Science.gov

Sample records for acidic ground water

  1. Extremely acid Permian lakes and ground waters in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benison, K.C.; Goldstein, R.H.; Wopenka, B.; Burruss, R.C.; Pasteris, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Evaporites hosted by red beds (red shales and sandstones), some 275-265 million years old, extend over a large area of the North American mid- continent. They were deposited in non-marine saline lakes, pans and mud- flats, settings that are typically assumed to have been alkaline. Here we use laser Raman microprobe analyses of fluid inclusions trapped in halites from these Permian deposits to argue for the existence of highly acidic (pH < 1) lakes and ground waters. These extremely acidic systems may have extended over an area of 200,000 km2. Modern analogues of such systems may be natural acid lake and groundwater systems (pH ~2-4) in southern Australia. Both the ancient and modern acid systems are characterized by closed drainage, arid climate, low acid-neutralizing capacity, and the oxidation of minerals such as pyrite to generate acidity. The discovery of widespread ancient acid lake and groundwater systems demands a re-evaluation of reconstructions of surface conditions of the past, and further investigations of the geochemistry and ecology of acid systems in general.

  2. NEUTRALIZATION OF ACIDIC GROUND WATER NEAR GLOBE, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eychaner, James H.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; ,

    1985-01-01

    Highly acidic contaminated water is moving through a shallow aquifer and interacting with streams near Globe, Arizona. Dissolved concentrations reach 3,000 mg/L iron, 150 mg/L copper, and 16,400 mg/L total dissloved solids; pH is as low as 3. 6. Samples from 16 PVC-cased observation wells include uncontaminated, contaminated, transition, and neutralized waters. Chemical reaction with sediments and mixing with uncontaminated water neutralizes the acidic water. The reactions form a transition zone where gypsum replaces calcite and most metals precipitate. Ferric hydroxide also precipitates if sufficient oxygen is available. Abundant gypsum crystals and ferric hydroxide coatings have been recovered from well cuttings. Large sulfate concentrations produce sulfate complexes with many metals that inhibit removal of metals from solution.

  3. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (<5-m depth) from sludge-treated spoil (pH 5.9) were not elevated relative to untreated spoil (pH 4.4). In contrast, concentrations of nitrate were elevated in vadose water samples from sludge-treated spoil, frequently exceeding 10 mg/L. Downgradient decreases in nitrate to less than 3 mg/L and increases in sulfate concentrations in underlying ground water could result from oxidation of pyrite by nitrate. Thus, sewage sludge added to pyritic spoil can increase the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  4. Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1986-01-01

    Some water underlies the Earth's surface almost everywhere, beneath hills, mountains,plains, and deserts. It's not always accessible, or fresh enough for use without treatment, and it's sometimes difficult to locate or to measure and descri be. This water may occur close to the land surface, as in a marsh, or it may lie many hundreds of feet below the surface, as in some arid areas of the West. Water at very shallow depths might be just a few hours old ; at moderate depth, it may be 100 years old; and at great depth or after having flowed long distances from places of entry, water may be several thousands of years old . Water under the Earth's surface is called ground water.

  5. Ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Ground water contamination and basic concepts of water law; Federal law governing water contamination and remediation; Ground water flow and contaminant migration; Ground water cleanup under CERCLA; Technical methods of remediation and prevention of contamination; Liability for ground water contamination; State constraints on contamination of ground water; Water quantity versus water quality; Prevention of use of contaminated ground water as an alternative to remediation; Economic considerations in liability for ground water contamination; and Contamination, extraction, and injection issues.

  6. Preserving ground water samples with hydrochloric acid does not result in the formation of chloroform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, Paul J.; Pankow, James F.; Barbash, Jack E.; Price, Curtis V.; Zogorski, John S.

    1999-01-01

    Water samples collected for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often preserved with hydrochloric acid (HCl) to inhibit the biotransformation of the analytes of interest until the chemical analyses can he performed. However, it is theoretically possible that residual free chlorine in the HCl can react with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to form chloroform via the haloform reaction. Analyses of 1501 ground water samples preserved with HCl from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program indicate that chloroform was the most commonly detected VOC among 60 VOCs monitored. The DOC concentrations were not significantly larger in samples with detectable chloroform than in those with no delectable chloroform, nor was there any correlation between the concentrations of chloroform and DOC. Furthermore, chloroform was detected more frequently in shallow ground water in urban areas (28.5% of the wells sampled) than in agricultural areas (1.6% of the wells sampled), which indicates that its detection was more related to urban land-use activities than to sample acidification. These data provide strong evidence that acidification with HCl does not lead to the production of significant amounts of chloroform in ground water samples. To verify these results, an acidification study was designed to measure the concentrations of all trihalomethanes (THMs) that can form as a result of HCl preservation in ground water samples and to determine if ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) could inhibit this reaction if it did occur. This study showed that no THMs were formed as a result of HCl acidification, and that ascorbic acid had no discernible effect on the concentrations of THMs measured.

  7. Ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    Some water underlies the Earth's surface almost everywhere, beneath hills, mountains, plains, and deserts. It is not always accessible, or fresh enough for use without treatment, and it's sometimes difficult to locate or to measure and describe. This water may occur close to the land surface, as in a marsh, or it may lie many hundreds of feet below the surface, as in some arid areas of the West. Water at very shallow depths might be just a few hours old; at moderate depth, it may be 100 years old; and at great depth or after having flowed long distances from places of entry, water may be several thousands of years old.

  8. Ground-water quality, water year 1995, and statistical analysis of ground-water-quality data, water years 1994-95, at the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Roybal, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    The Chromic Acid Pit site is an inactive waste disposal site that is regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The 2.2-cubic-yard cement-lined pit was operated from 1980 to 1983 by a contractor to the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss. The pit, located on the Fort Bliss military reservation in El Paso, Texas, was used for disposal and evaporation of chromic acid waste generated from chrome plating operations. The site was closed in 1989, and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission issued permit number HW-50296 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency number TX4213720101), which approved and implemented post-closure care for the Chromic Acid Pit site. In accordance with an approved post-closure plan, the U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Army in monitoring and evaluating ground-water quality at the site. One upgradient ground-water monitoring well (MW1) and two downgradient ground-water monitoring wells (MW2 and MW3), installed adjacent to the chromic acid pit, are monitored on a quarterly basis. Ground-water sampling of these wells by the U.S. Geological Survey began in December 1993. The ground-water level, measured in a production well located approximately 1,700 feet southeast of the Chromic Acid Pit site, has declined about 29.43 feet from 1982 to 1995. Depth to water at the Chromic Acid Pit site in September 1995 was 284.2 to 286.5 feet below land surface; ground-water flow at the water table is assumed to be toward the southeast. Ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells at the Chromic Acid Pit site during water year 1995 contained dissolved- solids concentrations of 481 to 516 milligrams per liter. Total chromium concentrations detected above the laboratory reporting limit ranged from 0.0061 to 0.030 milligram per liter; dissolved chromium concentrations ranged from 0.0040 to 0.010 milligram per liter. Nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 2.8 milligrams per

  9. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  10. Ground Water Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) conducts research and provides technical assistance to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted by man-made and natural...

  11. GROUND WATER SAMPLING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and
    remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  12. Ground water: a review.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    There is growing documentation that a significant portion of the Nation's fresh ground water in the densely populated areas of the USA is contaminated. Because of the slow rates of ground-water movement, ground water once contaminated will remain so for decades, often longer. Cleanup of contaminated ground water is almost always expensive and often technically unfeasible; the expense is often prohibitive. -from Author

  13. Proceedings of ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Lennon, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of Ground Water. Topics covered include: Practical use and pitfalls of numerical models; Reliability of predictions; Strengths and limitations of coupled flow/transport/geochemical models; Ground water management/water resources; The macrodispersion experiment (made-scale tracer test; Partially saturated models; Use of ground water flow/transport modeling for aquifer evaluation; Aquifer tests and tracer tests; Risk assessment for groundwater pollution control; and Groundwater quality management.

  14. Ground Water Modeling Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is supporting region, state, and tribal partners at Superfund sites and brownfields to develop new methods to better characterize, monitor, and treat ground water contamination; in order to protect drinking water, surface water, and indoor air.

  15. Ground water in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, Gerald F.; Norvitch, Ralph F.

    1976-01-01

    Although Minnesota is generally rich in ground-water resources, it is not without associated problems. In the western part of the State, ground-water quality is often a problem, especially in deep aquifers. Throughout the State, few buried outwash aquifers have been delineated or evaluated as to their water-yielding capabilities. Some aquifers are highly susceptible to pollution. Planned development and monitoring of water levels and water quality would be beneficial.

  16. Ground Water in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is one of Hawaii's most important natural resources. It is used for drinking water, irrigation, and domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Ground water provides about 99 percent of Hawaii's domestic water and about 50 percent of all freshwater used in the State. Total ground water pumped in Hawaii was about 500 million gallons per day during 1995, which is less than 3 percent of the average total rainfall (about 21 billion gallons per day) in Hawaii. From this perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample; however, much of the rainfall runs off to the ocean in streams or returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Furthermore, ground-water resources can be limited because of water-quality, environmental, or economic concerns. Water beneath the ground surface occurs in two principal zones: the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the pore spaces in rocks contain both air and water, whereas in the saturated zone, the pore spaces are filled with water. The upper surface of the saturated zone is referred to as the water table. Water below the water table is referred to as ground water. Ground-water salinity can range from freshwater to that of seawater. Freshwater is commonly considered to be water with a chloride concentration less than 250 mg/L, and this concentration represents about 1.3 percent of the chloride concentration of seawater (19,500 mg/L). Brackish water has a chloride concentration between that of freshwater (250 mg/L) and saltwater (19,500 mg/L).

  17. Interactions of metallic substances and acidic ground water in the New Jersey Coastal Plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Four ancillary studies were undertaken in support of an investigation into the extent and distribution of corrosive ground water in the Kirkwood- Cohansey aquifer system of southern New Jersey.The ancillary studies were (1) analysis of tap-water samples for metals and the acquisition of metal data from a county study, (2) leaching experiments in which copper pipe with various types of solder were exposed to a variety of ground-water types, (3) analysis of pipe-scale deposits on plumbing from houses with wells that tap the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, and (4) measurement of corrosion rates for carbon steel and copper exposed to shallow ground water from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. The results studies indicate that substantial concentrations of lead, copper, and zinc can leach from plumbing materials exposed to corrosive water from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, and that leaching appears more pronounced during the summer than during the winter. The leaching experiments indicate that the corrosiveness of water, as estimated by the calculation of a corrosion index (the Aggressive Index), is related to the concentration of trace metals in the leachate.Further, although the leaching of lead-bearing solders produced lead concentrations in leachate above the Primary Drinking Water Criterion in effect at the time of the study (50 micrograms per liter), no potentially toxic levels of metals were leached from lead-free solders, although copper concentrations in some leachate samples were in excess of the Secondary Drinking Water Criterion of 1,000 micrograms per liter. Analyses of pipe-scale deposits indicate the formation of iron oxide coatings on some copper-pipe interiors exposed to untreated well water. Treated water from a public-supply system precipitated copper carbonate and copper chloride minerals. Corrosion rates measured for copper exposed to corrosive water from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system were slow (less than 0.0254 millimeters per

  18. Ground water in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  19. In-situ alteration of minerals by acidic ground water resulting from mining activities: Preliminary evaluation of method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind, Carol J.; Creasey, C.L.; Angeroth, C.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical composition of the Cu-mining-related acidic ground water (pH ~ 3.5 to near neutral) in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona has been monitored since 1980. In-situ experiments are planned using alluvial sediments placed in the ground-water flow path to measure changes in mineral and chemical composition and changes in dissolution rates of subsurface alluvial sediments. The test results should help refine developed models of predicted chemical changes in ground-water composition and models of streamflow. For the preliminary test, sediment from the depth of the well screen of a newly drilled well was installed in three wells, the source well (pH 4.96) and two up-gradient wells (pHs 4.27 and 4.00). The sediment was placed in woven macrofilters, fastened in series to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes, and hung at the screened level of each well. After interacting with the slowly moving ground water for 48 days, the test sediments were removed for analysis. There was no evidence that any of the materials used were biologically or chemically degraded or that the porosity of the filters was diminished by ferric hydroxide precipitation. These materials included 21-??m-pore (21PEMF) and 67-??m-pore polyester and the 174-??m-pore fluorocarbon Spectra/mesh macrofilters containing the in-situ sediment, the polypropylene (PP) macrofilter support structures, and the Nylon (NY) monofilament line used to attach the samples to the PVC pipe. Based on chemical and mineral composition and on particle-size distribution of the sediment before and after ground-water exposure, the 21PEMF macrofilter was chosen as the most suitable macrofilter for the long-term in-situ experiment. Tests also showed that the PP support structures and the NY monofilament line were sufficiently durable for this experiment.The chemical composition of the Cu-mining-related acidic ground water (pH approx. 3.5 to near neutral) in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona has been monitored since 1980. In-situ experiments are

  20. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Thomas, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Chromic Acid Pit site is an inactive waste disposal site that is regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The 2.2-cubic-yard cement-lined pit was operated from 1980 to 1983 by a contractor to the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss. The pit, located on the Fort Bliss military reservation, in El Paso, Texas, was used for disposal and evaporation of chromic acid waste generated from chrome plating operations. The site was certified closed in 1989 and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission issued Permit Number HW-50296 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Number TX4213720101), which approved and implemented post-closure care for the Chromic Acid Pit site. In accordance with an approved post-closure plan, the U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Army in evaluating hydrogeologic conditions and ground- water quality at the site. One upgradient and two downgradient ground-water monitoring wells were installed adjacent to the chromic acid pit by a private contractor. Quarterly ground-water sampling of these wells by the U.S. Geological Survey began in December 1993. The Chromic Acid Pit site is situated in the Hueco Bolson intermontane valley. The Hueco Bolson is a primary source of ground water in the El Paso area. City of El Paso and U.S. Army water-supply wells are located on all sides of the study area and are completed 600 to more than 1,200 feet below land surface. The ground-water level in the area of the Chromic Acid Pit site has declined about 25 feet from 1982 to 1993. Depth to water at the Chromic Acid Pit site in September 1994 was about 284 feet below land surface; ground-water flow is to the southeast. Ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells at the Chromic Acid Pit site contained dissolved-solids concentrations of 442 to 564 milligrams per liter. Nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 2.7 milligrams per liter; nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen

  1. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-09-01

    As required by the terms of the above referenced grant, the following summary serves as the Final Report for that grant. The grant relates to work performed at two separate sites, the Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site south of Gillette, Wyoming, and the Rock Springs In-Situ Oil Shale Retort Site near Rock Springs, Wyoming. The primary concern to the State of Wyoming at each site is ground water contamination (the primary contaminants of concern are benzene and related compounds), and the purpose of the grant has been to provide tiding for a Geohydrologist at the appropriate State agency, specifically the Land Quality Division (LQD) of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality. The LQD Geohydrologist has been responsible for providing technical and regulatory support to DOE for ground water remediation and subsequent surface reclamation. Substantial progress has been made toward remediation of the sites, and continuation of LQD involvement in the remediation and reclamation efforts is addressed.

  2. Ground water and climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food secu¬rity will probably intensify under climate chan...

  3. HYDROLYSIS OF MTBE IN GROUND WATER SAMPLES PRESERVED WITIH HYDROCHLORIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional sampling and analytical protocols have poor sensitivity for fuel oxygenates that are alcohols, such as TBA. Because alcohols tend to stay with the water samples, they are not efficiently transferred to the gas chromatograph for separation and analysis. A common tec...

  4. HYDROLYSIS OF MTBE TO TBA IN GROUND WATER SAMPLES WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional sampling and analytical protocols have poor sensitivity for fuel oxygenates that are alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Because alcohols are miscible or highly soluble in water, alcohols are not efficiently transferred to the gas chromatograph for analysis....

  5. Ground water: the hidden resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Ground water is water underground in saturated zones beneath the land surface. Contrary to popular belief, ground water does not form underground "rivers." It fills the pores and fractures in underground materials such as sand, gravel, and other rock. If ground water flows from rock materials or can be removed by pumping from the saturated rock materials In useful amounts, the rock materials are called aquifers. Ground water moves slowly, typically at rates of 7 to 60 centimeters per day in an aquifer. As a result, water could remain in an aquifer for hundreds or thousands of years. Ground water is the source of about 40 percent of water used for public supplies and about 38 percent of water used for agriculture in the United States.

  6. Application of encapsulation (pH-sensitive polymer and phosphate buffer macrocapsules): a novel approach to remediation of acidic ground water.

    PubMed

    Aelion, C Marjorie; Davis, Harley T; Flora, Joseph R V; Kirtland, Brian C; Amidon, Mark B

    2009-01-01

    Macrocapsules, composed of a pH-sensitive polymer and phosphate buffer, offer a novel remediation alternative for acidic ground waters. To test their potential effectiveness, laboratory experiments were carried out followed by a field trial within a coal pile runoff (CPR) acidic contaminant plume. Results of traditional limestone and macrocapsule treatments were compared in both laboratory and field experiments. Macrocapsules were more effective than limestone as a passive treatment for raising pH in well water from 2.5 to 6 in both laboratory and field experiments. The limestone treatments had limited impact on pH, only increasing pH as high as 3.3, and armoring by iron was evident in the field trial. Aluminum, iron and sulfate concentrations remained relatively constant throughout the experiments, but phosphate increased (0.15-32 mg/L), indicating macrocapsule release. This research confirmed that macrocapsules may be an effective alternative to limestone to treat highly acidic ground water.

  7. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE: GROUND WATER SAMPLING FOR METALS ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Filtration of ground-water samples for metals analysis is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers. Inconsistency in EPA Syperfund cleanup pracices occurs where one EPA Region implements a remedial action based on unfiltered ground-water samples,...

  8. Ground water investigations in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Leon V.

    1955-01-01

    Prior to 1937, ground-water work in Oklahoma consisted of broad scale early-day reconnaissance and a few brief investigations of local areas. The reconnaissance is distinguished by C. N. Gould's "Geology and Water Resources of Oklahoma" (Water-Supply Paper 148, 1905), which covers about half of the present State of Oklahoma. Among the shorter reports are two by Schwennesen for areas near Enid and Oklahoma City, one by Renick for Enid, and one by Thompson on irrigation possibilities near Gage. These reports are now inadequate by modern standards. Cooperative ground-water work in Oklahoma by the United States Geological Survey began in 1937, with the Oklahoma Geological Survey as cooperating agency. With the passage of the new ground-water law by the State Legislature in 1949, the need for more information on available ground waters and the safe yield of the various aquifers became very pressing. Accordingly, the Division of Water Resources of the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board, to which was delegated the responsibility of administering the Ground-Water Law, entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey, providing for an expansion of ground-water investigations. Both cooperators have consistently given full and enthusiastic cooperation, often beyond the requirements of the cooperative program. The first cooperative investigation was an evaluation of ground-water supplies available for irrigation in the Panhandle. In 1937 the Panhandle was still very much in the dust bowl, and it was hoped that irrigation would alleviate the drought. A bulletin on Texas County was published in 1939, and one on Cimarron County in 1943. Ground-water investigations during the World War II were restricted to the demands of Army and Navy installations, and to defense industries. Ground-water investigations since 1945 have included both country-wide and aquifer-type investigations. In Oklahoma it has been the policy for the State cooperator to publish the

  9. Ground water and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  10. Ground Water and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  11. Concentrations of Glyphosate, Its Degradation Product, Aminomethylphosphonic Acid, and Glufosinate in Ground- and Surface-Water, Rainfall, and Soil Samples Collected in the United States, 2001-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, Elisabeth A.; Battaglin, William A.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a number of studies from 2001 through 2006 to investigate and document the occurrence, fate, and transport of glyphosate, its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate in 2,135 ground- and surface-water samples, 14 rainfall samples, and 193 soil samples. Analytical methods were developed to detect and measure glyphosate, AMPA, and glufosinate in water, rainfall, and soil. Results show that AMPA was detected more frequently and occurred at similar or higher concentrations than the parent compound, glyphosate, whereas glufosinate was seldom found in the environment. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected more frequently in surface water than in ground water. Trace levels of glyphosate and AMPA may persist in the soil from year to year. The methods and data described in this report are useful to researchers and regulators interested in the occurrence, fate, and transport of glyphosate and AMPA in the environment.

  12. Natural Radionuclides in Ground Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stanley N.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the natural trace radionuclides in ground water. Indicates the geologic origin of these radionuclides. Discusses the importance of these radionuclides. Suggests future uses of a number of additional radionuclides. (CW)

  13. Modeled ground water age distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  14. Modeled ground water age distributions.

    PubMed

    Woolfenden, Linda R; Ginn, Timothy R

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  15. Ground water in Pavant Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennis, P. E.; Maxey, G.B.; Thomas, H.E.

    1946-01-01

    The users of wells for irrigation in Pavant Valley, particularly in the Flowell district, have long been cognizant of their utter dependency upon ground water for livelihood, and were among the first in the State to make an organized effort to conserve supplies by prevention of waste. Since passage of the State ground-water law in 1935, the State Engineer has not approved applications for new wells in the areas of most concentrated development, and has deferred adjudication of existing water rights until adequate data concerning the ground-water resources become available. The investigation of ground-water resources in Pavant Valley was suggested by the State Engineer and constitutes one of a series that are being made in the important groundwater basins of Utah by the Federal Geological Survey in cooperation with the State Engineer. The investigation was under the general supervision of Oscar E. Meinzer, geologist in charge of the ground-water division of the Federal Geological Survey. H. E. Thomas, in charge of groundwater investigations in Utah, returned from military service overseas in time to assist in the completion of the manuscript, and edited the report.

  16. GROUND WATER TECHNICAL SUPPORT CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development operates a Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC). The Center provides support on issues regarding subsurface contamination, contaminant fluxes to other media (e.g., surface water or air), and ecosystem restoration. The GWTSC creat...

  17. Ground water quality protection

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, L.W.; Fairchild, D.; Knox, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Considered by the EPA to be one of the ''major Environmental Issues of the 1980s'' groundwater supplies a large majority of the water we use. Here is a book that deals with this problem. It is necessary that this problem be studied and action taken to prevent despoliation of the aquifers where this water is now found, because once contaminated an aquifer is difficult to decontaminate. CONTENTS-Groundwater: An Important Resource; Groundwater Hydrology; Groundwater Information Sources; Groundwater Pollution Sources; Pollutant Transport and Fate in the Subsurface Environment: Abiotic and Biotic Processes; Pollutant Transport and Fate in the Subsurface Environment: Hydrodynamic Processes and Flow and Solute Modeling; Pollution Source Evaluation; Empirical Assessment Methods; Groundwater Monitoring Planning; Groundwater Sampling and Analysis; Groundwater Quality Management; Groundwater Clean-up. References. Index.

  18. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of acid mine drainage in ground water in the vicinity of Penn Mine and Camanche Reservoir, Calaveras County, California; first-year summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.; Alpers, C.N.

    1995-01-01

    Acid drainage from the Penn Mine in Calaveras County, California, has caused contamination of ground water between Mine Run Dam and Camanche Reservoir. The Penn Mine was first developed in the 1860's primarily for copper and later produced lesser amounts of zinc, lead, silver, and gold from steeply dipping massive sulfide lenses in metamorphic rocks. Surface disposal of sulfidic waste rock and tailings from mine operations has produced acidic drainage with pH values between 2.3 and 2.7 and elevated concentrations of sulfate and metals, including copper, zinc, cadmium, iron, and aluminum. During the mine's operation and after its subsequent abandonment in the late 1950's, acid mine drainage flowed down Mine Run into the Mokelumne River. Construction of Camanche Dam in 1963 flooded part of the Mokelumne River adjacent to Penn Mine. Surface-water diversions and unlined impoundments were constructed at Penn Mine in 1979 to reduce runoff from the mine, collect contaminated surface water, and enhance evaporation. Some of the contaminated surface water infiltrates the ground water and flows toward Camanche Reservoir. Ground- water flow in the study area is controlled by the local hydraulic gradient and the hydraulic characteristics of two principal rock types, a Jurassic metavolcanic unit and the underlying Salt Spring slate. The hydraulic gradient is west from Mine Run impoundment toward Camanche Reservoir. The median hydraulic conductivity was about 10 to 50 times higher in the metavolcanic rock (0.1 foot per day) than in the slate (0.002 to 0.01 foot per day); most flow occurs in the metavolcanic rock where hydraulic conductivity is as high as 50 feet per day in two locations. The contact between the two rock units is a fault plane that strikes N20?W, dips 20?NE, and is a likely conduit for ground-water flow, based on down-hole measurements with a heatpulse flowmeter. Analyses of water samples collected during April 1992 provide a comprehensive characterization of

  19. Radon in ground water supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.L.; Lee, R.G.

    1989-06-01

    In September 1986, the System Water Quality Department of the American Water Works Service Co. began conducting a radon survey that was designed to determine the levels of radon in American ground water supplies, and to assess the radon removal efficiency of existing treatment processes such as filtration through granular activated carbon (GAC) and various forms of aeration. The survey found that companies in the northeastern part of the country experienced the highest levels of radon in ground water supplies. The highest concentrations were in individual wells in New Hampshire, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and California. The analytical results from the occurrence phase of the survey seemed to correlate well with the known geology of the aquifer materials from which samples of ground water were drawn. The highest levels were associated with formations of uranium-bearing granitic rocks. GAC can effectively reduce radon concentrations in drinking water supplies to very low levels. However, the amount of contact time within the carbon bed required to do so would be prohibitive to many water utilities from an operational and economic standpoint. Further, disposal of the spent GAC as a low-level radioactive waste may be required. Aeration is very effective in the removal of radon from drinking water. Packed tower aerators achieved > 95% reduction in radon concentrations and conventional cascading tray aerators achieved > 75% reduction in radon concentrations. 7 refs., 6 tabs.

  20. Microbiology of potable water and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with the microbiology of potable water and ground water is presented. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of granular activated carbon (GAC) and alternate disinfection practices to reduce trihalomethane. Results of studies utilizing GAC columns are reported as well as studies evaluating ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloromines. Virus removal efficiencies were compared with several disinfectants. Ground water studies demonstrate that biological contaminants can travel large distances underground without substantial attenuation by aquifer material.(KRM)

  1. Naturally acidic surface and ground waters draining porphyry-related mineralized areas of the Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Bove, D.J.; Plumlee, G.S.; Runkel, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Acidic, metal-rich waters produced by the oxidative weathering and resulting leaching of major and trace elements from pyritic rocks can adversely affect water quality in receiving streams and riparian ecosystems. Five study areas in the southern Rocky Mountains with naturally acidic waters associated with porphyry mineralization were studied to document variations in water chemistry and processes that control the chemical variations. Study areas include the Upper Animas River watershed, East Alpine Gulch, Mount Emmons, and Handcart Gulch in Colorado and the Red River in New Mexico. Although host-rock lithologies in all these areas range from Precambrian gneisses to Cretaceous sedimentary units to Tertiary volcanic complexes, the mineralization is Tertiary in age and associated with intermediate to felsic composition, porphyritic plutons. Pyrite is ubiquitous, ranging from ???1 to >5 vol.%. Springs and headwater streams have pH values as low as 2.6, SO4 up to 3700 mg/L and high dissolved metal concentrations (for example: Fe up to 400 mg/L; Cu up to 3.5 mg/L; and Zn up to 14.4 mg/L). Intensity of hydrothermal alteration and presence of sulfides are the primary controls of water chemistry of these naturally acidic waters. Subbasins underlain by intensely hydrothermally altered lithologies are poorly vegetated and quite susceptible to storm-induced surface runoff. Within the Red River study area, results from a storm runoff study documented downstream changes in river chemistry: pH decreased from 7.80 to 4.83, alkalinity decreased from 49.4 to <1 mg/L, SO4 increased from 162 to 314 mg/L, dissolved Fe increased from to 0.011 to 0.596 mg/L, and dissolved Zn increased from 0.056 to 0.607 mg/L. Compared to mine drainage in the same study areas, the chemistry of naturally acidic waters tends to overlap but not reach the extreme concentrations of metals and acidity as some mine waters. The chemistry of waters draining these mineralized but unmined areas can be used to

  2. COMPILATION OF GROUND WATER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The full report presents an overview of currently available computer-based simulation models for ground-water flow, solute and heat transport, and hydrogeochemistry in both porous media and fractured rock. Separate sections address multiphase flow and related chemical species tra...

  3. ADVANCES IN GROUND WATER SAMPLING PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  4. ERTS imagery for ground-water investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.; Deutsch, Morris

    1975-01-01

    ERTS imagery offers the first opportunity to apply moderately high-resolution satellite data to the nationwide study of water resources. This imagery is both a tool and a form of basic data. Like other tools and basic data, it should be considered for use in ground-water investigations. The main advantage of its use will be to reduce the need for field work. In addition, however, broad regional features may be seen easily on ERTS imagery, whereas they would be difficult or impossible to see on the ground or on low-altitude aerial photographs. Some present and potential uses of ERTS imagery are to locate new aquifers, to study aquifer recharge and discharge, to estimate ground-water pumpage for irrigation, to predict the location and type of aquifer management problems, and to locate and monitor strip mines which commonly are sources for acid mine drainage. In many cases, boundaries which are gradational on the ground appear to be sharp on ERTS imagery. Initial results indicate that the accuracy of maps produced from ERTS imagery is completely adequate for some purposes.

  5. Human interactions with ground-water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-Water could be considered as an immense reservoir, from which only a certain amount of water can be withdrawn without affecting the quantity and quality of water. This amount is determined by the characteristics of the environment in which ground-water occurs and by the interactions of ground-water with precipitation, surface water, and people. It should be recognized that quantity and quality of ground-water are intimately related and should be considered accordingly. Quantity refers to usable water and water is usable for any specific purpose only so long as its quality has not deteriorated beyond acceptable limits. Thus an overall quantitative and qualitative management of ground water is inevitable, and its should also involve the uses of ground-water reservoirs for purposes other than water supply. The main objective of ground-water management is to ensure that ground-water resources will be available in appropriate time and in appropriate quantity and quality to meet the most important demands of our society. Traditional, and obvious uses of ground-water are the extraction of water for water supplies (domestic, municipal, agricultural, and industrial) and the natural discharge feeding lakes and maintaining base flow of streams. Not so obvious are the uses of ground-water reservoirs, the very framework within which ground-water occurs and moves, and in which other fluids or materials can be stored. In the last two decades, ground-water reservoirs have been intensively considered for many other purposes than water supplies. Diversified and very often conflicting uses need to be evaluated and dealt with in the most efficient way in order to determine the importance of each possible use, and to assign priorities of these uses. With rising competition for the use of ground-water reservoirs, we will also need to increase the potential for effective planning of ground-water development and protection. Man's development and use of ground-water necessarily

  6. Sustainability of ground-water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Franke, O. Lehn

    1999-01-01

    The pumpage of fresh ground water in the United States in 1995 was estimated to be approximately 77 billion gallons per day (Solley and others, 1998), which is about 8 percent of the estimated 1 trillion gallons per day of natural recharge to the Nation's ground-water systems (Nace, 1960). From an overall national perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample. Locally, however, the availability of ground water varies widely. Moreover, only a part of the ground water stored in the subsurface can be recovered by wells in an economic manner and without adverse consequences.

  7. Ground Water Rule - Boil Water Advisory - Public Notification Template

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Ground Water Rule - Boil Water Advisory - Public Notification Template can be use to issue a Tier 1 Public Notification when it has been determined that source ground water is contaminated with E. Coli bacteria.

  8. Chemical contamination of ground water in India

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapatra, S.P.; Agnihoiri, N.P.

    1996-10-01

    Ground water is the main source of drinking water in rural areas and many urban areas in India. In addition, it has been increasingly used for irrigation in farmland. Contamination of ground water by persistent inorganic and organic chemicals has emerged as a major environmental concern in recent years. Nitrate, fluoride, heavy metals and organochlorine compounds are found to be major contaminants of ground water in different parts of the country. At many places the concentrations of these chemicals exceed national and international guideline values for drinking water. While large concentrations of heavy metals come from industrial sources, agricultural activities are responsible for ground water contamination by nitrate and organochlorine insecticides.

  9. Mississippi Embayment Regional Ground Water Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased water usage in the southeastern United States in the tri-state area of Tennessee, Mississippi and Arkansas poses a dilemma to ensuring long-term sustainability of the quantity and quality of ground-water resources that underlie the region. Demand for ground water by ag...

  10. Ground water near Newton, Jasper County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    The water quality in the South Skunk River and the alluvial aquifer was similar, except most ground-water samples contained low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in ground water resulted in high concentrations of iron and manganese in some locations and reduced forms of nitrogen.

  11. Ground water resources of Lee County

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Donivan L.

    1980-01-01

    In terms of these factors, there are few locations in Lee County where the availability of ground water is not limited to some degree. The most common limitation is poor water quality, that is, highly mineralized ground water. Secondary limitations are generally related to poor distribution, small yields from some sources, and poor accessibility due to the great depths to adequate sources.

  12. Guide to Louisiana's ground-water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, C.G.; Knochenmus, D.D.; McGee, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most valuable and abundant natural resources of Louisiana. Of the 4-.4 million people who live in the State, 61 percent use ground water as a source for drinking water. Most industrial and rural users and half of the irrigation users in the State rely on ground water. Quantity, however, is not the only aspect that makes ground water so valuable; quality also is important for its use. In most areas, little or no water treatment is required for drinking water and industrial purposes. Knowledge of Louisiana's ground-water resources is needed to ensure proper development and protection of this valuable resource. This report is designed to inform citizens about the availability and quality of ground water in Louisiana. It is not intended as a technical reference; rather, it is a guide to ground water and the significant role this resource plays in the state. Most of the ground water that is used in the State is withdrawn from 13 aquifers and aquifer systems: the Cockfield, Sparta, and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifersin northern Louisiana; Chicot aquifer system, Evangeline aquifer, Jasper aquifer system, and Catahoula aquifer in central and southwestern Louisiana; the Chicot equivalent, Evangeline equivalent, and Jasper equivalent aquifer systems in southeastern Louisiana; and the MississippiRiver alluvial, Red River alluvial, and upland terrace aquifers that are statewide. Ground water is affected by man's activities on the land surface, and the major ground-water concerns in Louisiana are: (1) contamination from surface disposal of hazardous waste, agricultural chemicals, and petroleum products; (2) contamination from surface wastes and saltwater through abandoned wells; (3) saltwater encroachment; and (4) local overdevelopment. Information about ground water in Louisiana is extensive and available to the public. Several State and Federal agencies provide published and unpublished material upon request.

  13. Ground Water in the Anchorage Area, Alaska--Meeting the Challenges of Ground-Water Sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Edward H.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2006-01-01

    Ground water is an important component of Anchorage's water supply. During the 1970s and early 80s when ground water extracted from aquifers near Ship Creek was the principal source of supply, area-wide declines in ground-water levels resulted in near record low streamflows in Ship Creek. Since the importation of Eklutna Lake water in the late 1980s, ground-water use has been reduced and ground water has contributed 14-30 percent of the annual supply. As Anchorage grows, given the current constraints on the Eklutna Lake water availability, the increasing demand for water could place an increasing reliance on local ground-water resources. The sustainability of Anchorage's ground-water resources challenges stakeholders to develop a comprehensive water-resources management strategy.

  14. Environmentally Asisted Cracking Behavior of Nickel Alloys in Simulated Acidic and Alkaline Ground Waters Using U-bend Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, D V; Estill, J C; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Rebak, R B

    2003-10-17

    The model for the degradation of the containers for nuclear waste includes three modes of corrosion, namely general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). The objective of the current research was to quantify the susceptibility of five nickel alloys to EAC in several environmental conditions with varying solution composition, temperature and electrochemical potential. These alloys included: Alloy 22 (N06022), Alloy C-4 (N06455), Alloy 625 (N06625), Alloy G-3 (N06985) and Alloy 825 (N08825). The susceptibility to EAC was evaluated using constant deformation (deflection) U-bend specimens in both the non-welded (wrought) and welded conditions. Results show that after more than five years exposure in the vapor and liquid phases of alkaline (pH {approx} 10) and acidic (pH {approx} 3) multi-ionic environments at 60 C and 90 C, none of the tested alloys suffered environmentally assisted cracking.

  15. Ground water currents: Developments in innovative ground water treatment, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    ;Contents: Low-level uranium removed from ground water; Promising ion exchange technology seeks site for demonstration; Pervaporation membrane removes volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and Ground water sampling information available.

  16. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  17. Ground-water quality in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    This report graphically summarizes ground-water quality from selected chemical-quality data for about 2,300 ground-water sites in Wyoming. Dissolved-solids, nitrate, fluoride, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, iron, and manganese concentrations are summarized on a statewide basis. The major chemical-quality problem that limits the use of Wyoming ground-water is excessive dissolved-solids concentrations. The aquifers with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentration of water in aquifers with 20 or more sampled sites, are Holocene lacustrine deposits, the upper Testiary Ogallala Formation and Arikaree Formation, and the Mississippian Madison Limestone. The counties with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentrations are Teton County and Laramie County. Hot Springs County and Natrona County have the highest median dissolved-solids concentrations. About 3 percent of the nitrate concentrations of ground-water samples exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard in 14 percent of the ground-water samples. Except for selenium, toxic trace elements generally have not been found in concentrations in excess of the drinking-water standards. About 19 percent of the iron and about 30 percent of the manganese concentrations in ground-water samples exceeded the national secondary drinking-water standards. (USGS)

  18. FUNDAMENTALS OF GROUND-WATER MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground-water flow and contaminant transport modeling has been used at many hazardous waste sites with varying degrees of success. odels may be used throughout all phases of the site investigation and remediation processes. eveloping a better understanding of ground-water modeling...

  19. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  20. COMPILATION OF GROUND-WATER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground-water modeling is a computer-based methodology for mathematical analysis of the mechanisms and controls of ground-water systems for the evaluation of policies, action, and designs that may affect such systems. n addition to satisfying scientific interest in the workings of...

  1. Ground-water conditions in Georgia, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressler, Alan M.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-water conditions in Georgia during 1999 and for the period of record were evaluated using data from U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level and ground-water-quality monitoring networks. Data for 1999 included in this report are from continuous water-level records from 130 wells and chloride analyses from 14 wells. Data from one well is incomplete because data collection was discontinued. Chloride concentration in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in most of coastal Georgia was within drinking-water standards established by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration has not changed appreciably with time. However, chloride concentration in water from some wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system in the Brunswick area exceeds the drinking-water standards. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality data are essential for water assessment and management. Ground-water-level fluctuations and trends can be used to estimate changes in aquifer storage resulting from the effects of ground-water withdrawal and recharge from precipitation. These data can be used to address water-management needs and to evaluate the effects of management and conservation programs. As part of the ground-water investigations conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the State of Georgia and city and county governments, a Statewide water-level-measurement program was started in 1938. Initially, this program consisted of an observation-well network in the coastal area of Georgia to monitor variations in ground-water storage and quality. Additional wells were later included in areas where data could be used to aid in water resources development and management. During 1999, periodic water-level measurements were made in 46 wells, and continuous water-level measurements were obtained from 165 wells. Continuous water-level records were obtained using analog (pen and chart

  2. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  3. Selected ground-water data, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrologic data for Chester County, Pennsylvania are given for 3,010 wells and 32 springs. Water levels are given for 48 observation wells measured monthly during 1936-86. Chemical analyses of ground water are given for major ions, physical properties, nutrients, metals and other trace constituents, volatile organic compounds, acid organic compounds, base-neutral organic compounds, organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated napthalenes, organophosphorous insecticides, organic acid herbicides, triazine herbicides, other organic compounds, and radionuclides.

  4. Ground-water program in Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaMoreaux, P.E.

    1955-01-01

    Several recent years of drought have emphasized the importance of Alabama's ground-water supplies, a matter of concern to us all.  So far we have been blessed in Alabama with ample ground-water, although a combination of increased use, waste, pollution, and drought has brought about critical local water shortages.  These problems serve as a fair warning of what lies ahead if we do not take the necessary steps to obtan adequate knowledge of our ground-water resources.

  5. Magnificent Ground Water Connection. [Sample Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Water conservation and usage is an important concept in science. This document, geared specifically to New England, provides many activities for protecting and discussing ground water situations. Sample activities for grades K-6 include: (1) All the Water in the World; (2) The Case of the Disappearing Water; (3) Deep Subjects--Wells and Ground…

  6. Pollution of ground water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, S.; Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of ground water in 20 countries of the European region, giving for each an account of the geology and hydrogeology, water supplies, the extent and nature of ground water pollution, and the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling that pollution. For the countries not considered in the preceding article on surface water pollution, an account is also given of the superficial physical features, rainfall, population, and industries. A general discussion follows of such questions as the ways in which ground water pollution may occur, the factors mitigating or aggravating pollution, and ways of protection against pollution. The authors consider that the problem of ground water pollution in Europe may well be more serious than it would appear to be on the evidence so far obtained. PMID:13374533

  7. Where this occurs: Ground Water and Drinking Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As ground water works its way through the soil, it can pick up excess nutrients and transport them to the water table. When polluted groundwater reaches drinking water systems it can pose serious public health threats.

  8. STATE WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE PROGRAM: GROUND WATER RESEARCH.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, James S.; ,

    1985-01-01

    This paper updates a review of the accomplishments of the State Water Resources Research Program in ground water contamination research. The aim is to assess the progress made towards understanding the mechanisms of ground water contamination and based on this understanding, to suggest procedures for the prevention and control of ground water contamination. The following research areas are covered: (1) mechanisms of organic contaminant transport in the subsurface environment; (2) bacterial and viral contamination of ground water from landfills and septic tank systems; (3) fate and persistence of pesticides in the subsurface; (4) leachability and transport of ground water pollutants from coal production and utilization; and (5) pollution of ground water from mineral mining activities.

  9. Ground-water conditions in Georgia, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressler, Alan M.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water conditions in Georgia during 1998 and for the period of record were evaluated using data from U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level and ground-water-quality monitoring networks. Data for 1998 included in this report are from continuous water-level records from 130 wells and chloride analyses from 14 wells. Data from one well is incomplete because data collection was discontinued. Chloride concentration in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in most of coastal Georgia was within drinking-water standards established by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration has not changed appreciably with time. However, chloride concentration in water from some wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system in the Brunswick area exceeds the drinking-water standards.

