation of targeted matrices. PMID:24487533
Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Sousa, M João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R
A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrusxaurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using beta-carotene-linoleate model system in liposomes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay in brain homogenates. Reducing sugars and phenolics were the main antioxidant compounds found in all the extracts. Peels polar fractions revealed the highest contents in phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and reducing sugars, which certainly contribute to the highest antioxidant potential found in these fractions. Peels volatile fractions were clearly separated using discriminant analysis, which is in agreement with their lowest antioxidant potential.
Sharma, Pawan Kumar; Chand, Duni
Xylanase can be usd for many Industrial applications and juice clarification is one of them. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase was used for fruit juice clarification in free State. Maximum amount of juice clarification was in case of Mausambi juice was observed at 40 C∞ and 52 hours, in case of free enzyme treated juice there is 46.9% increase in clarity and 1.7 fold increase in reducing sugars of the juice and enzyme dose was optimized as 8U with maximum flow rate of 6 ml/min at this dose. In case of orange juice in free enzyme treated juice maximum clarity was observed at 40 C∞ and 52 hours, juice was found to be 42.14 % clear with increase of 1.9 fold of reducing sugars, enzyme dose optimized was 8.06U with maximum flow rate of 0.86 ml/min.
Saarela, M; Alakomi, H L; Mättö, J; Ahonen, A M; Puhakka, A; Tynkkynen, S
Bifidobacterial food applications are limited since bifidobacteria are sensitive to e.g. acidic conditions prevalent in many food matrices. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a low pH selection step alone or combined to UV mutagenesis could improve the viability of an acid sensitive Bifidobacterium strain, B. breve 99, in low pH food matrices. Furthermore, the potential of carriers and an oat fibre preparation to further improve the stability was studied. The best performing low pH tolerant variants in the present study were generated by UV-mutagenesis with 70-700μJ/cm(2) followed by incubation in growth medium at pH 4.5. The most promising variants regarding the low pH tolerance showed, in repeated tests with cells grown without pH control, about one Log-value better survival in pH 3.8 fruit juice after one week storage at 4°C compared to wild-type B. breve 99. Cells grown with pH control, PDX formulated and then frozen showed poorer viability in low pH fruit juice than cells grown with no pH control. For frozen concentrates pH 3.8 was too stressful and no or small differences between the variants and the wild-type strain were seen. The differences detected at pH 3.8 with the cells grown without pH control were also seen with the frozen concentrates at pH 4.5. Some improvement in the stability could be achieved by using a combination of trehalose, vitamin C and PDX as a freezing carrier material, whereas a significant improvement in the stability was seen when oat fibre was added into the fruit juice together with the frozen cells. Due to the initial very poor fruit juice tolerance of B. breve 99 the obtained improvement in the stability was not enough for commercial applications. However, the same methods could be applied to initially better performing strains to further improve their stability in the fruit juice.
Johnson, Mitch C; Thomas, Andrew L; Greenlief, C Michael
The effects of frozen storage on the anthocyanin and polyphenol content of elderberry fruit juice are investigated. Juice from three genotypes of American elderberry (Adams II, Bob Gordon, and Wyldewood) was screened for total phenolic (TP) and total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) contents with spectrophotometric methods. The individual anthocyanin content (IAC) of the juice was tested by coupling solid phase extraction with ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Juice samples were tested initially upon harvest and then again after 3, 6, and 9 months of frozen storage. Juice from the three different genotypes had significantly different TP, TMA, and IAC profiles initially (p < 0.05). The TP, TMA, and IAC contents of the juice from different genotypes were significantly affected (p < 0.05) by the frozen storage time, suggesting that both genotype and length of frozen storage time can affect the anthocyanin content of elderberry fruit juice.
Harada, Shinichi; Hamabe, Wakako; Kamiya, Kohei; Satake, Toshiko; Yamamoto, Junichiro; Tokuyama, Shogo
It is known that the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (M. citrifolia, Noni, Rubiaceae) has various pharmacological effects such as antioxidant or anti-inflammatory activities, which may help the inhibition of ischemic neuronal damage. Here, we examined the effect of the fruit juice of M. citrifolia (Noni juice) on the brain damage caused by ischemic stress in mice. Noni juice was obtained from the mature fruit grown in Okinawa (about 1.5 l/4 kg of fruit; 100% Okinawa Noni juice (ONJ). Male ddY mice were supplied with 3% or 10% juice in the drinking water for 7 d, and compared to the control group. On the 7th day, mice were subjected to 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Interestingly, the intake of juice reduced the infarct volume as analyzed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining on the 3rd day of MCAO when compared to the control group. Furthermore, we found that the neurological deficit scores (NDS) were decreased after the reperfusion in the juice-supplied mice. On the other hand, the intake of juice did not affect the expression levels of antioxidant such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. The present study suggests that Noni juice may have a preventive effect against cerebral ischemic stress, while further studies are needed to explain the detailed mechanism.
Pereira, Ana Carolina da Silva; Dionísio, Ana Paula; Wurlitzer, Nedio Jair; Alves, Ricardo Elesbão; de Brito, Edy Souza; e Silva, Ana Mara de Oliveira; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Mancini Filho, Jorge
Fruits are a rich source of a variety of biologically active compounds that can have complementary and overlapping mechanisms of action, including detoxification, enzyme modulation and antioxidant effects. Although the effects of tropical fruits have been examined individually, the interactive antioxidant capacity of the bioactive compounds in these formulations has not been sufficiently explored. For this reason, this study investigated the effect of two tropical fruit juices (FA and FB) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in rats. Seven groups, with eight rats each, were fed a normal diet for 4 weeks, and were force-fed daily either water (control), 100, 200, or 400 mg of FA or FB per kg. The results showed that the liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (FA200), erythrocytes glutathione peroxidase (FB400) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (FB100, FA400, FB200, FB400) were efficiently reduced by fruit juices when compared with control; whereas HDL-c increased (FB400).
Wong, Yen-Ming; Siow, Lee-Fong
Red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is rich in antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heat pasteurization, pH adjustment, ascorbic acid addition as well as storage under agitation and light or dark condition on betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate. The concentrate was produced by concentrating clarified red-fleshed dragon fruit juice in a rotary evaporator at 40 °C. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used for analyzing betacyanin content. Addition of 0.25 % ascorbic acid, pH 4.0, and pasteurization at 65 °C for 30 min were selected as the best processing conditions to retain betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit juice. Storage at the agitation speed of 220 rpm showed that the concentrated samples had higher betacyanin stability compared to juice, while both juice and concentrate had almost similar betacyanin stability when tested for storage in the presence of light. In summary, ascorbic acid stabilized betacyanin in both juice and concentrate at agitated or non-agitated conditions. In contrast, light degraded betacyanin in both juice and concentrate models.
Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Peso-Echarri, Patricia; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen; Canali, Raffaella; Virgili, Fabio
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant and antiproliferative effect of fruit juices enriched with Pycnogenol® (0.5 g/L) on a colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2). The total phenolic concentration (TPC), antioxidant activity and inhibition cell growth were studied in fresh and digested pineapple juice and red fruits juice (both enriched with pine bark extract and not). After in vitro digestion the level of detectable phenolic compounds (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) was higher in both pineapple and red fruits juices enriched with Pycnogenol® than in non-enriched commercial juices (155.6 mg/100 mL vs 94.6 mg/100 mL and 478.5 mg/100 mL vs 406.9 mg/100 mL, respectively). Increased antioxidant activity (measured by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC) methods) was observed in digested enriched juices with respect to the same samples before digestion. Pycnogenol® enrichment led to a high antiproliferative effect between 24 and 72 h of incubation with undigested pineapple juice compared with the non-enriched juice. It can be concluded that enrichment of fruit juices with Pycnogenol® provides a source of phenolic compounds with high stability to in vitro gastrointestinal conditions; however, the antioxidant properties of fruit juices were affected to a different extent.
Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Zhang, Pei; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin
Many studies have indicated that consumption of vegetables and fruits are positively related to lower incidence of several chronic noncommunicable diseases. Although composition of fruit and vegetable juices is different from that of the edible portion of fruits and vegetables, they contain polyphenols and vitamins from fruits and vegetables. Drinking vegetable and fruit juices is very popular in many countries, and also an efficient way to improve consumption of fruits and vegetables. The studies showed that fruit and vegetable juices affect cardiovascular risk factors, such as lowering blood pressure and improving blood lipid profiles. The main mechanisms of action included antioxidant effects, improvement of the aspects of the cardiovascular system, inhibition of platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory effects, and prevention of hyperhomocysteinemia. Drinking juices might be a potential way to improve cardiovascular health, especially mixtures of juices because they contain a variety of polyphenols, vitamins, and minerals from different fruits and vegetables. This review summarizes recent studies on the effects of fruit and vegetable juices on indicators of cardiovascular disease, and special attention is paid to the mechanisms of action.
Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Zhang, Pei; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin
Many studies have indicated that consumption of vegetables and fruits are positively related to lower incidence of several chronic noncommunicable diseases. Although composition of fruit and vegetable juices is different from that of the edible portion of fruits and vegetables, they contain polyphenols and vitamins from fruits and vegetables. Drinking vegetable and fruit juices is very popular in many countries, and also an efficient way to improve consumption of fruits and vegetables. The studies showed that fruit and vegetable juices affect cardiovascular risk factors, such as lowering blood pressure and improving blood lipid profiles. The main mechanisms of action included antioxidant effects, improvement of the aspects of the cardiovascular system, inhibition of platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory effects, and prevention of hyperhomocysteinemia. Drinking juices might be a potential way to improve cardiovascular health, especially mixtures of juices because they contain a variety of polyphenols, vitamins, and minerals from different fruits and vegetables. This review summarizes recent studies on the effects of fruit and vegetable juices on indicators of cardiovascular disease, and special attention is paid to the mechanisms of action. PMID:28273863
Tasnim, F; Anwar Hossain, M; Kamal Hossain, M; Lopa, D; Formuzul Haque, K M
This study was performed to evaluate the nutritional and microbiological quality of industrially processed packed fruit juices of mango (Mangifera indica) and orange (Citrus sinensis) from nine different manufacturing companies in Dhaka City. The highest quantity of total sugar (17.62%) and reducing sugar (9.99%) was recorded in mango juices while the lowest in orange juices (10.41% and 2.24% respectively) of different companies. In this study, protein contents were comparatively higher in mango juices than in orange juices. The pH of all samples varied from 3.50±0.10 to 4.70±0.05. Vitamin C content was comparatively higher in mango juices. The levels of metals tested namely, arsenic, lead, copper and zinc in the juices were within the limits of Bangladesh Standard and Testing Institute (BSTI) for fruit juices. The microbiological qualities of all the products were within the limits of the Gulf standards (the recommended Microbiological Standards for any fruit juice sold in the Gulf Region). Based on the above results, it is suggested that processed juices be prepared under hygienic conditions.
Abad-García, B; Berrueta, L A; López-Márquez, D M; Crespo-Ferrer, I; Gallo, B; Vicente, F
A solvent extraction procedure of freeze-dried aliquots followed by the analysis of phenolic compounds by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with photodiode array detection (DAD) has been developed for the analysis of polyphenolic compounds in fruit juices. This methodology is focussed on the characterization of fruit juices, mainly for quality control purposes. The effects of experimental variables, such as solvent composition and volume and time and temperature on extraction, have been studied. A unique gradient program for the separation of several phenolic classes (hydroquinones, hydroxybenzoic acids, flavan-3-oles, hydroxycinnamic acids, coumarins, flavanones, flavones, dihydrochalcones and flavonols) has been optimized, using standards of 55 commercially available phenolic compounds present in fruits, as well as representative real extracts from fruit juices. All phenolic compounds showed a high repeatability within-day (n=5) and between days (n=3) in peak area (RSD<8%) and excellent stability of their retention times. High precision was also observed in calibration slopes (RSD<8%). Detection limits ranged between 0.005 and 0.03 microg/mL for the different detected polyphenols. Complete recoveries (98-100%) were obtained for the majority of the phenolic structures of all representative phenolic families present in fruits. The method was successfully employed to measure diverse phenolic families in juices from 18 different fruits and consequently could be used for evaluate the quality of fruit juices.
Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A
The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value.
Ajayi, A A; Peter-Albert, C F; Akeredolu, M; Shokunbi, A A
Two varieties of tomato fruits commonly available in Nigerian markets are the Roma VF and Ibadan local varieties of tomato fruits. The Roma VF fruits are oval in shape. It is a common type of cultivar in the Northern region of Nigeria and it is not susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety of tomato fruits is a local variety commonly found on farmers fields in South-western region of Nigeria. They are highly susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety was employed for this research. There are lots of benefits derived from the consumption of tomato fruits. The fruits can be made into tomato juice clarified with pectinases. Polygalacturonase is one of the pectinases used commercially in the clarification of fruit juice from different fruits. This study examined the production of polygalacturonase during the deterioration of tomato fruits by Aspergillus niger and the role of the purified polygalacturonase in the clarification of tomato juice. Tomato fruits of the Ibadan local variety were inoculated with mycelia discs containing spores of a 96-h-old culture of Aspergillus niger served as the inoculum. The organism from the stock culture was subcultured onto potato dextrose agar plates. The extraction of polygalacturonase after 10 days of incubation at 27 degrees C was carried out by homogenizing the fruits with liquid extractant using the MSE homogenizer after the deteriorated fruits had been chilled for 30 min inside a freezer. Control fruits were similarly treated except that sterile potato dextrose agar served as the inoculum. The effect of different temperature of incubation and different volume of enzyme on the tomato juice from the tomato fruits was investigated. Extracts from the inoculated fruits exhibited appreciable polygalacturonase activity. The juice with polygalacturonase was visually clearer and more voluminous than the juice treated with water for all parameters studied. The highest volume of juice was obtained after an incubation period
Vågstrand, Karin; Linné, Yvonne; Karlsson, Jan; Elfhag, Kristina; Lindroos, Anna Karin
The aim of the study was to investigate how soft drink and fruit juice consumption in teenagers is associated with life-style, other food choices, eating behaviour and maternal characteristics. A cross-sectional study of 16-year-old girls (n 275) and boys (n 199) and their mothers was undertaken. Questionnaires were used to assess habitual dietary intake, eating behaviour, physical activity, smoking and educational level. Weight and height were measured. It was found that eating breakfast less than five times per week was independently associated with a high soft drink consumption in both girls and boys. A low intake of cooked meals and milk and a high intake of salty snacks were associated with soft drinks in boys only, and a low intake of fruits in girls only. A high maternal juice intake, low milk and high fruit consumption were independent correlates of fruit juice intake in both girls and boys. In girls, being a smoker, having a smoking mother, a high soft drink intake, scoring low on emotional eating and high on cognitive restraint were also associated with fruit juice intake. A low intake of soft drinks and cooked meals was associated with fruit juice intake in boys only. Neither soft drinks nor fruit juice was associated with BMI. In conclusion, a high intake of both fruit juice and soft drinks were associated with a lower intake of foods such as milk and cooked meals. It might be possible to influence fruit juice intake among teenagers by aiming at their mothers, whereas the adolescents themselves should be targeted when the aim is to reduce soft drink consumption.
Juice production is a multibillion dollar industry and an economical way to use fruit past seasonal harvests. To evaluate how production steps influence not-from-concentrate (NFC) blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) juice recovery, bench top and pilot scale experiments were performed. In bench-top, southern h...
Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko
Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer.
Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko
Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614
Besides the physical defects due to the destructive Huanglongbing (HLB) citrus greening disease on oranges, the infected fruit and resulting juice have been perceived as being more sour, bitter and off-flavored. In the symptomatic juice, the off-flavor was correlated with lower sugars, and sometimes...
Valcheva-Kuzmanova, S; Kuzmanov, K; Mihova, V; Krasnaliev, I; Borisova, P; Belcheva, A
Aronia melanocrpa fruit juice (AMFJ) used in our experiment was very rich in phenolic substances (709.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 ml juice). Anthocyanins (106.8 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 ml juice) were the main flavonoid group. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of AMFJ on plasma lipids and lipoprotein profile, and histopathology of liver and aorta in rats with dietary-induced hyperlipidemia. AMFJ was administered by gavage for 30 days at doses of 5, 10 and 20 ml/kg body weight to rats fed a standard diet (SD) or a 4% cholesterol-containing diet (4% ChD). The 4% ChD caused a significant elevation of plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG). AMFJ did not significantly influence plasma lipids in rats fed the SD and significantly hindered the elevation of plasma TC, LDL-C and TG in rats fed the 4% ChD. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were not significantly influenced either by the 4% ChD or by AMFJ. Neither the cholesterol feeding, nor AMFJ treatment induced any histopathological changes in rat liver and aorta. In conclusion, AMFJ showed an antihyperlipidemic effect in rats with hyperlipidemia and could be valuable in reducing this factor of cardiovascular risk.
Jagannath, A; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raju, P S; Batra, H V
The current study reports the preparation and stabilization of novel functional drinks based on fruit and vegetable juices incorporating bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum. Pineapple, musk melon, carrot, tomato, beet root and a blend juice containing 20 % each of carrot and tomato juice with 60 % beet root juice has been studied. These juices have been stabilized over a storage period of 90 days at 28 °C, by the use of nisin and maintaining a low pH circumventing the need for any chemical preservatives or refrigeration. Instrumental color values have been correlated with the pigment concentrations present in the fresh as well as stored juices. There was 36, 72 and 60 % loss of total carotenoids in the case of carrot, pineapple and musk melon juices respectively while the lycopene content remained unchanged after 90 days of storage. The betanin content decreased 37 % in the case of beetroot juice and 25 % in the case of beetroot juice blended with carrot and tomato juices. Sensory analysis has revealed a clear preference for the beetroot blended mixed juice.
The effect of replacing 100% fruit juice (FJ) with whole fruit (WF) on nutrient intake and adequacy in children's diets is unclear. The objective of this study was to model the effect of replacing FJ with WF in children's diets. Data from children 2-18 years of age (n=6,090) participating in the Na...
Salmos Brito, Janaína; Santos Neto, Alexandrino; Silva, Luciano; Menezes, Rebeca; Araújo, Natália; Carneiro, Vanda; Moreno, Lara Magalhães; Miranda, Jéssica; Álvares, Pâmella; Nevares, Giselle; Xavier, Felipe; Arruda, José Alcides; Bessa-Nogueira, Ricardo; Santos, Natanael; Queiroz, Gabriela; Sobral, Ana Paula; Silveira, Márcia; Albuquerque, Diana; Gerbi, Marleny
Objective. This paper aimed to analyze the in vitro industrialized fruit juices effect plus soy to establish the erosive potential of these solutions. Materials and Methods. Seventy bovine incisors were selected after being evaluated under stereomicroscope. Their crowns were prepared and randomly divided into 7 groups, using microhardness with allocation criteria. The crowns were submitted to the fruit juice plus soy during 15 days, twice a day. The pH values, acid titration, and Knoop microhardness were recorded and the specimens were evaluated using X-ray microfluorescence (µXRF). Results. The pH average for all juices and after 3 days was significantly below the critical value for dental erosion. In average, the pH value decreases 14% comparing initial time and pH after 3 days. Comparing before and after, there was a 49% microhardness decrease measured in groups (p < 0.05). Groups G1, G2, G5, and G6 are above this average. The analysis by μXRF showed a decrease of approximately 7% Ca and 4% P on bovine crowns surface. Florida (FL) statistical analysis showed a statistically significant 1 difference between groups. Thus, a tooth chance to suffer demineralization due to industrialized fruit juices plus soy is real. PMID:26977451
Westendorf, Johannes; Effenberger, Katharina; Iznaguen, Hassan; Basar, Simla
Morinda citrifolia (noni) is known to contain genotoxic anthraquinones in the roots. Because of the widespread use of noni juice, the possible genotoxic risk was examined through a battery of short-term tests. Noni juice was also chemically analyzed for the possible presence of anthraquinones. Noni juice extract in the Salmonella microsome assay showed a slight mutagenic effect in strain TA1537, due to the presence of flavonoids. No mutagenicity was observed in the mammalian mutagenicity test with V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. Rats treated with a noni juice concentrate did not show DNA repair synthesis (UDS) in primary rat hepatocytes, nor could DNA adducts or DNA strand breaks be observed. HPLC analysis of noni juice for anthraquinones was negative, with a sensitivity of <1 ppm. In summary, chemical analysis and genotoxicity tests reveal that noni juice does not have a genotoxic potential and that genotoxic anthraquinones do not exist in noni juice.
Boulton, Jane; Hashem, Kawther M; Jenner, Katharine H; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Capewell, Simon
Objective To investigate the amount of sugars in fruit juices, juice drinks and smoothies (FJJDS) marketed to children. Design We surveyed the sugars content (per 100 ml and standardised 200 ml portion) of all FJJDS sold by seven major UK supermarkets (supermarket own and branded products). Only products specifically marketed towards children were included. We excluded sports drinks, iced teas, sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks and cordials as being not specifically marketed towards children. Results We identified 203 fruit juices (n=21), juice drinks (n=158) and smoothies (n=24) marketed to children. Sugars content ranged from 0 to 16 g/100 ml. The mean sugars content was 7.0 g/100 ml, but among the 100% fruit juice category, it was 10.7 g/100 ml. Smoothies (13.0 g/100 ml) contained the highest amounts of sugars and juice drinks (5.6 g/100 ml) contained the lowest amount. 117 of the 203 FJJDS surveyed would receive a Food Standards Agency ‘red’ colour-coded label for sugars per standardised 200 ml serving. Only 63 FJJDS would receive a ‘green’ colour-coded label. 85 products contained at least 19 g of sugars—a child's entire maximum daily amount of sugars. 57 products contained sugar (sucrose), 65 contained non-caloric sweeteners and five contained both. Seven products contained glucose-fructose syrup. Conclusions The sugars content in FJJDS marketed to children in the UK is unacceptably high. Manufacturers must stop adding unnecessary sugars and calories to their FJJDS. PMID:27009146
de Oliveira Junior, Adelson Alves; de Araújo Couto, Hyrla Grazielle Silva; Barbosa, Ana Andréa Teixeira; Carnelossi, Marcelo Augusto Guitierrez; de Moura, Tatiana Rodrigues
Heat processing is the most commonly used hurdle for inactivating microorganisms in fruit juices. However, this preservation method could interfere with the organoleptic characteristics of the product. Alternative methods have been proposed and bacteriocins such as nisin are potential candidates. However, the approval of bacteriocins as food additives is limited, especially in foods from vegetal origin. We aimed to verify the stability, the effect on physico-chemical properties, and the antimicrobial activity of nisin in different fruit juices. Nisin remained stable in fruit juices (cashew, soursop, peach, mango, passion fruit, orange, guava, and cupuassu) for at least 30 days at room or refrigerated temperature and did not cause any significant alterations in the physico-chemical characteristics of the juices. Besides, nisin favored the preservation of vitamin C content in juices. The antimicrobial activity of nisin was tested against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in cashew, soursop, peach, and mango juices. Nisin caused a 4-log reduction in viable cells of A. acidoterrestris in soursop, peach, and mango juices after 8h of incubation, and no viable cells were detected in cashew juices. After 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin, no viable cells were detected, independently of the juices. To S. aureus, at 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin, viable cells were only detected in mango juices, representing a 4-log decrease as compared with the control treatment. The number of viable cells of B. cereus at 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin represented at least a 4-log decrease compared to the control treatment. When the antimicrobial activity of nisin was tested against L. monocytogenes in cashew and soursop juices, no reduction in the viable cell number was observed compared to the control treatment after 24h of incubation. Viable cells were four and six times less than in the
Norton, Erin M; Poole, Seletha A; Raynor, Hollie A
It has been recommended that beverages other than 100% fruit juice, such as water, be served at meals and snacks for preschool-aged children to reduce excessive energy intake. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 design (between-subjects factor of order and within-subjects factors of beverage type and size), 26 children (3.9 ± 0.6 years of age, 50% female, 73% white, and 88.5% non-Hispanic or Latino) completed four, 20-min snack sessions consisting of 200 g of applesauce, 60 g of graham crackers, and either 6 oz. (approximately 180 g) or 12 oz. (approximately 360 g) of 100% berry fruit juice or water, to examine the influence of 100% fruit juice and the portion size of the provided fruit juice, on beverage, food, and overall snack intake. Mixed-factor analyses of covariance revealed a significant (p < 0.05) beverage type and size interaction for amount of beverage consumed, with the 12 oz. juice condition consuming the greatest amount of beverage (226.6 ± 116.4 g), and for energy consumed from food, with the 12 oz. water condition consuming more than the 12 oz. juice condition (117.7 ± 69.1 kcal vs. 88.5 ± 64.1 kcal). A main effect of beverage type was found on overall snack energy intake, with more overall energy consumed when juice was provided (175.4 ± 50.0 kcal vs. 104.8 ± 62.8 kcal, p < 0.001). Providing preschool-aged children with a larger size of beverage at a snack increased beverage and/or food intake, and serving 100% juice led to greater overall snack energy intake. Future research should examine the role of 100% fruit juice, and beverage portion size, in contributing to excessive daily energy intake in preschool-aged children.
Selvamuthukumaran, Meenakshisundaram; Khanum, Farhath
The response surface methodology was used to optimize the spray drying process for development of seabuckthorn fruit juice powder. The independent variables were different levels of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration. The responses were moisture, solubility, dispersibility, vitamin C and overall color difference value. Statistical analysis revealed that independent variables significantly affected all the responses. The Inlet air temperature showed maximum influence on moisture and vitamin C content, while the maltodextrin concentration showed similar influence on solubility, dispersibility and overall color difference value. Contour plots for each response were used to generate an optimum area by superimposition. The seabuckthorn fruit juice powder was developed using the derived optimum processing conditions to check the validity of the second order polynomial model. The experimental values were found to be in close agreement to the predicted values and were within the acceptable limits indicating the suitability of the model in predicting quality attributes of seabuckthorn fruit juice powder. The recommended optimum spray drying conditions for drying 100 g fruit juice slurry were inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration of 162.5 °C and 25 g, respectively. The spray dried juice powder contains higher amounts of antioxidants viz., vitamin C, vitamin E, total carotenoids, total anthocyanins and total phenols when compared to commercial fruit juice powders and they are also found to be free flowing without any physical alterations such as caking, stickiness, collapse and crystallization by exhibiting greater glass transition temperature.
Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Ping; Qi, Yi-Ping; Zhou, Chen-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Liao, Xin-Yan; Wang, Liu-Qing; Zhu, Dong-Huang; Chen, Li-Song
We investigated the effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in 'Guanximiyou' pummelo (Citrus grandis) juice sacs. Granulated juice sacs had decreased concentrations of citrate and isocitrate, thus lowering juice sac acidity. By contrast, malate concentration was higher in granulated juice sacs than in normal ones. The reduction in citrate concentration might be caused by increased degradation, as indicated by enhanced aconitase activity, whilst the increase in malate concentration might be caused by increased biosynthesis, as indicated by enhanced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). Real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the activities of most acid-metabolizing enzymes were regulated at the transcriptional level, whilst post-translational modifications might influence the PEPC activity. Granulation led to increased accumulation of mineral elements (especially phosphorus, magnesium, sulphur, zinc and copper) in juice sacs, which might be involved in the incidence of granulation in pummelo fruits.
Bevilacqua, Antonio; Speranza, Barbara; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena
This article reports on the bioactivities of citrus extracts (citrus extract, lemon extract, and neroli) toward Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum. The bioactivities of the extracts (from 10 to 100 ppm) were evaluated through a microdilution method; thereafter, citrus extracts (0 to 80 ppm) were tested in combination with either pH (3.0 to 5.0) or temperature (5 to 25°C). Finally, a confirmatory experiment was run in a commercial drink (referred to as red fruit juice) containing citrus extract (40 ppm) that was inoculated with either S. cerevisiae or Z. bailii (5 log CFU/ml) and stored at 4 and 25°C. Yeasts increased to 7 log CFU/ml (Z. bailii) or 8 log CFU/ml (S. cerevisiae) in the control at 25°C, but the citrus extract addition controlled yeast growth for at least 3 days; under refrigeration, the effect was significant for 10 days.
Miglio, Cristiana; Peluso, Ilaria; Raguzzini, Anna; Villaño, Deborah V; Cesqui, Eleonora; Catasta, Giovina; Toti, Elisabetta; Serafini, Mauro
High-fat meals (HFM) induce metabolic stress, leading to the activation of protective mechanisms, including inflammation and endogenous antioxidant defences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of antioxidant-rich fruit juice drinks on the endogenous antioxidant response induced by HFM. In a double-blind, cross-over design (10 d washout), fourteen overweight volunteers were randomly assigned to one of the following interventions: HFM+500 ml placebo beverage (HFM-PB, free from fruit); HFM+500 ml antioxidant beverage 1 (HFM-AB1; apple, grape, blueberry and pomegranate juices and grape skin, grape seed and green tea extracts); HFM+500 ml antioxidant beverage 2 (HFM-AB2; pineapple, black currant and plum juices). HFM-PB consumption increased the plasma levels of thiols (SH) (4 h, P< 0·001) and uric acid (UA) (2 h, P< 0·01) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) (4 h, P< 0·01). Following the consumption of drinks, UA production was significantly reduced with respect to placebo beverage consumption 8 h after HFM-AB2 consumption (P< 0·05). SH levels were reduced 0·5 (P< 0·05), 1 (P< 0·05) and 2 h (P< 0·01) after HFM-AB1 consumption and 2, 4 and 8 h (P< 0·05) after HFM-AB2 consumption. Plasma TRAP (2 h, P< 0·001) and urinary ferric reducing antioxidant power (0-8 h, P< 0·01) were increased by HFM-AB1 consumption, the drink with the highest in vitro antioxidant capacity, but not by HFM-AB2 consumption. In urine, UA levels were significantly increased from basal levels after the consumption of HFM-PB and HFM-AB2. However, neither of the beverages increased the urinary excretion of UA with respect to the placebo beverage. In conclusion, the increase in UA and SH levels induced by HFM as part of an endogenous antioxidant response to postprandial stress can be prevented by the concomitant ingestion of antioxidant-rich fruit juice drinks.
Aliping-McKenzie, M; Linden, R W A; Nicholson, J W
The interaction of tooth-coloured dental restorative materials (a conventional glass-ionomer, two resin-modified glass-ionomers and two compomers) with acidic beverages has been studied with the aim of investigating how long-term contact affects solution pH and specimen surface hardness. For each material (ChemFil Superior, ChemFlex, Vitremer Core Build-Up/Restorative, Fuji II LC, Dyract AP and F2000) disc-shaped specimens were prepared and stored in sets of six in the following storage media: 0.9% NaCl (control), Coca-Cola, apple juice and orange juice. After time intervals of 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 4 months, 6 months and 1 year, solution pH and Vickers Hardness Number were determined for each individual specimen. Differences were analysed by anova followed by Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc analysis. All materials were found to reduce the pH of the 0.9% NaCl, but to increase the pH of the acidic beverages. The conventional glass-ionomers dissolved completely in apple juice and orange juice, but survived in Coca-Cola, albeit with a significantly reduced hardness after 1 year. The other materials survived in apple juice and orange juice, but showed greater reductions in surface hardness in these beverages than in Coca-Cola. Fruit juices were thus shown to pose a greater erosive threat to tooth coloured materials than Coca-Cola, a finding which is similar to those concerning dentine and enamel towards these drinks.
Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto
This paper provides an overview of alternatives to conventional thermal treatments and a review of the literature on fruit-juice processing for three key operations in fruit-juice production such as microbial inactivation, enzyme inactivation, and juice yield enhancement, these being radiation treatments (UV light, high-intensity light pulses, γ-irradiation), electrical treatments (pulsed electric fields, radiofrequency electric fields, ohmic heating), microwave heating, ultrasound, high hydrostatic pressure, inert gas treatments (supercritical carbon dioxide, ozonation), and flash-vacuum expansion. The nonthermal technologies discussed in this review have the potential to meet industry and consumer expectations. However, the lack of standardization in operating conditions hampers comparisons among different studies, and consequently ambiguity arises within the literature. For the juice industry to advance, more detailed studies are needed on the scaling-up, process design, and optimization, as well as on the effect of such technologies on juice quality of juices in order to maximize their potential as alternative nonthermal technologies in fruit-juice processing.
Zheng, Jie; Yang, Baoru; Trépanier, Martin; Kallio, Heikki
Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) of nine varieties were collected from three growth locations in five inconsecutive years (n = 152) to study the compositional differences of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in berries of different genotypes. Fructose and glucose (major sugars) were highest in Chuiskaya and Vitaminaya among the varieties studied, respectively. Malic acid and quinic acid (major acids) were highest in Pertsik and Vitaminaya, respectively. Ascorbic acid was highest in Oranzhevaya and lowest in Vitaminaya. Berry samples of nine varieties collected from two growth locations in five years (n = 124) were combined to study the effects of latitude and weather conditions on the composition of H. rhamnoides ssp. mongolica. Sea buckthorn berries grown at lower latitude had higher levels of total sugar and sugar/acid ratio and a lower level of total acid and were supposed to have better sensory properties than those grown at higher latitude. Glucose, quinic acid, and ascorbic acid were hardly influenced by weather conditions. The other components showed various correlations with temperature, radiation, precipitation, and humidity variables. In addition, fructose, sucrose, and myo-inositol correlated positively with each other and showed negative correlation with malic acid on the basis of all the samples studied (n = 152).
Rahimi, Ebrahim; Rezapoor Jeiran, Masoome
A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin (PAT) from fruit juices consumed in Iran. PAT content was determined using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection in 161 samples of fruit juices including apple, pineapple, pear, peach, pomegranate and white and red grape juices. Results revealed the presence of PAT in 16.1% of the samples examined, ranging from 5 to 190.7 µg/kg. Average and median PAT content in positive samples was 34.5 and 18.5 µg/kg, respectively. PAT concentration in 2.5% of the samples was higher than the maximum limit as set by European regulations for PAT in fruit products (50 µg/kg). Estimated daily intake of PAT by fruit juice was 16.4, 45.9 and 74.6 ng/kg bw/day for Iranian adults, children and babies, respectively. The results of this study showed that PAT does not seem to be a problem in fruit-based drinks commercialised in Iran, except for apple juice.
Onsekizoglu Bagci, Pelin
Fruit juices are generally concentrated in order to improve the stability during storage and to reduce handling, packaging, and transportation costs. Thermal evaporation is the most widely used technique in industrial fruit juice concentrate production. In addition to high energy consumption, a large part of the characteristics determining the quality of the fresh juice including aroma, color, vitamins, and antioxidants undergoes remarkable alterations through the use of high operation temperatures. Increasing consumer demand for minimally or naturally processed stable products able to retain as much possible the uniqueness of the fresh fruit has engendered a growing interest for development of nonthermal approaches for fruit juice concentration. Among them, membrane distillation (MD) and its variants have attracted much attention for allowing very high concentrations to be reached under atmospheric pressure and temperatures near ambient temperature. This review will provide an overview of the current status and recent developments in the use of MD for concentration of fruit juices. In addition to the most basic concepts of MD variants, crucial suggestions for membrane selection and operating parameters will be presented. Challenges and future trends for industrial adaptation taking into account the possibility of integrating MD with other existing processes will be discussed.
Kuraya, Eisuke; Nakada, Shina; Touyama, Akiko; Itoh, Shigeru
Citrus junos Tanaka (yuzu) has a strong characteristic aroma, and hence, yuzu juice is used in a number of Japanese foods. We herein evaluated the functional compounds of yuzu juice to investigate whether underwater shockwave pretreatment affects its functionality. Employing the shockwave pretreatment at an increased discharge and energy of 3.5kV and 4.9kJ, respectively, resulted in an increase in the flavanone glycoside content and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The ORAC value of yuzu juice cultivated in Rikuzentakata increased approximately 1.7 times upon underwater shockwave pretreatment. The treatment method proposed herein exhibited reliable and good performance for the extraction of functional and antioxidant chemicals in yuzu fruits, and was comparable with traditional squeezing methods. The high applicability and reliability of this technique for improving the antioxidant functionality of yuzu fruit juice was demonstrated, confirming the potential for application to a wide range of food extraction processes.
Upaganlawar, A; Balaraman, R
The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Lagenaria siceraria fruit juice in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Rats injected with isoproterenol (200 mg/kg, s.c.) showed a significant increase in the levels of serum uric acid, tissue Na(++) and Ca(++) ions and membrane-bound Ca(+2)-ATPase activity. A significant decrease in the levels of serum protein, tissue K(+) ion, vitamin E level, and the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and mg(+2)-ATPase was observed. Isoproterenol injected rats also showed a significant increase in the intensity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme and histopathologic alterations in the heart. Treatment with L. siceraria fruit juice (400 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 30 days and administration of isoproterenol on 29(th) and 30(th) days showed a protective effect on altered biochemical and histopathologic changes. These findings indicate the cardioprotective effect of L. siceraria fruit juice in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.
Tobal, Thaise Mariá; da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; Bolini, Helena Maria André; Boscolo, Mauricio
This work is an exploratory study of the possibility of promoting the consumption of Syzygium cumini fruit by adding its extract to orange juice making good use of its functional (antioxidant) properties. S. cumini fruit extract was characterized in terms of its anthocyanin content (2.11 g/100 g expressed in cyanidine-3-glucoside equivalents), total phenolic compounds (360 mg/100 g expressed in gallic acid equivalents) and antioxidant capacity evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging method. The effects of the addition of S. cumini fruit crude extract as well as its chromatographic fractions on the juice were assessed chemically by headspace solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry detector. Only six compounds had their chromatographic peak intensities clearly changed and the results are discussed in terms of the inhibition of the formation of 2-octanone, hexanol, α-copaene, and α-panasinsene and the conservation of octyl acetate and p-menth-1-en-9-ol. Sensory evaluation of orange juice with and without S. cumini crude extract addition did not show any significant differences in the sensorial profile, discriminative and acceptance tests.
Nowadays food products are defined by geographical origin, method of production and by some regulations concerning terms of their authenticity. Important data for confirm the authenticity of product are providing by isotopic methods of food control. The method checks crucial criteria which characterize the authenticity of inspected product. The European Union Regulations clearly show the tendency for application of the isotopic methods for food authenticity control (wine, honey, juice). The aim of the legislation steps is the protection of European market from possibility of the commercial frauds. Method of isotope ratio mass spectrometry is very effective tool for the use distinguishably the food products of various geographical origin. The basic problem for identification of the sample origin is the lack of databases of isotopic composition of components and information about the correlations of the data. The subject of the work was study the isotopic correlations existing between components of fruits. The chemical and instrumental methods of separation: water, sugars, organic acids and pulp from fruit were implemented. IRMS technique was used to measure isotopic composition of samples. The final results for original samples of fruits (apple, strawberry etc.) will be presented and discussed. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education under grant NR12-0043-10/2010.
Spraul, Manfred; Schütz, Birk; Rinke, Peter; Koswig, Susanne; Humpfer, Eberhard; Schäfer, Hartmut; Mörtter, Monika; Fang, Fang; Marx, Ute C.; Minoja, Anna
With SGF Profiling™ we introduce an NMR-based screening method for the quality control of fruit juices. This method has been developed in a joint effort by Bruker BioSpin GmbH and SGF International e.V. The system is fully automated with respect to sample transfer, measurement, data analysis and reporting and is set up on an Avance 400 MHz flow-injection NMR spectrometer. For each fruit juice a multitude of parameters related to quality and authenticity are evaluated simultaneously from a single data set acquired within a few minutes. This multimarker/multi-aspect NMR screening approach features low cost-per-sample and is highly competitive with conventional and targeted fruit juice quality control methods. PMID:22253974
Qiao, Yu; Xie, Bi Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Fan, Gang; Yao, Xiao Lin; Pan, Si Yi
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve components were the odorants perceived in both samples. The aromatic compositions of fruit juice were more complex than that of peel oil. Ethyl butanoate, beta-myrcene, octanal, linalool, alpha-pinene, and decanal were found to be responsible for the aromatic notes in fruit juice and peel oil. Nineteen components have been perceived only in the juice and ten compounds were described as aromatic components of only the peel oil by the panelists. These differences lead to the different overall aroma between fruit juice and peel oil.
Cullen, Karen Weber; Zakeri, Issa; Pryor, Erin W.; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Watson, Kathy
The impact of goal attainment in a dietary change program to increase fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable consumption was assessed among fourth-grade students. At each session, the students were given goals related to increasing fruit, juice, and vegetable consumption. Baseline consumption and postconsumption were assessed with up to 4 days of…
In 2007 and 2008, consumer and descriptive sensory analyses were made of juice from fruit harvested from healthy and Huanglongbing (HLB) affected trees. Differences were sometimes found for flavor, mainly for juice from HLB fruit symptomatic for the disease (small, green, asymmetrical shape) with de...
The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of high-polyphenolic black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) juices against bacterial strains Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis isolated as spoilage of commercial soft drinks. The composition of fruit juices was evaluated using chromatographic techniques HPLC and LC-MS. The adhesion to glass, polystyrene, and polyethylene terephthalate in two different culture media was evaluated by luminometry and the plate count method. The major anthocyanins in the V. myrtillus were petunidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-glucoside, while in R. nigrum delphinidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were detected. The LC-MS analysis showed presence of anthocyanins (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives), phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids), flavonols (quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside), and flavanols (procyanidin B2 and procyanidin type A2). Additionally, in the bilberry juice A type procyanidin trimer was detected. The adhesion of Asaia spp. cells depended on the type of medium, carbon sources, and the type of abiotic surfaces. We noted that the adhesion was significantly stronger in minimal medium containing sucrose. The addition of bilberry and black currant juices notably reduced bacterial growth as well as cell adhesion to polyethylene terephthalate surfaces. PMID:27747228
Dehelean, A.; Magdas, D. A.; Cristea, G.
This work presents a preliminary study on the carbon isotope signature and trace metal content investigated on the soil-plant-fruit pulp chain. The samples were collected from two Transylvanian areas namely Alba and Salaj. The average value of the δ13C at the soil surface was around δ13C ≈ -27%° and important differences of the δ13C values between the two studied areas were not observed. Meanwhile, differences between fruit pulp of grape juice and the pulp of pear juice relived a difference of about 1.5%° for δ13C values.
Chanprasartsuk, On-ong; Prakitchaiwattana, Cheunjit; Sanguandeekul, Romanee; Fleet, Graham H
This study investigated autochthonous yeasts and their functions in the spontaneous fermentation of freshly crushed pineapple juice samples collected from two different areas of both Thailand and Australia. Hanseniaspora uvarum and Pichia guilliermondii were the main yeast species observed on the fruit skins of Thai samples, and also in the fresh juice and ferments of all samples from both countries. P. guilliermondii was consistently present as the dominant species during the early stage of the fermentation, whereas H. uvarum became more prevalent towards the end of the six-day fermentation period, with populations increasing from an initial level of approximately 5 log CFU/mL to approximately 8 log CFU/mL at the end of fermentation. The ethanol levels in samples from both regions of Thailand were maximal at 2 days of fermentation, reaching approximately 1 to 2% (v/v) but then declined thereafter. In contrast, in the Australian samples ethanol levels continued to increase over the entire six-day fermentation period and reached approximately 3 to 4% (v/v). A significant decrease in citric acid and increase in lactic acid levels were observed throughout the fermentation period in the samples from Thailand, but not in those from Australia where the different acid contents (and pH) were relatively stable. The other wine yeasts and, in particular, Saccharomyces yeasts, were not found in any of sampled fermentation systems that is apparently different from the other fruit juices. These findings suggested that the freshly crushed pineapple juice may possibly have some effects on the other autochthonous yeasts having important role in alcoholic fermentation.