  10. Ground-water conditions in Georgia, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressler, A.M.; Blackburn, D.K.; McSwain, K.B.

    2001-01-01

    Ground-water conditions in Georgia during 1999 and for the period of record were evaluated using data from U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level and ground-water-quality monitoring networks. Data for 1999 included in this report are from continuous water-level records from 130 wells and chloride analyses from 14 wells. Data from one well is incomplete because data collection was discontinued. Chloride concentration in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in most of coastal Georgia was within drinking-water standards established by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration has not changed appreciably with time. However, chloride concentration in water from some wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system in the Brunswick area exceeds the drinking-water standards.

  11. Ground-water resources of Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.C.; Lohman, S.W.; Frye, J.C.; Waite, H.A.; McLaughlin, Thad G.; Latta, Bruce

    1940-01-01

    Importance of ground-water resources.—The importance of Kansas' ground-water resources may be emphasized from various viewpoints and in different ways. More than three-fourths of the public water supplies of Kansas are obtained from wells. In 1939, only 60 out of 375 municipal water supplies in Kansas, which is 16 percent, utilized surface waters. If the water wells of the cities and those located on all privately owned land in the state were suddenly destroyed, making it necessary to go to streams, springs, lakes (which are almost all artificial), and ponds for water supply domestic, stock, and industrial use, there would be almost incalculable difficulty and expense. If one could not go to springs, or dig new wells, or use any surface water derived from underground flow, much of Kansas would become uninhabitable.  These suggested conditions seem absurd, but they emphasize our dependence on ground-water resources. Fromm a quantitative standpoint, ground-water supplies existent in Kansas far outweigh surface waters that are present in the state at any one time. No exact figures for such comparison can be given, but, taking 384 square miles as the total surface water area of the state and estimating an average water depth of five feet, the computed volume of surface waters is found to be 1/100th of that of the conservatively estimated ground-water storage in Kansas. The latter takes account only of potable fresh water and is based on an assumed mean thickness of ten feet of reservoir having an effective porosity of twenty percent. It is to be remembered, however, that most of the surface water is run-off, which soon leaves the state, stream valleys being replenished from rainfall and flow from ground-water reservoirs. Most of the ground-water supplies, on the other hand, have existed for many years with almost no appreciable movement--in fact, it is reasonably certain that some well water drawn from beneath the surface of Kansas in 1940 represents rainfall in

  12. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  13. Ground-Water Recharge in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Falteisek, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    'Ground-water recharge' broadly describes the addition of water to the ground-water system. Most water recharging the ground-water system moves relatively rapidly to surface-water bodies and sustains streamflow, lake levels, and wetlands. Over the long term, recharge is generally balanced by discharge to surface waters, to plants, and to deeper parts of the ground-water system. However, this balance can be altered locally as a result of pumping, impervious surfaces, land use, or climate changes that could result in increased or decreased recharge. * Recharge rates to unconfined aquifers in Minnesota typically are about 20-25 percent of precipitation. * Ground-water recharge is least (0-2 inches per year) in the western and northwestern parts of the State and increases to greater than 6 inches per year in the central and eastern parts of the State. * Water-level measurement frequency is important in estimating recharge. Measurements made less frequently than about once per week resulted in as much as a 48 percent underestimation of recharge compared with estimates based on an hourly measurement frequency. * High-quality, long-term, continuous hydrologic and climatic data are important in estimating recharge rates.

  14. Ground water in Tooele Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, J.S.; Keller, O.A.

    1970-01-01

    This short report was written by condensing parts of a technical report on the ground water in Tooele Valley, which was prepared as part of a cooperative program between the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, and the U. S. Geological Survey to study water in Utah. If you would like to read the more detailed technical report, write for a copy of the Utah State Engineer Technical Publication 12, “Reevaluation of the ground-water resources of Tooele Valley, Utah” by J. S. Gates. Copies can be obtained free of charge from the Division of Water Rights, State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah 84114.

  15. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  16. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  17. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  18. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  19. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  20. Ground-water conditions in Georgia, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressler, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water conditions in Georgia during 1997 and for the period of record were evaluated using data from ground-water-level and ground-water-quality monitoring networks. Data for 1997 included in this report are from continuous water-level records from 71 wells and chloride analyses from 14 wells. In 1997, annual mean ground-water levels in Georgia ranged from 6.2 feet (ft) lower to 5.6 ft higher than in 1996. Of the 71 wells summarized in this report, 23 wells had annual mean water levels that were higher, 35 wells had annual mean water levels that were lower, and 11 wells had annual mean water levels that were about the same in 1997 as during 1996. Data for two wells are incomplete because data collection was discontinued at one well, and the equipment was vandalized at one well. Record-low daily mean water levels were recorded in six wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer, one well tapping the Caliborne aquifer, two wells tapping the Clayton aquifer, and three wells tapping Cretaceous aquifers. These record lows were from 0.2 to 5.6 ft lower than previous record lows. Chloride concentration in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in most of coastal Georgia was within drinking-water standards established by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration has not changed appreciably with time. However, chloride concentration in water from some wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system in the Brunswick area exceeds the drinking-water standard. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality data are essential for water assessment and management. Ground-water-level fluctuations and trends can be used to estimate changes in aquifer storage resulting from the effects of ground-water withdrawal and recharge from precipitation. These data can be used to address water-management needs and to evaluate the effects of management and conservation programs. As part of the ground-water

  1. The acetochlor registration partnership: prospective ground water monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, Andrew C; Gustafson, David I; Fuhrman, John D; van Wesenbeeck, Ian J; Simmons, Nick D; Klein, Andrew J; Travis, Kim Z; Harradine, Kevin J

    2005-01-01

    The Acetochlor Registration Partnership conducted a prospective ground water (PGW) monitoring program to investigate acetochlor [2-chloro-N-(ethoxymethyl)-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-acetamide] transport to ground water at eight sites. The distribution of soil textures among these sites was weighted toward coarser soil types, while also including finer-textured soils that dominate most corn (Zea mays L.)-growing areas of the United States. Each site consisted of a 1.2-ha test plot adjacent to a 0.2-ha control plot. Suction lysimeters and monitoring wells were installed at multiple depths within each test and control plot to sample soil-pore water and near-surface ground water. Irrigation was applied to each site during the growing season to ensure water input of 110 to 200% of average historical rainfall. Acetochlor dissipated rapidly from surface soils at all sites with a DT(50) (time for 50% of the initial residues to dissipate) of only 3 to 9 d, but leaching was not an important loss mechanism, with only 0.25% of the 15,312 soil-pore water and ground water samples analyzed containing parent acetochlor at or above 0.05 microg L(-1). However, quantifiable residues of a soil degradation product, acetochlor ethanesulfonic acid, were more common, with approximately 16% of water samples containing concentrations at or above 1.0 microg L(-1). A second soil degradation product, acetochlor oxanilic acid, was present at concentrations at or above 1.0 microg L(-1) in only 0.15% of water samples analyzed. The acetochlor PGW program demonstrated that acetochlor lacks the potential to leach to ground water at detectable concentrations, and when applied in accordance with label restrictions, is unlikely to move to ground water at concentrations hazardous to human health.

  2. Ground water geology of Edwards County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Archie T.

    1963-01-01

    About 150,000 acre-feet of water is recharged annually to and discharged from the Edwards and associated limestones in Edwards County. Most of this water is available for additional development inasmuch as only about 900 acre-feet per year is currently being used; however, additional development of ground water will result in a reduction in streamflow.

  3. Fundamentals of Ground-Water Modeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This paper presents an overview of the essential components of ground-water flow and contaminant transport modeling in saturated porous media. While fractured rocks and fractured porous rocks may behave like porous media with respect to many flow and...

  4. Section 9: Ground Water - Likelihood of Release

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    HRS training. the ground water pathway likelihood of release factor category reflects the likelihood that there has been, or will be, a release of hazardous substances in any of the aquifers underlying the site.

  5. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  6. Ground-water models cannot be validated

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, L.F.; Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Ground-water models are embodiments of scientific hypotheses. As such, the models cannot be proven or validated, but only tested and invalidated. However, model testing and the evaluation of predictive errors lead to improved models and a better understanding of the problem at hand. In applying ground-water models to field problems, errors arise from conceptual deficiencies, numerical errors, and inadequate parameter estimation. Case histories of model applications to the Dakota Aquifer, South Dakota, to bedded salts in New Mexico, and to the upper Coachella Valley, California, illustrate that calibration produces a nonunique solution and that validation, per se, is a futile objective. Although models are definitely valuable tools for analyzing ground-water systems, their predictive accuracy is limited. The terms validation and verification are misleading and their use in ground-water science should be abandoned in favor of more meaningful model-assessment descriptors. ?? 1992.

  7. MTBE concentrations in ground water in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, Steven D.

    2003-01-01

    The distribution, concentrations, and detection frequency of methyl tert-butyl-ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive used in reformulated gasoline to improve air quality, were characterized in Pennsylvania?s ground water. Two sources of MTBE in ground water, the atmosphere and storage-tank release sites, were examined. An analysis of atmospheric MTBE concentrations shows that MTBE detections (MTBE greater than or equal to 0.2 micrograms per liter) in ground water are more likely the result of storage-tank releases than atmospheric deposition. A comparison of 86 ground-water samples near storage-tank releases and 359 samples from ambient ground water (not thought to be affected by point-source releases of MTBE or BTEX compounds) shows that samples within about 0.5 mile downgradient of storagetank release sites have significantly greater MTBE detection frequency than ambient ground-water samples. Aquifer type, land use, and the use of Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) are associated with high rates of occurrence of MTBE in ground water in Pennsylvania. Ground-water samples from wells in crystalline-rock aquifers near storage- tank release sites have a significantly greater MTBE detection frequency (57 percent) compared to other aquifers. Samples from wells in urban areas have a significantly greater MTBE detection frequency compared to ambient samples in agricultural and forested areas. Samples from the RFG-use areas in the five southeastern counties of Pennsylvania have a significantly greater MTBE detection frequency than samples outside of the RFG-use area. MTBE detection frequency of samples near storage- tank release sites in the RFG-use area (45 percent) are significantly greater than ambient samples in the RFG-use area.

  8. A ground electromagnetic survey used to map sulfides and acid sulfate ground waters at the abandoned Cabin Branch Mine, Prince William Forest Park, northern Virginia gold-pyrite belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    gold and silver. The environmental impact of massive sulfide deposits can be substantial. These deposits are characterized by high concentrations of heavy-metal sulfide minerals, hosted by silicate rocks. Thus, weathering of these deposits and their mine wastes has the potential to generate heavy-metal laden sulfuric acid that can have negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems. In addition, lead associated with solid mine wastes has the potential for human health impacts through ingestion. The heavy metals that are encountered in these deposits and are most likely to cause environmental impacts include copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, and arsenic. In addition, the weathering of pyrite releases large amounts of iron, and the acid generated attacks the country rocks and causes the release of large amounts of aluminum, which also can severely impact aquatic ecosystems. A reclamation attempt was made at the site in 1995, including construction of storm-water diversion trenches around the abandoned mine area, grading tailings away from the stream bank, addition of pulverized limestone and topsoil, and revegetation. The post-reclamation chemistry of shallow groundwaters (<3 meters deep) shows a neutral pH on the southwestern bank of the stream but pH of 4.1 to 4.5 on the northeastern bank. The dominant ions are Fe2+ and SO42- (Seal, Haffner, Meier, and Pollio, 1999) A ground electromagnetic survey was conducted over the site in 1999 as part of a wider study ( Seal, Haffner, and Meier, 1998a,b, 1999). It was hoped that a 3-D map of the soil conductivity derived from the survey could provide insight into the distribution of the mobilized sulfides present under the ground. This study was conducted in cooperation with the National Park Service

  9. Trace-metal leaching from plumbing materials exposed to acidic ground water in three areas of the coastal plain of New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kish, G.R.; Macy, J.A.; Mueller, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey analyzed trace metal concentrations in tap water from domestic wells in newly constructed homes in Berkeley Township, Ocean County and Galloway Township, Atlantic County, N. J. The potable water distribution systems in all of the homes sampled are constructed primarily of copper with lead-based solder points. Home water treatment is used in Berkeley Township but not in Galloway Township. Tap water was collected after the water had been standing in the pipes overnight. In Berkeley, 6 to 11 samples exceeded both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's primary drinking water regulation (DWR) for lead (50 microgram/L) and the secondary drinking water regulation (SDWR) for copper (1,000 microgram/L). In Galloway, 12 of 14 samples exceeded the DWR for lead and 13 of 14 exceeded the SDWR for copper. After collecting the standing-water samples, the water was left running for 15 minutes and a second sample was collected. None of the running-water samples exceeded the regulations for lead or copper. Available data suggest a correlation between the residence time of soft, acidic groundwater in new home plumbing systems and elevated trace-metal concentrations in drinking water derived from domestic wells within the New Jersey Coastal Plain. (USGS)

  10. Ground-water data for Michigan, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to make available the records of water levels in principal aquifers of the State through 1976 and to compile related data, such as records of ground-water pumpage. Also included in the report are data on municipal, public, and industrial water-supply facilities. Records of water levels in areas of heavy pumpage and in areas where changes are principally due to natural influences are illustrated or tabulated to allow comparison between these types of water-level fluctuations. Water levels and related data provide a record for the evaluation of available ground-water supplies. The long-term records serve as a framework to which short-term records may be related. This report is written for persons, municipalities, industries, institutions, consultants, drillers, and hydrologists interested in the groundwater resources of the State.

  11. Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) Annual ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of U.S. EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL). The GWTSC is one of an interlinked group of specialized Technical Support Centersthat were established under the Technical Support Project (TSP). The GWTSC provides technical support on issues related to groundwater. Specifically, the GWTSC provides technical support to U.S. EPA and State regulators for issues and problems related to:1. subsurface contamination (contaminants in ground water, soils and sediments),2. cross-media transfer (movement of contaminants from the subsurface to other media such as surface water or air), and3. restoration of impacted ecosystems.The GWTSC works with Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) and other decision makers to solve specific problems at Superfund, RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act), Brownfields sites, and ecosystem restoration sites. The Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of U.S. EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL). The GWTSC is one of an interlinked group of specialized Technical Suppo

  12. Ground-water control of evaporite deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, W.W.; Sanford, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    The ratio of ground-water outflow to inflow (flux ratio) in hydrologically open basins is as important in determining the mineralogy and thicknesses of evaporite deposits as the solute composition of the inflow water. Attainment of steady state flux ratios permits large thicknesses of two or three minerals to form rather than thin veneers of many minerals. -from Authors

  13. Ground Water Flow No Longer A Mystery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Jay H.; Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1976-01-01

    Examined are the physical characteristics of ground water movement. Some potential pollution problems are identified. Models are used to explain mathematical and hydraulic principles of flow toward a pumping well and an effluent stream, flow around and through lenticular beds, and effects of pumping on the water table. (Author/MR)

  14. Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-02-16

    Most ground water used for drinking occurs near the earth's surface and is easily contaminated. Of major concern is the potential contamination of underground sources of drinking water by any of the hundreds of thousands of subsurface wastewater disposal injection wells nationwide.

  15. Ground water and surface water; a single resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Thomas C.; Harvey, Judson W.; Franke, O. Lehn; Alley, William M.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of considering ground water and surface water as a single resource has become increasingly evident. Issues related to water supply, water quality, and degradation of aquatic environments are reported on frequently. The interaction of ground water and surface water has been shown to be a significant concern in many of these issues. Contaminated aquifers that discharge to streams can result in long-term contamination of surface water; conversely, streams can be a major source of contamination to aquifers. Surface water commonly is hydraulically connected to ground water, but the interactions are difficult to observe and measure. The purpose of this report is to present our current understanding of these processes and activities as well as limitations in our knowledge and ability to characterize them.

  16. Recharge estimation for transient ground water modeling.

    PubMed

    Jyrkama, Mikko I; Sykes, Jon F; Normani, Stefano D

    2002-01-01

    Reliable ground water models require both an accurate physical representation of the system and appropriate boundary conditions. While physical attributes are generally considered static, boundary conditions, such as ground water recharge rates, can be highly variable in both space and time. A practical methodology incorporating the hydrologic model HELP3 in conjunction with a geographic information system was developed to generate a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition for ground water modeling. The approach uses daily precipitation and temperature records in addition to land use/land cover and soils data. The importance of the method in transient ground water modeling is demonstrated by applying it to a MODFLOW modeling study in New Jersey. In addition to improved model calibration, the results from the study clearly indicate the importance of using a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition in ground water quality modeling, where the detailed knowledge of the evolution of the ground water flowpaths is imperative. The simulated water table is within 0.5 m of the observed values using the method, while the water levels can differ by as much as 2 m using uniform recharge conditions. The results also show that the combination of temperature and precipitation plays an important role in the amount and timing of recharge in cooler climates. A sensitivity analysis further reveals that increasing the leaf area index, the evaporative zone depth, or the curve number in the model will result in decreased recharge rates over time, with the curve number having the greatest impact.

  17. Iowa ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, R.C.; Squillace, P.J.; Drustrup, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, and several counties in Iowa, currently (1986) is monitoring about 1,500 public and private wells for inorganic and organic constituents. The principal objective of this program, begun in 1982, is to collect water-quality data that will describe the long-term chemical quality of the surficial and major bedrock aquifer systems in Iowa (Detroy, 1985).

  18. High Plains regional ground-water study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennehy, Kevin F.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, industry and government have made large financial investments aimed at improving water quality across the Nation. Significant progress has been made; however, many water-quality concerns remain. In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment Program to provide consistent and scientifically sound information for managing the Nation's water resources. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers, (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality. Assessing the quality of water in every location in the Nation would not be practical; therefore, NAWQA Program studies are conducted within a set of areas called study units (fig. 1). These study units are composed of more than 50 important river and aquifer systems that represent the diverse geography, water resources, and land and water uses of the Nation. The High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study is one such study area, designed to address issues relevant to the High Plains Aquifer system while supplementing water-quality information collected in other study units across the Nation. Implementation of the NAWQA Program for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study area began in 1998.

  19. EPA GROUND WATER ISSUE: Ground Water Sample Preservation at ISCO Sites – Recommended Guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) involves the introduction of a chemical oxidant into the subsurface for the purpose of transforming ground water contaminants into harmless byproducts. Due to oxidant persistence, ground water samples collected at hazardous waste sites may contai...

  20. Ground-water situation in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newcomb, R.C.

    1951-01-01

    The water that occurs beneath the land surface follows definite and well-known rules of hydraulics, the same as water on the surface. However, ground water must be studied by methods, some of which are unique to that type of water occurrence, in order to evaluate the part it plays in the over-all water scheme.Water that falls on the land surface as rain or snow and water that rests upon the surface may in places pass laterally or downward through the pores of the earth materials. There it may take one or more of a variety of paths before again flowing out on the surface or being expelled to the atmosphere by evaporation and by the transpiration of plants. Water so diverted underground is delayed or diverted from its course toward the sea and that digression results in many services of prime importance to mankind. Underground, the water generally exceeds in total quantity the water present on the land surface at any one time.The discussion of ground water can be clarified somewhat by a description of the major parts or phases of the normal path of water underground.

  1. Ground-Water Data for Georgia, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joiner, Charles N.; Peck, Michael F.; Reynolds, Mark S.; Stayton, Welby L.

    1989-01-01

    Continuous water-level records from 144 wells and water-level measurements from an additional 617 wells in Georgia during 1988 provide the basic data for this report. Daily mean water-level hydrographs for selected wells illustrate the effects that changes ln recharge and discharge have had on the ground-water reservoirs in the State during 1988. Monthly mean water levels are shown for the 10-year period 1979-88. Maps showing the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer for Hay 1988 and the Claiborne and Clayton aquifers for October 1988 also are presented. Annual mean water levels in Georgia generally were below those measured in 1987; water levels ranged from 6.9 feet higher to 7.3 feet lower. Record-low water levels were measured during the last half of 1988 in 18 wells tapping the crystalline rock aquifer, the Cretaceous rock aquifer system, the Midville aquifer system, and the Clayton, Upper Floridan, and upper Brunswick aquifers. These record lows were from 0.1 to 1.4 feet lower than the previous record lows. A prolonged drought resulted in decreased recharge to the aquifers and increased ground-water pumping, which caused water levels to decline. Water-quality samples collected periodically throughout Georgia are analyzed as part of areal and regional ground-water studies. Maps showing chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer in October 1988 in coastal Georgia and in the Savannah and Brunswick areas are presented. Periodic monitoring of water quality in the Savannah and Brunswick areas indicates that chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan generally have remained stable.

  2. Dichlorobenzene in ground water: Evidence for long-term persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, L.B.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrologic and geochemical evidence were used to establish the long-term persistence of dichlorobenzene in ground water that has been contaminated from 50 years of rapid-infiltration sewage disposal. An extensive plume of dichlorobenzene extends more than 3,500 meters downgradient from the disposal beds, with concentrations of the combined isomers ranging from less than 0.01 to over 1.0 ??g/l. Based on estimates of maximum ground-water flow velocities, a minimum age of 20 years was established for the farthest downgradient zone of dichlorobenzene contamination. Branched-chained, alkylbenzenesulfonic acid surfactants, that were introduced into the ground water prior to 1966, occur along with dichlorobenzene in the downgradient part of the plume, further establish residence of the compounds in the aquifer for at least 20 years. Although dichlorobenzene can be biologically degraded under aerobic conditions, its persistence at this field site is attributed to the dynamics of the ground-water system. Denitrifying conditions, resulting from the degradation of organic compounds in the aquifer near the disposal beds, appear to have enhanced the persistence of dichlorobenzene, which is not degraded by anaerobic bacteria. Biological degradation of dichlorobenzene in the aerobic part of the plume downgradient from the source is probably limited by the paucity of a suitable organic-carbon substrate and the low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the contaminated ground water.

  3. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zenone, Chester; Anderson, Gary S.

    1978-01-01

    Present deficiencies in the ground-water information base are obvious limiting factors to ground-water development in Alaska. There is a need to extend the ground-water data-collection network and to pursue special research into the quantitative aspects of ground-water hydrology in cold regions, particularly the continuous permafrost zone.

  4. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  5. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water monitoring systems. 258.51... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  6. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water monitoring systems. 257.22... Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number of...

  7. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  8. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  9. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  10. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  11. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  12. Water surface is acidic

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Victoria; Milet, Anne; Vácha, Robert; Jungwirth, Pavel; Devlin, J. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Water autoionization reaction 2H2O → H3O− + OH− is a textbook process of basic importance, resulting in pH = 7 for pure water. However, pH of pure water surface is shown to be significantly lower, the reduction being caused by proton stabilization at the surface. The evidence presented here includes ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations of water slabs with solvated H3O+ and OH− ions, density functional studies of (H2O)48H+ clusters, and spectroscopic isotopic-exchange data for D2O substitutional impurities at the surface and in the interior of ice nanocrystals. Because H3O+ does, but OH− does not, display preference for surface sites, the H2O surface is predicted to be acidic with pH < 4.8. For similar reasons, the strength of some weak acids, such as carbonic acid, is expected to increase at the surface. Enhanced surface acidity can have a significant impact on aqueous surface chemistry, e.g., in the atmosphere. PMID:17452650

  13. Quality of ground water in Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yee, Johnson J.; Souza, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The major aquifers in Idaho are categorized under two rock types, sedimentary and volcanic, and are grouped into six hydrologic basins. Areas with adequate, minimally adequate, or deficient data available for groundwater-quality evaluations are described. Wide variations in chemical concentrations in the water occur within individual aquifers, as well as among the aquifers. The existing data base is not sufficient to describe fully the ground-water quality throughout the State; however, it does indicate that the water is generally suitable for most uses. In some aquifers, concentrations of fluoride, cadmium, and iron in the water exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking-water standards. Dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate may cause problems in some local areas. Water-quality data are sparse in many areas, and only general statements can be made regarding the areal distribution of chemical constituents. Few data are available to describe temporal variations of water quality in the aquifers. Primary concerns related to special problem areas in Idaho include (1) protection of water quality in the Rathdrum Prairie aquifer, (2) potential degradation of water quality in the Boise-Nampa area, (3) effects of widespread use of drain wells overlying the eastern Snake River Plain basalt aquifer, and (4) disposal of low-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Shortcomings in the ground-water-quality data base are categorized as (1) multiaquifer sample inadequacy, (2) constituent coverage limitations, (3) baseline-data deficiencies, and (4) data-base nonuniformity.

  14. Ground-water models for water resource planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    In the past decade hydrogeologists have emphasized the development of computer-based mathematical models to aid in the understanding of flow, the transport of solutes, transport of heat, and deformation in the ground-water system. These models have been used to provide information and predictions for water managers. Too frequently, ground-water was neglected in water resource planning because managers believed that it could not be adequately evaluated in terms of availability, quality, and effect of development on surface-water supplies. Now, however, with newly developed digital ground-water models, effects of development can be predicted. Such models have been used to predict hydrologic and quality changes under different stresses. These models have grown in complexity over the last ten years from simple one-layer models to three-dimensional simulations of ground-water flow, which may include solute transport, heat transport, effects of land subsidence, and encroachment of saltwater. Case histories illustrate how predictive ground-water models have provided the information needed for the sound planning and management of water resources in the USA. ?? 1983 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  15. Ground-water provinces of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    As part of a study of the status of investigations and development of ground water in Brazil, made under the auspices of the United States International Cooperation Administration and with the cooperation of the Government of Brazil, the country was divided into seven ground-water provinces. The identification and delineation of the provinces were based on the regional distribution of the dominant geologic units which are known or inferred to have distinctive water-bearing characteristics. Three of the provinces, covering most of the country, are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Three others coincide in part with four extensive sedimentary basins--the Parnaiba or Maranhfio basin and the contiguous Sao Francisco basin in the northeast and east, the Amazon basin in the north and northwest, and the Paranfi basin in the south and southwest. In addition, the narrow, discontinuous coastal plain is considered as a province. the occurrence of ground water is discussed briefly, and pertinent data are given on the more important aquifers, together with information on some existing wells. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline rocks of low permeability, it is difficult in many areas to develop large or even adequate ground-water supplies. In general, satisfactory supplies of water are available in most of the rest of the country. Some problems include the relative deficiency of rainfall in the northeast together with the occurrence, in parts of this region, of mineralized water in the crystalline rocks. Also, there is a potential problem of excessive lowering of water levels and interference among wells in the intensively developed area of the city of Sao Paulo.

  16. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) has developed a number of Issue Papers and Briefing Documents which are designed to exchange up-to-date information related to the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water at hazardous waste sites. n an attemp...

  17. EPA'S GROUND WATER TECHNICAL SUPPORT CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose and the services provided by EPA's Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) will be presented. In 1987 the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Regional Waste Management Offices, and ORD established the Technical Support Project (TSP)

    The purpos...

  18. PRIORITIZATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINANTS AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to identify chemical, physical, bacteriological, and viral contaminants, and their sources, which present the greatest health threat in public ground water supplies in the USA; and to classify (prioritize) such contaminants and relative to their...

  19. Trace metal concentrations in shallow ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelewski, L.M.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Armstrong, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    Trace metal clean sampling and analysis techniques were used to examine the temporal patterns or Hg, Cu, and Zn concentrations in shallow ground water, and the relationships between metal concentrations in ground water and in a hydrologically connected river. Hg, Cu, and Zn concentrations in ground water ranged from 0.07 to 4.6 ng L-1, 0.07 to 3.10 ??g L-1, and 0.17 to 2.18 ??g L-1, respectively. There was no apparent seasonal pattern in any of the metal concentrations. Filtrable Hg, Cu, and Zn concentrations in the North Branch of the Milwaukee River ranged from below the detection limit to 2.65 ng Hg L-1, 0.51 to 4.30 ??g Cu L-1, and 0.34 to 2.33 ??g Zn L-1. Thus, metal concentrations in ground water were sufficiently high to account for a substantial fraction of the filtrable trace metal concentration in the river. Metal concentrations in the soil ranged from 8 to 86 ng Hg g-1, 10 to 39 ??g Cu g-1, and 15 to 84 ??g Zn g-1. Distribution coefficients, KD, in the aquifer were 7900, 22,000, and 23,000 L kg-1 for Hg, Cu, and Zn, respectively. These values were three to 40 times smaller than KD values observed in the Milwaukee River for suspended particulate matter.

  20. Ground Water Sampling for Metal Analyses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Filtration of ground-water samples for metals analysis is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers. Inconsistency in EPA Superfund cleanup ractices occurs where one EPA Region implements a remedial action based on...

  1. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

    1991-03-30

    Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

  2. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support.

  3. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER (GW-761)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of nitrate and related compounds in ground water is discussed from the perspectives of its natural as well as anthropogenic origins. A brief explanation of the nitrogen cycle touches on the production as well as utilization of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and nitrog...

  4. Ground Water in a Fish Tank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Robin K.

    1992-01-01

    Describes creating a Model Aquatic/Terrestrial Ecosystem for use in helping students understand how water moves beneath the ground's surface. The model is constructed from a fish tank using rocks, soil, gravel, clay, and organic materials. Author describes possible cooperative-learning and problem-solving activities that can be done with this…

  5. Ground water and the rural homeowner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Roger M.

    1988-01-01

    As the salesmen sang in the musical The Music Man, "You gotta know the territory." This saying is also true when planning to buy or build a house. Learn as much as possible about the land, the water supply, and the septic system of the house before buying or building. Do not just look at the construction aspects or the beauty of the home and surroundings. Be sure to consider the environmental conditions around and beneath the site as well. Try to visit the site under adverse conditions, such as during heavy rain or meltwater runoff, to observe the drainage characteristics, particularly the condition of the basement. Many of the conditions discussed in this book, such as lowered well-water levels, flooded basements, and contamination from septic systems, are so common that rural families often have to deal with one or more of them. The purpose of this book is to awaken an interest in ground water and an awareness of where it is available, how it moves, how people can adjust to its patterns to avoid problems, and how it can be protected and used wisely. This booklet provides both present and prospective rural homeowners, particularly those in the glaciated northern parts of the United States, with a basic but comprehensive description of ground water. It also presents problems one may expect to encounter with ground water and some solutions or suggestions for help with these problems.

  6. Ground water and the rural homeowner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Roger M.

    1994-01-01

    As the salesmen sang in the musical The Music Man, "You gotta know the territory." This saying is also true when planning to buy or build a house. Learn as much as possible about the land, the water supply, and the septic system of the house before buying or building. Do not just look at the construction aspects or the beauty of the home and surroundings. Be sure to consider the environmental conditions around and beneath the site as well. Try to visit the site under adverse conditions, such as during heavy rain or meltwater runoff, to observe the drainage characteristics, particularly the condition of the basement. Many of the conditions discussed in this book, such as lowered well-water levels, flooded basements, and contamination from septic systems, are so common that rural families often have to deal with one or more of them. The purpose of this book is to awaken an interest in ground water and an awareness of where it is available, how it moves, how people can adjust to its patterns to avoid problems, and how it can be protected and used wisely. This booklet provides both present and prospective rural homeowners, particularly those in the glaciated northern parts of the United States, with a basic but comprehensive description of ground water. It also presents problems one may expect to encounter with ground water and some solutions or suggestions for help with these problems.

  7. Simulation of ground-water flow and areas contributing ground water to production wells, Cadillac, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, Christopher J.; Westjohn, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water for domestic, municipal, and industrial use within the northwest section of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. Because of the importance of this resource, numerous communities including the city of Cadillac in Wexford County, Michigan, have begun local wellhead protection programs. In these programs, communities protect their ground-water resources by identifying the areas that contribute water to production wells, identifying potential sources of contamination, and developing methods to cooperatively manage and minimize threats to the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cadillac, simulated regional ground-water flow and estimated areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the production well field. Ground-water flow models for the Clam River watershed, in Wexford and Missaukee Counties, were developed using the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW 2000). Ground-water flow models were calibrated using the observation, sensitivity, and parameter estimation packages of MODFLOW 2000. Ground-water-head solutions from calibrated flow models were used in conjunction with MODPATH, a particle-tracking program, to simulate regional ground-water flow and estimate areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the Cadillac production-well field for a 10-year period. Model simulations match the conceptual model in that regional ground-water flow in the deep ground-water system is from southeast to northwest across the watershed. Areas contributing water were determined for the optimized parameter set and an alternate parameter set that included increased recharge and hydraulic conductivity values. Although substantially different hydrologic parameters (assumed to represent end-member ranges of realistic hydrologic parameters) were used in alternate numerical simulations, simulation results differ little in predictions of

  8. Ground-water reconnaissance of American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Daniel Arthur

    1963-01-01

    The principal islands of American Samoa are Tutuila, Aunuu, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u, which have a total area of about 72 square miles and a population of about 20,000. The mean annual rainfall is 150 to 200 inches. The islands are volcanic in origin and are composed of lava flows, dikes, tuff. and breccia, and minor amounts of talus, alluvium, and calcareous sand and gravel. Tutuila is a complex island formed of rocks erupted from five volcanoes. Aunuu is a tuff cone. Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u are composed largely of thin-bedded lava flows. Much of the rock of Tutuila has low permeability, and most of the ground water is in high-level reservoirs that discharge at numerous small springs and seeps. The flow from a few springs and seeps is collected in short tunnels or in basins for village supply, but most villages obtain their water from streams. A large supply of basal ground water may underlie the Tafuna-Leone plain at about sea level in permeable lava flows. Small basal supplies may be in alluvial fill at the mouths of large valleys. Aunuu has small quantities of basal water in beach deposits of calcareous sand and gravel. Minor amounts of high-level ground-water flow from springs and seeps on Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u. The generally permeable lava flows in the three islands contain substantial amounts of basal ground water that can be developed in coastal areas in wells dug to about sea level.

  9. Characterization of Climax granite ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Isherwood, D.; Harrar, J.; Raber, E.

    1982-08-01

    The Climax ground water fails to match the commonly held views regarding the nature of deep granitic ground waters. It is neither dilute nor in equilibrium with the granite. Ground-water samples were taken for chemical analysis from five sites in the fractured Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The waters are high in total dissolved solids (1200 to 2160 mg/L) and rich in sodium (56 to 250 mg/L), calcium (114 to 283 mg/L) and sulfate (325 to 1060 mg/L). Two of the samples contained relatively high amounts of uranium (1.8 and 18.5 mg/L), whereas the other three contained uranium below the level of detection (< 0.1 mg/L). The pH is in the neutral range (7.3 to 8.2). The differences in composition between samples (as seen in the wide range of values for the major constituents and total dissolved solids) suggest the samples came from different, independent fracture systems. However, the apparent trend of increasing sodium with depth at the expense of calcium and magnesium suggests a common evolutionary chemical process, if not an interconnected system. The waters appear to be less oxidizing with depth (+ 410 mV at 420 m below the surface vs + 86 mV at 565 m). However, with Eh measurements on only two samples, this correlation is questionable. Isotopic analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and that the source of the sulfate is probably the pyrite in the fracture-fill material. Analysis of the measured water characteristics using the chemical equilibrium computer program EQ3 indicates that the waters are not in equilibrium with the local mineral assemblage. The solutions appear to be supersaturated with respect to the mineral calcite, quartz, kaolinite, muscovite, k-feldspar, and many others.

  10. Ground water exfiltration in a river oxbow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suck, M.; Nützmann, G.; Lewandowski, J.

    2009-04-01

    This paper deals with the quantification of the exchange between ground water and surface water in a river oxbow. Implementation and evaluation of the study site are based upon a conceptual model, in which exfiltration into the oxbow and mainly into the adjacent river Spree are supposed as major transport processes. A clogging mud layer in the oxbow with its low hydraulic conductivity controls exfiltration and is the highest hydraulic resistance in the considered aquatic system. The measurement of temperature depth profiles within that layer was one of the methods applied to measure groundwater exfiltration. Because of the different groundwater and surface water temperatures there are temperature differences between the upper and lower boundary of the mud layer. Depending on the extent of ground water exfiltration that depth profile is more or less curved. By adaptation of an analytical solution to the plotted temperature depth profiles the flux rates were calculated. A supplementary method to measure exfiltration, the seepage meter, is used for direct measurements of the flux rates. With that method the ground water flux which passes a defined cross section of the sediment-water boundary is collected. The evaluation of the results yields higher exfiltration rates for the temperature depth profiles than for the seepage meters. For the seepage meters the results show only a part of the actual flux rates because of several error sources. Despite those errors the comparison of the results from both methods shows a similar flux pattern with strong small-scale heterogeneities. At scales of few meters the measured flux rates fluctuate more than an order of magnitude. The flux rates near the bank are frequently higher than in the middle of the oxbow. However, the flux rates are controlled by the thickness of the clogging mud layer, its hydraulic conductivity, its heterogeneity and the water table differences between surface water and adjacent aquifer.

  11. Ground water currents: Developments in innovative ground water treatment, issue No. 13, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    ;Contents: Ground Water Remediation Center; A solution to bioremediation`s soil plugging; Bioremediation video; VISITT 4.0 update; Update on ZENON pervaporation; and Site search-NAPL contaminated site wanted.

  12. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE - ACCURACY OF DEPTH TO WATER MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accuracy of depth to water measurements is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers as they attempt to determine directions of ground-water flow, areas of recharge of discharge, the hydraulic characteristics of aquifers, or the effects of manmade...

  13. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  14. Water resources data, Idaho, 2004; Volume 3. Ground water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, A.M.; Conti, S.N.; O'Dell, I.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 209 stream-gaging stations and 8 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 39 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 18 lakes sites, and 395 groundwater wells; and water levels for 425 observation network wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  15. Water resources data, Idaho, 2003; Volume 3. Ground water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, A.M.; Conti, S.N.; O'Dell, I.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 208 stream-gaging stations and 14 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 50 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 398 groundwater wells; and water levels for 427 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  16. REGIONAL GROUND-WATER-QUALITY NETWORK DESIGN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templin, William E.; ,

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used in designing a regional network to monitor the complex ground-water-quality conditions in the San Joaquin Valley, California. The actual network approximates the ideal network with the constraint of primarily using wells that are already being monitored by someone for some purpose. Further inventories of monitoring networks and installation of some specialized monitoring wells will be needed. Use of statistical network analysis techniques is also needed to make network improvements. Following these actions, the actual network will more closely approximate the ideal network in providing information on ground-water-quality trends, contaminant sources, prevention of future sources of contamination, monitoring well distributions, sampling frequencies, and constituents to be monitored.

  17. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual.

  18. Coupled surface-water and ground-water model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric D.; Wexler, Eliezer J.

    1991-01-01

    In areas with dynamic and hydraulically well connected ground-water and surface-water systems, it is desirable that stream-aquifer interaction be simulated with models of equal sophistication and accuracy. Accordingly, a new, coupled ground-water and surface-water model was developed by combining the U.S. Geological Survey models MODFLOW and BRANCH. MODFLOW is the widely used modular three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water model and BRANCH is a one-dimensional numerical model commonly used to simulate flow in open-channel networks. Because time steps used in ground-water modeling commonly are much longer than those used in surface-water simulations, provision has been made for handling multiple BRANCH time steps within one MODFLOW time step. Verification testing of the coupled model was done using data from previous studies and by comparing results with output from a simpler four-point implicit open-channel flow model linked with MODFLOW.

  19. Regional Analysis of Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2007-01-01

    A modeling analysis of runoff and ground-water recharge for the arid and semiarid southwestern United States was performed to investigate the interactions of climate and other controlling factors and to place the eight study-site investigations into a regional context. A distributed-parameter water-balance model (the Basin Characterization Model, or BCM) was used in the analysis. Data requirements of the BCM included digital representations of topography, soils, geology, and vegetation, together with monthly time-series of precipitation and air-temperature data. Time-series of potential evapotranspiration were generated by using a submodel for solar radiation, taking into account topographic shading, cloudiness, and vegetation density. Snowpack accumulation and melting were modeled using precipitation and air-temperature data. Amounts of water available for runoff and ground-water recharge were calculated on the basis of water-budget considerations by using measured- and generated-meteorologic time series together with estimates of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of subsoil geologic units. Calculations were made on a computational grid with a horizontal resolution of about 270 meters for the entire 1,033,840 square-kilometer study area. The modeling analysis was composed of 194 basins, including the eight basins containing ground-water recharge-site investigations. For each grid cell, the BCM computed monthly values of potential evapotranspiration, soil-water storage, in-place ground-water recharge, and runoff (potential stream flow). A fixed percentage of runoff was assumed to become recharge beneath channels operating at a finer resolution than the computational grid of the BCM. Monthly precipitation and temperature data from 1941 to 2004 were used to explore climatic variability in runoff and ground-water recharge. The selected approach provided a framework for classifying study-site basins with respect to climate and dominant recharge

  20. Ground water in Myrtle Creek - Glendale area, Douglas County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe briefly the occurence of ground water and to present ground-water information that will help water users, public officials, and planners to determine the probability of obtaining adequate quanitities of good-quality ground water in the Myrtle Creek-Glendale area.

  1. Hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the Upper Wood River Ground-Water Reservoir, Rhode Island. Water resources investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerman, D.C.; Bell, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes the hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the upper Wood River ground-water reservoir, Rhode Island. The report includes discussion of (1) recharge to and hydraulic properties of the stratified-drift aquifer, (2) stream-aquifer interconnection, (3) assessment of the quality of ground water and surface water, (4) input to and calibration of a two-dimensional ground-water-flow model, and (5) results of simulations of the effect of alternative ground-water-development schemes on ground-water levels and streamflow.

  2. Ground water in the Cuyama Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Upson, J.E.; Worts, George Frank

    1951-01-01

    This is the fourth of a series of interpretive reports on the water resources of the major valleys of Santa Barbara County, Calif., prepared by the Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, in cooperation with Santa Barbara County. The first three reports described the other major valleys in the county: the south-coast basins, Goleta and Carpinteria, and the Santa Maria and Santa Ynez River valleys. This report deals with the Cuyama Valley in the northeastern part of the county and adjoining parts of San Luis Obispo, Kern, and Ventura Counties. It includes estimates of natural discharge, pumpage, and yield of ground water, and all data on water levels, well records, and water quality that were available up to June 1946.

  3. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF GROUND WATER EXTRACTION SYSTEMS (JOURNAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most common process for remediating contaminated ground water is extraction and treatment. Data from 19 ongoing and completed ground water extraction systems were collected and analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this process in achieving cleanup concentration goals for...