Yoo, Sungyul; Ghafoor, Kashif; Kim, Jeong Un; Kim, Sanghun; Jung, Bora; Lee, Dong-Un; Park, Jiyong
Nonpasteurized orange juice is manufactured by squeezing juice from fruit without peel removal. Fruit surfaces may carry pathogenic microorganisms that can contaminate squeezed juice. Titanium dioxide-UVC photocatalysis (TUVP), a nonthermal technique capable of microbial inactivation via generation of hydroxyl radicals, was used to decontaminate orange surfaces. Levels of spot-inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 (initial level of 7.0 log CFU/cm(2)) on oranges (12 cm(2)) were reduced by 4.3 log CFU/ml when treated with TUVP (17.2 mW/cm(2)). Reductions of 1.5, 3.9, and 3.6 log CFU/ml were achieved using tap water, chlorine (200 ppm), and UVC alone (23.7 mW/cm(2)), respectively. E. coli O157:H7 in juice from TUVP (17.2 mW/cm(2))-treated oranges was reduced by 1.7 log CFU/ml. After orange juice was treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at 400 MPa for 1 min without any prior fruit surface disinfection, the level of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 2.4 log CFU/ml. However, the E. coli O157:H7 level in juice was reduced by 4.7 log CFU/ml (to lower than the detection limit) when TUVP treatment of oranges was followed by HHP treatment of juice, indicating a synergistic inactivation effect. The inactivation kinetics of E. coli O157:H7 on orange surfaces followed a biphasic model. HHP treatment did not affect the pH, °Brix, or color of juice. However, the ascorbic acid concentration and pectinmethylesterase activity were reduced by 35.1 and 34.7%, respectively.
Soares, Marcia Valeria L; Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Silva, Lorena Mara A; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Canuto, Kirley Marques; Wurlitzer, Nedio Jair; Narain, Narendra; de Brito, Edy Sousa
Thermal food processing mainly aims to control microorganism in order to extend its shelf life. However, it may induce chemical and nutritional changes in foodstuff. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) coupled to multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the effect of different thermal processing conditions (85 and 140°C for 4; 15; 30; and 60s) on the passion fruit juice using an Armfield pasteurizer. Through this approach it was possible to identify the changes in the juice composition. The temperature and the time lead to a hydrolysis of the sucrose to glucose and fructose. Additionally, juice submitted to 140°C for 60s results in the degradation of the sucrose and the formation of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural (HMF). Despite no novel chemical marker has been identified, the (1)H NMR chemometrics approach may contribute in the choice of the temperature and time to be employed in the juice processing.
Lichtenthäler, Ramona; Marx, Friedhelm
The total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay in a modified and automated version was applied for a comparative and detailed survey of the antioxidant capacities of 14 common European fruit and vegetable juices (ACE, apple, beetroot, blueberry, carrot, elderberry, lemon, lingonberry, multivitamin, orange, pink grapefruit, sauerkraut, and tomato juices as well as sour cherry nectar). The juices were ranked according to their scavenging capacity against the three reactive oxygen species (ROS) peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite. These ROS are of physiological and technological relevance and cover a broad range of reactivity. Nonlinear correlations between concentrations of all studied samples and antioxidant capacity were taken into account for the assessment of the results. Due to the more complex assay design, results are only partially in accordance with those of the literature. Because of its outstanding TOSC values against two of the three ROS, lingonberry juice deserves special attention.
Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman
An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes.
Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman
An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes. PMID:25097289
Pao, S; Davis, C L
Trials were conducted with hot water and chemicals to sanitize Valencia oranges contaminated by natural microflora or inoculated with Escherichia coli. Microbial loads and sensory quality of fresh juice extracted from surface-heated fruit were also evaluated. E. coli on fruit surfaces was reduced by either hot water or chemical treatments. An estimated 5-log reduction of E. coli was attained by immersing inoculated fruit in hot water at 80 degrees C for 1 min or 70 degrees C for 2 min. Immersing inoculated fruit in various chemical solutions at about 30 degrees C for 8 min only reduced E. coli by about 1.8- to 3.1-log cycles on nonstem-scar surfaces of the fruit. In general, both hot water and chemical treatments were less effective at removing microflora from the stem-scar area. Rapid hot-water immersions at 80 degrees C for 1 min and 70 degrees C for 2 min reduced both fruit-surface and initial juice microbial loads without altering original sensory quality of fresh juice.
Hui, Rui-hua; Hou, Dong-yan; Guan, Chong-xin; Liu, Xiao-yuan
Numerous studies dealing with the quantitative determination of total flavonoids in sea-buckthorn fruit juice by spectrophotometry are presented. The flavonoids in sea-buckthorn fruit juice and aluminate produce stable complex whose absorption occurred at longer wavelength. To determine the total flavonoids in sea-buckthorn fruit juice by traditional spectrophotometry method, baseline shift and asymmetric absorption peak occurred on the absorption curve. Quantitative determination of flavonoids in sea-buckthorn fruit juice by three wavelength spectrophotometry method can eliminate the absorbance error caused interfering components in turbid solution and the scattering effect. Background changing with the concentration change and asymmetric absorption peak problems can also be solved. The regression equation of concentration vs deltaA was obtained: deltaA = - 0.00703 + 0.00048c with a relation coefficient gamma = 0.9991. The experimental results demostrate the total flavonoids concentrations in 0-800 microg x mL(-1) with deltaA obeying linear relation when the absorbance was measured at wavelength lambda1 = 495 nm, lambda2 = 415 nm and lambda3 = 368 nm. The recovery is 97.0%-101.0% and the coefficient of variation is 0.058% (n = 9). The method is more advantageous than tranditional spectrophotometry method.
In their recent commentary, Wojcicki and Heyman suggested that 100% fruit juice consumption is linked to childhood obesity and should be eliminated from the United States Department of Agriculture Food Programs. This recommendation is unsupported by the scientific literature, which has failed to sho...
Studies assessing a relationship between consumption of 100% fruit juice by children and adolescents and weight are contradictory. The purpose of this review was to assess the 9 cross-sectional and 12 longitudinal studies that have looked at this association. Of the 9 cross-sectional studies revie...
Maganur, Prabhadevi; Satish, V; Prabhakar, A R; Namineni, Srinivas
In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of each restorative material did form the control group [water (group III)]. Experimental group pellets were again divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate and severe) containing 10 pellets each and were kept in plastic containers with 30 ml Cola drink (group I) and fresh fruit juice (group II) respectively. Immersion regime was followed according to M aupome G et al. Baseline and final surface roughness (Ra) value for each pellet was evaluated using a profilometer. Statistical analysis was done with Wilcoxon's signed rank test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that the erosive effect of both Cola drink and fresh fruit juice caused significant surface roughness on both flowable composite and RMGIC restorative materials in the mild, moderate and severe immersion regimes. How to cite this article: Maganur P, Satish V, Prabhakar AR, Namineni S. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):1-5.
Satish, V; Prabhakar, AR; Namineni, Srinivas
ABSTRACT In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of each restorative material did form the control group [water (group III)]. Experimental group pellets were again divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate and severe) containing 10 pellets each and were kept in plastic containers with 30 ml Cola drink (group I) and fresh fruit juice (group II) respectively. Immersion regime was followed according to M aupome G et al. Baseline and final surface roughness (Ra) value for each pellet was evaluated using a profilometer. Statistical analysis was done with Wilcoxon’s signed rank test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that the erosive effect of both Cola drink and fresh fruit juice caused significant surface roughness on both flowable composite and RMGIC restorative materials in the mild, moderate and severe immersion regimes. How to cite this article: Maganur P, Satish V, Prabhakar AR, Namineni S. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):1-5. PMID:26124573
Noni (Morinda citrifolia), a medicinal plant grown in Hawaii and other Polynesian regions, is reportedly therapeutic for diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. Noni fruit often produce fermented juice that differs in chemical, physical and microbial properties. To determine ho...
Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) nonthermal processing inactivates microorganisms in juices using non-toxic and non-reactive CO2. However, data is lacking on the inactivation of E. coli K12 and L. plantarum in apple cider using pilot plant scale SCCO2 equipment. For this study, pasteurized pres...
Shoeb, Ahsan; Alwar, M.C.; Gokul, P.
Introduction The medicinal value of Morinda citrifolia L. (commonly known as Noni) has been explored in ancient folk remedies with a wide range of therapeutic utility, including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antitumour, analgesic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory and immune enhancing effects. Aim The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Noni fruit juice on serum lipid profile in high fat diet induced murine model of dyslipidemia. Materials and Methods Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding a cholesterol rich high fat diet for 45 days in wistar albino rats of either sex (n=8). Noni fruit juice administered at 50mg/kg/day and 100mg/kg/day, per oral, was compared with the standard drug Atorvastatin (10mg/kg/day, oral) fed for the latter 30 days. The blood samples were then sent for complete blood lipid profile, after 30 days of treatment. The data presented as mean ± SEM was analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test. The p <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results The Noni fruit juice treated group showed a significant decrease in the total cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein - Cholesterol at both the doses when compared to the disease control (p<0.05). However, the decrease in the TC (102.75±9.79 mg/dL) and LDL-C (47.87±7.47 mg/dL) levels observed with the noni fruit juice at the 50mg/kg dose employed, failed to show a statistical significance when compared to atorvastatin. Conclusion The present study provides evidence for the hypolipidemic activity of Noni fruit juice in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. PMID:27190827
Xi, Bo; Li, Shuangshuang; Liu, Zhaolu; Tian, Huan; Yin, Xiuxiu; Huai, Pengcheng; Tang, Weihong; Zhou, Donghao; Steffen, Lyn M.
Background Several prospective studies have been conducted to examine the relationship between fruit juice intake and risk of incident type 2 diabetes, but results have been mixed. In the present study, we aimed to estimate the association between fruit juice intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to December 2013. All prospective cohort studies of fruit juice intake with risk of type 2 diabetes were included. The pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for highest vs. lowest category of fruit juice intake were estimated using a random-effects model. Results A total of four studies (191,686 participants, including 12,375 with type 2 diabetes) investigated the association between sugar-sweetened fruit juice and risk of incident type 2 diabetes, and four studies (137,663 participants and 4,906 cases) investigated the association between 100% fruit juice and risk of incident type 2 diabetes. A higher intake of sugar-sweetened fruit juice was significantly associated with risk of type 2 diabetes (RR = 1.28, 95%CI = 1.04–1.59, p = 0.02), while intake of 100% fruit juice was not associated with risk of developing type 2 diabetes (RR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.91–1.18, p = 0.62). Conclusions Our findings support dietary recommendations to limit sugar-sweetened beverages, such as fruit juice with added sugar, to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24682091
Camerlingo, Carlo; Zenone, Flora; Delfino, Ines; Diano, Nadia; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Lepore, Maria
Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different production stages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assess its potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategic role in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detection during production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clear identification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of apple juice samples from washed and crushed fruits revealed a peak at 845 cm-1 (typical of pectin) which disappears in the Raman spectra of depectinised samples. The fructose content was also revealed by the presence of four peaks at 823 cm-1, 872 cm-1, 918 cm-1 and 975 cm-1. In the case of apricot juice, several Raman fingerprints of β-carotene at 1008, 1159 and 1520 cm-1 were also highlighted. Present results resulted interesting for the exclusive use of optical methods for the quantitative determination of the above-mentioned substances in place of the biochemical assays generally used for this purpose, which are time consuming and require different chemical reagents for each of them.
Bevilacqua, Antonio; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Maddalena, Lucia; Sinigaglia, Milena
A strain of Lactobacillus plantarum and 4 strains of bifidobacteria were inoculated in apple juice and in a commercial beverage labeled as "red-fruit juice," containing citrus extracts as natural preservatives; the suitability of the probiotics was evaluated in relation to their resistance to 2 kinds of citrus extracts (biocitro and lemon extract), survival in juices at 4 and 37 °C, and inhibition of Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Cell count of L. plantarum and bifidobacteria over time was fitted through the Weibull equation, for the evaluation of the first reduction time (δ), death time, and microbiological shelf life (the break-point was set to 7 log cfu/mL). Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis experienced the highest δ-value (23.21 d) and death time (96.59 d) in the red-fruit juice at 4 °C, whereas L. plantarum was the most promising strain in apple juice at 37 °C. Biocitro and lemon extract did not exert a biocidal effect toward probiotics; moreover, the probiotics controlled the growth of Z. bailii and the combination of L. plantarum with 40 ppm of biocitro reduced the level of the yeast after 18 d by 2 log cfu/mL.
Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-No, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu
Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Citrus unshiu (CU) juice (CU10), 3) 40% CU juice (CU40), 4) 10% Citrus iyo (CI) juice (CI10), and 5) 40% CI juice (CI40). After drinking them for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age, cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery. Neointima formation was significantly attenuated in CU40, CI10 and CI40 compared with C; however, no remarkable preventive effect was observed in CU10. The increases in levels of various inflammatory markers including cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in response to vascular injury did not differ significantly between C, CU10 and CI10. The increases in cell proliferation and superoxide anion production were markedly attenuated in CI10, but not in CU10 compared with C. The increase in phosphorylated ERK expression was markedly attenuated both in CU10 and CI10 without significant difference between CU10 and CI10. Accumulation of immune cells did not differ between CU10 and CI10. These results indicate that drinking citrus fruit juice attenuates vascular remodeling partly via a reduction of oxidative stress. Interestingly, the preventive efficacy on neointima formation was stronger in CI than in CU at least in part due to more prominent inhibitory effects on oxidative stress by CI.
Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon
This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds.
Tuşa, F. D.; Moldovan, Z.; Schmutzer, G.; Magdaş, D. A.; Dehelean, A.; Vlassa, M.
In this work we describe a rapid method for analysis of volatile profiles of several commercial fruit juices using GC/MS instrument after liquid-liquid extraction. Volatile flavor compounds have been identified based on mass spectrum obtained in EI mode. This method allows to analyses a wide range of flavor compounds (esters, aldehydes, alcohols, terpenoids) the procedure was rapid, simple and inexpensive. Moreover, by means of volatile compounds it could be possible to distinguish between juices of organic and conventional production and those with flavorings addition. More of 20 compounds were identified and quantified as relative chromatogram area taken on larges ion in mass spectrum.
Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André
This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice.
Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André
This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891
Makino, Toshiaki; Mizuno, Fumika; Mizukami, Hajime
Herb-drug interaction has attracted attention as medicinal topics recently. However, the drug information is sometimes confusing. Previous in vitro studies revealed that schisandra fruit had strong inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 and claimed the possibilities of its herb-drug interaction. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of schisandra fruit and shoseiryuto, an herbal formula in Japanese traditional kampo medicine containing eight herbal medicines including schisandra fruit, on rat CYP3A activity in vitro, and the effect of shoseiryuto on pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in rats, in comparison with those of grapefruit juice, a well-characterized natural CYP3A inhibitor. Shoseiryuto and its herbal constituents, schisandra fruit, ephedra herb and cinnamon bark exhibited in vitro inhibitory effect of CYP3A. Although shoseiryuto inhibited rat CYP3A activity in vitro with a degree comparable to grapefruit juice, shoseiryuto did not significantly affect a plasma concentration profile of nifedipine in rats as grapefruit juice did. These results indicate that in vivo experiments using the extract of herbal medicine prepared with the same dosage form as patients take are necessary to provide proper information about herb-drug interaction.
Liao, Xue-Yi; Guo, Li-Qiong; Ye, Zhi-Wei; Qiu, Ling-Yan; Gu, Feng-Wei; Lin, Jun-Fang
Strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus brevis were identified from mango fruits by partial 16S rDNA gene sequence. Based on the ability of producing mannitol and diacetyl, Leuconostoc mesenteroides MPL18 and MPL39 were selected within the lactic acid bacteria isolates, and used as mixed starters to ferment mango juice (MJ). Both the autochthonous strains grew well in fermented mango juice (FMJ) and remained viable at 9.81 log cfu mL(-1) during 30 days of storage at 4°C. The content of total sugar of FMJ was lower than that of MJ, while the concentration of mannitol was higher than that of MJ, and the concentration of diacetyl was 3.29 ± 0.12 mg L(-1). Among detected organic acids including citric acid, gallic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid, only citric acid and gallic acid were found in MJ, while all detected organic acids were found in FMJ. The concentration of lactic acid of FMJ was the highest (78.62 ± 13.66 mM) among all detected organic acids. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity of FMJ was higher than that of MJ. Total phenolic compounds were better preserved in FMJ. The acidity and sweetness had a noticeable impact on the overall acceptance of the treated sample.
Haddi, Z; Mabrouk, S; Bougrini, M; Tahri, K; Sghaier, K; Barhoumi, H; El Bari, N; Maaref, A; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Bouchikhi, B
There are many important challenges related to food security analysis by application of chemical and electrochemical sensors. One critical parameter is the development of reliable tools, capable of performing an overall sensory analysis. In these systems, as much information as possible is required in relation to smell, taste and colour. Here, we investigated the possibility of using a multisensor data fusion approach, which combines an e-Nose and an e-Tongue, adept in generating combined aroma and taste profiles. In order to shed light on this concept, classification of various Tunisian fruit juices using a low-level of abstraction data fusion technique was attempted. Five tin oxide-based Taguchi Gas Sensors were applied in the e-Nose instrument and the e-Tongue was designed using six potentiometric sensors. Four different commercial brands along with eleven fruit juice varieties were characterised using the e-Nose and the e-Tongue as individual techniques, followed by a combination of the two together. Applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) separately on the respective e-Nose and e-Tongue data, only few distinct groups were discriminated. However, by employing the low-level of abstraction data fusion technique, very impressive findings were achieved. The Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network reached a 100% success rate in the recognition of the eleven-fruit juices. Therefore, data fusion approach can successfully merge individual data from multiple origins to draw the right conclusions that are more fruitful when compared to the original single data. Hence, this work has demonstrated that data fusion strategy used to combine e-Nose and e-Tongue signals led to a system of complementary and comprehensive information of the fruit juices which outperformed the performance of each instrument when applied separately.
Psychosocial and demographic correlates of fruit, juice, and vegetable (FJV) consumption were investigated to guide how to increase FJV intake. Experimental design consisted of hierarchical multiple regression analysis of FJV consumption on demographics and psychosocial variables. Subjects were boys...
Khandpur, Paramjeet; Gogate, Parag R
Increasing consumer awareness regarding the health benefits of different nutrients in food have led to the requirement of assessing the effect of food processing approaches on the quality attributes. The present work focuses on understanding the effects of novel approaches based on the use of ultrasound and ultraviolet irradiations on the nutritional quality of different fruit and vegetable juices (orange, sweet lime, carrot and spinach juices) and its comparison with the conventional thermal pasteurization operated at 80°C for 10 min. The ultrasound sterilization parameters were maintained at ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz and power of 100 W with treatment time as 15 min. For the case of ultraviolet irradiations, 2 UVC lamps (254 nm) of 8 W were placed in parallel on either sides of the reactor. The treated juices were analyzed for total phenol content, antioxidant activity, vitamin C, carbohydrates etc. It has been established that ultrasound processed juice retained most of the nutrient components to higher extent in comparison to all the other techniques used in the work. Combination of ultrasound and ultraviolet irradiations used to achieve an effective decontamination of juices (recommended 5 log reduction of microorganisms) also retained nutrients to a higher level in comparison to the thermal method; however some losses were observed as compared to the use of only ultrasound which could be attributed to inefficient heat exchange in the combined approach. A scale up attempt was also made for treatment of spinach juice using ultrasonic reactors and analysis for quality attributes confirmed that the juice satisfied the criteria of required nutrient contents for 18 days shelf life trial in refrigerated storage conditions. The present work has clearly established the usefulness of ultrasound based treatment in maintaining the nutritional quality of beverages while giving enhanced shelf life as compared to the conventional approaches.
Patel, Snehal S; Goyal, Ramesh K
Normalization of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress is an important objective in preventing diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. The present study investigated the effects of the fruit juice obtained from Emblica officinalis on myocardial dysfunction in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ), and the rats were treated with E officinalis fruit juice for eight weeks. Injection of STZ produced loss of body weight, polydypsia, polyphagia, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and dyslipidemia. It also produced hypertension, bradycardia, hypertrophy and myocardial functional alterations associated with an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels. Treatment with the fruit juice not only prevented STZ-induced loss of body weight, increases in water and food intake, increases in serum glucose levels and disturbed lipid profile, but also an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels, and increased myocardial hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy. There was an increase in the area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, and a decrease in AUCinsulin was observed in diabetic rats; treatment decreased AUCglucose but not AUCinsulin or hyperinsulinemia. There was a decrease in antioxidant enzyme levels (in superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase) in diabetic hearts, which could be improved by treatment with fruit juice. The present data suggest that fruit juice may be beneficial for the treatment of myocardial damage associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The activity of E officinalis fruit juice can be attributed to the concentration of polyphenol present. PMID:22065939
Crowe-White, Kristi; O'Neil, Carol E; Parrott, J Scott; Benson-Davies, Sue; Droke, Elizabeth; Gutschall, Melissa; Stote, Kim S; Wolfram, Taylor; Ziegler, Paula
Consumption of 100% fruit juice remains controversial for its potential adverse impact on weight and displacement of essential foods in the diets of children. A systematic review of the literature published from 1995-2013 was conducted using the PubMed database to evaluate associations between intake of 100% fruit juice and weight/adiposity and nutrient intake/adequacy among children of 1 to 18 years of age. Weight status outcome measures included body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, ponderal index, obesity, weight gain, adiposity measures, and body composition. Nutrient outcome measures included intake and adequacy of shortfall nutrients. Data extraction and analysis was conducted according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process. Twenty-two studies on weight status provided evidence that did not support an association between 100% fruit juice consumption and weight/adiposity in children after controlling for energy intake. Limited evidence from eight studies suggests that children consuming 100% fruit juice have higher intake and adequacy of dietary fiber, vitamin C, magnesium, and potassium. Differences in methodology and study designs preclude causal determination of 100% fruit juice as sole influencer of weight status or nutrient intake/adequacy of shortfall nutrients. In context of a healthy dietary pattern, evidence suggests that consumption of 100% fruit juice may provide beneficial nutrients without contributing to pediatric obesity.
Moussa-Ayoub, Tamer E; Jaeger, Henry; Youssef, Khaled; Knorr, Dietrich; El-Samahy, Salah; Kroh, Lothar W; Rohn, Sascha
Selected technological characteristics and bioactive compounds of juice pressed directly from the mash of whole Opuntia dillenii cactus fruits have been investigated. The impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) for a non-thermal disintegration on the important juice characteristics has been evaluated in comparison to microwave heating and use of pectinases. Results showed that the cactus juice exhibited desirable technological characteristics. Besides, it also contained a high amount of phenolic compounds being the major contributors to the overall antioxidant activity of juice. HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n) measurements in the fruits' peel and pulp showed that isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside was determined as the single flavonol found only in the fruit's peel. Treating fruit mash with a moderate electric field strength increased juice yield and improved juice characteristics. Promisingly, the highest release of isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside from fruit's peel into juice was maximally achieved by PEF.
Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahnot, Nikhil Kumar; Mahanta, Charu Lata
A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the phytochemical and antioxidant activities of juices from carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), black jamun (Syzygium cumuni L.Skeels.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var lanatus), pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) was carried out. Depending on the type of fruit sample and treatment, increase or decrease in phytochemical values was observed. Overall, sonication had a positive effect on the total flavonoid content in all the juice samples followed by microwave treatment with exceptions in some cases. High-performance liquid chromatography study showed the presence of different phenolic acids depending on the sample type. The phenolic acids in some processed carambola juice samples showed decrease or complete destruction, while in some cases, an increase or appearance of newer phenolic acid originally not detected in the fresh juice was observed as seen in conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwaved at 600 W and sonicated juices. Both microwaved and sonicated samples were found to have positive effect on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity with exceptions in some cases. Therefore, microwave and sonication treatment could be used in place of thermal pasteurisation depending on the sample requirements.
Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu
Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are two fundamental optical properties for turbid biological materials. This paper presents the technique and method of using hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for fast determination of the optical properties of fruit and vegetable juices and milks. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance over the spectral region between 530 and 900 nm from a variety of fruit and vegetable juices (citrus, grapefruit, orange, and vegetable) and milks with different fat levels (full, skim and mixed). The system collected diffuse reflectance in the source-detector separation range from 1.1 to 10.0 mm. The hyperspectral reflectance data were analyzed by using a diffusion theory model for semi-infinite homogeneous media. The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the fruit and vegetable juices and milks were extracted by inverse algorithms from the scattering profiles for wavelengths of 530-900 nm. Values of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient at 650 nm were highly correlated to the fat content of the milk samples with the correlation coefficient of 0.990 and 0.989, respectively. The hyperspectral imaging technique can be extended to the measurement of other liquid and solid foods in which light scattering is dominant.
Kondoh, Jun; Shiokawa, Showko
The objective of this paper is to present a new application of shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) devices on 36° rotated Y-cut X-propagating LiTaO3 for a sensing system that can identify liquid samples, such as fruit juices. Theoretical sensor sensitivity for acoustoelectric interaction with a liquid loaded on the SAW propagation surface was derived and confirmed with experimental results. The results strongly suggested that by employing SH-SAW devices with different center frequencies the sensor can recognize many liquid samples without a film coated on the substrate surface. In the experiment, the sensing system which identifies fruit juices was fabricated using three SH-SAW devices with center frequencies of 30, 50, and 100 MHz. Identification of samples, eleven kinds of fruit juices, was achieved by classification in principal component analysis and discriminant analysis. Since the SH-SAW sensor without a coating film has intrinsically good reproducibility and stability, it is effective for identification and quality control of liquid samples.
Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude
Roselle-fruit juice blends were made from roselle extract and mango, papaya, and guava juices at the ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, % roselle: fruit juice, respectively. The blends were pasteurized at 82.5°C for 20 min and stored in 100 mL plastic bottles at 28 and 4°C for 6 months. The effects of storage time and temperature on physicochemical and bioactive properties were evaluated. Total soluble solids, pH, and reducing sugars increased significantly (P < 0.05) in some blends while titratable acidity decrease with increasing storage time. Vitamin C, total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), total phenols (TPC), and antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP) in all roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at 28 and 4°C as storage progressed. Vitamin C in all roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased from 58-55% to 43-42% when stored at 28 and 4°C, respectively. TMA losses were 86-65% at 28°C and 75-53% at 4°C while TPC losses were 66-58% at 28°C and 51-22% at 4°C. Loss of antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was 18-46% at 28°C and 17-35% at 4°C. A principal component analysis (PCA) differentiated roselle-juice fruit blends into two clusters with two principle components PC1 and PC2, which explained 97 and 3% (blends stored at ambient temperature) and 96 and 4% (blends stored at refrigerated temperature) of the variation, respectively. PC1 differentiated roselle-guava juice blends which were characterized by vitamin C, TPC, FRAP, and pH, while PC2 from another cluster of roselle-mango and roselle-papaya juice blends and was characterized by TSS, RS, and color parameters (L* a* b*). However, TMA was the main variable with the highest effect on all roselle-fruit juice blends regardless of the storage time and temperature.
Thomas, R; Jebin, N; Saha, R; Sarma, D K
Pork nuggets with 'very good' acceptability was processed by incorporating kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract, and their physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were evaluated during 35 days storage under refrigeration. Addition of kordoi fruit juice (4%) and bamboo shoot extract (6%) had a significant effect on the pH, moisture, protein, fat, fiber, instrumental color values and texture profiles of nuggets. Nuggets with juice and extract had significantly lower TBARS values towards the end of the storage period compared to the control. Microbial and sensory qualities of nuggets were significantly improved by the addition of juice and extract. Incorporation of juice and extract at 4% and 6% levels, respectively, increased the storage life of pork nuggets by at least two weeks, i.e. from 21 days to 35 days at 4 ± 1 °C compared to the control.
Bogra, Pushpa; Kumar, Ashwani; Kuhar, Kalika; Panwar, Surbhi; Singh, Randhir
Clarity of fruit juices is desirable to maintain an aesthetically pleasing quality and international standards. The most commonly used enzymes in juice industries are pectinases. A partially-purified pectinmethylesterase from tomato was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and used for juice clarification. The activity yield was maximum at 1 % (w/v) CaCl2 and 2.5 % (w/v) alginate. The immobilized enzyme retained ~55 % of its initial activity (5.7 × 10(-2) units) after more than ten successive batch reactions. The Km, pH and temperature optima were increased after immobilization. The most effective clarification of fruit juice (%T620 ~60 %) by the immobilized enzyme was at 4 °C with a holding time of 20 min. The viscosity dropped by 56 % and the filterability increased by 260 %. The juice remains clear after 2 months of storage at 4 °C.
Xu, Ting; Wei, Ke-yi; Wang, Jia; Ma, Hui-xin; Li, Ji; Xu, Yan-jun; Li, Qing X
Rapid and sensitive ELISAs have been applied to analyze imidacloprid and thiamethoxam residues in apple, grape, orange, and peach juices after simple dilution of the samples without any extraction and cleanup. The matrix interference of the fruit juices was eliminated after 100-fold dilution, and the ELISAs gave method LODs of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in fruit juices down to 20 and 5 ng/g, respectively. Average recoveries of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam from the spiked fruit juices were in the range of 92-115% and 87-118%, respectively. The CVs of the recoveries ranged from 3 to 19% and from 6 to 19% for imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, respectively. The ELISA results were comparable to those obtained by a reference HPLC/MS method using pesticide-spiked samples, with reasonable correlation coefficients between 0.89 and 0.93 and regression coefficients (slopes) between 0.75 and 0.94.
Hosseinzadeh Samani, Bahram; Khoshtaghaza, Mohammad Hadi; Minaei, Saeid; Zareifourosh, Hemad; Eshtiaghi, Mohammad Naghi; Rostami, Sajad
Conventional pasteurization treatments often lead to substantial decrease in fruits juice quality. Due to these issues, the objective of this research was to compare the combined effect of a novel thermal (microwave) and non-thermal (ultrasonic) treatments with conventional thermal pasteurization on some qualitative characteristics of sour cherry juice (vitamins, phenolics, anthocyanins, etc.). For this purpose, an automatic control system comprising of ultrasonic generator, ultrasonic transducer, horn, pump, circulator, microwave oven, container, pipe interface, temperature sensor, float, data acquisition card, microwave power control circuit, and reactor was designed and developed. Moreover, in order to optimize the effect of ultrasonic waves on the existing micro-organisms in the sour cherry juice, some preliminary experiments were carried out to optimize the ultrasonic probe and reactor design. The results of evaluations showed that using the combined automatic system, the qualitative properties of sour cherry (vitamin C content 14 %, total phenolics content 1 %, total anthocyanins content 6 %) can be better maintained compared with the conventional thermal method. Based on the results obtained in this study, the following processing conditions: microwave power of 541.7 W, temperature of 41 °C, ultrasonic power of 799.57 W and ultrasonic exposure time of 6 min were recommended for optimum processing of sour cherry juice.
Franchi, Leonardo P; Guimarães, Nilza N; De Andrade, Laise R; De Andrade, Heloísa H R; Lehmann, Maurício; Dihl, Rafael R; Cunha, Kênya S
Noni, a Hawaiian name for the fruit of Morinda citrifolia L., is a traditional medicinal plant from Polynesia widely used for the treatment of many diseases including arthritis, diabetes, asthma, hypertension and cancer. Here, a commercial noni juice (TNJ) was evaluated for its protective activities against the lesions induced by mitomycin C (MMC) and doxorrubicin (DXR) using the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. Three-day-old larvae, trans-heterozygous for two genetic markers (mwh and flr3 ), were co-treated with TNJ plus MMC or DXR. We have observed a reduction in genotoxic effects of MMC and DXR caused by the juice. TNJ provoked a marked decrease in all kinds of MMC- and DXR-induced mutant spots, mainly due to its antirecombinagenic activity. The TNJ protective effects were concentration-dependent, indicating a dose-response correlation, that can be attributed to a powerful antioxidant and/or free radical scavenger ability of TNJ.
Iqbal, Muhammad Naeem; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Ali, Muhammad Asad; Hussain, Firasat; Ali, Shahzad; Muhammad, Ali; Irfan, Muhammad; Ahmad, Aftab; Irfan, Muhammad; Shabbir, Asghar
The development of resistance in bacteria against commonly used antibiotics/drugs is of considerable medical significance. Aim of this study was to determine the microbial load of un-pasteurized packed fruit juices sold in Lahore city and to determine antibacterial activity of five different honey samples against isolated bacteria. Unpasteurized fruit juice samples (n=60) were collected from street vendors. All the samples were subjected to Total viable count (TVC), Staphylococcal count (SC) and Coliform count (CC). One hundred and ten strains of bacteria were isolated from various fruit juices and identified on the basis of cultural characters, morphology and biochemical characters. Mean TVCs, SCs and CCs of juices (6.80±1.91, 5.45±1.06 and 3.25±1.25 log10 CFU/ml respectively) were non-significant with standard permissible limits (p<0.05). Among all the fruit juices, 66.66% of samples had TVC more than 4 log10 CFU/ml, 51.66% of samples had SC more than 3 log10 CFU/ml and 46.66% of samples had CC more than 2 log10 CFU/ml. Among the bacillus isolates purified, were Bacillus alvei, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus polymyxa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli and Enterobecter. All five different types of honey samples used in this study showed antibacterial activity against B. alvei, B. polymyxa, B. subtilis and S. aureus and no activity against P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, Enterobecter and E. coli. It is concluded that microbial load in unpasteurized fruit juices is significantly higher than standard permissible limits which insinuates its possible role in spoilage and food borne illnesses. Periodic monitoring of packed fruit juices should be carried out to make them safe for consumption. Honey can be used as an alternative for treatment of various infections, especially those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria.
Iqbal, Muhammad Naeem; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Ali, Muhammad Asad; Hussain, Firasat; Ali, Shahzad; Muhammad, Ali; Irfan, Muhammad; Ahmad, Aftab; Irfan, Muhammad; Shabbir, Asghar
The development of resistance in bacteria against commonly used antibiotics/drugs is of considerable medical significance. Aim of this study was to determine the microbial load of un-pasteurized packed fruit juices sold in Lahore city and to determine antibacterial activity of five different honey samples against isolated bacteria. Unpasteurized fruit juice samples (n=60) were collected from street vendors. All the samples were subjected to Total viable count (TVC), Staphylococcal count (SC) and Coliform count (CC). One hundred and ten strains of bacteria were isolated from various fruit juices and identified on the basis of cultural characters, morphology and biochemical characters. Mean TVCs, SCs and CCs of juices (6.80±1.91, 5.45±1.06 and 3.25±1.25 log10 CFU/ml respectively) were non-significant with standard permissible limits (p<0.05). Among all the fruit juices, 66.66% of samples had TVC more than 4 log10 CFU/ml, 51.66% of samples had SC more than 3 log10 CFU/ml and 46.66% of samples had CC more than 2 log10 CFU/ml. Among the bacillus isolates purified, were Bacillus alvei, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus polymyxa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli and Enterobecter. All five different types of honey samples used in this study showed antibacterial activity against B. alvei, B. polymyxa, B. subtilis and S. aureus and no activity against P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, Enterobecter and E. coli. It is concluded that microbial load in unpasteurized fruit juices is significantly higher than standard permissible limits which insinuates its possible role in spoilage and food borne illnesses. Periodic monitoring of packed fruit juices should be carried out to make them safe for consumption. Honey can be used as an alternative for treatment of various infections, especially those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria. PMID:26668658
Perotti, Valeria E; Figueroa, Carlos M; Andreo, Carlos S; Iglesias, Alberto A; Podestá, Florencio E
Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase (PEPCase) from orange fruit juice sacs has been cloned and heterogously expressed in high yield. The purified recombinant enzyme displays properties typical of plant PEPCase, including activation by sugar phosphates and inhibition by malate and citrate. Malate inhibition is weak in the physiological pH range, and the enzyme is also poorly affected by Glu and Asp, known inhibitors of C(3) plants PEPCases. However, it is strongly inhibited by citrate. Orange fruit PEPCase phosphorylation by mammalian protein kinase A decreased inhibition by malate. The enzyme presents an unusual high molecular mass in the absence of PEP, while in its presence it displays a more common tetrameric arrangement. The overall properties of the enzyme suggest that it is suited for organic acid synthesis and NADH reoxidation in the mature fruit. The present study provides the first analysis of a recombinant fruit PEPCase.
Dietz, Donna; Schneider, Roland; Papendiek, Franka; Venus, Joachim
Lactic acid is one of the most important building blocks for the production of bioplastic. Many investigations have been conducted to reduce the lactic acid production costs. In this work, the focus was put on the application of legume pressed juice or green juice as nutrient source. The pressed juice was utilized directly without prior pre-treatment and sterilization. Using two different alfalfa green juices and a clover green juice from two different harvest years as sole nutrients, non-sterile fermentations were performed at 52°C and pH 6.0 with a thermotolerant strain Bacillus coagulans AT107. The results showed that alfalfa green juices generally were more suitable for high lactic acid production than clover green juices, presumably due to the higher nitrogen content. A final titer of 98.8g/L after 30h with l(+)-lactic acid purity of >99% was obtained.
De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart
In this study, a process for the production of premium quality yellowish, cloudy pear juice from low-quality fruit under low-oxygen conditions was developed. The production process consisted of (1) shredding, (2) pressing with spiral-filter technology including a vacuumised extraction cell, (3) holding in an inert gas buffer tank, (4) pasteurisation, (5) and refrigerated storage. First, the system parameters of a spiral-filter press were optimised with the aim of producing a yellowish, cloudy pear juice with the highest possible juice yield. A maximum juice yield of 78% could be obtained. Enzymatic browning during juice extraction could be suppressed as a result of the fast processing and the low air (oxygen) levels in the extraction chamber of the spiral-filter press. Furthermore, we observed that instantaneous pasteurisation at 107 °C for 6s, subsequent aluminium laminate packaging and cold storage had only a minimum effect on the phenolic composition.
Myresiotis, Charalampos K; Testempasis, Stefanos; Vryzas, Zisis; Karaoglanidis, George S; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia
A rapid and accurate analytical method for the determination of three Alternaria mycotoxins (alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and tentoxin) in pomegranate samples (fruits and juices) was developed and validated. The overall average recoveries ranged for 82.0-109.4% and the relative standard deviations were from 1.2% to 10.9%. The optimized and validated method was applied to detect the presence of the target mycotoxins in real samples (fruits and juices) purchased from Greek markets. Mycotoxins were not found in any of the analyzed samples. Also, artificially inoculated pomegranate fruits with six different Alternaria alternata species complex isolates, known to produce the target mycotoxins on pure cultures, were analyzed and alternariol concentrations found ranged from 0.3 to 50.5 μg/g, alternariol monomethyl ether from 0.5 to 32.3 μg/g, while tentoxin was not detected. The developed analytical method can be used for the routine monitoring of the major Alternaria mycotoxins in pomegranates.
Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of 40 tropical juices from Malaysia and identification of phenolics from the bioactive fruit juices of Barringtonia racemosa and Phyllanthus acidus.
Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Ooi, Kheng Leong
The present study compared pH, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of 40 fresh juices. The juice of Baccaurea polyneura showed the highest yield (74.17 ± 1.44%) and total soluble solids (32.83 ± 0.27 °Brix). The highest and lowest pH values were respectively measured from the juices of Dimocarpus longan (6.87 ± 0.01) and Averrhoa bilimbi (1.67 ± 0.67). The juice of Psidium guajava gave the highest total phenolic (857.24 ± 12.65 μg GAE/g sample) and vitamin C contents (590.31 ± 7.44 μg AAE/g sample). The juice of Phyllanthus acidus with moderate contents of total phenolics and vitamin C was found to exhibit the greatest scavenging (613.71 ± 2.59 μg VCEAC/g sample), reducing (2784.89 ± 3.93 μg TEAC/g sample), and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (95.37 ± 0.15%). The juice of Barringtonia racemosa was ranked second in the activities and total phenolic content. Gallic and ellagic acids, which were quantified as the major phenolics of the respective juices, are suggested to be the main contributors to the antioxidant activities. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the juices could be derived from myricetin and quercetin (that were previously reported as potent α-glucosidase inhibitors) in the hydrolyzed juice extracts. The juice of Syzygium samarangense, which was found to be highest in metal chelating activity (82.28 ± 0.10%), also was found to have these phenolics.
Zhang, Bing-Fang; Yuan, Li-Bo; Zhang, Bing-Xiu
In order to explore a simple, rapid and efficient tomato quality detection method, in the present experiment near infrared spectroscopy and optical fiber sensing technology were applied to quickly measure the nutrition ingredient content in tomato juice samples. The main instrument used in this experiment was near infrared optical fiber spectrometer in a wavelength range from 900 to 2 500 nm, which measured the absorbance of the tomato juice samples; A collection of one hundred and sixty-four tomato juice samples were selected as the standard samples, the spectra and the corresponding chemical value were measured. Partial least squares (PLS) was adopted to establish the mathematical model of the total acid and soluble sugar content in tomato juice samples, and the regression equation was statistically analysed. The total acid in tomato juice prediction correlation coefficient was 0.967, calibration standard deviation (RMSEC) was 0.133, standard error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.103; the soluble sugar prediction correlation coefficient is 0.976, calibration standard deviation (RMSEC) was 0.463, and the standard error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0. 460. The above data achieved better forecasting results, which showed that the method of quantitative analysis of tomato fruit multicomponent content was feasible. The method is rapid, simple and can do multicomponent analysis on the same sample simultaneously. It is a promising sensor and gradually becoming a international research focus in sensor field.
Bao, Sheng-Xiang; Wang, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Jing-Song
X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry is applied to the determination of trace elements in fruit juice characterized by a high content of sugar and other soluble solid substances. Samples are prepared by evaporation, carbonization and pressing into discs. The synthesis of standards is described in detail. All element concentrations are directly estimated from linear calibration curves obtained without any matrix correction. The results of the analysis are in good agreement with those given by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry techniques.
Sharma, Shweta; Kori, Shivpoojan; Parmar, Ankush
The aim of this study was to enhance the extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruit juices by the application of surfactants formulations instead of conventional solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetone). A variety of fruit infusions: apple red delicious (apple (rd)) (Malus domestica), Mcintosh apple (apple (i)) (Malus pumila), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta) and mango (Magnifera indica) were studied. Effect of water, organic solvents and five different aqueous surfactant formulations viz. SDS, Brij-35, Brij-58, Triton X-100 and Span-40 were explored for the extraction of TPC and determining the antioxidant activity (AA). The TPC and AA (%) were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FCA) and DPPH assay, respectively. The effect of surfactant type, concentration and common organic solvents on the extraction of TPC and AA (%) was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometric technique. Among all the extracting systems employed, Brij-58 showed the highest extraction efficiency.
... citric acid may be added to citrus fruit, juice or wine, only malic acid may be added to apples, apple juice or wine, and only citric acid or malic acid may be added to other fruit (including berries) or to juice or wine derived from other fruit (including berries) to correct natural deficiencies to 9.0...
Diamante, Lemuel M.; Li, Siwei; Xu, Qianqian; Busch, Janette
A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC), blackcurrant concentrate (BCC) and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield. PMID:28239127
Oteiza, Juan Martin; Soto, Silvina; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Giannuzzi, Leda
This study aimed to report the incidence of Alicyclobacillus and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in apple and pear flavorings (n=42) and to assess the effect of guaiacol-producing A. acidoterrestris strains on apple flavorings stored at 4, 20 and 45 °C. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was used for simultaneous confirmation of alicyclobacilli. A total of six isolates were identified as A. acidoterrestris, and only one strain was not able to produce guaiacol. The storage of apple flavoring at the optimum growth temperature of A. acidoterrestris (45 °C) resulted in the reduction in the spores' counts within 30 days of storage. On the other hand, during chilling (4 °C) and ambient storage conditions (20 °C) the counts of spores that remained stable for up to 60 days. An A. acidoterrestris strain inoculated in flavoring and further added to apple juice was able to grow and produce guaiacol in high amounts between 1-7 days of storage at 30 °C. In the current study it was shown that flavorings may be contaminated by deteriogenic A. acidoterrestris strains that are able to survive during storage in a wide range of temperature for long periods and further contaminate and spoil formulated fruit juices and beverages. A novel potential source of fruit juices and beverages contamination by deteriogenic Alicyclobacillus was shown. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first report on the incidence and fate of Alicyclobacillus and A. acidoterrestris in flavorings.
Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia
The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis. PMID:27313649
Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia
The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis.
Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B
Early research investigating attractants for the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew, during the 1930s indicated that fermentation products were effective attractants for Mexican fruit flies and other tropical Tephritidae, but that attraction to fruit components was only of academic interest. Tests reported here were carried out on populations of Mexican fruit flies from 2004 to 2011. Trapping experiments carried out at sites in the states Nuevo Leon and San Luis Potosi compared grape juice, reconstituted grape concentrate and powdered grape mixes, and torula yeast extract in orchards at each site. The Nuevo Leon orchard was mixed with alternate rows of pears and surrounded by alternate hosts. The San Luis Potosi site was surrounded by other orange orchards or nonhosts. Each test was run for at least 10 mo and included highest and lowest trapping periods. Results showed that grape juice captured the most total flies and had the fewest samples with zero flies. However, in the series of experiments, each product had the most captures in at least one experiment. Hydrolyzed torula was superior in one of the six experiments. In five of the tests, polyethylene glycol was tested as an additive to the grape products but never improved capture rate compared with the product without the additive. These results indicate that grape juice is superior to grape concentrate or powder and grape juice is at least equal to torula yeast hydrolysate for trapping pest populations of Mexican fruit flies in commercial citrus orchards.
Queiroz, C.; Moreira, C. F. F.; Lavinas, F. C.; Lopes, M. L. M.; Fialho, E.; Valente-Mesquita, V. L.
The cashew apple is native to Brazil, but there is insufficient information regarding the nutritional properties of this fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of high pressure processing (HPP) at room temperature (25 °C) on phenolic compound and ascorbic acid contents and antioxidant capacity of cashew apple juice. This study showed that HPP at 250 or 400 MPa for 3, 5 and 7 min did not change pH, acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid or hydrolysable polyphenol contents. However, juice pressurized for 3 and 5 min showed higher soluble polyphenol contents. Antioxidant capacity, measured by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power method, was not altered by HPP, but when treated at 250 MPa for 3 min, it resulted in an increased value when 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl was used. These data demonstrate that HPP can be used in the food industry for the generation of products with higher nutritional quality.
Harada, Shinichi; Fujita-Hamabe, Wakako; Kamiya, Kohei; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Satake, Toshiko; Tokuyama, Shogo
Fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni juice) is a well-known health drink and has various pharmacological properties including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We have hitherto found the protective effect of Noni juice on brain damage caused by ischemic stress in mice. In addition, we also recently reported that regulation of post-ischemic glucose intolerance might be important for good prognosis. Here, we focused on the effect of Noni juice on the development of the post-ischemic glucose intolerance as a cerebral protective mechanism. Noni juice was obtained from the mature fruit grown in Okinawa (about 1.5 L/4 kg of fruit; 100% ONJ). Male ddY mice were given 10% ONJ in drinking water for 7 days. Then, mice were subjected to 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Ingestion of 10% ONJ suppressed the development of neuronal damage after MCAO. Interestingly, glucose intolerance observed on the 1st day after MCAO completely disappeared after 10% ONJ administration. Furthermore, ONJ treatment significantly increased serum insulin levels much further than the control group on the 1st day, while serum adiponectin levels were not affected at all. These results suggest that ONJ could facilitate insulin secretion after ischemic stress and may attenuate the development of glucose intolerance. These mechanisms may contribute to the neuronal protective effect of ONJ against ischemic stress.
Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick
This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit.
Mattei, Josiemer; Malik, Vasanti; Hu, Frank B; Campos, Hannia
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, studies conducted on Hispanic adults are scarce. To determine the association between beverages consumed by Hispanic adults and MetS and its components, data were analyzed in 1872 Costa Rican adults who served as controls of a population-based, case-control study of coronary heart disease. Multivariate-adjusted means were calculated for components of MetS by servings (never, ≤ 1/wk; 2-6/wk, ≥ 1/d) of 2 traditional fruit-based beverages ("fresco" and freshly-squeezed homemade fruit juice, separately) and 2 SSB (instant drinks and regular sodas, separately and combined). The prevalence ratio (PR) of MetS was calculated for each beverage and the OR was calculated by substituting one serving of homemade fruit juice or water for one of SSB. Significant positive trends were observed for increasing servings of instant drinks with plasma TG and waist circumference and for regular soda with waist circumference (all P-trend < 0.001). Increasing servings of homemade fruit juice were positively associated with HDL cholesterol (P-trend = 0.033). Consuming ≥1 serving/d of instant drinks was associated with a higher PR of MetS [1.42 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.83)] compared with no consumption. Substituting one serving of homemade fruit juice for instant drink was associated with 29% (95% CI: 7, 47%) lower odds of MetS and for regular soda with 30% (95% CI: 1, 50%) lower odds. Substituting water for combined SSB was marginally significant (OR = 0.86 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.00). In conclusion, reducing the consumption of SSB and substituting them with homemade fruit juices in moderation may be a culturally appropriate approach to lower MetS among Hispanic adults.
Amor, Carlos; Lucas, Marco S; Pirra, António J; Peres, José A
Concentrated fruit juice industries use a wide volume of water for washing and fruit processing, generating a large volume of wastewater. This work studied the combination of an aerobic biological process with a chemical coagulation/flocculation step to treat a high concentrated fruit juice wastewater. This wastewater presents a good biodegradability (BOD(5)/COD = 0.66) allowing a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal above 90% in most reactors. The best results in aerobic biological treatment were obtained in reactors initially loaded with 2 g VSS L(-1) of biomass concentration and 20 g COD L(-1) of organic matter concentration. Three different kinetic models were evaluated (Monod, Haldane and Contois). The Haldane-inhibition model was the one that best fitted the COD biodegradation. AQUASIM software allowed calculate the following kinetic constants ranges for aerobic biodegradation: K (s): 6-20 g COD L(-1); v (max): 2.0-5.1 g COD g(-1) VSS day(-1) and K (i) values: 0.10-0.50 g COD L(-1). These constants corresponds to maximum removal rates (v*) between 0.11 and 0.26 g COD g(-1) VSS day(-1) for substrate concentrations (S*) from 0.77 to 3.16 g COD L(-1). A tertiary coagulation/flocculation process improved the efficiency of the biological pre-treatment. Ferric chloride was selected as best compromise to treat this wastewater. Optimal conditions were 0.44 g L(-1) of coagulant at pH = 5.5, achieving 94.4% and 99.6% on turbidity and COD removal, respectively.
Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar
Enrichment of fruit juices with pine bark extract (PBE) could be a strategy to compensate for phenolic losses during the gastrointestinal digestion. A coculture system with Caco-2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages was established as an in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium for evaluating the anti-inflammatory capacity of fruit juices enriched with PBE (0.5 g L(-1)) before and after in vitro digestion. The digestion of both PBE-enriched pineapple and red fruit juice led to significant changes in most of the analysed phenolic compounds. The in vitro inflammatory state showed cell barrier dysfunction and overproduction of IL-8, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the inflamed cells, incubation with nondigested samples reduced (P<0.05) the production of IL-8 and NO compared with digested samples. ROS production increased in the inflamed cells exposed to digested commercial red fruit juice (86.8±1.3%) compared with fresh juice (77.4±0.8%) and increased in the inflamed cells exposed to digested enriched red fruit juice (82.6±1.6%) compared with the fresh enriched juice (55.8±6%). The anti-inflammatory properties of PBE-enriched fruit juices decreased after digestion; further research on the bioavailability of the assayed compounds is needed to properly assess their usefulness for the treatment of gut inflammation.
Magiera, Sylwia; Kwietniowska, Ewelina
In this study, an easy, simple and efficient method for the determination of naringenin enantiomers in fruit juices after salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD) was developed. The sample treatment is based on the use of water-miscible acetonitrile as the extractant and acetonitrile phase separation under high-salt conditions. After extraction, juice samples were incubated with hydrochloric acid in order to achieve hydrolysis of naringin to naringenin. The hydrolysis parameters were optimized by using a half-fraction factorial central composite design (CCD). After sample preparation, chromatographic separation was obtained on a Chiralcel® OJ-RH column using the mobile phase consisting of 10mM aqueous ammonium acetate:methanol:acetonitrile (50:30:20; v/v/v) with detection at 288nm. The average recovery of the analyzed compounds ranged from 85.6 to 97.1%. The proposed method was satisfactorily used for the determination of naringenin enantiomers in various fruit juices samples.
Fruit juice (FJ) consumption has recently been viewed as a sweetened beverage with little regard to its nutrient contribution to the diet. NHANES, 2003–2006, data were used to examine the association of 100% FJ consumption, with nutrient intake and diet quality in children ages 2–5 y (n equals 1,665...
Fruit juice (FJ) consumption has been under scrutiny despite its nutrient profile. NHANES (2003–2006) data were used to compare the proportion of children ages 2–18 years with intakes of selected vitamins/minerals below recommended levels among consumers (n = 3,976; 51% females) and non-consumers (n...
Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is a tropical plant used traditionally in Polynesia, Southeast Asia and other regions for medicinal purposes. Noni fruit and juice extracts are reportedly therapeutic for diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. Research was conducted to determine the phy...
Household food security is defined as access to enough food at all times for active, healthy living. Low food security may influence consumption because those households may lack sufficient resources to purchase more healthful items like fruit and vegetables. Because home availability is related to ...
Valcheva-Kuzmanova, S; Zhelyazkova-Savova, M
The main biologically active constituents of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) are polyphenolics, amongst them flavonoids, mainly anthocyanins. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of AMFJ (5 and 10 mL/kg) on anxiety using the social interaction test, on locomotor activity in the open field test and on working memory in the object recognition test in rats. AMFJ showed an anxiolytic-like effect which was demonstrated by a dose-dependent increase in the time of active social contacts between the test partners. The effects of both AMFJ doses were comparable to the effect of diazepam (1 mg/kg). AMFJ neither changed significantly horizontal and vertical locomotor activity, nor did it adversely affect working memory.
... the represented flavor is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice drink). In...”; raspberry and cranberry flavored juice drink); or (2) Include the amount of the named juice, declared in a 5- percent range (e.g., Raspcranberry; raspberry and cranberry juice beverage, 10- to 15-percent...
... the represented flavor is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice drink). In...”; raspberry and cranberry flavored juice drink); or (2) Include the amount of the named juice, declared in a 5- percent range (e.g., Raspcranberry; raspberry and cranberry juice beverage, 10- to 15-percent...
... the represented flavor is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice drink). In...”; raspberry and cranberry flavored juice drink); or (2) Include the amount of the named juice, declared in a 5- percent range (e.g., Raspcranberry; raspberry and cranberry juice beverage, 10- to 15-percent...
An, Guohua; Mukker, Jatinder Kaur; Derendorf, Hartmut; Frye, Reginald F
Beverage-drug interactions have remained an active area of research and have been the subject of extensive investigations in the past 2 decades. The known mechanisms of clinically relevant beverage-drug interactions include modulation of the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP). For CYP3A-mediated beverage-drug interaction, the in vivo CYP3A inhibitory effect is limited to grapefruit juice (GFJ), which increases the bioavailability of several orally administered drugs that undergo extensive first-pass metabolism via enteric CYP3A. In contrast, clinically significant OATP-mediated beverage-drug interactions have been observed with not only GFJ but also orange juice, apple juice, and, most recently, green tea. Fruit juices and green tea are all a mixture of a large number of constituents. The investigation of specific constituent(s) responsible for the enzyme and/or transporter inhibition remains an active area of research, and many new findings have been obtained on this subject in the past several years. This review highlights the multiple mechanisms through which beverages can alter drug disposition and provides an update on the new findings of beverage-drug interactions, with a focus on fruit juices and green tea.
Rein, Maarit J; Heinonen, Marina
Attractive color is one of the main sensory characteristics of fruit and berry products. Unfortunately, the color of red juices is unstable and easily susceptible to degradation, leading to a dull and weak juice color. This study was designed to investigate the color stability and copigmentation of four different berry juices enhanced by phenolic acids and commercial color enhancers. Phenolic acid enrichment improved and stabilized the color of the berry juices during storage. The commercial color enhancers immediately produced an intensive color to the juices, which, however, was not very stable. The color enhancement was intensive in strawberry and raspberry juices and effective in lingonberry and cranberry juices. Sinapic acid induced the strongest color in strawberry juice. Ferulic and sinapic acids improved raspberry juice color equally. Rosmarinic acid enhanced the color of lingonberry and cranberry juices the most. The addition of the simple cinnamic acids produced novel peaks to the end of the high-performance liquid chromatography chromatogram, indicating a formation of new compounds. It can be assumed that sinapic and ferulic acids formed new intramolecular copigmentation compounds with berry anthocyanins whereas rosmarinic acid stabilized anthocyanins intermolecularly.
Bartoszek, Mariola; Polak, Justyna
The differences in the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) values at the same incubation time obtained by two different techniques: electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, which use the same antioxidant-free radical reaction mechanism, were determined for fruit juices, nectars and drinks. For this study, the stable free radical 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH(•)) was used. The antioxidant capacity was presented in Trolox Equivalents, e.g., μM trolox per 100 ml of sample. All of the studied fruit juices, drinks and nectars showed antioxidative properties. Dependencies between TEAC values and the percent fruit content and sample color were observed for the studied beverages. It was found that EPR spectroscopy is the more adequate method for determining TEAC values for these kinds of samples.
Oteiza, Juan Martìn; Ares, Gastón; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Soto, Silvina; Giannuzzi, Leda
The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of Alicyclobacillus spp. in fruit/vegetable juices (concentrated pulps and clarified and non-clarified juices) marketed in Argentina between 1996 and 2009. The presence of Alicyclobacillus was determined in a total of 8556 samples of fruit and vegetable juices (apple, pear, grape, peach, blend of juices, tangerine, pineapple, orange, mango, plum, guava, apricot, lemon, banana, kiwi, carrot, strawberry, grapefruit, and beetroot) collected in seven Argentinean provinces. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) was carried out on a data matrix that contained the percentage of positive samples, type of juice, raw material and production year. Except for kiwi and orange, Alicyclobacillus was found in juices from all the evaluated raw materials. The highest percentage of positive samples was found for beetroot, strawberry, banana, peach, mango, carrot and plum juices. The percentage of positive samples for these juices ranged from 100% to 24%. Furthermore, the application of multivariate techniques provided an insight on the relationship between the incidence of Alicyclobacillus and production variables. This approach enabled the identification of the most relevant variables that increased the percentage of positive samples among the juices, which could help in developing strategies to avoid the incidence of this bacterium. By means of hierarchical cluster analysis seven groups (clusters) of juices which showed different percentages of positive samples for Alicyclobacillus spp. were identified. This analysis showed that pineapple, peach, strawberry, mango and beetroot juices had higher rates of positivity for Alicyclobacillus than the rest of the evaluated juices. MFA analysis also showed that some clear relationships could be highlighted between the percentage of samples positive for Alicyclobacillus and five types of fruit juices (strawberry, beetroot, grapefruit, pineapple and mango). It was observed that a large
Hyson, Dianne A
The association between the consumption of pure (100%) fruit juice (PFJ) and human health is uncertain. The current review summarizes data published between 1995 and 2012 related to PFJ with a focus on juices that are widely available and studied in forms representing native juice without supplemental nutrients or enhanced phytochemical content. The effects of apple, cranberry, grape, grapefruit, orange, and pomegranate PFJ intake on outcomes linked to cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognition, hypertension, inflammation, oxidation, platelet function, urinary tract infection, and vascular reactivity are reviewed. Implications for bodyweight regulation are also addressed. The collective data are provocative although challenges and unanswered questions remain. There are many plausible mechanisms by which PFJ might be protective, and investigation of its effects on human health and disease prevention must remain an active area of research.
Hyson, Dianne A
The association between the consumption of pure (100%) fruit juice (PFJ) and human health is uncertain. The current review summarizes data published between 1995 and 2012 related to PFJ with a focus on juices that are widely available and studied in forms representing native juice without supplemental nutrients or enhanced phytochemical content. The effects of apple, cranberry, grape, grapefruit, orange, and pomegranate PFJ intake on outcomes linked to cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognition, hypertension, inflammation, oxidation, platelet function, urinary tract infection, and vascular reactivity are reviewed. Implications for bodyweight regulation are also addressed. The collective data are provocative although challenges and unanswered questions remain. There are many plausible mechanisms by which PFJ might be protective, and investigation of its effects on human health and disease prevention must remain an active area of research. PMID:25593142
Marsol-Vall, Alexis; Balcells, Mercè; Eras, Jordi; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon
A method consisting of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by injection-port derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the analysis of free lipophilic compounds in fruit juices is described. The method allows the analysis of several classes of lipophilic compounds, such as fatty acids, fatty alcohols, phytosterols and triterpenes. The chromatographic separation of the compounds was achieved in a chromatographic run of 25.5min. The best conditions for the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction were 100μL of CHCl3 in 1mL of acetone. For the injection-port derivatization, the best conditions were at 280°C, 1min purge-off, and a 1:1 sample:derivatization reagent ratio (v/v) using N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA):pyridine (1:1) as reagent. Quality parameters were assessed for the target compounds, giving a limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 1.1 to 5.7ng/mL and limits of quantification (LOQs) from 3.4 to 18.7ng/mL for linoleic and stearic acid, respectively. Repeatability (%RSD, n=5) was below 11.51% in all cases. In addition, the method linearity presented an r(2) ≥0.990 for all ranges applied. Finally, the method was used to test the lipophilic fraction of various samples of commercial fruit juice.
Kuntz, Sabine; Rudloff, Silvia; Asseburg, Heike; Borsch, Christian; Fröhling, Bettina; Unger, Franziska; Dold, Sebastian; Spengler, Bernhard; Römpp, Andreas; Kunz, Clemens
The goal of eating five servings of fruits and vegetables a day has not yet been achieved. The intake of polyphenols such as anthocyanins (ACN) could be improved by consuming smoothies and juices that are increasingly popular, especially in children; however, bioavailability data concerning food matrix effects are scarce. Thus, we conducted a randomised, cross-over, bioavailability study (n 10) to determine the bioavailability of ACN and their metabolites from an ACN-rich grape/blueberry juice (841 mg ACN/litre) and smoothie (983 mg ACN/litre) in vivo, and the uptake of a corresponding grape/blueberry extract in vitro. After the intake of beverage (0·33 litres), plasma and fractionated urine samples were collected and analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to MS. The most abundant ACN found in plasma and urine were malvidin and peonidin as native ACN and as glucuronidated metabolites as well as 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHB); minor ACN (delphinidin, cyanidin and petunidin) were only detected as native glycosides. Plasma pharmacokinetics and recoveries of urinary metabolites of ACN were not different for juice or smoothie intake; however, the phenolic acid 3,4-DHB was significantly better bioavailable from juice in comparison to smoothie. In vitro data with absorptive intestinal cells indicated that despite their weak chemical stability, ACN and 3,4-DHB could be detected at the basal side in their native forms. Whether smoothies as well as juices should be recommended to increase the intake of potentially health-promoting ACN and other polyphenols requires the consideration of other ingredients such as their relatively high sugar content.
Williams, Evan J; Baines, Katherine J; Berthon, Bronwyn S; Wood, Lisa G
Phytochemicals from fruit and vegetables reduce systemic inflammation. This study examined the effects of an encapsulated fruit and vegetable (F&V) juice concentrate on systemic inflammation and other risk factors for chronic disease in overweight and obese adults. A double-blinded, parallel, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 56 adults aged ≥40 years with a body mass index (BMI) ≥28 kg/m². Before and after eight weeks daily treatment with six capsules of F&V juice concentrate or placebo, peripheral blood gene expression (microarray, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)), plasma tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)), body composition (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)) and lipid profiles were assessed. Following consumption of juice concentrate, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and plasma TNFα decreased and total lean mass increased, while there was no change in the placebo group. In subjects with high systemic inflammation at baseline (serum C-reactive protein (CRP) ≥3.0 mg/mL) who were supplemented with the F&V juice concentrate (n = 16), these effects were greater, with decreased total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and plasma TNFα and increased total lean mass; plasma CRP was unchanged by the F&V juice concentrate following both analyses. The expression of several genes involved in lipogenesis, the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling pathways was altered, including phosphomevalonate kinase (PMVK), zinc finger AN1-type containing 5 (ZFAND5) and calcium binding protein 39 (CAB39), respectively. Therefore, F&V juice concentrate improves the metabolic profile, by reducing systemic inflammation and blood lipid profiles and, thus, may be useful in reducing the risk of obesity-induced chronic disease.
Williams, Evan J.; Baines, Katherine J.; Berthon, Bronwyn S.; Wood, Lisa G.
Phytochemicals from fruit and vegetables reduce systemic inflammation. This study examined the effects of an encapsulated fruit and vegetable (F&V) juice concentrate on systemic inflammation and other risk factors for chronic disease in overweight and obese adults. A double-blinded, parallel, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 56 adults aged ≥40 years with a body mass index (BMI) ≥28 kg/m2. Before and after eight weeks daily treatment with six capsules of F&V juice concentrate or placebo, peripheral blood gene expression (microarray, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)), plasma tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)), body composition (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)) and lipid profiles were assessed. Following consumption of juice concentrate, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and plasma TNFα decreased and total lean mass increased, while there was no change in the placebo group. In subjects with high systemic inflammation at baseline (serum C-reactive protein (CRP) ≥3.0 mg/mL) who were supplemented with the F&V juice concentrate (n = 16), these effects were greater, with decreased total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and plasma TNFα and increased total lean mass; plasma CRP was unchanged by the F&V juice concentrate following both analyses. The expression of several genes involved in lipogenesis, the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling pathways was altered, including phosphomevalonate kinase (PMVK), zinc finger AN1-type containing 5 (ZFAND5) and calcium binding protein 39 (CAB39), respectively. Therefore, F&V juice concentrate improves the metabolic profile, by reducing systemic inflammation and blood lipid profiles and, thus, may be useful in reducing the risk of obesity-induced chronic disease. PMID:28208713
Chen, Yougui; Yu, Li Juan; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha
Fruit juice has been traditionally preserved by thermal pasteurisation. However, the applied heat can cause detrimental effects on health-promoting components such as phenolic compounds. Several non-thermal technologies such as membrane filtration, pulsed electric field (PEF) and ultraviolet (UV) exposure are promising methods developed for liquid food preservation. In particular, the combination of UV and PEF has proven to be more effective for microbial inactivation and maintaining nutritional quality of fruit juice compared with individual applications.
Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Presa-Parra, E; Lasa, R
Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew; Diptera: Tephritidae), have traditionally been trapped in citrus orchards in Mexico using protein hydrolysates as bait. Recently, CeraTrap(®), an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein, has emerged as an effective lure for monitoring A. ludens at the orchard level and is currently being used by growers in the region of Veracruz. Several studies have revealed that grape juice is highly attractive to A. ludens, and recent work supports its potential use for regulation purposes. In our study, the attraction of A. ludens to different grape products was evaluated in citrus orchards and in comparison to other Anastrepha species in an area composed of mango and chicozapote orchards. Attraction to grape lures was compared with CeraTrap and the standard protein Captor +borax trap. In general, CeraTrap was more attractive than different commercial grape products in several experiments. Only Jumex, a commercial grape juice, did not differ significantly from CeraTrap in the capture of A. ludens males and females in a citrus crop. However, several drawbacks were detected when using Jumex grape juice: 1) higher tendency to capture males, 2) less selectivity against non-targeted insects, 3) higher capture of beneficial lacewings, and iv) the need to re-bait weekly owing to lower stability. In the area containing mango and chicozapote, CeraTrap was more attractive than Captor + borax for Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina, followed by grape juice products, which were the least attractive for these fruit fly species.
... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.132 Grapefruit juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Grapefruit juice is the unfermented juice... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grapefruit juice. 146.132 Section 146.132 Food...
Van Lippevelde, Wendy; te Velde, Saskia J; Verloigne, Maïté; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Bere, Elling; Jan, Nataša; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Kovacs, Eva; Brug, Johannes; Maes, Lea
The aim of this study is to investigate associations of family-related factors with children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink consumption. A cross-sectional survey among 10- to 12-year-old children and their parents in eight European countries was conducted to gather this data. Key variables of interest were children's self-reported fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake per day (outcome) and family-related factors (based on parents' report) related to these two behaviors (modeling, automaticity, availability, monitoring, permissiveness, negotiating, communicating health beliefs, avoid negative modeling, self-efficacy, rewarding, and family consumption). 7915 Children (52% girls; mean age=11.7 ± 0.8 years) and 6512 parents (83% women; mean age=41.4 ± 5.3 years) completed the questionnaire. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the aforementioned associations. Three of the 11 family-related factors (modeling, availability, and family consumption) were positively associated with children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake. Additionally, three family-related factors (permissiveness, monitoring, and self-efficacy) were solely associated with soft drink intake and one family-related factor (communicating health beliefs) was related to fruit drink/juice intake. Future interventions targeting children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake should focus on the home environment, parents and their practices, especially on parents' fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake and availability of these beverages at home.
Rodríguez, Ana; Peris, Josep E; Redondo, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Costell, Elvira; Carbonell, Inmaculada; Rojas, Cristina; Peña, Leandro
Citrus fruits are characterized by a complex mixture of volatiles making up their characteristic aromas, being the d-limonene the most abundant one. However, its role on citrus fruit and juice odor is controversial. Transgenic oranges engineered for alterations in the presence or concentration of few related chemical groups enable asking precise questions about their contribution to overall odor, either positive or negative, as perceived by the human nose. Here, either down- or up-regulation of a d-limonene synthase allowed us to infer that a decrease of as much as 51 times in d-limonene and an increase of as much as 3.2 times in linalool in juice were neutral for odor perception while an increase of only 3 times in ethyl esters stimulated the preference of 66% of the judges. The ability to address these questions presents exciting opportunities to understand the basic principles of selection of food.
Schoenbeck, I; Graf, A M; Leuthold, M; Pastor, A; Beutel, S; Scheper, T
Potato fruit juice (PFJ) is a by-product from industrial starch production. It still contains several valuable components such as amino acids, minerals and proteins. An economic technology for the isolation and purification of different native potato proteins is the ion exchange chromatography, which can be performed either by classical bed chromatography or by membrane adsorption chromatography (MA-IEX). An already published MA-IEX process for the downstreaming of PFJ is based on the following steps: prefiltration/microfiltration, fractionation with MA-IEX, ultra-/diafiltration and finally drying. In order to further minimize process complexity and costs, new MA-IEX-modules were designed and tested in this research project to facilitate the processing of crude, particle-containing solutions using a tangential flow through the membranes. Modules with fleece polymer spacers and extruded polymer spacers, as well as different spacer channel sizes were tested for their binding capacities and their long-term stability. An optimized setup was found for the technical scale. Modules with extruded polymer spacers channel size 250 μm show the highest binding capacities (anion exchanger approx. 0.34 mg/cm(2), cation exchanger approx. 0.16 mg/cm(2)), while the modules with extruded polymer spacers channel size 480 μm show the best long-term stability with 23 passes without intermediary cleaning.
Upaganlawar, Aman; Balaraman, R
This study investigated antihyperlipidemic effects of Lagenaria siceraria fruit juice (LSFJ) in isoproterenol (ISO)induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Rats treated with ISO (200 mg/kg, s.c.) showed a significant increase in the levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids, in both serum and heart tissue. An increase in the levels of phospholipids, low-density lipoprotein, and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and decrease in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum and phospholipid levels in the heart were observed. ISO intoxicated rats also showed a significant decrease in the activities of lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferase, whereas lipoprotein lipase was found to be increased. Administration of LSFJ (400 mg/kg, p.o.) for 30 consecutive days and challenged with ISO on day 29th and 30th significantly attenuated these alterations and restored the levels of serum and heart lipids along with lipid metabolizing enzymes. Histopathological observations were also in correlation with the biochemical parameters. These findings indicate the protective effect of LSFJ during ISO-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.
Buniowska, Magdalena; Carbonell-Capella, Juana M; Frigola, Ana; Esteve, Maria J
A comparative study of the bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in a fruit juice-Stevia rebaudiana mixture processed by pulsed electric fields (PEF), high voltage electrical discharges (HVED) and ultrasound (USN) technology at two equivalent energy inputs (32-256kJ/kg) was made using an in vitro model. Ascorbic acid was not detected following intestinal digestion, while HVED, PEF and USN treatments increased total carotenoid bioaccessibility. HVED at an energy input of 32kJ/kg improved bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds (34.2%), anthocyanins (31.0%) and antioxidant capacity (35.8%, 29.1%, 31.9%, for TEAC, ORAC and DPPH assay, respectively) compared to untreated sample. This was also observed for PEF treated samples at an energy input of 256kJ/kg (37.0%, 15.6%, 29.4%, 26.5%, 23.5% for phenolics, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity using TEAC, ORAC and DPPH method, respectively). Consequently, pulsed electric technologies (HVED and PEF) show good prospects for enhanced bioaccessibility of compounds with putative health benefit.
Bett-Garber, Karen L; Lea, Jeanne M; Watson, Michael A; Grimm, Casey C; Lloyd, Steven W; Beaulieu, John C; Stein-Chisholm, Rebecca E; Andrzejewski, Brett P; Marshall, Donna A
Six cultivars of southern highbush (SHB) and rabbiteye (RE) blueberry samples were harvested on 2 different dates. Each treatment combination was pressed 2 times for repeated measures. Fresh juice was characterized for 18 flavor/taste/feeling factor attributes by a descriptive flavor panel. Each sample was measured for sugars, acids, anthocyanidins, Folin-Ciocalteu, soluble solids (BRIX), titratable acidity (TA), and antioxidant capacity (ORACFL ). Flavors were correlated with the composition and physicochemical data. Blueberry flavor correlated with 3 parameters, and negatively correlated with 2. Strawberry correlated with oxalic acid and negatively correlated with sucrose and quinic acid. Sweet aroma correlated with oxalic and citric acid, but negatively correlated with sucrose, quinic, and total acids. Sweet taste correlated with 11 parameters, including the anthocyanidins; and negatively correlated with 3 parameters. Neither bitter nor astringent correlated with any of the antioxidant parameters, but both correlated with total acids. Sour correlated with total acids and TA, while negatively correlating with pH and BRIX:TA. Throat burn correlated with total acids and TA. Principal component analysis negatively related blueberry, sweet aroma, and sweet to sour, bitter, astringent, tongue tingle, and tongue numbness. The information in this component was related to pH, TA, and BRIX:TA ratio. Another principal component related the nonblueberry fruit flavors to BRIX. This PC, also divided the SHB berries from the RE. This work shows that the impact of juice composition on flavor is very complicated and that estimating flavor with physicochemical parameters is complicated by the composition of the juice.
Lee, Song-Tay; Wu, Yi-Ling; Chien, Lan-Hsiang; Chen, Szu-Ting; Tzeng, Yu-Kai; Wu, Ting-Feng
Prostate cancer has been known to be the second highest cause of death in cancer among men. Pomegranate is rich in polyphenols with the potent antioxidant activity and inhibits cell proliferation, invasion, and promotes apoptosis in various cancer cells. This study demonstrated that pomegranate fruit juice could effectively hinder the proliferation of human prostate cancer DU145 cell. The results of apoptotic analyses implicated that fruit juice might trigger the apoptosis in DU145 cells via death receptor signaling and mitochondrial damage pathway. In this study, we exploited 2DE-based proteomics to compare nine pairs of the proteome maps collected from untreated and treated DU145 cells to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Comparative proteomics indicated that 11 proteins were deregulated in affected DU145 cells with three upregulated and eight downregulated proteins. These dys-regulated proteins participated in cytoskeletal functions, antiapoptosis, proteasome activity, NF-κB signaling, cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Western immunoblotting were implemented to confirm the deregulated proteins and the downstream signaling proteins. The analytical results of this study help to provide insight into the molecular mechanism of inducing prostate cancer cell apoptosis by pomegranate fruit juice and to develop a novel mechanism-based chemopreventive strategy for prostate cancer.
Maciel, Natália O P; Piló, Fernanda B; Freitas, Larissa F D; Gomes, Fátima C O; Johann, Susana; Nardi, Regina M D; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A
The aims of this study were to characterise the yeasts present in the reconstituted fruit juices and coconut water extracted with "coconut machines", both collected from commercial outlets in a Brazilian city, and to investigate the antifungal resistance of isolates from these beverages that were able to grow at 37°C. The yeast population counts in the coconut water samples ranged from 1.7 to >6.5logcfu/ml, and in the reconstituted fruit juices, the counts ranged from 1.5 to >5.5logcfu/ml. Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida boidinii, Candidaintermedia, Candidaoleophila, Candidaparapsilosis, Candidasantamariae, Candidatropicalis, Clavispora lusitaniae, Kloeckera apis, Lachancea fermentati, Pichia fermentans and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were the most frequent species isolated from these beverages. At least 18 yeast species isolated from these beverages have been reported as opportunistic pathogens. Eight yeast isolates were resistant to fluconazole, seven were resistant to itraconazole, and 26 to amphotericin B. Some yeast species were resistant to more than one of the antifungal drugs tested. Two isolates of C. tropicalis from the reconstituted fruit juices exhibited resistance to all three drugs. The presence of yeast strains that are resistant to commonly used antifungal drugs suggests a potential risk, at least to immunocompromised individuals who consume these beverages.
Bertotti, Mauro; And Others
Describes an experiment designed to determine ascorbic acid concentrations in natural orange juice. The experiment is used with undergraduate pharmacy students to allow understanding of the principles of operation of the coulometer and polarograph. (DDR)
Shivashankara, K S; Isobe, Seiichiro; Al-Haq, Muhammad Imran; Takenaka, Makiko; Shiina, Takeo
Greenhouse-grown tree ripe (TR) and mature green (MG) mangoes (cv. Irwin) were exposed to high electric field treatment before 20 and 30 days of storage at 5 degrees C. MG fruits were allowed to ripen at room temperature after low-temperature storage. Fruit physical quality attributes, ascorbic acid, carotene, quercetin, total phenols, and antioxidant capacity were estimated before and after the storage period. Antioxidant capacity of fruit juice was estimated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Fruit firmness decreased significantly during storage. Titratable acidity decreased 20 days after storage. Total soluble solids did not change during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits remained unchanged up to 20 days of storage period and decreased thereafter. Total phenol and carotenes increased during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits was significantly correlated only to ascorbic acids. Peel color and carotenes were higher in TR fruits, whereas titratable acidity and firmness were higher in MG fruits. There was no significant difference in other parameters between the stages of picking. Electric field pretreatment affected the respiration and antioxidant capacity of TR fruits and did not have any significant affect on other parameters. TR mangoes of cv. Irwin are more suitable for low-temperature storage and can be successfully stored for up to 20 days at 5 degrees C without any significant losses in functional properties and quality attributes.
Mattila, Pirjo; Hellström, Jarkko; Törrönen, Riitta
The contents of soluble and total phenolic acids were analyzed in samples of 29 berries and berry products, 24 fruits and fruit peels, and 12 beverages. Variation of phenolic acids in berries was also studied. Soluble phenolic acids were extracted with methanolic acetic acid, and a tentative quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total phenolic acid content was determined by HPLC after alkaline and acid hydrolyses. The content of total phenolic acids as aglycones in the above samples varied from 0 (pear cider) to 103 mg/100 g fresh weight (rowanberry). Besides rowanberry, the best phenolic acid sources among berries were chokeberry (96 mg/100 g), blueberry (85 mg/100 g), sweet rowanberry (75 mg/100 g), and saskatoon berry (59 mg/100 g). Among fruits, the highest contents (28 mg/100 g) were determined in dark plum, cherry, and one apple variety (Valkea Kuulas). Coffee (97 mg/100 g) as well as green and black teas (30-36 mg/100 g) were the best sources among beverages. Caffeic acid dominated in all of these samples except in tea brews. Variation in the phenolic acid contents of the berries was either small or moderate.
Zerrouki, Souhaib; Rihani, Rachida; Bentahar, Fatiha; Belkacemi, Khaled
Anaerobic digestion of wastewater from the fruit juice industry was carried out in a batch digester. To study the effect of the pH values as well as the nutrient medium on the fermentation process, different parameters were monitored under mesophilic temperature, such as cumulative biogas volume, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total sugar, and biomass growth. It was found that for all cases, the COD concentration decreased with time. The lowest value reached was obtained when the nutrient medium was added; it was about 110 g/L after 480 h. In such cases, the COD removal reached about 80%; the highest cumulative biogas volume of about 5,515.8 NmL was reached after 480 h testing; and the lowest value reached was about 2,862.3 NmL in the case of peach-substrate containing sodium sulfite. The addition of nutrient medium improved the cumulative biogas production as well as the COD abatement. Measurement of the biogas composition highlighted three gaseous components, namely, methane (56.52%), carbon dioxide (20.14%), and hydrogen sulfide (23.34%). The modified Gompertz equation and the first-order kinetic model were used to describe the cumulative biogas production and the organic matter removal, respectively. A good agreement was found between simulated and experimental data.
Valcheva-Kuzmanova, S; Kuzmanov, K; Tancheva, S; Belcheva, A
Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) is rich in phenolic antioxidants, especially flavonoids from the anthocyanin subclass. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of AMFJ on plasma glucose and lipids in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). AMFJ was applied by gavage at doses of 10 and 20 ml/kg for 6 weeks to normal and diabetic rats. Streptozotocin caused a significant elevation of plasma glucose by 141% and of plasma triglycerides (TG) by 64% in comparison with normal control rats and induced statistically insignificant elevations of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and a reduction of HDL-cholesterol. Applied to normal rats, AMFJ did not influence plasma glucose and lipid levels. Applied to diabetic rats, AMFJ (10 and 20 ml/kg) significantly reduced plasma glucose by 44% and 42% and TG by 35% and 39%, respectively, to levels that did not significantly differ from those of the normal control rats and counteracted the influence of streptozotocin on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. In conclusion, AMFJ significantly decreased the streptozotocin-induced abnormalities in blood glucose and TG in diabetic rats and might be useful in prevention and control of diabetes mellitus and diabetes-associated complications.
Rawsthorne, Helen; Phister, Trevor G
Zygosaccharomyces bailii is a major food and beverage spoilage organism. Existing methods for its detection involve lengthy enrichment techniques and then the result does not always differentiate between Z. bailii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work, we developed a quantitative real-time PCR assay for the rapid detection of Z. bailii from fruit juices and wine even in the presence of non-target DNA. Primers were designed to the gene coding for the D1/D2 loop of the 26S ribosomal RNA subunit producing a single PCR product with a melting temperature of 83.5 degrees C. As few as 2 cells per ml could be detected by the assay in cranberry raspberry and apple juices and 22 cells per ml from grape juice. The assay was equally efficient in wine, detecting 6 cells per ml even in the presence of 10(7)S. cerevisiae cells. The CFU/ml as determined by plating on YM media showed excellent correlation with the CFU/ml established by the QPCR assay for all the beverages examined. Unknown samples of Z. bailii were prepared in the juices and wine and examined by QPCR. The QPCR estimated cell number was in good agreement with the cell counts obtained by plating, the exception being the cranberry raspberry juice sample. It was determined by live/dead cell counts that the Z. bailii cells were less viable in this juice thus leading to an overestimation of CFU/ml by QPCR. However, the correlation was high between QPCR and total cell count as determined by fluorescent microscopy. This assay provides a rapid and accurate method to establish the levels of the total Z. bailii population which consists of both viable and nonviable cells.
Yuk, H G; Schneider, K R
The objective of this study was to evaluate the acid resistance of Salmonella spp. adapted in juices stored under refrigeration and room temperatures to simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.5). Five Salmonella serovars, Agona, Gaminara, Michigan, Montevideo, and Poona were used in this study. Apple, orange, and tomato juices inoculated with five serovars were stored at refrigeration (7 degrees C) and room temperature (20 degrees C) for 24 h for adaptation. Acid resistances of serovars adapted in juice were determined in SGF at 37 degrees C. All acid-adapted Salmonella serovars in juices displayed enhanced survival time compared to non-adapted controls. Among serovars, S. Poona adapted in apple at 20 degrees C and orange juices at 7 and 20 degrees C showed >2.0 log cfu/ml survivors, while the other serovars decreased to non-detectable level or <2.0 log cfu/ml for 100 s in SGF. Unlike apple and orange juices, all serovars adapted in tomato juice survived with >2.0 log cfu/ml for 100 s. For D-values, all Salmonella serovars adapted in apple and tomato juice enhanced their acid resistances compared to orange juices. S. Agona adapted in tomato juice at 7 degrees C and S. Poona in apple juice at 20 degrees C had the highest D-values with 82.9 and 82.5s, respectively. Results showed that the adaptation in juice increased acid resistance in SGF and varied by serovar, juice type, and adaptation temperature. Therefore, this study indicates that the introduction of Salmonella spp. to an acidic juice environment during processing can enhance their ability to survive in a human stomach, possibly increasing the risk of a Salmonella outbreak by juice.