  4. Ground water in Creek County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cady, Richard Carlysle

    1937-01-01

    Creek County has been designated as a problem area by the Land Use Planning Section of the Resettlement Administration. Some of the earliest oil fields to brought into production were situated in and near this county, and new fields have been opened from time to time during the ensuing years. The production of the newer fields, however, has not kept pace with the exhaustion of the older fields, and the county now presents an excellent picture of the problems involved in adjusting a population to lands that are nearly depleted of their mineral wealth. Values of land have been greatly depressed; tax collection is far in arrears; tenancy is widespread; and in addition more people will apparently be forced to depend on the income from agriculture than the land seems capable of supporting. The county as a whole is at best indifferently suitable for general farming. The Land Use planning Section proposes to study the present and seemingly immanent maladjustments of population to the resources of the land, and make recommendations for their correction. The writer was detailed to the Land Use Planning Section of Region VIII for the purposes of making studies of ground water problems in the region. In Creek County two investigations were made. In September, 1936, the writer spent about ten days investigating the availability of ground water for the irrigation of garden crops during drouths. If it proved feasible to do this generally throughout the county, the Land Use Planning Section might be able to encourage this practice. The second investigation made by the writer was in regard to the extent to which ground water supplies have been damaged by oil well brines. He was in county for four days late in January 1937, and again in March, 1937. During part of the second field trip he was accompanied by R.M. Dixon, sanitary engineer of the Water Utilization Unit of the Resettlement Administration. (available as photostat copy only)

  5. Ground-water research in the U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuinness, C.L.

    1967-01-01

    Ground-water reservoirs and the overlying unsaturated zone-collectively, the "subsurface"-have an enormous capacity to supply water to wells and useful plants, to store water to meet future needs for the same purposes, and, under suitable precautions, to accept wastes. This capacity can be exploited on a maximum scale, however, only on the basis of information one or more orders of magnitude greater than that available at present on the distribution, recoverability, and replenishability of subsurface water. Because usable water must be made available, and waste water must be disposed of, at costs of only a cent or a few cents per cubic meter, there is a critical need for research to devise methods of accomplishing these water-management tasks at reasonable cost. Among the chief target areas for research in subsurface hydrology are permeability distribution, including vertical permeability; prediction of the departure of the storage coefficient from the theoretically "instantaneous" property assumed in flow equations; theory of unsaturated flow based on fundamental soil characteristics that can be measured practicably; geochemical relations including the effects of injecting water of one composition into zones occupied by waters of different composition, generation of acid mine water, occurrence of saline water, and salt-fresh-water relations in coastal and other areas; prediction of the fate of wastes injected underground; geophysical techniques both surface and subsurface to extend, at low cost, information obtained by other means; and practical techniques of artificial recharge, especially through wells. ?? 1967.

  6. Worldwide occurrences of arsenic in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D Kirk

    2002-01-01

    Numerous aquifers worldwide carry soluble arsenic at concentrations greater than the World Health Organization--and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency--recommended drinking water standard of 10 mg per liter. Sources include both natural (black shales, young sediments with low flushing rates, gold mineralization, and geothermal environments) and anthropogenic (mining activities, livestock feed additives, pesticides, and arsenic trioxide wastes and stockpiles). Increased solubility and mobility of arsenic is promoted by high pH (>8.5), competing oxyanions, and reducing conditions. In this Policy Forum, Nordstrom argues that human health risks from arsenic in ground water can be minimized by incorporating hydrogeochemical knowledge into water management decisions and by more careful monitoring for arsenic in geologically high-risk areas.

  7. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  8. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  9. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  10. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  11. Modelling removal mechanisms of Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd in acidic groundwater during the neutralization by ambient surface and ground waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.

    1999-01-01

    Removal of Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd during neutralization of acid rock drainage is examined using model simulations of field conditions and laboratory experiments involving mixing of natural drainage and surface waters or groundwaters. The simulations consider sorption onto hydrous Fe and Al oxides and particulate organic carbon, mineral precipitation, and organic and inorganic solution complexation of metals for two physical systems where newly formed oxides and particulate organic matter are either transported or retained along the chemical pathway. The calculations indicate that metal removal is a strong function of the physical system. Relative to direct discharge of ARD into streams, lower metal removals are observed where ARD enters streamwaters during the latter stages of neutralization by ambient groundwater after most of the Fe has precipitated and been retained in the soils. The mixing experiments, which represent the field simulations, also demonstrated the importance of dissolved metal to particle Fe ratios in controlling dissolved metal removal along the chemical pathway. Finally, model calculations indicate that hydrous Fe oxides and particulate organic carbon are more important than hydrous Al oxides in removing metals and that both inorganic and organic complexation must be considered when modeling metal removal from aquatic systems that are impacted by sulfide oxidation.

  12. Water resources data, New Jersey, water year 2005.Volume 2 - ground-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Walter D.

    2006-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2005 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams: stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 2 contains a summary of the hydrologic conditions for 2005 water year; a listing of current water resource projects in New Jersey; a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets completed by the Geological Survey in recent years; records of ground-water levels from 214 wells; and a table of discontinued observation wells for which ground-water-level data are available. The locations of the ground-water level sites are shown on figure 4. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  13. Water resources data, New Jersey, water year 2004--volume 2. ground-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Walter D.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams: stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 2 contains a summary of the hydrologic conditions for 2004 water year; a listing of current water resource projects in New Jersey; a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets completed by the Geological Survey in recent years; records of ground-water levels from 196 wells; and a table of discontinued observation wells for which ground-water-level data are available. The locations of the ground-water level sites are shown on figure 4. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, Sate, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  14. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2003 - Volume 2. Ground-Water Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Walter D.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams: stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 2 contains a summary of the hydrologic conditions for 2003 water year; a listing of current water resource projects in New Jersey; a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets completed by the Geological Survey in recent years; records of ground-water levels from 185 wells; and a table of discontinued observation wells for which ground-water-level data are available. The locations of the ground-water level sites are shown on figure 4. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, Sate, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  15. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  16. Shallow Alluvial Aquifer Ground Water System and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction, Boulder Creek, Boulder, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babcock, K. P.; Ge, S.; Crifasi, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Water chemistry in Boulder Creek, Colorado, shows significant variation as the Creek flows through the City of Boulder [Barber et al., 2006]. This variation is partially due to ground water inputs, which are not quantitatively understood. The purpose of this study is (1) to understand ground water movement in a shallow alluvial aquifer system and (2) to assess surface water/ground water interaction. The study area, encompassing an area of 1 mi2, is located at the Sawhill and Walden Ponds area in Boulder. This area was reclaimed by the City of Boulder and Boulder County after gravel mining operations ceased in the 1970's. Consequently, ground water has filled in the numerous gravel pits allowing riparian vegetation regrowth and replanting. An integrated approach is used to examine the shallow ground water and surface water of the study area through field measurements, water table mapping, graphical data analysis, and numerical modeling. Collected field data suggest that lateral heterogeneity exists throughout the unconsolidated sediment. Alluvial hydraulic conductivities range from 1 to 24 ft/day and flow rates range from 0.01 to 2 ft/day. Preliminary data analysis suggests that ground water movement parallels surface topography and does not noticeably vary with season. Recharge via infiltrating precipitation is dependent on evapotranspiration (ET) demands and is influenced by preferential flow paths. During the growing season when ET demand exceeds precipitation rates, there is little recharge; however recharge occurs during cooler months when ET demand is insignificant. Preliminary data suggest that the Boulder Creek is gaining ground water as it traverses the study area. Stream flow influences the water table for distances up to 400 feet. The influence of stream flow is reflected in the zones relatively low total dissolved solids concentration. A modeling study is being conducted to synthesize aquifer test data, ground water levels, and stream flow data. The

  17. The role of ground water in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Braune, Eberhard; Xu, Yongxin

    2010-01-01

    Although water resources managers speak of a water crisis in Africa, the management of ground water has to date not featured strongly in national and regional African water agendas. Examination of the physical environment of the continent and, in particular, the water resources in relation to the socioeconomic landscape and regional development challenges makes it clear that widely occurring, albeit largely low-yielding, ground water resources will be crucial in the achievement of water security and development. Ground water is important primarily in domestic water and sanitation services, but also for other local productive needs like community gardens, stock watering, and brick-making, all essential to secure a basic livelihood and thus to alleviate poverty. Despite the importance of small-scale farming in Africa, there is little information on the present and potential role of ground water in agriculture. In contrast to its socioeconomic and ecological importance, ground water has remained a poorly understood and managed resource. Widespread contamination of ground water resources is occurring, and the important environmental services of ground water are neglected. There appear to be critical shortcomings in the organizational framework and the building of institutional capacity for ground water. Addressing this challenge will require a much clearer understanding and articulation of ground water's role and contribution to national and regional development objectives and an integrated management framework, with top-down facilitation of local actions.

  18. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  19. Monitoring for pesticides in ground water in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Patricia A.; Moses, Charles W.; Bevans, Hugh E.

    1997-01-01

    Many pesticides designed to control weed encroachment, plant disease, and insect predation are used in agricultural and urban areas in the United States. Contamination of ground water by pesticides has increased over the last 20 years (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). In 1985, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) estimated the detection of at least 17 agricultural pesticides in the ground water of 23 states. By 1988, pesticides identified in ground water had increased to 46 in 26 states. To protect ground water from pesticide contamination, USEPA, through the Federal Fungicide Insecticide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), requires all states to institute a ground-water protection program.

  20. Heterogeneity and thermal modeling of ground water.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Grant

    2007-01-01

    Heat transport in aquifers is becoming an increasingly important topic due to recent growth in the use of ground water in thermal applications. However, the effect of heterogeneity on heat transport in aquifers has yet to be examined in the same detail as it has been for solute transport, and it is unclear what effect this may have on our ability to create accurate models. This study examines this issue through stochastic modeling using the geostatistics for two aquifers with low and high degrees of heterogeneity. The results indicate that there is considerable uncertainty in the distribution of heat associated with injection of warm water into an aquifer. Heterogeneity in the permeability field was also found to slightly reduce the ability to recover this introduced heat at a later time. These simulations also reveal that hydrodynamic macrodispersion is an important consideration in some heat flow problems.

  1. Animating ground water levels with Excel.

    PubMed

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2003-01-01

    This note describes the use of Microsoft Excel macros (programs written in Excel's internal language, Visual Basic for Applications) to create simple onscreen animations of transient ground water data within Excel. Compared to many specialized visualization software packages, the use of Excel macros is much cheaper, much simpler, and can rapidly be learned. The Excel macro can also be used to create individual GIF files for each animation frame. This series of frames can then be used to create an AVI video file using any of a number of graphics packages, such as Corel PhotoPaint. The technique is demonstrated through a macro that animates changes in the elevation of a water table along a transect over several years.

  2. Ground-water models: Validate or invalidate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Konikow, L.F.

    1993-01-01

    The word validation has a clear meaning to both the scientific community and the general public. Within the scientific community the validation of scientific theory has been the subject of philosophical debate. The philosopher of science, Karl Popper, argued that scientific theory cannot be validated, only invalidated. Popper’s view is not the only opinion in this debate; however, many scientists today agree with Popper (including the authors). To the general public, proclaiming that a ground-water model is validated carries with it an aura of correctness that we do not believe many of us who model would claim. We can place all the caveats we wish, but the public has its own understanding of what the word implies. Using the word valid with respect to models misleads the public; verification carries with it similar connotations as far as the public is concerned. Our point is this: using the terms validation and verification are misleading, at best. These terms should be abandoned by the ground-water community.

  3. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003, Volume 3B: Southwest Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.; Fletcher, William L.; Lane, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 36 streams and peak discharge for 36 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,227 wells, and quality-of-water data for 133 surface-water sites and 308 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 128 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 31 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 405 wells; and water quality at 32 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  4. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2002, Volume 3B. Southwest Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 392 streams, periodic discharge for 15 streams, continuous daily stage for 191 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 33 streams and peak discharge for 33 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 49 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 418 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,287 wells, and quality-of-water data for 116 surface-water sites and 291 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 125 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 31 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 377 wells; and water quality at 46 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  5. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2001, Volume 3B. Southwest Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Y.E.; Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 406 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous daily stage for 142 streams, periodic stage for 12 streams, peak stage and discharge for 37 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 11 lakes, periodic elevations for 30 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 424 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,426 wells, and quality-of-water data for 80 surface-water sites and 245 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 128 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 33 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 347 wells; and water quality at 25 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  6. Water Resources Data North Dakota Water Year 2002, Volume 2. Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harkness, R.E.; Wald, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for North Dakota consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality for streams; contents, stage, and water quality for lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality for ground-water wells. Volume 2 contains water-level records for 117 ground-water wells and water-quality records for 65 monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in North Dakota.

  7. A ground-water-quality monitoring program for Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowlin, Jon O.

    1986-01-01

    A program was designed for the systematic monitoring of ground-water quality in Nevada. Basic hydrologic and water-quality principles are discussed in the formulation of a rational approach to developing a statewide monitoring program. A review of ground-water monitoring efforts in Nevada through 1977 indicates that few requirements for an effective statewide program are being met. A suggested program has been developed that consists of five major elements: (1) A Background-Quality Network to assess the existing water quality in Nevada aquifers, (2) a Contamination Source Inventory of known or potential threats to ground-water quality, (3) Surveillance Networks to monitor ground-water quality in selected hydrographic areas, (4) Intensive Surveys of individual instances of known or potential ground-water contamination, and (5) Ground-Water Data File to manage data generated by the other monitoring elements. Two indices have been developed to help assign rational priorities for monitoring ground water in the 255 hydrographic areas of Nevada: (1) A Hydrographic-Area Priority Index for surveillance monitoring, and (2) A Development-Potential Index for background monitoring of areas with little or no current development. Requirements for efficient management of data from ground-water monitoring are discussed and the three major systems containing Nevada ground-water data are reviewed. More than 11,000 chemical analyses of ground water have been acquired from existing systems and incorporated into a prototype data base.

  8. Protecting ground water: pesticides and agricultural practices. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The booklet presents the results of a project conducted by EPA's Office of Ground-Water Protection to evaluate the potential impacts of various agronomic, irrigation, and pesticide application practices on ground water. The report provides State and local water quality and agricultural officials with technical information to help in the development of programs to protect ground water from pesticide contamination. The report explains the principles involved in reducing the risk of pesticide contamination and describes what is known about the impact of various agricultural practices on pesticide leaching. It is hoped that the information will be helpful to water-quality officials in developing and implementing ground-water protection programs.

  9. Water resources data, North Carolina, water year 2003. Volume 2: Ground-water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, S.S.; Breton, P.L.; Chapman, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for North Carolina consist of records of stage, discharge, water quality for streams; stage and contents for lakes and reservoirs; precipitation; and ground-water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 213 gaging stations; stage for 61 gaging stations; and continuous precipitation at 118 sites. Volume 2 contains ground-water-level data from 143 observation wells and ground-water-quality data from 72 wells. The collection of water-resources data in North Carolina is a part of the National Water-Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, municipal, and Federal agencies.

  10. Ground-Water Availability in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.

  11. Geology and occurrence of ground water in Lyon County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.

    1963-01-01

    Large quantities of ground water are available from melt-water channels in the county. Moderate quantities, adequate for domestic and small industrial needs, are available from many of the small isolated deposits of sand and gravel in the till. Small quantities of ground water, adequate only for domestic supply, generally can be obtained from Cretaceous sandstone.

  12. Ground-water resources of Rusk County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandeen, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Some mineralization of ground water is due to natural causes. Other mineralization of ground water is due to contamination. A program needs to be initiated to determine the extent and cause of mineralization that has taken place in freshwater sands. Water-quality data is needed at Henderson in order to monitor saltwater encroachment.

  13. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  14. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  15. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  16. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  17. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  18. Progress in ground-water protection and restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    Since issuing EPA's 'Ground-Water Protection Strategy' in 1984, the Agency has made significant strides in the protection of ground-water resources, both in implementing the ground-water related statutory authorities and in developing new EPA initiatives and activities. States also have made great progress in developing their own ground-water protection strategies and wellhead protection programs. Despite the progress already made in the protection and restoration of ground water, as documented in the report, much remains to be done--especially with respect to preventing pollution of ground-water resources. On July 18, 1989, a ground-water task force with the primary goal to develop a strategy for the direction EPA will take in ground-water protection. The strategy will incorporate recommendations and initiatives to ensure effective and consistent decision-making in all Agency actions affecting the resource, guide us as we deal with future ground-water issues, and assure that a clean and safe source of water will be available to all Americans and to the ecological systems on which we depend.

  19. Ground-Water Hydrology of the Upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Lite, Kenneth E.; Morgan, David S.; Collins, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    The upper Deschutes Basin is among the fastest growing regions in Oregon. The rapid population growth has been accompanied by increased demand for water. Surface streams, however, have been administratively closed to additional appropriation for many years, and surface water is not generally available to support new development. Consequently, ground water is being relied upon to satisfy the growth in water demand. Oregon water law requires that the potential effects of ground-water development on streamflow be evaluated when considering applications for new ground-water rights. Prior to this study, hydrologic understanding has been insufficient to quantitatively evaluate the connection between ground water and streamflow, and the behavior of the regional ground-water flow system in general. This report describes the results of a hydrologic investigation undertaken to provide that understanding. The investigation encompasses about 4,500 square miles of the upper Deschutes River drainage basin.A large proportion of the precipitation in the upper Deschutes Basin falls in the Cascade Range, making it the principal ground-water recharge area for the basin. Water-balance calculations indicate that the average annual rate of ground- water recharge from precipitation is about 3,500 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Water-budget calculations indicate that in addition to recharge from precipitation, water enters the ground-water system through interbasin flow. Approximately 800 ft3/s flows into the Metolius River drainage from the west and about 50 ft3/s flows into the southeastern part of the study area from the Fort Rock Basin. East of the Cascade Range, there is little or no ground-water recharge from precipitation, but leaking irrigation canals are a significant source of artificial recharge north of Bend. The average annual rate of canal leakage during 1994 was estimated to be about 490 ft3/s. Ground water flows from the Cascade Range through permeable volcanic rocks

  20. An application of thermometry to the study of ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    The precise measurement of fluctuations in ground-water temperature, based on monthly readings in shallow glacial-outwash aquifers (up to about 70 feet deep), is useful in the study of ground-water movement and recharge. In addition to the study of natural phenomena in the hydrologic cycle, thermometry may be used as a tool in making detailed studies of (1) the effects of inducing the infiltration of surface water, (2) artificial recharge, (3) the effects of injecting petroleum products or radioactive or other wastes into the ground, and (4) ground-water movement in mines.

  1. Georgia's Ground-Water Resources and Monitoring Network, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is an abundant resource in Georgia, providing 1.45 billion gallons per day, or 22 percent, of the total freshwater used (including thermoelectric) in the State (Fanning, 2003). Contrasting geologic features and landforms of the physiographic provinces of Georgia affect the quantity and quality of ground water throughout the State. Most ground-water withdrawals are in the Coastal Plain in the southern one-half of the State, where aquifers are highly productive. For a more complete discussion of the State's ground-water resources, see Leeth and others (2005).

  2. An overview of ground-water quality data in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, Phil A.

    1984-01-01

    This report contains a summary of ground-water-quality data for Wisconsin and an evaluation of the adequacy of these data for assessing the impact of land disposal of wastes on ground-water quality. Chemical analyses used in data summaries were limited to those stored in the USGS computer system (WATSTORE). Information on documented instances of ground-water contamination and sources of potential contamination from land disposal of wastes was provided by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Available data provide an overview of ground water quality but may be insufficient for assessment of ground-water contamination from land disposal of wastes. Many sources of potential ground-water contamination (landfills, surface waste-storage impoundments, and buried tanks) are known. Some of these are probably causing local ground-water contamination that is not apparent from available regional data. Information needs for assessment of ground-water contamination from land disposal of wastes include improved understanding of both ground-water hydrology and the chemical behavior of specific contaminants in the environment. (USGS)

  3. A geographic data model for representing ground water systems.

    PubMed

    Strassberg, Gil; Maidment, David R; Jones, Norm L

    2007-01-01

    The Arc Hydro ground water data model is a geographic data model for representing spatial and temporal ground water information within a geographic information system (GIS). The data model is a standardized representation of ground water systems within a spatial database that provides a public domain template for GIS users to store, document, and analyze commonly used spatial and temporal ground water data sets. This paper describes the data model framework, a simplified version of the complete ground water data model that includes two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) object classes for representing aquifers, wells, and borehole data, and the 3D geospatial context in which these data exist. The framework data model also includes tabular objects for representing temporal information such as water levels and water quality samples that are related with spatial features.

  4. Ground-water availability and water quality, Farmington, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazzaferro, David L.

    1980-01-01

    The strataified-drift aquifer in Farmington, Conn., is capable of yielding large amounts of water to individual wells. About 14 square miles of Farmington is underlain by stratified-drift deposits which, in places, are more than 450 feet thick. The most productive deposits are found in the Farmington River valley, from Unionville to River Glen, and along Scott Swamp Brook. In these areas, saturated, coarse-grained, stratified-drift deosits exceed 80 feet in thickness and estimated yields to individual wells ranged from 250 to 1,000 gallons per minute. Results of mathematical model analysis of three of the most favorable ground-water areas indicate that long-term yields range from 1.2 to 2.5 million gallons per day. Water in the Framington and Pequabuck Rivers meets the Connecticut Drinking Water Standards, assuming complete conventional treatment, for coliform orgaisms, color, trubidity, chloride, copper, and nitrate. Coliform bacteria concentrations in the Pequabuck river (12-month geometric mean of about 6,800 colonies per 100 milliliters of water) indicate a potential problem. Water in the stratified-drift aquifer is of good quality with the exception of manganese; 10 of 11 wells sampled had maganese concentrations above 0.05 milligram per liter. (USGS)

  5. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, Martel J.; Freeman, Michael L.; Downhour, Paul; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Enright, Michael; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.

    2008-01-01

    This is the forty-fifth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2007. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah.gov/techinfo/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/publications/GW2008.pdf.

  6. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Fisher, Martel J.; Freeman, Michael L.; Downhour, Paul; Nielson, Ashley; Eacret, Robert J.; Myers, Andrew; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.

    2009-01-01

    This is the forty-sixth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions. This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2008. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights. utah.gov/techinfo/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/publications/ GW2009.pdf.

  7. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Enright, Michael; Cillessen, J.L.; Gerner, S.J.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.; Fisher, Martel J.

    2007-01-01

    This is the forty-fourth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2006. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah. gov/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/newUTAH/GW2007.pdf.

  8. Land subsidence caused by ground water withdrawal in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Johnson, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    At least eight urban areas in the world have encountered significant economic impact from land subsidence caused by pumping of ground water from unconsolidated sediment. The areas, most of which are coastal, include Bangkok, Houston, Mexico City, Osaka, San Jose, Shanghai, Tokyo, and Venice. Flooding related to decreased ground elevation is the principal adverse effect of the subsidence. Lesser effects include regional tilting, well-casing failures, "rising" buildings, and ground failure or rupture. Subsidence of most of these urban areas began before the phenomenon was discovered and understood. Thus, the subsidence problems were unanticipated. Methods to arrest subsidence typically have included control of ground water pumping and development of surface water to offset the reductions of ground water pumping. Ground water recharge has also been practiced. Areas threatened by flooding have been protected by extensive networks of dikes and sea walls, locks, and pumping stations to remove storm runoff. ?? 1985 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  9. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements...

  10. Arsenic in ground water of the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Lico, Michael S.; Hughes, Jennifer L.

    1988-01-01

    Natural occurrences of ground water with moderate (10 to 50 micrograms per liter) to high (greater than 50 micrograms per liter) concentrations of arsenic are common throughout much of the Western United States. High concentrations of arsenic are generally associated with one of four geochemical environments: (1) basin-fill deposits of alluvial-lacustrine origin, particularly in semiarid areas, (2) volcanic deposits, (3) geothermal systems, and (4) uranium and gold-mining areas. These findings are based on an extensive literature review, compilation of unpublished reports and data, and the review of data bases containing more than 7,000 analyses of ground-water samples for arsenic. In the first two environments, arsenic appears to be associated with sediments derived, in part, from volcanic rocks of intermediate to acidic composition. Dissolved arsenic concentrations in water from volcanic aquifers in the same regions, however, may be low (less than 10 micrograms per liter). Solid phases (minerals, amorphous solids, and sedimentary organic matter) that supply the dissolved arsenic have not been identified in most areas. Alluvial and lacustrine sedimentary deposits appear to be an important source of arsenic in volcanic areas (such as Lane County, Oregon) and in areas underlain by basin-fill deposits (such as Carson Desert in Nevada and the Tulare Lake basin in California). Mobilization of arsenic in sedimentary aquifers may be, in part, a result of changes in the geochemical environment due to agricultural irrigation. In the deeper subsurface, elevated arsenic concentrations are associated with compaction caused by groundwater withdrawals.

  11. Guide to North Dakota's Ground-Water Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Q.F.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water, the water we pump from the Earth through wells or that which flows naturally from springs, is one of North Dakota's most valuable resources. More than 60 percent of the people living in the State use ground water for one purpose of another. It is the only source of water for thousands of farm families and their livestock. Almost all smaller cities and villages depend solely on groudn water as a source of supply. Increasingly, ground water is being used to irrigate crops and grasslands (fig. 1) during protracted dry spells so common in North Dakota. During recent years there has been a rapid development of rural water ditribution systems in which thousands of farms and rurals residences are connected via underground pipeline to a single water source, usually wells pumping ground water.

  12. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  13. Water resources data, Maryland and Delaware, water year 1997, volume 2. ground-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smigaj, Michael J.; Saffer, Richard W.; Starsoneck, Roger J.; Tegeler, Judith L.

    1998-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Maryland and Delaware each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data - Maryland and Delaware.' This series of annual reports for Maryland and Delaware began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the l975 water year, the report format was changed to present, in one volume, data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels. In the 1989 water year, the report format was changed to two volumes. Both volumes contained data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels. Volume 1 contained data on the Atlantic Slope Basins (Delaware River thru Patuxent River) and Volume 2 contained data on the Monongahela and Potomac River basins. Beginning with the 1991 water year, Volume 1 contains all information on quantities of surface water and surface- water-quality data and Volume 2 contains ground-water levels and ground-water-quality data. This report is Volume 2 in our 1998 series and includes records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells and springs. It contains records for water levels at 397 observation wells, discharge data for 6 springs, and water quality at 107 wells. Location of ground-water level wells are shown on figures 3 and 4. The location for the ground-water-quality sites are shown on figures 5

  14. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Walzem, Vince; Cillessen, J.L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Fisher, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This is the forty-second in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable inter­ested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water with­drawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2004. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah.gov/techinfo/ wwwpub/gw2005.pdf and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/publications/GW2005.pdf.

  15. Water resources data for North Carolina, water year 1995. Volume 2. Ground-water records. Water data report (Annual), 1 October 1994-30 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.G.; George, E.D.; Breton, P.L.

    1996-06-01

    Water-resources data for the 1995 water year for North Carolina consist of records of ground-water levels and water quality of ground water; records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs. This report contains ground-water level data from 81 observation wells and ground-water quality data from 125 wells.

  16. Water resources data for North Carolina, water year 1993. Volume 2. Ground-water records. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1992-30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, R.W.; Smith, D.G.; Ragland, B.C.

    1994-04-13

    Water-resources data for the 1993 water year for North Carolina consist of records of ground-water levels and water quality of ground water; records of stage, discharge and water quality of streams; and stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs. This report contains ground-water level data from 82 observation wells and ground-water quality data from 41 wells.

  17. Ground water in the Thousand Oaks area, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.

    1980-01-01

    The ground-water basin beneath the city of Thousand Oaks, Calif. , corresponds closely in area with the surface-water drainage basin of Conejo Valley. Before World War II there was little ground-water development. After World War II, urban development put a stress on the ground-water basin; many wells were drilled and water levels in wells were drawn down as much as 300 feet in places. Beginning in 1963, imported water replaced domestic and municipal ground-water systems, and water levels rapidly recovered to predevelopment levels or nearly so. Most of the ground water in the Thousand Oaks area is stored in fractured basalt of the middle Miocene Conejo Volcanics. Depending on the degree of occurrence of open fractures and cavities in the basalt, recoverable ground water in the upper 300 to 500 feet of aquifer is estimated to be between 400,000 and 600,000 acre-feet. The yield of water from wells in the area ranges from 17 to 1,080 gallons per minute. Most of the ground-water in the eastern part of the valley is high insulfate and has a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter. In the western part of the valley the ground-water is mostly of a bicarbonate type, and the dissolved-solids concentration is less than 800 milligrams per liter. In most areas of Conejo Valley, ground-water is a viable resource for irrigation of public lands and recreation areas. (USGS)

  18. Acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in ground water and surface water of the United States, 1993-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, Elisabeth A.; Dietze, Julie E.; Thurman, Michael

    2004-01-01

    During 1993 through 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a number of studies to investigate and document the occurrence, fate, and transport of acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in ground and surface water. As part of these studies, approximately 5,100 water samples were collected and analyzed for the acetamide parent herbicides acetochlor, alachlor, dimethenamid, flufenacet, and metolachlor and their degradation products ethanesulfonic acid, oxanilic acid, and sulfinyl acetic acid. During this period, various analytical methods were developed to detect and measure concentrations of acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in ground water and surface water. Results showed that the degradation products of acetamide herbicides in ground water were detected more frequently and occurred at higher concentrations than their parent compounds. Further study showed that the acetamide herbicides and their degradation products were detected more frequently in surface water than in ground water. In general, the parent compounds were detected at similar or greater frequencies than the degradation products in surface water. The developed methods and data were valuable for acquiring information about the occurrence, fate, and transport of the herbicides and their degradation products and the importance of analyzing for both parent compounds and their degradate products in water-quality studies.

  19. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    streams, drains, or lakes; by pumping or flow of wells; or by flow of springs. Waterlogging and the associated development of saline soils are common in parts of the Riverton irrigation project and adjacent irrigated land. The waterlogging is in part the result of the infiltration of irrigation water in excess of the capacity of the aquifers to store and transmit this added recharge. The solution of the drainage problems involves the consideration of a number of factors, some of which are inadequately known in some parts of the area and require further investigation before fully effective drainage measures can be designed. The results of an aquifer test to determine the hydrologic characteristics of the Wind River formation at Riverton indicate a transmissibility of 10,000 gallons per day per foot (10,000 gpd per ft) and a storage coefficient of 2 x 10-4. The results of the test provide a part of the necessary foundation for the solution of present and future water-supply problems at Riverton and throughout the project area. Water from shallow aquifers in irrigated tracts in the Riverton irrigation project area generally contains large amounts of dissolved solids that were leached from the soil and rocks by infiltrating irrigation water. However, wells tapping beds that receive considerable recharge from influent canal and drain seepage yield water of relatively low mineralizatoin. Dilute water is obtained also from some shallow wells in the alluvial bottom lands and on low stream terraces that border the Wind Rover. Water from deep aquifers generally is more dilute than that from shallow aquifers. However, ground water from the deep aquifers, unmixed with irrigation water, generally has a percent sodium greater than 80. Analyses of salt crusts on the ground surface in low areas that are affected by effluent seepage and a high water table show predominance of sodium sulfate salinity, and from determinations of the water-soluble and acid-soluble substances in several

  20. EPA Research Evaluating CAFO Impacts on Ground Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of several projects will be presented on a research program currently underway at ORD’s Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) to evaluate CAFO impacts on ground water quality. The overall research objectives are to characterize the potential for gro...

  1. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is one in a series of Ground Water Issue papers which have been prepared in response to needs expressed by the Ground Water Forum. It is based on findings from the research community in concert with experience gained at sites undergoing remediation. the intent of th...

  2. Ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eakin, T.E.; Robinson, T.W.

    1950-01-01

    As a part of the State-wide cooperative program between the Office of the State Engineer of Nevada and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Ground Water Branch of the Geological Survey made a reconnaissance study of ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada.

  3. Procedures for ground-water investigations. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  4. Latin hypercube approach to estimate uncertainty in ground water vulnerability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, J.J.; McCray, J.E.; Thyne, G.; Qi, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    A methodology is proposed to quantify prediction uncertainty associated with ground water vulnerability models that were developed through an approach that coupled multivariate logistic regression with a geographic information system (GIS). This method uses Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) to illustrate the propagation of input error and estimate uncertainty associated with the logistic regression predictions of ground water vulnerability. Central to the proposed method is the assumption that prediction uncertainty in ground water vulnerability models is a function of input error propagation from uncertainty in the estimated logistic regression model coefficients (model error) and the values of explanatory variables represented in the GIS (data error). Input probability distributions that represent both model and data error sources of uncertainty were simultaneously sampled using a Latin hypercube approach with logistic regression calculations of probability of elevated nonpoint source contaminants in ground water. The resulting probability distribution represents the prediction intervals and associated uncertainty of the ground water vulnerability predictions. The method is illustrated through a ground water vulnerability assessment of the High Plains regional aquifer. Results of the LHS simulations reveal significant prediction uncertainties that vary spatially across the regional aquifer. Additionally, the proposed method enables a spatial deconstruction of the prediction uncertainty that can lead to improved prediction of ground water vulnerability. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  5. Ground Water Quality Protection. State and Local Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

    Using regional case studies, this document examines representative programs for dealing with ground water contamination. Section one describes the ground water protection strategy of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); (2) discusses the limited data available for determining the extent of contamination; (3) provides a listing of the…

  6. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... limits under § 264.94 in the uppermost aquifer underlying the waste management area beyond the point of... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard....

  7. In-Situ Bioremediation of Contaminated Ground Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is one in a series of Ground Water Issue papers which have been prepared in response to needs expressed by the Ground Water Forum. It is based on findings from the research community in concert with experience gained at sites undergoing ...

  8. Landscape approach to identifying environments where ground water and surface water are closely interrelated

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Thomas C.

    1995-01-01

    Understanding the interaction of ground water and surface water is fundamental to solving many of the water resource problems facing the Nation. To facilitate efficient management of the Nation's water resources, a program of study and evaluation of the interaction of ground water and surface water is proposed that would emphasize intersite comparison between 24 environments throughout the Nation.

  9. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Sory, J.D.; Danner, M.R.; Johnson, K.K.; Kenny, T.A.; Brockner, S.J.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Fisher, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    This is the thirty-seventh in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1999. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  10. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Walzem, Vince; Cillessen, J.L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Fisher, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    This is the forty-first in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2003. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  11. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Enright, Michael; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, M.J.; Haraden, Peter L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    2003-01-01

    This is the fortieth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2002. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  12. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Enright, Michael; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, M.J.; Haraden, Peter L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    2002-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2001. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  13. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Sory, J.D.; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, M.J.; Haraden, Peter L.; Kenney, T.A.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    2001-01-01

    This is the thirty-eighth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2000. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  14. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Spangler, L.E.; Sory, J.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Kenney, T.A.; Johnson, K.K.; Loving, B.L.; Brockner, S.J.; Danner, M.R.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Fisher, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    This is the thirty-sixth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1998. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  15. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  16. Pesticides in Ground Water - Sublette County, Wyoming, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Remley, Kendra J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2004-2005, baseline monitoring was conducted in Sublette County. This fact sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Sublette County.

  17. Pesticides in Ground Water - Carbon County, Wyoming, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Remley, Kendra J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2004-2005, baseline monitoring was conducted in Carbon County. This fact sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Carbon County.

  18. Pesticides in Ground Water - Campbell County, Wyoming, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Remley, Kendra J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2004-2005, baseline monitoring was conducted in Campbell County. This fact sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Campbell County.

  19. Southwest principal aquifers regional ground-water quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, D.W.; Thiros, S.A.; Bexfield, L.M.; McKinney, T.S.; Green, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifers in the southwestern United States. The Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the region to ground-water contamination by synthesizing the baseline knowledge of ground-water quality conditions in 15 basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. The improved understanding of aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability to contamination is assisting in the development of tools that water managers can use to assess and protect the quality of ground-water resources. This fact sheet provides an overview of the basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States and description of the completed and planned regional analyses of ground-water quality being performed by the SWPA study.

  20. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  1. Ground water in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kunkel, Fred; Hofman, Walter

    1966-01-01

    Ladies and gentlemen, it is a pleasure to be invited to attend this Irrigation Institute conference and to describe the Geological Survey's program of ground-water studies in the San Joaquin Valley. The U.S. Geological Survey has been making water-resources studies in cooperation with the State of California and other agencies in California for more than 70 years. Three of the earliest Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers--numbers 17, 18, and 19--published in 1898 and 1899, describe "Irrigation near Bakersfield," "Irrigation near Fresno," and "Irrigation near Merced." However, the first Survey report on ground-water occurrence in the San Joaquin Valley was "Ground Water in the San Joaquin Valley," by Mendenhall and others. The fieldwork was done from 1905 to 1910, and the report was published in 1916 as U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 398.The current series of ground-water studies in the San Joaquin Valley was begun in 1952 as part of the California Department of Water Resources-U.S. Geological Survey cooperative water-resources program. The first report of this series is Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1469, "Ground-Water Conditions and Storage Capacity in the San Joaquin Valley." Other reports are Water-Supply Paper 1618, "Use of Ground-Water Reservoirs for Storage of Surface Water in the San Joaquin Valley;" Water-Supply Paper 1656, "Geology and Ground-Water Features of the Edison-Maricopa Area;" Water-Supply Paper 1360-G, "Ground- Water Conditions in the Mendota-Huron Area;" Water-Supply Paper 1457, "Ground-Water Conditions in the Avenal-McKittrick Area;" and an open-file report, "Geology, Hydrology, and Quality of Water in the Terra Bella-Lost Hills Area."In addition to the preceding published reports, ground-water studies currently are being made of the Kern Fan area, the Hanford- Visalia area, the Fresno area, the Merced area, and of the clays of Tulare Lake. Also, detailed studies of both shallow and deep subsidence in the southern part of

  2. Hydrology and simulation of ground-water Flow in the Tooele Valley ground-water basin, Tooele County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolp, Bernard J.; Brooks, Lynette E.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water is the sole source of drinking water within Tooele Valley. Transition from agriculture to residential land and water use necessitates additional understanding of water resources. The ground-water basin is conceptualized as a single interconnected hydrologic system consisting of the consolidated-rock mountains and adjoining unconsolidated basin-fill valleys. Within the basin fill, unconfined conditions exist along the valley margins and confined conditions exist in the central areas of the valleys. Transmissivity of the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer ranges from 1,000 to 270,000 square feet per day. Within the consolidated rock of the mountains, ground-water flow largely is unconfined, though variability in geologic structure, stratigraphy, and lithology has created some areas where ground-water flow is confined. Hydraulic conductivity of the consolidated rock ranges from 0.003 to 100 feet per day. Ground water within the basin generally moves from the mountains toward the central and northern areas of Tooele Valley. Steep hydraulic gradients exist at Tooele Army Depot and near Erda. The estimated average annual ground-water recharge within the basin is 82,000 acre-feet per year. The primary source of recharge is precipitation in the mountains; other sources of recharge are irrigation water and streams. Recharge from precipitation was determined using the Basin Characterization Model. Estimated average annual ground-water discharge within the basin is 84,000 acre-feet per year. Discharge is to wells, springs, and drains, and by evapotranspiration. Water levels at wells within the basin indicate periods of increased recharge during 1983-84 and 1996-2000. During these periods annual precipitation at Tooele City exceeded the 1971-2000 annual average for consecutive years. The water with the lowest dissolved-solids concentrations exists in the mountain areas where most of the ground-water recharge occurs. The principal dissolved constituents are calcium

  3. Hydrogeology and water quality in the Graces Quarters area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tenbus, Frederick J.; Blomquist, Joel D.

    1995-01-01

    Graces Quarters was used for open-air testing of chemical-warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water and surface water. The hydrogeology and water quality were examined at three test areas, four disposal sites, a bunker, and a service area on Graces Quarters. Methods of investigation included surface and borehole geophysics, water-quality sampling, water- level measurement, and hydrologic testing. The hydrogeologic framework is complex and consists of a discontinuous surficial aquifer, one or more upper confining units, and a confined aquifer system. Directions of ground-water flow vary spatially and temporally, and results of site investigations show that ground-water flow is controlled by the geology of the area. The ground water and surface water at Graces Quarters generally are unmineralized; the ground water is mildly acidic (median pH is 5.38) and poorly buffered. Inorganic constituents in excess of certain Federal drinking-water regulations and ambient water-quality criteria were detected at some sites, but they probably were present naturally. Volatile and semivolatile organic com- pounds were detected in the ground water and surface water at seven of the nine sites that were investi- gated. Concentrations of organic compounds at two of the nine sites exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations. Volatile compounds in concentrations as high as 6,000 m/L (micrograms per liter) were detected in the ground water at the site known as the primary test area. Concentrations of volatile compounds detected in the other areas ranged from 0.57 to 17 m/L.

  4. Impact of poor solid waste management on ground water.

    PubMed

    Vasanthi, P; Kaliappan, S; Srinivasaraghavan, R

    2008-08-01

    The leachate produced by waste disposal sites contains a large amount of substances which are likely to contaminate ground water. The impact of such sites upon ground water can be judged by monitoring the concentration of potential contaminants at a number of specific monitoring points. In this study, the quality of ground water around a municipal solid waste disposal site in Chennai was investigated. Chemical analyses were carried out on water samples collected at various radial distances from the boundary of the dumping yard, at intervals of 3 months and for a period of 3 years. The study has revealed that the ground water quality does not conform to the drinking water quality standards as per Bureau of Indian Standards. The effects of dumping activity on ground water appeared most clearly as high concentrations of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total hardness, chlorides, chemical oxygen demand, nitrates and sulphates. Leachate collected from the site showed presence of heavy metals. The contaminant concentrations tend to decrease, during the post monsoon season and increase, during the pre monsoon season in most of the samples. The study clearly indicates that landfills in densely populated cities should have the ground water monitored on regular basis. Furthermore, ground water in and around the landfill sites shall not be used for drinking purposes unless it meets specific standards. Indiscriminate dumping of wastes in developed areas without proper solid waste management practices should be stopped.