Azeredo, Henriette M C; Morrugares-Carmona, Rosario; Wellner, Nikolaus; Cross, Kathryn; Bajka, Balazs; Waldron, Keith W
The influence of pomegranate juice (PJ, replacing water as solvent) and citric acid (CA) on properties of pectin films was studied. PJ provided the films with a bright red color, and acted as a plasticizer. Increasing PJ/water ratio from 0/100 to 100/0 resulted in enhanced elongation (from 2% to 20%), decreased strength (from 10 to <2 MPa) and modulus (from 93 to <10 MPa), increased water vapor permeability (WVP, from 3 to 9 g.mm.kPa(-1).h(-1).m(-2)), and decreased insoluble matter (IM, from 35% to 24%). Although a crosslinking effect by CA was not confirmed, it has been suggested to occur from its effects on films. CA noticeably increased IM (from <10% to almost 40%); moreover, when measured on a dry film basis, the CA effects presented a noticeable tendency to increases strength and modulus, and to decrease WVP. The red color density was decreased by CA, suggesting a destabilization of anthocyanins.
The objective of this research is to establish a methodology to quantify the Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) in orange juice as an indicator of orange juice quality. Current standard method for citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) diagnosis is using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) to quan...
Oliveira, E J; Freitas, J P X; Jesus, O N
This study analyzed the genotype x environment interaction (GE) for the juice productivity (JuProd) of 12 yellow passion fruit varieties (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg.) using additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model and auxiliary parameters. The experiments were conducted in eight environments of Bahia State, Brazil, using a randomized block design with three replications. Analysis of variance showed significant effects (P ≤ 0.01) for environments, genotypes, and GE interaction. The first two interaction principal component axes (IPCAs) explained 81.00% of the sum of squares of the GE interaction. The AMMI1 and AMMI2 models showed that varieties 09 and 11 were the most stable. Other parameters, namely, the AMMI stability value (ASV), yield stability (YSI), sustainability, and stability index (StI), indicated that other varieties were more stable. These varying results were certainly a consequence of methodological differences. In contrast, the ranking of varieties for each of the stability parameters showed significant positive correlations (P ≤ 0.05) between IPCA1 x (ASV, YSI), JuProd x (StI, YSI), YSI x ASV, and StI x YSI. Cluster analysis based on the genotypic profile of the effects of the GE interaction identified three groups that correlated with the distribution of varieties in the AMMI1 biplot. However, the classification of stable genotypes was limited because the association with the productivity was not included in the analysis. Variety 08 showed the most stable and productive behavior, ranking above average in half of the environments, and it should be recommended for use.
Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been used for the first time as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents for the extraction of eight organophosphorus pesticides (i.e. ethoprophos, diazinon, chlorpyriphos-methyl, fenitrothion, malathion, chlorpyriphos, fenamiphos and buprofezin) from different commercial fruit juices (i.e. apple, grape, orange and pineapple). The developed method, which involves SPE and direct gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection analysis, is very fast, simple and cheap: only 1:1 dilution with Milli-Q water and pH adjustment to 6.0 of 10 mL of juice is necessary prior to a quick MWCNTs-SPE procedure that used only 40 mg of stationary phase (MWCNTs of 10-15 nm o.d., 2-6 nm i.d. and 0.1-10 microm length). Mean recovery values were above 73% for all the pesticides and fruit juices (between 77 and 101% for apple juice, 75 and 103% for grape juice, 73 and 103% for orange juice and 73 and 93% for pineapple juice) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 8.5% in all cases. Matrix matched calibration was carried out for each sample matrix since statistical differences between the calibration curves constructed is pure solvent and in the reconstructed juice extracts were found. Limits of detection ranged between 1.85 and 7.32 microg/L (which also represents LODs between 1.85 and 7.34 microg/kg) well below the European Union maximum residue limits for the raw fruits. The proposed method, which is demonstrated to be quick, cheap, accurate and highly selective, was also applied to the analysis of this group of pesticides in several commercial juices in which none of the selected pesticides were found.
Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing
The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality.
Alsammarraie, Fouad K; Lin, Mengshi
In recent years, there have been increasing concerns about pesticide residues in various foods. On the other hand, there is growing attention in utilizing novel nanomaterials as highly sensitive, low-cost, and reproducible substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications. The objective of this study was to develop a SERS method for the rapid detection of pesticides that were extracted from different types of food samples (fruit juice and milk). A new SERS substrate was prepared by assembling gold nanorods into standing arrays on a gold-coated silicon slide. The standing nanorod arrays were neatly arranged and were able to generate a strong electromagnetic field in SERS measurement. The as-prepared SERS substrate was utilized to detect carbaryl in acetonitrile/water solution, fruit juices (orange and grapefruit), and milk. The results show that the concentrations of carbaryl spiked in fruit juice and milk were linearly correlated with the concentrations predicted by the partial least-squares (PLS) models with r values of 0.91, 0.88, and 0.95 for orange juice, grapefruit juice, and milk, respectively. The SERS method was able to detect carbaryl that was extracted from fruit juice and milk samples at a 50 ppb level. The detection limits of carbaryl were 509, 617, and 391 ppb in orange juice, grapefruit juice, and milk, respectively. All detection limits are below the maximum residue limits that were set by the U.S. EPA. Moreover, satisfactory recoveries (82-97.5%) were accomplished for food samples using this method. These results demonstrate that SERS coupled with the standing gold nanorod array substrates is a rapid, reliable, sensitive, and reproducible method for the detection of pesticide residues in foods.
Du, Yunjian; Dou, Siqi; Wu, Shengjun
Browning decreases the commercial value of apple juice, and therefore colour preservation during processing and storage is the main objective of manufacturers. In this study, the efficacy of phytic acid as a browning inhibitor for use on apple juice was investigated. Browning of apple juice treated with phytic acid was monitored during processing and storage. 0.1 mM Phytic acid inhibited the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from the apple juice by 99.2%. Consequently, the apple juice treated with phytic acid had significantly lower browning formation during processing and after 6 months of storage at room temperature compared with the control (p<0.05). Results indicate that this is a promising way to inhibit browning in apple juice.
Oliveira, Adriano H.; Ogrodowski, Cristiane C.; de Macedo, André C.; Santana, Maria Helena A.; Gonçalves, Luciana R.B.
In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained in inoculum using cashew apple juice supplemented with yeast extract or the conventional brain heart infusion medium. Fermentation in Erlenmeyer flasks produced low biomass and hyaluronic acid concentrations. The hyaluronic acid concentration and viscosity increased from 0.15 g/L and 3.87 cP (no aeration or medium supplementation) to 1.76 g/L and 107 cP, when aeration (2 vvm) and 60 g/L of yeast extract were used. The results suggest the production of low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid oligomers instead of the high molecular weight polymer. PMID:24688498
Eisele, T A
Eleven laboratories collaboratively studied a liquid chromatographic (LC) method for determination of D-malic acid in apple juice. The mobile phase consisted of mM L-valine and 8 mM copper acetate adjusted to pH 5.5 with NaOH. The UV detector was set at 330 nm, and a single reversed-phase LC column was used. Seven paired samples containing various amounts of D-malic acid ranging from 0 to 188 mg/100 mL of 12 Brix pasteurized apple juice were tested by each collaborator. Repeatability and reproducibility coefficients of variation ranged from 1.0 to 3.5% and 7.7 to 11.7%, respectively, within the range of 26 to 188 mg D-malic acid/100 mL of 12 Brix apple juice. The collaborative study results demonstrated that the method could quantitate the economic adulteration of apple juice with DL-malic acid at lower levels than those reported with previous methods. The LC method for determination of D-malic acid in apple juice has been adopted first action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL.
Naman, C Benjamin; Li, Jie; Moser, Arvin; Hendrycks, Jeffery M; Benatrehina, P Annécie; Chai, Heebyung; Yuan, Chunhua; Keller, William J; Kinghorn, A Douglas
Melanodiol 4″-O-protocatechuate (1) and melanodiol (2) represent novel flavonoid derivatives isolated from a botanical dietary supplement ingredient, dried black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) fruit juice. These noncrystalline compounds possess an unprecedented fused pentacyclic core with two contiguous hemiketals. Due to having significant hydrogen deficiency indices, their structures were determined using computer-assisted structure elucidation software. The in vitro hydroxyl radical-scavenging and quinone reductase-inducing activity of each compound are reported, and a plausible biogenetic scheme is proposed.
Gleńsk, Michał; Czapińska, Elżbieta; Woźniak, Marta; Ceremuga, Ireneusz; Włodarczyk, Maciej; Terlecki, Grzegorz; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Seweryn, Ewa
In Europe, both the fruits and flowers of Sambucus nigra L. have been used against cold, as well as laxative, diaphoretic, and diuretic remedies. There are also a number of commercially available food products that contain elderberry juice, puréed or dried elderberries. Recent comprehensive literature data on pharmacology and chemistry of Sambuci fructus have encouraged us to screen extracts with different polarities from this plant material against cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the ethyl acetate and aqueous acetone extracts from elderberries as well as detected triterpenoids on human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (LoVo) and human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) was investigated by sulforhodamine B assay. Moreover, cell migration assay was conducted for triterpenoid fraction and pure compounds. Aqueous acetone extract possessed much lower IC50 value in cancer cell lines compared to ethyl acetate extract. The latter manifested high cytotoxicity against studied cell lines, suggesting that nonpolar compounds are responsible for the cytotoxic activity. Indeed, the phytochemical analysis revealed that ursolic and oleanolic acids are the main triterpenoids in the mentioned extract of which ursolic acid showed the highest activity with IC50 values of 10.7 µg/mL on MCF-7 and 7.7 µg/mL on LoVo cells.
Espina, Laura; Somolinos, María; Ouazzou, Abdenour Ait; Condón, Santiago; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael
This work approaches the possibility of combining mild heat treatments with citrus fruit essential oils (EOs) to improve the effectiveness of heat treatments and thus to reduce treatment intensity. Concentrations between 10 and 200 μL/L of lemon, mandarin, or orange EO were tested at 54 °C for 10 min in laboratory media, determining that 200 μL/L of each EO was necessary to achieve a 5 log(10) reduction of the initial Escherichia coli O157:H7 concentration. A relationship could be established between sublethally injured cells after the heat treatment and inactivated cells after the combined process. In apple juice, the synergism in the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 when adding 200 μL/L of lemon EO might suppose a reduction in the treatment temperature (of 4.5 °C) or in the treatment time (by 5.7 times) within the range of temperature assayed (54-60 °C). Addition of 75 μL/L of lemon EO was determined to achieve the same synergistic effect of the combined treatment when the initial inoculum was reduced from 3×10(7) to 3×10(4) CFU/mL. Since the addition of lemon EO did not decrease the hedonic acceptability of apple juice, the proposed combined treatment could be further studied and optimized for the production of new minimally processed juices.
Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Toxqui, Laura; González-Vizcayno, Carmen; Delgado, Marco A; Vaquero, M Pilar
Fe-deficiency anaemia is a worldwide health problem. We studied the influence of consuming an Fe-fortified fruit juice on Fe status in menstruating women. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 16 weeks of duration was performed. Subjects were randomised into two groups: the P group (n 58) or the F group (n 64), and consumed, as a supplement to their usual diet, 500 ml/d of a placebo fruit juice or an Fe-fortified fruit juice, respectively. The Fe-fortified fruit juice, containing microencapsulated iron pyrophosphate, provided 18 mg Fe/d (100 % of the RDA). At baseline and monthly, dietary intake, body weight and Fe parameters were determined: total erythrocytes, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), Hb, serum Fe, serum ferritin, serum transferrin, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP). The fruit juice consumption involved increased intake of carbohydrates and vitamin C, and increased BMI within normal limits. Ferritin was higher in the F group after week 4 (P < 0·05) and became 80 % higher than in the P group after week 16 (P < 0·001), and transferrin decreased in the F group compared with the P group after week 4 (P < 0·001). RDW was higher at weeks 4 and 8 in the F group compared with the P group (P < 0·05). Transferrin saturation increased after week 8, and haematocrit, MCV and Hb increased after week 12, in the F group compared with the P group. Serum Fe did not change. sTfR and ZnPP decreased in the F group at week 16 (P < 0·05). Iron pyrophosphate-fortified fruit juice improves Fe status and may be used to prevent Fe-deficiency anaemia.
Tiitinen, Katja M; Yang, Baoru; Haraldsson, Gudmundur G; Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Kallio, Heikki P
A fast, one-step gas chromatographic method was developed to analyze trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of sugars, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in sea buckthorn (Hippohaë rhamnoides L.) berries. The method was applied to berry press juice of sea buckthorn of different origins grown in Finland during the 2003 and 2004 seasons. The method gave reliable results for D-fructose, D-glucose, ethyl-D-glucose, and malic, quinic, and ascorbic acids, which are the major sugars and acids in sea buckthorn juice. For the first time in sea buckthorn and evidently in any berry, the presence of ethyl beta-D-glucopyranoside is reported. The structure of ethyl glucose was verified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), MS, and NMR analyses of both the isolated and the synthesized compounds. In the GC method, vitamin C was analyzed as ascorbic acid only, and dehydroascorbic acid was thus not taken into account.
Wang, Chung-Yi; Ng, Chang-Chai; Su, Hsuan; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Shyu, Yuan-Tay
The present study assesses the feasibility of noni as a raw substrate for the production of probiotic noni juice by lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacilluscasei and Lactobacillus plantarum) and bifidobacteria (Bifidobacteriumlongum). Changes in pH, acidity, sugar content, cell survival and antioxidant properties during fermentation were monitored. All tested strains grew well on noni juice, reaching nearly 10⁹ colony-forming units/ml after 48 h fermentation. L.casei produced less lactic acid than B.longum and L. plantarum. After 4 weeks of cold storage at 4°C, B.longum and L. plantarum survived under low-pH conditions in fermented noni juice. In contrast, L.casei exhibited no cell viability after 3 weeks. Moreover, noni juice fermented with B.longum had a high antioxidant capacity that did not differ significantly (P <0.05) from that of lactic acid bacteria. Finally, we found that B.longum and L. plantarum are optimal probiotics for fermentation with noni juice.
Llorens, Amparo; Lloret, Elsa; Picouet, Pierre; Fernandez, Avelina
Cellulose/copper composites with antifungal properties have been synthesized by physical/chemical methods. Physical treatments by heat or by a combination of heat and UV radiation provided composites with metallic copper and excellent interfacial adhesion; in contrast, chemical reduction with borohydride generated small although partially aggregated copper oxide nanoparticles. Copper micro/nano-particles and copper ions (Cu(2+)) were released from the cellulose matrix at an adequate rate to achieve a strong antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae in in vitro experiments. Moreover, the copper oxide composites showed an excellent antifungal activity in pineapple and melon juice, reducing about 4 log cycles the loads of spoilage-related yeasts and moulds. The metallic copper composites reduced in 4 log cycles the load of yeasts and moulds in pineapple juice, although their antifungal activity was weaker in contact with melon juice. Copper loaded absorbent materials could be selectively implemented during the shelf-life of minimally processed fruits to reduce the number of spoilage-related microorganisms in the drip.
Arts, I C; van De Putte, B; Hollman, P C
Catechins, compounds that belong to the flavonoid class, are potentially beneficial to human health. To enable an epidemiological evaluation of catechins, data on their contents in foods are required. HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection was used to determine the levels of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-gallocatechin (GC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECg), and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) in 8 types of black tea, 18 types of red and white wines, apple juice, grape juice, iced tea, beer, chocolate milk, and coffee. Tea infusions contained high levels of catechins (102-418 mg of total catechins/L), and tea was the only beverage that contained GC, EGC, ECg, and EGCg in addition to (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. Catechin concentrations were still substantial in red wine (27-96 mg/L), but low to negligible amounts were found in white wine, commercially available fruit juices, iced tea, and chocolate milk. Catechins were absent from beer and coffee. The data reported here provide a base for the epidemiological evaluation of the effect of catechins on the risk for chronic diseases.
Hypothesis on the relationship between gastric cancer and intragastric nitrosation: N-nitrosamines in gastric juice of subjects from a high-risk area for gastric cancer and the inhibition of N-nitrosamine formation by fruit juices.
Xu, G P; So, P J; Reed, P I
The concentration of N-nitrosamines (NNA) in gastric juice was determined as an indicator of intragastric N-nitrosation in 85 subjects from a high-risk area for gastric cancer (GC) to examine the relationship between N-nitroso compounds (NOC), pH and intragastric lesions under strictly controlled conditions. Mean gastric pH in subjects with GC or dysplasia (Group GD, 5.0 +/- 2.7) was higher than that from subjects with intestinal metaplasia (Group IM, 3.8 +/- 2.1, p = 0.068) and significantly higher than in those with normal mucosa or superficial gastritis (Group NS, 2.6 +/- 1.9, p < 0.001). No significant difference (p > 0.1) was found in total NNA concentrations between the three groups (GD 1.81 +/- 1.05 micrograms/l, IM 1.46 +/- 0.79 micrograms/l, NS 1.56 +/- 1.38 micrograms/l). However, two obvious peaks of nitrosation were observed at pH ranges of < 2.0 and 5.5-7.5. These observations were confirmed by using the N-nitrosoproline test in the same subjects under the same conditions (r = 0.772, p < 0.05). These results indicate that intragastric nitrosation can occur in both acidic and nearly neutral conditions. The first peak is related to acid-catalysed nitrosation (ACN) and the second is related to biologically catalysed nitrosation (BCN). According to these and other published results the hypothesis that there are two basic mechanisms, ACN and BCN, for intragastric N-nitrosation in humans is explored. Gastric carcinogenesis in high-risk areas is more likely to be related to intragastric NOC formed by ACN, compared to low-risk areas where it is more likely to be related to intragastric NOC formed by BCN. Fruit juices and orange peel significantly inhibited intragastric nitrosation by both ACN and BCN.
El-Anany, Ayman M; Ali, Rehab F M
The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of administration various levels (400, 800 and 1,200 ppm) of pomposia extracts as natural antioxidant in comparison with BHT as synthetic antioxidant on some biochemical activities and histopathological examination of rats. Some of biochemical tests i.e. Alkaline phosphatase, transaminases]Aspartate transferase (AST) and alanine transferase (ALT) [,bilirubin, urea and uric acid were conducted. Histopathological examinations were carried out on the liver and kidney tissue of rats administrated tested substances. The biochemical results indicated that the administration of polyphenolic compounds present in pomposia juice did not cause any significant (p ≥ 0.05) changes in the biochemical parameters whereas the administration of BHT at 200 ppm caused significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in the activities of enzymes relevant to the functions of liver and kidney. Microscopically examinations of liver and kidney of rat administered various levels of pomposia juice had the same character as that of control rats (this means that the polyphenolic compounds present in pomposia juice did not cause any adverse affect in liver and kidney), in contrast the administration of 200 ppm of BHT caused marked pathological changes in liver and kidney of rats. The results of the current investigation suggest using pomposia juice as safe food grade substance.
Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Gottardi, Davide; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta
The anti-yeast activity of mentha oil and vapours was evaluated against 8 food spoiling yeasts through disc diffusion, disc volatilisation and micro broth dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.28 to 2.25 and 1.13 to 4.5 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the anti-yeast efficacy of mentha oil alone and in combination with thermal treatment was evaluated in a real food system i.e. mixed fruit juices. The samples treated with a combination of mentha oil at the MIC, ½ MIC and ¼ MIC levels and thermal treatment enhanced the reduction viability. Chemical characterisation of mentha oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that the dominant compounds were cis-menthone (27.43%), menthol (24.3%), trans-menthone (9.23%), limonene (5.84%), menthofuran (4.44%) and isomenthol (3.21%). Present results established the superior performance of integrated treatment over individual exposure for fruit juice preservation.
Bai, Yu; Zhang, Jialing; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei
A rapid, simple, and efficient method for the fast determination of multiple phytohormones was developed in this work, based on single-drop liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (SD-LLLME) combined with direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS). Six phytohormones--indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellin A(3) (GA(3))--were analyzed simultaneously using this method, and the conditions employed for DART-MS and SD-LLLME were optimized systematically. Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of linearity (R (2) values for all phytohormones were 0.991-0.996), sensitivity (limits of detection were 0.65-72 ng/mL), and repeatability (RSD values were 6.9-14%). In addition, the proposed method was applied to determine the endogenous phytohormones in three kinds of fruit juice. Different concentrations of phytohormones were detected with satisfactory recoveries, and the whole analytical procedure took no more than 30 min. Therefore, this combination of SD-LLLME and DART-MS was shown to be a suitable and effective approach for the fast analysis of targets present at trace level concentrations in complex matrices.
Chaikham, Pittaya; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee
Physical and biochemical properties of pressurised and pasteurised longan juices with various xanthan additions, such as viscoelastic behaviour, colour L (lightness), -a(*) (greenness), b(*) (yellowness), ΔE (total different colours) and BI (Browning Index) parameters, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, ascorbic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid, total phenols and antioxidant capacity (DPPH assay) were studied. Viscoelastic determination indicated that longan juice with 0.15% xanthan addition was optimal for a fruit drink. Colour parameters showed pressurised longan juice at 500 MPa was brighter and more transparent than fresh and other processed juices. PPO was completely inactivated in pasteurised juices, whereas in pressurised juices at 300 and 500 MPa, the activities were more than 100% and 95-99%, respectively. Bioactive components including ascorbic acid were significantly reduced according to treatment severities, whereas gallic and ellagic acids were relatively stable in all processed juices. Total phenols and DPPH radical-scavenging activity decreased significantly on pasteurisation, but were stable on pressurisation.
West, Brett J; White, Leland D; Jensen, C Jarakae; Palu, Afa K
A safety study of TAHITIAN NONI Juice from Tahiti was conducted with ninety-six healthy volunteers. For 28 days, participants consumed one of four daily quantities of noni juice: 0 mL (placebo), 30 mL, 300 mL, or 750 mL. All daily dose formulations were standardized to 750 mL by making up any volume differences with the placebo. Hematology, biochemistry, urinalysis, vital signs, and adverse events measurements were made at 0 (baseline), 2, and 4 weeks, as well as during a two-week follow up (week 6). Electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements were also made for each volunteer during the pre-study screen and at week 6. During the trial, those in the noni groups experienced 20 to 50% fewer total adverse events than those in the placebo group. A marginally significant (P<0.1) reduction in the number of constant adverse events experienced by the volunteers was also found in the 300 mL noni juice group. A similar trend was observed in the other noni juice groups, as well. No other clinically significant differences between any of the groups were noted in the parameters and measurements of this study, nor was there evidence suggesting any adverse dose-related effects. The results of this study indicate that drinking up to 750 mL TAHITIAN NONI Juice per day is safe.
Guyon, Francois; Auberger, Pauline; Gaillard, Laetita; Loublanches, Caroline; Viateau, Maryse; Sabathié, Nathalie; Salagoïty, Marie-Hélène; Médina, Bernard
High performance liquid chromatography linked to isotope ratio mass spectrometry via an interface allowing the chemical oxidation of organic matter (HPLC-co-IRMS) was used to simultaneously determine carbon 13 isotope ratio (δ(13)C) of organic acids, glucose and fructose in lime and lemon juices. Because of the significant difference between organic acids and sugars concentrations, the experimental protocol was optimised by applying a "current jump" to the IRMS device. The filament current is increased of 300μA during elution in order to enhance IRMS sensitivity. Then, analysis were performed on 35 lemon and lime fruits from various geographical origins and squeezed in the laboratory. An overall average δ(13)C values of -25.40±1.62‰, -23.83±1.82‰ and -25.67±1.72‰ is found for organic acids mixture mainly made up of citric acid, glucose and fructose, respectively. These authentic samples allowed the definition of a confidence domain to which have been confronted 30 commercial juices (24 "pure juices" and 6 coming from concentrate). Among these 30 samples, 10 present δ(13)C values outside the defined range revealing an added "C4" type organic acids or sugars, addition not specified on the label that is not in agreement with EU regulation.
Andrés, Víctor; Tenorio, M Dolores; Villanueva, M José
The juice industry has undergone a continuous innovation to satisfy the increasing healthy food demand by developing, among others, beverages based on fruits and milk or soybeans. The comparison among the sensory attributes between nineteen commercial mixed beverages showed significant differences in colour, sweetness, acidity, and consistency. Sucrose and citric acid were found in large proportion due to their natural presence or their addition. Potassium was the major macromineral (148-941 mg/L), especially in soy beverages. The low concentration of sodium in soy drinks is a healthy characteristic. The profile of inorganic anions has been included for the first time. Sulphate (39-278 mg/L) and phosphate (51-428 mg/L) were the predominant anions. High correlations were found between the percentage of fruit and consistency, fructose, malic acid, potassium and phosphate content (r(2)>0.790). Based on the data obtained, these beverages show pleasant organoleptic characteristics and constitute a good source of essential nutrients for regular consumers.
Robbins, C.; Mulcahy, F.; Somayajula, K.; Edenborn, H.M.
Extracts from staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) fruits were obtained from fresh fruits obtained from June to October in two successive years. Total acidity, pH, and concentrations of malic and succinic acids determined using liquid chromatography were measured for each extract. Acidity and acid concentrations reached their maxima in late July, and declined slowly thereafter. Malic and succinic acid concentrations in the extracts reached maxima of about 4 and 0.2% (expressed per unit weight of fruit), respectively. Malic and succinic acids were the only organic acids observed in the extracts, and mass balance determinations indicate that these acids are most likely the only ones present in appreciable amounts.
One hundred percent fruit juice (100% FJ) has been viewed by some as a sweetened beverage with concerns about its effect on weight. Little regard has been given to the contribution of 100% FJ to diet quality. In this study data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were...
Peluso, Ilaria; Villano, Debora V; Roberts, Susan A; Cesqui, Eleonora; Raguzzini, Anna; Borges, Gina; Crozier, Alan; Catasta, Giovina; Toti, Elisabetta; Serafini, Mauro
Postprandial stress induced by acute consumption of meals with a high fat content results in an increase of markers of cardiometabolic risk. Repeated acute dietary stress may induce a persistent low-grade inflammation, playing a role in the pathogenesis of functional gut diseases. This may cause an impairment of the complex immune response of the gastrointestinal mucosa, which results in a breakdown of oral tolerance. We investigated the effect of ingestion of a fruit-juice drink (FJD) composed by multiple fruit juice and extracts, green tea extracts and vitamin C on postprandial stress induced by a High Fat Meal (HFM) in healthy overweight subjects. Following a double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over design, 15 healthy overweight subjects were randomized to a HFM providing 1334 Kcal (55% fat, 30% carbohydrates and 15% proteins) in combination with 500 mL of a placebo drink (HFM-P) or a fruit-juice drink (HFM-FJD). Ingestion of HFM-P led to an increase in circulating levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of HFM-FJD significantly reduced plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, decreasing inflammatory response mediated by TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of a fruit-juice drink reduce markers of postprandial stress induced by a HFM.
The goal of the study was to examine the contribution of 100% fruit juice consumption to dietary adequacy of shortfall nutrients by children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study and used data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants were...
This study examined the impact of various levels of 100% fruit juice (FJ) consumption on intake of nutrients, diet quality, and weight in children using the more recent national data. We conducted a cross-sectional study examining the data from children 2-18 years of age (n=6,090). Intake of nutrien...
A new procedure was developed to speciate and quantify As(III) and As(V) in fruit juices. At pH 3.0, As(III) and ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) formed a complex, which was extracted into carbon tetrachloride by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) and subsequently quantified...
Boonchiangma, Suthasinee; Ngeontae, Wittaya; Srijaranai, Supalax
Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection was applied for the determination of six pyrethroids (tetramethrin, fenpropathrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate and permethrin) in various fruit juices including apple, red grape, orange, kiwi, passion fruit, pomegranate and guava juice. Six pyrethroids were separated within 30 min using a Waters Atlantis T3 column under an isocratic elution of acetonitrile-water (72:28). The parameters affecting extraction efficiency of the DLLME method such as type of disperser and extraction solvent, volume of disperser and extraction solvent and centrifugation time were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, 5.00 mL of sample solution, 300 μL of chloroform as extraction solvent and 1.25 mL of methanol as dispersive solvent gave high enrichment factor in the range of 62-84. Good linearity was obtained from 2 to 1,500 μg/L (r(2)>0.995). The mean recoveries of the pyrethroids evaluated by fortification of real samples were in the range of 84-94%. The limits of detection ranging from 2 to 5 μg/L are sufficient to analyze pyrethroid residues at the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union (EU) in fruit juices. The proposed method can be applied to direct determination of pyrethroid residues in fruit juices.
Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sasaki, Kengo; Uematsu, Kouji; Tsuge, Yota; Teramura, Hiroshi; Okai, Naoko; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Katsuyama, Yohei; Sugai, Yoshinori; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Hirano, Ko; Sazuka, Takashi; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko
The production of the bioplastic precursor 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-AHBA) from sweet sorghum juice, which contains amino acids and the fermentable sugars sucrose, glucose and fructose, was assessed to address the limitations of producing bio-based chemicals from renewable feedstocks. Recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum strain KT01 expressing griH and griI derived from Streptomyces griseus produced 3,4-AHBA from the sweet sorghum juice of cultivar SIL-05 at a final concentration (1.0 g l(-1)) that was 5-fold higher than that from pure sucrose. Fractionation of sweet sorghum juice by nanofiltration (NF) membrane separation (molecular weight cut-off 150) revealed that the NF-concentrated fraction, which contained the highest concentrations of amino acids, increased 3,4-AHBA production, whereas the NF-filtrated fraction inhibited 3,4-AHBA biosynthesis. Amino acid supplementation experiments revealed that leucine specifically enhanced 3,4-AHBA production by strain KT01. Taken together, these results suggest that sweet sorghum juice is a potentially suitable feedstock for 3,4-AHBA production by recombinant C. glutamicum.
Volatiles from a Concord grape juice produced in Mexico were identified, tested for attractiveness and mixed into an attractant blend. Volatiles were sampled using solid phase microextraction (SPME). Chemicals were analyzed by gas chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Identi...
Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Kumar, Vikas; Kaur, Manpreeet
Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot) by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices. PMID:26904628
Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; Alkmin Teixeira, Gil Cezar; da Silva, Graciana Soares; Viana, Jaciara Machado; Nicolini, Edson Antônio; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Basile-Filho, Anibal
Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) is a popular tropical fruit that is usually consumed as fresh fruit or fruit juice. Consumption of star fruit by patients with chronic renal failure can lead to neurologic symptoms. The present report describes the clinical course, management, and outcome of a patient with chronic renal failure admitted to an intensive care unit after ingestion of star fruit juice 2 days before hospital admission. A case of nausea, vomiting, intractable hiccups, and severe encephalopathy along with mental confusion, disorientation, agitation, and seizures in a 53-year-old woman is presented. The patient's ventilatory pattern worsened, with development of dyspnea and tachypnea, which resulted in her transfer to an intensive care unit. Although hemodialysis was performed and the septic shock was adequately treated, the patient died on the fifth day after hospital admission. The susceptibility of patients with chronic renal failure to star fruit and the severity of intoxication are poorly known by intensivists. This case demonstrates that star fruit consumption should be considered as a cause of rapid deterioration in the renal function of patients with underlying chronic renal failure, potentially resulting in a fatal outcome.
Pandy, Vijayapandi; Khan, Yasmin
Morinda citrifolia L. commonly known as noni or Indian mulberry belongs to the family Rubiaceae. Noni fruit juice has recently become a very popular remedy for the treatment of several diseases, including psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to investigate the anticraving effect of Tahitian Noni® Juice (TNJ) against ethanol seeking behavior in ICR male mice using the conditioned place preference (CPP) test. The CPP procedure consisted of four phases: preconditioning, conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement. During conditioning, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of ethanol (2 g/kg body weight (bw)) and normal saline (10 ml/kg bw) were given on alternate days for 12 days. Then, the animals were subjected to extinction trials for the next 12 days to weaken CPP. Finally, CPP was reinstated in the extinguished animals by a single low-dose priming injection of ethanol (0.4 g/kg bw, i.p.). The effect of TNJ (as a source of drinking water) on different phases of ethanol CPP in mice was studied. TNJ-treated mice showed a significant reduction in ethanol seeking behavior in the CPP test. The reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM) also showed a similar effect in the CPP test. The outcome of this study suggests that TNJ is effective in attenuating ethanol craving in mice and could be utilized for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Further clinical studies in this direction are warranted to support the present preclinical findings. PMID:27333840
Pandy, Vijayapandi; Khan, Yasmin
Morinda citrifolia L. commonly known as noni or Indian mulberry belongs to the family Rubiaceae. Noni fruit juice has recently become a very popular remedy for the treatment of several diseases, including psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to investigate the anticraving effect of Tahitian Noni® Juice (TNJ) against ethanol seeking behavior in ICR male mice using the conditioned place preference (CPP) test. The CPP procedure consisted of four phases: preconditioning, conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement. During conditioning, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of ethanol (2 g/kg body weight (bw)) and normal saline (10 ml/kg bw) were given on alternate days for 12 days. Then, the animals were subjected to extinction trials for the next 12 days to weaken CPP. Finally, CPP was reinstated in the extinguished animals by a single low-dose priming injection of ethanol (0.4 g/kg bw, i.p.). The effect of TNJ (as a source of drinking water) on different phases of ethanol CPP in mice was studied. TNJ-treated mice showed a significant reduction in ethanol seeking behavior in the CPP test. The reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM) also showed a similar effect in the CPP test. The outcome of this study suggests that TNJ is effective in attenuating ethanol craving in mice and could be utilized for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Further clinical studies in this direction are warranted to support the present preclinical findings.
Tikekar, Rohan V; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C; Elias, Ryan J; LaBorde, Luke F
Degradation products of ultraviolet (UV-C, 254 nm) treated ascorbic acid (AA) are reported. Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS) conducted in a 0.5% malic acid model juice system (pH 3.3) demonstrated increased degradation of AA above untreated controls with concomitant increases in dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) and 2,3-diketogulonic acid (DKGA) levels. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy studies, conducted in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) to increase detection sensitivity, demonstrated that ascorbyl radical (AA•) formation occurs simultaneously with AA degradation. Consistent with a previous study in which UV treatments were shown to accelerate dark storage degradation, AA• radicals continued to form for up to 200 min after an initial UV treatment. Results from this study suggest that the mechanism for UV-induced degradation is the same as the general mechanism for metal-catalyzed oxidation of AA in juice.
C Maganur, Prabha Devi; Prabhakar, A R; S, Sugandhan; Namineni, Srinivas
Aim : The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the effect of a soft drink and a fresh fruit juice on the microleakage of flowable composite and resin modified glass lonomer cement (RMGIC). Methods and materials : 70 non-carious human premolars were collected and stored in saline until further use. Class-V cavities were prepared and restored with RMGIC on the buccal surface and flowable composite on the lingual surface for evaluating microleakage. The experimental groups (Group I and II ) comprised of 60 teeth, while the remaining 10 formed the control group (Group III-Water). The experimental groups were further divided into 2 groups (Group I-Cola drink and Group II-Fresh orange fruit juice) of 30 teeth each. Each group was then further divided into 3 subgroups (Short, Medium and Long-immersion) containing 10 teeth as shown in flow chart. Immersion regime was followed according to Maupome G et al and microleakage was evaluated by using Rhodamine B dye and examined under stereomicroscope. Results : Microleakage data obtained was statistically analyzed by Chi-square test. The teeth showed statistically significant microleakage as the immersion regime increased. Interpretation and Conclusion : Low pH soft drink caused highly significant microleakage at the tooth and restorative material interface in medium and high immersion regimes signifying that the leakage pattern was directly proportional to the number of immersions. Thus, the study conclusively proves that the 'sipping habit' associated with commonly available low pH beverages is detrimental to the longevity of restorations.
Powell, Ann L T; Kalamaki, Mary S; Kurien, Philip A; Gurrieri, Sergio; Bennett, Alan B
Tomatoes are grown for fresh consumption or for processing of the fruit. Some ripening-associated processes of the fruit can either contribute to or degrade attributes associated with both fresh and processing quality. For example, cell wall disassembly is associated with loss of fresh fruit firmness as well as with loss of processed tomato product viscosity. Several enzymes contribute to cell wall polysaccharide disassembly. Polygalacturonase (PG, poly[1,4-alpha-d-galactouronide] glucanohydrolase, EC 188.8.131.52) is among the most abundant polysaccharide hydrolases in ripening tomato fruit and is the major contributor to pectin depolymerization. Expansin (LeExp1) is also abundant in ripening fruit and is proposed to contribute to cell wall disassembly by nonhydrolytic activity, possibly by increasing substrate accessibility to other enzymes. Suppression of either LePG or LeExp1 expression alone results in altered softening and/or shelf life characteristics. To test whether simultaneous suppression of both LePG and LeExp1 expression influences fruit texture in additive or synergistic ways, transgenic Lycopersicon esculentum var. Ailsa Craig lines with reduced expression of either LePG or LeExp1 were crossed. Fruits from the third generation of progeny, homozygous for both transgenic constructs, were analyzed for firmness and other quality traits during ripening on or off the vine. In field-grown transgenic tomato fruit, suppression of LeExp1 or LePG alone did not significantly increase fruit firmness. However, fruits suppressed for both LePG and LeExp1 expression were significantly firmer throughout ripening and were less susceptible to deterioration during long-term storage. Juice prepared from the transgenic tomato fruit with reduced LePG and LeExp1 expression was more viscous than juice prepared from control fruit.
March, C; Manclús, J J; Jiménez, Y; Arnau, A; Montoya, A
A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor was developed for the determination of the insecticide carbaryl and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), the main metabolite of the insecticide chlorpyrifos and of the herbicide triclopyr. The detection was based on a competitive conjugate-immobilized immunoassay format using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Hapten conjugates were covalently immobilized, via thioctic acid self-assembled monolayer (SAM), onto the gold electrode sensitive surface of the quartz crystal. This covalent immobilization allowed the reusability of the modified electrode surface for at least one hundred and fifty assays without significant loss of sensitivity. The piezoimmunosensor showed detection limits (analyte concentrations producing 10% inhibition of the maximum signal) of 11 and 7 microg l(-1) for carbaryl and TCP, respectively. The sensitivity attained (I(50) value) was around 30 microg l(-1) for both compounds. Linear working ranges were 15-53 microg l(-1) for carbaryl and 13-83 microg l(-1) for TCP. Each complete assay cycle took 20 min. The good sensitivity, specificity, and reusability achieved, together with the short response time, allowed the application of this immunosensor to the determination of carbaryl and TCP in fruits and vegetables at European regulatory levels, with high precision and accuracy.
Fernandez-Lozano, C; Canto, C; Gestal, M; Andrade-Garda, J M; Rabuñal, J R; Dorado, J; Pazos, A
Given the background of the use of Neural Networks in problems of apple juice classification, this paper aim at implementing a newly developed method in the field of machine learning: the Support Vector Machines (SVM). Therefore, a hybrid model that combines genetic algorithms and support vector machines is suggested in such a way that, when using SVM as a fitness function of the Genetic Algorithm (GA), the most representative variables for a specific classification problem can be selected.
Fernandez-Lozano, C.; Canto, C.; Gestal, M.; Andrade-Garda, J. M.; Rabuñal, J. R.; Dorado, J.; Pazos, A.
Given the background of the use of Neural Networks in problems of apple juice classification, this paper aim at implementing a newly developed method in the field of machine learning: the Support Vector Machines (SVM). Therefore, a hybrid model that combines genetic algorithms and support vector machines is suggested in such a way that, when using SVM as a fitness function of the Genetic Algorithm (GA), the most representative variables for a specific classification problem can be selected. PMID:24453933
García-Repetto, R; Giménez, M P; Martinez, M C; Soria, M L
Cocaine is one of the drugs of abuse more frequently consumed in Spain. Furthermore, Spain due to its geographical position is used by trafficker's organizations as the port of entrance of cocaine in the European Union. We present here a case of a fatal intoxication caused by a mistake in the cocaine distribution net in our country. Cocaine was concealed in a tropical juice only sold by the Internet.
Espelie, K E; Davis, R W; Kolattukudy, P E
Cutin and suberin polymers from various anatomical regions of grapefruit were analyzed chemically and ultrastructurally. The leaf, fruit peel and juice-sac showed an amorphous cuticular layer. The cutin in the leaf was composed of 10,16-dihydroxy C16 acid and its positional isomers as the major monomers whereas 16-hydroxy-10-oxo C16 acid was a major component in the fruit peel. Juice-sac cutin, on the other hand, contained the dihydroxy C16 acids, hydroxyoxo C16 acids, hydroxyepoxy C18 acids and trihydroxy C18 acids. Ultrastructural examination of the inner seed coat showed that an amorphous cuticular layer encircled the entire seed except in the chalazal region which showed several layers of cells with lamellar suberin structure throughout the cell walls. Consistent with the ultrastructural assignment, the compositions of the aliphatic components of the polymers from the chalazal region and the non-chalazal region indicated the presence of suberin and cutin, respectively. The aliphatic portion of the polymer from the chalazal region of the inner seed coat contained C16, C18:1, C22 and C24 ω-hydroxy acids (46% combined total) and the corresponding dicarboxylic acids (43%) as the major components. ω-Hydroxy-9,10-epoxy C18 acids and 9,10,18-trihydroxy C18 acids were the major components (77%) of the polymer from the non-chalazal portion of the inner seed coat. The main portion and the chalazal region of the inner seed coat yielded 17 and 342 μg/cm(2) of aliphatic monomers, respectively, and the diffusion resistance of these two portions of the inner seed coat were 62 and 192 sec/cm, respectively. The inner seed coat was shown to be the major moisture diffusion barrier influencing imbibition and germination.
Nogueira, Fernanda de Albuquerque Melo; Sichieri, Rosely
The association between consumption of soft drinks, fruit juice, and milk and body mass index (BMI) was evaluated in 1,423 students 9 to 16 years of age from public schools in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Beverage intake was measured using 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Weight and height were measured to calculate BMI. Regression analyses took into account the cluster (classes) effect. Analyses were stratified by gender and adjusted for physical activity and age. The results showed a positive association between soft drink intake and age (p = 0.05) and a negative association between milk and age (p = 0.004). For girls only, there was a significant association between frequent fruit juice intake and BMI (beta = 0.02; p = 0.03). For the other beverages, there were no significant associations between BMI and frequent consumption in either gender. Soft drinks and juices accounted for 20% of mean daily energy intake. The results showed that efforts to reduce energy intake from beverages should include consumption of fruit juice.
Tarifa, María Clara; Lozano, Jorge Enrique; Brugnoni, Lorena Inés
To clarify the interactions between a common food spoilage yeast and two pathogenic bacteria involved in outbreaks associated with fruit juices, the present paper studies the effect of the interplay of Candida krusei, collected from UF membranes, with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in the overall process of adhesion and colonization of abiotic surfaces. Two different cases were tested: a) co-adhesion by pathogenic bacteria and yeasts, and b) incorporation of bacteria to pre-adhered C. krusei cells. Cultures were made on stainless steel at 25°C using apple juice as culture medium. After 24 h of co-adhesion with C. krusei, both E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica increased their counts 1.05 and 1.11 log CFU cm(2), respectively. Similar increases were obtained when incorporating bacteria to pre-adhered cells of Candida. Nevertheless C. krusei counts decreased in both experimental conditions, in a) 0.40 log CFU cm(2) and 0.55 log CFU cm(2) when exposed to E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica and in b) 0.18 and 0.68 log CFU cm(2), respectively. This suggests that C. krusei, E. coli O157:H7, and S. enterica have a complex relationship involving physical and chemical interactions on food contact surfaces. This study supports the possibility that pathogen interactions with members of spoilage microbiota, such as C. krusei, might play an important role for the survival and dissemination of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in food-processing environments. Based on the data obtained from the present study, much more attention should be given to prevent the contamination of these pathogens in acidic drinks.