  5. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, S.J.; Steiger, J.I.; Sory, J.D.; Burden, Carole B.; Loving, B.L.; Brockner, S.J.; Danner, M.R.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Herbert, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    This is the thirty-fourth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep aware of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1996. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  6. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Susong, David D.; Burden, Carole B.; Sory, J.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Johnson, K.K.; Loving, B.L.; Brockner, S.J.; Danner, M.R.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Herbert, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    This is the thirty-fifth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1997. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  7. Water resources data, North Carolina, water year 2004. Volume 2: Ground-water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, S.S.; Breton, P.L.; Chapman, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for North Carolina consist of records of stage, discharge, water quality for streams; stage and contents for lakes and reservoirs; precipitation; and ground-water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 217 gaging stations; stage and contents for 58 lakes and reservoirs; stage only records for 22 gaging stations; elevations for 9 stations; water quality for 39 gaging stations and 5 miscellaneous sites, and continuous water quality for 35 sites; and continuous precipitation at 127 sites. Volume 2 contains ground-water-level data from 161 observation wells, ground-water-quality data from 38 wells, continuous water quality for 7 sites and continuous precipitation at 7 sites. Additional water data were collected at 51 sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements in Volume 1. The collection of water-resources data in North Carolina is a part of the National Water-Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, municipal, and Federal agencies.

  8. The ground-water-level monitoring network in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of the ground-water-level monitoring network in Iowa are to provide the data needed to: (1) determine the change in aquifer storage, (2) document the effects of climatic stress and human activities on discharge and recharge to the principal aquifers, (3) quantify the physical characteristics of ground-water flow including the transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, and specific capacity of aquifers; and (4) provide historical baseline data for future research. The design of the ground-water-level monitoring network in Iowa that satisfies these objectives includes three types of data: (1) hydrologic data, (2) water-management data for use by State and local officials, and (3) baseline data.

  9. Arsenic in Illinois ground water : community and private supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Kelly L.; Martin, Angel; Arnold, Terri L.

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the distribution of arsenic in ground water from community-water supplies, private supplies, or monitoring wells is part of the process of determining the risk of arsenic contamination of drinking water in Illinois. Lifestyle, genetic, and environmental factors make certain members of the population more susceptible to adverse health effects from repeated exposure to drinking water with high arsenic concentrations (Ryker, 2001). In addition, such factors may have geographic distribution patterns that complicate the analysis of the relation between arsenic in drinking water and health effects. For example, arsenic may not be the only constituent affecting the quality of drinking water in a region (Ryker, 2001); however, determining the extent and distribution of arsenic in ground water is a starting place to assess the potential risk for persons drinking from a community or private supply. Understanding the potential sources and pathways that mobilize arsenic in ground water is a necessary step in protecting the drinking-water supply in Illinois.

  10. Natural recharge and localization of fresh ground water in Kuwait

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstrom, R.E.; Aten, R.E.

    1965-01-01

    Fresh ground water (200 parts per million total dissolved solids and upwards) occurs in portions of Pleistocene sandstone aquifers beneath basins and wadis in north Kuwait where the mean rainfall is about five inches per year. The fresh water is surrounded and underlain by brackish water (> 4000 ppm TDS). Drilling and testing show that fresh water saturation is restricted to wadis and basin areas; in Rawdatain basin it attains a maximum thickness of about 110 feet and a lateral extent of about seven miles. The fresh ground water represents recharge localized, during infrequent, torrential rain storms, in areas of concentrated runoff where sediments in the vadose zone are moderately permeable and depth to the water table is generally less than a hundred feet. Concentration of runoff appears to be the primary control in the localization of recharge. The fresh water percolates downward to the ground-water reservoir following rare storms, then flows in the direction of hydraulic gradient and gradually becomes brackish. Theoretical delineation of the recharge area and ground-water flow pattern in Rawdatain was confirmed by tritium and C14 dating of the water. Brackish ground-water conditions prevail from water table downward in areas where rainfall infiltrates essentially where it falls, permeability of sediments in the vadose zone is low, or the water table is several hundred feet below land surface. In these areas, rainfall is retained and lost within the soil zone or becomes mineralized during deep percolation. ?? 1964.

  11. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requirements for Class V Large-Capacity Cesspools and Motor Vehicle Waste Disposal Wells § 144.87 How does the... existing motor vehicle waste disposal wells within your State. (b) Ground water protection areas. (1) For... area is complete every existing motor vehicle waste disposal well owner in that ground water...

  12. Geology and ground-water resources of Outagamie County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeRoux, E.F.

    1957-01-01

    The ground water differs greatly in chemical quality from well to well, but it is generally a very hard calcium magnesium bicarbonate water, some of it high in iron. To aid in determining the source of well waters, 22 chemical analyses were plotted on a logarithmic diagram to obtain characteristic patterns for waters from several geologic sources.

  13. Dynamic factor analysis for estimating ground water arsenic trends.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Chang, Fi-John

    2010-01-01

    Drinking ground water containing high arsenic (As) concentrations has been associated with blackfoot disease and the occurrence of cancer along the southwestern coast of Taiwan. As a result, 28 ground water observation wells were installed to monitor the ground water quality in this area. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA) is used to identify common trends that represent unexplained variability in ground water As concentrations of decommissioned wells and to investigate whether explanatory variables (total organic carbon [TOC], As, alkalinity, ground water elevation, and rainfall) affect the temporal variation in ground water As concentration. The results of the DFA show that rainfall dilutes As concentration in areas under aquacultural and agricultural use. Different combinations of geochemical variables (As, alkalinity, and TOC) of nearby monitoring wells affected the As concentrations of the most decommissioned wells. Model performance was acceptable for 11 wells (coefficient of efficiency >0.50), which represents 52% (11/21) of the decommissioned wells. Based on DFA results, we infer that surface water recharge may be effective for diluting the As concentration, especially in the areas that are relatively far from the coastline. We demonstrate that DFA can effectively identify the important factors and common effects representing unexplained variability common to decommissioned wells on As variation in ground water and extrapolate information from existing monitoring wells to the nearby decommissioned wells.

  14. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  15. Water resources data, North Carolina, water year 2002. Volume 2: Ground-water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, S.S.; Breton, P.L.; Chapman, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for North Carolina consist of records of stage, discharge, water quality for streams; stage and contents for lakes and reservoirs; precipitation; and ground-water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 211 gaging stations; stage and contents for 62 lakes and reservoirs; stage for 20 gaging stations; water quality for 52 gaging stations and 7 miscellaneous sites, and continuous water quality for 30 sites; and continuous precipitation at 109 sites. Volume 2 contains ground-water-level data from 143 observation wells and ground-water-quality data from 72 wells. Additional water data were collected at 85 sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements in Volume 1. The collection of water-resources data in North Carolina is a part of the National Water-Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, municipal, and Federal agencies.

  16. Ground-water quality protection; why it's important to you

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webbers, Ank

    1995-01-01

    Ground water is a valuable resource often used for industry, commerce, agriculture, and drinking water. In the 19080's, ground water provided 35 percent of the municipal water supplies in the United States and 95 percent of the rural, domestic drinking water. Scientists participating in ground-water studies may determine the potential pathways that contaminants could be transported in aquifers. In karst terrain especially, a contanimant can enter a fracture network in a carbonate aquifer and quickly spread to become a widespread health problem. Although Federal and local funding for ground-water cleanups and treatment may be available, the costs can exceed many millions of dollars each year. Such costly remedial actions could be avoided or minimized by becoming aware that ground water anywhere is vulnerable to contamination, but particularly so in carbonate terrain. Practicing good "out-of-doors" house- keeping is necessary. From the standpoint of economic and environmental responsibility, it is critical that we all work together to protect the quality of ground-water resources so that future generations can continue to have clean water.

  17. Ground Watering of the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    USGS

    2006-10-12

    Water is a precious commodity, especially in the arid southwest region of the US, where there is a limited supply of both surface water and ground water. Ground water has a variety of uses (such as agricultural, commercial, and domestic) in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) of southern Nevada and eastern California. The DVRFS, an area of about 100,000 square kilometers, contains very complex geology and hydrology. Using a computer model to represent this complex system the US Geological Survey (USGS) simulated ground-water flow in the Death Valley region for use with US Department of Energy (DOE) projects in southern Nevada. The model was created to help address contaminant cleanup activities associated with the underground nuclear testing conducted from 1951 to 1992 at the Nevada Test Site and to support the licensing process for the Nation's proposed geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  18. Ground-water resources of the Lexington, Kentucky, area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faust, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Ground water in the Lexington, Kentucky, area occurs in Ordovician Limestones in which cavity development is generally limited to about 100 feet below land surface. Some wells produce about 300 gallons per minute in some of the large stream valleys , about 50 gallons per minute in the rolling upland and small stream valleys, and about 5 gallons per minute on hilltops and steep slopes. Many wells throughout the area do not furnish adequate water for domestic supplies because no significant water-bearing openings are penetrated during drilling. Ground-water use is limited mostly to domestic and stock supplies and a few small public supplies. Ground water is generally a calcium bicarbonate type and in places contains sodium chloride and (or) hydrogen sulfide. Bacterial pollution of ground water is widespread because of direct recharge of polluted runoff and streamflow to cavernous limestones. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Pesticides in ground water: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbash, Jack; Resek, Elizabeth A.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive review of published information on the distribution and behavior of pesticides and their transformation products in ground water indicates that pesticides from every chemical class have been detected in ground waters of the United States. Many of these compounds are commonly present at low concentrations in ground water beneath agricultural land. Little information is available on their occurrence beneath non-agricultural land, although the intensity of their use in such areas (on lawns, golf courses, rights of way, timberlands, etc.) is often comparable to, or greater than agricultural use. Information on pesticides in ground water is not sufficient to provide either a statistically representative view of pesticide occurrence in ground water across the United States, or an indication of long-term trends or changes in the severity or extent of this contamination over the past three decades. This is largely due to wide variations in analytical detection limits, well selection procedures, and other design features among studies conducted in different areas or at different times. Past approaches have not been well suited for distinguishing "point source" from "nonpoint source" pesticide contamination. Among the variety of natural and anthropogenic factors examined, those that appear to be most strongly associated with the intensity of pesticide contamination of ground water are the depth, construction and age of the sampled wells, the amount of recharge (by precipitation or irrigation), and the depth of tillage. Approaches commonly employed for predicting pesticide distributions in the subsurface--including computer simulations, indicator solutes (e.g., nitrate or tritium), and ground-water vulnerability assessments--generally provide unreliable predictions of pesticide occurrence in ground water. Such difficulties may arise largely from a general failure to account for the preferential transport of pesticides in the subsurface. Significant

  20. ESTIMATING FLOW AND FLUX OF GROUND-WATER DISCHARGE USING WATER TEMPERATURE AND VELOCITY. (R827961)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature of ground water discharge to a stream has important implications for nearby ground water flow, especially with respect to contaminant transport and well-head protection. Measurements of ground water discharge were accomplished in this study using (1) differences bet...

  1. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  2. Protolytic dissociation of cyanophenols in ground and excited states in alcohol and water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepanik, Beata; Styrcz, Stanisław

    2011-08-01

    The effect of cyano substituents on acidity in ground and excited states of mono- and dicyanophenols was investigated. The equilibrium dissociation constants of 3,4-dicyanophenol in ground and lowest excited states in water solution and the change of these constants in the excited state during the transfer to the ground state for o-, m-, p-cyanophenol and 3,4-dicyanophenol in alcohol and water solutions were determined. It was shown that the cyano substitution increases the acidity of ortho-, meta- and dicyano-derivative in ground state in comparison to the phenol, which makes the anions of these derivatives appear in solutions from methanol to 1-butanol. In the excited state the acidity of investigated compounds changes significantly in comparison to the ground state. 3,4-Dicyanophenol is the strongest acid in the lowest excited singlet state, while p-cyanophenol is the weakest one in both alcohol and water solutions. The distribution of the electronic charge and dipole moments of all investigated cyanophenols in ground and excited states were determined on the basis of ab initio calculations using the GAMESS program.

  3. Evidence for ground-water stratification near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Futa, K.; Marshall, B.D.; Peterman, Z.E.

    2006-01-01

    Major- and trace-element concentrations and strontium isotope ratios (strontium-87/strontium-86) in samples of ground water potentially can be useful in delineating flow paths in the complex ground-water system in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Water samples were collected from boreholes to characterize the lateral and vertical variability in the composition of water in the saturated zone. Discrete sampling of water-producing intervals in the saturated zone includes isolating borehole sections with packers and extracting pore water from core obtained by sonic drilling. Chemical and isotopic stratification was identified in the saturated zone beneath southern Fortymile Wash.

  4. Ground-Water Reconnaissance at Pinnacles National Monument, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evenson, R.E.

    1962-01-01

    Ground-water supplies at Pinnacles National Monument have been obtained from springs that occur in fractures and along bedding planes of volcanic flows and deposits, and from springs discharged from perched water in a sedimentary fanglomerate formation. The spring-water yield is barely adequate to supply existing camp facilities, and therefore a supplemental water supply is necessary before existing campgrounds can be expanded. This supplemental water can be supplied by good-quality ground water obtained from shallow wells drilled in the alluvium of Chalone Creek. The yield of properly constructed wells in this area should exceed 10 gallons per minute.

  5. Field Techniques for Estimating Water Fluxes Between Surface Water and Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; LaBaugh, James W.

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on measuring the flow of water across the interface between surface water and ground water, rather than the hydrogeological or geochemical processes that occur at or near this interface. The methods, however, that use hydrogeological and geochemical evidence to quantify water fluxes are described herein. This material is presented as a guide for those who have to examine the interaction of surface water and ground water. The intent here is that both the overview of the many available methods and the in-depth presentation of specific methods will enable the reader to choose those study approaches that will best meet the requirements of the environments and processes they are investigating, as well as to recognize the merits of using more than one approach. This report is designed to make the reader aware of the breadth of approaches available for the study of the exchange between surface and ground water. To accomplish this, the report is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 describes many well-documented approaches for defining the flow between surface and ground waters. Subsequent chapters provide an in-depth presentation of particular methods. Chapter 2 focuses on three of the most commonly used methods to either calculate or directly measure flow of water between surface-water bodies and the ground-water domain: (1) measurement of water levels in well networks in combination with measurement of water level in nearby surface water to determine water-level gradients and flow; (2) use of portable piezometers (wells) or hydraulic potentiomanometers to measure hydraulic gradients; and (3) use of seepage meters to measure flow directly. Chapter 3 focuses on describing the techniques involved in conducting water-tracer tests using fluorescent dyes, a method commonly used in the hydrogeologic investigation and characterization of karst aquifers, and in the study of water fluxes in karst terranes. Chapter 4 focuses on heat as a tracer in hydrological

  6. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, D.V.; Garrett, R.B.; Sory, J.D.; Burden, Carole B.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Steiger, J.I.; ReMillard, M.D.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Bagley, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    This is the thirty-first in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1993. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1989 to the spring of 1994. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  7. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batty, D.M.; Allen, D.V.; Sory, J.D.; Hanson, K.M.; Thomas, W.J.; Greene, M.R.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Hadley, H.K.; Gerner, S.J.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    1993-01-01

    This is the thirtieth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1992. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1988 to the spring of 1993. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  8. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batty, D.M.; Herbert, L.R.; Sory, J.D.; Hanson, Karen M.; Eads, James P.; Smith, G.J.; Danner, M.R.; Drumiler, M.M.; Garrett, R.B.; Gerner, S.J.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Thomas, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    This is the twenty-ninth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1991. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1987 to the spring of 1992. Most of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  9. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbert, L.R.; Smith, G.J.; Kariya, Kim A.; Eads, James P.; Allen, D.V.; Stolp, Bert; Brooks, Lynette E.; Garrett, R.B.; Brothers, W.C.; Puchta, R.W; Swenson, R.L.; Emett, D.C.; Overman, W.R.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    This is the twenty-seventh in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1989. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1989 to the spring of 1990. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  10. Ground water for oil-shale development, Piceance Basin, Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Uses a synthetic streamflow model to investigate the effects of using conservative estimates of ground water on the required active storage capacity of a hypothetical reservoir on the White River. Results of the study indicate that use of ground water from mine drainage and/or auxiliary wells may have a significant impact on the size and timing of surface-water reservoirs. -from Author

  11. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford operations

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M. D.; Thorne, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEOR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides originating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: 1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; 2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; 3) through wells that draw some or all of their water from the Columbia River (riparian wells); and 4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in the contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring. These four pathways make up the "ground-water pathway ," which is the subject of this study. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the groundwater pathway contributed to radiation doses that populations or individuals may have received from past operations at Hanford. The assessment presented in this report was performed by 1) reviewing the extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and 2) performing simple calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations in ground water and the Columbia River resulting from ground-water discharge. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to this ground water and surface water were calculated. The study conclusion is that the ground-water pathways did not contribute significantly to dose. Compared with background radiation in the TriCities {300 mrem/yr), estimated doses are small: 0.02 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from discharge of contaminated ground water to the Columbia River; 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from Hanford Site wells; 11 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from riparian wells; and 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from the watershed. Because the estimated doses are so small, the recommendation is that further work

  12. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  13. Removal of lead ions in drinking water by coffee grounds as vegetable biomass.

    PubMed

    Tokimoto, Toshimitsu; Kawasaki, Naohito; Nakamura, Takeo; Akutagawa, Jyunichi; Tanada, Seiki

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to reuse food waste for useful purposes, we investigated the possibility of using coffee grounds to remove lead ions from drinking water. We studied the lead ion adsorption characteristics of coffee beans and grounds by measuring their fat and protein content, adsorption isotherms for lead ions, and adsorption rates for lead ions. The number of lead ions adsorbed by coffee grounds did not depend on the kind of coffee beans or the temperature at which adsorption tests were performed. The rate of lead ion adsorption by coffee grounds was directly proportional to the amount of coffee grounds added to the solution. When coffee grounds were degreased or boiled, the number of lead ions decreased. When proteins contained in coffee grounds were denatured, the lead ion adsorption was considerably reduced. The lead ion adsorption capacity of coffee grounds decreased with increased concentration of perchloric acid used for treating them and disappeared with 10% perchloric acid. The experiments demonstrated that proteins contained in coffee beans depend upon the adsorption of lead ion. The present study gave an affirmative answer to the possibility of using coffee grounds, an abundant food waste, for removing lead ions from drinking water.

  14. Geology and ground-water resources of Goshen County, Wyoming; Chemical quality of the ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, J.R.; Visher, F.N.; Littleton, R.T.; Durum, W.H.

    1957-01-01

    Goshen County, which has an area of 2,186 square miles, lies in southeastern Wyoming. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the county by determining the character, thickness, and extent of the waterbearing materials; the source, occurrence, movement, quantity, and quality of the ground water; and the possibility of developing additional ground water. The rocks exposed in the area are sedimentary and range in age from Precambrian to Recent. A map that shows the areas of outcrop and a generalized section that summarizes the age, thickness, physical character, and water supply of these formations are included in the report. Owing to the great depths at which they lie beneath most of the county, the formations older than the Lance formation of Late Cretaceous age are not discussed in detail. The Lance formation, of Late Cretaceous age, which consists mainly of beds of fine-grained sandstone and shale, has a maximum thickness of about 1,400 feet. It yields water, which usually is under artesian pressure, to a large number of domestic and stock wells in the south-central part of the county. Tertiary rocks in the area include the Chadron and Brule formations of Oligocene age, the Arikaree formation of Miocene age, and channel deposits of Pliocene age. The Chadron formation is made up of two distinct units: a lower unit of highly variegated fluviatile deposits that has been found only in the report area; and an upper unit that is typical of the formation as it occurs in adjacent areas. The lower unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 95 feet, is not known to yield water to wells, but its coarse-grained channel deposits probably would yield small quantities of water to wells. The upper unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 150 feet, yields sufficient quantities of water for domestic and stock uses from channel deposits of sandstone under artesian pressure. The Brule formation, which is mainly a

  15. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  16. Radon-222 in the ground water of Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1998-01-01

    Radon-222 concentrations in ground water in 31 geologic units in Chester County, Pa., were measured in 665 samples collected from 534 wells from 1986 to 1997. Chester County is underlain by schists, gneisses, quartzites, carbonates, sandstones, shales, and other rocks of the Piedmont Physiographic Province. On average, radon concentration was measured in water from one well per 1.4 square miles, throughout the 759 square-mile county, although the distribution of wells was not even areally or among geologic units. The median concentration of radon-222 in ground water from the 534 wells was 1,400 pCi/L (picocuries per liter). About 89 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 300 pCi/L, and about 11 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 5,000 pCi/L. The highest concentration measured was 53,000 pCi/L. Of the geologic units sampled, the median radon-222 concentration in ground water was greatest (4,400 pCi/L) in the Peters Creek Schist, the second most areally extensive formation in the county. Signifi- cant differences in the radon-222 concentrations in ground water among geologic units were observed. Generally, concentrations in ground water in schists, quartzites, and gneisses were greater than in ground water in anorthosite, carbonates, and ultramafic rocks. The distribution of radon-222 in ground water is related to the distribution of uranium in aquifer materials of the various rock types. Temporal variability in radon-222 concentrations in ground water does not appear to be greater than about a factor of two for most (75 percent) of wells sampled more than once but was observed to range up to almost a factor of three in water from one well. In water samples from this well, seasonal variations were observed; the maximum concentrations were measured in the fall and the minimum in the spring.

  17. Identification of technical guidance related to ground water monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelsberger, R.R.; Smith, E.D.; Broz, M.; Wright, J.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Monitoring of ground water quality is a key element of ground water protection and is mandated by several federal and state laws concerned with water quality or waste management. Numerous regulatory guidance documents and technical reports discuss various aspects of ground water monitoring, but at present there is no single source of guidance on procedures and practices for ground water monitoring. This report is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) officials and facility operating personnel in identifying sources of guidance for developing and implementing ground water monitoring programs that are technically sound and that comply with applicable regulations. Federal statutes and associated regulations were reviewed to identify requirements related to ground water monitoring, and over 160 documents on topics related to ground water monitoring were evaluated for their technical merit, their utility as guidance for regulatory compliance, and their relevance to DOE's needs. For each of 15 technical topics involved in ground water monitoring, the report presents (1) a review of federal regulatory requirements and representative state requirements, (2) brief descriptions of the contents and merits of available guidance documents and technical references, and (3) recommendations of the guidance documents or other technical resources that appear to be most appropriate for use in DOE's monitoring activities. The contents of the report are applicable to monitoring activities involving both radioactive and nonradioactive substances. The main sources of regulatory requirements considered in the report are the Atomic Energy Act (including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, and Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

  18. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, D.V.; Steiger, J.I.; Sory, J.D.; Garrett, R.B.; Burden, Carole B.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Gerner, S.J.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Bagley, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirty-second in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1994. Much of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  19. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbert, L.R.; Gates, Joseph S.; Sory, J.D.; Kariya, Kim A.; Eads, James P.; Smith, G.J.; Thomas, B.K.; Brooks, Lynette E.; Garrett, R.B.; Overman, W.R.; Swenson, R.L.; Emett, D.C.; Drumiler, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    This is the twenty-eighth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1990. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1986 to the spring of 1991. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  20. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steiger, J.I.; Gerner, S.J.; Sory, J.D.; Burden, Carole B.; Loving, B.L.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Hadley, H.K.; Enright, Michael; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Brockner, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is the thirty-third in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1995. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  1. Ground-water resources data for Baldwin County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, James L.; Moreland, Richard S.; Clark, Amy E.

    1996-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic data for 237 wells were collected, and water-levels in 223 wells in Baldwin and Escambia Counties were measured. Long-term water water-level data, available for many wells, indicate that ground-water levels in most of Baldwin County show no significant trends for the period of record. However, ground-water levels have declined in the general vicinity of Spanish Fort and Daphne, and ground-water levels in the Gulf Shores and Orange Beach areas are less than 5 feet above sea level in places. The quality of ground water generally is good, but problems with iron, sulfur, turbidity, and color occur. The water from most private wells in Baldwin County is used without treatment or filtration. Alabama public- health law requires that water from public-supply wells be chlorinated. Beyond that, the most common treatment of ground water by public-water suppliers in Baldwin County consists of pH adjustment, iron removal, and aeration. The transmissivity of the Miocene-Pliocene aquifer was determined at 10 locations in Baldwin County. Estimates of transmissivity ranged from 700 to 5,400 feet squared per day. In general, aquifer transmissivity was greatest in the southeastern part of the county, and least in the western part of the county near Mobile Bay. A storage coefficient of 1.5 x 10-3 was determined for the Miocene-Pliocene aquifer near Loxley.

  2. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Smith, G.J.; Greene, Michael R.; Eads, James P.; Allen, D.V.; Yarbrough, John A.; Brooks, Lynette E.; Garrett, R.B.; Brothers, W.C.; Puchta, R.W; Swenson, R.L.; Emett, D.C.; Overman, W.R.; Sandberg, G.W.; Thomas, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    This is the twenty-sixth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1988. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described from the spring of 1988 to the spring of 1989. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  3. Sampling colloids and colloid-associated contaminants in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Backhus, Debera A.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Groher, Daniel M.; MacFarlane, John K.; Gschwend, Philip M.

    1993-01-01

    It has recently been recognized that mobile colloids may affect the transport of contaminants in ground water. To determine the significance of this process, knowledge of both the total mobile load (dissolved + colloid-associated) and the dissolved concentration of a ground-water contaminant must be obtained. Additional information regarding mobile colloid characteristics and concentrations are required to predict accurately the fate and effects of contaminants at sites where significant quantities of colloids are found. To obtain this information, a sampling scheme has been designed and refined to collect mobile colloids while avoiding the inclusion of normally immobile subsurface and well-derived solids. The effectiveness of this sampling protocol was evaluated at a number of contaminated and pristine sites.The sampling results indicated that slow, prolonged pumping of ground water is much more effective at obtaining ground-water samples that represent in situ colloid populations than bailing. Bailed samples from a coal tar-contaminated site contained 10–100 times greater colloid concentrations and up to 750 times greater polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations as were detected in slowly pumped samples. The sampling results also indicated that ground-water colloid concentrations should be monitored in the field to determine the adequacy of purging if colloid and colloid-associated contaminants are of interest. To avoid changes in the natural ground-water colloid population through precipitation or coagulation, in situ ground-water chemistry conditions must be preserved during sampling and storage. Samples collected for determination of the total mobile load of colloids and low-solubility contaminants must not be filtered because some mobile colloids are removed by this process. Finally, suggestions that mobile colloids are present in ground water at any particular site should be corroborated with auxiliary data, such as colloid levels in

  4. Influence of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of soil water, springs, and ground water, Catoctin Mountains, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.

    1989-01-01

    During 1983 and 1984, wet precipitation was primarily a solution of dilute sulphuric acid, whereas calcium and bicarbonate were the major ions in springs and ground water in two small watersheds with a deciduous forest cover in central Maryland. Dominant ions in soil water were calcium, magnesium, and sulphate. The relative importance of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of these subsurface waters was compared to the contribution from wet precipitation, biological processes, and road deicing salts. -from Author

  5. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater- quality studies have been conducted in the county over several decades to address specific hydrologic issues. This report compiles and describes water-quality data collected during studies conducted mostly after 1990 and summarizes the data in a county-wide perspective. In this report, water-quality constituents are described in regard to what they are, why the constituents are important, and where constituent concentrations vary relative to geology or land use. Water-quality constituents are grouped into logical units to aid presentation: water-quality constituents measured in the field (pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), common ions, metals, radionuclides, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds.Waterquality constituents measured in the field, common ions (except chloride), metals, and radionuclides are discussed relative to geology. Bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are discussed relative to land use. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or Chester County Health Department has drinkingwater standards for a constituent, the standards are included. Tables and maps are included to assist Chester County residents in understanding the water-quality constituents and their distribution in the county. Ground water in Chester County generally is of good quality and is mostly acidic except in the carbonate rocks and serpentinite, where it is neutral to strongly basic. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are major constituents of these rocks. Both compounds have high solubility, and, as such, both are major contributors to elevated pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and the common ions. Elevated pH and alkalinity in carbonate rocks and serpentinite can indicate a potential for scaling in water heaters and household plumbing. Low pH and low alkalinity in the schist, quartzite, and

  6. Ground-water field trip, Tucson to Nogales, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, D.R.; Halpenny, L.C.

    1954-01-01

    A field excursion following the route described herein was conducted as a part of the curriculum of the 6th Ground Water Short Course, which was held by the Geological Survey at the University of Arizona in April 1954. The route log and descriptive text were designed to provide a general background of the ground-water situation in the Upper Santa Cruz Basin, a few of the geologic features that affect the occurrence of ground water, and some of the historical highlights of the region. 

  7. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Walzem, Vince; Cillessen, J.L.; Downhour, Paul; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Wilberg, D.E.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Fisher, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    This is the forty-third in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable inter­ested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water with­drawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2005. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah. gov/techinfo/wwwpub/gw2006.pdf and http://ut.water.usgs. gov/publications/GW2006.pdf.

  8. Transboundary impacts on regional ground water modeling in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rainwater, K.; Stovall, J.; Frailey, S.; Urban, L.

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation required regional grassroots water resources planning across the entire state of Texas. The Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), the state's primary water resource planning agency, divided the state into 16 planning regions. Each planning group developed plans to manage both ground water and surface water sources and to meet future demands of various combinations of domestic, agricultural, municipal, and industrial water consumers. This presentation describes the challenges in developing a ground water model for the Llano Estacado Regional Water Planning Group (LERWPG), whose region includes 21 counties in the Southern High Plains of Texas. While surface water is supplied to several cities in this region, the vast majority of the regional water use comes from the High Plains aquifer system, often locally referred to as the Ogallala Aquifer. Over 95% of the ground water demand is for irrigated agriculture. The LERWPG had to predict the impact of future TWDB-projected water demands, as provided by the TWDB, on the aquifer for the period 2000 to 2050. If detrimental impacts were noted, alternative management strategies must be proposed. While much effort was spent on evaluating the current status of the ground water reserves, an appropriate numerical model of the aquifer system was necessary to demonstrate future impacts of the predicted withdrawals as well as the effects of the alternative strategies. The modeling effort was completed in the summer of 2000. This presentation concentrates on the political, scientific, and nontechnical issues in this planning process that complicated the modeling effort. Uncertainties in data, most significantly in distribution and intensity of recharge and withdrawals, significantly impacted the calibration and predictive modeling efforts. Four predictive scenarios, including baseline projections, recurrence of the drought of record, precipitation enhancement, and reduced irrigation demand, were simulated to

  9. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    PubMed

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  10. Tectonic influences on ground water quality: insight from complementary methods.

    PubMed

    Earman, Sam; McPherson, Brian J O L; Phillips, Fred M; Ralser, Steve; Herrin, James M; Broska, James

    2008-01-01

    A study using multiple techniques provided insight into tectonic influences on ground water systems; the results can help to understand ground water systems in the tectonically active western United States and other parts of the world. Ground water in the San Bernardino Valley (Arizona, United States and Sonora, Mexico) is the main source of water for domestic use, cattle ranching (the primary industry), and the preservation of threatened and endangered species. To improve the understanding of ground water occurrence, movement, and sustainability, an investigation was conducted using a number of complementary methods, including major ion geochemistry, isotope hydrology, analysis of gases dissolved in ground water, aquifer testing, geophysics, and an examination of surface and subsurface geology. By combining information from multiple lines of investigation, a more complete picture of the basin hydrogeology was assembled than would have been possible using fewer methods. The results show that the hydrogeology of the San Bernardino Valley is markedly different than that of its four neighboring basins in the United States. The differences include water quality, chemical evolution, storage, and residence time. The differences result from the locally unique geology of the San Bernardino Valley, which is due to the presence of a magmatically active accommodation zone (a zone separating two regions of normal faults with opposite dips). The geological differences and the resultant hydrological differences between the San Bernardino Valley and its neighboring basins may serve as a model for the distinctive nature of chemical evolution of ground water in other basins with locally distinct tectonic histories.

  11. Identification of Naegleria fowleri in warm ground water aquifers.

    PubMed

    Laseke, Ian; Korte, Jill; Lamendella, Regina; Kaneshiro, Edna S; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Oerther, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    The free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri was identified as the etiological agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis that caused the deaths of two children in Peoria, Arizona, in autumn of 2002. It was suspected that the source of N. fowleri was the domestic water supply, which originates from ground water sources. In this study, ground water from the greater Phoenix Metropolitan area was tested for the presence of N. fowleri using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA sequences of bacterial populations in the ground water were performed to examine the potential link between the presence of N. fowleri and bacterial groups inhabiting water wells. The results showed the presence of N. fowleri in five out of six wells sampled and in 26.6% of all ground water samples tested. Phylogenetic analyses showed that beta- and gamma-proteobacteria were the dominant bacterial populations present in the ground water. Bacterial community analyses revealed a very diverse community structure in ground water samples testing positive for N. fowleri.

  12. Sewage in ground water in the Florida Keys

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    More than 24,000 septic tanks, 5,000 cesspools, and greater than 600 shallow disposal wells introduce sewage effluents into porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To assess the fate of sewage nutrients, 21 2- to 20-m-deep wells were core drilled and completed as water-monitoring wells. The wells were sampled quarterly and analyzed for 17 parameters. including nutrients and bacteria. Nutrients (mainly NH4, - which is 30 to 40 times higher than in surface sea water) were detected in ground water beneath the Keys and offshore coral reefs. Highest levels were beneath reefs 5 to 8 km offshore. Ground waters were generally hypersaline and fecal bacteria (fecal coliform and streptococci) were detected in ground water beneath living coral reefs. Higher sea level on the Florida Bay side of the Keys is proposed as the mechanism for forcing ground water toward offshore coral reefs. Tidal pumping, which is more pronounced near the Keys, causes leakage of ground water where the sediment is thin. Areas lacking sediment cover consist of bare limestone bedrock or permeable coral reefs. These are the areas where coral diseases and algal growth have increased in recent years. Pollutants entering the ground water beneath the Florida Keys are likely to be transported seaward beneath impermeable Holocene sediments and may be upwelling through coral reefs and other hardbottom communities.

  13. Ground-water levels in Wyoming, 1974 through 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragsdale, J.O.; Oberender, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Ground-water levels are measured periodically in a network of about 270 observation wells in Wyoming, mostly in areas where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation or municipal purposes. The program is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State engineer and the Wyoming Department of Economic Planning and Development. This report contains hydrographs for most observation wells showing water-level fluctuations from 1974 through 1983. Also included in the report are maps showing locations of observation wells and tabulations of well depths, use of water, geologic source, records available, and highest and lowest water levels for the period of record. (USGS)

  14. Ground-water resources of Coke County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Clyde A.

    1973-01-01

    Coke County, located in semiarid west-central Texas, where large ranches, small farms, and oil production are the main bases of the economy, has a small supply of ground and surface water. Of the approximately 1,900 acre-feet of fresh to moderately saline ground water used in 1968, industry used 880 acre-feet, irrigation used 210 acre-feet, and domestic supply and livestock used 820 acre-feet. All of the water for municipal supply and some of the water for industry is obtained from surface-water reservoirs.

  15. Arsenic Species in the Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Arsenic concentrations in ground varies widely and regionally across the United States and exists as oxyanions having two oxidation states: As(+III) and As(+V). As(V) is effectively removed by most arsenic treatment processes whereas uncharged As(III) is poorly removed...

  16. Hydrogeology, ground-water use, and ground-water levels in the Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles; Schumann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Withdrawals of ground water in the central Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio, caused water-level declines of more than 100 feet by the 1950s. Since the 1950s, management practices have changed to reduce the withdrawals of ground water, and recovery of water levels in long-term monitoring wells in the valley has been documented. Changing conditions such as these prompted a survey of water use, streamflow conditions, and water levels in several aquifers in the central Mill Creek Valley, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Geohydrologic information, water use, and water levels were compiled from historical records and collected during the regional survey. Data collected during the survey are presented in terms of updated geohydrologic information, water use in the study area, water levels in the aquifers, and interactions between ground water and surface water. Some of the data are concentrated at former Air Force Plant 36 (AFP36), which is collocated with the General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) plant, and these data are used to describe geohydrology and water levels on a more local scale at and near the plant. A comparison of past and current ground-water use and levels indicates that the demand for ground water is decreasing and water levels are rising. Before 1955, most of the major industrial ground-water users had their own wells, ground water was mined from a confined surficial (lower) aquifer, and water levels were more than 100 feet below their predevelopment level. Since 1955, however, these users have been purchasing their water from the city of Cincinnati or a private water purveyor. The cities of Reading and Lockland, both producers of municipal ground-water supplies in the area, shut down their well fields within their city limits. Because the demand for ground-water supplies in the valley has lessened greatly since the 1950s, withdrawals have decreased, and, consequently, water levels in the lower aquifer are 65 to 105 feet higher than they were

  17. Hydrology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the Chipuxet ground-water reservoir, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, H.E.; Dickerman, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    A glacial sand and gravel aquifer in the Chipuxet River basin of Rhode Island forms a ground-water reservoir that could yield as much as 8.6 million gallons per day to wells; however, some streams would go dry for extended periods of time. The State Water Resources Board has tested five site that it proposes to develop for a public supply of 3 million gallons per day. A digital model was used to determine how withdrawal at this rate from alternative combinations of wells would affect water levels and streamflow. Results show that withdrawal of 3 million gallons per day would have a minimal effect on water levels, but that withdrawal at this rate from some well combinations could cause the Chipuxet River to have little or no flow for 90 consecutive days on the average of 1 year in 20. Quality of ground water is generally good, but leaching of fertilizers applied to croplands, which overlie much of the aquifer, has caused locally excessive concentrations of nitrate. Induced infiltration of surface water through organic sediments that line the bottoms of ponds and streams also seems to be the cause of elevated concentrations of manganese in water from some heavily pumped wells. (USGS)

  18. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2002--Volume 2. Ground-Water Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and levels and quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface- and ground-water hydrologic conditions for the 2002 water year, a listing of current water-resources projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 118 continuing-record surface-water stations, 15 miscellaneous ground-water sites, and records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 6 continuous-recording stations. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 12-14. Locations of miscellaneous water-quality sites are shown in figures 40-41. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating federal, state, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  19. Ground-water resources and geology of Colquitt County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    The ground water is generally hard, but is otherwise of good quality. One exception is near the hypothesized Ochlockonee fault where water contains higher-than-usual concentrations of various ions, especially sulfate. Another exception occurs along the axis of the Suwannee strait where clay minerals in the channel facies may soften the water by ion exchange.

  20. Factors affecting ground-water quality in Oakland County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2004-01-01

    Ground water is water stored in pores within soil and rock beneath the land surface. When these pores are connected so that water can be transmitted to wells or springs, these bodies of soil and rock are termed aquifers, from two Greek words meaning “water” and “to bear.” 

  1. Selected bibliography of ground-water in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Ward-McLemore, E.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography contains 899 records related to the hydrology of the US. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: aquifers; artesian wells; geophysics; ground water; flow models; pollution; tritium; water levels; water policy; and legal aspects. The subject index provides listings of records related to each state. Some of the items (81) are themselves bibliographies.

  2. Ground Water / Surface Water Exchange: Streambed Versus a Channel Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, C. L.; Constantz, J. E.; Cooper, C. A.; McKay, W. A.

    2007-12-01

    The streambed is important in controlling exchange of water, solutes, and heat between streams and ground water. Processes such as sedimentation, erosion, and fluctuations in diurnal temperatures can have significant effects on the streambed hydraulic conductivity, which in turn affects fluid velocities across the streambed. The objectives of this study are to quantify the difference in flux magnitude and direction within and around a channel bar. The focus of this presentation is to compare fluxes in channel bar sediments with fluxes in the streambed to determine the effect of the upper boundary conditions on sediment fluxes. A network of piezometers was installed on and around a channel bar located within the Truckee River, a dense 6th order river network, located primarily in northwest Nevada. Instruments used were temperature loggers, pressure transducers, and stage recorders. Several methods were simultaneously utilized to quantify water and heat fluxes and to interpret the hydrodynamic processes through the streambed sediments. Numerical simulations are being completed to quantify the spatial and temporal fluid flux and heat transport in relation to varied hydraulic parameters such as variable river stage, geometry, and hydraulic conductivity. In general, we have found that surface water exchange to the streambed occurs at the upstream portion of bed features and streambed discharge dominates at the downstream bed feature. This exchange is evidenced at the channel bar as well as localized riffles and point bars adjacent to the channel bar. We found that at least two separate hydraulic conditions are evident during our study. The range in water levels between the piezometers was altered from approximately 1.25 m to a minimum of 0.10 m and the mean potentiometric surface increased by 1 m. These variations are geomorphic responses due to a flood event, inundating the channel bar, and a channel restoration project both upstream and downstream of the study area

  3. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at two landfills in Bristol, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    A study was done to describe the hydrogeology of unconsolidated deposits, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at two landfills in Bristol, Vermont. The study area is characterized by a glacial delta greater than 200 feet thick on the west flank of the Green Mountains. An upper unconfined, coarse-grained glacial aquifer and a lower fine-grained glacial aquifer are separated throughout most of the study area by a sand, silt, and clay confining unit. A two-layer ground-water flow model was designed and calibrated to estimate ground-water-flow paths form the aquifers beneath the landfills. Large upward head gradients of 0.03 to 0.30 foot per foot are the result of ground water leaking from the underlying bedrock aquifer, which caused ground-water flow to concentrate in the upper aquifer. Most simulated ground-water-flow paths in the lower glacial aquifer beneath the landfills crossed into the upper aquifer. Simulated ground- water-flow paths in the upper aquifer, beneath the landfills, remained in the upper aquifer. Ground water characterized as landfill leachate, or influenced by landfill leachate, has a median specific conductance of 700 microseimens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius. Landfill leachate contained mean concentrations 1.5 to 10 times the background concentrations of common constituents and metals, including calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride, iron, magnesium, and manganese. Trace metals detected in the leachate included copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt, lead, and arsenic. Ten volatile organic compounds were found at four observation wells associated with one landfill and three volatile organic compounds were found at two observation wells associated with the record landfill. No one volatile organic compound was consistently found and detections were generally at or near detection limits.

  4. Flowpath delineation and ground water age, Allequash Basin, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pint, Christine D.; Hunt, Randall J.; Anderson, Mary P.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of ground water flowpaths to a lake and creek in northern Wisconsin shows the flow system in a geologically simple basin dominated by lakes can be surprisingly complex. Differences in source area, i.e., lakes or terrestrial, combined with the presence of intervening lakes, which may or may not capture underflowing ground water as water moves downgradient from recharge areas, contribute to a complex mix of flowpaths. The result is water of different chemistry and vastly different ages may discharge in close proximity. Flowpaths, travel times, and capture zones in the Allequash Basin in northern Wisconsin were delineated using particle tracking based on a calibrated steady-state ground water flow model. The flowpath analysis supports the conclusions of Walker et al. (2003) who made inferences about flowpath characteristics from isotope and major ion chemistry. Simulated particle tracking agreed with Walker et al.'s measurements of water source (lake or terrestrial recharge) in the stream subsurface and also supported their assertion that ground water with a high calcium concentration in the lower basin of Allequash Lake is derived from long flowpaths. Numerical simulations show that ground water discharging in this area originates more than 5 km away in a source area located upgradient of Big Muskellunge Lake, which is upgradient of Allequash Lake. These results graphically illustrate that in settings with multiple sources of water with different age characteristics and converging flowlines (like the Allequash Basin) it may be difficult to obtain accurate estimates of ground water age by chemical analyses of ground water.

  5. Predicting ground water nitrate concentration from land use.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Kristin K; Vogel, Richard M

    2005-01-01

    Ground water nitrate concentrations on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, were analyzed to assess the effects of land use on ground water quality. Exploratory data analysis was applied to historic ground water nitrate concentrations to determine spatial and temporal trends. Maximum likelihood Tobit and logistic regression analyses of explanatory variables that characterize land use within a 1000-foot radius of each well were used to develop predictive equations for nitrate concentration at 69 wells. The results demonstrate that historic nitrate concentrations downgradient from agricultural land are significantly higher than nitrate concentrations elsewhere. Tobit regression results demonstrate that the number of septic tanks and the percentages of forest, undeveloped, and high-density residential land within a 1000-foot radius of a well are reliable predictors of nitrate concentration in ground water. Similarly, logistic regression revealed that the percentages of forest, undeveloped, and low-density residential land are good indicators of ground water nitrate concentration > 2 mg/L. The methodology and results outlined here provide a useful tool for land managers in communities with shallow water tables overlain with highly permeable materials to evaluate potential effects of development on ground water quality.

  6. Monitored Natural Attenuation For Radionuclides In Ground Water - Technical Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attentuation) within the subsurface. In gen...

  7. Reductive Dehalogenation of Organic Contaminants in Soils and Ground Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Reductive dehalogenation is a process which may prove to be of paramount importance in dealing with a particularly persistent class of contaminants often found in soil and ground water at superfund sites.

  8. Site Characterization for MNA of Radionuclides in Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation is often evaluated as a component of the remedy for ground water contaminated with radionuclides. When properly employed, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) may provide an effective knowledge-based remedy where a thorough engineering analysis inform...

  9. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethinyl estradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl de...

  10. EFFECT OF GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES ON INDIGENOUS MICROFLORA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with the Interagency DNAPL Consortium, completed an independent evaluation of microbial responses to ground-water remediation technology demonstrations at Launch Pad 34 at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Brevard Count...

  11. GROUND WATER REMEDIATION RESEARCH: ENHANCED BIOREMEDIATION AND MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of ground water remediation research conducted at the Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division is provided. The focus of the overview is on Enhanced Bioremediation and Monitored Natural Attenuation research for the remediation of organic and inorganic contamina...

  12. CONTAMINATION OF PUBLIC GROUND WATER SUPPLIES BY SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple sources of contamination can affect ground water supplies, including municipal landfills, industrial operations, leaking underground storage tanks, septic tank systems, and prioritized uncontrolled hazardous waste sites known as “Superfund” sites. A review of Superfund R...

  13. GROUND WATER SAMPLING USING LOW-FLOW TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and remedial performance monitoring objectives. The sampling device or method used to collect samples from monitoring or compliance well can significantly impact data quality and reliability. Low-flo...

  14. Use of RORA for Complex Ground-Water Flow Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    The RORA computer program for estimating recharge is based on a condition in which ground water flows perpendicular to the nearest stream that receives ground-water discharge. The method, therefore, does not explicitly account for the ground-water-flow component that is parallel to the stream. Hypothetical finite-difference simulations are used to demonstrate effects of complex flow conditions that consist of two components: one that is perpendicular to the stream and one that is parallel to the stream. Results of the simulations indicate that the RORA program can be used if certain constraints are applied in the estimation of the recession index, an input variable to the program. These constraints apply to a mathematical formulation based on aquifer properties, recession of ground-water levels, and recession of streamflow.

  15. ACQUISITION OF REPRESENTATIVE GROUND WATER QUALITY SAMPLES FOR METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    R.S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) personnel have evaluated sampling procedures for the collection of representative, accurate, and reproducible ground water quality samples for metals for the past four years. Intensive sampling research at three different field...

  16. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethynylestradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl der...

  17. The effects of using ground water to maintain water levels of Cedar Lake, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLeod, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    There were no identifiable changes in measured physical and chemical characteristics of lake water during sustained pumping of ground water into the lake, nor were there identifiable changes in the number or makeup of the phytoplankton community. Differences in physical and chemical characteristics of lake water and ground water added to the lake probably were not great enough to cause changes within the lake.

  18. Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field.

  19. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  20. Enhanced submarine ground water discharge form mixing of pore water and estuarine water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Cable, Jaye E.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lindenberg, Mary K.

    2004-01-01

    Submarine ground water discharge is suggested to be an important pathway for contaminants from continents to coastal zones, but its significance depends on the volume of water and concentrations of contaminants that originate in continental aquifers. Ground water discharge to the Banana River Lagoon, Florida, was estimated by analyzing the temporal and spatial variations of Cl− concentration profiles in the upper 230 cm of pore waters and was measured directly by seepage meters. Total submarine ground water discharge consists of slow discharge at depths > ∼70 cm below seafloor (cmbsf) of largely marine water combined with rapid discharge of mixed pore water and estuarine water above ∼70 cmbsf. Cl− profiles indicate average linear velocities of ∼0.014 cm/d at depths > ∼70 cmbsf. In contrast, seepage meters indicate water discharges across the sediment-water interface at rates between 3.6 and 6.9 cm/d. The discrepancy appears to be caused by mixing in the shallow sediment, which may result from a combination of bioirrigation, wave and tidal pumping, and convection. Wave and tidal pumping and convection would be minor because the tidal range is small, the short fetch of the lagoon limits wave heights, and large density contacts are lacking between lagoon and pore water. Mixing occurs to ∼70 cmbsf, which represents depths greater than previously reported. Mixing of oxygenated water to these depths could be important for remineralization of organic matter.

  1. Improvements to the DRASTIC ground-water vulnerability mapping method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water vulnerability maps are designed to show areas of greatest potential for ground-water contamination on the basis of hydrogeologic and anthropogenic (human) factors. The maps are developed by using computer mapping hardware and software called a geographic information system (GIS) to combine data layers such as land use, soils, and depth to water. Usually, ground-water vulnerability is determined by assigning point ratings to the individual data layers and then adding the point ratings together when those layers are combined into a vulnerability map. Probably the most widely used ground-water vulnerability mapping method is DRASTIC, named for the seven factors considered in the method: Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone media, and hydraulic Conductivity of the aquifer (Aller and others, 1985, p. iv). The DRASTIC method has been used to develop ground-water vulnerability maps in many parts of the Nation; however, the effectiveness of the method has met with mixed success (Koterba and others, 1993, p. 513; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1993; Barbash and Resek, 1996; Rupert, 1997). DRASTIC maps usually are not calibrated to measured contaminant concentrations. The DRASTIC ground-water vulnerability mapping method was improved by calibrating the point rating scheme to measured nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2+NO3–N) concentrations in ground water on the basis of statistical correlations between NO2+NO3–N concentrations and land use, soils, and depth to water (Rupert, 1997). This report describes the calibration method developed by Rupert and summarizes the improvements in results of this method over those of the uncalibrated DRASTIC method applied by Rupert and others (1991) in the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho.

  2. Proceedings of the second international conference on ground water ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, J.A.; Valett, H.M.

    1994-12-31

    This conference was held March 27--30, 1994 in Atlanta, Georgia. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for state-of-the-art information on groundwater ecosystems. Attention is focused on the following topics: Biogeochemistry; ecology of metazoans; ground water management; microbial ecology; modeling; pollution, restoration and bioremediation; problems in karst systems; and surface and ground water interaction zones. Individual papers are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  3. Regional water table (2000) and ground-water-level changes in the Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins, southwestern Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Gregory A.

    2003-01-01

    The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a major part of the water requirements for the region. The continuous population growth in this area has resulted in ever-increasing demands on local ground-water resources. The collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water systems, and consequently, water availability. During 2000, the U. S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins. These data document recent conditions and, when compared with previous data, changes in ground-water levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data from about 500 wells, providing coverage for most of the basins. Twenty-nine hydrographs show long-term (up to 70 years) water-level conditions throughout the basins, and 13 short-term (1996 to 2000) hydrographs show the effects of recharge and discharge along the Mojave River. In addition, a water-level-change map was compiled to compare 1998 and 2000 water-levels throughout the basins. In the Mojave River ground-water basins, water-level data showed little change from 1998 to 2000, with the exception of areas along the Mojave River. Water levels along the Mojave River were typically in decline or unchanged, with exceptions near the Hodge and the Lenwood outlet, where water levels rose in response to artificial recharge. The Morongo ground-water basin had virtually no change in water levels from 1998 to 2000, with the exception of Yucca Valley, where artificial recharge and ground-water withdrawal continues.

  4. Handbook for state ground water managers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    ;Table of Contents: Nonpoint Source Implementation; State Public Water System Supervision; State Underground Water Source Protection (Underground Injection Control); Water Pollution Control -- State and Interstate Program Support (106 Grants); Water Quality Management Planning; Agriculture in Concert with the Environment; Consolidated Pesticide Compliance Monitoring and Program Cooperative Agreements; Pollution Prevention Incentives for States; Hazardous Substance Response Trust Fund; Hazardous Waste Financial Assistance; Underground Storage Tank Program; Leaking Underground Storage Tank Trust Fund; State/EPA Data Management Financial Assistance Program; Environmental Education; and Multi-Media Assistance Agreements for Indian Tribes.

  5. Ground water in the Verdigris River basin, Kansas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fader, Stuart Wesley; Morton, Robert B.

    1975-01-01

    Ground water in the Verdigris River basin occurs in consolidated rocks and unconsolidated deposits ranging in age from Mississippian to Quaternary. Water for municipal, industrial, and irrigation supplies generally can be obtained in limited quantities from the alluvial deposits in the stream valleys. Except for water in the alluvial deposits in the stream valleys and in the outcrop areas of the bedrock aquifers, the groundwater is generally of poor chemical quality. Owing to the generally poor chemical quality of water and low yields to wells, an increase in the use of ground water from the consolidated rocks is improbable. The unconsolidated rocks in the Verdigris River basin receive about 166,000 acre-feet of recharge annually, and about 1 million acre-fee of water is in temporary storage in the deposits. In 1968 about 4,200 acre-feet of ground was withdrawn for all uses. About 800 acre-feet of ground and 5,000 acre-feet of surface water were pumped for irrigation of 5,300 acres of cropland. The total annual withdrawal of ground water for irrigation may be 2,000 acre-feet by the year 2000.

  6. Geochemistry and the understanding of ground-water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-01-01

    Geochemistry has contributed significantly to the understanding of ground-water systems over the last 50 years. Historic advances include development of the hydrochemical facies concept, application of equilibrium theory, investigation of redox processes, and radiocarbon dating. Other hydrochemical concepts, tools, and techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms of flow and transport in ground-water systems, and have helped unlock an archive of paleoenvironmental information. Hydrochemical and isotopic information can be used to interpret the origin and mode of ground-water recharge, refine estimates of time scales of recharge and ground-water flow, decipher reactive processes, provide paleohydrological information, and calibrate ground-water flow models. Progress needs to be made in obtaining representative samples. Improvements are needed in the interpretation of the information obtained, and in the construction and interpretation of numerical models utilizing hydrochemical data. The best approach will ensure an optimized iterative process between field data collection and analysis, interpretation, and the application of forward, inverse, and statistical modeling tools. Advances are anticipated from microbiological investigations, the characterization of natural organics, isotopic fingerprinting, applications of dissolved gas measurements, and the fields of reaction kinetics and coupled processes. A thermodynamic perspective is offered that could facilitate the comparison and understanding of the multiple physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting ground-water systems.

  7. Assessing background ground water chemistry beneath a new unsewered subdivision

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, J.D.; Bradbury, K.R.; Thomas, C.L.; Bahr, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Previous site-specific studies designed to assess the impacts of unsewered subdivisions on ground water quality have relied on upgradient monitoring wells or very limited background data to characterize conditions prior to development. In this study, an extensive monitoring program was designed to document ground water conditions prior to construction of a rural subdivision in south-central Wisconsin. Previous agricultural land use has impacted ground water quality; concentrations of chloride, nitrate-nitrogen, and atrazine ranged from below the level of detection to 296 mg/L, 36 mg/L, and 0.8 ??g/L, respectively, and were highly variable from well to well and through time. Seasonal variations in recharge, surface topography, aquifer heterogeneities, surficial loading patterns, and well casing depth explain observed variations in ground water chemistry. This variability would not have been detected if background conditions were determined from only a few monitoring wells or inferred from wells located upgradient of the subdivision site. This project demonstrates the importance of characterizing both ground water quality and chemical variability prior to land-use change to detect any changes once homes are constructed. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  8. Transboundary impacts on regional ground water modeling in Texas.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, Ken; Stovall, Jeff; Frailey, Scott; Urban, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation required regional grassroots water resources planning across the entire state of Texas. The Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), the state's primary water resource planning agency, divided the state into 16 planning regions. Each planning group developed plans to manage both ground water and surface water sources and to meet future demands of various combinations of domestic, agricultural, municipal, and industrial water consumers. This presentation describes the challenges in developing a ground water model for the Llano Estacado Regional Water Planning Group (LERWPG), whose region includes 21 counties in the Southern High Plains of Texas. While surface water is supplied to several cities in this region, the vast majority of the regional water use comes from the High Plains aquifer system, often locally referred to as the Ogallala Aquifer. Over 95% of the ground water demand is for irrigated agriculture. The LERWPG had to predict the impact of future TWDB-projected water demands, as provided by the TWDB, on the aquifer for the period 2000 to 2050. If detrimental impacts were noted, alternative management strategies must be proposed. While much effort was spent on evaluating the current status of the ground water reserves, an appropriate numerical model of the aquifer system was necessary to demonstrate future impacts of the predicted withdrawals as well as the effects of the alternative strategies. The modeling effort was completed in the summer of 2000. This presentation concentrates on the political, scientific, and nontechnical issues in this planning process that complicated the modeling effort. Uncertainties in data, most significantly in distribution and intensity of recharge and withdrawals, significantly impacted the calibration and predictive modeling efforts. Four predictive scenarios, including baseline projections, recurrence of the drought of record, precipitation enhancement, and reduced irrigation demand, were simulated to

  9. Ground-water data for Georgia, 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.S.; Longsworth, S.A.; Joiner, C.N.; Peck, M.F.; McFadden, K.W.; Milby, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Continuous water level records from 152 wells and water level measurements from an additional 750 wells in Georgia during 1986 provide the basic data for this report. Hydrographs for selected wells illustrate the effects that changes in recharge and discharge have had on the groundwater reservoirs in the State. Daily mean water levels are shown in hydrographs for 1986. Monthly mean water levels are shown for the 10-yr period 1977-86. During 1986, a prolonged drought resulted in water level declines throughout the State. Annual mean water levels were from 2.7 ft higher to 17.3 ft lower than in 1985, and record lows were measured in 33 wells in the summer and fall. The 1986 lows were from 0.02 ft to 29.2 ft lower than the previous record lows. The largest declines were measured in the Clayton aquifer in the southwestern part of the State. The declines can be attributed to reduced recharge and increased pumping that resulted from below-normal precipitation during the first half of the year. Water quality samples are collected periodically throughout Georgia and analyzed as part of areal and regional groundwater studies. Periodic monitoring of water quality in the Savannah and Brunswick areas indicates that the chloride concentration in the Upper Floridan aquifer there generally has remained stable. (USGS)

  10. Tracing ground water input to base flow using sulfate (S, O) isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gu, A.; Gray, F.; Eastoe, C.J.; Norman, L.M.; Duarte, O.; Long, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate (S and O) isotopes used in conjunction with sulfate concentration provide a tracer for ground water contributions to base flow. They are particularly useful in areas where rock sources of contrasting S isotope character are juxtaposed, where water chemistry or H and O isotopes fail to distinguish water sources, and in arid areas where rain water contributions to base flow are minimal. Sonoita Creek basin in southern Arizona, where evaporite and igneous sources of sulfur are commonly juxtaposed, serves as an example. Base flow in Sonoita Creek is a mixture of three ground water sources: A, basin ground water with sulfate resembling that from Permian evaporite; B, ground water from the Patagonia Mountains; and C, ground water associated with Temporal Gulch. B and C contain sulfate like that of acid rock drainage in the region but differ in sulfate content. Source A contributes 50% to 70%, with the remainder equally divided between B and C during the base flow seasons. The proportion of B generally increases downstream. The proportion of A is greatest under drought conditions.

  11. Tracing ground water input to base flow using sulfate (S, O) isotopes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ailiang; Gray, Floyd; Eastoe, Christopher J; Norman, Laura M; Duarte, Oscar; Long, Austin

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate (S and O) isotopes used in conjunction with sulfate concentration provide a tracer for ground water contributions to base flow. They are particularly useful in areas where rock sources of contrasting S isotope character are juxtaposed, where water chemistry or H and O isotopes fail to distinguish water sources, and in arid areas where rain water contributions to base flow are minimal. Sonoita Creek basin in southern Arizona, where evaporite and igneous sources of sulfur are commonly juxtaposed, serves as an example. Base flow in Sonoita Creek is a mixture of three ground water sources: A, basin ground water with sulfate resembling that from Permian evaporite; B, ground water from the Patagonia Mountains; and C, ground water associated with Temporal Gulch. B and C contain sulfate like that of acid rock drainage in the region but differ in sulfate content. Source A contributes 50% to 70%, with the remainder equally divided between B and C during the base flow seasons. The proportion of B generally increases downstream. The proportion of A is greatest under drought conditions.

  12. Ground-water contamination and legal controls in Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris

    1963-01-01

    The great importance of the fresh ground-water resources of Michigan is evident because 90 percent of the rural and about 70 percent of the total population of the State exclusive of the Detroit metropolitan area are supplied from underground sources. The water-supply and public-health problems that have been caused by some cases of ground-water contamination in the State illustrate the necessity of protecting this vital resource.Manmade and natural contaminants, including many types of chemical and organic matter, have entered many of the numerous aquifers of the State. Aquifers have been contaminated by waste-laden liquids percolating from the surface or from the zone of aeration and by direct injection to the aquifer itself. Industrial and domestic wastes, septic tanks, leaking sewers, flood waters or other poor quality surface waters, mine waters, solids stored or spread at the surface, and even airborne wastes all have been sources of ground-water contamination in Michigan. In addition, naturally occurring saline waters have been induced into other aquifers by overpumping or unrestricted flow from artesian wells, possibly by dewatering operations, and by the deepening of surface stream channels. Vertical migration of saline waters through open holes from formations underlying various important aquifers also has spoiled some of the fresh ground waters in the State. In spite of the contamination that has occurred, however, the total amount of ground water that has been spoiled is only a small part of the total resource. Neither is the contamination so widespread as that of the surface streams of Michigan.Overall legal authority to control most types of ground-water contamination in the State has been assigned by the Michigan Legislature to the Water Resources Commission, although the Department of Conservation and the Health Department also exercise important water-pollution control functions. The Michigan Supreme Court, in an important case upholding the power

  13. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  14. Bibliography of publications relating to ground water in Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushman, R.V.

    1950-01-01

    In 1939, when it became necessary to curtail the work being carried on by the Works Progress Administration, cooperation was arranged between the Federal Ecological Survey and the State Water Commission to continue investigations relative to the over-development of ground-water supplies in the New Haven area. From time to time additional funds have been made available to meet growing demands by the State for data on its ground-water supplied and the present cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey and the State Water Commission is a continuation of the original arrangement. It is estimated that about 14 per cont of the State has been covered by recent ground-water surveys and in addition some data are available for another 20 per cent of he State.

  15. Coliphages and bacteria in ground water from Tehran, Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Shariatpanahi, M.; Anderson, A.C.

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the microbial quality of Tehran's ground water and selected springs, using coliphages and selected bacteria as indicator organisms. The water table in Tehran varies from approximately 160 meters in the north to approximately 5 meters in the south. Individual wells and subterranean man-made aqueducts (qanate) tap the ground water. Since Tehran lacks municipal sewage facilities, waste disposal is by means of seepage pits, privies and leaching cesspools. There is potential for waste from these sites to leach into the ground water, particularly in the south where the water table is near the surface and the clay content of the soil holds moisture during periods of heavy rainfall.

  16. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Newcomer, D.R.; Evans, J.C.; Webber, W.D.; Spane, F.A. Jr.; Raymond, R.G.; Opitz, B.E.

    1993-06-01

    Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals present in ground water as a result of Hanford Site operations and, whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. A total of 720 wells were sampled during 1992 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project prepared water-table maps of DOE`s Hanford Site for June 1992 from water-level elevations measured in 287 wells across the Hanford Site and outlying areas. These maps are used to infer ground-water flow directions and gradients for the interpretation of contaminant transport. Water levels beneath the 200 Areas decreased as much as 0.75 m (2.5 ft) between December 1991 and December 1992. Water levels in the Cold Creek Valley decreased approximately 0.5 m in that same period. The water table adjacent to the Columbia River along the Hanford Reach continues to respond significantly to fluctuations in river stage. These responses were observed in the 100 and 300 areas. The elevation of the ground-water mound beneath B Pond did not change significantly between December 1991 and December 1992. However, water levels from one well located at the center of the mound indicate a water-level rise of approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) during the last quarter of 1992. Water levels measured from unconfined aquifer wells north and east of the Columbia River in 1992 indicate that the primary source of recharge is from irrigation practices.

  17. Correlation between nitrate contamination and ground water pollution potential.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shafiul H; Kehew, Alan E; Passero, Richard N

    2003-01-01

    AQUIPRO, a PC-based method, was used to assess aquifer vulnerability using digital water well logs. The AQUIPRO model is a parameter/factor weighting system for rating the pollution potential of an aquifer. This method uses the well depth, as well as the clay and partial clay thickness in a well, to generate pollution potential scores. In this model, aquifer protection increases as the AQUIPRO vulnerability scores increase and ground water pollution potential decreases. Computerized water well records of 2435 domestic wells with partial chemistry data were used to determine the ground water pollution potential of Kalamazoo County, Michigan. Theoretically, low AQUIPRO pollution potential scores should have more frequent occurrences of ground water contamination events than areas with high AQUIPRO scores with similar land-use, well construction, and well densities. The relative AQUIPRO scores were compared with the frequency of occurrences of nitrate-N in ground water wells. The average nitrate-N concentrations within each relative AQUIPRO vulnerability scores category were also compared. The results indicate that domestic wells containing 5 mg/L or more nitrate-N showed a positive correlation between the frequency of occurrences of nitrate-N and relative decrease of AQUIPRO (r2 = 0.99) vulnerability scores. In other words, as the ground water pollution potential increases, the occurrence frequency of nitrate-N also increases. Furthermore, the results show that as the relative AQUIPRO (r2 = 0.96) vulnerability scores decrease, the mean nitrate-N concentrations also increase.

  18. Pesticides in Ground Water of the Maryland Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denver, Judith M.; Ator, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    Selected pesticides are detectable at low levels (generally less than 0.1 microgram per liter) in unconfined ground water in many parts of the Maryland Coastal Plain. Samples were recently collected (2001-04) from 47 wells in the Coastal Plain and analyzed for selected pesticides and degradate compounds (products of pesticide degradation). Most pesticide degradation occurs in the soil zone before infiltration to the water table, and degradates of selected pesticides were commonly detected in ground water, often at higher concentrations than their respective parent compounds. Pesticides and their degradates often occur in ground water in mixtures of multiple compounds, reflecting similar patterns in usage. All measured concentrations in ground water were below established standards for drinking water, and nearly all were below other health-based guidelines. Although drinking-water standards and guidelines are typically much higher than observed concentrations in ground water, they do not exist for many detected compounds (particularly degradates), or for mixtures of multiple compounds. The distribution of observed pesticide compounds reflects known usage patterns, as well as chemical properties and environmental factors that affect the fate and transport of these compounds in the environment. Many commonly used pesticides, such as glyphosate, pendimethalin, and 2,4-D were not detected in ground water, likely because they were sorbed onto organic matter or degraded in the soil zone. Others that are more soluble and (or) persistent, like atrazine, metolachlor, and several of their degradates, were commonly detected in ground water where they have been used. Atrazine, for example, an herbicide used primarily on corn, was most commonly detected in ground water on the Eastern Shore (where agriculture is common), particularly where soils are well drained. Conversely, dieldrin, an insecticide previously used heavily for termite control, was detected only on the Western

  19. Ground-water conditions and studies in Georgia, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeth, David C.; Clarke, John S.; Craigg, Steven D.; Wipperfurth, Caryl J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects ground-water data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, to better define ground-water resources, and address problems related to water supply and water quality. Data collected as part of ground-water studies include geologic, geophysical, hydraulic property, water level, and water quality. A ground-water-level network has been established throughout most of the State of Georgia, and ground-water-quality networks have been established in the cities of Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick and in Camden County, Georgia. Ground-water levels are monitored continuously in a network of wells completed in major aquifers of the State. This network includes 17 wells in the surficial aquifer, 12 wells in the upper and lower Brunswick aquifers, 73 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 10 wells in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 12 wells in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 well in the Gordon aquifer, 11 wells in the Clayton aquifer, 11 wells in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 wells in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 7 wells in crystalline-rock aquifers. In this report, data from these 156 wells were evaluated to determine whether mean-annual ground-water levels were within, below, or above the normal range during 2001, based on summary statistics for the period of record. Information from these summaries indicates that water levels during 2001 were below normal in almost all aquifers monitored, largely reflecting climatic effects from drought and pumping. In addition, water-level hydrographs for selected wells indicate that water levels have declined during the past 5 years (since 1997) in almost all aquifers monitored, with water levels in some wells falling below historical lows. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic measurements taken in 52 wells in the Camden County-Charlton County area, and 65 wells in the city of Albany-Dougherty County area were used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for

  20. GROUND WATER AND WATERSHEDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective watershed management has the potential to achieve both drinking water and ecological protection goals. However, it is important that the watershed perspective be three- dimensional and include the hidden subsurface. The subsurface catchment, or groundwatershed, is geohy...

  1. Organic geochemistry of deep ground waters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas: implications for radionuclide complexation, ground-water origin, and petroleum exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Means, J.L.; Hubbard, N.J.

    1985-05-01

    This report describes the organic geochemistry of 11 ground-water samples from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas and discusses the implications of their organic geochemical compositions in terms of radionuclide complexation, ground-water origin, and the petroleum potential of two candidate repository sites in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties. Short-chain aliphatic acid anions are the principal organic constituents present. Stability constant data and simple chemical equilibria calculations suggest that short-chain aliphatic acids are relatively weak complexing agents. The extent of complexation of a typical actinide by selected inorganic ligands present in these brines is expected to far outweigh actinide complexation by the aliphatic acid anions. Various lines of evidence suggest that some portion of the bromide concentrations in the brines is derived from the same source as the short-chain aliphatic acid anions. When the postulated organic components are subtracted from total bromide concentrations, the origins of the Palo Duro brines, based on chloride versus bromide relationships, appear largely consistent with origins based on isotopic evidence. The short-chain aliphatic acid anion content of the Palo Duro brines is postulated to have been much greater in the geologic past. Aliphatic acid anions are but one of numerous petroleum proximity indicators, which consistently suggest a greater petroleum exploration potential for the area surrounding the Swisher County site than the region encompassing the candidate site in Deaf Smith County. Short-chain aliphatic acid anions appear to provide a useful petroleum exploration tool as long as the complex reactions that may dimish their concentrations in ground water are recognized. 71 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Interactions between ground water and surface water in the Suwannee River basin, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; DeHan, R.S.; Hirten, J.J.; Catches, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water and surface water constitute a single dynamic system in roost parts of the Suwannee River basin due to the presence of karat features that facilitate the interaction between the surface and subsurface. Low radon-222 concentrations (below background levels) and enriched amounts of oxygen-18 and deuterium in ground water indicate mixing with surface water in parts of the basin. Comparison of surface water and regional ground water flow patterns indicate that boundaries for ground water basins typically do not coincide with surface water drainage subbasins. There are several areas in the basin where ground water flow that originates outside of the Suwannee River basin crosses surface water basin boundaries during both low-flow and high-flow conditions. In a study area adjacent to the Suwannee River that consists predominantly of agricultural land use, 18 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer and 7 springs were sampled three times during 1990 through 1994 for major dissolved inorganic constituents, trace elements, and nutrients. During a period of above normal rainfall that resulted in high river stage and high ground water levels in 1991, the combination of increased amounts of dissolved organic carbon and decreased levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water created conditions favorable for the natural reduction of nitrate by denitrification reactions in the aquifer. As a result, less nitrate was discharged by ground water to the Suwannee River.

  3. Submarine ground-water discharge: nutrient loading and nitrogen transformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroeger, Kevin D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Crusius, John; Bratton, John F.; Charette, Matthew A.

    2006-01-01

    Eutrophication of coastal waters due to nonpoint source land-derived nitrogen (N) loads is a worldwide phenomenon and perhaps the greatest agent of change altering coastal ecology (National Research Council, 2000; Howarth and others, 2000). Within the United States, a majority of estuaries have been determined to be moderately to severely impaired by eutrophication associated with increasing nutrient loads (Bricker and others, 1999). In coastal watersheds with soils of high hydraulic conductivity and permeable coastal sediments, ground water is a major route of transport of freshwater and its solutes from land to sea. Freshwater flowing downgradient from aquifers may either discharge from a seepage face near the intertidal zone, or flow directly into the sea as submarine ground-water discharge (SGD) (fig. 1). In the coastal aquifer, entrainment of saline pore water occurs prior to discharge, producing a gradient in ground-water salinity from land to sea, referred to as a subterranean estuary (Moore, 1999). In addition, processes including density-driven flow and tidal pumping create brackish and saline ground-water circulation. Hence, submarine ground-water discharge often consists of a substantial amount of recirculating seawater. Mixing of fresh and saline ground waters in the context of coastal sediments may alter the chemical composition of the discharging fluid. Depending on the biogeochemical setting, removal of fixed N due to processes leading to N2 (dinitrogen gas) production in the nearshore aquifer and subterranean estuary may significantly attenuate land-derived N loads; or, processes such as ion exchange and tidal pumping in the subterranean estuary may substantially accelerate the transport of both land-derived and sediment re-mineralized N to estuarine water columns. As emphasized by Burnett and others (2001, 2002), a fundamental problem in evaluating the importance of ground-water discharge in marine geochemical budgets is the difficulty of

  4. Simulation of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leighton, David A.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley ground-water basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, ground water provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most ground-water pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet in some parts of the ground-water basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may continue to increase reliance on ground water. To better understand the ground-water flow system and to develop a tool to aid in effectively managing the water resources, a numerical model of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin was developed using old and new geohydrologic information. The ground-water flow system consists of three aquifers: the upper, middle, and lower aquifers. The aquifers, which were identified on the basis of the hydrologic properties, age, and depth of the unconsolidated deposits, consist of gravel, sand, silt, and clay alluvial deposits and clay and silty clay lacustrine deposits. Prior to ground-water development in the valley, recharge was primarily the infiltration of runoff from the surrounding mountains. Ground water flowed from the recharge areas to discharge areas around the playas where it discharged either from the aquifer system as evapotranspiration or from springs. Partial barriers to horizontal ground-water flow, such as faults, have been identified in the ground-water basin. Water-level declines owing to

  5. Delineating and quantifying ground water discharge zones using streambed temperatures.

    PubMed

    Conant, Brewster

    2004-01-01

    Streambed temperature mapping, hydraulic testing using minipiezometers, and geochemical analyses of interstitial water of the streambed were used to delineate the pattern of ground water discharge in a sandy streambed and to develop a flux-based conceptual model for ground water/surface water interactions. A new and simple empirical method was used to relate fluxes obtained from minipiezometer data to streambed temperatures. The relationship allowed flux to be calculated at locations where only streambed temperature measurements were made. Slug testing and potentiomanometer measurements at 34 piezometers indicated ground water discharge ranged from 0.03 to 446 L/m2/day (and possibly as high as 7060 L/m2/day) along a 60 m long by 11 to 14 m wide reach of river. Complex but similar plan-view patterns of flux were calculated for both summer and winter using hundreds of streambed temperatures measured on a 1 by 2 m grid. The reach was dominated by ground water discharge and 5% to 7% of the area accounted for approximately 20% to 24% of the total discharge. < 12% of the total area consisted of recharge zones or no-discharge zones. A conceptual model for ground water/surface water interactions consisting of five different behaviors was developed based on the magnitude and direction of flux across the surface of the streambed. The behaviors include short-circuit discharge (e.g., high-flow springs), high discharge (e.g., preferential flowpaths), low to moderate discharge, no discharge (e.g., horizontal hyporheic or ground water flow), and recharge. Geological variations at depth played a key role in determining which type of flow behavior occurred in the streambed.

  6. Eolian transport of geogenic hexavalent chromium to ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, W.W.; Clark, D.; Imes, J.L.; Councell, T.B.

    2010-01-01

    A conceptual model of eolian transport is proposed to address the widely distributed, high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) observed in ground water in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Concentrations (30 to more than 1000 μg/L Cr+6) extend over thousands of square kilometers of ground water systems. It is hypothesized that the Cr is derived from weathering of chromium-rich pyroxenes and olivines present in ophiolite sequence of the adjacent Oman (Hajar) Mountains. Cr+3 in the minerals is oxidized to Cr+6 by reduction of manganese and is subsequently sorbed on iron and manganese oxide coatings of particles. When the surfaces of these particles are abraded in this arid environment, they release fine, micrometer-sized, coated particles that are easily transported over large distances by wind and subsequently deposited on the surface. During ground water recharge events, the readily soluble Cr+6 is mobilized by rain water and transported by advective flow into the underlying aquifer. Chromium analyses of ground water, rain, dust, and surface (soil) deposits are consistent with this model, as are electron probe analyses of clasts derived from the eroding Oman ophiolite sequence. Ground water recharge flux is proposed to exercise some control over Cr+6 concentration in the aquifer.

  7. Pesticides in Ground Water of Central and Western Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott W.; Reyes, Betzaida

    2008-01-01

    Selected pesticides and degradates (products of pesticide degradation) are detectable in ground water in many parts of central and western Maryland, although concentrations are generally less than 0.1 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples collected recently (1994-2003) from 72 wells in areas of Maryland underlain by consolidated carbonate, crystalline, or siliciclastic aquifers (areas north and west of the Fall Line) were analyzed for selected pesticides and degradates. Pesticides were typically detected in mixtures of multiple compounds in ground water, and degradates were commonly detected, often at greater concentrations than their respective parent compounds. No pesticides were observed at concentrations greater than established standards for drinking water, and nearly all observed concentrations were below other health-based guidelines. Although such standards and guidelines are generally much greater than measured concentrations in ground water, they do not exist for many detected compounds (particularly degradates), or for mixtures of multiple compounds. The distribution of pesticides and degradates in ground water is related to application practices, as well as chemical and environmental factors that affect the fate and movement of individual compounds.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION NEAR PAVILLION, WYOMING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to complaints by domestic well owners regarding objectionable taste and odor problems in well water, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated a ground water investigation near the town of Pavillion, Wyoming under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental ...

  9. Ground water in north Monterey County, California, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Present ground-water demands exceed long-term recharge throughout much of North Monterey County in the shallow Quaternary deposits--principally the upper part of the Aromas Sand--and the overlying alluvium. Recharge occurs largely from local precipitation, although small quantities of potable ground water from outside areas also recharge these aquifers. Water levels in the Pajaro and Salinas River valleys north and south of the study area are lower than most of the intervening area, and recharge from the east is blocked by faults and impervious rock. Ocean water moves in from the west to replace depleted freshwater storage in the upper part of the Aromas Sand, alluvium, and terrace deposits. The North County area was divided into subareas to estimate pumpage demands and to evaluate ground-water yields. Pumpage near the granitic ridge, an area of limited storage, nearly matches local recharge. West of the granitic ridge, pumpage exceeds available recharge but draws upon a large storage potential. Deeper units than those now tapped by wells in the Aromas Sand and the underlying Purisima Formation may have substantial water-bearing potential for additional ground-water development. Extensive development of water from these formations might be limited, however, by the remoteness of the recharge source and by the proximity to the ocean. (USGS)

  10. DETECTION OF A GROUND-WATER/SURFACE-WATER INTERFACE WITH DIRECT-PUSH EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A ground-water/surface-water interface (GSI) was documented at the Thermo Chem CERCLA Site in Muskegon, MI via direct-push (DP) sampling. At that time, contaminated ground water flowed from the upland area of the site into the Black Creek floodplain. DP rods equipped with a 1.5...

  11. ARSENIC SORUCE IDENTIFICATION AT THE GROUND WATER-SURFACE WATER INTERACTION ZONE AT A CONTAMINATED SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the challenges in assessing the current impact of the discharge of arsenic contaminated ground water into a surface water body is differentiating the arsenic ground-water flux versus dissolution of in-place contaminated sediments. A field investigation has been carried ou...

  12. Geology and ground-water resources of Galveston County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petitt, Ben McDowell; Winslow, Allen George

    1957-01-01

    Much additional ground water could be obtained from both the "Alta Loma" sand and the upper part of the Beaumont clay, especially in the northern and western parts of the county. Before large developments of supplies are planned, however, these areas should be explored by test drilling. The problems of well spacing and pumping rates should be thoroughly studied in order to determine the maximum development permitted by the ground-water supply. Current observations should be continued with special emphasis on the progress of salt-water encroachment.

  13. Ground water quality protection: the issue in perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of protecting ground water resources cannot be overstated, and many people throughout the world seem anxious to physically and financially support a rational program to this end. Public complacency regarding the quality of ground water was destroyed with headline-grabbing incidents of pollution such as Love Canal, Valley of the Drums, and Times Beach. Contrary to earlier popular belief, the soil mantle has been shown to be ineffective in cleansing certain pollutants from the water flowing through it. The legislative basis for developing and implementing broad ground water quality protection programs exists, although it is dispersed in a variety of pieces of legislation. Such programs presuppose the existence of the scientific knowledge necessary to produce viable and effective results from its implementation. This article addresses the research needed for accumulation of this information. 12 references.

  14. Field Evaluation Of Arsenic Transport Across The Ground-Water/Surface Water Interface: Ground-Water Discharge And Iron Oxide Precipitation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in ground water, surface water, and sediments at a Superfund Site in the northeastern United States (see companion presentation by K. G. Scheckel et al). Ground-water discharge into the study area was cha...

  15. Regional Water Table (1998) and Ground-Water-Level Changes in the Mojave River, and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Gregory A.; Pimentel, M. Isabel

    2000-01-01

    The Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a major part of the water requirements for the region. The rapid and continuous population growth in this area has resulted in ever-increasing demands on local ground-water resources. The continuing collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water systems and, consequently, water availability. During 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,370 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins. These data document recent conditions and changes in ground-water levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data from 450 wells, providing coverage for most of both basins. Twenty-three hydrographs show long-term (as much as 70 years) water-level trends throughout the basins. To help show effects of late seasonal recharge along the Mojave River, 14 short-term (13 years) hydrographs were created. A water-level change map was compiled to enable comparison of 1996 and 1998 water levels. The Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins had little change in water levels between 1996 and 1998 - with the exception of the areas of the Yucca Valley affected by artificial recharge. Other water-level changes were localized and reflected pumping or measurements made before seasonal recharge. Three areas of perched ground water were identified: El Mirage Lake (dry), Adelanto, and Lucerne Valley.

  16. The role of hand calculations in ground water flow modeling.

    PubMed

    Haitjema, Henk

    2006-01-01

    Most ground water modeling courses focus on the use of computer models and pay little or no attention to traditional analytic solutions to ground water flow problems. This shift in education seems logical. Why waste time to learn about the method of images, or why study analytic solutions to one-dimensional or radial flow problems? Computer models solve much more realistic problems and offer sophisticated graphical output, such as contour plots of potentiometric levels and ground water path lines. However, analytic solutions to elementary ground water flow problems do have something to offer over computer models: insight. For instance, an analytic one-dimensional or radial flow solution, in terms of a mathematical expression, may reveal which parameters affect the success of calibrating a computer model and what to expect when changing parameter values. Similarly, solutions for periodic forcing of one-dimensional or radial flow systems have resulted in a simple decision criterion to assess whether or not transient flow modeling is needed. Basic water balance calculations may offer a useful check on computer-generated capture zones for wellhead protection or aquifer remediation. An easily calculated "characteristic leakage length" provides critical insight into surface water and ground water interactions and flow in multi-aquifer systems. The list goes on. Familiarity with elementary analytic solutions and the capability of performing some simple hand calculations can promote appropriate (computer) modeling techniques, avoids unnecessary complexity, improves reliability, and is likely to save time and money. Training in basic hand calculations should be an important part of the curriculum of ground water modeling courses.