Little, C L; Mitchell, R T
A study of ready-to-eat pre-cut fruit, sprouted seeds, and unpasteurised fruit and vegetable juices from retail and production premises was undertaken in the UK to determine the microbiological quality of these products, and to verify the application of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) procedures by food operators. Almost all (99%; 2,075/2,096) samples were of satisfactory/acceptable microbiological quality. Two (0.1%) samples (melon, beansprouts) were of unacceptable quality due to the presence of Listeria monocytogenes at 102 cfu/g or more while a further 19 (0.9%) were unsatisfactory due to Escherichia coli levels in the range of 102 to 106 cfu/g. Neither Salmonella spp. nor E. coli O157 were detected in samples examined. A hazard analysis system was in place in most (85%) premises visited, and in 80% it was documented. Most managers (83%) had received some form of food hygiene training. Minimally processed produce is exposed to a range of conditions during production and distribution, and this may increase the potential for microbial contamination, highlighting the need of applying good hygiene practices from farm to fork to prevent contamination and/or bacterial growth. Such products should be stored and displayed at or below 8 degrees C.
Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G.; Engell, Rebecca E.; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush
Background Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fruit juice, and milk are components of diet of major public health interest. To-date, assessment of their global distributions and health impacts has been limited by insufficient comparable and reliable data by country, age, and sex. Objective To quantify global, regional, and national levels of SSB, fruit juice, and milk intake by age and sex in adults over age 20 in 2010. Methods We identified, obtained, and assessed data on intakes of these beverages in adults, by age and sex, from 193 nationally- or subnationally-representative diet surveys worldwide, representing over half the world’s population. We also extracted data relevant to milk, fruit juice, and SSB availability for 187 countries from annual food balance information collected by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to account for measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modeling uncertainty, and to combine and harmonize nationally representative dietary survey data and food availability data. Results In 2010, global average intakes were 0.58 (95%UI: 0.37, 0.89) 8 oz servings/day for SSBs, 0.16 (0.10, 0.26) for fruit juice, and 0.57 (0.39, 0.83) for milk. There was significant heterogeneity in consumption of each beverage by region and age. Intakes of SSB were highest in the Caribbean (1.9 servings/day; 1.2, 3.0); fruit juice consumption was highest in Australia and New Zealand (0.66; 0.35, 1.13); and milk intake was highest in Central Latin America and parts of Europe (1.06; 0.68, 1.59). Intakes of all three beverages were lowest in East Asia and Oceania. Globally and within regions, SSB consumption was highest in younger adults; fruit juice consumption showed little relation with age; and milk intakes were highest in older adults. Conclusions Our analysis highlights the enormous spectrum of beverage intakes worldwide, by country, age, and sex. These data are
A total of 34 species belonging to 21 genera of fungi were recorded on passion fruits of both pure and hybrid origin in Uganda, however, the pure type exhibited wider spectrum (28 species and 16 genera) than the hybrid type (21 & 15). Also, yeasts (unidentified and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were also encountered in high numbers. Moreover, the mean count of all mycobiota obtained from the pure type was higher than that of hybrid, despite the bigger size of the later. Members of yeasts and Cladosporium followed by Phoma, Penicillium, Fusarium and Alternaria species dominated on passion fruits of pure origin, while only C. cladosporioides, F. solani and yeasts dominated on the hybrid type. Treatment with Na-hypochlorite exhibited inhibitory effects on the total mycobiotic propagules as well as the dominant species from fruits of both types. The current results, therefore, suggest the use of Na-hypochlorite to control the post-harvest mycobiota associated with passion fruits. Regarding the mycobiota contaminating passion juice, yeasts were found to be the major contaminants with Candida parapsilosis being the most common. Moulds constituted only a minor proportion with Acremonium strictum followed by Fusarium chlamydosporum, F. moniliforme, F. acuminatum and F. solani as the most dominant species. In the heat-treated juice samples, the counts of the most commonly encountered mycobiota (both yeasts and molds) were significantly inhibited or completely eliminated. Some unidentified Bacillus species were also recovered from the juice, however, their counts in the heated samples were increased but insignificantly. PMID:24039477
Helal, G A; Sarhan, M M; Abu Shahla, A N K; Abou El-Khair, E K
Seventeen microbial species including 10 fungal taxa, two yeasts and five bacteria, were isolated from freshly prepared orange, guava and banana juices kept in open bottles at room temperature for 7 days. Eight different essential oils, from local herbs, were tested for their antimicrobial activity against these test organisms. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum and Origanum majorana were found to be highly effective against these microorganisms. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the most prevalent microorganisms in juice, showed the highest resistance against these essential oils. GC-MS analysis showed that while e-citral, a'-myrcene, and z-citral represent the major components (75.1%) of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus; bezynen,1-methyl-4-(2-propenyl), 1,8-cineole and trans-a'-bisabolene were the main components (90.6%) of Ocimum basilicum; whereas 3-cyclohexen-1-01,4-methyl-1(1-methylethyl)-(CAS), c-terpinene and trans-caryophyllene represent the major components (65.1%) of Origanum majorana. These three essential oils were introduced into juices by two techniques namely, fumigation and direct contact. The former technique showed more fungicidal effect than the latter one against A. flavus, A. niger, and S. cerevisiae. The essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus by comparison to other test oils showed the strongest effect against these fungi with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.5 µl/ml medium and a sublethal concentration of 1.0 µl/ml. The antimicrobial activity of this oil is thermostable at 121℃ for 30 min.
Sarhan, M. M.; Abu Shahla, A. N. K.; Abou El-Khair, E. K.
Seventeen microbial species including 10 fungal taxa, two yeasts and five bacteria, were isolated from freshly prepared orange, guava and banana juices kept in open bottles at room temperature for 7 days. Eight different essential oils, from local herbs, were tested for their antimicrobial activity against these test organisms. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum and Origanum majorana were found to be highly effective against these microorganisms. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the most prevalent microorganisms in juice, showed the highest resistance against these essential oils. GC-MS analysis showed that while e-citral, a'-myrcene, and z-citral represent the major components (75.1%) of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus; bezynen,1-methyl-4-(2-propenyl), 1,8-cineole and trans-a'-bisabolene were the main components (90.6%) of Ocimum basilicum; whereas 3-cyclohexen-1-01,4-methyl-1(1-methylethyl)-(CAS), c-terpinene and trans-caryophyllene represent the major components (65.1%) of Origanum majorana. These three essential oils were introduced into juices by two techniques namely, fumigation and direct contact. The former technique showed more fungicidal effect than the latter one against A. flavus, A. niger, and S. cerevisiae. The essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus by comparison to other test oils showed the strongest effect against these fungi with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.5 µl/ml medium and a sublethal concentration of 1.0 µl/ml. The antimicrobial activity of this oil is thermostable at 121℃ for 30 min. PMID:24039503
Donsì, Giorgio; Ferrari, Giovanna; Maresca, Paola
The use of pulsed high hydrostatic pressure was investigated as a possible approach to stabilize foodstuffs. The objective of this article was to investigate the effect of the main processing variables (pressure [150 to 300 MPa], temperature levels [25 to 50 degrees C], and pulse number [1 to 10]) on the sanitation of nonpasteurized clear Annurca apple juice as well as freshly-squeezed clear orange juice. The aim of the article was the optimization of the process parameters in step-wise pressure treatment (pressure holding time of each pulse: 60 s, compression rate: 10.5 MPa/s, decompression time: 2 to 5s). The shelf life of the samples, processed at optimized conditions, was evaluated in terms of microbiological stability and quality retention. According to our experimental results, the efficiency of pulsed high pressure processes depends on the combination of pulse holding time and number of pulses. The pulsed high pressure cycles have no additive or synergetic effect on microbial count. The efficacy of the single pulses decreases with the increase of the pulse number and pressure level. Therefore the first pulse cycle is more effective than the following ones. By coupling moderate heating to high pressure, the lethality of the process increases but thermal degradation of the products can be detected. The optimization of the process condition thus results in a compromise between the reduction of the pressure value, due to the synergetic temperature action, and the achievement of quality of the final production. The juices processed under optimal processing conditions show a minimum shelf life of 21 d at a storage temperature of 4 degrees C.
Deng, Kai; Lin, Sanren; Zhou, Liya; Geng, Qiuming; Li, Yuan; Xu, Ming; Na, Renhua
For screening early-stage gastric malignancies, the existing serum biomarkers have limited sensitivity and specificity. Gastric juice biomarkers are scarce and require further investigation. We divided this study on searching potential biomarkers into four parts: (1) detection of differential fluorescence spectrum and peaks in the gastric juice from patients using fluorescence spectroscopy and HPLC, (2) identification and validation of differential peaks using LC/MS and NMR, (3) quantification of potential biomarkers, and (4) establishment of diagnostic detection. The fluorescence intensity (FI), tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and total protein content were significantly higher in the gastric juice of patients with gastric malignancies (all P<0.01). With all P<0.001, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the biomarkers were tyrosine, 0.838; phenylalanine, 0.856; and tryptophan, 0.816. At a specificity of 79.4%, the sensitivity for gastric malignancy detection with phenylalanine was 87.9% only. Aromatic amino acids in gastric juices could be used as potential diagnostic biomarkers to screen gastric malignancies. It is a less-invasive and economical method compared to gastric biopsy.
McKay, Diane L; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Zampariello, Carly A; Blumberg, Jeffrey B
Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are a rich source of phenolic phytochemicals, which likely contribute to their putative health benefits. A single-dose pharmacokinetic trial was conducted in 10 healthy adults ⩾50y to evaluate the acute (24-h) absorption and excretion of flavonoids, phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins (PACs) from a low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (54% juice). Inter-individual variability was observed in the Cmax and Tmax of many of these compounds in both plasma and urine. The sum total concentration of phenolics detected in plasma reached a peak of 34.2μg/ml between 8 and 10h, while in urine this peak was 269.8μg/mg creatinine, and appeared 2-4h earlier. The presence of PAC-A2 dimers in human urine has not previously been reported. After cranberry juice consumption, plasma total antioxidant capacity assessed using ORAC and TAP assays correlated with individual metabolites. Our results show phenolic compounds in cranberry juice are bioavailable and exert antioxidant actions in healthy older adults.
Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya
In the present study, the effects of red and blue LED lights on the accumulation of ascorbic acid (AsA) were investigated in the juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin, Valencia orange, and Lisbon lemon. The results showed that the blue LED light treatment effectively increased the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties, whereas the red LED light treatment did not. By increasing the blue LED light intensity, the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties accumulated more AsA. Moreover, continuous irradiation with blue LED light was more effective than pulsed irradiation for increasing the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties. Gene expression results showed that the modulation of AsA accumulation by blue LED light was highly regulated at the transcription level. The up-regulation of AsA biosynthetic genes (CitVTC1, CitVTC2, CitVTC4, and CitGLDH), AsA regeneration genes (CitMDAR1, CitMDAR2, and CitDHAR) and two GSH-producing genes (CitGR and CitchGR) contributed to these increases in the AsA content in the three citrus varieties.
Xu, G P; Song, P J; Reed, P I
The effects of four fruit juices, processed vegetable juice, orange peel, green tea and low dose vitamin C on endogenous N-nitrosation in 86 subjects from a high-risk area for gastric cancer in Moping County, China were studied using urinary excretion of N-nitrosoproline (NPRO) as an indicator. After ingestion of 300 mg L-proline, urinary excretion of NPRO was significantly increased from a baseline of 2.5 +/- 1.6 micrograms/day to 8.7 +/- 6.2 micrograms/day. (P < 0.001). Vitamin C (75 mg) administration significantly reduced NPRO formation (62.3%, P < 0.002) although NPRO excretion remained higher than the baseline level (4.2 +/- 1.3 vs 2.2 +/- 1.2 micrograms/day, P < 0.001). Intake of fruit juices and green tea extracts (containing 75 mg vitamin C) or of orange peel powder (containing 3 mg vitamin C) together with 300 mg L-proline inhibited NPRO formation effectively to the baseline level or to levels significantly lower than the baseline level (P < 0.05-0.005). A processed juice of a number of vegetables (300 ml) significantly catalysed endogenous nitrosation (14.7 +/- 11.8 vs 9.4 +/- 4.7 micrograms/day, P < 0.05). Endogenous N-nitrosation was unaffected by the presence of intragastric lesions. The present study shows that endogenous nitrosation in this population is profoundly affected by environmental factors and that inhibitors, such as vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and other non-nutritive compounds in the foods do inhibit endogenous nitrosation either synergistically or in an additive manner. The significance of fruits and vegetables in prevention of human cancers is discussed.
Timbuntam, Walaiporn; Sriroth, Klanarong; Tokiwa, Yutaka
A newly isolated sucrose-tolerant, lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus sp. strain FCP2, was grown on sugar-cane juice (125 g sucrose l(-1), 8 g glucose l(-1) and 6 g fructose l(-1)) for 5 days and produced 104 g lactic acid l(-1) with 90% yield. A higher yield (96%) and productivity (2.8 g l(-1 )h(-1)) were obtained when strain FCP2 was cultured on 3% w/v (25 g sucrose l(-1), 2 g glucose l(-1) and 1 g fructose l(-1)) sugar-cane juice for 10 h. Various cheap nitrogen sources such as silk worm larvae, beer yeast autolysate and shrimp wastes were also used as a substitute to yeast extract.
Kulkarni, S G; Vijayanand, P; Shubha, L
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is widely cultivated in Kutch district of Gujarat and the fruits are harvested at immature stage before the onset of monsoon to prevent spoilage. The immature date fruits with less commercial value were used for processing into date juice concentrate. Immature dates were crushed and treated with 0.1% pectinase enzyme for 120 min to obtain maximum juice. Date juice was found to be rich in reducing sugars (16.1%) and total sugars (18.3%). Juice was pasteurized at 85°C to inactivate the enzyme, cooled and centrifuged at 3000 rpm to get clear juice. The juice was concentrated in a thin film evaporator to a total soluble solids (TSS) of 76°Brix in 2 passes. Chemical composition of date juice during different stages of concentration was determined. Date juice concentrate was packed in low density polyethylene bags of size (22 cm × 14 cm) and frozen in blast freezer at -40°C and stored at -20°C. Storage of date juice concentrate at -20°C for 6 months indicated no significant changes in TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, total sugars and pH. Hunter colour lightness L, and redness a values of date juice concentrate decreased whereas b values increased during storage. Date juice concentrate was stable during 6 months storage could be reconstituted for preparing ready-to-serve beverages with acceptable sensory quality.
Wojtczak, M; Antczak, A; Przybyt, M
High-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with conductometric detection was used for the determination of the lactic acid content of apple juice subjected to fermentation with the strains of Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum, obtained from a collection, at 20 and 30 degrees C. At the same time, lactate content was determined by means of enzymatic tests and biosensors. Lactic acid concentrations determined by the chromatographic method are similar to those obtained during analysis by enzymatic tests. However, acid concentrations determined by means of biosensors substantially diverge from these results.
Rawsthorne, Helen; Phister, Trevor G
In this study, we use ethidium monoazide (EMA) a dye commonly used to differentiate viable and nonviable populations of bacteria in real-time PCR (QPCR) assays to eliminate the nonviable cells from the Z. bailii population. Thus we are able to determine the viable Z. bailii population using QPCR plus EMA. To do this we first, optimized the EMA exposure conditions; EMA concentration of 50 microg/ml with an incubation at 30 degrees C in the dark for 5 min. Followed by light exposure on ice, for 5 min using a 500 W halogen lamp at a distance of 12 cm. Using these optimized conditions, we determined that the assay could detect as few as 12.5 viable Z. bailii cells in the presence of 10(5) CFU/ml of heat killed-cells. The EMA assay was also more consistent at determining viable cell counts when compared to plating than fluorescent microscopy viable cell counts. Finally, we used the assay to determine the viable population in heat-treated (72 degrees C, 2 min), ethanol-treated and raspberry cranberry juice Z. bailii cultures. When examining Z. bailii cells treated with 70% ethanol the QPCR assay with EMA (1.22 x 10(2)) showed a better correlation with plating (4.5 x 10(1) CFU/ml) compared to the QPCR assay without EMA (5.31 x 10(6) CFU/ml) and this was also seen in the other two injured populations. Thus we feel that we have designed an assay which will be useful for the detection of viable spoilage yeasts in various fruit juices.
Ouyang, Yongzhong; Zhang, Xinglei; Han, Jing; Guo, Xiali; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Huanwen; Luo, Liping
A miniature thermal dissociation atmospheric chemical ionization (TDCI) source, coupled with LTQ-MS, has been developed for rapid trace detection of pesticide residues such as dimethoate in highly viscous fruit juice samples. Instead of toxic organic solvents and the high electric field used in the conventional ionizations, an ionic liquid, a "green solvent", was employed to directly generate reagent ions in the TDCI process, followed by the proton or charge transfer with the analytes prior to the LTQ instrument for mass analysis. Trace amounts of dimethoate in fresh orange juices have been quantitatively detected, without any sample pretreatment or aid of high-pressure gas. A low limit of detection (LOD = 8.76 × 10(-11) g mL(-1)), acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD = 3.1-10.0%), and reasonable recoveries (91.2-102.8%) were achieved with this method for direct detection of dimethoate in highly viscous orange juice samples. The average analysis time for each single sample was less than 30 seconds. These experimental results showed that the miniature TDCI developed here is a powerful tool for the fast trace detection of pesticide residues in complex viscous fruit juices, with the advantage of high sensitivity, high speed, and high-throughput, ease of operation, and so on. Because of no chemical contamination and high voltage damage to the analytes and the environment, the technique has promising applications for online quality monitoring in the area of food safety.
Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Córdova, Jesús; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María
This study aimed to improve the fermentation efficiency of Kloeckera africana K1, in tequila fermentations. We investigated organic and inorganic nitrogen source requirements in continuous K. africana fermentations fed with Agave tequilana juice. The addition of a mixture of 20 amino-acids greatly improved the fermentation efficiency of this yeast, increasing the consumption of reducing sugars and production of ethanol, compared with fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. The preference of K. africana for each of the 20 amino-acids was further determined in batch fermentations and we found that asparagine supplementation increased K. africana biomass production, reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production (by 30, 36.7 and 45%, respectively) over fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. Therefore, asparagine appears to overcome K. africana nutritional limitation in Agave juice. Surprisingly, K. africana produced a high concentration of ethanol. This contrasts to poor ethanol productivities reported for other non-Saccharomyces yeasts indicating a relatively high ethanol tolerance for the K. africana K1 strain. Kloeckera spp. strains are known to synthesize a wide variety of volatile compounds and we have shown that amino-acid supplements influenced the synthesis by K. africana of important metabolites involved in the bouquet of tequila. The findings of this study have revealed important nutritional limitations of non-Saccharomyces yeasts fermenting Agave tequilana juice, and have highlighted the potential of K. africana in tequila production processes.
Josino Soares, Denise; Walker, Jessica; Pignitter, Marc; Walker, Joel Michael; Imboeck, Julia Maria; Ehrnhoefer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika
Pitanga, Eugenia uniflora L., is a tropical fruit, which may be consumed as juice. While beneficial health effects of Eugenia uniflora L. leaf extracts have extensively been studied, limited data are available on an anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice. The aim of the presented study was to investigate anti-inflammatory properties of pitanga juice with regards to a prevention of inflammation-related periodontal diseases. For this purpose, six healthy volunteers swirled pitanga juice, containing 35% pitanga pulp, for 10 min. Thereafter, oral gum epithelial cells were harvested using a sterile brush and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG-LPS) for 6 h. Furthermore, human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) were used to elucidate the anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice constituents, cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one, in juice representative concentrations of 119 μg ml(-1) and 30 μg ml(-1), respectively. For the first time, an anti-inflammatory impact of pitanga juice on gingival epithelial cells was shown by means of an attenuation of IL-8 release by 55 ± 8.2% and 52 ± 11% in non-stimulated and PG-LPS-stimulated cells, respectively. In addition, both cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one reduced the LPS-stimulated CXCL8 mRNA expression by 50 ± 15% and 37 ± 18% and IL-8 release by 52 ± 9.9% and 45 ± 3.7% in HGF-1 cells, when concomitantly incubated with 10 μg ml(-1)PG-LPS for 6 h, revealing an anti-inflammatory potential of the volatile compound oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one for the first time.
He, Zhiyong; Yuan, Bo; Zeng, Maomao; Tao, Guanjun; Chen, Jie
The effects of simulated processing (pH adjustment and thermal treatment) on the antioxidant capacity and in vitro protein digestion of fruit juice-milk beverage (FJMB) models consisting of whey protein (WP), and chlorogenic acid (CHA) or catechin (CAT) were investigated. Results indicated that CAT was more susceptible to processing than CHA, and showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in ABTS and FRAP after sterilization (121°C/10 min) and pH adjustment to 6.8. WP addition had different effects (none, masking, synergetic effect) on the antioxidant activity of FJMB. Pasteurization (63°C/30 min) and pH adjustment (pH 3.7 or pH 6.8) had either non-significant or slight effects on FJMB's antioxidant capacity, while sterilization significantly (p<0.05) increased or decreased its ABTS and FRAP depending on the different models. In vitro digestion of WP in FJMB was obviously (p < 0.05) inhibited by phenolics to varying degrees, and little influenced (p>0.05) by pasteurization, whereas sterilization initially accelerated WP digestion but did not change its overall digestibility.
Bártová, Veronika; Bárta, Jan
Effects of protein precipitators, ethanol and ferric chloride, on yield, resolubility, chemical composition and nutritional value of protein concentrates isolated from industrial potato fruit juice (PFJ) were studied. Optimum precipitating concentrations of ethanol and ferric chloride in PFJ were 4 M (23.1% v/v) and 20 mM (2% w/v), resulting in yield of 69% and 86.5% of total protein, respectively. Contents of total glycoalkaloids and potassium in both protein concentrates were significantly lower (P < 0.05) as compared with contents in PFJ dry matter. Both protein concentrates exhibited high nutritional value; values of essential amino acid index (EAAI) were 81.7% and 82.7%, respectively. Fraction of patatin proteins (39-43 kDa) represented with EAAI value of 86.1% the nutritionally improving protein component. Lipid acyl hydrolase activity of patatin family was not negatively affected by cooled ethanol precipitation. It can be thus suggested that biological and enzymatic activities of this protein family are utilizable after this type of precipitation.
Walravens, Jeroen; Mikula, Hannes; Rychlik, Michael; Asam, Stefan; Devos, Tom; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Diana Di Mavungu, José; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Landschoot, Anita; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Saeger, Sarah
Ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe based analytical methodologies to quantitate both free (alternariol (1), alternariol monomethyl ether (2), tenuazonic acid (3), tentoxin (4), altenuene (5), altertoxin-I (6)) and conjugated (sulfates and glucosides of 1 and 2) Alternaria toxins in fruit and vegetable juices and tomato products were developed and validated. Acceptable limits of quantitation (0.7-5.7 μg/kg), repeatability (RSDr < 15.7%), reproducibility (RSDR < 17.9%), and apparent recovery (87.0-110.6%) were obtained for all analytes in all matrices investigated. 129 commercial foodstuffs were analyzed, and 3 was detected in 100% of tomato product samples (
Mossallam, Shereen F
Fresh fruit juices are popular, but not always safe. For assessing the likelihood of infection with newly emerging intestinal protozoa, commercial fresh orange, lemon, sugar cane, strawberry, and mango juices were screened by wet mounts, Weber's modified trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. Protozoa viability was done by fluorescein-diacetate/propidium-iodide staining, and infectivity was performed in Swiss albino mice. Results showed that 35.43% were contaminated with one or more of Cryptosporidia, Microsporidia, and Cyclospora, as well as Giardia spp. Strawberry was the most contaminated juice (54.28%), while orange was the slightest (22.86%). Cryptosporidia was the highest contaminant (61.29%), and Cyclospora was the least (14.52%). Microsporidia spp. was the most robust contaminant which retained its viability and infectivity in juices in which it was detected. Moderately acidic strawberry and mango juices and alkaline sugar cane juice pose a possible threat, due to harboring the highest viable and infectious protozoa. Regarding highly acidic juices, viability and infectivity decreased in lemon, yet was not still risk free. Orange juice was comparatively safe, as viability dramatically declined, while infectivity was completely abolished. Hence consumers, especially high risk group, are placed at hazard of contracting intestinal protozoa infections, especially through moderately acidic and alkaline juices.
Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B
Juice blends made from the mixture of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruits were analyzed for pH, antioxidant properties, total titratable acidity, vitamin C, lycopene and total phenolic contents after different blend ratios were made. The addition of snake tomato juice increased the vitamin C, total carotene, lycopene and antioxidant properties of the juice blends. The radical scavenging properties of juice blends containing a higher ratio of snake tomato were higher and samples stored at room temperature (29°C) showed an increase in antioxidant properties compared to samples stored at 4°C. In conclusion, snake tomato juice up to 50% may be added to Pineapple juice to make a healthy juice blend.
Reddy Yadav, L. S.; Manjunath, K.; Archana, B.; Madhu, C.; Raja Naika, H.; Nagabhushana, H.; Kavitha, C.; Nagaraju, G.
Ceria ( CeO2 is a technologically important rare-earth material because of its unique properties and various engineering/biological applications. In the present work, cerium oxide nanoparticles have been prepared by a simple solution combustion method using watermelon juice as a novel combustible fuel. The structure and morphology of the synthesized CeO2 nanoparticles were analyzed using various analytical tools such as PXRD, FTIR, Raman, UV-Visible and SEM. PXRD pattern confirms that the prepared material is composed of cubic-phase cerium oxide nanoparticles. Photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue dye using CeO2 nanoparticles shows 98% of degradation in UV irradiations. Furthermore the antibacterial properties of CeO2 nanoparticles were investigated by their bacterial activity against two bacterial strains using the agar well diffusion method.
Ogundele, Oluwatoyin M A; Awolu, Olugbenga O; Badejo, Adebanjo A; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Fagbemi, Tayo N
The demand for functional foods and drinks with health benefit is on the increase. The synergistic effect from mixing two or more of such drinks cannot be overemphasized. This study was carried out to formulate and investigate the effects of blends of two or more of pineapple, orange juices, carrot, and Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) on the antioxidant properties of the juice formulations in order to obtain a combination with optimal antioxidant properties. Experimental design was carried out using optimal mixture model of response surface methodology which generated twenty experimental runs with antioxidant properties as the responses. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] radical scavenging abilities, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), vitamin C, total phenolics, and total carotenoids contents of the formulations were evaluated as a test of antioxidant property. In all the mixtures, formulations having HSE as part of the mixture showed the highest antioxidant potential. The statistical analyzes, however, showed that the formulations containing pineapple, carrot, orange, and HSE of 40.00, 16.49, 17.20, and 26.30%, respectively, produced optimum antioxidant potential and was shown to be acceptable to a research laboratory guidance panel, thus making them viable ingredients for the production of functional beverages possessing important antioxidant properties with potential health benefits.
Several world-wide health organizations such as WHO and FAO have pointed out the importance of increasing the intake of fruits and vegetables in the diet because they can provide essential bioactive compounds as well as health beneficial phytochemicals. Consumers are also increasingly more conscious...
Simão, Tathiana Name Colado; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Oliveira, Sayonara Rangel; Venturini, Danielle; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Miglioranza, Lúcia Helena Silva; Dichi, Isaias
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) comprises pathological conditions that include insulin resistance, arterial hypertension, visceral adiposity and dyslipidaemia, which favour the development of CVD. Some reports have shown that cranberry ingestion reduces cardiovascular risk factors. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of this fruit in subjects with the MetS. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of reduced-energy cranberry juice consumption on metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with the MetS, and to verify the effects of cranberry juice concomitantly on homocysteine and adiponectin levels in patients with the MetS. For this purpose, fifty-six individuals with the MetS were selected and divided into two groups: control group (n 36) and cranberry-treated group (n 20). After consuming reduced-energy cranberry juice (0·7 litres/d) containing 0·4mg folic acid for 60 d, the cranberry-treated group showed an increase in adiponectin (P=0·010) and folic acid (P=0·033) and a decrease in homocysteine (P<0·001) in relation to baseline values and also in comparison with the controls (P<0·05). There was no significant change in the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a, IL-1 and IL-6. In relation to oxidative stress measurements, decreased (P<0·05) lipoperoxidation and protein oxidation levels assessed by advanced oxidation protein products were found in the cranberry-treated group when compared with the control group. In conclusion, the consumption of cranberry juice for 60 d was able to improve some cardiovascular risk factors. The present data reinforce the importance of the inverse association between homocysteine and adiponectin and the need for more specifically designed studies on MetS patients.
Cai, Rui; Wang, Zhouli; Yuan, Yahong; Liu, Bin; Wang, Ling; Yue, Tianli
An approach based on immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and SYBR Green I real-time PCR (real-time PCR) with species-specific primers and melting curve analysis was proposed as a rapid and effective method for detecting Alicyclobacillus spp. in fruit juices. Specific primers targeting the 16S rDNA sequences of Alicyclobacillus spp. were designed and then confirmed by the amplification of DNA extracted from standard strains and isolates. Spiked samples containing known amounts of target bacteria were used to obtain standard curves; the correlation coefficient was greater than 0.986 and the real-time PCR amplification efficiencies were 98.9%- 101.8%. The detection limit of the testing system was 2.8×101 CFU/mL. The coefficient of variation for intra-assay and inter-assay variability were all within the acceptable limit of 5%. Besides, the performance of the IMS-real-time PCR assay was further investigated by detecting naturally contaminated kiwi fruit juice; the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 91.7%, 95.9% and 95.3%, respectively. The established IMS-real-time PCR procedure provides a new method for identification and quantitative detection of Alicyclobacillus spp. in fruit juice.
Yuan, Yahong; Liu, Bin; Wang, Ling; Yue, Tianli
An approach based on immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and SYBR Green I real-time PCR (real-time PCR) with species-specific primers and melting curve analysis was proposed as a rapid and effective method for detecting Alicyclobacillus spp. in fruit juices. Specific primers targeting the 16S rDNA sequences of Alicyclobacillus spp. were designed and then confirmed by the amplification of DNA extracted from standard strains and isolates. Spiked samples containing known amounts of target bacteria were used to obtain standard curves; the correlation coefficient was greater than 0.986 and the real-time PCR amplification efficiencies were 98.9%- 101.8%. The detection limit of the testing system was 2.8×101 CFU/mL. The coefficient of variation for intra-assay and inter-assay variability were all within the acceptable limit of 5%. Besides, the performance of the IMS-real-time PCR assay was further investigated by detecting naturally contaminated kiwi fruit juice; the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 91.7%, 95.9% and 95.3%, respectively. The established IMS-real-time PCR procedure provides a new method for identification and quantitative detection of Alicyclobacillus spp. in fruit juice. PMID:26488469
Dagulo, Lilibeth; Danyluk, Michelle D; Spann, Timothy M; Valim, M Filomena; Goodrich-Schneider, Renée; Sims, Charles; Rouseff, Russell
The effects due to Candidatus Liberibacter infection, commonly called citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB), on volatile and nonvolatile components of orange juices, OJ, were examined using GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HLB symptomatic, asymptomatic, and control "Hamlin" and "Valencia" oranges were harvested from December to May during the 2007 to 2008 harvest season. Brix/acid levels in control and asymptomatic juices were similar but symptomatic juices were as much as 62% lower than control juices. No bitter flavanone neohesperidosides were detected and polymethoxyflavone concentrations were well below bitter taste thresholds. Limonin concentrations were significantly higher (91% to 425%) in symptomatic juice compared to control but still below juice bitterness taste thresholds. Juice terpenes, such as gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpinolene, were as much as 1320% and 62% higher in symptomatic juice than control. Average ethyl butanoate concentrations were 45% lower and average linalool was 356% higher in symptomatic Valencia OJ compared to control. Symptomatic Valencia OJ had on average only 40% the total esters, 48% the total aldehydes, and 33% as much total sesquiterpenes as control juice. Total volatiles between control and symptomatic juices were similar due to elevated levels of alcohols and terpenes in symptomatic juice. There were no consistent differences between asymptomatic and control juices. The chemical composition of juice from HLB/greening symptomatic fruit appears to mimic that of juice from less mature fruit. The reported off-flavor associated with symptomatic juices probably stem from lower concentrations of sugars, higher concentrations of acid as all known citrus bitter compounds were either below taste thresholds or absent.
Akbulut, Mehmet; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa
Mineral contents of four mulberry fruits and their pekmez samples growing particularly in the Malatya province in Turkey were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All samples contained high amounts of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and sulphur. The highest mineral concentrations for mulberry fruits were measured between 1,873.65 and 4,437.52 mg/kg for calcium, 10.860 and 15.269 g/kg for potassium, 904.48 and 1033.11 mg/kg for magnesium, 115.29 and 252.33 mg/kg for sodium, 1.831 and 2.329 g/kg for phosphorus, and 493.35 and 642.25 mg/kg for sulphur. These values for pekmez samples varied between 135.76 and 575.84 mg/kg for calcium, 5.853 and 8.146 g/kg for potassium, 187.96 and 389.86 mg/kg for magnesium, 20.40 and 43.55 mg/kg for sodium, 285.10 and 517.72 mg/kg for phosphorus and 121.21 and 303.57 mg/kg for sulphur. Potassium content was high compared with other minerals. The highest potassium level was 15.269 g/kg for red mulberry fruit, whereas the lowest potassium content was 5.8523 g/kg for black mulberry pekmez sample. The mineral content of pekmez samples of black and red mulberry fruits decreased at the important levels compared with those of white mulberries during pekmez production. As a result, mulberry fruits and their pekmez samples contain nutrient elements of vital importance in man's metabolism.
Principal component analysis (PCA) of volatile terpene compounds dataset emitted by genetically modified sweet orange fruits and juices in which a D-limonene synthase was either up- or down-regulated vs. empty vector controls.
Rodríguez, Ana; Peris, Josep E; Redondo, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Peña, Leandro
We have categorized the dataset from content and emission of terpene volatiles of peel and juice in both Navelina and Pineapple sweet orange cultivars in which D-limonene was either up- (S), down-regulated (AS) or non-altered (EV; control) ("Impact of D-limonene synthase up- or down-regulation on sweet orange fruit and juice odor perception"(A. Rodríguez, J.E. Peris, A. Redondo, T. Shimada, E. Costell, I. Carbonell, C. Rojas, L. Peña, (2016)) ). Data from volatile identification and quantification by HS-SPME and GC-MS were classified by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) individually or as chemical groups. AS juice was characterized by the higher influence of the oxygen fraction, and S juice by the major influence of ethyl esters. S juices emitted less linalool compared to AS and EV juices.
Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan
In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39 ± 106.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 14 ± 1.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4°C for 1 week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P ≥ 0.05), but did affect the odor (P ≥ 0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.90 ± 1.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage.
Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan
In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39 ± 106.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 14 ± 1.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4°C for 1 week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P ≥ 0.05), but did affect the odor (P ≥ 0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.90 ± 1.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage. PMID:25987996
Tran, Kevin; Eide, David; Nickols, Susan M; Cromer, Michele R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando; Smith, Robert E
Products labelled as containing extracts from two mushrooms (cordyceps plus reishi) and the juices from açaí, goji, mangosteen, noni, pomegranate, and sea buckthorn have been analysed for 174 different pesticides, using the validated QuEChERS method for sample preparation and electrospray LC-MS/MS in the positive ion mode for analysis. Pesticides were found in 10 of the 21 samples analysed. Most pesticides found were below the tolerance levels (1-6 μg/g, depending on the pesticide), but some were not. This included boscalid, dimethomorph, iprovalicarb, pyridaben, pyrimethanil, and imazalil, for which there is no tolerance reported or zero tolerance in any fruit. However, genuine açaí that was harvested in the state of Pará and lyophilised in Rio de Janeiro had no detectable pesticides, when analysed by both LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS, which can detect 213 more pesticides and industrial chemicals. Likewise no pesticides were found in one sample each of cordyceps plus reishi, sea buckthorn and noni.
Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Takekoshi, Susumu; Gato, Nobuki; Utatsu, Hisao; Motley, Evangeline D; Eguchi, Kunie; Fitzgerald, Trinita G; Mifune, Mizuo; Frank, Gerald D; Eguchi, Satoru
Bainiku-ekisu, the fruit-juice concentrate of the Oriental plum (Prunus mume) has recently been shown to improve human blood fluidity. We have shown that angiotensin II (AngII) stimulates growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) through epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transactivation that involves reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. To better understanding the possible cardiovascular protective effect of Bainiku-ekisu, we have studied whether Bainiku-ekisu inhibits AngII-induced growth promoting signals in VSMCs. Bainiku-ekisu markedly inhibited AngII-induced EGF receptor transactivation. H(2)O(2)-induced EGF receptor transactivation was also inhibited by Bainiku-ekisu. Thus, Bainiku-ekisu markedly inhibited AngII-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. However, EGF-induced ERK activation was not affected by Bainiku-ekisu. AngII stimulated leucine uptake in VSMCs that was significantly inhibited by Bainiku-ekisu. Also, Bainiku-ekisu possesses a potent antioxidant activity. Since the activation of EGF receptor, ERK and the production of ROS play central roles in mediating AngII-induced vascular remodeling, these data suggest that Bainiku-ekisu could exert a powerful cardiovascular protective effect with regard to cardiovascular diseases.
Nascentes, Clésia C; Arruda, Marco A Z; Nogueira, Ana Rita A; Nóbrega, Joaquim A
In the present work, thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS) was employed for Cu and Zn determination in bovine milk and fruit juice samples without any pretreatment. TS-FF-AAS system was optimized and a sample volume of 300mul was injected into the carrier stream (0.014moll(-1) HNO(3) at a flow rate of 0.4mlmin(-1)), and it was introduced into a hot Ni tube. The detection limits obtained for Cu and Zn in aqueous solution were 2.2 and 0.91mugl(-1), respectively, and 3.2mugl(-1) for Cu in a medium containing water-soluble tertiary amines. The relative standard deviations varied from 2.7 to 4.2% (n=12). Sample preparation was carried out by simple dilution in water or in water-soluble tertiary amines medium. Accuracy was checked by performing addition-recovery experiments as well as by using reference materials (whole milk powder, non-fat milk powder, and infant formula). Recoveries varied from 97.7 to 105.3% for Cu and Zn. All results obtained for reference materials were in agreement with certified values at a 95% confidence level.
Rodríguez-Roque, María Janeth; de Ancos, Begoña; Sánchez-Vega, Rogelio; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar; Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Martín-Belloso, Olga
The biological activity of carotenoids depends on their bioaccessibility and solubilization in the gastrointestinal tract. These compounds are poorly dispersed in the aqueous media of the digestive tract due to their lipophilic nature. Thus, it is important to analyze the extent to which some factors, such as the food matrix and food processing, may improve their bioaccessibility. Beverages formulated with a blend of fruit juices and water (WB), milk (MB) or soymilk (SB) were treated by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) (35 kV cm(-1) with 4 μs bipolar pulses at 200 Hz for 1800 μs), high-pressure processing (HPP) (400 MPa at 40 °C for 5 min) or thermal treatment (TT) (90 °C for 1 min) in order to evaluate the influence of food matrix and processing on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and on the lipophilic antioxidant activity (LAA). The bioaccessibility of these compounds diminished after applying any treatment (HIPEF, HPP and TT), with the exception of cis-violaxanthin + neoxanthin, which increased by 79% in HIPEF and HPP beverages. The lowest carotenoid bioaccessibility was always obtained in TT beverages (losses up to 63%). MB was the best food matrix for improving the bioaccessibility of carotenoids, as well as the LAA. The results demonstrate that treatment and food matrix modulated the bioaccessibility of carotenoids as well as the lipophilic antioxidant potential of beverages. Additionally, HIPEF and HPP could be considered as promising technologies to obtain highly nutritional and functional beverages.
Kishikawa, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kayoko; Ito, Asako; Arahata, Kyoko; Takarabe, Sakiko; Kaida, Shogo; Kanai, Takanori; Miura, Soichiro; Nishida, Jiro
Objectives Several clinical factors; overweight, male gender and increasing age, have been implicated as the etiology of hiatal hernia. Esophageal shortening due to acid perfusion in the lower esophagus has been suggested as the etiological mechanism. However, little is known about the correlation between gastric acidity and sliding hiatus hernia formation. This study examined whether increased gastric acid secretion is associated with an endoscopic diagnosis of hiatal hernia. Methods A total of 286 consecutive asymptomatic patients (64 were diagnosed as having a hiatal hernia) who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were studied. Clinical findings including fasting gastric juice pH as an indicator of acid secretion, age, sex, body mass index, and Helicobacter pylori infection status determined by both Helicobacter pylori serology and pepsinogen status, were evaluated to identify predictors in subjects with hiatal hernia. Results Male gender, obesity with a body mass index >25, and fasting gastric juice pH were significantly different between subjects with and without hiatal hernia. The cut-off point of fasting gastric juice pH determined by receiver operating curve analysis was 2.1. Multivariate regression analyses using these variables, and age, which is known to be associated with hiatal hernia, revealed that increased gastric acid secretion with fasting gastric juice pH <2.1 (OR = 2.60, 95% CI: 1.38–4.90) was independently associated with hiatal hernia. Moreover, previously reported risk factors including male gender (OR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.23–4.35), body mass index >25 (OR = 3.49, 95% CI: 1.77–6.91) and age >65 years (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.00–3.45), were also significantly associated with hiatal hernia. Conclusions This study suggests that increased gastric acid secretion independently induces the development of hiatal hernia in humans. These results are in accordance with the previously reported hypothesis that high gastric acid itself induces
Ghosh, Vijayalakshmi; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan
Oil-in-water nanoemulsion was formulated using sesame oil, non-ionic surfactant (Tween20/Tween80) and water by ultrasound cavitation method. Development of nanoemulsion was optimized for process parameters such as surfactant type, surfactant concentration and emulsification time to obtain lower droplet diameter with greater stability. Increase in surfactant concentration and emulsiﬁcation time resulted in nanoemulsion with minimized droplet diameter. Tween80 was more effective in reducing droplet size when compared to that of Tween20. Selected formulation with optimized process parameter (with oil-surfactant mixing ratio of 1:3 v/v and Tween80 as surfactant) was used for delivery of eugenol. Eugenol-loaded nanoemulsion was formulated with droplet diameter of 13 nm and was stable for more than 1 month. Sesame oil blended eugenol-loaded nanoemulsion demonstrated lower droplet size and higher stability than only-eugenol (without sesame oil) nanoemulsion. Eugenol-loaded nanoemulsion S3E3 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Inactivation kinetics of S. aureus showed time and concentration killing of bacteria upon treatment with S3E3 nanoemulsion. Fluorescence microscopy results demonstrated that S3E3 nanoemulsion treatment resulted in alteration of membrane permeability. In situ assessment of S3E3 in orange juice exhibited a significant reduction in the native bacteria population.
Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Mbarki, Sakhria; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rouma, Khémais
The aim of our present study is to investigate the effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear juice (PPJ) against ethanol-induced liver injury in rats. Chronic ethanol administration (3 g/kg b.w.) during 90 days to Wistar rats, significantly (p < 0.01) increased the liver lipid and protein oxidation, reduced the glutathione content and the activities of liver antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and conversely elevated the liver injury biochemical markers like aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, triglycerides and caused a severe histopathologic injuries. Conversely pre-treatment of ethanol-fed rats with PPJ (20 and 40 ml/kg b.w., orally), interestingly reduced liver lipid and protein oxidation, histopathologic lesions and inhibited the alterations of antioxidant enzymes and the release of biochemical markers. The hepatoprotective effect of PPJ could be due to their capacity to end free radicals chain reactions or to enhance the endogenous antioxidants activities.
Chanukya, B S; Rastogi, Navin K
The present study deals with the effect of higher and lower molecular weight compounds present in the feed on concentration polarization during forward osmosis concentration and its mitigation by the application of ultrasound. The effects of ultrasound on transmembrane water flux at different forward osmosis membrane orientations and different model feed solutions consisting of sucrose and pectin have also been evaluated. The feed containing sucrose and pectin subjected towards active layer of the membrane was found to be the most suitable orientation. The application of ultrasound (30kHz) significantly reduced the concentration polarization when the feed contains sucrose concentration up to 5%. Whereas, in case of feed containing 0.5% pectin, the ultrasound was not found to be effective in dislodging the gel layer formation resulting in severe external concentration polarization on the membrane surface. In comparison to the ordinary forward osmosis process, the ultrasound-assisted forward osmosis process resulted in higher water fluxes in case of sweet lime juice as well as rose extract containing anthocyanin. The degradation of rose anthocyanin due to ultrasound was found to be 1.82%. Application of ultrasound was found to be an effective way in mitigating concentration polarization on the forward osmosis membrane resulting in increased flux.
Froes, Roberta Eliane Santos; Neto, Waldomiro Borges; Silva, Nilton Oliveira Couto e.; Naveira, Rita Lopes Pereira; Nascentes, Clésia Cristina; da Silva, José Bento Borba
A method for the direct determination (without sample pre-digestion) of microelements in fruit juice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry has been developed. The method has been optimized by a 2 3 factorial design, which evaluated the plasma conditions (nebulization gas flow rate, applied power, and sample flow rate). A 1:1 diluted juice sample with 2% HNO 3 (Tetra Packed, peach flavor) and spiked with 0.5 mg L - 1 of Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn was employed in the optimization. The results of the factorial design were evaluated by exploratory analysis (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA, and Principal Component Analysis, PCA) to determine the optimum analytical conditions for all elements. Central point condition differentiation (0.75 L min - 1 , 1.3 kW, and 1.25 mL min - 1 ) was observed for both methods, Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, with higher analytical signal values, suggesting that these are the optimal analytical conditions. F and t-student tests were used to compare the slopes of the calibration curves for aqueous and matrix-matched standards. No significant differences were observed at 95% confidence level. The correlation coefficient was higher than 0.99 for all the elements evaluated. The limits of quantification were: Al 253, Cu 3.6, Fe 84, Mn 0.4, Zn 71, Ni 67, Cd 69, Pb 129, Sn 206, Cr 79, Co 24, and Ba 2.1 µg L - 1 . The spiking experiments with fruit juice samples resulted in recoveries between 80 and 120%, except for Co and Sn. Al, Cd, Pb, Sn and Cr could not be quantified in any of the samples investigated. The method was applied to the determination of several elements in fruit juice samples commercialized in Brazil.
Almeida-Souza, Fernando; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Silva, João José Mendes; de Oliveira, Renata Mondêgo; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva
Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that is considered a serious public health problem. Due to the absence of an effective vaccine and debilitating chemotherapy better therapies are urgently needed. This situation has stimulated the search for alternative treatments such as the use of herbal medicines. Several studies conducted with Morinda citrifolia Linn. have shown various biological activities such as antitumor, immunomodulation and antileishmanial activity, however its mechanisms of action are still unknown. This study aimed to analyze the activity of M. citrifolia fruit juice against Leishmania amazonensis and its action on peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c infected with L. amazonensis. Activity against the promastigote forms showed IC50 at 275.3 μg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate the ultrastructural alterations in the promastigotes treated with the juice and the results showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion and increased activity of exocytosis. The juice treatment presented an IC50 at 208.4 μg/mL against intracellular amastigotes and led to an increased nitrite production in infected and non-infected macrophages. When macrophages were pre-treated with iNOS inhibitors, aminoguanidine or 1400W, the intracellular amastigotes increased, demonstrating the important role of NO production in M. citrifolia fruit activity. In conclusion, our results reveal that treatment with M. citrifolia fruit juice can increase NO production in peritoneal macrophages and this ability has an important role in the killing of L. amazonensis intracellular amastigotes.
In Vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities of an antioxidant-rich fruit and berry juice blend. Results of a pilot and randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study
This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a juice blend (JB), MonaVie Active, containing a mixture of fruits and berries with known antioxidant activity, including acai, a palm fruit, as the predominant ingredient. The phytochemical antioxidants...
Timmermans, R A H; Nierop Groot, M N; Nederhoff, A L; van Boekel, M A J S; Matser, A M; Mastwijk, H C
Pulsed electrical field (PEF) technology can be used for the inactivation of micro-organisms and therefore for preservation of food products. It is a mild technology compared to thermal pasteurization because a lower temperature is used during processing, leading to a better retention of the quality. In this study, pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms relevant in refrigerated fruit juices were studied to determine the impact of process parameters and juice composition on the effectiveness of the PEF process to inactivate the micro-organisms. Experiments were performed using a continuous-flow PEF system at an electrical field strength of 20 kV/cm with variable frequencies to evaluate the inactivation of Salmonella Panama, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in apple, orange and watermelon juices. Kinetic data showed that under the same conditions, S. cerevisiae was the most sensitive micro-organism, followed by S. Panama and E. coli, which displayed comparable inactivation kinetics. L. monocytogenes was the most resistant micro-organism towards the treatment conditions tested. A synergistic effect between temperature and electric pulses was observed at inlet temperatures above 35 °C, hence less energy for inactivation was required at higher temperatures. Different juice matrices resulted in a different degree of inactivation, predominantly determined by pH. The survival curves were nonlinear and could satisfactorily be modeled with the Weibull model.
Lima, Marcos dos Santos; da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Maria; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Ninow, Jorge Luiz
The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60 °C and 3.0 mL 100 kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature.
Nitiyanontakit, Sira; Varanusupakul, Pakorn; Ngamukot, Passapol
A single strand hollow fiber membrane (SSHFM) was developed for the on-line sample preparation for the flow based colorimetric determination of free iron levels in fruit juices. The SSHFM, as used, could separate Fe(2+) from some spectrophotometric interfering agents in the fruit juice, such as pigments, solid suspensions and polysaccharides. The screening process was likely to have been primarily based on dialysis, wherein only ions or molecules that are smaller than the pores of the membrane can diffuse through while relatively larger molecules or particles could not. Two flow modes, a continuous and stopped flow, were studied. Factors that influenced the sensitivity (%dialysis) of the method, such as the flow rate, sample volume, flow direction and stopped flow time, were optimized. The stopped flow mode was found to be relatively more sensitive than the continuous flow mode and displayed a linear range of 1-30 mg L(-1) Fe(2+), a limit of detection of 0.5 mg L(-1), and a % relative standard deviation of less than 2% (n=8) for the analysis of 10 mg L(-1) Fe(2+) spiked grape juice samples. A sample throughput of 24 samples h(-1), was attained without any further sample treatment.
... original juice or must from which the wine was produced. (b) Use of juice or must from which volatile fruit-flavor has been removed. Juice, concentrated fruit juice, or must processed at a concentrate plant is considered to be pure juice, concentrated fruit juice, or must even though volatile fruit-flavor has...
Acute consumption of organic and conventional tropical grape juices (Vitis labrusca L.) increases antioxidants in plasma and erythrocytes, but not glucose and uric acid levels, in healthy individuals.
Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T
Bioactive polyphenols in grapes are influenced by grape variety and cultivation conditions. The Vitis labrusca L. varieties are cultivated in tropical regions and used for grape juice production. We hypothesized that polyphenols from tropical grape juices would beneficially affect redox homeostasis in humans. Therefore, the effects of acute consumption of organic and conventional grape juices from V labrusca L. on antioxidants biomarkers were investigated in healthy individuals. In a controlled, randomized, crossover, intervention trial, 24 individuals were assigned to drink 400 mL of conventional juice, organic juice, or water. Each intervention was followed by a 14-day washout period. Blood samples were obtained before and 1 hour after acute intake and analyzed for erythrocyte reduced glutathione, serum total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes, and glucose and uric acid in serum. The ingestion of both grape juices resulted in elevated levels of reduced glutathione (P< .001) and serum total antioxidant capacity (P< .05) and increased activity of catalase (P< .001), superoxide dismutase (P< .001), and glutathione peroxidase (P< .05) compared with the control intervention, with no significant differences between grape juices (P< .05). The intake of juices did not affect significantly the concentrations of glucose or uric acid. Grape juice polyphenols were associated with increased antioxidants, and the chemical differences between organic and conventional juices were not predictive of the observed responses. The results suggest a bioactive potential of V labrusca L. juices to improve redox homeostasis, which is involved in defense against oxidative stress in humans.
Kim, S A; Rhee, M S
The identification of novel, effective, and non-thermal decontamination methods is imperative for the preservation of unpasteurized and fresh vegetable juices. The aim of this study was to examine the bactericidal effects of caprylic acid + citric acid against the virulent pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the endogenous microflora in unpasteurized fresh carrot juice. Carrot juice was treated with either caprylic acid, citric acid, or a combination of caprylic acid + citric acid at mild heating temperature (45 °C or 50 °C). The color of the treated carrot juice as well as microbial survival was examined over time. Combined treatment was more effective than individual treatment in terms of both color and microbial survival. Caprylic acid + citric acid treatment (each at 5.0 mM) at 50 °C for 5 min resulted in 7.46 and 3.07 log CFU/ml reductions in the E. coli O157:H7 and endogenous microflora populations, respectively. By contrast, there was no apparent reduction in either population following individual treatment. A validation assay using a low-density E. coli O157:H7 inoculum (3.31 log CFU/ml) showed that combined treatment with caprylic acid (5.0 mM) + citric acid (2.5 mM) at 50 °C for >5 min or with caprylic acid + citric acid (both at 5.0 mM) at either 45 °C or 50 °C for >5 min completely destroyed the bacteria. Combined treatment also increased the redness of the juice, which is a perceived indication of quality. Taken together, these results indicate that combined treatment with low concentrations of caprylic acid and citric acid, which are of biotic origin, can eliminate microorganisms from unpasteurized carrot juice.
Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Brakefield, Paul M; Carey, James R; Zwaan, Bas J
1. In tropical forests, the adults of many butterfly species feed on fruits rather than nectar from flowers and have long life spans. Rotting fruit and nectar differ from each other in many respects, including sources of amino acids and microbial life. If amino acids in the adult diet can be used for reproduction, this may have facilitated the evolution of extended life spans in this guild.2. This issue was addressed by investigating effects of banana, yeast, and amino acids in the adult diet of the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera) on longevity and female reproductive output in two experiments.3. Results showed that in the fruit-feeding butterfly B. anynana: (i) banana juice, but not sliced banana or added amino acids extend life span compared with a sugar solution of similar composition; (ii) compared with this sugar solution, other cohorts (banana juice-amino acid enriched) did not have significantly higher reproductive outputs; (iii) yeast does not represent a valuable source of nutrients; (iv) caloric restriction may cause decreased life span and rate of reproduction; and (v) increased rates of reproduction have a life span cost.
Roll, Stephanie; Nocon, Marc; Willich, Stefan N
Dietary supplements have been suggested in the prevention of the common cold, but previous investigations have been inconsistent. The present study was designed to determine the preventive effect of a dietary supplement from fruits and vegetables on common cold symptoms. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, healthcare professionals (mainly nursing staff aged 18-65 years) from a university hospital in Berlin, Germany, were randomised to four capsules of dietary supplement (Juice Plus+®) or matching placebo daily for 8 months, including a 2-month run-in period. The number of days with moderate or severe common cold symptoms within 6 months (primary outcome) was assessed by diary self-reports. We determined means and 95 % CI, and differences between the two groups were analysed by ANOVA. A total of 529 subjects were included into the primary analysis (Juice Plus+®: 263, placebo: 266). The mean age of the participants was 39·9 (sd 10·3) years, and 80 % of the participants were female. The mean number of days with moderate or severe common cold symptoms was 7·6 (95 % CI 6·5, 8·8) in the Juice Plus+® group and 9·5 (8·4, 10·6) in the placebo group (P = 0·023). The mean number of total days with any common cold symptoms was similar in the Juice Plus+® and in the placebo groups (29·4 (25·8, 33·0) v. 30·7 (27·1, 34·3), P = 0·616). Intake of a dietary supplement from fruits and vegetables was associated with a 20 % reduction of moderate or severe common cold symptom days in healthcare professionals particularly exposed to patient contact.
Tawfik, A; El-Kamah, H
This study has been carried out to assess the performance of a combined system consisting of an anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor followed by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of fruit-juice industry wastewater at a temperature of 26 degrees C. Three experimental runs were conducted in this investigation. In the first experiment, a single-stage AH reactor was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10.2 h and organic loading rate (OLR) of 11.8 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). The reactor achieved a removal efficiency of 42% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 50.8% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 50.3% for volatile fatty acids (VFA) and 56.4% for total suspended solids (TSS). In the second experiment, two AH reactors connected in series achieved a higher removal efficiency for COD (67.4%), BOD5 (77%), and TSS (71.5%) at a total HRT of 20 h and an OLR of 5.9 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). For removal of the remaining portions of COD, BOD5 and TSS from the effluent of the two-stage AH system, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated as a post-treatment unit. The reactor achieved a substantial reduction in total COD, resulting in an average effluent concentration of 50 mg L(-1) at an HRT of 11 h and OLR of 5.3 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Almost complete removal of total BOD5 and oil and grease was achieved, i.e. 10 mg L(-1) and 1.2 mg L(-1), respectively, remained in the final effluent of the SBR.
Chapple, Iain L C; Milward, Michael R; Ling-Mountford, Nicola; Weston, Paul; Carter, Kevin; Askey, Keeley; Dallal, Gerard E; De Spirt, Silke; Sies, Helmut; Patel, Dina; Matthews, John B
Aim A double-blind randomized controlled trial to determine whether dietary supplementation with fruit/vegetable/berry juice powder concentrates, simultaneously with non-surgical periodontal therapy, improved 2-month treatment outcomes. Methods Volunteers with chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to one of three groups: fruit/vegetable (FV), fruit/vegetable/berry (FVB) or placebo. Supplements were taken daily during non-surgical debridement and maintenance and outcomes assessed at 2, 5 and 8 months after completion. Primary outcomes were mean probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment gain, % sites bleeding on probing (% BOP) at 2 months. Adherence and plasma β-carotene were determined. Results Sixty-one nutritionally replete (by serum biochemistry) volunteers enrolled and 60 (n = 20 per arm) completed the 2-month review. Clinical outcomes improved in all groups at 2 months, with additional improvement in PPD versus placebo for FV (p < 0.03). Gingival crevicular fluid volumes diminished more in supplement groups than placebo (FVB; p < 0.05) at 2 months, but not at later times. The % BOP (5 months) and cumulative plaque scores (8 months) were lowered more in the FV group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Adjunctive juice powder concentrates appear to improve initial pocket depth reductions in nutritionally replete patients, where plasma micronutrient bioavailability is attainable. Definitive multicentre studies in untreated and treated patients are required to ascertain the clinical significance of such changes. PMID:22093005
Acidity is a major contributor to fruit quality. Several organic acids are present in apple fruit, but malic acid is predominant and determines fruit acidity. The trait is largely controlled by the Malic acid (Ma) locus, underpinning which Ma1 that encodes an Aluminum-activated Malate Transporter1 (...
Determination of ten pyrethroids in various fruit juices: comparison of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction sample preparation and QuEChERS method combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.
Zhang, Yaohai; Zhang, Xuelian; Jiao, Bining
Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) sample preparation and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method combined with DLLME were developed and compared for the analysis of ten pyrethroids in various fruit juices using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). QuEChERS-DLLME method has found its widespread applications to all the fruit juices including those samples with more complex matrices (orange, lemon, kiwi and mango) while DLLME was confined to the fruit juices with simpler matrices (apple, pear, grape and peach). The two methods provided acceptable recoveries and repeatability. In addition, the applicabilities of two methods were demonstrated with the real samples and further confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
Usaga, Jessie; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I; Worobo, Randy W
The enhanced thermal tolerance and survival responses of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in acid and acidified foods is a major safety concern for the production of low-pH products, including beverages. Little is known about this phenomenon when using UV light treatments. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of strain (E. coli O157:H7 strains C7927, ATCC 35150, ATCC 43895, and ATCC 43889 and E. coli ATCC 25922) and physiological state (control-unadapted, acid adapted, and acid shocked) on the UV tolerance of E. coli in apple juice treated under conditions stipulated in current U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations. A greater than 5-log reduction of E. coli was obtained under all tested conditions. A significant effect of strain (P < 0.05) was observed, but the physiological state did not influence pathogen inactivation (P ≥ 0.05). The UV sensitivity of three spoilage microorganisms (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium commune, and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris) was also determined at UV doses of 0 to 98 mJ/cm(2). Alicyclobacillus was the most UV sensitive, followed by Penicillium and Aspergillus. Because of the nonsignificant differences in UV sensitivity of E. coli in different physiological states, the use of an unadapted inoculum would be adequate to conduct challenge studies with the commercial UV unit used in this study at a UV dose of 14 mJ/cm(2). The high UV tolerance of spoilage microorganisms supports the need to use a hurdle approach (e.g., coupling of refrigeration, preservatives, and/or other technologies) to extend the shelf life of UV-treated beverages.
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...
Remini, Hocine; Mertz, Christian; Belbahi, Amine; Achir, Nawel; Dornier, Manuel; Madani, Khodir
The stability of ascorbic acid and colour intensity in pasteurised blood orange juice (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) during one month of storage was investigated at 4-37 °C. The effects of ascorbic acid fortification (at 100, 200 mg L(-1)) and deaeration, temperature/time storage on the kinetic behaviour were determined. Ascorbic acid was monitored by HPLC-DAD and colour intensity by spectrophotometric measurements. Degradation kinetics were best fitted by first-order reaction models for both ascorbic acid and colour intensity. Three models (Arrhenius, Eyring and Ball) were used to assess the temperature-dependent degradation. Following the Arrhenius model, activation energies were ranged from 51 to 135 kJ mol(-1) for ascorbic acid and from 49 to 99 kJ mol(-1) for colour intensity. The effect of storage temperature and deaeration are the most influent factors on kinetics degradation, while the fortification revealed no significant effect on ascorbic acid content and colour intensity.
Mata, A; Ferreira, J P; Semedo, C; Serra, T; Duarte, C M M; Bronze, M R
Opuntia spp. fruits are considered as health promoting foods due to the diversity of bioactive molecules found in these fruits. The composition in organic acids, flavonols and betalains in the Opuntia ficus-indica juice from a region of Portugal was accomplished for the first time by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry using an electrospray ionization source operating in negative and positive mode. The methodology used allowed the detection of 44 compounds, from which 32 were identified. Isorhamnetin derivatives were the dominant flavonol glycosides. A total of 9 betalains including 6 betaxanthins and 3 betacyanin were also detected in the fruit juice samples and indicaxanthin, betanin and isobetanin were the major pigments. Phenolic acid and phenylpyruvic acid derivatives were also identified. To our knowledge, it is the first time derivative compounds from piscidic acid, phenolic compounds and betalains are characterized in cactus pear juice using a single LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method.
Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Neto, Ricardo Artigiani; Marchi, Patrícia; Silva, Roseane Mendes; Pazine, Vanessa Lima; Noguti, Juliana; Pastrelo, Mauricio Mercaldi; Gollücke, Andréa Pittelli Boiago; Miszputen, Sender Jankiel; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki
Chronic inflammatory bowel disease is characterised by an up-regulation of the synthesis and release of a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators leading to excessive tissue injury. Flavonoids are able to inhibit enzymes and/or due to their antioxidant properties regulate the immune response. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds present in grape juice on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. A total of forty-one male Wistar rats were randomised into seven groups: negative control group; TNBS non-treated induced colitis; 2% grape juice control group; 1% grape juice 24 h after TNBS colitis induction; 1% grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction; 2% grape juice 24 h after colitis induction; 2% grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction. The 1% grape juice-treated induced colitis group showed marked clinical improvement when compared with the TNBS-induced colitis group. Rats that received 1% grape juice, on day 7 after colitis induction, presented reduced intensity of macroscopic and histological scores. Statistically significant differences (P,0·05) of TNF-a and inducible NO synthase mRNA expression were detected in the groups treated with grape juice at the 1% dose after inducing experimental colitis when compared with the TNBS group. Grape juice reduced the noxious effects induced by colitis caused by TNBS, especially at the 1% dose.
Ni, Zhiyou; Lin, Lijin; Tang, Yi; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Xun; Wang, Jin; Lv, Xiulan; Xia, Hui
To elucidate metabolism of ascorbic acid (AsA) in sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium ‘Hongdeng’), we quantified AsA concentration, cloned sequences involved in AsA metabolism and investigated their mRNA expression levels, and determined the activity levels of selected enzymes during fruit development and maturation. We found that AsA concentration was highest at the petal-fall period (0 days after anthesis) and decreased progressively during ripening, but with a slight increase at maturity. AsA did nevertheless continue to accumulate over time because of the increase in fruit fresh weight. Full-length cDNAs of 10 genes involved in the L-galactose pathway of AsA biosynthesis and 10 involved in recycling were obtained. Gene expression patterns of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP2), L-galactono-1, 4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH), ascorbate peroxidase (APX3), ascorbate oxidase (AO2), glutathione reductase (GR1), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1) were in accordance with the AsA concentration pattern during fruit development, indicating that genes involved in ascorbic acid biosynthesis, degradation, and recycling worked in concert to regulate ascorbic acid accumulation in sweet cherry fruit. PMID:28245268
Liang, Dong; Zhu, Tingting; Ni, Zhiyou; Lin, Lijin; Tang, Yi; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Xun; Wang, Jin; Lv, Xiulan; Xia, Hui
To elucidate metabolism of ascorbic acid (AsA) in sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium 'Hongdeng'), we quantified AsA concentration, cloned sequences involved in AsA metabolism and investigated their mRNA expression levels, and determined the activity levels of selected enzymes during fruit development and maturation. We found that AsA concentration was highest at the petal-fall period (0 days after anthesis) and decreased progressively during ripening, but with a slight increase at maturity. AsA did nevertheless continue to accumulate over time because of the increase in fruit fresh weight. Full-length cDNAs of 10 genes involved in the L-galactose pathway of AsA biosynthesis and 10 involved in recycling were obtained. Gene expression patterns of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP2), L-galactono-1, 4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH), ascorbate peroxidase (APX3), ascorbate oxidase (AO2), glutathione reductase (GR1), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1) were in accordance with the AsA concentration pattern during fruit development, indicating that genes involved in ascorbic acid biosynthesis, degradation, and recycling worked in concert to regulate ascorbic acid accumulation in sweet cherry fruit.
Xi, Xuefei; Yang, Miyi; Shen, Ganni; Wu, Xiaoling; Lu, Runhua; Zhou, Wenfeng; Zhang, Sanbing; Gao, Haixiang
A simple, sensitive, and efficient method of using a pipette vial to perform dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplets was coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a diode array detector for the preconcentration and analysis of four benzoylurea insecticides in fruit juice. In this method, 1-dodecanol was used as an extractant, and a snipped pipette was used as an experimental vial to simplify the procedure of collecting and separating solidified extractant. The experimental parameters were optimized using a Plackett-Burman design and one-factor-at-a-time method. Under the optimal conditions in the water model, the limits of detection for analytes varied from 0.03 to 0.28 μg/L, and the enrichment factors ranged from 147 to 206. Linearity was achieved for diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron in a range of 0.5-500 μg/L, for hexaflumuron in a range of 1-500 μg/L, and for triflumuron in a range of 5-500 μg/L. The correlation coefficients for the analytes ranged from 0.9986 to 0.9994 with recoveries of 91.4-110.9%. Finally, the developed technique was successfully applied to fruit juice samples with acceptable results. The relative standard deviations of the analytes at two spiking levels (50 and 200 μg/L) varied between 0.2 and 4.5%.
Crowe-White, Kristi; Parrott, J Scott; Stote, Kim S; Gutschall, Melissa; Benson-Davies, Sue; Droke, Elizabeth; O'Neil, Carol E; Wolfram, Taylor; Ziegler, Paula
One hundred percent fruit juice (FJ) contains bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity. As such, this fruit form has the potential to improve antioxidant status and mediate outcomes influenced by redox status. A systematic review of the literature published between 1995 and 2013 was conducted using PubMed database to evaluate associations between intake of 100% FJ and markers of antioxidant/oxidant status and blood lipid levels in healthy, free-living adults ≥18 years. Data extraction and analysis was conducted according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process. Limited evidence from ten clinical trials meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria suggests potential improvements in a variety of antioxidant or oxidants biomarkers postconsumption of 100% FJ. Weak evidence from five studies suggests that one or more blood lipid measures may be positively influenced by consumption of 100% FJ. Heterogeneity in study methodology including biomarkers, 100% FJ type, dosage, and intervention duration precludes the ability to make evidence-based recommendations regarding a specific dose-duration-juice effect. Key characteristics in study designs were identified which must either be controlled or statistically adjusted for in future investigations in order to obtain a more accurate understanding of the complex relationship between metabolic outcomes and consumption of 100% FJ in context of a healthy dietary pattern.
Qin, Yuhong; Zhang, Jingru; He, Yining; Han, Yongtao; Zou, Nan; Li, Yanjie; Chen, Ronghua; Li, Xuesheng; Pan, Canping
To reduce labor-consuming manual operation workload in the cleanup steps, an automated multiplug filtration cleanup (m-PFC) method for QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts was developed. It could control the volume and speed of pulling and pushing cycles accurately. In this study, m-PFC was based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) mixed with primary-secondary amines (PSA) and anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) in a packed column for analysis of pesticide residues followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. It was validated by analyzing 33 pesticides in kiwi fruit and kiwi juice matrices spiked at two concentration levels of 10 and 100 μg/kg. Salts, sorbents, m-PFC procedure, 4 mL of automated pulling and pushing volume, 6 mL/min automated pulling speed, and 8 mL/min pushing speed were optimized for each matrix. After optimization, spike recoveries were within 71-120% and <20% RSD for all analytes in kiwi fruit and kiwi juice. Matrix-matched calibrations were performed with the coefficients of determination >0.99 between concentration levels of 10 and 1000 μg/kg. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of pesticide residues in market samples.
Abu-Bakar, Nur-Bahiyah; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin
A fast and simple solvent microextraction technique using salting out-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (salting out-VALLME) was developed for the extraction of furfurals (2-furfural (2-F), 3-furfural (3-F), 5-methylfurfural (5-MF) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF)) and patulin (PAT) in fruit juice samples. The optimum extraction conditions for 5 mL sample were: extraction solvent, 1-hexanol; volume of extractant, 200 µL; vortex time, 45 s; salt addition, 20%. The simultaneous determination of the furfurals and PAT were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The separation was performed using ODS Hypersil C18 column (4.6 mm i.d × 250 mm, 5 μm) under gradient elution. The detection wavelengths used for all compounds were 280 nm except for 3-F (210 nm). The furfurals and PAT were successfully separated in less than 9 min. Good linearities (r(2)>0.99) were obtained within the range 1-5000 μg L(-1) for all compounds except for 3-F (10-5000 µg L(-1)) and PAT (0.5-100 μg L(-1)). The limits of detection (0.28-3.2 µg L(-1)) were estimated at S/N ratio of 3. The validated salting out-VALLME-HPLC method was applied for the analysis of furfurals and PAT in fruit juice samples (apple, mango and grape).
Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction
Imamura, Fumiaki; O'Connor, Laura; Ye, Zheng; Mursu, Jaakko; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Forouhi, Nita G
Objectives To examine the prospective associations between consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice with type 2 diabetes before and after adjustment for adiposity, and to estimate the population attributable fraction for type 2 diabetes from consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in the United States and United Kingdom. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources and eligibility PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge for prospective studies of adults without diabetes, published until February 2014. The population attributable fraction was estimated in national surveys in the USA, 2009–10 (n=4729 representing 189.1 million adults without diabetes) and the UK, 2008–12 (n=1932 representing 44.7 million). Synthesis methods Random effects meta-analysis and survey analysis for population attributable fraction associated with consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Results Prespecified information was extracted from 17 cohorts (38 253 cases/10 126 754 person years). Higher consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, by 18% per one serving/day (95% confidence interval 9% to 28%, I2 for heterogeneity=89%) and 13% (6% to 21%, I2=79%) before and after adjustment for adiposity; for artificially sweetened beverages, 25% (18% to 33%, I2=70%) and 8% (2% to 15%, I2=64%); and for fruit juice, 5% (−1% to 11%, I2=58%) and 7% (1% to 14%, I2=51%). Potential sources of heterogeneity or bias were not evident for sugar sweetened beverages. For artificially sweetened beverages, publication bias and residual confounding were indicated. For fruit juice the finding was non-significant in studies ascertaining type 2 diabetes objectively (P for heterogeneity=0.008). Under specified assumptions for population attributable fraction, of 20.9 million events of type 2 diabetes predicted to occur over 10 years in the USA (absolute event rate 11.0%), 1.8 million
Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction
O’Connor, Laura; Ye, Zheng; Mursu, Jaakko; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Forouhi, Nita G
Objectives To examine the prospective associations between consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice with type 2 diabetes before and after adjustment for adiposity, and to estimate the population attributable fraction for type 2 diabetes from consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in the United States and United Kingdom. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources and eligibility PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge for prospective studies of adults without diabetes, published until February 2014. The population attributable fraction was estimated in national surveys in the USA, 2009-10 (n=4729 representing 189.1 million adults without diabetes) and the UK, 2008-12 (n=1932 representing 44.7 million). Synthesis methods Random effects meta-analysis and survey analysis for population attributable fraction associated with consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Results Prespecified information was extracted from 17 cohorts (38 253 cases/10 126 754 person years). Higher consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, by 18% per one serving/day (95% confidence interval 9% to 28%, I2 for heterogeneity=89%) and 13% (6% to 21%, I2=79%) before and after adjustment for adiposity; for artificially sweetened beverages, 25% (18% to 33%, I2=70%) and 8% (2% to 15%, I2=64%); and for fruit juice, 5% (−1% to 11%, I2=58%) and 7% (1% to 14%, I2=51%). Potential sources of heterogeneity or bias were not evident for sugar sweetened beverages. For artificially sweetened beverages, publication bias and residual confounding were indicated. For fruit juice the finding was non-significant in studies ascertaining type 2 diabetes objectively (P for heterogeneity=0.008). Under specified assumptions for population attributable fraction, of 20.9 million events of type 2 diabetes predicted to occur over 10 years in the USA (absolute event rate 11.0%), 1.8 million
Huang, Fu-Long; Chiou, Robin Y-Y; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Ko, Huey-Jiun; Lai, Li-Jung; Lin, Shu-Mei
Flesh of Basella alba L. mature fruits bearing deep-violet juice provides a novel and potential source of natural colorant. To minimize the pigment purification process and warrant safety acceptability, B. alba colorant powder (BACP) was prepared using mature fruits through a practical batch preparation and subjected to fundamental pigment characterization, food safety assessment and bio-function evaluation. Yield of the dehydrated B. alba colorant powder (BACP) was 37 g/kg fresh fruits. Reconstituted aqueous solution of the BACP exhibited an identical visible spectrum (400-700 nm) as that of fresh juice. Color of the solution (absorbance at 540 nm) was stable in a broad pH ranged from 3 to 8 and enhanced by co-presence of calcium and magnesium ions, while was rapidly bleached by ferrous and ferric ions. For in vivo food safety evaluation, ICR mice were daily gavage administered with BACP up to 1000 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Organ weight determination, serum biochemical analysis and histopathological examination of hearts, livers, lungs and kidneys revealed no obvious health hazard. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of BACP was characterized in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. BACP exerted potent anti-inflammatory activity by down-regulation of inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 and the blockage of IκB kinase (IKK)/IκB/nuclear factor-κ B (NFκB) activation cascade. These results supported that BACP may serve as a beneficial alternative of natural food colorant.
Manns, David C; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W
Heat-resistant fungal spores present a processing challenge for beverages and fruit juices, as thermal and UV strategies are often inadequate in reducing heat-resistant fungal burdens to acceptable levels. While effective against pathogenic or invasive bacteria, germicidal UV light treatments also fail to achieve an appreciable reduction of heat-resistant fungal spores. As an alternative, the efficacy of the antifungal protein YvgO was examined across a selection of fruit juices and teas, as well as solid model matrices. Compared with its efficacy in analogous liquid matrices, the apparent efficacy of YvgO was diminished on acidified solid matrices due to a reduction in YvgO diffusion. Using an XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] tetrazolium dye cytotoxicity assay, the effective concentrations to reduce growth by 50% were elucidated in samples challenged with Byssochlamys fulva H25. The MICs were determined and ranged from 2 ppm in apple juice and acidified teas to approximately 3 to 12 ppm for lemonade and orange, white cranberry, blueberry, prune, cherry, and grape juices. Apple cider and nonacidified teas showed reduced efficacy, with MICs exceeding 100 ppm. Tannin-rich products readily removed YvgO from the product, impairing its efficacy. Adding bovine serum albumin as a competitive inhibitor effectively reversed the YvgO-tannin association and restored efficacy in black but not green tea matrices. When challenged with a 5-log CFU inoculum of B. fulva, the shelf lives of the products were extended for various times up to 28 days in a concentrationdependent manner. However, initial efficacy was not predictive of shelf life extension, as some products exhibited improved protection at just two- and fourfold concentrations above the MIC, while others only exhibited long-term stability when concentrations exceeded 20 times the MIC. As such, YvgO may be an attractive alternative to currently available protection strategies
Early research during the 1930’s focused on attractants for the Mexican fruit fly indicated that fermentation products were effective attractants for Mexican fruit flies and other tropical Tephritidae, but that attraction to fruit components was only of academic interest. Tests reported here were ca...
Hutton, Emily A; Pauliukaitė, Rasa; Hocevar, Samo B; Ogorevc, Božidar; Smyth, Malcolm R
This article reports on a novel microsensor for amperometric measurement of ascorbic acid (AA) under acidic conditions (pH 2) based on a carbon fiber microelectrode (CFME) modified with nickel oxide and ruthenium hexacyanoferrate (NiO-RuHCF). This sensing layer was deposited electrochemically in a two-step procedure involving an initial galvanostatic NiO deposition followed by a potentiodynamic RuHCF deposition from solutions containing the precursor salts. Several important parameters were examined to characterize and optimize the NiO-RuHCF sensing layer with respect to its current response to AA by using cyclic voltammetry, and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods. With the NiO-RuHCF coated CFME, the AA oxidation potential under acidic conditions was shifted to a less positive value for about 0.2 V (E(p) of ca. 0.23 V vs. Ag/AgCl) as compared to a bare CFME, which greatly improves the electrochemical selectivity. Using the hydrodynamic amperometry mode, the current vs. AA concentration in 0.01 M HCl, at a selected operating potential of 0.30 V, was found to be linear over a wide range of 10-1610 μM (n=22, r=0.999) with a calculated limit of detection of 1.0 μM. The measurement repeatability was satisfactory with a relative standard deviation (r.s.d.) ranging from 4% to 5% (n=6), depending on the AA concentration, and with a sensor-to-sensor reproducibility (r.s.d.) of 6.9% at 100 μM AA. The long-term reproducibility, using the same microsensor for 112 consecutive measurements of 20 μM AA over 11 h of periodic probing sets over 4 days, was 16.1% r.s.d., thus showing very good stability at low AA levels and suitability for use over a prolonged period of time. Moreover, using the proposed microsensor, additionally coated with a protective cellulose acetate membrane, the calibration plot obtained in the extremely complex matrix of real undiluted gastric juice was linear from 10 to 520 μM (n=14, r=0.998). These results
Acids are one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavor compounds. However, the molecular-genetic control of acid accumulation in fruit is poorly understood and, to date, no genes responsible for acid accumulation in fleshy fruit have been function...
Baidya, Dipak; Chakraborty, Ivi; Saha, Jayanta
An attempt was made to utilize few widely available tropical fruits to develop wine with the objective of comparing the fermentation efficiency (along with progress in fermentation) of two efficient yeast isolates with commercially available strain. Fruit wine from juices of fully ripe mango, jackfruit and pineapple alone and in blended combinations of all three fruit juice (2: 1: 2) was prepared using two different yeasts (Y4 and Y7) isolated from natural plain date palm juice and one standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTCC-170) collected from IMTECH, Chandigar. Juices were extracted by using pectinase enzyme at 0.15-0.20 % of pulp. Changes in °Brix, titratable acid content, pH, total viable yeast count were recorded and rate of fermentation, sugar use efficiency were determined at every 24-hour interval up to the completion (6 days after inoculation) of fermentation. Considering all the quality parameter as well as fermentation efficiency, yeast isolate Y7 was found superior followed by Y4 as fermenting agent and pineapple juice as sole substrate found to be the most suitable medium for production of wine followed by fruit juice blending. In interpreting the efficacy of fruit and yeast in combination, pineapple juice inoculated with Y7 found to be the best in reducing the degree Brix to its lowest from initial 24 degree.
Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del Socorro; Reyes-Hernández, Isidro; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasound as a conservation method for the inactivation of Escherichia coli inoculated into cactus pear juices (green and purple). Total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and the kinetics of E. coli in cactus pear juices treated by ultrasound (60%, 70%, 80% and 90% amplitude levels for 1, 3 and 5min) were evaluated over 5 days. Total inactivation was observed in both fruit juices after 5min of ultrasound treatment at most amplitude levels (with the exception of 60% and 80%). After one and two days of storage, the recovery of bacteria counts was observed in all cactus pear juices. Ultrasound treatment at 90% amplitude for 5min resulted in non-detectable levels of E. coli in cactus pear juice for 2 days. The parameters of pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids were unaffected.
Eromosele, I C; Eromosele, C O; Kuzhkuzha, D M
The fruits of some wild plants were examined for their contents of mineral elements and ascorbic acid. High levels of ascorbic acid were found in fruits of Sclerocarya birrea (403.3 mg/100 g) and Adansonia digitata (337 mg/100 g). In nine of the fruits examined, the mineral contents (Ca, P) were comparable with average values found in common fruits. The iron contents were however 2-5 times higher than the values for common fruits.
Lobit, Philippe; Genard, Michel; Soing, Patrick; Habib, Robert
Malic acid production, degradation, and storage during fruit development have been modelled. The model assumes that malic acid content is determined essentially by the conditions of its storage in the mesocarp cells, and provides a simplified representation of the mechanisms involved in the accumulation of malate in the vacuole and their regulation by thermodynamic constraints. Solving the corresponding system of equations made it possible to predict the malic acid content of the fruit as a function of organic acids, potassium concentration, and temperature. The model was applied to peach fruit, and parameters were estimated from the data of fruit development monitored over 2 years. The predictions were in good agreement with experimental data. Simulations were performed to analyse the behaviour of the model in response to variations in composition and temperature.
Jin, Peng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Shan, Timin; Zheng, Yonghua
The effects of postharvest oxalic acid (OA) treatment on chilling injury, energy metabolism and membrane fatty acid content in 'Baifeng' peach fruit stored at 0°C were investigated. Internal browning was significantly reduced by OA treatment in peaches. OA treatment markedly inhibited the increase of ion leakage and the accumulation of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, OA significantly increased the contents of adenosine triphosphate and energy charge in peach fruit. Enzyme activities of energy metabolism including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were markedly enhanced by OA treatment. The ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in OA-treated fruit was significantly higher than that in control fruit. These results suggest that the alleviation in chilling injury by OA may be due to enhanced enzyme activities related to energy metabolism and higher levels of energy status and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio.
Türkmen, Ilkay; Ekşi, Aziz
With regard to 45 pomegranate fruits from different regions and several domestic varieties, fruit weight was found to be 137.1-738.2g, peel share 34.4-73.1%, aril share 26.9-65.6% and fruit juice yield 19.2-48.0%. Brix degree of pomegranate juice samples obtained from the aforementioned fruits changed from 12.2 to 17.8 and was lower than 14.0 in approximately 18% of the samples. Titratable acidity of pomegranate juice samples varied between 2.4 and 30g/L and the formol number varied between 4.0 and 20.0. The sorbitol/xylitol content ranged between 16 and 423mg/L, mostly lying between 51 and 200mg/L with a frequency of 64%. The share of samples containing sorbitol/xylitol higher than 250g/L is 7%.
Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing
Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P < 0.001) for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding. PMID:27617019
Aims: The aim of this research was to examine relative transcriptional expression of acid resistance (AR) genes, rpoS, gadA and adiA, in O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes after adaptation to pineapple juice (PJ) and subsequently to determine survival with e...
Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Jo, Seong-Chun; Seo, Hye-Kyung; Park, Sun-Min; Lee, Seung-Cheol
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of storing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fruit or vegetable juices with or without pulp and/or calcium lactate, on the bacterial resistance to a simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.5). Apple, carrot, orange, and tomato juices containing pulp or freed from pulp by filtration were used in this study. Calcium lactate at about 1.4 g/l was added to juices to obtain calcium supplemented juices. Juices with or without pulp and/or calcium lactate were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and then were stored at 7 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, or 4 days. The acid resistance of cells stored in juices with or without pulp and/or calcium lactate was determined by incubating in SGF for 90 or 240 min at 37 degrees C. Cells stored in apple juice for 4 days, carrot juice for 2 days, and orange juice for 4 days with pulp only had greater acid resistance, while all cells stored in tomato juice with pulp had greater acid resistance than cells stored in juice without pulp. The D-values of cells stored in supplemented apple and orange juices with calcium lactate declined 1.7-3.5 fold, whereas D-values of cells stored in supplemented tomato juice decreased by about 1.4-fold when compared to cells stored in juice without calcium lactate after exposure in SGF. These results indicate that storing E. coli O157:H7 in juices with pulp had little or no effect on the acid resistance of cells during subsequent exposure in SGF. Calcium lactate supplemented into juices could dramatically decrease the ability of E. coli O157:H7 to survive in SGF, possibly reducing the risk of foodborne illness by juice products.
Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena
This article reports on the investigation on the bioactivity of eugenol, limonene, and citrus extract against three bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Bacillus coagulans) and three yeasts (Saccharomyces bayanus, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum), representing the spoilage microflora of fruit juices. The experiments were performed with laboratory media by using a microdilution method. Data were fitted using the Gompertz equation, and the kinetic parameters were used to evaluate the MIC and the dose-dependent effect (at suboptimal doses for each essential oil). Citrus extract was the most effective essential oil, and the results suggested the following susceptibility hierarchy, from the most sensitive microorganism to the most resistant one (values in parentheses represent MICs): S. bayanus (2 ppm) > R. bacarum (3 ppm) > P. membranifaciens (5 ppm) > B. coagulans (cells, 20 ppm) > L. brevis (40 ppm) > L. plantarum (>40 ppm).
Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F.; Botella, Miguel A.; Valpuesta, Victoriano
Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) fruits are rich in AsA. The pathway that uses D-galacturonate as the initial substrate is functional in ripe fruits, but the contribution of other pathways to AsA biosynthesis has not been studied. The transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes such as D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) and myo-inositol oxygenase (FaMIOX), and the AsA recycling enzyme monodehydroascorbate reductase (FaMDHAR) were positively correlated with the increase in AsA during fruit ripening. Fruit storage for 72 h in a cold room reduced the AsA content by 30%. Under an ozone atmosphere, this reduction was 15%. Ozone treatment increased the expression of the FaGalUR, FaMIOX, and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (FaGIPP) genes, and transcription of the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (FaGLDH) and FAMDHAR genes was higher in the ozone-stored than in the air-stored fruits. Analysis of AsA content in a segregating population from two strawberry cultivars showed high variability, which did not correlate with the transcription of any of the genes studied. Study of GalUR protein in diverse cultivars of strawberry and different Fragaria species showed that a correlation between GalUR and AsA content was apparent in most cases, but it was not general. Three alleles were identified in strawberry, but any sequence effect on the AsA variability was eliminated by analysis of the allele-specific expression. Taken together, these results indicate that FaGalUR shares the control of AsA levels with other enzymes and regulatory elements in strawberry fruit. PMID:21561953
Fessard, Amandine; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Payet, Bertrand; Remize, Fabienne
From 6 samples of tropically grown fruits and leaves, 10 lactic acid bacteria belonging Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Lactobacillus species were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and (GTG)5 fingerprinting. Acidification kinetics determined from BHI broth cultures showed genus-related patterns. In particular, Weissella cibaria appeared to act as a potent acidifier. Tolerance of isolates to acid, oxidative, or salt stress was highly variable and strain dependent. Isolate S14 (Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides) growth was not affected by the presence of 0.05% H2O2, while Lactobacillus spp. isolates (S17 and S29) were the most tolerant to pH 4.5. The growth of 4 isolates, S5 (Leuconostoc mesenteroides), S14 and S10 (Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides), and S27 (W. cibaria), was not affected by 5% NaCl. Nutritional beneficial properties were examined through measurement of antioxidant activities of short-term fermented pineapple juice, such as LDL oxidation and polyphenol content, and through exopolysaccharide formation from sucrose. Two isolates, S14 and S27, increased the antioxidant capacity of pineapple juice. The robust capacity of W. cibaria and of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides for vegetable lactic fermentation aimed to ameliorate food nutritional and functional quality was highlighted.
Eggplant fruit are a rich source of phenolic acids that contribute to fruit nutritive value and influence culinary quality. We evaluated the influence of production environment on eggplant fruit phenolic acid content. Ten Solanum melongena accessions including five F1 hybrid cultivars, three open-...
Betiku, Eriola; Emeko, Harrison A; Solomon, Bamidele O
The potential of cashew apple juice (CAJ) as a carbon source for oxalic acid (OA) production via fermentation process was investigated in this study. The effects and interactions of CAJ concentration, time, pH, NaNO3 concentration and methanol concentration on OA production were determined in a central composite design (CCD) and the process was modelled and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that OA fermentation can be described significantly (p < 0.05) by a quadratic model giving regression coefficient (R (2)) of 0.9964. NaNO3 concentration was the most significant positive variable while methanol was not a significant variable. A maximum OA concentration of 122.68 g/l could be obtained using the optimum levels of CAJ of 150.0 g/l, pH of 5.4, time of 7.31 days, NaNO3 of 2 g/l and methanol of 1% volume. The production of OA was found to increase from 106.75 to 122.68 g/l using the statistically design optimization. This study revealed that CAJ could serve as an inexpensive and abundant feedstock for fermentative OA production, the resulting model could be used in the design of a typical pilot plant for a scale up production.
Di Cagno, Raffaella; Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco
Pomegranate juice (PJ) fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum C2, POM1, and LP09, unstarted-PJ, and raw-PJ were characterized for the profile of the volatile components (VOC) by PT-GC-MS. Lactic acid fermentation through selected strains enhanced the flavor profile of PJ. Concentrations of desired compounds (e.g., alcohols, ketones, and terpenes) were positively affected, whereas those of non-desired aldehydes decreased. Unstarted-PJ mainly differentiated from fermented PJs for the highest levels of aldehydes and sulfur compounds, and in lesser extent of furans, whereas alcohols, ketones, and alkenes followed by terpenes and benzene derivatives mainly differentiated fermented PJs. As expected, the lowest level of VOC was found in raw-PJ. VOC profile reflected on the sensory features of fermented PJs, unstarted-PJ, and raw-PJ, which were evaluated using a consensus modified flavor profile based on 13 attributes. Fermented PJs were mainly discriminated by the higher intensity of floral, fruity and anise notes than the controls.
Periago, María Jesús; Martín-Pozuelo, Gala; González-Barrio, Rocío; Santaella, Marina; Gómez, Victoria; Vázquez, Nuria; Navarro-González, Inmaculada; García-Alonso, Javier
The aims of the present study were to ascertain, indirectly, the prebiotic role of tomato juice, by analyzing its effect on the content of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in feces of rats, and to determine the plausible mechanisms related to the hypocholesterolemic effects of tomato juice and lycopene, evaluating the activity of hepatic HMGCR and the formation of propionic acid. Two commercially available tomato juices with differing contents of lycopene (low and high lycopene contents: Llyc and Hlyc tomato juices) were used. Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 8): control group, normal diet and water; group 1, normal diet and Llyc tomato juice; and group 2, normal diet and Hlyc tomato juice, which were fed ad libitum for three weeks. Feces were collected at the beginning and the end of the study to determine SCFA, and blood and liver were obtained (after sacrificing the animals) to analyze the lipid plasmatic parameters and the HMGCR activity and total cholesterol, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the plasmatic parameters, except that HDL-cholesterol increased significantly after consumption of both tomato juices. Lycopene was accumulated in the liver in proportion to the amount ingested, and was observed to have an inhibitory effect on the HMGCR enzyme, according to the amount of lycopene in the liver. In relation to the SCFA in feces, no differences were observed in acetate and propionate after the consumption of tomato juice, but a significant increase in butyrate was observed in group 2 after the intake of Hlyc tomato juice. The content of this carboxylic acid together with excreted lycopene in feces could have a beneficial effect on colonic cells.
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...
Hydrophilic carboxylic acids and iridoid glycosides in the juice of American and European cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon and V. oxycoccos), lingonberries (V. vitis-idaea), and blueberries (V. myrtillus).
Jensen, Heidi D; Krogfelt, Karen A; Cornett, Claus; Hansen, S Honoré; Christensen, S Brøgger
Analysis of the hydrophilic fraction of cranberry juice by reversed-phase HPLC using an Aqua LUNA column with diode array or MS detection revealed the presence of quinic acid, malic acid, shikimic acid, and citric acid. For the first time, two iridoid glucosides were found in the juice. The two iridoid glucosides were shown to be monotropein and 6,7-dihydromonotropein by MS and NMR spectroscopy. A fast reversed-phase HPLC method for quantification of the hydrophilic carboxylic acids was developed and used for analyses of cranberry, lingonberry, and blueberry juices. The level of hydrophilic carboxylic acids in cranberries was 2.67-3.57% (w/v), in lingonberries 2.27-3.05%, and in blueberries 0.35-0.75%. In lingonberries both iridoid glucosides were present, whereas only monotropein was present in blueberries.
Wei, Peilian; Cheng, Chi; Lin, Meng; Zhou, Yipin; Yang, Shang-Tian
Poly(β-l-malic acid) (PMA) is a biodegradable polymer with many potential biomedical applications. PMA can be readily hydrolyzed to malic acid (MA), which is widely used as an acidulant in foods and pharmaceuticals. PMA production from sucrose and sugarcane juice by Aureobasidium pullulans ZX-10 was studied in shake-flasks and bioreactors, confirming that sugarcane juice can be used as an economical substrate without any pretreatment or nutrients supplementation. A high PMA titer of 116.3g/L and yield of 0.41g/g were achieved in fed-batch fermentation. A high productivity of 0.66g/L·h was achieved in repeated-batch fermentation with cell recycle. These results compared favorably with those obtained from glucose and other biomass feedstocks. A process economic analysis showed that PMA could be produced from sugarcane juice at a cost of $1.33/kg, offering a cost-competitive bio-based PMA for industrial applications.
Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Eun Jin; Patil, Bhimanagouda S
Onion pungency is commonly measured on absorbency of the wine pink color that results from adding NaOH to the heated mixture of dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and onion juice. However, significant variation exists among several modifications of the original Schwimmer and Weston (SW) method. We observed differences in pyruvic acid concentrations of 20%-30% between our automated method and a batch method with manual absorbency readings. To determine the source of the differences, we examined the heating time and waiting time of the sample-DNPH mixtures and found no differences. The differences were caused by differential color degradation between the pyruvic acid standards and onion juice samples. These differences could be minimized by reading the absorbency within 1 min of NaOH addition. Using this information, we devised the one-by-one method to control the reading time at 30 s. We compared 5 different analysis methods of 40 onion samples representing 4 onion colors. The automated, high-performance liquid chromatography, and SW methods had similar results, with only about a 5% difference. However, the batch method resulted in differences of approximately 24% as compared to the automated method. The one-by-one method produced very comparable results, within 5%, to the automated method. By modifying the procedure to ensure a uniform and fast reading time, we increased the consistency between the pungency analysis methods. Therefore, fast and uniform absorbency reading time is essential for an accurate measurement of pungency in undiluted onion juice.
Coutinho de Sousa, Beatriz; da Costa, Thiago Alvares; Lazo-Chica, Javier Emilio; Degasperi, Thatiane do Prado; Rodrigues Junior, Virmondes; Uber Bucek, Elizabeth
Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) has been shown to treat different disorders. However, data concerning its role in the treatment of intestinal inflammation still require clarification. In the current study, we investigated the effects of noni fruit juice (NFJ) in the treatment of C57BL/6 mice, which were continuously exposed to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 9 consecutive days. NFJ consumption had no impact on the reduction of the clinical signs of the disease or on weight loss. Nonetheless, when a dilution of 1 : 10 was used, the intestinal architecture of the mice was preserved, accompanied by a reduction in the inflammatory infiltrate. Regardless of the concentration of NFJ, a decrease in both the activity of myeloperoxidase and the key inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-γ, was also observed in the intestine. Furthermore, when NFJ was diluted 1 : 10 and 1 : 100, a reduction in the production of nitric oxide and IL-17 was detected in gut homogenates. Overall, the treatment with NFJ was effective in different aspects associated with disease progression and worsening. These results may point to noni fruit as an important source of anti-inflammatory molecules with a great potential to inhibit the progression of inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:28194046
Coutinho de Sousa, Beatriz; Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius; da Costa, Thiago Alvares; Lazo-Chica, Javier Emilio; Degasperi, Thatiane do Prado; Rodrigues Junior, Virmondes; Sales-Campos, Helioswilton; Uber Bucek, Elizabeth; Freire Oliveira, Carlo José
Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) has been shown to treat different disorders. However, data concerning its role in the treatment of intestinal inflammation still require clarification. In the current study, we investigated the effects of noni fruit juice (NFJ) in the treatment of C57BL/6 mice, which were continuously exposed to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 9 consecutive days. NFJ consumption had no impact on the reduction of the clinical signs of the disease or on weight loss. Nonetheless, when a dilution of 1 : 10 was used, the intestinal architecture of the mice was preserved, accompanied by a reduction in the inflammatory infiltrate. Regardless of the concentration of NFJ, a decrease in both the activity of myeloperoxidase and the key inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-γ, was also observed in the intestine. Furthermore, when NFJ was diluted 1 : 10 and 1 : 100, a reduction in the production of nitric oxide and IL-17 was detected in gut homogenates. Overall, the treatment with NFJ was effective in different aspects associated with disease progression and worsening. These results may point to noni fruit as an important source of anti-inflammatory molecules with a great potential to inhibit the progression of inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease.
Junpoom, Peerapong; Kukiattrakoon, Boonlert; Hengtrakool, Chanothai
The potential erosive effect of acidic food, sour fruits and drinks on all-ceramic restorations used in dentistry has not been clearly documented. Surface characteristic changes have been evaluated and compared for disc-shaped specimens (diameter 12.0 mm and thickness 2.0 mm) of fluorapatite-leucite and fluorapatite ceramics using various storage agents (deionized water, citrate buffer solution, pineapple juice, green mango juice, cola soft drink and 4% acetic acid). Immersion in pineapple juice, green mango juice, cola soft drink and 4% acetic acid for 16 hours produce significant increases in surface roughness for both types of ceramics investigated.
A general analytical strategy for the characterization of phenolic compounds in fruit juices by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to electrospray ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.
Abad-García, Beatriz; Berrueta, Luis A; Garmón-Lobato, Sergio; Gallo, Blanca; Vicente, Francisca
In the present study, a methodology based on liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC/DAD) coupled to an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for the simultaneous identification of phenolic compounds in fruit juices has been developed. 72 available phenolic compound standards from diverse families present in fruits have been studied in order to analyze their fragmentation pattern. As a result, a general strategy for the characterization of unknown phenolic compounds in fruit juices was designed: (i) taking into account its UV-visible spectrum and elution order, assign the unknown polyphenol to a polyphenol class, (ii) identify the quasi-molecular ion using positive and negative MS spectra, being supported by adducts generated with solvent or sodium and molecular complexes, (iii) determinate the pattern of glycosylation in positive mode using ESI(+)-CID MS/MS product ion scan experiments, selecting the quasi-molecular ion as precursor ion, and finally, (iv) study the identity of the aglycone through ESI(+)-CID MS/MS product ion spectra from the protonated aglycone, [Y(0)](+). This strategy was successfully employed for the characterization of known and unknown phenolic compounds in juices from 17 different fruits.
Fleisher, Brett; Unum, Jesse; Shao, Jie; An, Guohua
Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are a group of highly novel and target-specific anticancer drugs. Recently, most TKIs are found to be substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP). However, little information is available regarding the Pgp- or BCRP-mediated interaction of TKIs with coadministered drugs/food/beverage. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the major ingredients of grapefruit juice (GFJ), orange juice (OJ), apple juice (AJ), and green tea on P-gp and BCRP-mediated dasatinib efflux. Among the 14 ingredients screened, only tangeretin and nobiletin moderately inhibited P-gp-mediated dasatinib efflux. In contrast, four ingredients in GFJ [i.e., bergamottin, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), quercetin, and kaempferol], two ingredients in OJ (tangeretin and nobiletin), and one ingredient in AJ (i.e., hesperetin) greatly inhibited BCRP-mediated dasatinib efflux at the concentration of 50 μM (p < 0.001). Further concentration-dependent studies revealed that bergamottin, DHB, tangeretin, and nobiletin are potent BCRP inhibitors, with IC₅₀ values 3.19, 5.2, 1.19, and 1.04 μM, respectively. Further in vivo investigations are warranted to evaluate the BCRP-mediated FJ-TKI interaction. Literature reports only documented the modulatory effect of FJ and green tea on CYP3A, P-gp, and OATP. Our novel finding that FJ ingredients strongly inhibit BCRP may represent a new mechanism of beverage-drug interaction.
Aprile, Alessio; Federici, Claire; Close, Timothy J; De Bellis, Luigi; Cattivelli, Luigi; Roose, Mikeal L
The sour taste of lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) is determined by the amount of citric acid in vacuoles of juice sac cells. Faris is a "sweet" lemon variety since it accumulates low levels of citric acid. The University of California Riverside Citrus Variety Collection includes a Faris tree that produces sweet (Faris non-acid; FNA) and sour fruit (Faris acid; FA) on different branches; it is apparently a graft chimera with layer L1 derived from Millsweet limetta and layer L2 from a standard lemon. The transcription profiles of Faris sweet lemon were compared with Faris acid lemon and Frost Lisbon (L), which is a standard sour lemon genetically indistinguishable from Faris in prior work with SSR markers. Analysis of microarray data revealed that the transcriptomes of the two sour lemon genotypes were nearly identical. In contrast, the transcriptome of Faris sweet lemon was very different from those of both sour lemons. Among about 1,000 FNA-specific, presumably pH-related genes, the homolog of Arabidopsis H(+)-ATPase proton pump AHA10 was not expressed in FNA, but highly expressed in FA and L. Since Arabidopsis AHA10 is involved in biosynthesis and acidification of vacuoles, the lack of expression of the AHA10 citrus homolog represents a very conspicuous molecular feature of the FNA sweet phenotype. In addition, high expression of several 2-oxoglutarate degradation-related genes in FNA suggests activation of the GABA shunt and degradation of valine and tyrosine as components of the mechanism that reduces the level of citric acid in sweet lemon.
Achir, Nawel; Hadjal, Thiziri; Madani, Khodir; Dornier, Manuel; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie
This study was carried out to assess the impact of pink grapefruit juice composition and structure on the degradation kinetics of lycopene and β-carotene using model systems and multiresponse modeling. Carotenes were heated at four temperatures in their native matrix (juice) or were extracted and incorporated in water/ethanol emulsion systems formulated with or without ascorbic acid or naringin. Kinetic analysis showed that the rate constants and activation energy were lower for lycopene than for β-carotene in the juice, while this trend was inversed in the model system. Multiresponse modeling was used to analyze the role of ascorbic acid and naringin in carotene degradation. Ascorbic acid had a very low impact, while naringin significantly increased the carotene degradation and isomerization rates. We concluded that lycopene was more sensitive to thermal degradation and phytochemical interactions than β-carotene, but this behavior was masked in the fruit juice matrix by better structural protection.
Jia, Haifeng; Zhang, Cheng; Pervaiz, Tariq; Zhao, Pengcheng; Liu, Zhongjie; Wang, Baoju; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Lin; Fang, Jinggui; Qian, Jianpu
Fruit ripening is a complex process that is regulated by a signal network. Whereas the regulatory mechanism of abscisic acid has been studied extensively in non-climacteric fruit, little is know about other signaling pathways involved in this process. In this study, we performed that plant hormone jasmonic acid plays an important role in grape fruit coloring and softening by increasing the transcription levels of several ripening-related genes, such as the color-related genes PAL1, DFR, CHI, F3H, GST, CHS, and UFGT; softening-related genes PG, PL, PE, Cell, EG1, and XTH1; and aroma-related genes Ecar, QR, and EGS. Lastly, the fruit anthocyanin, phenol, aroma, and cell wall materials were changed. Jasmonic acid positively regulated its biosynthesis pathway genes LOS, AOS, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase (OPR) and signal pathway genes COI1 and JMT. RNA interference of grape jasmonic acid pathway gene VvAOS in strawberry fruit appeared fruit un-coloring phenotypes; exogenous jasmonic acid rescued this phenotypes. On the contrary, overexpression of grape jasmonic acid receptor VvCOI1 in the strawberry fruit accelerated the fruit-ripening process and induced some plant defense-related gene expression level. Furthermore, jasmonic acid treatment or strong jasmonic acid signal pathway in strawberry fruit make the fruit resistance against Botrytis cinerea.
Barbosa, J; Borges, S; Teixeira, P
The demand for new functional non-dairy based products makes the production of a probiotic orange juice powder an encouraging challenge. However, during drying process and storage, loss of viability of the dried probiotic cultures can occur, since the cells are exposed to various stresses. The influence of sub-lethal conditions of temperature, acidic pH and hydrogen peroxide on the viability of Pediococcus acidilactici HA-6111-2 and Lactobacillus plantarum 299v during spray drying in orange juice and subsequent storage under different conditions was investigated. At the end of storage, the survival of both microorganisms through simulated gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) conditions was also determined. The viability of cells previously exposed to each stress was not affected by the drying process. However, during 180 days of storage at room temperature, unlike P. acidilactici HA-6111-2, survival of L. plantarum 299v was enhanced by prior exposure to sub-lethal conditions. Previous exposure to sub-lethal stresses of each microorganism did not improve their viability after passage through simulated GIT. Nevertheless, as cellular inactivation during 180 days of storage was low, both microorganisms were present in numbers of ca. 10(7) cfu/mL at the end of GIT. This is an indication that both bacteria are good candidates for use in the development of an orange juice powder with functional characteristics.
Dong, Xue; Zhu, Qin; Dai, Yaqing; He, Jianfei; Pan, Hongyang; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Zong-Ping
The aim of this study is to improve artocarpanone solubility by developing an O/W microemulsion with the evaluation of its antibrowning effects. The chemical and physical stabilities as well as antibrowning effects in apple juice were also evaluated. The formulation of artocarpanone microemulsion consisted of 4% w/w of ethyl butyrate, 10.67% w/w of Tween 80, 5.33% w/w of polyethylene glycol 400, and 80% w/w of water, with a maximum solubility of artocarpanone up to 10.54 ± 0.01 mg/mL, at least 3000-folds increase in solubility compared that in water. Encapsulating artocarpanone and ascorbic acid (VC) into microemulsion simultaneously decreased modest artocarpanone solubility whereas improving its stability in long-term storage. Blank, artocarpanone and artocarpanone-Vc-loaded microemulsions demonstrated steadily during accelerated and long-term storage. Artocarpanone-Vc-loaded microemulsion showed strong antibrowning effects in apple juice at room temperature in 24h, suggesting that artocarpanone-Vc-loaded microemulsion is a good antibrowning agent for apple juices.
Bucur, Madalina-Petruta; Radulescu, Maria-Cristina; Bucur, Bogdan; Radu, Gabriel Lucian
A low-interferences enzymatic sensor for evaluating the antioxidant capacity was developed. Xanthine oxidase was used to produce superoxide radicals that spontaneously dismutate to hydrogen peroxide. Low xanthine concentrations were used to minimize the rapid dismutation of the superoxide radical before its fast reaction with antioxidants. The sensor operates in the reduction mode, and evaluations with low interferences of the antioxidant capacity are based on the detection of remaining hydrogen peroxide using Prussian blue electrodes at low potentials. The linear calibration graph is between 2 - 10 μM ascorbic acid. No interferences were observed from easily oxidisable substances including uric acid, which is produced in the enzymatic reaction or other substances usually found in foods. The method was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity in different real juice samples.
The effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) on orange juice flavor is complex. On the one hand, fruit that are harvested from diseased trees, that are asymptomatic for the disease, produce juice that is not much different from normal juice. In some cases the asymptomatic HLB fruit juice was detected to be sli...
Pagadala Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Kempraj, Vivek; Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham
The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of 'natural plant defenses' by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis.
Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham
The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of ‘natural plant defenses’ by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis. PMID:26422203
Vortex- and CO2 -gas-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with salt addition for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of furanic compounds in concentrated juices and dried fruits.
Abu-Bakar, Nur-Bahiyah; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin
A novel microextraction method based on vortex- and CO2 -assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with salt addition for the isolation of furanic compounds (5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde, 2-furaldehyde, 3-furaldehyde, 2-furoic and 3-furoic acids) was developed. Purging the sample with CO2 was applied after vortexing to enhance the phase separation and mass transfer of the analytes. The optimum extraction conditions were: extraction solvent (volume), propyl acetate (125 μL); sample pH, 2.4; vortexing time, 45 s; salt concentration, 25% w/v and purging time, 5 min. The analytes were separated using an ODS Hypersil C18 column (250×4.6 mm i.d, 5 μm) under gradient flow. The proposed method showed good linearities (r(2) >0.999), low detection limits (0.08-1.9 μg/L) and good recoveries (80.7-122%). The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of the furanic compounds in concentrated juice (mango, date, orange, pomegranate, roselle, mangosteen and soursop) and dried fruit (prune, date and apricot paste) samples.
Delayed bitterness is a well-known phenomenon in citrus juice and has a negative impact on juice quality. Bitterness results when the tasteless limonoic acid A-ring lactone (LARL) in juice is converted to the bitter compound limonin after juicing. Citrus varieties that produce juice that becomes bit...
Aydoğan, Cemil; Karakoç, Veyis; Denizli, Adil
This study describes the application of an open tubular capillary column for chiral ligand-exchange separation and determination of malic acid enantiomers in apple juice by open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC). The open tubular column was prepared by in-situ grafting polymerization of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA-Cl) and followed by L-Histidine (L-His) modification. L-His was used as a chiral ligand-exchange selector and copper (II) as a central ion. The electrochromatographic characterization of the open tubular column was performed with the use of thiourea as an electroosmotic flow (EOF) marker. Factors affecting electrochromatographic enantioseparation of malic acid were also studied. The running buffer conditions for optimum enantioseparation of malic acid were found to be ACN/5.0mM CuSO4, 20.0mM (NH4)2SO4 (60/40%, v/v) adjusted to pH 3.0. The separation and determination of the enantiomers of malic acid in the apple juice solution diluted 10- to 40-folds were successfully achieved.
Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Kyung Haeng
Due to the popularity of health effects upon intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, the demand for fresh vegetables and fruit juices has rapidly increased. However, currently, washing is the only procedure for reducing contaminated microorganisms, which obviously limits the shelf-life of fresh vegetable juice (less than 3 days). In this study, we examined the effects of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of ashitaba and kale juices for industrial application and possible shelf-life extension. Freshly made ashitaba and kale juices already had 2.3×105 and 9.5×104 CFU/mL, respectively. Irradiation of 5 kGy induced higher than 2 decimal reductions in the microbial level, which was consistently maintained during storage for 7 days under refrigerated conditions. Total content of ascorbic acid in vegetable juice decreased upon irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. However, the content of flavonoids did not change, whereas that of polyphenols increased upon irradiation. In sensory evaluation, the ashitaba and kale juices without irradiation (control) scored lower than the irradiated samples after 1 and 3 days, respectively. This study confirms that irradiation is an effective method for sterilizing fresh vegetable juice without compromising sensory property, which cannot be subjected to heat pasteurization due to changes in the bioactivities of the products.
As a preliminary step to understand and characterize which metabolites are responsible for the bitter off-favor of Huanglongbing infected fruit, the thresholds of limonin, nomilin, and their combination in a sugar and acid matrix, as well as in healthy ‘Valencia’ orange juice were determined by tast...
Limonin and nomilin are two bitter compounds present in citrus and are thought to cause the bitter off-flavor of Huanglongbing-infected fruit/juice. This study determined the thresholds of limonin, nomilin, and their combination in a simple matrix (sucrose and citric acid), a complex matrix (sucrose...
Determination of fungicides in fruit juice by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic solvent droplets followed by high performance liquid chromatography.
Fan, Run-Zhen; Liu, Congyun; Jiang, Wenqing; Wang, Xiaonan; Liu, Fengmao
Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) based on solidification of the floating organic solvent droplets (SFO) combined with HPLC was used for determination of five fungicides in fruit juice samples. 1-Dodecanol, which has a low density and low toxicity, was used as the extraction solvent in UA-DLLME. The solidification of floating organic droplets facilitates the transfer of analytes from the aqueous phase to the organic phase. This method was easy, quick, inexpensive, precise, and linear over a wide range. Under the optimized conditions, the enrichment factors for a 5 mL fruit juice sample were 25 to 56, and the LODs for the five fungicides ranged from 5 to 50 microg/L. The average recoveries ranged from 71.8 to 118.2% with RSDs of 0.9 to 13.9%. Application of the DLLME-SFO technique allows successful separation and preconcentration of the fungicides at a low concentration level in fruit juice samples.
Wang, Yong; Meng, Hongyu; Cai, Di; Wang, Bin; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei
In order to efficiently produce l-lactic acid from non-food feedstocks, sweet sorghum juice (SSJ), which is rich of fermentable sugars, was directly used for l-lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA-04-1. A membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation (MIRB) was developed for productivity improvement. High-cell-density fermentation was achieved with a final cell density (OD620) of 42.3, and the CCR effect was overcomed. When SSJ (6.77gL(-1) glucose, 4.51gL(-1) fructose and 50.46gL(-1) sucrose) was used as carbon source in MIRB process, l-lactic acid productivity was increased significantly from 1.45gL(-1)h(-1) (batch 1) to 17.55gL(-1)h(-1) (batch 6). This process introduces an effective way to produce l-lactic acid from SSJ.
Lowering of oxidative stress improves endothelial function in healthy subjects with habitually low intake of fruit and vegetables: a randomized controlled trial of antioxidant- and polyphenol-rich blackcurrant juice.
Khan, Faisel; Ray, Sumantra; Craigie, Angela M; Kennedy, Gwen; Hill, Alexander; Barton, Karen L; Broughton, Jane; Belch, Jill J F
Inadequate intake of the recommended five-a-day fruit and vegetable portions might contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk. We assessed the effects of dietary intake of a blackcurrant juice drink, rich in vitamin C and polyphenols, on oxidative stress and vascular function. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of 66 healthy adults who habitually consume <2 portions of fruit and vegetables per day. Participants were randomly allocated to consume 250ml of placebo (flavored water) or low or high blackcurrant juice drink four times a day for 6 weeks. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and plasma concentrations of F2-isoprostanes and vitamin C were measured. In the high blackcurrant juice drink group FMD increased significantly (5.8±3.1 to 6.9±3.1%, P=0.022) compared with the placebo group (6.0±2.2 to 5.1±2.4%). Plasma vitamin C concentration increased significantly in the low (38.6±17.6 to 49.4±21.0µmol/L, P<0.001) and high (34.6±20.4 to 73.8±23.3µmol/L, P<0.001) blackcurrant juice drink groups compared with the placebo group (38.1±21.0 to 29.0±17.6µmol/L). F2-isoprostane concentrations were significantly lower in the high blackcurrant juice drink group (225±64pg/ml) compared with the low blackcurrant juice drink (257±69pg/ml, P=0.002) and placebo group (254±59pg/ml, P=0.003). At follow-up, changes in plasma vitamin C correlated significantly with changes in FMD (r=0.308, P=0.044). Consumption of blackcurrant juice drink high in vitamin C and polyphenols can decrease oxidative stress and improve vascular health in individuals with habitually low dietary fruit and vegetable intake.
Cohen, Shahar; Itkin, Maxim; Yeselson, Yelena; Tzuri, Galil; Portnoy, Vitaly; Harel-Baja, Rotem; Lev, Shery; Sa'ar, Uzi; Davidovitz-Rikanati, Rachel; Baranes, Nadine; Bar, Einat; Wolf, Dalia; Petreikov, Marina; Shen, Shmuel; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Ast, Tslil; Schuldiner, Maya; Belausov, Eduard; Eshed, Ravit; Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Frei, Benedikt; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Xu, Yimin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, Jim; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Yaakov; Paris, Harry S; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A
Taste has been the subject of human selection in the evolution of agricultural crops, and acidity is one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavour compounds. We identify a family of plant-specific genes with a major effect on fruit acidity by map-based cloning of C. melo PH gene (CmPH) from melon, Cucumis melo taking advantage of the novel natural genetic variation for both high and low fruit acidity in this species. Functional silencing of orthologous PH genes in two distantly related plant families, cucumber and tomato, produced low-acid, bland tasting fruit, showing that PH genes control fruit acidity across plant families. A four amino-acid duplication in CmPH distinguishes between primitive acidic varieties and modern dessert melons. This fortuitous mutation served as a preadaptive antecedent to the development of sweet melon cultigens in Central Asia over 1,000 years ago.
Letaief, Hend; Zemni, Hassen; Mliki, Ahmed; Chebil, Samir
Juices from conventionally and organically grown Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine blood orange were investigated for quality parameters and antioxidant capacity. This blood orange variety is particularly rich in linoleic, linolenic acids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds. The quantitative determination of these compounds in cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine juice produced under conventional and organic agricultural practices revealed significant differences. The organically grown fruits contained more hesperidin and total fatty acids amounts as well as a higher sugar content and a lower acidity. Conventionally-grown fruit was found to have an increase in antioxidant capacity. In addition to having higher antioxidant activity conventionally-grown fruit had an observed increase in the concentration of phenolic acids and most flavonoids. The results of this study indicated that organically-grown Maltaise demi-sanguine juice contained an increased concentration of hesperidin which has been observed to possess biological activities associated with a healthy life.
Lin, Qiong; Wang, Chengyang; Dong, Wencheng; Jiang, Qing; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Chen, Ming; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong
Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) is an important mandarin citrus in China. However, the low ratio of sugars to organic acids makes it less acceptable for consumers. In this work, three stages (S120, early development stage; S195, commercial harvest stage; S205, delayed harvest stage) of Ponkan fruit were selected for study. Among 28 primary metabolites analyzed in fruit, sugars increased while organic acids in general decreased. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out and 19,504 genes were matched to the Citrus clementina genome, with 85 up-regulated and 59 down-regulated genes identified during fruit maturation. A sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene was included in the up-regulated group, and this was supported by the transcript ratio distribution. Expression of two asparagine transferases (AST), and a specific ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) members increased during fruit maturation. It is suggested that SPS, AST, ACL and GAD coordinately contribute to sugar accumulation and organic acid degradation during Ponkan fruit maturation. Both the glycolysis pathway and TCA cycle were accelerated during later maturation, indicating the flux change from sucrose metabolism to organic acid metabolism was enhanced, with citrate degradation occurring mainly through the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetyl-CoA pathways.
Higashimoto, M; Yamato, H; Kinouchi, T; Ohnishi, Y
It has been shown that the mutagenicity of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCCA), a mutagen precursor in soy sauce treated with nitrite, was strongly increased when it was treated with nitrite in the presence of alcohols. We found that the mutagenicity of MTCCA treated with 50 mM nitrite at pH 3, 37 degrees C for 60 min in the presence of 7.5% ethanol was reduced by the addition of citrus fruits sudachi (Citrus sudachi), lemon (C. limon) and yuzu (C. junos), to the reaction mixture. The mutagenicity-reducing activity per weight of flavedos (outer colored portions of peel) of the citrus fruits was considerably higher than that of the juices. The juices of the other citrus fruits commercially available in Japan also had mutagenicity-reducing activity against the nitrite-treated MTCCA. Among the many components of citrus fruits, dietary fibers lignin and pectin showed strong antimutagenic activity in the reaction mixture, suggesting that the mixed fractions of these components including lignin, pectin, D-limonene, naringin, hesperidin, ascorbic acid and citric acid reduce the mutagenicity of MTCCA in the reaction mixture containing nitrite and ethanol.
Kumar, Deepak; Mishra, Daya Shankar; Chakraborty, Binayak; Kumar, Prabhat
Different antioxidants and salicylic acid were tested to overcome pericarp browning and to maintain the postharvest quality of the litchi fruits at ambient storage. It was found that 0.5% salicylic acid, 1% isoascorbic acid and 1% N-acetyl cysteine performed better over sulphur dioxide (SO2) fumigation for most of the parameters under study. Application of 0.5% salicylic acid found superior to reduce the pericarp browning, relative leakage rate, and decay percentage. It was effective in reduction of polyphenol oxidase activity and improvement of anthocyanin pigments of the fruit pericarp over other treatments. Total soluble solid, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid of the litchi fruits were recorded highest with the application of 1% isoascorbic acid followed by 0.5% salicylic acid treatment. Therefore, 0.5% salicylic acid and 1% isoascorbic could be used as an alternative of SO2 fumigation for quality retention of litchi fruits.
Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Yu, Cui; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming
A simple, rapid and sensitive sample pretreatment technique, magnetic solvent bar liquid-phase microextraction (MSB-LPME) was developed for extracting organophosphorus pesticides from fruit juice. The analytes were extracted from the sample to the organic solvent immobilized in the fiber. The magnetic solvent bar not only can be used to stir the samples but also extract the analytes. After extraction, the analyte-adsorbed magnetic solvent bar can be readily isolated from the sample solution by a magnet, which could greatly simplify the operation and reduce the whole pretreatment time. The bar was eluted with methanol. The elute was evaporated to dryness and residue was dissolved in hexane. Several experimental parameters were investigated and optimized, including type of extraction solvent, number of magnetic solvent bar, extraction temperature, extraction time, salt concentration, stirring speed, pH and desorption conditions. The recoveries were in the range of 81.3-104.6%, and good reproducibilities were obtained with relative standard deviation below 6.1%.
Shakerian, Farid; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad; Nili Ahmad Abadi, Maryam
A solid phase extraction method using antimony ion imprinted polymer (IIP) sorbent combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for the extraction and speciation of antimony. The sorbent has been synthesised in the presence of Sb(III) and ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) using styrene as the monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross linker. The imprinted Sb(III) ions were removed by leaching with HCl (50%v/v) and the polymer was characterised by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy. The maximum sorption capacity of the IIP for Sb(III) ions was found to be 6.7 mg g(-1). With preconcentration of 60 mL of sample, an enhancement factor of 232 and detection limit of 3.9 ng L(-1) was obtained. Total antimony was determined after the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III). The method was successfully applied to the determination of antimony species in water samples and total antimony in fruit juices.
Seebunrueng, Ketsarin; Santaladchaiyakit, Yanawath; Soisungnoen, Phimpha; Srijaranai, Supalax
A mixed anionic-cationic surfactant cloud point extraction (CPE) has been developed using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr) for the extraction and preconcentration of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) at ambient temperature before analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. The studied OPPs were azinphos-methyl, parathion-methyl, fenitrothion, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and prothiophos. The optimum conditions of the mixed anionic-cationic CPE were 50 mmol L(-1) SDS, 100 mmol L(-1) TBABr, and 10% (w/v) NaCl. The extracted OPPs were successfully separated within 11 min using the conditions of a Waters Symmetry C8 column, a flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1), a gradient elution of methanol and water, and detection at 210 nm. Linearity was found over the range 0.05-5 μg mL(-1), with the correlation coefficients higher than 0.996. The enrichment factor of the target analytes was in the range 6-11, which corresponds to their limits of detection from 1 to 30 ng mL(-1). High precisions (intra-day and inter-day) were obtained with relative standard deviation <1.5% (t(R)) and 10% (peak area). Accuracies (% recovery) of the different spiked OPP concentrations were 82.7-109.1% (water samples) and 80.3-113.3% (fruit juice samples). No contamination by the OPPs was observed in any studied samples.
de Nigris, Filomena; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Williams-Ignarro, Sharon; D'Armiento, Francesco P; Fiorito, Carmela; Ignarro, Louis J; Napoli, Claudio
Metabolic syndrome includes most widely distributed clinical conditions such as obesity, hypertension, dislipidemia, and diabetes. Pomegranate fruit extract (PFE), rich in polyphenolic antioxidants, reduces the expression of oxidation-sensitive genes at the sites of perturbed shear-stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PFE in comparison to regular pomegranate juice (PJ) and seed oil on the biological actions of nitric oxide (NO) and the arterial function in obese Zucker rats, a model of metabolic syndrome. Our results indicated that supplementation with PFE or PJ significantly decreased the expression of vascular inflammation markers, thrombospondin (TSP), and cytokine TGFbeta1 (P<0.05), whereas seed oil supplementation had a significant effect only on TSP-1 expression (P <0.05). Plasma nitrate and nitrite (NO(x)) levels were significantly increased by PFE and PJ (P<0.05). Furthermore, the effect of PFE in increasing endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression was comparable to that of PJ. These data highlight possible clinical applications of PFE in metabolic syndrome.
Zhang, Jiaheng; Liang, Zhe; Guo, Hao; Gao, Peng; Lu, Runhua; Zhou, Wenfeng; Zhang, Sanbing; Gao, Haixiang
A novel, totally organic solvent-free emulsification microextraction (TEME) technique using ionic liquids (ILs) is proposed in this study. Seven bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids were synthesized. After comparing the physicochemical properties of the ionic liquids and their application to microextraction experiments, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C6MIM][NTf2]), which has moderate surface tension and viscosity, was selected as the extraction solvent. The dispersion of ILs and mass transfer were accelerated by ultrasound irradiation and temperature control processes. Therefore, no dispersive organic solvent was needed. Several variables, such as ionic liquid volume, duration of the ultrasound extraction, dispersion temperature, ionic strength and centrifugation time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.1-600 μg L(-1) for chlorfenapyr and fenpyroximate and 0.5-600 μg L(-1) for spirodiclofen, with correlation coefficients of 0.9994-0.9999. The enrichment factors were between 261 and 285. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.02-0.06 μg L(-1). Real fruit juice samples (at fortified levels of 10 μg L(-1) and 30 μg L(-1)) were successfully analyzed using the proposed method. The relative recoveries and enrichment factors were in the range of 92-104%.
Sheng, Ling; Shen, Dandan; Luo, Yi; Sun, Xiaohua; Wang, Jinqiu; Luo, Tao; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin; Cheng, Yunjiang
The loss of organic acids during postharvest storage is one of the major factors that reduces the fruit quality and economic value of citrus. Citrate is the most important organic acid in citrus fruits. Molecular evidence has proved that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt plays a key role in citrate metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous GABA treatment on citrate metabolism and storage quality of postharvest citrus fruit. The content of citrate was significantly increased, which was primarily attributed to the inhibition of the expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). Amino acids, including glutamate, alanine, serine, aspartate and proline, were also increased. Moreover, GABA treatment decreased the fruit rot rate. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and the content of energy source ATP were affected by the treatment. Our results indicate that GABA treatment is a very effective approach for postharvest quality maintenance and improvement of storage performance in citrus production.
Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans
Juices of edible fruits from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, commonly named prickly pears or Indian figs, were analysed for amino acids using an automated amino acid analyser run in the high-resolution physiological mode. Emphasis was put on the detection of free taurine (Tau), but Tau could be detected neither in different cultivars of prickly pears from Italy, South Africa and the Near East nor in commercially available prickly pear juices from the market.
Fan, S; Choy, W Y; Lam, S L; Au-Yeung, S C; Tsang, L; Cockram, C S
The quantitative analysis of pure glucose solution < or = 225 mM (< or = 40.8 mg/mL) in 90/10 H2O/D2O was successfully completed in dilute aqueous solution by the WATR-CPMG method whereby the T2 of the water resonance is manipulated by the WATR method followed by elimination of the water peak by the CPMG pulse sequence. The method was applied to the quantitative analysis of total glucose in blood plasma from human subjects undergoing the oral glucose tolerance test in the teaching hospital, and the results were compared to those obtained using a standard glucose oxidase method in a hospital chemical pathology laboratory. The accuracy of the results obtained using the WATR-CPMG method were generally within 5% of the glucose oxidase method. The coefficient of variation was determined to be better than 4% using plasma samples of diabetic subjects. Application to the quantitative analysis of orange and guava juice was also successfully demonstrated.