  17. Ground-water models as a management tool in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    Highly sophisticated computer models provide powerful tools for analyzing historic data and for simulating future water levels, water movement, and water chemistry under stressed conditions throughout the ground-water system in Florida. Models that simulate the movement of heat and subsidence of land in response to aquifer pumping also have potential for application to hydrologic problems in the State. Florida, with 20 ground-water modeling studies reported since 1972, has applied computer modeling techniques to a variety of water-resources problems. Models in Florida generally have been used to provide insight to problems of water supply, contamination, and impact on the environment. The model applications range from site-specific studies, such as estimating contamination by wastewater injection at St. Petersburg, to a regional model of the entire State that may be used to assess broad-scale environmental impact of water-resources development. Recently, groundwater models have been used as management tools by the State regulatory authority to permit or deny development of water resources. As modeling precision, knowledge, and confidence increase, the use of ground-water models will shift more and more toward regulation of development and enforcement of environmental laws. (USGS)

  18. Geology, ground-water flow, and dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water along hydrogeologic sections through Wisconsin aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    A cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) was begun with the objectives of describing water quality and its relation to the hydrology of Wisconsin's principal aquifers and summarizing instances of ground-water contamination and quality problems from information available in DNR files. The first objective was met by a hydrologic investigation done by the USGS, and the second, by preparation of a report by the DNR, for their internal use, that describes the State's water resources and known ground-water quality and contamination problems and makes policy recommendations for ground-water management.The USGS investigation was divided into two phases. The first phase consisted of compiling available water-quality and hydrogeologic data and collecting new data to describe general regional water-quality and hydrogeologic relations within and between Wisconsin aquifers. The second phase began concurrently with the later part of the first phase and consisted of an areal description of water quality and flow in the State's shallow aquifer system (Kammerer, 1995). The overall purpose of this investigation was to provide a regional framework that could serve as a basis for intensive local and site specific ground-water investigations by State and local government agencies.This report presents the results of the first phase of the USGS investigation. Regional hydrogeologic and water-quality relations within and between aquifers are shown along 15 hydrogeologic sections that traverse the State. Maps are used to show surficial geology of bedrock and unconsolidated deposits and horizontal direction of ground-water flow. Interpretations on the maps and hydrogeologic sections are based on data from a variety of sources and provide the basis for the areal appraisal of water quality in the State's shallow aquifer system in the second phase of the investigation.

  19. Summary of Ground-Water Data for Brunswick County, North Carolina, Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water availability in Brunswick County, North Carolina, has been monitored continuously since 2000 through the operation and maintenance of ground-water-level observation wells in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. Ground-water-resource conditions for the Brunswick County area were determined by relating the period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean ground-water-level and precipitation data to median monthly mean ground-water levels and monthly sum of daily precipitation for water year 2006. Summaries of precipitation and ground-water conditions for the Brunswick County area and hydrographs and statistics of continuous ground-water levels collected during the 2006 water year are presented in this report. Ground-water resource conditions varied by aquifer and geographic location within Brunswick County. Water levels were normal in 3 of the 11 observation wells, above normal in 5, and below normal in the remaining 3 wells.

  20. Toward implementation of a national ground water monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiber, Robert P.; Cunningham, William L.; Copeland, Rick; Frederick, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    The Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information's (ACWI) Subcommittee on Ground Water (SOGW) has been working steadily to develop and encourage implementation of a nationwide, long-term ground-water quantity and quality monitoring framework. Significant progress includes the planned submission this fall of a draft framework document to the full committee. The document will include recommendations for implementation of the network and continued acknowledgment at the federal and state level of ACWI's potential role in national monitoring toward an improved assessment of the nation's water reserves. The SOGW mission includes addressing several issues regarding network design, as well as developing plans for concept testing, evaluation of costs and benefits, and encouraging the movement from pilot-test results to full-scale implementation within a reasonable time period. With the recent attention to water resource sustainability driven by severe droughts, concerns over global warming effects, and persistent water supply problems, the SOGW mission is now even more critical.

  1. A national look at nitrate contamination of ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Ruddy, Barbara C.; Hitt, Kerie J.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    1998-01-01

    Knowing where and what type of risks to ground water exist can alert water-resource managers and private users of the need to protect water supplies. Although nitrate generally is not an adult public-health threat, ingestion in drinking water by infants can cause low oxygen levels in the blood, a potentially fatal condition (Spalding and Exner, 1993). For this reason, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established a drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) nitrate as nitrogen (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1995). Nitrate concentrations in natural ground waters are usually less than 2 mg/L (Mueller and others, 1995).

  2. Assessing background ground water chemistry beneath a new unsewered subdivision.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Jeffrey D; Bradbury, Kenneth R; Thomas, Curtis L; Bahr, Jean M

    2005-01-01

    Previous site-specific studies designed to assess the impacts of unsewered subdivisions on ground water quality have relied on upgradient monitoring wells or very limited background data to characterize conditions prior to development. In this study, an extensive monitoring program was designed to document ground water conditions prior to construction of a rural subdivision in south-central Wisconsin. Previous agricultural land use has impacted ground water quality; concentrations of chloride, nitrate-nitrogen, and atrazine ranged from below the level of detection to 296 mg/L, 36 mg/L, and 0.8 microg/L, respectively, and were highly variable from well to well and through time. Seasonal variations in recharge, surface topography, aquifer heterogeneities, surficial loading patterns, and well casing depth explain observed variations in ground water chemistry. This variability would not have been detected if background conditions were determined from only a few monitoring wells or inferred from wells located upgradient of the subdivision site. This project demonstrates the importance of characterizing both ground water quality and chemical variability prior to land-use change to detect any changes once homes are constructed.

  3. GWVis: A tool for comparative ground-water data visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Daniel M.; Lewis, Robert R.

    2010-11-01

    The Ground-Water Visualization application ( GWVis) presents ground-water data visually in order to educate the public on ground-water issues. It is also intended for presentations to government and other funding agencies. GWVis works with ground-water level elevation data collected or modeled over a given time span, together with a matching fixed underlying terrain. GWVis was developed using the Python programming language in conjunction with associated extension packages and application program interfaces such as OpenGLTM to improve performance and allow us fine control of attributes of the model such as lighting, material properties, transformations, and interpolation. There are currently several systems available for visualizing ground-water data. We classify these into two categories: research-oriented models and static presentation-based models. While both of them have their strengths, we find the former overly complex and non-intuitive and the latter not engaging and presenting problems showing multiple data dimensions. GWVis bridges the gap between static and research based visualizations by providing an intuitive, interactive design that allows participants to view the model from different perspectives, infer information about simulations, and view a comparison of two datasets. By incorporating scientific data in an environment that can be easily understood, GWVis allows that information to be presented to a large audience base.

  4. Pesticides in ground-water data base: 1988 interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    One of EPA's priorities is to determine the extent of pesticides occurring in the nation's ground water. While many individual, localized ground-water monitoring studies have been conducted across the country, there has been no comprehensive compilation of these results. In response to this, the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs has developed the Pesticides in Ground Water Data Base. The data base contains information derived from monitoring studies conducted by pesticide registrants, universities, and government agencies. The data base identifies the pesticides that have been looked for in ground water, the areas that have been monitored, and the pesticides that have been detected. The data base was developed in the first quarter of 1988, and at the same time, a public docket was established so interested parties could have access to the source information. Following the development of the data base, the EPA has been conducting a program to assess the validity of the information it contains. At this time, the authors believe they have gathered sufficient information to provide the public with an interim report on the national status of pesticide residues in ground water.

  5. Deposit control in ground water remediation equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, B.; Soeder, K.

    1995-12-31

    Remedial actions at all types of hazardous waste sites require the implementation of various water treatment technologies. Though the many groundwater treatment technologies are constantly developing, some age-old problems associated with handling any water remains. These operating problems include deposition of naturally occurring inorganic solutes such as iron, manganese, calcium and fouling by indigenous micro-organisms. Fouling of air stripping towers is a common example of this phenomenon. Virtually all groundwater treatment systems experience some degree of operating impediment from this cause. Some systems may take years for deposits to become problems, but many systems become inoperable within weeks or months. Recently released studies by the American Petroleum Institute show that deposit control is the most common operation problem causing remediation system failure. Such failures result in greatly increased operation & maintenance costs and non compliance with regulatory mandates.

  6. A proposed ground-water quality monitoring network for Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.; Parliman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground water quality monitoring network is proposed for Idaho. The network comprises 565 sites, 8 of which will require construction of new wells. Frequencies of sampling at the different sites are assigned at quarterly, semiannual, annual, and 5 years. Selected characteristics of the water will be monitored by both laboratory- and field-analysis methods. The network is designed to: (1) Enable water managers to keep abreast of the general quality of the State 's ground water, and (2) serve as a warning system for undesirable changes in ground-water quality. Data were compiled for hydrogeologic conditions, ground-water quality, cultural elements, and pollution sources. A ' hydrologic unit priority index ' is used to rank 84 hydrologic units (river basins or segments of river basins) of the State for monitoring according to pollution potential. Emphasis for selection of monitoring sites is placed on the 15 highest ranked units. The potential for pollution is greatest in areas of privately owned agricultural land. Other areas of pollution potential are residential development, mining and related processes, and hazardous waste disposal. Data are given for laboratory and field analyses, number of site visits, manpower, subsistence, and mileage, from which costs for implementing the network can be estimated. Suggestions are made for data storage and retrieval and for reporting changes in water quality. (Kosco-USGS)

  7. Methanogenic biodegradation of creosote contaminants in natural and simulated ground-water ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godsy, E. Michael; Goerlitz, Donald; Grbic-Galic, Dunja

    1992-01-01

    Wastes from a wood preserving plant in Pensacola, Florida have contaminated the near-surface sand-and-gravel aquifer with creosote-derived compounds and pentachlorophenol. Contamination resulted from the discharge of plant waste waters to and subsequent seepage from unlined surface impoundments that were in direct hydraulic contact with the ground water. Two distinct phases resulted when the creosote and water mixed: a denser than water hydrocarbon phase that moved vertically downward, and an organic-rich aqueous phase that moved laterally with the ground-water flow. The aqueous phase is enriched in organic acids, phenolic compounds, single- and double-ring nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen containing compounds, and single- and double-ring aromatic hydrocarbons. The ground water is devoid of dissolved O2, is 60-70% saturated with CH4 and contains H2S. Field analyses document a greater decrease in concentration of organic fatty acids, benzoic acid, phenol, 2-, 3-, 4-methylphenol, quinoline, isoquinoline, 1(2H)-quinolinone, and 2(1H)-isoquinolinone during downgradient movement in the aquifer than could be explained by dilution and/or dispersion. Laboratory microcosm studies have shown that within the study region, this effect can be attributed to microbial degradation to CH4 and CO2. A small but active methanogenic population was found on sediment materials taken from highly contaminated parts of the aquifer.

  8. Ground-water movement and nitrate in ground water, East Erda area, Tooele County, Utah, 1997-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Susong, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    Nitrate was discovered in ground water in the east Erda area of Tooele County, Utah, in 1994. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Tooele County, investigated the ground-water flow system and water quality in the eastern part of Tooele Valley to determine (1) the vertical and horizontal distribution of nitrate, (2) the direction of movement of the nitrate contamination, and (3) the source of the nitrate. The potentiometric surface of the upper part of the basin-fill aquifer indicates that the general direction of ground-water flow is to the northwest, the flow system is complex, and there is a ground-water mound probably associated with springs. The spatial distribution of nitrate reflects the flow system with the nitrate contamination split into a north and south part by the ground-water mound. The distribution of dissolved solids and sulfate in ground water varies spatially. Vertical profiles of nitrate in water from selected wells indicate that nitrate contamination generally is in the upper part of the saturated zone and in some wells has moved downward. Septic systems, mining and smelting, agriculture, and natural sources were considered to be possible sources of nitrate contamination in the east Erda area. Septic systems are not the source of nitrate because water from wells drilled upgradient of all septic systems in the area had elevated nitrate concentrations. Mining and smelting activity are a possible source of nitrate contamination but few data are available to link nitrate contamination with mining sites. Natural and agricultural sources of nitrate are present east of the Erda area but few data are available about these sources. The source(s) of nitrate in the east Erda area could not be clearly delineated in spite of considerable effort and expenditure of resources.

  9. Ground-water contamination from lead shot at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soeder, Daniel J.; Miller, Cherie V.

    2003-01-01

    Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge is located in southeastern Delaware in coastal lowlands along the margin of Delaware Bay. For 37 years, the Broadkiln Sportsman?s Club adjacent to the refuge operated a trap-shooting range, with the clay-target launchers oriented so that the expended lead shot from the range dropped into forested wetland areas on the refuge property. Investigators have estimated that up to 58,000 shotgun pellets per square foot are present in locations on the refuge where the lead shot fell to the ground. As part of the environmental risk assessment for the site, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated the potential for lead contamination in ground water. Results from two sampling rounds in 19 shallow wells indicate that elevated levels of dissolved lead are present in ground water at the site. The lead and associated metals, such as antimony and arsenic (common shotgun pellet alloys), are being transported along shallow ground-water flowpaths toward an open-water slough in the forested wetland adjacent to the downrange target area. Water samples from wells located along the bank of the slough contained dissolved lead concentrations higher than 400 micrograms per liter, and as high as 1 milligram per liter. In contrast, a natural background concentration of lead from ground water in a well upgradient from the site is about 1 microgram per liter. Two water samples collected several months apart from the slough directly downgradient of the shooting range contained 24 and 212 micrograms per liter of lead, respectively. The data indicate that lead from a concentrated deposit of shotgun pellets on the refuge has been mobilized through a combination of acidic water conditions and a very sandy, shallow, unconfined aquifer, and is moving along ground-water flowpaths toward the surface-water drainage. Data from this study will be used to help delineate the lead plume, and determine the fate and transport of lead from the source area.

  10. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and soil at Carroll Island, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tenbus, F.J.; Phillips, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    Carroll Island was used for open-air testing of chemical warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities weresuspected of causing environmental contamination at 16 sites on the island. The hydrogeology and chemical quality of ground water, surface water, and soil at these sites were investigated with borehole logs, environmental samples, water-level measurements, and hydrologic tests. A surficial aquifer, upper confining unit, and upper confined aquifer were defined. Ground water in the surficial aquifer generally flows from the east-central part of the island toward the surface-water bodies, butgradient reversals caused by evapotranspiration can occur during dry seasons. In the confined aquifer, hydraulic gradients are low, and hydraulic head is affected by tidal loading and by seasonal pumpage from the west. Inorganic chemistry in the aquifers is affected by brackish-water intrusion from gradient reversals and by dissolution ofcarboniferous shell material in the confining unit.The concentrations of most inorganic constituents probably resulted from natural processes, but some concentrations exceeded Federal water-quality regulations and criteria. Organic compounds were detected in water and soil samples at maximum concentrations of 138 micrograms per liter (thiodiglycol in surface water) and 12 micrograms per gram (octadecanoic acid in soil).Concentrations of organic compounds in ground water exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations at two sites. The organic compounds that weredetected in environmental samples were variously attributed to natural processes, laboratory or field- sampling contamination, fallout from industrial air pollution, and historical military activities.

  11. Stream bottom resistivity tomography to map ground water discharge.

    PubMed

    Nyquist, Jonathan E; Freyer, Paul A; Toran, Laura

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of direct current electrical resistivity as a tool for assessing ground water/surface water interactions within streams. This research has shown that patterns of ground water discharge can be mapped at the meter scale, which is important for understanding stream water quality and ecosystem function. Underwater electrical resistivity surveys along a 107-m stream section within the Burd Run Watershed in South Central Pennsylvania identified three resistivity layers: a resistive (100 to 400 Omega m) surface layer corresponding to the streambed sediments, a conductive (20 to 100 Omega m) middle layer corresponding to residual clay sediments, and a resistive (100 to 450 Omega m) bottom layer corresponding to the carbonate bedrock. Tile probing to determine the depth to the bedrock and resistivity test box analysis of augered sediment samples confirmed these interpretations of the resistivity data. Ground water seeps occurred where the resistivity data showed that the residual clays were thinnest and bedrock was closest to the streambed. Plotting the difference in resistivity between two surveys, one conducted during low-stage and the other during high-stage stream conditions, showed changes in the conductivity of the pore fluids saturating the sediments. Under high-stream stage conditions, the top layer showed increased resistivity values for sections with surface water infiltration but showed nearly constant resistivity in sections with ground water seeps. This was expressed as difference values less than 50 Omega m in the area of the seeps and greater than 50 Omega m change for the streambed sediments saturated by surface water. Thus, electrical resistivity aided in characterizing ground water discharge zones by detecting variations in subsurface resistivity under high- and low-stream stage conditions as well as mapping subsurface heterogeneities that promote these exchanges.

  12. Ground-water hydrology and projected effects of ground-water withdrawals in the Sevier Desert, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Walter F.

    1984-01-01

    The principal ground-water reservoir in the Sevier Desert is the unconsolidated basin fill. The fill has been divided generally into aquifers and confining beds, although there are no clearcut boundaries between these units--the primary aquifers are the shallow and deep artesian aquifers. Recharge to the ground-water reservoir is by infiltration of precipitation; seepage from streams, canals, reservoirs, and unconsumed irrigation water; and subsurface inflow from consolidated rocks in mountain areas and from adjoining areas. Discharge is by wells, springs, seepage to the Sevier River, evapotranspiration, and subsurface outflow to adjoining areas.

  13. Ground-water, surface-water, and bottom-sediment contamination in the O-field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and the possible effects of selected remedial actions on ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Oliveros, James P.

    1995-01-01

    Disposal of munitions and chemical-warfare substances has introduced inorganic and organic contaminants to the ground water, surface water, and bottom sediment at O-Field, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contaminants include chloride, arsenic, transition metals, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, and organosulfur and organophosphorus compounds. The hydrologic effects of several remedial actions were estimated by use of a ground-water-flow model. The remedial actions examined were an impermeable covering, encapsulation, subsurface barriers, a ground-water drain, pumping of wells to manage water levels or to remove contaminated ground water for treatment, and no action.

  14. Ground-water hydrology of the Willamette basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conlon, Terrence D.; Wozniak, Karl C.; Woodcock, Douglas; Herrera, Nora B.; Fisher, Bruce J.; Morgan, David S.; Lee, Karl K.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    The Willamette Basin encompasses a drainage of 12,000 square miles and is home to approximately 70 percent of Oregon's population. Agriculture and population are concentrated in the lowland, a broad, relatively flat area between the Coast and Cascade Ranges. Annual rainfall is high, with about 80 percent of precipitation falling from October through March and less than 5 percent falling in July and August, the peak growing season. Population growth and an increase in cultivation of crops needing irrigation have produced a growing seasonal demand for water. Because many streams are administratively closed to new appropriations in summer, ground water is the most likely source for meeting future water demand. This report describes the current understanding of the regional ground-water flow system, and addresses the effects of ground-water development. This study defines seven regional hydrogeologic units in the Willamette Basin. The highly permeable High Cascade unit consists of young volcanic material found at the surface along the crest of the Cascade Range. Four sedimentary hydrogeologic units fill the lowland between the Cascade and Coast Ranges. Young, highly permeable coarse-grained sediments of the upper sedimentary unit have a limited extent in the floodplains of the major streams and in part of the Portland Basin. Extending over much of the lowland where the upper sedimentary unit does not occur, silts and clays of the Willamette silt unit act as a confining unit. The middle sedimentary unit, consisting of permeable coarse-grained material, occurs beneath the Willamette silt and upper sedimentary units and at the surface as terraces in the lowland. Beneath these units is the lower sedimentary unit, which consists of predominantly fine-grained sediments. In the northern part of the basin, lavas of the Columbia River basalt unit occur at the surface in uplands and beneath the basin-fill sedimentary units. The Columbia River basalt unit contains multiple

  15. Ground water hydrology of the Elizabethtown area, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, D.S.; Lyverse, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The principal aquifer in a 52 square mile karst area in north central Kentucky is the St. Louis Limestone of Mississippian age. Unconsolidated residuum and surficial deposits of slumped material may store water and recharge the underlying limestone aquifer. Precipitation averages 49 inches annually; 6 inches recharges ground-water reservoirs. The shallow ground-water velocity ranged from 0.30 to 1.40 feet per second. Flow net analysis indicates that about 2 million gallons of water per day flows through a 1.8 mile wide section of the aquifer. A water-level contour map indicates that the hydraulic gradient averages 40 feet per mile and that the water levels near the city supply wells have not lowered in 10 years. The effects of three faults on the ground-water flow system is shown as ponding on the upthrown side of the faults. Caliper logs suggest that shallow ground-water flow occurs in sheet-like openings within 100 feet of land surface. The openings range in height from 1 inch or less to 6 feet. A test well penetrated 5 zones of horizontal openings. The specific capacity ranged from 11.5 to 12.1 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown after 12 and 72 hours of pumping at 280 to 510 gallons per minute. Water in 28 wells and springs meets most drinking water standards and generally is a very hard calcium bicarbonate type. Heavily pumped industrial and public-supply wells tend to yield water with high values of specific conductance and sulfate. Coliform bacteria varied widely in rural wells and the city springs. Seven wells had no coliform bacteria. (USGS)

  16. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 10. Geologic influences on ground and surface waters in the lower Red River watershed, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoff; Caine, Jonathan; Bove, Dana; Holloway, JoAnn; Livo, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This report is one in a series that presents results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River, N. Mex., to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the premining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized-but unmined-Straight Creek drainage (a tributary of the Red River) is being used as an analog for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity in the Red River drainage prior to mining. This report provides an overall geologic framework for the Red River watershed between Red River and Questa, in northern New Mexico, and summarizes key geologic, mineralogic, structural and other characteristics of various mineralized areas (and their associated erosional scars and debris fans) that likely influence ground- and surface-water quality and hydrology. The premining nature of the Sulphur Gulch and Goat Hill Gulch scars on the Molycorp mine site can be inferred through geologic comparisons with other unmined scars in the Red River drainage.

  17. The effect of the earth's rotation on ground water motion.

    PubMed

    Loáiciga, Hugo A

    2007-01-01

    The average pore velocity of ground water according to Darcy's law is a function of the fluid pressure gradient and the gravitational force (per unit volume of ground water) and of aquifer properties. There is also an acceleration exerted on ground water that arises from the Earth's rotation. The magnitude and direction of this rotation-induced force are determined in exact mathematical form in this article. It is calculated that the gravitational force is at least 300 times larger than the largest rotation-induced force anywhere on Earth, the latter force being maximal along the equator and approximately equal to 34 N/m(3) there. This compares with a gravitational force of approximately 10(4) N/m(3).

  18. Research to More Effectively Manage Critical Ground-Water Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    As the regional management agency for two of the most heavily used ground-water basins in California, the Water Replenishment District of Southern California (WRD) plays a vital role in sheparding the water resources of southern Los Angeles County. WRD is using the results of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies to help more effectively manage the Central and West Coast basins in the most efficient, cost-effective way. In partnership with WRD, the USGS is using the latest research tools to study the geohydrology and geochemistry of the two basins. USGS scientists are: *Drilling and collecting detailed data from over 40 multiple-well monitoring sites, *Conducting regional geohydrologic and geochemical analyses, *Developing and applying a computer simulation model of regional ground-water flow. USGS science is providing a more detailed understanding of ground-water flow and quality. This research has enabled WRD to more effectively manage the basins. It has helped the District improve the efficiency of its spreading ponds and barrier injection wells, which replenish the aquifers and control seawater intrusion into the ground-water system.

  19. Ground-Water Recharge in Humid Areas of the United States--A Summary of Ground-Water Resources Program Studies, 2003-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2007-01-01

    Increased demands on water resources by a growing population and recent droughts have raised awareness about the adequacy of ground-water resources in humid areas of the United States. The spatial and temporal variability of ground-water recharge are key factors that need to be quantified to determine the sustainability of ground-water resources. Ground-water recharge is defined herein as the entry into the saturated zone of water made available at the water-table surface, together with the associated flow away from the water table within the saturated zone (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). In response to the need for better estimates of ground-water recharge, the Ground-Water Resources Program (GWRP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an initiative in 2003 to estimate ground-water recharge rates in the relatively humid areas of the United States.

  20. Ground-water quality and geochemistry, Carson Desert, western Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lico, Michael S.; Seiler, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Aquifers in the Carson Desert are the primary source of drinking water, which is highly variable in chemical composition. In the shallow basin-fill aquifers, water chemistyr varies from a dilute calcium bicarbonate-dominated water beneath the irrigated areas to a saline sodium chloride- dominated water beneath unirrigated areas. Water samples from the shallow aquifers commonly have dissolved solids, chloride, magnesium, sulfate, arsenic, and manganese concentrations that exceed State of Nevada drinking-water standards. Water in the intermediante basin-fill aquifers is a dilute sodium bicarbonate type in the Fallon area and a distinctly more saline sodium chloride type in the Soda Lake-Upsal Hogback area. Dissolved solids, chloride, arsenic, fluoride, and manganese concen- trations commonly exceed drinking-water standards. The basalt aquifer contains a dilute sodium bicarbonate chloride water. Arsenic concentrations exceed standards in all sampled wells. The concen- trations of major constituents in ground water beneath the southern Carson Desert are the result of evapotranspiration and natural geochemical reactions with minerals derived mostly from igneous rocks. Water with higher concentrations of iron and manganese is near thermodynamic equilibrium with siderite and rhodochrosite and indicates that these elements may be limited by the solubility of their respective carbonate minerals. Naturally occurring radionuclides (uranium and radon-222) are present in ground water from the Carson Desert in concen- tratons higher than proposed drinking-water standards. High uranium concentrations in the shallow aquifers may be caused by evaporative concentration and the release of uranium during dissolution of iron and manganese oxides or the oxidation of sedimentary organic matter that typically has elevated uranium concentrations. Ground water in the Carson Desert does not appear to have be contaminated by synthetic organic chemicals.

  1. Environmental impact of municipal dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality in Jawaharnagar, Rangareddy, Telangana, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soujanya Kamble, B.; Saxena, Praveen Raj

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the impact of dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality of Jawaharnagar village. Leachate and ground-water samples were investigated for various physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), carbonates (CO3 2-), bicarbonates (HCO3 -), nitrates (NO3 -), and sulphates (SO4 2-) during dry and wet seasons in 2015 and were reported. The groundwater was hard to very hard in nature, and the concentrations of total dissolved solids, chlorides, and nitrates were found to be exceeding the permissible levels of WHO drinking water quality standards. Piper plots revealed that the dominant hydrochemical facies of the groundwater were of calcium chloride (CaCl2) type and alkaline earths (Ca2+ and Mg2+) exceed the alkali (Na+ and SO4 2-), while the strong acids (Cl- and SO4 2-) exceed the weak acids (CO3 2- and HCO3 -). According to USSL diagram, all the ground-water samples belong to high salinity and low-sodium type (C3S1). Overall, the ground-water samples collected around the dumpsite were found to be polluted and are unfit for human consumption but can be used for irrigation purpose with heavy drainage and irrigation patterns to control the salinity.

  2. National water-information clearinghouse activities; ground-water perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haupt, C.A.; Jensen, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) has functioned for many years as an informal clearinghouse for water resources information, enabling users to access groundwater information effectively. Water resources clearinghouse activities of the USGS are conducted through several separate computerized water information programs that are involved in the collection, storage, retrieval, and distribution of different types of water information. The following USGS programs perform water information clearinghouse functions and provide the framework for a formalized National Water-Information Clearinghouse: (1) The National Water Data Exchange--a nationwide confederation of more than 300 Federal, State, local, government, academic, and private water-oriented organizations that work together to improve access to water data; (2) the Water Resources Scientific Information Center--acquires, abstracts, and indexes the major water-resources-related literature of the world, and provides this information to the water resources community; (3) the Information Transfer Program--develops innovative approaches to transfer information and technology developed within the USGS to audiences in the public and private sectors; (4) the Hydrologic Information Unit--provides responses to a variety of requests, both technical and lay-oriented, for water resources information , and helps efforts to conduct water resources research; (5) the Water Data Storage and Retrieval System--maintains accessible computerized files of hydrologic data collected nationwide, by the USGS and other governmental agencies, from stream gaging stations, groundwater observation wells, and surface- and groundwater quality sampling sites; (6) the Office of Water Data Coordination--coordinate the water data acquisition activities of all agencies of the Federal Government, and is responsible for the planning, design, and inter-agency coordination of a national water data and information network; and (7) the Water Resources Research

  3. Reassessment of Ground-Water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2002-01-01

    An estimate of ground-water availability in the Hawi area of north Kohala, Hawaii, is needed to determine whether ground-water resources are adequate to meet future demand within the area and other areas to the south. For the Hawi area, estimated average annual recharge from infiltration of rainfall, fog drip, and irrigation is 37.5 million gallons per day from a daily water budget. Low and high annual recharge estimates for the Hawi area that incorporate estimated uncertainty are 19.9 and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively. The recharge estimates from this study are lower than the recharge of 68.4 million gallons per day previously estimated from a monthly water budget. Three ground-water models, using the low, intermediate, and high recharge estimates (19.9, 37.5, and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively), were developed for the Hawi area to simulate ground-water levels and discharges for the 1990?s. To assess potential ground-water availability, the numerical ground-water flow models were used to simulate the response of the freshwater-lens system to withdrawals at rates in excess of the average 1990?s withdrawal rates. Because of uncertainty in the recharge estimate, estimates of ground-water availability also are uncertain. Results from numerical simulations indicate that for appropriate well sites, depths, and withdrawal rates (1) for the low recharge estimate (19.9 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 10 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 160 feet near the withdrawal sites, (2) for the intermediate recharge estimate (37.5 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 15 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 190 feet near the withdrawal sites, and (3) for the high recharge estimate (55.4 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop at

  4. Effect of erythorbic acid on cooked color in ground beef.

    PubMed

    Phillips, A L; Mancini, R; Sun, Q; Lynch, M P; Faustman, C

    2001-01-01

    Consumers often use the color of cooked ground beef as an indicator of doneness. For safety reasons, it is recommended that the center of ground beef products be heated to 71°C. In some instances beef may appear done before reaching 71°C, a condition termed premature browning (PMB). Ground beef (15% fat), with added erythorbic acid (ERY) at 0.04 and 0.06% was formed into patties, wrapped in oxygen permeable film, and stored in the dark at 4°C. Patties were stored for either 10 h or 58 h and then cooked to internal end point temperatures of 60, 66, 71 or 77°C. Internal cooked color L(∗), a(∗) and b(∗) values were measured. For beef patties stored 10 h, there was no effect of ERY on internal cooked color. After 58 h storage, ground beef with 0.04 and 0.06% ERY had higher a(∗) values than controls at 60°C (P<0.05). Beef with 0.04% ERY cooked to an internal temperature of 66°C had higher a(∗) values than 0.06% ERY and controls (P<0.05). There was no effect of ERY on color of beef patties cooked to 71 or 77°C. The presence of 0.04% ERY in ground beef patties stored 58 h appeared to maintain red color at internal temperatures of 60 and 66°C.

  5. Use of a ground-water flow model with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability, Clark County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, D.T.; Wilkinson, J.M.; Orzol, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    A ground-water flow model was used in conjunction with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability in Clark County, Washington. Using the particle-tracking program, particles were placed in every cell of the flow model (about 60,000 particles) and tracked backwards in time and space upgradient along flow paths to their recharge points. A new computer program was developed that interfaces the results from a particle-tracking program with a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS was used to display and analyze the particle-tracking results. Ground-water vulnerability was evaluated by selecting parts of the ground-water flow system and combining the results with ancillary information stored in the GIS to determine recharge areas, characteristics of recharge areas, downgradient impact of land use at recharge areas, and age of ground water. Maps of the recharge areas for each hydrogeologic unit illustrate the presence of local, intermediate, or regional ground-water flow systems and emphasize the three-dimensional nature of the ground-water flow system in Clark County. Maps of the recharge points for each hydrogeologic unit were overlaid with maps depicting aquifer sensitivity as determined by DRASTIC (a measure of the pollution potential of ground water, based on the intrinsic characteristics of the near-surface unsaturated and saturated zones) and recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems. A large number of recharge areas were identified, particularly in southern Clark County, that have a high aquifer sensitivity, coincide with areas of recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems, or both. Using the GIS, the characteristics of the recharge areas were related to the downgradient parts of the ground-water system that will eventually receive flow that has recharged through these areas. The aquifer sensitivity, as indicated by DRASTIC, of the recharge areas for downgradient parts of the flow system was mapped for each hydrogeologic unit. A number of

  6. The Hydrolysis of Di-Isopropyl Methylphosphonate in Ground Water

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A., Tomkins, B.A., Griest, W.H., Bayne, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) is a byproduct from the manufacture of the nerve agent Sarin. The persistence of DIMP in the ground water is an important question in evaluating the potential environmental impacts of DIMP contamination. The half-life of DIMP in ground water at 10 deg C was estimated to be 500 years with a 95% confidence interval of 447 to 559 years from measurements of the hydrolysis rates at temperatures between 70 to 98 deg C.Extrapolation of the kinetics to 10 deg C used the Arrhenius equation, and calculation of the half-life assumed first-order kinetics. Inorganic phosphate was not detected.

  7. Geology and ground-water resources of Richardson County, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emery, Philip A.

    1964-01-01

    Richardson County is in the extreme southeast corner of Nebraska. It has an area of 545 square miles, and in 1960 it had a population of 13,903. The county is in the physiographic region referred to as the Dissected Loess-covered Till Prairies. Major drainage consists of the Big Nemaha River, including its North and South Forks, and Muddy Creek. These streams flow southeastward and empty into the Missouri River, which forms the eastern boundary of the county. The climate of Richardson County is subhumid; the normal annual precipitation is about 35 inches. Agriculture is the chief industry, and corn is the principal crop. Pleistocene glacial drift, loess, and alluvial deposits mantle the bedrock except in the southern and southwestern parts of the county where the bedrock is at the surface. Ground water is obtained from glacial till, fluvioglacial material, terrace deposits, and coarse alluvial deposits, all of Pleistocene age--and some is obtained from bedrock aquifers of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. Adequate supplies of ground water are in many places difficult to locate because the water-bearing sands and gravels of Pleistocene age vary in composition and lack lateral persistence. Perched water tables are common in the upland areas and provide limited amounts of water to many of the shallow wells, Very few wells in bedrock yield adequate supplies, as the permeability of the rock is low and water that is more than a few tens of feet below the bedrock surface is highly mineralized. Recharge is primarily from local precipitation, and water levels in many wells respond rapidly to increased or decreased precipitation. The quality of the ground water is generally satisfactory for most uses, although all the water is hard, and iron and manganese concentrations, in some areas, are relatively high. Ground water is used mainly for domestic and stock purposes.

  8. Ground Water Under the Direct Influence of Surface Water (GWUDISW) Presentation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The GWUDISW Presentation discusses factors that contribute to contamination of ground water, how to protect a well or spring, GW and SW differences, how GWUDISW determinations are made and what happens if source water is classified as GWUDISW

  9. Ground-water and stream-water interaction in the Owl Creek basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogle, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Understanding of the interaction of ground-water and surface-water resources is vital to water management when water availability is limited.Inflow of ground water is the primary source ofwater during stream base flow. The water chemistry of streams may substantially be affected by that inflow of ground water. This report is part of a study to examine ground-water and surface-water interaction in the Owl Creek Basin, Wyoming, completed by the U.S. Geological Survey incooperation with the Northern Arapaho Tribe and the Shoshone Tribe. During a low flow period between November\\x1113 - 17, 1991, streamflowmeasurements and water-quality samples were collected at 16 selected sites along major streams and tributaries in the Owl Creek Basin,Wyoming. The data were used to identify stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow and to examine causes of changes in stream chemistry.Streamflow measurements, radon-222 activity load, and dissolved solids load were used to identified stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow.Streamflow measurements identified three stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. Analysis of radon-222 activity load identified five stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. Dissolvedsolids load identified six stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. When these three methods were combined, stream reaches in two areas, theEmbar Area and the Thermopolis Anticline Area, were identified as receiving ground-water inflow.The Embar Area and the Thermopolis Anticline Area were then evaluated to determine the source of increased chemical load in stream water. Three potential sources were analyzed: tributary inflow, surficial geology, and anticlines. Two sources,tributary inflow and surficial geology, were related to changes in isotopic ratios and chemical load in the Embar Area. In two reaches in the Embar Area, isotopic ratios of 18O/16O, D/H, and 34S/32S indicated that tributary inflow affected stream-water chemistry. Increased chemical load of

  10. The role of ground water in the national water situation: With state summaries based on reports by District Offices of Ground Water Branch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuinness, Charles Lee

    1963-01-01

    This report outlines briefly the principles of water occurrence and describes the water situation in the United States as of 1960-61, with emphasis on the occurrence of ground water and the status of development and accompanying problems. The Nation has been divided into 10 major ground-water regions by H. E. Thomas (1952a). The report summarizes the occurrence and development of ground water in each of Thomas' regions. In a large terminal section it also describes the occurrence and development of water, again with emphasis on ground water, in each of the 50 States and in certain other areas. The main text ends with a discussion of the water situation and prospects of the Nation.

  11. Ground-water quality, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, Roy L.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program, ground-water samples were collected from 34 existing wells in the Cook Inlet Basin in south-central Alaska during 1999. All ground-water samples were from aquifers composed of glacial or alluvial sediments. The water samples were used to determine the occurrence and distribution of selected major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radioisotopes, and environmental isotopes. Of 34 samples, 29 were from wells chosen by using a grid-based random-selection process. Water samples from five major public-supply wells also were collected. Radon-222 and arsenic concentrations exceeded drinking-water standards proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 39 and 18 percent of sampled wells, respectively. The highest radon concentration measured during this study was 610 picocuries per liter; 12 of 31 samples exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter. The highest arsenic concentration was 29 micrograms per liter; 6 of 34 samples exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter. Human activities may be increasing the concen- tration of nitrate in ground water, but nitrate concentrations in all samples were less than the maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Concentrations of nitrate were highest in Anchorage and were as great as 4.8 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 77 to 986 milligrams per liter; only 2 of 34 wells yielded water having greater than 500 milligrams per liter. Iron and manganese concentrations exceeded secondary maximum contaminant levels in 18 and 42 percent of samples, respectively. Concentrations of all pesticides and volatile organic compounds detected in ground-water samples were very low, less than 1 microgram per liter. No pesticide or volatile organic compounds were detected at concentrations

  12. Nitrate behavior in ground water of the southeastern USA

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, B.T.

    1999-10-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed with water-quality data from studies conducted during 1993 to 1995 to explore potential nitrate-attenuation processes in ground waters of the southeastern USA. Nitrate reduction is an important attenuation process in selected areas of the Southeast. A nitrate-reduction component explains 23% of the total variance in the data and indicates that nitrate and dissolved oxygen (DO) are inversely related to ammonium, iron, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Additional components extracted by PCA include calcite dissolution (18% of variance explained) and phosphate dissolution (9% of variance explained). Reducing conditions in ground waters of the region influence nitrate behavior through bacterially mediated reduction in the presence of organic matter, and by inhibition of nitrate formation in anoxic ground water beneath forested areas. Component scores are consistent with observed water-quality conditions in the region. For example, median nitrate concentration in ground-water samples from the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin (ALBE) Coastal Plain is {lt}0.05 mg L{sup {minus}1}, median DOC concentration is 4.2 mg L{sup {minus}1}, and median DO concentration is 2.1 mg L{sup {minus}1}, consistent with denitrification. Nitrate reduction does not occur uniformly throughout the Southeast. Median DO concentrations in ground-water samples from the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (ACFB) are 6.2 to 7.1 mg L{sup {minus}1}, and median nitrate concentrations are 0.61 to 2.2 mg L{sup {minus}1}, inconsistent with denitrification. Similarly, median DO concentration in samples from the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain (GAFL) is 6.0 mg L{sup {minus}1} and median nitrate concentration is 5.8 mg L{sup {minus}1}.

  13. Ground Water on Tropical Pacific Islands - Understanding a Vital Resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tribble, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    To a casual observer, tropical Pacific islands seem idyllic. Closer scrutiny reveals that their generally small size makes them particularly vulnerable to economic and environmental stresses imposed by rapidly growing populations, increasing economic development, and global climate change. On these islands, freshwater is one of the most precious resources. Ground water is the main source of drinking water on many islands, and for quite a few islands, it is the only reliable source of water throughout the year. Faced with a growing demand for this valuable resource, and the potential negative effects on its availability and quality from changes in global climate, increasingly sophisticated management approaches will be needed to ensure a dependable supply of freshwater for the residents of these islands. Much scientific information has been collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and other organizations about the ground-water resources of tropical Pacific islands. The aim of this Circular is to give members of the public, policymakers, and other stakeholders knowledge that will help ensure that this information can be used to make informed decisions about the management of these life-giving resources. As the demand for freshwater grows, new monitoring and research efforts will be needed to (1) characterize the extent and sustainability of ground-water resources on different tropical Pacific islands, (2) better understand linkages between ground-water discharge and freshwater and nearshore ecosystems, and (3) prepare for the effects of climate change, which will likely include the loss of habitable land and reduced areas for the accumulation of ground water as a result of rising sea levels.

  14. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....404 Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. (a) A ground water system with a... ground water system is in violation of the treatment technique requirement if, within 120 days (or...) before or at the first customer for a ground water source is in violation of the treatment...

  15. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....404 Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. (a) A ground water system with a... ground water system is in violation of the treatment technique requirement if, within 120 days (or...) before or at the first customer for a ground water source is in violation of the treatment...

  16. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....404 Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. (a) A ground water system with a... ground water system is in violation of the treatment technique requirement if, within 120 days (or...) before or at the first customer for a ground water source is in violation of the treatment...

  17. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....404 Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. (a) A ground water system with a... ground water system is in violation of the treatment technique requirement if, within 120 days (or...) before or at the first customer for a ground water source is in violation of the treatment...

  18. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....404 Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. (a) A ground water system with a... ground water system is in violation of the treatment technique requirement if, within 120 days (or...) before or at the first customer for a ground water source is in violation of the treatment...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-Water Monitoring List IX... Pt. 264, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 264—Ground-Water Monitoring List Ground-Water Monitoring List... species in the ground water that contain this element are included. 3 CAS index names are those used...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-Water Monitoring List IX... Pt. 264, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 264—Ground-Water Monitoring List Ground-Water Monitoring List... species in the ground water that contain this element are included. 3 CAS index names are those used...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-Water Monitoring List IX... Pt. 264, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 264—Ground-Water Monitoring List Ground-Water Monitoring List... species in the ground water that contain this element are included. 3 CAS index names are those used...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-Water Monitoring List IX... Pt. 264, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 264—Ground-Water Monitoring List Ground-Water Monitoring List... species in the ground water that contain this element are included. 3 CAS index names are those used...

  3. System and boundary conceptualization in ground-water flow simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.

    2001-01-01

    Ground-water models attempt to represent an actual ground-water system with a mathematical counterpart. The conceptualization of how and where water originates in the ground-water-flow system and how and where it leaves the system is critical to the development of an accurate model. The mathematical representation of these boundaries in the model is important because many hydrologic boundary conditions can be mathematically represented in more than one way. The determination of which mathematical representation of a boundary condition is best usually is dependent upon the objectives of the study. This report focuses on the specific aspect of describing different ways to simulate, in a numerical model, the physical features that act as hydrologic boundaries in an actual ground-water system. The ramifications, benefits, and limitations of each approach are enumerated, and descriptions of the representation of boundaries in models for Long Island, New York, and the Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico, illustrate the application of some of the methods.

  4. Ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, J.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    A sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin underlies Wurtsmith Air Force Base in northeastern lower Michigan. The aquifer overlies a thick clay layer at an average depth of 65 feet. The water table is about 10 feet below land surface in the western part of the Base and about 25 feet below land surface in the eastern part. A ground-water divide cuts diagonally across the Base from northwest to southeast. South of the divide, ground water flows to the Au Sable River; north of the divide, it flows to Van Etten Creek and Van Etten Lake. Mathematical models were used to aid in calculating rates of groundwater flow. Rates range from about 0.8 feet per day in the eastern part of the Base to about 0.3 feet per day in the western part. Models also were used as an aid in making decisions regarding purging of contaminated water from the aquifer. In 1977, trichloroethylene was detected in the Air Force Base water-supply system. It had leaked from a buried storage tank near Building 43 in the southeastern part of the Base and moved northeastward under the influence of the natural ground-water gradient and the pumping of Base water-supply wells. In the most highly contaminated part of the plume, concentrations are greater than 1,000 micrograms per liter. Current purge pumping is removing some of the trichloroethylene, and seems to have arrested its eastward movement. Pumping of additional purge wells could increase the rate of removal. Trichloroethylene has also been detected in ground water in the vicinity of the Base alert apron, where a plume from an unknown source extends northeastward off Base. A smaller, less well-defined area of contamination also occurs just north of the larger plume. Trichloroethylene, identified near the waste-treatment plant, seepage lagoons, and the northern landfill area, is related to activities and operations in these areas. Dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene occur in significant quantities westward of Building 43, upgradient from the major

  5. Summary of Ground-Water Data for Brunswick County, North Carolina, Water Year 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water availability in Brunswick County, North Carolina, has been monitored continuously since 2000 through the operation and maintenance of ground-water-level observation wells in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. Ground-water-resource conditions for the Brunswick County area were determined by relating the period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean groundwater- level and precipitation data to median monthly mean ground-water levels and monthly sum of daily precipitation for water year 2007. Summaries of precipitation and ground-water conditions for the Brunswick County area and hydrographs and statistics of continuous ground-water levels collected during the 2007 water year are presented in this report. Ground-water resource conditions varied by aquifer and geographic location within Brunswick County. Water levels were normal in 6 of the 11 observation wells, above normal in 1 well, and below normal in the remaining 4 wells.

  6. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  7. Surface water-ground water interaction: Herbicide transport into municipal collector wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Carr, J.D.; Steele, G.V.; Thurman, E.M.; Bastian, K.C.; Dormedy, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    During spring runoff events, herbicides in the Platte River are transported through an alluvial aquifer into collector wells located on an island in the river in 6 to 7 d. During two spring runoff events in 1995 and 1996, atrazine [2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine] concentrations in water from these wells reached approximately 7 ??g/L, 70 times more than the background concentration in ground water. Concentrations of herbicides and metabolites in the collector wells generally were one-half to one-fifth the concentrations of herbicides in the river for atrazine, alachlor [2-chloro-2'-6'-diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl)-acetanilide], alachlor ethane-sulfonic acid (ESA) [2-((2,6-diethylphenyl) (methoxymethyl)amino)-2- oxoethane-sulfonic acid], metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N- (2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide], cyanazine [2-((4-chloro-6-(ethyl-amino)- 1,3,5 triazin-2-yl)-amino)-2-methylpropionitrile], and acetochlor [2-chloro- N-(ethoxymethyl)-N-(2-ethyl-6methyl-phenyl) acetamide], suggesting that 20 to 50% river water could be present in the water from the collector wells, assuming no degradation. The effect of the river on the quality of water from the collector wells can be reduced through selective management of horizontal laterals of the collector wells. The quality of the water from the collector wells is dependent on the (i) selection of the collector well used, (ii) number and selection of laterals used, (iii) chemical characteristics of the contaminant, and (iv) relative mixing of the Platte River and a major upstream tributary.

  8. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1971

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordova, R.M.; Bjorklund, L.J.; McGreevy, L.J.; Bolke, E.L.; Sumison, C.T.; Herbert, L.R.; Butler, R.G.; Mower, R.W.; Sandberg, G.W.; Adams, D.B.

    1971-01-01

    This report is the eighth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series are prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources and are designed to provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 21), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. It also contains supplementary data that are related to ground-water use in some areas. In reports of this series, the inclusion of such supplementary data as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration is intended only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1970. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1970 to spring 1971. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  9. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1969

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, C.H.; Bjorklund, L.J.; Bolke, E.L.; Mower, R.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Cordova, R.M.; Butler, R.G.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1969-01-01

    This report is the sixth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series are prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources and are designed to provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 12), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. It also contains supplementary data that are related to ground-water use in some areas. In reports of this series, the inclusion of such supplementary data as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration is intended only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1968. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1968 to spring 1969. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  10. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumison, C.T.; Bjorklund, L.J.; Bolke, E.L.; Mower, R.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Cordova, R.M.; Butler, R.G.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1970-01-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series are prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources and are designed to provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 22), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. It also contains supplementary data that are related to ground-water use in some areas. In reports of this series, the inclusion of such supplementary data as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration is intended only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1969. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1969 to spring 1970. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  11. Precipitation; ground-water age; ground-water nitrate concentrations, 1995-2002; and ground-water levels, 2002-03 in Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The eastern Bernalillo County study area consists of about 150 square miles and includes all of Bernalillo County east of the crests of the Sandia and Manzanita Mountains. Soil and unconsolidated alluvial deposits overlie fractured and solution-channeled limestone in most of the study area. North of Interstate Highway 40 and east of New Mexico Highway 14, the uppermost consolidated geologic units are fractured sandstones and shales. Average annual precipitation at three long-term National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration precipitation and snowfall data-collection sites was 14.94 inches at approximately 6,300 feet (Sandia Ranger Station), 19.06 inches at about 7,020 feet (Sandia Park), and 23.07 inches at approximately 10,680 feet (Sandia Crest). The periods of record at these sites are 1933-74, 1939-2001, and 1953-79, respectively. Average annual snowfall during these same periods of record was 27.7 inches at Sandia Ranger Station, 60.8 inches at Sandia Park, and 115.5 inches at Sandia Crest. Seven precipitation data-collection sites were established during December 2000-March 2001. Precipitation during 2001-03 at three U.S. Geological Survey sites ranged from 66 to 94 percent of period-of-record average annual precipitation at corresponding National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration long-term sites in 2001, from 51 to 75 percent in 2002, and from 34 to 81 percent during January through September 2003. Missing precipitation records for one site resulted in the 34-percent value in 2003. Analyses of concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 in ground-water samples from nine wells and one spring were used to estimate when the sampled water entered the ground-water system. Apparent ages of ground water ranged from as young as about 10 to 16 years to as old as about 20 to 26 years. Concentrations of dissolved nitrates in samples collected from 24 wells during 2001-02 were similar to concentrations in samples collected from the same

  12. Quality of ground water around Vadnais Lake and in Lambert Creek watershed, and interaction of ground water with Vadnais Lake, Ramsey County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the seepage analysis and ground-water quality evaluation indicate that the effect of the quality of the surrounding ground water on the quality of Vadnais Lake probably was small. Ground water that discharged to the lake generally had lower concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, and total dissolved solids than the lake. The mixing of ground water with the lake slightly diluted the lake with respect to these constituents.

  13. Ground water maps of Hanford Site Separations Areas, December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, G.L.

    1990-06-01

    The Separations Areas consist of the 200 East and 200 West areas and the surrounding vicinity on the Hanford Site. Chemical processing operations are carried out in the Separations Areas by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. This set of ground water maps consists of: (1) Separations Areas depth-to-water map, (2) Separations Areas water table map, and (3) a map comparing the potentiometric surface of the Rattlesnake Ridge confined aquifer with the water table of the unconfined aquifer. The field measurements for these maps were collected during December 1989. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Ground-Water Age and its Water-Management Implications, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, Roy L.

    2002-01-01

    The Cook Inlet Basin encompasses 39,325 square miles in south-central Alaska. Approximately 350,000 people, more than half of Alaska?s population, reside in the basin, mostly in the Anchorage area. However, rapid growth is occurring in the Matanuska?Susitna and Kenai Peninsula Boroughs to the north and south of Anchorage. Ground-water resources provide about one-third of the water used for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes in the Anchorage metropolitan area and are the sole sources of water for industries and residents outside Anchorage. In 1997, a study of the Cook Inlet Basin was begun as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Samples of ground water were collected from 35 existing wells in unconsolidated glacial and alluvial aquifers during 1999 to determine the regional quality of ground water beneath about 790 mi2 of developed land and to gain a better understanding of the natural and human factors that affect the water quality (Glass, 2001). Of the 35 wells sampled, 31 had water analyzed for atmospherically derived substances to determine the ground water?s travel time from its point of recharge to its point of use or discharge?also known as ground-water age. Ground water moves slowly from its point of recharge to its point of use or discharge. This water starts as rain and melting snow that soak into the ground as recharge. In the Matanuska?Susitna, Anchorage, and Kenai Peninsula areas, ground water generally moves from near the mountain fronts toward Cook Inlet or the major rivers. Much of the water pumped by domestic and public-supply wells may have traveled less than 10 miles, and the trip may have taken as short a time as a few days or as long as several decades. This ground water is vulnerable to contamination from the land surface, and many contaminants in the water would follow the same paths and have similar travel times from recharge areas to points of use as the chemical substances analyzed in

  15. Ground water and the law - some selected annotated references

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vorhis, Robert C.

    1955-01-01

    The strictly "legal" literature of ground-water use and control -except for a few essays in certain of the law reviews- is quite limited. A larger and more pointful source of information and analysis is the legal-scientific writings of the geologists, hydrologists, meteorologists, engineers and others. When new statutes are to be drafted by legislatures, and new decisions are to be made by courts on this subject, such literature may well be of far greater importance than legal precedents unfounded on scientific fact. This may be demonstrated by the character and scope of the legal-scientific literature of ground water, just one branch of water science, but one which is of major importance to any thoughtful consideration of water use and control.

  16. Distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, M.V.; Waldron, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, to evaluate the distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia. Fluoride is a natural chemical constituent in domestic and public water supplies in West Virginia. Fluoride concentrations of about 1.0 milligram per liter in drinking water are beneficial to dental health. Concentrations greater than 2.0 milligrams per liter, however, could harm teeth and bones. Fluoride concentra- tions in ground water of West Virginia range from less than 0.1 to 12 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are found in wells drilled to all depths, wells drilled in all topographic settings, and wells drilled into most geologic units. Most fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are located at sites clustered in the northwestern part of the State.

  17. Ground-water resources in the Hood Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grady, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    The Hood Basin, an area of 1,035 square miles in north-central Oregon, includes the drainage basins of all tributaries of the Columbia River between Eagle Creek and Fifteenmile Creek. The physical characteristics and climate of the basin are diverse. The Wasco subarea, in the eastern half of the basin, has moderate relief, mostly intermittent streams, and semiarid climate. The Hood subarea, in the western half, has rugged topography, numerous perennial streams, and a humid climate.Water-bearing geologic units that underlie the basin include volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks of Miocene to Holocene age, and unconsolidated surficial deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age. The most important water-bearing unit, the Columbia River Basalt Group, underlies almost the entire basin. Total thickness probably exceeds 2,000 feet, but by 1980 only the upper 1,000 feet or less had been developed by wells. Wells in this unit generally yield from 15 to 1,000 gallons per minute and a few yield as much as 3,300 gallons per minute.The most productive aquifer in the Columbia River Basalt Group is The Dalles Ground Water Reservoir, a permeable zone of fractured basalt about 25 to 30 square miles in extent that underlies the city of The Dalles. During the late 1950's and mid-1960's, withdrawals of 15,000 acre-feet per year or more caused water levels in the aquifer to decline sharply. Pumpage had diminished to about 5,000 acre-feet per year in 1979 and water levels have stabilized, indicating that ground water recharge and discharge, including the pumping, are in balance.The other principal geologic units in the basin have more limited areal distribution and less saturated thickness than the Columbia River Basalt Group. Generally, these units are capable of yielding from a few to a hundred gallons per minute to wells.Most of the ground water in the basin is chemically suitable for domestic, irrigation, or other uses. Some ground water has objectionable concentrations of

  18. Geohydrology, simulation of ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at two landfills, Marion County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duwelius, R.F.; Greeman, T.K.

    1989-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved inorganic substances in ground-water samples indicate that leachate from both landfills is reaching the shallow aquifers. The effect on deeper aquifers is small because of the predominance of horizontal ground-water flow and discharge to the streams. Increases in almost all dissolved constituents were observed in shallow wells that are screened beneath and downgradient from the landfills. Several analyses, especially those for bromide, dissolved solids, and ammonia, were useful in delineating the plume of leachate at both landfills.

  19. Hydrology of the Sevier-Sigurd ground-water basin and other ground-water basins, central Sevier Valley, Utah.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, P.M.; Mason, J.L.; Puchta, R.W

    1995-01-01

    The hydrologic system in the central Sevier Valley, and more specifically the Sevier-Sigurd basin, is a complex system in which surface- and ground-water systems are interrelated. Seepage from an extensive irrigation system is the primary source of recharge to the basin-fill aquifer in the Sevier-Sigurd basin.Water-quality data indicate that inflow from streams and subsurface inflow that intersect evaporite deposits in the Arapien Shale does not adversely affect ground-water quality in the Sevier-Sigurd basin. Stable-isotope data indicate that large sulfate concentrations in water from wells are from the dissolution of gypsum within the basin fill rather than inflow from the Arapien Shale.A ground-water-flow model of the basin-fill aquifer in the Sevier-Sigurd basin was calibrated to steady-state conditions and transient conditions using yearly water-level changes from 1957-88 and monthly water-level changes from 1958-59. Predictive simulations were made to test the effects of reduced recharge from irrigation and increased well discharge. To simulate the effects of conversion from flood to sprinkler irrigation, recharge from irrigated fields was reduced by 50 percent. After twenty years, this reduction resulted in water-level declines of 1 to 8 feet in most of the basin, and a reduction in ground-water discharge to the Sevier River of 4,800 acre-ft/yr. Water-level declines of as much as 12 feet and a reduction in recharge to the Sevier River of 4,800 acre-ft/yr were the result of increasing well discharge near Richfield and Monroe by 25,000 acre-ft/yr. 

  20. Ground-water level data for North Carolina, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coble, Ronald W.; Strickland, A.G.; Bailey, M. Carl

    1989-01-01

    Continuous and periodic measurements in 54 key wells and water-level measurements emplaced in Coastal Plain aquifers across North Carolina in 193 supplemental wells are presented in this report. Hydrographs of selected wells show changes in ground-water storage in the State. The water table in the shallow aquifers was higher throughout most of the State in 1987 than in 1986, indicating that rain had recharged these aquifers sufficiently to replenish the deficit in ground water storage that accumulated in the western and central parts of the State during 1986. Water levels in the heavily pumped Coastal Plain aquifers show a general downward trend for the year, indicating ground water is being withdrawn from aquifer storage. Record low water levels were measured in 4 of 13 wells in the Castle Hayne aquifer; the greatest decline measured during 1987 was 0.3 ft. Water levels in wells in the Peedee, Black Creek, upper Cape Fear, and lower Cape Fear aquifers generally show downward trends. Record low water levels were measured in 4 of 8 wells in the Peedee aquifer; the maximum decline measured during 1987 was 1.5 ft. All wells in the Black Creek, upper Cape Fear, and lower Cape Fear aquifers had record low water levels for 1987, with maximum measured declines in 1987 of 8.6, 3.1, and 3.1 ft., respectively. Record high water levels were measured in two wells, one each in the Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers. Potentiometric surface maps show the effects of major centers of pumping for the Castle Hayne, Black Creek, and lower Cape Fear aquifers of the Coastal Plain.

  1. Ground-water contamination in East Bay Township, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twenter, F.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Grannemann, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    Glacial deposits, as much as 360 feet thick, underlie the study area. The upper 29 to 118 feet, a sand and gravel unit, is the aquifer tapped for water by all wells in the area. This unit is underlain by impermeable clay that is at least 100 feet thick. Ground-water flow is northeastward at an estimated rate of 3 to 6 feet per day. Hydraulic conductivities in the aquifer range from 85 to 150 feet per day; 120 feet per day provided the best match of field data in a ground-water flow model. The depth to water ranged from 1 to 20 feet. Chemical anlayses indicate that ground water is contaminated with organic chemicals from near the Hangar/Administration building at the U.S. Coast Guard Air Station to East Bay, about 4,300 feet northeast. The plume, which follows ground-water flow lines, ranges from 180 to 400 feet wide. In the upper reach of the plume, hydrocarbons less dense than water occur at the surface of the water table; they move downward in the aquifer as they move toward East Bay. Maximum concentrations of the major organic compounds include: benzene, 3,390 micrograms per liter; toluene, 55,500 micrograms per liter; xylene, 3,900 micrograms per liter; tetrachloroethylene, 3,410 micrograms per liter; and bis (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate, 2,100 micrograms per liter. Soils are generally free of these hydrocarbons; however, in the vicinity of past drum storage, aircraft maintenance operations, and fuel storage and dispensing, as much as 1,100 micrograms per kilogram of tetrachloroethylene and 1,500 micrograms per kilogram of bis (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate were detected. At a few locations higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, characteristic of petroleum distillates, were found.

  2. Factors controlling tungsten concentrations in ground water, Carson Desert, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Stollenwerk, K.G.; Garbarino, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    An investigation of a childhood leukemia cluster by US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revealed that residents of the Carson Desert, Nevada, are exposed to high levels of W and this prompted an investigation of W in aquifers used as drinking water sources. Tungsten concentrations in 100 ground water samples from all aquifers used as drinking water sources in the area ranged from 0.27 to 742 ??g/l. Ground water in which W concentrations exceed 50 ??g/l principally occurs SE of Fallon in a geothermal area. The principal sources of W in ground water are natural and include erosion of W-bearing mineral deposits in the Carson River watershed upstream of Fallon, and, possibly, upwelling geothermal waters. Ground water in the Fallon area is strongly reducing and reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides may be releasing W; however, direct evidence that the metal oxides contain W is not available. Although W and Cl concentrations in the Carson River, a lake, and water from many wells, appear to be controlled by evaporative concentration, evaporation alone cannot explain the elevated W concentrations found in water from some of the wells. Concentrations of W exceeding 50 ??g/l are exclusively associated with Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl water types and pH > 8.0; in these waters, geochemical modeling indicates that W exhibits <10% adsorption. Tungsten concentrations are strongly and positively correlated with As, B, F, and P, indicating either common sources or common processes controlling their concentrations. Geochemical modeling indicates W concentrations are consistent with pH-controlled adsorption of W. The geochemical model PHREEQC was used to calculate IAP values, which were compared with published Ksp values for primary W minerals. FeWO4, MnWO4, Na2WO4, and MgWO4 were undersaturated and CaWO4 and SrWO 4 were approaching saturation. These conclusions are tentative because of uncertainty in the thermodynamic data. The similar behavior of As and W observed in

  3. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avery, Charles; Herbert, L.R.; Bischoff, Donald A.; Clark, David W.; Seiler, Ralph L.; Guttormson, Kevin; Elizondo, Melanie S.; Jensen, V.L.; Enright, Michael; Emett, D.C.; Burden, Carole B.; Eckenwiler, M.R.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    This is the twenty-first in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals from wells, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing ground-water level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1983. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described from the spring of 1983 to the spring of 1984. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  4. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1967

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, C.H.; Price, Don; Butler, R.G.; Mower, R.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Cordova, R.M.; Bolke, E.L.; Bjorklund, L.J.; Robinson, G.B. Jr.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1967-01-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series are prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources and are designed to provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 89), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. It also contains supplementary data that are related to ground-water use in some areas. In reports of this series, the inclusion of such supplementary data as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration is intended only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1966. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1966 to spring 1967. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah State Engineer.

  5. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Appel, Cynthia L.; Herbert, L.R.; Bischoff, Donald A.; Smith, Melanie E.; Seiler, Ralph L.; Guttormson, Kevin; Jensen, V.L.; Enright, Michael; Emett, D.C.; Burden, Carole B.; Beard, R.C.; Sultz, L.G.; Eckenwiler, M.R.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    This is the twentieth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals from wells, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing ground-water level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1982. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for spring 1982 to spring 1983 and spring 1963 to spring 1983. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  6. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Walter F.; Herbert, L.R.; Bischoff, D.A.; Smith, Melanie E.; Seiler, R.L.; Steiger, Judy I.; Appel, Cynthia L.; Jensen, V.L.; Enright, Michael; Emett, D.C.; Burden, Carole B.; Beard, R.C.; Sultz, L.G.; Eckenwiler, M.R.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    This is the nineteenth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals from wells, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing ground-water level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1981. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the periiod spring 1981 to spring 1982. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  7. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1966

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hood, J.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Butler, R.G.; Mower, R.W.; Handy, A.H.; Cordova, R.M.; Feltis, R.D.; Bjorklund, L.J.; Robinson, G.B. Jr.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1966-01-01

    This report is the third in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series are prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Water and Power Board and are designed to provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the first two (Arnow and others, 1964, 1965), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. It also contains supplementary data that are related to ground-water use in some individual areas. In reports of this series, the inclusion of such supplementary data as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table slope is intended only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1965. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1965 through spring 1966. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah State Engineer.

  8. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Herbert, L.R.; Bischoff, Donald A.; Clark, David W.; Pyper, George; Burden, Carole B.; Jensen, V.L.; Enright, Michael; Emett, D.C.; Sether, B.A.; Eckenwiler, M.R.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    This is the twenty-second in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals from wells, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing ground-water level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1984. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described from the spring of 1984 to the spring of 1985. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  9. Hydrogeology and quality of ground water in Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, James C.; German, Edward R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of water supply in central Florida and is critical for aquatic habitats and human consumption. To provide a better understanding for the conservation, development, and management of the water resources of Orange County, Florida, a study of the hydrogeologic framework, water budget, and ground-water quality characteristics was conducted from 1998 through 2002. The study also included extensive analyses of the surface-water resources, published as a separate report. An increase in population from about 264,000 in 1960 to 896,000 in 2000 and subsequent urban growth throughout this region has been accompanied by a substantial increase in water use. Total ground-water use in Orange County increased from about 82 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 287 million gallons per day in 2000. The hydrogeology of Orange County consists of three major hydrogeologic units: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. Data were compiled from 634 sites to construct hydrogeologic maps and sections of Orange County. Water-level elevations measured in 23 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system ranged from about 10.6 feet in eastern Orange County to 123.8 feet above NGVD 29 in northwestern Orange County from March 2000 through September 2001. Water levels also were measured in 14 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer. Water levels fluctuate over time from seasonal and annual variations in rainfall; however, water levels in a number of wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer have declined over time. Withdrawal of ground water from the aquifers by pumping probably is causing the declines because the average annual precipitation rate has not changed substantially in central Florida since the 1930s, although yearly rates can vary. A generalized water budget was computed for Orange County from 1991 to 2000. Average rates for the 10-year period for the following budget components were computed based

  10. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) monitors the distribution of radionuclides and other hazardous materials in ground water at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This work is performed through the Ground-Water Surveillance Project and is designed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1 that apply to environmental surveillance and ground-water monitoring (DOE 1988). This annual report discusses results of ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1991. In addition to the general discussion, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and the 200-West areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100, 200, and 600 areas; (4) trichloroethylene in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill, 100-F Area, and 300 Area; (5) nitrate across the Site; (6) tritium across the Site; and (7) other radionuclide contamination throughout the Site, including gross alpha, gross beta, cobalt-60, strontium-90, technetium-99, iodine-129, cesium-137, uranium, and plutonium.

  11. Modeling the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Agnese, F. A.; Faunt, C.C.; Hill, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The development of a regional ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region in the southwestern United States is discussed in the context of the fourteen guidelines of Hill (1998). This application of the guidelines demonstrates how they may be used for model calibration and evaluation, and to direct further model development and data collection. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  12. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  13. Sorption of PFOA and PFOS to Ground Water Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    During its years of operation, the Washington County Sanitary Landfill near St. Paul, Minnesota accepted both municipal and industrial solid waste. Several years of ground water monitoring performed by the MPCA indicates that, some of the waste disposed of at this landfill contai...

  14. DETERMINING HOW VAPOR PHASE MTBE REACHES GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Region 2 and ORD have funded a RARE project for FY 2005/2006 to evaluate the prospects that MTBE (and other fuel components) in vapors that escape from an underground storage tank (UST) can find its way to ground water produced by monitoring wells at a gasoline filling statio...

  15. STATISTICAL ESTIMATION AND VISUALIZATION OF GROUND-WATER CONTAMINATION DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work presents methods of visualizing and animating statistical estimates of ground water and/or soil contamination over a region from observations of the contaminant for that region. The primary statistical methods used to produce the regional estimates are nonparametric re...

  16. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aquifer (as defined in § 257.5(b)) that: (1) Represent the quality of background ground water that has not been affected by leakage from a unit. A determination of background quality may include sampling of wells that are not hydraulically upgradient of the waste management area where: (i)...

  17. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the uppermost aquifer (as defined in § 258.2) that: (1) Represent the quality of background ground water that has not been affected by leakage from a unit. A determination of background quality may include sampling of wells that are not hydraulically upgradient of the waste management area where:...

  18. MANUAL: GROUND-WATER AND LEACHATE TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was developed for remedial design engineers and regulatory personnel who oversee the ex situ ground water or leachate treatment efforts of the regulated community. The manual can be used as a treatment technology screening tool in conjunction with other references. Mo...

  19. TBA IN GROUND WATER FROM THE NATURAL BIODEGRADATION OF MTBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    At many UST spills, the concentrations of TBA in ground water are much higher than would be expected from the presence of TBA in the gasoline originally spilled. The ratio of concentrations of TBA to concentrations of MTBE in monitoring wells at gasoline spill sites was compared ...

  20. GROUND WATER PURGING AND SAMPLING METHODS: HISTORY VS. HYSTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been over 10 years since the low-flow ground water purging and sampling method was initially reported in the literature. The method grew from the recognition that well purging was necessary to collect representative samples, bailers could not achieve well purging, and high...

  1. REMEDIAL COSTS FOR MTBE IN SOIL AND GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread contamination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in ground water has raised concerns about the increased cost of remediation of MTBE releases compared to BTEX-only sites. To evaluate these costs, cost information for 311 sites was furnished by U.S. EPA Office of Underg...

  2. Hydrogeology and ground-water/surface water interactions in the Des Moines River valley, southwestern Minnesota, 1997-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowdery, Timothy K.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term withdrawals of water for public supplies may cause a net decrease in ground-water discharge to surface water. Water that does not evaporate, or that is not exported, is discharged to the Des Moines River but with changed water quality. Because ground-water and surface-water qualities in the study area are similar, the ground-water discharge probably has little effect on river water quality.

  3. Comparison between agricultural and urban ground-water quality in the Mobile River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, James L.

    2003-01-01

    . Samples from 8 of the agricultural wells and all 30 urban wells were age dated using analyses of chlorofluorocarbon, sulfur hexafluoride, and dissolved gases. Ground water sampled from the agricultural wells ranged in age from about 14 to 34 years, with a median age of about 18.5 years. Ground water sampled from the urban wells ranged in age from about 1 to 45 years, with a median age of about 12 years. The ages estimated for the ground water are consistent with the geology and hydrology of the study area and the design of the wells. All of the agricultural and urban wells sampled for this study produce water from the shallow aquifer that overlies and recharges the Black Warrior River aquifer, or from the uppermost unit of the Black Warrior River aquifer. The wells are located in the same physiographic setting, have similar depths, and the water collected from the wells had a similar range in age. Statistically significant differences in ground-water quality beneath the agricultural and urban areas can reasonably be attributed to the effects of land use. Ground water from the agricultural wells typically had acidic pH values and low specific conductance and alkalinity values. The water contained few dissolved solids, and typically had small concentrations of ions. Some of the agricultural ground-water contained concentrations of ammonia, nitrite plus nitrate, phosphorus, orthophosphate, and dissolved organic carbon in concentrations that exceeded those typically found in ground water. Pesticides were detected in ground water collected from 25 of the 29 agricultural wells. Nineteen different pesticide compounds were detected a total of 83 times. Herbicides were the most frequently detected class of pesticides. The greatest concentration of any pesticide was an estimated value of 1.4 microgram per liter of fluometuron. The Wilcoxan rank sum test was used to determine statistically significant differences in water quality between the agricultural and urba

  4. Ground-Water Quality Reconnaissance, Tutuila, American Samoa, 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyre, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    In May and July 1989, 19 ground-water samples were collected from 17 of the 35 water-supply wells on the island of Tutuila, American Samoa. Samples were analyzed for temperature, pH, hardness, specific conductance, turbidity, total and fecal coliform bacteria, major ions, major nutrients, 12 common metals, and 66 organic compounds. Chemical analysis of the water samples shows that, after chlorination, sampled ground water was in compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water regulations. Fourteen of the 19 samples were collected before the water was chlorinated in the water distribution system, and five were collected after chlorination. Seven of the 14 unchlorinated samples contained coliform bacteria and five of the seven contained fecal coliform bacteria, indicating potential contamination from disease-causing pathogens. All five of the chlorinated samples contained trace levels of trihalomethanes, but at concentrations below U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels. Trihalomethanes were the only organic constituents detected. Concentrations of total dissolved solids in the 19 samples ranged from about 100 to 2,400 milligrams per liter. Four samples had concentrations of total dissolved solids and chloride that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water regulations of 500 and 250 milligrams per liter, respectively. For samples with less than 300 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate were the dominant ions, indicating that they were derived from dissolution of minerals and carbon-dioxide enrichment of recharge water. For samples with greater than 300 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, sodium and chloride were the dominant ions, indicating increased mixing of ground water with seawater.

  5. Ground-water resources of the Clatsop Plains sand-dune area, Clatsop County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.

    1970-01-01

    Although the average annual precipitation of the Clatsop Plains is 78.5 inches, the area is not without problems of water supply. The Clatsop Plains area ix underlain by Tertiary bedrock of low permeability that stores and yields small quantities of ground water, which may be of poor chemical quality. This Tertiary bedrock furnishes only minor ground-water discharge to maintain the base flow of streams. The flow of rivers and creeks, normally abundant during the wet season, decreases greatly during the dry summer months. The lowlands are overlain by extensive deposits of dune and beach sand. The dune sand is permeable and can absorb and store, as fresh water, a large percentage of the annual precipitation. In the central part of the dune area, the saturated thickness of the sand ranges from 95 to more than 150 feet. Most of the ground water in the sand discharges to the ocean through beach-line seeps and underflow. Much of the water now being discharged to the ocean could be recovered by pumping from properly located, designed, and constructed wells. Three test wells drilled as part of this study are capable of yielding 100 gallons per minute although they are equipped with only short lengths of well screen. It is estimated that 2,500 acre-feet of ground water per year per square mile of area may be available for withdrawal in the 10 square mile area that is most favorable for development. The water from the dune sand is soft to moderately hard, has a low chloride concentration, and is of generally good chemical quality; however, at places it is weakly acidic and contains sufficient dissolved iron to make iron removal necessary for some uses. Ground water from shallow depths beneath a few swampy low-lying areas is brown and contains excessive concentrations of iron.

  6. Vulnerability of ground water to contamination, northern Bexar County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Amy R.

    2003-01-01

    The Trinity aquifer, composed of Lower Cretaceous carbonate rocks, largely controls the ground-water hydrology in the study area of northern Bexar County, Texas. Discharge from the Trinity aquifer recharges the downgradient, hydraulically connected Edwards aquifer one of the most permeable and productive aquifers in the Nation and the sole source of water for more than a million people in south-central Texas. The unconfined, karstic outcrop of the Edwards aquifer makes it particularly vulnerable to contamination resulting from urbanization that is spreading rapidly northward across an "environmentally sensitive" recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer and its upgradient "catchment area," composed mostly of the less permeable Trinity aquifer.A better understanding of the Trinity aquifer is needed to evaluate water-management decisions affecting the quality of water in both the Trinity and Edwards aquifers. A study was made, therefore, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System to assess northern Bexar County's vulnerability to ground-water contamination. The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in this area varies with the effects of five categories of natural features (hydrogeologic units, faults, caves and (or) sinkholes, slopes, and soils) that occur on the outcrop and in the shallow subcrop of the Glen Rose Limestone.Where faults affect the rates of recharge or discharge or the patterns of ground-water flow in the Glen Rose Limestone, they likewise affect the risk of water-quality degradation. Caves and sinkholes generally increase the vulnerability of ground water to contamination, especially where their occurrences are concentrated. The slope of land surface can affect the vulnerability of ground water by controlling where and how long a potential contaminant remains on the surface. Disregarding the exception of steep slopes which are assumed to have no soil cover the greater the slope, the less the risk of ground-water contamination. Because most

  7. Ground water flow modeling with sensitivity analyses to guide field data collection in a mountain watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.

    2007-01-01

    In mountain watersheds, the increased demand for clean water resources has led to an increased need for an understanding of ground water flow in alpine settings. In Prospect Gulch, located in southwestern Colorado, understanding the ground water flow system is an important first step in addressing metal loads from acid-mine drainage and acid-rock drainage in an area with historical mining. Ground water flow modeling with sensitivity analyses are presented as a general tool to guide future field data collection, which is applicable to any ground water study, including mountain watersheds. For a series of conceptual models, the observation and sensitivity capabilities of MODFLOW-2000 are used to determine composite scaled sensitivities, dimensionless scaled sensitivities, and 1% scaled sensitivity maps of hydraulic head. These sensitivities determine the most important input parameter(s) along with the location of observation data that are most useful for future model calibration. The results are generally independent of the conceptual model and indicate recharge in a high-elevation recharge zone as the most important parameter, followed by the hydraulic conductivities in all layers and recharge in the next lower-elevation zone. The most important observation data in determining these parameters are hydraulic heads at high elevations, with a depth of less than 100 m being adequate. Evaluation of a possible geologic structure with a different hydraulic conductivity than the surrounding bedrock indicates that ground water discharge to individual stream reaches has the potential to identify some of these structures. Results of these sensitivity analyses can be used to prioritize data collection in an effort to reduce time and money spend by collecting the most relevant model calibration data.

  8. Nutrients in ground water and surface water of the United States; an analysis of data through 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, D.K.; Hamilton, P.A.; Helsel, D.R.; Hitt, K.J.; Ruddy, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    related to interspersion of pasture and woodland with cropland in agricultural areas. Elevated nitrate concentrations in areas of more homogeneous cropland probably were a result of intensive nitrogen fertilizer application on large tracts of land. Certain regions of the United States seemed more vulnerable to nitrate contamination of ground water in agricultural areas. Regions of greater vulnerability included parts of the Northeast, Midwest, and West Coast. The well-drained soils, typical in these regions, have little capacity to hold water and nutrients; therefore, these soils receive some of the largest applications of fertilizer and irrigation in the Nation. The agricultural land is intensively cultivated for row crops, with little interspersion of pasture and woodland. Nutrient concentrations in surface water also were generally related to land use. Nitrate concentrations were highest in samples from sites downstream from agricultural or urban areas. However, concentrations were not as high as in ground water and rarely exceeded the drinking-water standard. Elevated concentrations of nitrate in surface water of the Northeastern United States might be related to large amounts of atmospheric deposition (acid rain). High concentrations in parts of the Midwest might be related to tile drainage of agricultural fields. Ammonia and phosphorus concentrations were highest downstream from urban areas. These concentrations generally were high enough to warrant concerns about toxicity to fish and accelerated eutrophication. Recent improvements in wastewater treatment have decreased ammonia concentrations downstream from some urban areas, but the result has been an increase in nitrate concentrations. Information on environmental factors that affect water quality is useful to identify drainage basins throughout the Nation with the greatest vulnerability for nutrient contamination and to delineate areas where ground-water or surface-water contamination is most likely to oc

  9. Ground water in Juab, Millard, and Iron Counties, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinzer, Oscar Edward

    1911-01-01

    Location and extent of area - Juab, Millard, and Iron counties lie in western Utah, and, with the exception of a small part of Iron County, are entirely within the Great Basin. (See fig. 1.) They comprise about 13,650 square miles, of which approximately 3,500 belong to Juab, 6,775 to Millard, and 3,375 to Iron County. Beaver County, which lies between Millard and Iron counties, is not discussed in this paper because its water resources have been described by W. T. Lee, of the United States Geological Survey, in Water-Supply Paper 217.Purpose of investigation - The investigation was begun in the summer of 1908, under cooperative agreement between the Director of the United States Geological Survey and Caleb Tanner, State engineer of Utah, the object of the work being to obtain and disseminate information which should lead to a greater utilization of the ground-water supplies. The agricultural development of an arid section, such as this, is primarily dependent on the amount of water available. Large tracts of fertile soil remain idle year after year for lack of water for irrigation, while much water that falls as rain and snow sinks into the ground, saturates the porous materials underlying the valleys and deserts, and eventually reappears at the surface in low alkali flats, where it is dissipated by evaporation without producing useful vegetation. If the water thus lost can be applied to fertile soil it will substantially increase the agricultural yield of the region. An urgent demand for information in regard to ground-water prospects has been created in recent years by the adoption of dry farming methods in localities where water is not readily obtained. The water required for culinary purposes and for supplying the horses and traction engines used in tilling the soil on some of the dry farms is at present hauled long distances. In most of the arid parts of this region watering places of any sort are so scarce that certain sections are accessible for grazing

  10. Ground-water availability on the Kitsap Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Arnold J.; Bolke, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Unconsolidated deposits on the Kitsap Peninsula, Wash., are of glacial and interglacial origin. These deposits were divided into three units based on lithology and hydraulic properties. Two of the three units are composed of layers of sand and gravel , and silt and clay. The third unit consists of silt and clay and in most places separates the other two units. Water-bearing strata in the upper unit are fairly continuous and average 15 feet in thickness. The lower water-bearing strata are not believed to be as continuous as those in the upper unit, but yield larger quantities of water to wells. The silt-and-clay unit averages 70 feet in thickness, occurs generally near sea level, and is not known to contain major water-bearing deposits. The average annual ground-water recharge to streams on the Kitsap Peninsula was estimated to be 17 times the 1975 annual ground-water pumpage for the peninsula. Some, but an unknown amount, of this water is available for increased withdrawal by wells. Increased withdrawals cause decreased streamflow, declining water levels, and increased seawater contamination. There appears to be no widespread seawater contamination of wells in the study area. Local areas where chloride concentrations from wells exceed 25 milligrams per liter are near the southern part of the Longbranch Peninsula, Horsehead Bay, Point Evans, Sinclair Inlet, Eagle Harbor, Fletcher Bay, the northern end of Bainbridge Island, and the northern tip of the Kitsap Peninsula. (USGS)

  11. Characterizing a ground water basin in a new England mountain and valley terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiedeman, Claire R.; Goode, Daniel J.; Hsieh, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    A ground water basin is defined as the volume of subsurface through which ground water flows from the water table to a specified discharge location. Delineating the topographically defined surface water basin and extending it vertically downward does not always define the ground water basin. Instead, a ground water basin is more appropriately delineated by tracking ground water flowpaths with a calibrated, three-dimensional ground water flow model. To determine hydrologic and chemical budgets of the basin, it is also necessary to quantify flow through each hydrogeologic unit in the basin. In particular, partitioning ground water flow through unconsolidated deposits versus bedrock is of significant interest to hillslope hydrologic studies. To address these issues, a model is developed and Calibrated to simulate ground water flow through glacial deposits and fractured crystalline bedrock in the vicinity of Mirror Lake, New Hampshire. Tracking of ground water flowpaths suggests that Mirror Lake and its inlet streams drain a ground water recharge area that is about 1.5 times the area of the surface water basin. Calculation of the ground water budget suggests that, of the recharge that enters the Mirror Lake ground water basin, about 40% travels through the basin along flowpaths that stay exclusively in the glacial deposits, and about 60% travels along flowpaths that involve movement in bedrock.A ground water basin is defined as the volume of subsurface through which ground water flows from the water table to a specified discharge location. Delineating the topographically defined surface water basin and extending it vertically downward does not always define the ground water basin. Instead, a ground water basin is more appropriately delineated by tracking ground water flowpaths with a calibrated, three-dimensional ground water flow model. To determine hydrologic and chemical budgets of the basin, it is also necessary to quantify flow through each hydrogeologic unit in

  12. Arsenic in ground water in Huron County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Rachol, Cynthia M.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies of ground-water resources in Michigan by the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH), the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) indicate that in several counties in the southeastern part of the State the concentrations of arsenic in ground water may exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 50 micrograms per liter [µg/L]. This MCL was established in 1986. The Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1996, requires USEPA to revise this standard in 2000. In June 2000, the USEPA proposed a revised MCL of 5 µg/L. In 1996, the USGS, in cooperation with the MDEQ and the Health Departments of Genesee, Huron, Lapeer, Livingston, Oakland, Sanilac, Shiawassee, Tuscola and Washtenaw counties, began a study of the factors controlling arsenic occurrence and concentrations in ground water in southeastern Michigan. This study is one of four USGS Drinking Water Initiative projects throughout the United States.

  13. Arsenic in ground water in Livingston County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Rachol, Cynthia M.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies of ground-water resources in Michigan by the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH), the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) indicate that in several counties in the southeastern part of the State the concentrations of arsenic in ground water may exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 50 micrograms per liter [µg/L]. This MCL was established in 1986. The Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1996, requires USEPA to revise this standard in 2000. In June 2000, the USEPA proposed a revised MCL of 5 µg/L. In 1996, the USGS, in cooperation with the MDEQ and the Health Departments of Genesee, Huron, Lapeer, Livingston, Oakland, Sanilac, Shiawassee, Tuscola and Washtenaw counties, began a study of the factors controlling arsenic occurrence and concentrations in ground water in southeastern Michigan. This study is one of four USGS Drinking Water Initiative projects throughout the United States.