Mazlan, Farhaneen Afzal; Annuar, M. Suffian M.
Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 isolated from Momordica charantia fruit was used to ferment its juice. Momordica charantia fresh juice was able to support good growth of the lactic acid bacterium. High growth rate and cell viability were obtained without further nutrient supplementation. In stirred tank reactor batch fermentation, agitation rate showed significant effect on specific growth rate of the bacterium in the fruit juice. After the fermentation, initially abundant momordicoside 23-O-β-Allopyranosyle-cucurbita-5,24-dien-7α,3β,22(R),23(S)-tetraol-3-O-β-allopyranoside was transformed into its corresponding aglycone in addition to the emergence of new metabolites. The fermented M. charantia juice consistently reduced glucose production by 27.2%, 14.5%, 17.1% and 19.2% at 15-minute intervals respectively, when compared against the negative control. This putative anti-diabetic activity can be attributed to the increase in availability and concentration of aglycones as well as other phenolic compounds resulting from degradation of glycosidic momordicoside. Biotransformation of M. charantia fruit juice via lactic acid bacterium fermentation reduced its bitterness, reduced its sugar content, produced aglycones and other metabolites as well as improved its inhibition of α-glucosidase activity compared with the fresh, non-fermented juice. PMID:26539336
Mazlan, Farhaneen Afzal; Annuar, M Suffian M; Sharifuddin, Yusrizam
Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 isolated from Momordica charantia fruit was used to ferment its juice. Momordica charantia fresh juice was able to support good growth of the lactic acid bacterium. High growth rate and cell viability were obtained without further nutrient supplementation. In stirred tank reactor batch fermentation, agitation rate showed significant effect on specific growth rate of the bacterium in the fruit juice. After the fermentation, initially abundant momordicoside 23-O-β-Allopyranosyle-cucurbita-5,24-dien-7α,3β,22(R),23(S)-tetraol-3-O-β-allopyranoside was transformed into its corresponding aglycone in addition to the emergence of new metabolites. The fermented M. charantia juice consistently reduced glucose production by 27.2%, 14.5%, 17.1% and 19.2% at 15-minute intervals respectively, when compared against the negative control. This putative anti-diabetic activity can be attributed to the increase in availability and concentration of aglycones as well as other phenolic compounds resulting from degradation of glycosidic momordicoside. Biotransformation of M. charantia fruit juice via lactic acid bacterium fermentation reduced its bitterness, reduced its sugar content, produced aglycones and other metabolites as well as improved its inhibition of α-glucosidase activity compared with the fresh, non-fermented juice.
Fruits of both the cultivated eggplant species Solanum melongena and its wild relative Solanum incanum have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates, which along with other phenylpropanoids are implicated in the human health benefits of various fruits and vegetables. Monocaffeoylquinic acid...
Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Patil, Bhimanagouda S
The formation of pink-red pigments ("pinking") by various amino acids was investigated by reacting amino acids with compounds present in onion juice. The unknown pink-red pigments were generated and separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a diode array detector (DAD) in the range of 200 to 700 nm. To generate pink-red pigments, we developed several reaction systems using garlic alliinase, purified 1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1-PeCSO), onion thiosulfinate, natural onion juice, and 21 free amino acids. The compound 1-PeCSO was a key compound associated with pinking in the presence of both the alliinase and amino acids. Numerous naturally occurring pink-red pigments were detected and separated from pink onion juice using the HPLC-DAD system at 515 nm. Most free amino acids, with the exceptions of histidine, serine, and cysteine, formed various pink-red pigments when reacted with onion thiosulfinate. This observation indicated that onion pinking is caused not by a single pigment, but by many. Furthermore, more than one color compound could be produced from a single amino acid; this explains, in part, why there were many pink-red compound peaks in the chromatogram of discolored natural onion juice. We presumed that the complexity of the pink-red pigments was due to the involvement of more than 21 natural amino acids as well as several derivatives of the color products produced from each amino acid. We observed that the pinking process in onion juice is very similar to that of the greening process in crushed garlic, emphasizing that both thiosulfinate from flavor precursors and free amino acids are absolutely required for the discoloration.
Pearson, D A; Tan, C H; German, J B; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E
Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. HPLC analysis identified and quantified several classes of phenolic compounds: cinnamates, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Phloridzin and hydroxy methyl furfural were also identified. The profile of phenolic compounds varied among the juices. The range of concentrations as a percentage of total phenolic concentration was: hydroxy methyl furfural, 4-30%; phloridzin, 22-36%; cinnamates, 25-36%; anthocyanins, n.d.; flavan-3-ols, 8-27%; flavonols, 2-10%. The phenolic profile of the Red Delicious apple extracts differed from those of the juices. The range of concentrations of phenolic classes in fresh apple extracts was: hydroxy methyl furfural, n.d.; phloridzin, 11-17%; cinnamates, 3-27%; anthocyanins, n.d.-42%; flavan-3-ols, 31-54%; flavonols, 1-10%. The ability of compounds in apple juices and extracts from fresh apple to protect LDL was assessed using an in vitro copper catalyzed human LDL oxidation system. The extent of LDL oxidation was determined as hexanal production using static headspace gas chromatography. The apple juices and extracts, tested at 5 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE), all inhibited LDL oxidation. The inhibition by the juices ranged from 9 to 34%, and inhibition by RF, RW and RP was 21, 34 and 38%, respectively. Regression analyses revealed no significant correlation between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic concentration or any specific class of phenolics. Although the specific components in the apple juices and extracts that contributed to antioxidant activity have yet to be identified, this study
Loeffler, Myriam; Beiser, Sophia; Suriyarak, Sarisa; Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen
The antimicrobial activity of oil-in-water emulsions containing dual combinations of the essential oil components cinnamaldehyde, perillaldehyde, and citral was examined against two acid-resistant yeast strains (Zygosaccharomyces bailii) in beverage systems composed of diluted clear or cloudy apple juice and in a Sabouraud dextrose broth model. Antimicrobial properties of an encapsulated oil-in-water emulsion and of essential oil components dissolved in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide were compared using plate counts and turbidity measurements. Growth curves were modulated to qualitatively assess differences in antimicrobial efficacy. The impact of the presence of a beverage emulsion without essential oils (unloaded; 5% oil and 1% modified starch, pH 3.0) on the antimicrobial efficacy also was investigated. Dual combinations of essential oil components were sufficient to completely inhibit and/or kill yeast cells in diluted apple juice and Sabouraud dextrose broth systems at very low concentrations (100 to 200 μg/ml). However, the combination of perillaldehyde and citral had the weakest antimicrobial effect; a concentration of 400 μg/ml was necessary to prevent yeast growth in beverages, and up to 800 μg/ml was required in systems to which an unloaded emulsion had been added. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil components did not differ in diluted clear and cloudy apple juices and was not affected by being added in emulsified form or dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide as long as there was no unloaded emulsion also present. These results indicate that formulations of essential oil combinations encapsulated together in emulsions are highly effective for inhibiting and/or killing microorganisms in real beverage systems.
Simplified miniaturized ultrasound-assisted matrix solid phase dispersion extraction and high performance liquid chromatographic determination of seven flavonoids in citrus fruit juice and human fluid samples: hesperetin and naringenin as biomarkers.
Barfi, Behruz; Asghari, Alireza; Rajabi, Maryam; Barfi, Azadeh; Saeidi, Iman
In the present study, for the first time, a simplified miniaturized ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (SM-USA-MSPD) method with a different application for liquid matrices was developed to extract different flavonoids (hesperidin, diosmin, eriocitrin, narirutin, naringin, hesperetin and naringenin) from citrus fruit juice and human fluid samples prior to their determination using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Different effective parameters were studied and under the optimum conditions (including sample volume: 150μL; solid phase: silica-based C18, 200mg; eluting solvent: methanol, 500μL; pH: 4; and sonication: 6min; at room temperature), limits of detection and limits of quantification were ranged from 23.3 to 46.8ngmL(-1) and 74.8 to 141.5ngmL(-1), respectively. Once optimized, analytical performance of the method was studied in terms of linearity (0.074-198.5μgmL(-1), r(2)>0.991), accuracy (recovery=84.6-101.5%), and precision (repeatability: intra-day precision<5.9%, and inter-day precision<7.2%). At the end, SM-USA-MSPD method was successfully applied to estimate the levels of hesperetin and naringenin in plasma and urinary excretion -after ingestion of orange, grapefruit and lime juices- and the obtained results confirmed that these compounds could be used as good biomarkers of citrus fruit juice intake.
Castro-López, C; Sánchez-Alejo, E J; Saucedo-Pompa, S; Rojas, R; Aranda-Ruiz, J; Martínez-Avila, G C G
Stability of the total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity in eight fruit beverages was analyzed. The influence of storage temperature (4, 8 and 11 °C) during the product shelf-life (20 days) was evaluated. Pomegranate Juice presented the highest values for antioxidant activity by DPPH• assay (552.93 ± 6.00 GAE μg mL(-1)), total carotenoids (3.18 ± 0.11 βCE μg mL(-1)), and total phenolic content (3967.07 ± 2.47 GAE μg mL(-1)); while Splash Blend recorded the highest levels of ascorbic acid (607.39 ± 2.13 AAE μg mL(-1)). The antioxidant capacity was stable at 4 and 8 °C for the first 8 days of storage; while carotenoids and ascorbic acid were slightly degraded through the storage time, possibly due to oxidation and/or reactions with other compounds. The results suggest that the observed variation during testing could be related to storage conditions of the final product.
Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Yang, Nian-Yun; Qian, Da-Wei; Su, Shu-Lan; Shang, Er-Xin
The fruits of Ziziphus species have been utilized as food as well as crude drugs for their health benefits in China for thousands of years. This paper reported a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous characterization and quantitation of 11 triterpenic acids in chloroform extracts of jujube fruits by using an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results showed that the contents of triterpenic acids in the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa were higher than those in the fruits of Z. jujuba, especially for the compound pomonic acid. Differences were also found among the different parts of Z. jujuba var. spinosa fruits with the sarcocarp having a higher amount of triterpenic acids than the seed and hard core.
Dishisha, Tarek; Ståhl, Åke; Lundmark, Stefan; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni
An economically sustainable process was developed for propionic acid production by fermentation of glycerol using Propionibacterium acidipropionici and potato juice, a by-product of starch processing, as a nitrogen/vitamin source. The fermentation was done as high-cell-density sequential batches with cell recycle. Propionic acid production and glycerol consumption rates were dependent on initial biomass concentration, and reached a maximum of 1.42 and 2.30 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively, from 50 g L(-1) glycerol at initial cell density of 23.7 gCDW L(-1). Halving the concentration of nitrogen/vitamin source resulted in reduction of acetic and succinic acids yields by ~39% each. At glycerol concentrations of 85 and 120 g L(-1), respectively, 43.8 and 50.8 g L(-1) propionic acid were obtained at a rate of 0.88 and 0.29 g L(-1) h(-1) and yield of 84 and 78 mol%. Succinic acid was 13 g% of propionic acid and could represent a potential co-product covering the cost of nitrogen/vitamin source.
Li, Wei-Qin; Hu, Qing-Ping; Xu, Jian-Guo
In this study, changes in physicochemical characteristics associated with fruit quality and free amino acids were investigated during maturation of hawthorn fruits. Significant differences in these parameters were found during maturation. The color turned progressively from mature green to semi-red, to reach bright red; the shape changed gradually from oval to round or approached round; the size, weight, and edible part (flesh/core ratio) of hawthorns increased while the density of intact fruits did not change. The content of moisture, total soluble sugars, soluble pectin, reduced ascorbic acid, total ascorbic acid, fructose, and sucrose increased while crude protein content decreased significantly. The levels of starch, sucrose, titratable acidity, protopectin, pectin, total free amino acids, and total essential amino acids initially increased and then decreased gradually during maturation. The outcomes of this study provide additional and useful information for fresh consumption and processing as well as utilization of dropped unripe hawthorn fruits.
Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A.; Movahedian, A.; Ramezanlou, P.; Osooli, F.S.
Prunus divaricata (Alloocheh) is a small tree cultivating in Iran, Middle East and central Asia. Prunus genus has many species with anti-oxidant, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-hyperglycemia effects. In the present study the anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of P. divaricata fruits were examined in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Both groups, control and reference rats received normal saline and glibenclamide respectively. Test groups were treated with Prunus freeze dried juice (PFDJ, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg) and Prunus freeze dried extract (PFDE, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) started at the 3rd day of the experiment and continued for 27 days thereafter. Weight changes of animals were checked periodically. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level as well as serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were determined. Different treatments had no significant effect on body weight increments of normal rats, while in diabetic rats, PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) opposed with weight loss. In acute phase of experiment (0-8 h of 3rd day), none of tested fractions were effective in reducing FBG and serum lipids of normal rats. During the sub-acute phase (13th and 30th days) however, the greatest test doses of PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) induced hypoglycema. In diabetic groups, PFDJ and PFDE, at all test doses, could diminish FBG during sub-acute phase of the experiment. In addition, PFDJ and PFDE at most examined doses could diminish TG significantly and they were also effective on cholesterol derivatives in different magnitude. PMID:26339257
Minaiyan, M; Ghannadi, A; Movahedian, A; Ramezanlou, P; Osooli, F S
Prunus divaricata (Alloocheh) is a small tree cultivating in Iran, Middle East and central Asia. Prunus genus has many species with anti-oxidant, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-hyperglycemia effects. In the present study the anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of P. divaricata fruits were examined in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Both groups, control and reference rats received normal saline and glibenclamide respectively. Test groups were treated with Prunus freeze dried juice (PFDJ, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg) and Prunus freeze dried extract (PFDE, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) started at the 3(rd) day of the experiment and continued for 27 days thereafter. Weight changes of animals were checked periodically. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level as well as serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were determined. Different treatments had no significant effect on body weight increments of normal rats, while in diabetic rats, PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) opposed with weight loss. In acute phase of experiment (0-8 h of 3(rd) day), none of tested fractions were effective in reducing FBG and serum lipids of normal rats. During the sub-acute phase (13(th) and 30(th) days) however, the greatest test doses of PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) induced hypoglycema. In diabetic groups, PFDJ and PFDE, at all test doses, could diminish FBG during sub-acute phase of the experiment. In addition, PFDJ and PFDE at most examined doses could diminish TG significantly and they were also effective on cholesterol derivatives in different magnitude.
Kozik, Violetta; Jarzembek, Krystyna; Jędrzejowska, Agnieszka; Bąk, Andrzej; Polak, Justyna; Bartoszek, Mariola; Pytlakowska, Katarzyna
Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) is a source of numerous phenolic compounds, and it contains flavonoids such as anthocyanins, anthocyanidins, cyanidins, catechins and other complexes of flavonoids, ellagitannins, and hydrolyzed tannins. Pomegranate juice shows antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-atherosclerotic properties. The antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the pomegranate juices was measured using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) as a source of free radicals, and the total phenolic (TP) content was measured using UV-Vis spectroscopy. All the examined pomegranate juices exhibited relatively high antioxidant properties. The TEAC values determined by means of EPR spectroscopy using Trolox (TE) as a free radical scavenger were in the range of 463.12 to 1911.91 μmol TE/100 mL juice. The TP content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, using gallic acid (GA) as a free radical scavenger, widely varied in the investigated pomegranate juice samples and ranged from 1673.62 to 5263.87 mg GA/1 L juice. The strongest antioxidant properties were observed with the fresh pomegranate juices obtained from the fruits originating from Israel, Lebanon, and Azerbaijan. Correlation analysis of numerical data obtained by means of EPR spectroscopy (TEAC) and UV-Vis spectroscopy (TP) gave correlation coefficient (r)=0.90 and determination coefficient (r2)=0.81 (P<0.05).
Huang, Ming; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin
Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a fruit crop that contains unusually high levels of l-ascorbic acid (AsA; ∼1300 mg 100g(-1) FW). To explore the mechanisms underlying AsA metabolism, we investigated the distribution and abundance of AsA during fruit development. We also analyzed gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and content of metabolites related to AsA biosynthesis and recycling. AsA first accumulated during late fruit development and continued to accumulate during ripening, with the highest accumulation rate near fruit maturity. The redox state of AsA in fruit was also enhanced during late fruit development, while leaf and other tissues had much lower levels of AsA and the redox state of AsA was lower. In mature fruit, AsA was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the mesocarp. Correlation analysis suggested that the gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and related metabolite concentrations involved in the l-galactose pathway showed relatively high correlations with the accumulation rate of AsA. The gene expression pattern and activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 184.108.40.206) correlated strongly with AsA concentration, possibly indicating the crucial role of DHAR in the accumulation of high levels of AsA in chestnut rose fruit. Over expression of DHAR in Arabidopsis significantly increased the reduced AsA content and redox state. This was more effective than over expression of the l-galactose pathway gene GDP-d-mannose-3,5-epimerase (EC 220.127.116.11). These findings will enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating accumulation of AsA in chestnut rose.
Stevens, R; Page, D; Gouble, B; Garchery, C; Zamir, D; Causse, M
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is a step towards the identification of factors regulating traits such as fruit ascorbic acid content. A previously identified QTL controlling variations in tomato fruit ascorbic acid has been fine mapped and reveals that the QTL has a polygenic and epistatic architecture. A monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) allele is a candidate for a proportion of the increase in fruit ascorbic acid content. The MDHAR enzyme is active in different stages of fruit ripening, shows increased activity in the introgression lines containing the wild-type (Solanum pennellii) allele, and responds to chilling injury in tomato along with the reduced/oxidized ascorbate ratio. Low temperature storage of different tomato introgression lines with all or part of the QTL for ascorbic acid and with or without the wild MDHAR allele shows that enzyme activity explains 84% of the variation in the reduced ascorbic acid levels of tomato fruit following storage at 4 degrees C, compared with 38% at harvest under non-stress conditions. A role is indicated for MDHAR in the maintenance of ascorbate levels in fruit under stress conditions. Furthermore, an increased fruit MDHAR activity and a lower oxidation level of the fruit ascorbate pool are correlated with decreased loss of firmness because of chilling injury.
Aresta, Antonella; Zambonin, Carlo
Salicylic and benzoic acid are phenolic acids occurring in plant cells, thus they can be present in fruit and vegetables at various levels. They possess anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, however they may induce symptoms and health problems in a small percentage of the population. Therefore, a low phenolic acid diet may be of clinical benefit to such individuals. In order to achieve this goal, the concentration of these substances in different food and beverages should be assessed. The present work describes for the first time a new method, based on solid phase microextraction (polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber) coupled to liquid chromatography with UV diode array detection, for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, 3-methyl salicylic acid, 4-methyl salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid and benzoic acid in selected fruit, vegetables and beverages. All the aspects influencing fiber adsorption (time, temperature, pH, salt addition) and desorption (desorption and injection time, desorption solvent mixture composition) of the analytes have been investigated. An isocratic separation was performed using an acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 2.8; 2 mM) mixture (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase. The estimated LOD and LOQ values (μg/mL) were in the range 0.002-0.028 and 0.007-0.095. The within-day and day-to-day precision values (RSD%) were between 4.7-6.1 and 6.6-9.4, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of fava beans, blueberries, kiwi, tangerines, lemons, oranges and fruit juice (lemon and blueberry) samples. The major advantage of the method is that it only requires simple homogenization and/or centrifugation and dilution steps prior to SPME and injection in the LC system.
Boato, Francesca; Wortley, Gary M; Liu, Rui Hai; Glahn, Raymond P
Adequate bioavailable Fe intake is essential for optimal growth and intellectual development of infants and children. Fruit juices are nutritious and popular drinks for infants and children and are known to contain Fe uptake inhibitors (e.g., polyphenolic compounds) and a dominant promoter, ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid is naturally present in fruit juices and is added during processing to almost all juices found in supermarkets. With these facts taken into account, an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model was developed to compare the effects of apple, pear, white grape, red grape, prune, grapefruir, and orange juices on iron bioavailability. In two series of experiments, juices from a local supermarket were combined with FeCl(3) or commercial infant cereal fortified with elemental iron and subject to simulated gastric and intestinal digestion. Caco-2 cell ferritin formation in response to exposure to the digests served as the measure of Fe uptake. The pear, apple, grapefruit, orange, and white grape juice significantly increased Fe bioavailability from FeCl(3). For the infant cereal studies, the apple, orange, pear, and white grape juices increased the Fe bioavailability of the infant cereal. In contrast, the red grape juice and prune juice had profound inhibitory effects on iron bioavailability. These inhibitory effects were likely due to high levels of polyphenolic compounds that bind and thereby prevent absorption of soluble Fe. These inhibitory compounds appeared to counteract the promotional effects of ascorbic acid as they were in considerable molar excess relative to ascorbic acid and Fe in the digest. From a nutritional standpoint, the results suggest that individuals in need of optimal Fe absorption should avoid red grape and prune juice or at least vary the types of juices consumed. Alternatively, individuals seeking to limit Fe uptake (e.g., hemochromatitics and astronauts) may be able to utilize red grape or prune juice as effective inhibitors of
Newair, Emad F
Summary A simple and sensitive poly(gallic acid)/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (PGA/MWCNT/GCE) electrochemical sensor was prepared for direct determination of the total phenolic content (TPC) as gallic acid equivalent. The GCE working electrode was electrochemically modified and characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and chronocoulometry. It was found that gallic acid (GA) exhibits a superior electrochemical response on the PGA/MWCNT/GCE sensor in comparison with bare GCE. The results reveal that a PGA/MWCNT/GCE sensor can remarkably enhance the electro-oxidation signal of GA as well as shift the peak potentials towards less positive potential values. The dependence of peak current on accumulation potential, accumulation time and pH were investigated by square-wave voltammetry (SWV) to optimize the experimental conditions for the determination of GA. Using the optimized conditions, the sensor responded linearly to a GA concentration throughout the range of 4.97 × 10−6 to 3.38 × 10−5 M with a detection limit of 3.22 × 10−6 M (S/N = 3). The fabricated sensor shows good selectivity, stability, repeatability and (101%) recovery. The sensor was successfully utilized for the determination of total phenolic content in fresh pomegranate juice without interference of ascorbic acid, fructose, potassium nitrate and barbituric acid. The obtained data were compared with the standard Folin–Ciocalteu spectrophotometric results. PMID:27547628
Sembries, Sabine; Dongowski, Gerhard; Mehrländer, Katri; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut
In comparison to classical fruit juice processing, polyphenols and dietary fiber can be extracted from pomace by means of pectinases and cellulases. In the present study, rats were fed with such produced extraction juices from apples, grapes, and red beets as drinking fluids instead of water for 4 weeks to evaluate their physiological effects. In all test groups, the intake of extraction juices was greater as compared to control (water intake), resulting in a higher urine excretion. In the apple and grape group, pH values in feces was lower than control. Administration of extraction juices from apples increased fecal counts of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. More acetate and total short-chain fatty acids appeared in intestinal contents of the apple and red beet group. Furthermore, the intestinal contents of test groups contained higher concentrations of primary bile acids, cholesterol, and cholesterol metabolites but lower concentrations of secondary bile acids. The total amount of steroids excreted by these groups was also greater than control. Quercetin and isorhamnetin appeared in urine of rats fed extraction juices from apples and grapes; in urine of the former group, phloretin was found also. Administration of the extraction juices, enriched in secondary plant metabolites and dietary fiber, resulted in beneficial nutritional effects in rats.
Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber) are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound) from Golo lemai ber fruit extracts by applying a...
Schütz, Katrin; Kammerer, Dietmar; Carle, Reinhold; Schieber, Andreas
A method for the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) heads, juice, and pomace by HPLC with diode array and mass spectrometric detection was developed. Among the 22 major compounds, 11 caffeoylquinic acids and 8 flavonoids were detected. Quantification of individual compounds was carried out by external calibration. Apigenin 7-O-glucuronide was found to be the major flavonoid in all samples investigated. 1,5-Di-O-caffeoylquinic acid represented the major hydroxycinnamic acid, with 3890 mg/kg in artichoke heads and 3269 mg/kg in the pomace, whereas in the juice 1,3-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (cynarin) was predominant, due to the isomerization during processing. Total phenolic contents of approximately 12 g/kg on a dry matter basis revealed that artichoke pomace is a promising source of phenolic compounds that might be recovered and used as natural antioxidants or functional food ingredients.
Young, M S; Phillips, D J; Iraneta, P C; Krol, J
Solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedures were developed for rapid cleanup and determination of thiabendazole and carbendazim in orange, apple, and grape juices. Samples were prepared by using an SPE cartridge containing a mixed-mode sorbent with both reversed-phase and strong cation-exchange chemistries. Analysis was by liquid chromatography with photodiode-array UV detection. Orange juice was analyzed by mixed-mode cation-exchange extraction with reversed-phase cleanup; the other juices were analyzed by reversed-phase extraction with cation-exchange cleanup. Recoveries >80% for carbendazim and >90% for thiabendazole. Quantitation limits were 20 microg/L for both analytes.
The effect of two extraction methods of pomegranate juice on its quality and stability was evaluated. The first method consisted of separation of the seeds from fruits and centrifugation. The second method consisted of squeezing fruit halves with an electric lemon squeezer. During a period of 72 hours of cold storage at 4°C, the juices were evaluated for the presence of sugars, organic acids, and anthocyanins. Delphinidin 3-glucoside was identified to be the major anthocyanin present at the level of 45–69 mg/L. Among the organic acids, oxalic and tartaric acids dominated. The major sugars detected in pomegranate juice were glucose and sucrose. No significant differences in the content of sugars, organic acids, or anthocyanins in juices obtained through application of the two different extraction methods were detected, with the exception of the drastic decrease of cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside level in juice obtained by seed centrifugation. The pH did not show differences between treatments. Titrable acidity and the level of sugars expressed as °Brix decreased after 32 and 15 hours after extraction, respectively, when juice was obtained by centrifuging the seeds. PMID:15577198
Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Bharathi, Munugala; Reddy, Mooli Raja Gopal; Kumar, Manchiryala Sravan; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, plasma biochemical markers, such as triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and β-hydroxy butyrate levels were comparable among the 4 groups. Although, the liver injury marker, aspartate aminotransferase, levels in plasma showed a reduction, hepatic triglycerides levels were not significantly reduced by carrot juice ingestion in the HFr diet-fed rats (HFr-CJ). On the other hand, the key triglyceride synthesis pathway enzyme, hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), expression at mRNA level was augmented by carrot juice ingestion, while their protein levels showed a significant reduction, which corroborated with decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), particularly palmitoleic (C16:1) and oleic (C18:1) acids. Notably, it also improved the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) content of the liver in HFr-CJ. In conclusion, carrot juice ingestion decreased the SCD1-mediated production of MUFA and improved DHA levels in liver, under high fructose diet-fed conditions. However, these changes did not significantly lower the hepatic triglyceride levels. PMID:27752492
Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani; Asghari, Mohammadreza; Khorsandi, Orojali; Mohayeji, Mehdi
Tomato fruit at the mature green stage were treated with salicylic acid at different concentration (0, 1 and 2 mM) and analyzed for chilling injury (CI), electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents and phospholipase D (PLD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities during cold storage. PLD and LOX activities were significantly reduced by salicylic acid treatment. Compared with the control fruit, salicylic acid treatment alleviated chilling injury, reduced electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content and increased proline content. Our result suggest that the reduce activity of PLD and LOX, by salicylic acid may be a chilling tolerance strategy in tomato fruit. Inhibition of PLD and LOX activity during low temperature storage could ameliorate chilling injury and oxidation damage and enhance membrane integrity in tomato fruit.
Lado, Joanna; Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo
Citrus fruits are highly consumed worldwide and represent one of the most important sources of ascorbic acid (AsA). However, information about the molecular mechanisms regulating AsA accumulation in Citrus fruit and the effects of environmental factors is scarce. In this study we have investigated the effect of fruit shading on AsA content and the expression of AsA biosynthetic, degrading and recycling genes in fruits of different Citrus species. Immature-green fruits were covered at the end of the cell enlargement phase and AsA concentration in the flavedo declined and remained at low levels as compared with light-exposed fruits. Fruit shading marginally altered the expression of genes from the l-galactose pathway and this effect was variable in the four Citrus species. However, specific isoforms (GalUR8 or GalUR12) from the l-galacturonic acid pathway were significantly repressed paralleling the reduction in AsA concentration. No significant effect of shading was detected in transcription of genes of the myo-inositol and l-gulose pathways as well as recycling and degradation. Collectively, results indicate that light avoidance inhibited accumulation of AsA in the flavedo of Citrus fruits and suggest that the l-galacturonic acid pathway has a relevant contribution to AsA content in this tissue.
Kim, Young-Hee; Yun, Bong-Sik; Ryoo, In-Ja; Kim, Jong-Pyung; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Yoo, Ick-Dong
Methoxylaricinolic acid (1), a new sesquiterpene with drimane skeleton was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Stereum ostrea, together with the known compound laricinolic acid (2). The structure of 1 was determined as 12-methoxy-7-oxo-11-drimanoic acid on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.
Fruit of cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena) and several wild relatives (S. aethiopicum, S. macrocarpon, S. anguivi, and S. incanum) have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) conjugates. Typically, caffeoylquinic acid esters predominate, and in particular chlorogenic acid [5-O-(E)-caffeo...
The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty-acids, carotenoids, amino-acids as well as terpenes. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino- and a-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds be...
Ma, Chunhui; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Whitaker, Bruce D; Kennelly, Edward J
Fruits of the cultivated eggplant species Solanum melongena and its wild relative Solanum incanum have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates, which are implicated in the human health benefits of various fruits and vegetables. Monocaffeoylquinic acid esters, in particular 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid, are usually predominant in solanaceous fruits and tubers. Two closely related caffeoylquinic acid derivatives with longer C(18) HPLC retention times than those of monocaffeoylquinic acids are minor constituents in cultivated eggplant fruit. In a prior study, the two compounds were tentatively identified as 3-O-acetyl- and 4-O-acetyl-5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acids and composed ≤2% of the total hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates in fruit of most S. melongena accessions. It was recently found that the pair of these caffeoylquinic acid derivatives can compose 15-25% of the total hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates in fruits of S. incanum and wild S. melongena. This facilitated C(18) HPLC isolation and structural elucidation using (1)H and (13)C NMR techniques and HR-ToF-MS. The isomeric compounds were identified as 3-O-malonyl-5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (isomer 1) and 4-O-(E)-caffeoyl-5-O-malonylquinic acid (isomer 2). Both exhibited free radical scavenging activity, albeit about 4-fold lower than that of the flavonol quercetin dihydrate. By contrast, the iron chelation activities of isomers 1 and 2, respectively, were about 3- and 6-fold greater than that of quercetin dihydrate. Reports of malonylhydroxycinnamoylquinic acids are rare, and only a few of these compounds have been structurally elucidated using both NMR and MS techniques. To the authors' knowledge, these two malonylcaffeoylquinic acid isomers have not previously been reported.
González, Eva; Vegara, Salud; Martí, Nuria; Valero, Manuel; Saura, Domingo
Technological process for production of non-astringent persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. "Rojo Brillante") juice was described. The degree of fruit ripening expressed as color index (CI) varied between 12.37 and 16.33. Persimmon juice was characterized by determining physicochemical quality parameters as yield, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), organic acids, and main sugars. A thermal treatment of 90 ºC for 10 s was effective in controlling naturally occurring microorganisms for at least 105 d of storage without significantly affecting production of soluble brown pigments (BPs) and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), total phenolic compounds (TPC), antioxidant capacity and acceptability of juice by panelists. Storage time affected all and each of the above parameters, reducing BPs, TPC and antioxidant capacity but increasing 5-HMF content. Refrigerated storage enhanced the acceptability of the juices. This information may be used by the juice industry as a starting point for production of pure persimmon juices.
Lester, Gene E; Manthey, John A; Buslig, Béla S
Most claims that organic produce is better tasting and more nutritious than nonorganic (conventional) produce are largely unsubstantiated. This is due mainly to a lack of rigor in research studies matching common production variables of both production systems, such as microclimate, soil type, fertilizer elemental concentration, previous crop, irrigation source and application, plant age, and cultivar. The aforementioned production variables common to both production systems were matched for comparison of Texas commercially grown conventional and certified organic Rio Red red-fruited grapefruit. Whole grapefruits from each production system were harvested between 800 and 1000 h at commercial early (November), mid- (January), and late season (March) harvest periods for three consecutive years. Within each harvest season, conventional and organic whole fruits were compared for marketable qualities (fruit weight, specific gravity, peel thickness, and peel color), and juices were compared for marketable qualities (specific gravity, % juice, and color), human health-bioactive compounds (minerals, ascorbic acid, lycopene, sugars, pectin, phenols, and nitrates), and consumer taste intensity and overall acceptance. Conventional fruit was better colored and higher in lycopene, and the juice was less tart, lower in the bitter principle naringin, and better accepted by the consumer panel than the organic fruit. Organic fruit had a commercially preferred thinner peel, and the juice was higher in ascorbic acid and sugars and lower in nitrate and the drug interactive furanocoumarins.
Hofmann, Thomas; Liegibel, Ute; Winterhalter, Peter; Bub, Achim; Rechkemmer, Gerhard; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice Louise
Polyphenols are probably antigenotoxic on account of their antioxidant activities and might alter phase I and II enzymes in a way that results in chemoprotection. We investigated the hypothesis that polyphenols enhance expression of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), which increases carcinogen detoxification and thereby provides protection against oxidative stress. HGSTP1 protein expression and GST polymorphisms were determined in leucocytes obtained during an intervention study with healthy subjects consuming two fruit juices in an 8 wk trial (polyphenol-free run in phase, juice intervention phase, washout phase, second juice intervention phase, each treatment regime lasted for 2 wk). The study had originally shown that juice intervention significantly reduced oxidative DNA damage in leucocytes at week 8 (Bub, A., Watzl, B., Blockhaus, M., Briviba, K. et al., J. Nutr. Biochem. 2003, 14, 90-98). We reanalysed the levels of DNA damage based on GST genotypes. We also treated leucocytes in vitro with mixtures of polyphenols and determined cytotoxicity and expression of 96 genes related to drug metabolism. Key results with leucocytes of the intervention study were that the initial content of hGSTP1 protein was first suppressed at weeks 4 and 6. At week 8, however, hGSTP1 protein expression was significantly increased. HGSTP1 protein levels and DNA damage were inversely correlated (p = 0.005), but there was no difference for cells obtained from subjects with hGSTM1*1 and hGSTM1*0 genotypes, nor was there any difference between cells from subjects consuming the two different juices. The treatment of leucocytes with polyphenol mixtures in vitro did not result in modulated GST gene expression or total GST activity, but in an up-regulation of other biotransformation enzymes (e. g., members of the cytochrome P450 and the sulphotransferase family). In conclusion, in vitro treatment of leucocytes led to a modulated mRNA expression of selected genes, not directly related to
DeChristopher, L R; Uribarri, J; Tucker, K L
Objective: There is a link between joint and gut inflammation of unknown etiology in arthritis. Existing research indicates that regular consumption of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened (HFCS) soft drinks, but not diet soft drinks, may be associated with increased risk of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors. One unexplored hypothesis for this association is that fructose malabsorption, due to regular consumption of excess free fructose (EFF) and HFCS, contributes to fructose reactivity in the gastrointestinal tract and intestinal in situ formation of enFruAGEs, which once absorbed, travel beyond the intestinal boundaries to other tissues and promote inflammation. In separate studies, the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products has been associated with joint inflammation in RA. Objective of this study was to assess the association between EFF beverages intake and non-age, non-wear and tear-associated arthritis in US young adults. Methods: In this cross sectional study of 1209 adults aged 20–30y, (Nutrition and Health Examination Surveys 2003–2006) exposure variables were high EFF beverages, including HFCS sweetened soft drinks, and any combination of HFCS sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks (FD) and apple juice, referred to as tEFF. Analyses of diet soda and diet FD were included for comparison. The outcome was self-reported arthritis. Rao Scott Ҳ2 was used for prevalence differences and logistic regression for associations, adjusted for confounders. Results: Young adults consuming any combination of high EFF beverages (tEFF) ⩾5 times/week (but not diet soda) were three times as likely to have arthritis as non/low consumers (odds ratios=3.01; p⩽0.021; 95% confidence intervals=1.20–7.59), independent of all covariates, including physical activity, other dietary factors, blood glucose and smoking. Conclusion: EFF beverage intake is significantly associated with arthritis in US adults
Serce, Sedat; Ercisli, Sezai; Sengul, Memnune; Gunduz, Kazim; Orhan, Emine
The fruits of eight myrtles, Myrtus communis L. accessions from the Mediterranean region of Turkey were evaluated for their antioxidant activities and fatty acid contents. The antioxidant activities of the fruit extracts were determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene-linoleic acid assays. The fatty acid contents of fruits were determined by using gas chromatography. The methanol extracts of fruits exhibited a high level of free radical scavenging activity. There was a wide range (74.51-91.65%) of antioxidant activity among the accessions in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay. The amount of total phenolics (TP) was determined to be between 44.41-74.44 mug Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/mg, on a dry weight basis. Oleic acid was the dominant fatty acid (67.07%), followed by palmitic (10.24%), and stearic acid (8.19%), respectively. These results suggest the future utilization of myrtle fruit extracts as food additives or in chemoprevention studies.
Jia, Haifeng; Jiu, Songtao; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Chen; Tariq, Pervaiz; Liu, Zhongjie; Wang, Baoju; Cui, Liwen; Fang, Jinggui
Although great progress has been made towards understanding the role of abscisic acid (ABA) and sucrose in fruit ripening, the mechanisms underlying the ABA and sucrose signalling pathways remain elusive. In this study, transcription factor ABA-stress-ripening (ASR), which is involved in the transduction of ABA and sucrose signalling pathways, was isolated and analysed in the nonclimacteric fruit, strawberry and the climacteric fruit, tomato. We have identified four ASR isoforms in tomato and one in strawberry. All ASR sequences contained the ABA stress- and ripening-induced proteins and water-deficit stress-induced proteins (ABA/WDS) domain and all ASR transcripts showed increased expression during fruit development. The expression of the ASR gene was influenced not only by sucrose and ABA, but also by jasmonic acid (JA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and these four factors were correlated with each other during fruit development. ASR bound the hexose transporter (HT) promoter, which contained a sugar box that activated downstream gene expression. Overexpression of the ASR gene promoted fruit softening and ripening, whereas RNA interference delayed fruit ripening, as well as affected fruit physiological changes. Change in ASR gene expression influenced the expression of several ripening-related genes such as CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS, UFGT, PG, PL, EXP1/2, XET16, Cel1/2 and PME. Taken together, this study may provide new evidence on the important role of ASR in cross-signalling between ABA and sucrose to regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening. The findings of this study also provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism underlying fruit development.
Gonda, Itay; Bar, Einat; Portnoy, Vitaly; Lev, Shery; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Gepstein, Shimon; Giovannoni, James J; Katzir, Nurit; Lewinsohn, Efraim
The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, amino acids, and terpenes. Although amino acids are known precursors of aroma compounds in the plant kingdom, the initial steps in the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles have received little attention. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino acids and alpha-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds bearing the side chain of the exogenous amino or keto acid supplied. Moreover, L-[(13)C(6)]phenylalanine was also incorporated into aromatic volatile compounds. Amino acid transaminase activities extracted from the flesh of mature melon fruits converted L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-methionine, or L-phenylalanine into their respective alpha-keto acids, utilizing alpha-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. Two novel genes were isolated and characterized (CmArAT1 and CmBCAT1) encoding 45.6 kDa and 42.7 kDa proteins, respectively, that displayed aromatic and branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities, respectively, when expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 was low in vegetative tissues, but increased in flesh and rind tissues during fruit ripening. In addition, ripe fruits of climacteric aromatic cultivars generally showed high expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 in contrast to non-climacteric non-aromatic fruits. The results presented here indicate that in melon fruit tissues, the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles can initiate through a transamination mechanism, rather than decarboxylation or direct aldehyde synthesis, as has been demonstrated in other plants.
Usaga, Jessie; Worobo, Randy W; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I
Gradual exposure to moderate acidic environments may enhance the thermal tolerance and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in acid and acidified foods. Limited studies comparing methodologies to induce this phenomenon have been performed. The effects of strain and physiological state on thermal tolerance and survival of E. coli in apple juice were studied. The decimal reduction time (D-value) at 56°C [D56°C] was determined for E. coli O157:H7 strains C7927 and ATCC 43895 and E. coli O111 at four physiological states: unadapted, acid-shocked (two methodologies used), and acid-adapted cells. The effect of acidulant was also evaluated by determining the D56°C for the O157:H7 strains subjected to acid shock during 18 h in Trypticase soy broth (TSB), with pH 5 adjusted with hydrochloric, lactic, and malic acids. Survival of the three strains at four physiological states was determined at 1 ± 1°C and 24 ± 2°C. Experiments were performed in triplicate. For thermal inactivation, a significant interaction was found between strain and physiological state (P < 0.0001). Highest thermal tolerance was observed for the 43895 strain subjected to acid shock during 18 h in TSB acidified with HCl (D56°C of 3.0 ± 0.1 min) and the lowest for the acid-shocked C7927 strain treated for 4 h in TSB acidified with HCl (D56°C of 0.45 ± 0.06 min). Acidulants did not alter the heat tolerance of strain C7927 (D56°C of 1.9 ± 0.1 min; P > 0.05) but significantly affected strain 43895 (P < 0.05), showing the greatest tolerance when malic acid was used (D56°C of 3.7 ± 0.3 min). A significant interaction between strain, storage temperature, and physiological state was noted during the survival experiments (P < 0.05). E. coli O111 was the most resistant strain, surviving 6 and 23 days at 24 and 1°C, respectively. Our findings may assist in designing challenge studies for juices and other pH-controlled products, where Shiga toxin-producing E. coli represents the pathogen of concern.
Schliemann-Willers, Sibylle; Fuchs, Silke; Kleesz, Peter; Grieshaber, Romano; Elsner, Peter
Combined exposure to different irritants in the workplace may lead to irritant contact dermatitis, which is the main type of occupational dermatitis among bakers and confectioners. Following previous work on "tandem irritation", a panel of healthy volunteers was exposed twice daily for 4 days to the organic fruit acids: citric, malic, and lactic acid, either alone or in tandem application with 0.5% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) in a repetitive irritation test. Irritant cutaneous reactions were quantified by visual scoring and non-invasive measurement of transepidermal water loss and skin colour reflectance. Twice daily application of either citric or malic acid alone did not induce a significant irritant reaction. Combined exposure to one of the fruit acids and SLS caused marked barrier disturbance, but the latter irritant effect was smaller than that obtained by combined exposure to SLS and water. Thus, combined exposure to the above-mentioned fruit