  14. Arsenic in ground water in Tuscola County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Rachol, Cynthia M.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies of ground-water resources in Michigan by the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH), the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) indicate that in several counties in the southeastern part of the State the concentrations of arsenic in ground water may exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 50 micrograms per liter [µg/L]. This MCL was established in 1986. The Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1996, requires USEPA to revise this standard in 2000. In June 2000, the USEPA proposed a revised MCL of 5 µg/L. In 1996, the USGS, in cooperation with the MDEQ and the Health Departments of Genesee, Huron, Lapeer, Livingston, Oakland, Sanilac, Shiawassee, Tuscola and Washtenaw counties, began a study of the factors controlling arsenic occurrence and concentrations in ground water in southeastern Michigan. This study is one of four USGS Drinking Water Initiative projects throughout the United States.

  15. Arsenic in ground water in Sanilac County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Rachol, Cynthia M.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies of ground-water resources in Michigan by the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH), the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) indicate that in several counties in the southeastern part of the State the concentrations of arsenic in ground water may exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 50 micrograms per liter [µg/L]. This MCL was established in 1986. The Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1996, requires USEPA to revise this standard in 2000. In June 2000, the USEPA proposed a revised MCL of 5 µg/L. In 1996, the USGS, in cooperation with the MDEQ and the Health Departments of Genesee, Huron, Lapeer, Livingston, Oakland, Sanilac, Shiawassee, Tuscola and Washtenaw counties, began a study of the factors controlling arsenic occurrence and concentrations in ground water in southeastern Michigan. This study is one of four USGS Drinking Water Initiative projects throughout the United States.

  16. Arsenic in ground water in Lapeer County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Rachol, Cynthia M.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies of ground-water resources in Michigan by the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH), the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) indicate that in several counties in the southeastern part of the State the concentrations of arsenic in ground water may exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 50 micrograms per liter [μg/I.]. This MCL was established in 1986. The Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1996, requires USEPA to revise this standard in 2000. In June 2000, the USEPA proposed a revised MCL of 5 μg/L. In 1996, the USGS, in cooperation with the MDEQ and the Health Departments of Genesee, Huron, Lapeer, Livingston, Oakland, Sanilac, Shiawassee, Tuscola and Washtenaw counties, began a study of the factors controlling arsenic occurrence and concentrations in ground water in southeastern Michigan. This study is one of four USGS Drinking Water Initiative projects throughout the United States.

  17. Arsenic in ground water in Washtenaw County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Rachol, Cynthia M.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies of ground-water resources in Michigan by the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH), the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) indicate that in several counties in the southeastern part of the State the concentrations of arsenic in ground water may exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 50 micrograms per liter [µg/L]. This MCL was established in 1986. The Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1996, requires USEPA to revise this standard in 2000. In June 2000, the USEPA proposed a revised MCL of 5 µg/L. In 1996, the USGS, in cooperation with the MDEQ and the Health Departments of Genesee, Huron, Lapeer, Livingston, Oakland, Sanilac, Shiawassee, Tuscola and Washtenaw counties, began a study of the factors controlling arsenic occurrence and concentrations in ground water in southeastern Michigan. This study is one of four USGS Drinking Water Initiative projects throughout the United States.

  18. Arsenic in ground water in Shiawassee County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Rachol, Cynthia M.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies of ground-water resources in Michigan by the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH), the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) indicate that in several counties in the southeastern part of the State the concentrations of arsenic in ground water may exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 50 micrograms per liter [µg/L]. This MCL was established in 1986. The Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1996, requires USEPA to revise this standard in 2000. In June 2000, the USEPA proposed a revised MCL of 5 µg/L. In 1996, the USGS, in cooperation with the MDEQ and the Health Departments of Genesee, Huron, Lapeer, Livingston, Oakland, Sanilac, Shiawassee, Tuscola and Washtenaw counties, began a study of the factors controlling arsenic occurrence and concentrations in ground water in southeastern Michigan. This study is one of four USGS Drinking Water Initiative projects throughout the United States.

  19. Arsenic in ground water in Genesee County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Rachol, Cynthia M.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies of ground-water resources in Michigan by the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH), the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) indicate that in several counties in the southeastern part of the State the concentrations of arsenic in ground water may exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 50 micrograms per liter [µg/L]. This MCL was established in 1986. The Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1996, requires USEPA to revise this standard in 2000. In June 2000, the USEPA proposed a revised MCL of 5 µg/L. In 1996, the USGS, in cooperation with the MDEQ and the Health Departments of Genesee, Huron, Lapeer, Livingston, Oakland, Sanilac, Shiawassee, Tuscola and Washtenaw counties, began a study of the factors controlling arsenic occurrence and concentrations in ground water in southeastern Michigan. This study is one of four USGS Drinking Water Initiative projects throughout the United States.

  20. Ground-water supplies in the Murfreesboro area, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rima, Donald Robert; Moran, Mary S.; Woods, E. Jean

    1977-01-01

    Ground water occurs in the Murfreesboro area in solution openings in the otherwise dense paleozoic limestones that underlie most of central Tennessee. Test drilling based on conceptual models of ground-water occurrence in carbonate-rock aquifers indicate that multimillion-gallon-per-day supplies could be developed from strategically located production wells in the Shiloh and Overall Creek localities. The Shiloh locality which encompasses an elongated synclinal depression in the bedrock has the potential to supply 5 to 8 million gallons per day. The Overall Creek locality which straddles a joint-oriented lineament has the potential to supply 3 to 6 million gallons per day. Some local springs could be used as a supplemental source of potable water, but storage facilities would be needed to offset poorly sustained flows during dry periods. An exception is Fox Camp Spring which appears to be a natural well. The quality of ground water in the Murfreesboro area is typically hard, moderately mineralized and moderately to highly alkaline. Although the shallowest aquifers are subject to bacterial contamination from the land surface, aquifers beneath a depth of 100 feet are prone to yield potable water. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Chemical reactions simulated by ground-water-quality models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grove, David B.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    Recent literature concerning the modeling of chemical reactions during transport in ground water is examined with emphasis on sorption reactions. The theory of transport and reactions in porous media has been well documented. Numerous equations have been developed from this theory, to provide both continuous and sequential or multistep models, with the water phase considered for both mobile and immobile phases. Chemical reactions can be either equilibrium or non-equilibrium, and can be quantified in linear or non-linear mathematical forms. Non-equilibrium reactions can be separated into kinetic and diffusional rate-limiting mechanisms. Solutions to the equations are available by either analytical expressions or numerical techniques. Saturated and unsaturated batch, column, and field studies are discussed with one-dimensional, laboratory-column experiments predominating. A summary table is presented that references the various kinds of models studied and their applications in predicting chemical concentrations in ground waters.

  2. Ground water modeling applications using the analytic element method.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Randall J

    2006-01-01

    Though powerful and easy to use, applications of the analytic element method are not as widespread as finite-difference or finite-element models due in part to their relative youth. Although reviews that focus primarily on the mathematical development of the method have appeared in the literature, a systematic review of applications of the method is not available. An overview of the general types of applications of analytic elements in ground water modeling is provided in this paper. While not fully encompassing, the applications described here cover areas where the method has been historically applied (regional, two-dimensional steady-state models, analyses of ground water-surface water interaction, quick analyses and screening models, wellhead protection studies) as well as more recent applications (grid sensitivity analyses, estimating effective conductivity and dispersion in highly heterogeneous systems). The review of applications also illustrates areas where more method development is needed (three-dimensional and transient simulations).

  3. Occurrence of microbial indicators in various ground water sources

    SciTech Connect

    Shadix, L.C.; Newport, B.S.; Crout, S.R.; Lieberman, R.J.

    1996-11-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF) have been collaborating in an ongoing study to research the application of molecular biology techniques versus conventional techniques for monitoring and consequently to obtain ground water microbial occurrence data. The bacterial assays described below were performed during the course of the USEPA/AWWARF study in addition to enteric virus, bacteriophage and Legionella assays to provide occurrence information and also to investigate the potential use of fecal indicator organisms as surrogates for enteric viruses. This paper presents occurrence data obtained for total coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), fecal enterococci and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) bacteria from samples collected at thirty public ground water supplies.

  4. GWERD Overview: U.S. EPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) conducts research and provides technical assistance to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted by man-made and natural...

  5. Geology and ground-water resources of Hays County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeCook, Kenneth James

    1963-01-01

    Ground water from wells in the Pearsall formation generally contains less than 500 parts per million of dissolved solids. Water from the Glen Rose limestone in some places contains more than 500 parts per million of sulfate and more than 1,000 parts per million of dissolved solids; locally it is high in nitrate also. Except in the southeastern part of the county, water from the Edwards limestone is commonly very hard but is otherwise of good quality for most uses. Analyses of two water samples from the Austin chalk indicate a high content of bicarbonate. Water from the Taylor marl and from Quaternary sediments generally is hard, and locally it contains excessive nitrate. Most wells in Hays County are used for domestic and stock supplies. About 20 wells, most of them in the Edwards limestone, yield water in relatively large amounts for industrial use, irrigation, or public supplies.

  6. A guide for using the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blainey, Joan B.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Hill, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  7. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  8. Geology and ground-water resources of southeastern New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Edward

    1964-01-01

    The continued growth and development of southeastern New Hampshire, an area of about 390 square miles adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean, will depend partly on effectively satisfying the demand for water, which has increased rapidly since World War II. The report identifies and describes the principal geologic units with respect to the occurrence of ground water. These units include bedrock and the various unconsolidated deposits that mantle the bedrock surface discontinuously throughout the area. The bedrock formations, consisting of igneous and metamorphic rocks, chiefly of Paleozoic age, form a single water-bearing unit. Ground water is in joints and fractures. The fractures are small and scattered and therefore impart only a low permeability to the rocks. Wells in the bedrock commonly produce small but reliable supplies of ground water at depths of less than 150 feet. The yields of about 80 wells inventoried for this report ranged from 1? to 100 gpm (gallons per minute) and the median was 912 gpm. Depths ranged from 45 to 600 feet. The unconsolidated deposits consist of glacial drift of Pleistocene age; swamp deposits, alluvium, and beach deposits of Recent age; and eolian deposits of Pleistocene -and Recent age. For this report the glacial drift is divided into till, ice-contact deposits, marine deposits, and outwash and shore deposits. Glacial till forms a discontinuous blanket, commonly less than 15 but in some hills (drumlins) as much as about 200 feet thick. It has a low permeability but, because of its widespread outcrop area, it has been utilized as a source of water for numerous domestic supplies. Because most wells in till are shallow, many fail to meet modern demands during dry summers. Ice-contact deposits locally form kames, kame terraces, kame plains, and ice-channel fillings throughout the area. They overlie bedrock and till and range in thickness from less than 1 foot to as much as 190 feet. In general, the ice-contact deposits are coarse textured

  9. Geology and ground-water resources of Hale County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, J.G.; Wells, Lloyd C.

    1963-01-01

    It is estimated that in 1955 about 39 million acre-feet of water was in storage in the Ogallala formation in Hale County; however, only about 16 million is theoretically available to wells, and a somewhat smaller amount is practically available. About 3 million acre-feet was removed from storage during 1938-55. Water levels in wells have declined more or less steadily since 1938, and it is apparent that the ground-water resources of the county are insufficient to support large-scale perennial irrigation such as that of 1955.

  10. Geology and ground-water resources of Uvalde County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welder, F.A.; Reeves, R.D.

    1964-01-01

    Ground-water withdrawals from the Edwards and associated limestones in Uvalde County probably could be maintained indefinitely at a rate of about 200,000 acre-feet per year, provided that withdrawals north and west of the county were not increased. However, continued withdrawals at this rate-would cause wells in structurally high areas to go dry, and underflow into Medina County would cease. Furthermore, saline water might invade the fresh-water part of the aquifer from the south, and perennial spring flow in the Leona River valley would cease.

  11. Ground-water geology of Grayson County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, E.T.

    1963-01-01

    The ground-water resources of Grayson County have been only partly developed. The volume of fresh water in transient storage in the Trinity group and Woodbine formation is estimated to be about 60 and 25 million acre-feet, respectively. Most of this water is not practicably recoverable because of the depth at which it occurs, but relatively high artesian heads and large available drawdowns in much of the county are favorable to future development within economic limits of pumping lift. In the Sherma

  12. Ground-water-quality and ground-water-level data, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico, 1990-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kues, G.E.; Garcia, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-water-quality and ground-water-level data were collected in four unincorporated areas of Bernalillo County during 1990-93. Twenty wells in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County were sampled approximately monthly between January 1990 and June 1993. The water samples were analyzed for concentrations of chloride and selected nutrient species; many of the samples also were analyzed for concentrations of total organic carbon and dissolved boron and iron. Eleven wells northeast of the city of Albuquerque, 20 wells in the Rio Grande Valley immediately north of Albuquerque, and 30 wells in the Rio Grande Valley immediately south of Albuquerque were sampled once each between December 1992 and September 1993; all water samples were analyzed for chloride and selected nutrient species, and selected samples from wells in the north and south valley areas were also analyzed for major dissolved constituents, iron, manganese, and methylene blue active substances. Samples from 10 of the wells in the north and south valley areas were analyzed for 47 selected pesticides. Field measurements of specific conductance, pH, temperature, and alkalinity were made on most samples at the time of sample collection. Water levels also were measured at the time of sample collection when possible. Results of the monthly water-quality and water-level monitoring in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County are presented in graphical form. Water-quality and water-level data collected from the other areas are presented in tabular form.

  13. Ground-water resources of Catron County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basabilvazo, G.T.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground-water and related surface-water resources in Catron County, the largest county in New Mexico. The county is located in the Lower Colorado River Basin and the Rio Grande Basin, and the Continental Divide is the boundary between the two river basins. Increases in water used for mining activities (coal, mineral, and geothermal), irrigated agriculture, reservoir construction, or domestic purposes could affect the quantity or quality of ground- water and surface-water resources in the county. Parts of seven major drainage basins are within the two regional river basins in the county--Carrizo Wash, North Plains, Rio Salado, San Agustin, Alamosa Creek, Gila, and San Francisco Basins. The San Francisco, Gila, and Tularosa Rivers typically flow perennially. During periods of low flow, most streamflow is derived from baseflow. The stream channels of the Rio Salado and Carrizo Wash Basins are commonly perennial in their upper reaches and ephemeral in their lower reaches. Largo Creek in the Carrizo Wash Basin is perennial downstream from Quemado Lake and ephemeral in the lower reaches. Aquifers in Catron County include Quaternary alluvium and bolson fill; Quaternary to Tertiary Gila Conglomerate; Tertiary Bearwallow Mountain Andesite, Datil Group, and Baca Formation; Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, Crevasse Canyon Formation, Gallup Sandstone, Mancos Shale, and Dakota Sandstone; Triassic Chinle Formation; and undifferentiated rocks of Permian age. Water in the aquifers in the county generally is unconfined; however, confined conditions may exist where the aquifers are overlain by other units of lower permeability. Yields of ground water from the Quaternary alluvium in the county range from 1 to 375 gallons per minute. Yields of ground water from the alluvium in the Carrizo Wash Basin are as much as 250 gallons per minute for short time periods. North of the Plains of San Agustin, ground-water yields from the

  14. Water resources data, Iowa, water year 2001, Volume 2. surface water--Missouri River basin, and ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nalley, G.M.; Gorman, J.G.; Goodrich, R.D.; Miller, V.E.; Turco, M.J.; Linhart, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State, county, municipal, and other Federal agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Iowa each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make this data readily available to interested parties outside of the Geological Survey, the data is published annually in this report series entitled “Water Resources Data - Iowa” as part of the National Water Data System. Water resources data for water year 2001 for Iowa consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report, in two volumes, contains stage or discharge records for 132 gaging stations; stage records for 9 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records for 4 gaging stations; sediment records for 13 gaging stations; and water levels for 163 ground-water observation wells. Also included are peak-flow data for 92 crest-stage partial-record stations, water-quality data from 86 municipal wells, and precipitation data collected at 6 gaging stations and 2 precipitation sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published here as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Iowa.Records of discharge or stage of streams, and contents or stage of lakes and reservoirs were first published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey water-supply papers entitled “Surface Water Supply of the United States.” Through September 30, 1960, these water-supply papers were published in an annual series; during 1961-65 and 1966-70, they

  15. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbert, L.R.; Garrett, R.B.; Gerhart, E.C.; Steiger, Judy I.; Appel, Cynthia L.; Jensen, V.L.; Enright, Michael; Dubois, S.K.; Emett, D.C.; Guhman, A.I.; Neff, L.J.; Sultz, L.G.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    This is the seventeenth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1979. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1979 to spring 1980. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  16. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1972

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumison, C.T.; Bjorklund, L.J.; McGreevy, L.J.; Bolke, E.L.; Mower, R.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Miller, L. L.; Butler, R.G.; Adams, D.B.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1972-01-01

    This report is the ninth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series are prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources and are designed to provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 19), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1971. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1971 to spring 1972. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  17. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordy, Gail E.; Smith, G.J.; Roark, D. Michael; Lambert, Patrick M.; Yarbrough, John A.; Burden, Carole B.; Garrett, R.B.; Emett, D.C.; Thiros, Susan A.; Sandberg, G.W.; Puchta, R.W

    1988-01-01

    This is the twenty-fifth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals from wells, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1987. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described from the spring of 1987 to the spring of 1988. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  18. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Don; Jibson, W.N.; Contratto, P. Kay; Mower, R.W.; Steiger, Judy I.; Jensen, V.L.; ReMillard, M.D.; Emett, D.C.; Sumison, C.T.; Carroll, P.A.; Neff, L.J.; Sandberg, G.W.; Herbert, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report is the sixteenth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1978. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1978 to spring 1979. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  19. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1973

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolke, E.L.; Bjorklund, L.J.; McGreevy, L.J.; Mower, R.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Miller, L. L.; Butler, R.G.; Sandberg, G.W.; Adams, D.B.

    1973-01-01

    This report is the tenth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series are prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources and are designed to provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 25), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1972 and for the 10-year period 1963-72. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the periods spring 1972 to spring 1973 and spring 1963 to spring 1973. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  20. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, Jerry C.; Bjorklund, L.J.; Bolke, E.L.; Mower, R.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Cordova, R.M.; Butler, R.G.; Sandberg, G.W.; Sumison, C.T.

    1974-01-01

    This report is the eleventh in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 18), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1973. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1973 to spring 1974. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  1. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumison, C.T.; Jibson, W.N.; Bolke, E.L.; Mower, R.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Cordova, R.M.; Jensen, V.L.; ReMillard, M.D.; Sandberg, G.W.; Bjorklund, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    This report is the thirteenth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 16), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1975. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1975 to spring 1976. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  2. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, Joseph S.; Jibson, W.N.; Herbert, L.R.; Mower, R.W.; Razem, A.C.; Cordova, R.M.; Jensen, V.L.; ReMillard, M.D.; Emett, D.C.; Sumison, C.T.; Carroll, P.A.; DeGrand, M.J.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1978-01-01

    This report is the fifteenth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see References, p. 13), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1977. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1977 to spring 1978. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  3. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbert, L.R.; Bischoff, D.A.; Smith, Melanie E.; Gerhart, E.C.; Steiger, Judy I.; Appel, Cynthia L.; Jensen, V.L.; Enright, Michael; Allen, David; Emett, D.C.; Sandberg, G.W.; Beard, R.C.; Sultz, L.G.; Eckenwiler, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    This is the eighteenth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals from wells, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1980. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1980 to spring 1981. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  4. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, James L.; Smith, G.J.; Roark, D. Michael; Lambert, Patrick M.; Jensen, V.L.; Wilberg, Dale E.; Burden, Carole B.; Garrett, R.B.; Emett, D.C.; Duncanson, Susan; Sandberg, G.W.; Puchta, R.W; Herbert, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    This is the twenty-third in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals from wells, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1985. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described from the spring of 1985 to the spring of 1986. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  5. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilberg, Dale E.; Smith, G.J.; Roark, D. Michael; Lambert, Patrick M.; Jensen, V.L.; Cordy, Gail E.; Burden, Carole B.; Enright, Michael; Emett, D.C.; Thiros, Susan A.; Sandberg, G.W.; Puchta, R.W; Herbert, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    This is the twenty-fourth in a Series of annual reports that describe ground-water Conditions in Utah. Reports in the series, prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well Construction, ground-water withdrawals from wells, Water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of Water and maps showing water-level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of Selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1986. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for spring 1986 to spring 1987. Much of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  6. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eychaner, James H.; Jibson, W.N.; Bolke, E.L.; Mower, R.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Cordova, R.M.; Jensen, V.L.; ReMillard, M.D.; Sandberg, G.W.; Sumison, C.T.; Bjorklund, L.J.

    1975-01-01

    This report is the twelfth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 16), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1974. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1974 to spring 1975. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  7. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolke, E.L.; Jibson, W.N.; Mower, R.W.; Razem, A.C.; Cordova, R.M.; Jensen, V.L.; ReMillard, M.D.; Sandberg, G.W.; Sumison, C.T.; Herbert, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    This report is the fourteenth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 16), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1976. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1976 to spring 1977. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  8. Options for modeling ground water pollution potential by dissolved chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, William A.; Tseng, Peng-Hsiang

    A common characteristic of virtually all forms of non-point source pollutants is that they move downward through the soil under the influence of erratic and generally unsaturated water flow. As a consequence, both soil-water flow and solute-transport properties must be known to model the event on a field or larger scale. The extensive spatial variability of these properties make deterministic modeling unfeasible at this scale, necessitating some form of approximate stochastic approach that extrapolates from limited samples of properties and input parameters. There are a number of options for exercising this strategy, but most of them involve using a local-model representation that is averaged over the spatial domain in a statistical sense, by using a number of discrete one-dimensional simulations in parallel. With this strategy, the important question becomes what type of local model to use, and how complex to make it. This paper explores options for local representation in modeling the water flow regime, ranging from full simulation using the Richards flow equation, to steady flow using only the field-capacity estimate of water content. Simulations of flow and transport to ground water are run on a hypothetical field with variable climatic data and properties generated by geometric scaling theory, using data from 20 sites averaged in parallel to represent field-scale movement to ground water for a conservative and reactive chemical pulse. Although the transient-flow model is necessary to achieve accurate representation of the position of the pulse within the profile, mass loading of ground water was represented quite accurately with a simple flow regime assuming steady-state flow and uniform, water content. The field-capacity estimate was greatly out of agreement with the other methods, however.

  9. Water Level Detection in Silty Materials Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Siriwardane, Hema J.; Pyakurel, Sandeep; Kiriakidis, Ricardo; Ingram, Ronald

    2007-03-01

    Detection of water level in silty soils can be complicated because of capillary action. In this study, the water level in a silty soil sample was detected using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique in the laboratory. The soil sample has dimensions of 62 cm × 48 cm × 46 cm and was kept in a clear Plexiglas container which facilitated water level measurements. Two ground-coupled antennas with frequencies of 900 MHz and 1,500 MHz were used in this study. The soil sample was dry at the beginning of the experiment. The water level in the soil sample was raised to a pre-determined level and radar readings were taken at different times over 24 hours. The moisture content in the soil sample above the water level increased with time due to capillary action. At the end of the experiment, the variation of moisture content with depth of the sample was experimentally determined. The GPR observations were compared with measured water depth in the soil sample. The paper presents the comparison of water level as determined by GPR with the variation of experimentally determined moisture content in the silty soil sample. This study includes an investigation on the effects of capillary action on GPR measurements.

  10. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Caribbean region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Heisel, James E.

    1980-01-01

    Ground-water resources will continue to be important within the region. In order to meet future needs, it is necessary that hydrologic principles be applied in managing the total water resource. Optimal use of the water resources can be accomplished through conjunctive use of surface and ground waters and through conservation practices. Optimal use may involve artificial recharge, ground-water salvage, saline-ground-water mining, use of seawater, desalination of saline ground water, waste-water reuse, and use of underground space for temporary storage of wastes, which could otherwise contaminate valuable water supplies.

  11. Ground-water models for water resources planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, John E.

    1980-01-01

    In the past decade hydrologists have emphasized the development of computer-based mathematical models to aid in the understanding of flow, the transport of solutes, transport of heat, and deformation in the groundwater system. These models have been used to provide information and predictions for water managers. Too frequently, groundwater was neglected in water-resource planning because managers believed that it could not be adequately evaluated in terms of availability, quality, and effect of development on surface water supplies. Now, however, with newly developed digital groundwater models, effects of development can be predicted. Such models have been used to predict hydrologic and quality changes under different stresses. These models have grown in complexity over the last 10 years from simple one-layer flow models to three-dimensional simulations of groundwater flow which may include solute transport, heat transport, effects of land subsidence, and encroachment of salt water. This paper illustrates, through case histories, how predictive groundwater models have provided the information needed for the sound planning and management of water resources in the United States. (USGS)

  12. Hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the upper Wood River ground-water reservoir, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickerman, D.C.; Bell, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    The 72.4-square-mile Upper Wood River study area is in the Pawcatuck River basin in southern Rhode Island. Stratified drift is the only principal geologic unit capable of producing yields greater than 0.5 Mgal/d. Transmissivity of the aquifer ranges from 7,600 to 49,200 sq ft/d. Water-table conditions prevail and the aquifer is in good hydraulic connection with perennial streams and ponds. Groundwater and surface water in the study area are generally suitable for most uses. Water is soft, slightly acidic, and contains less than 150 mg/L dissolved solids. Locally, however, groundwater has been contaminated with nitrate, chloride, and volatile organic compounds. A model of the groundwater-flow system was used to evaluate the effect of alternative schemes of groundwater development on water levels, pond levels, and streamflow. Till contacts were simulated as specified-flux boundaries, drainage divides as no-flow boundaries, and streams as leaky boundaries. The areas most favorable for development of 1 Mgal/d are along the Flat and Wood Rivers. From 50 to 65 percent of the water withdrawn from wells would be derived from induced recharge. Results of simulation of development alternatives indicate that the groundwater reservoir could sustain withdrawals of 6 to 12 Mgal/d from 11 wells under long-term average annual (1942-89) and simulated drought (1963-66) conditions without causing water-level declines of greater than 25 percent of the unstressed saturated thickness of the aquifer. Pumping 12 Mgal/d, however, would reduce flow of the Wood River at the basin outlet by an amount almost equal to the 7-day, 10-yr low flow of 20.4 cu ft/s.

  13. The Ground and First Excited Torsional States of Acetic Acid.

    PubMed

    Ilyushin, V. V.; Alekseev, E. A.; Dyubko, S. F.; Podnos, S. V.; Kleiner, I.; Margulès, L.; Wlodarczak, G.; Demaison, J.; Cosléou, J.; Maté, B.; Karyakin, E. N.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Fraser, G. T.; Suenram, R. D.; Hougen, J. T.

    2001-02-01

    A global fit of microwave and millimeter-wave rotational transitions in the ground and first excited torsional states (v(t) = 0 and 1) of acetic acid (CH(3)COOH) is reported, which combines older measurements from the literature with new measurements from Kharkov, Lille, and NIST. The fit uses a model developed initially for acetaldehyde and methanol-type internal rotor molecules. It requires 34 parameters to achieve a unitless weighted standard deviation of 0.84 for a total of 2518 data and includes A- and E-species transitions with J

  14. Iodine Systematics in the Ground Water of a Natural Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, R.; Clark, I. D.; Kotzer, T.; Bottomley, D.

    2001-12-01

    The transport and partitioning of 129I has been examined for a shallowly circulating ground water system at Sturgeon Falls in eastern Ontario. Vertical recharge occurs in a sandy aquifer with a seasonally inundated boreal forest. Concentrations of stable iodine, 129I, and tritium were measured on samples of ground water, precipitation, and soil litter. The present-day tritium profile delineates the position of the early 1960's thermonuclear bomb-pulse at a depth approximately 12 m. The concentrations of stable iodine for ground waters above, near and below the present-day bomb pulse were largely invariant, at approximately 0.5 ppb, whereas 129I concentrations decreased from 1.9 x 106 atoms/L at 9 m, to approximately 1.9 x 105 atoms/L on tritium-depleted waters occurring below the present-day location of the recharging thermonuclear bomb-test peak at 35 m. No substantial increases in the levels of 129I were evident in waters sampled near the present-day location of the thermonuclear bomb peak. Along a 30 cm soil profile, the concentrations of 129I ranged from approximately 4.3 x 108 atoms/g in the uppermost soil litter layer to 5.6 x 107 atoms/g in the siltier bottom soil horizons. Over that same profile, stable iodine varied from 4.7 ppm in the upper layers to 3.9 ppm in the lower layers. Rao and Fehn, 1999, measured iodine and 129I levels in surface waters and soils in western New York. They found 129I concentrations ranging from 3.5 x 108 atoms/g to 7.1 x 1010 atoms/g in the upper most layers of their soil cores, depending on the site's proximity to a former nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Similarly, they noticed that the lower layers of their soil cores had 129I concentrations of at least an order of magnitude lower than the upper layers. It is proposed here that the levels of 129I in the deepest, tritium-depleted ground waters reflect the concentrations of 129I during the pre-thermonuclear testing period. However, the lower concentrations of 129I at Sturgeon

  15. High Plains Regional Ground-water Study web site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.

    2000-01-01

    Now available on the Internet is a web site for the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program- High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study. The purpose of the web site is to provide public access to a wide variety of information on the USGS investigation of the ground-water resources within the High Plains aquifer system. Typical pages on the web site include the following: descriptions of the High Plains NAWQA, the National NAWQA Program, the study-area setting, current and past activities, significant findings, chemical and ancillary data (which can be downloaded), listing and access to publications, links to other sites about the High Plains area, and links to other web sites studying High Plains ground-water resources. The High Plains aquifer is a regional aquifer system that underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States (Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming). Because the study area is so large, the Internet is an ideal way to provide project data and information on a near real-time basis. The web site will be a collection of living documents where project data and information are updated as it becomes available throughout the life of the project. If you have an interest in the High Plains area, you can check this site periodically to learn how the High Plains NAWQA activities are progressing over time and access new data and publications as they become available.

  16. Corrosiveness of ground water in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, J.L.; Kish, G.R.; Velnich, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water from the unconfined part of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the New Jersey Coastal Plain typically is corrosive-- that is, it is acidic, soft, and has low concentrations of alkalinity. Corrosive ground water has the potential to leach trace elements and asbestos fibers from plumbing materials used in potable- water systems, thereby causing potentially harmful concentrations of these substances in drinking water. Corrosion indices were calculated from water-quality data for 370 wells in the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. Values of the Langelier Saturation Index are predominantly negative, indicating that the water is undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate, and, therefore, is potentially corrosive. Values of the Aggressive Index, a similar estimator of the corrosiveness of water, range from 3.9 (highly corrosive) to 11.9 (moderately corrosive). The median Aggressive Index value calculated for the 370 wells is 6.0, a value that indicates that the water is highly corrosive. Moderately corrosive ground water is found in some coastal areas. Isolated instances of moderately corrosive water are found in northern Ocean County, and in Burlington, Camden, and Salem Counties. In the vicinity of Ocean County corrosion-index values change little with depth, but in Atlantic, Burlington, and Salem Counties the corrosiveness of ground water generally appears to decrease with depth. Analyses of standing tap water from newly constructed homes in the Coastal Plain show concentrations of lead and other trace elements are significantly higher than those in ambient ground water. The elevated trace-element concentrations are attributed to the corrosion of plumbing materials by ground water. Results of the tap-water analyses substantiate the corrosiveness of Kirkwood-Cohansey ground water, as estimated by corrosion-index values.

  17. Ground Water Arsenic Contamination: A Local Survey in India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun; Rahman, Md. Samiur; Iqubal, Md. Asif; Ali, Mohammad; Niraj, Pintoo Kumar; Anand, Gautam; Kumar, Prabhat; Abhinav; Ghosh, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the present times, arsenic poisoning contamination in the ground water has caused lots of health-related problems in the village population residing in middle Gangetic plain. In Bihar, about 16 districts have been reported to be affected with arsenic poisoning. For the ground water and health assessment, Simri village of Buxar district was undertaken which is a flood plain region of river Ganga. Methods: In this study, 322 water samples were collected for arsenic estimation, and their results were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between arsenic contamination in ground water with depth and its distance from river Ganga were analyzed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and total variation present in a set of data was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The difference among mean values has been analyzed by applying Dunnett's test. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: This study shows novel findings ever done in this area. Halwa Patti and Doodhi Patti strips were the most affected strips with high-arsenic concentration in hand pumps. Furthermore, a correlation between the arsenic concentration with the depth of the hand pumps and the distance from the river Ganga was also a significant study. Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem. PMID:27625765

  18. Ground-water levels and quality data for Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1979-01-01

    This report begins a publication format that will present annually both water-level and water-quality data in Georgia. In this format the information is presented in two-page units: the left page includes text which summarizes the information for an area or subject and the right page consists of one or more illustrations. Daily mean water-level fluctuations and trends are shown in hydrographs for the previous year and fluctuations for the monthly mean water level the previous 10 years for selected observation wells. The well data best illustrate the effects of changes in recharge and discharge in the various ground-water reservoirs in the State. A short narrative explains fluctuations and trends in each hydrograph. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Tennessee region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zurawski, Ann

    1978-01-01

    Because of the interdependence of ground water and surface water, water management efforts can be fully effective only if they involve the whole water resource. In the Tennessee Region, surface water is highly controlled, but there is at present no regionwide water-resources management plan that includes ground water.

  20. Recycling ground water in Waushara County, Wisconsin : resource management for cold-water fish hatcheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novitzki, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    Other recharge-recycling schemes can also be evaluated. Estimating the recycling efficiency (of recharge ponds, trenches, spreading areas, or irrigated fields) provides a basis for predicting water-level declines, the concentration of conservative ions (conservative in the sense that no reaction other than mixing occurs to change the character of the ion being considered) in the water supply and in the regional ground-water system, and the temperature of the water supply. Hatchery development and management schemes can be chosen to optimize hatchery productivity or minimize operation costs while protecting the ground-water system.

  1. Chemical quality of ground water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frimpter, M.H.; Gay, F.B.

    1979-01-01

    Cape Cod is a 440 square mile hook-shaped peninsula which extends 40 miles into the Atlantic. Freshwater in Pleistocene sand and gravel deposits is the source of supply for nearly 100 municipal and thousands of private domestic wells. Most ground water on Cape Cod is of good chemical quality for drinking and other uses. It is characteristically low in dissolved solids and is soft. In 90 percent of the samples analyzed, dissolved solids were less than 100 mg/l (milligrams per liter) and pH was less than 7.0. Highway deicing salt, sea-water flooding due to storms , and saltwater intrusion due to ground-water withdrawal are sources of sodium chloride contamination. Chloride concentrations have increased from 20 to 140 mg/l, owing to saltwater intrusion at Provincetown 's wells in Truro. In Yarmouth, contaminated ground water near a salt-storage area contained as much as 1,800 mg/l chloride. Heavy metals, insecticides, and herbicides were not found at concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's recommended limits for public drinking-water supplies, but iron and manganese in some samples exceeded those limits. Ninety percent of 84 samples analyzed for nitrate reported as nitrogen contained less than 1.3 mg/l and 80 percent contained 0.5 mg/l or less of nitrate as nitrogen. Water containing nitrogen in excess of 0.5 mg/l has probably been affected by municipal or domestic sewage or fertilizer, and water with less than this amount may have been affected by them. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. The water situation in the United States with special reference to ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuinness, Charles Lee

    1951-01-01

    This report constitutes appendixes B and C of a report prepared in April 1950 by the Geological Survey at the request of the President’s Water Resources Policy Commission. The full report was entitled "Water facts in relation to a national water-resources policy.” The brief text, entitled "Water in relation to the national economy,” and appendix A, entitled "A  summary of the water situation in the United States, with special reference to ground water,” were drafted by A. M. Piper of the Geological Survey and are to be published separately, in slightly modified form, under his name.This report discusses the occurrence of ground water in nature and its relation to surface water and to the national water picture as a whole, and it lists numerous existing water problems and discusses their solution.

  3. Applications of permeable barrier technology to ground water contamination at the Shiprock, NM, UMTRA site

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M.; Henry, E.J.; Thombre, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Shiprock uranium mill tailings pile in far northwestern New Mexico consists of approximately 1.5 million tons of uranium mill tailings from an acid leach mill which operated from 1954 to 1968. Located on land owned by the Navajo Nation, it was one of the first tailings piles stabilized under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) project. Stabilization activities were completed in 1986 and consisted principally of consolidating the tailings, contouring the pile to achieve good drainage, and covering the pile with a multi-layer cap to control infiltration of water, radon emanation, and surface erosion. No ground water protection or remediation measures were implemented other than limiting infiltration of water through the pile, although a significant ground water contamination plume exists in the flood plain adjacent to the San Juan River. The major contaminants at the Shiprock site include high concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, and uranium. One alternative for remediation may be the use of a permeable barrier in the flood plain aquifer. As proposed for the Shiprock site, the permeable barrier would be a trench constructed in the flood plain that would be backfilled with a media that is permeable to ground water, but would intercept or degrade the pollutants. Work to date has focused on use of a mixed microbial population of sulfate and nitrate reducing organisms. These organisms would produce strongly reducing conditions which would result in precipitation of the metal contaminants (i.e., Se(IV) and U(IV)) in the barrier. One of the first considerations in designing a permeable barrier is developing an understanding of ground water flow at the site. Accordingly, a steady state numerical model of the ground water flow at the site was developed using the MODFLOW code.

  4. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1968

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordova, R.M.; Bjorklund, L.J.; Butler, R.G.; Mower, R.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Bolke, E.L.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1968-01-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series are prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources and are designed to provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 105), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. It also contains supplementary data that are related to ground-water use in some areas. In reports of this series, the inclusion of such supplementary data as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration is intended only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1967. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1967 to spring 1968. Included for the first time in this series of annual reports is a (1) summation of the withdrawal of water from wells in the 5 years 1963-67 (table 3) and (2) maps and discussions of water-level changes for the 5-year period 1963-68. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  5. Ground-water conditions in southwestern Langlade County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harder, Alfred Harry; Drescher, William James

    1954-01-01

    Glacial outwash sand and gravel deposits are the principal aquifer in southwestern Langlade County, Wis. The underlying bedrock of pre-Cambrian age contains little or no water. The source of ground water is local precipitation. Information was collected on more than 300 wells in the area. Movement of ground water is generally southward and locally toward streams. Discharge is by streams and subsurface flow. Fluctuations of water levels in wells show a close correlation with seasonal precipitation and with average precipitation over a period of years. Pumping tests made at the city of Antigo's well field gave a coefficient of transmissibility of 62,000 gpd per ft and a coefficient of storage of 0.15 for the outwash deposits. It is estimated that recharge to a 90-squaremile area of the Antigo flats averages about 30,000 acre-feet per year. Of the 1,100 acrefeet pumped from wells in 1948, 69 percent was for municipal supply, 26 percent for rural supply, and 5 percent for irrigation. Use of water for irrigation has caused no measurable decline of water levels in the area as a whole. 

  6. Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 2, Effects of pumping on water levels and on water quality in the Santa Barbara ground-water basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Peter

    1984-01-01

    From July 1978 to January 1980, water levels in the southern part of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin declined more than 100 feet. These water-level declines resulted from increases in municipal pumping since July 1978. The increase in municipal pumping was part of a basin-testing program designed to determine the usable quantity of ground water in storage. The pumping, centered in the city less than 1 mile from the coast, has caused water-level declines to altitudes below sea level in the main water-bearing zones. As a result, the ground-water basin would be subject to saltwater intrusion if the study-period pumpage were maintained or increased. Data indicate that saltwater intrusion has degraded the quality of the water yielded from six coastal wells. During the study period, the six coastal wells all yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 250 milligrams per liter, and four of the wells yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 1,000 milligrams per liter. Previous investigators believed that saltwater intrusion was limited to the shallow part of the aquifer, directly adjacent to the coast. The possibility of saltwater intrusion into the deeper water-bearing deposits in the aquifer was thought to be remote because an offshore fault truncates these deeper deposits so that they lie against consolidated rocks on the seaward side of the fault. Results of this study indicate, however, that ocean water has intruded the deeper water-bearing deposits, and to a much greater extent than in the shallow part of the aquifer. Apparently the offshore fault is not an effective barrier to saltwater intrusion. No physical barriers are known to exist between the coast and the municipal well field. Therefore, if the pumping rate maintained during the basin-testing program were continued, the degraded water along the coast could move inland and contaminate the municipal supply wells. The time required for the degraded water to move from the coast to

  7. Focused Ground-Water Recharge in the Amargosa Desert Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.; Prudic, David E.; Walvoord, Michelle A.; Abraham, Jared D.; Stewart-Deaker, Amy E.; Glancy, Patrick A.; Constantz, Jim; Laczniak, Randell J.; Andraski, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    The Amargosa River is an approximately 300-kilometer long regional drainage connecting the northern highlands on the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nev., to the floor of Death Valley in Inyo County, Calif. Streamflow analysis indicates that the Amargosa Desert portion of the river is dry more than 98 percent of the time. Infiltration losses during ephemeral flows of the Amargosa River and Fortymile Wash provide the main sources of ground-water recharge on the desert-basin floor. The primary use of ground water is for irrigated agriculture. The current study examined ground-water recharge from ephemeral flows in the Amargosa River by using streamflow data and environmental tracers. The USGS streamflow-gaging station at Beatty, Nev., provided high-frequency data on base flow and storm runoff entering the basin during water years 1998?2001. Discharge into the basin during the four-year period totaled 3.03 million cubic meters, three quarters of which was base flow. Streambed temperature anomalies indicated the distribution of ephemeral flows and infiltration losses within the basin. Major storms that produced regional flow during the four-year period occurred in February 1998, during a strong El Ni?o that more than doubled annual precipitation, and in July 1999. The study also quantified recharge beneath undisturbed native vegetation and irrigation return flow beneath irrigated fields. Vertical profiles of water potential and environmental tracers in the unsaturated zone provided estimates of recharge beneath the river channel (0.04?0.09 meter per year) and irrigated fields (0.1?0.5 meter per year). Chloride mass-balance estimates indicate that 12?15 percent of channel infiltration becomes ground-water recharge, together with 9?22 percent of infiltrated irrigation. Profiles of potential and chloride beneath the dominant desert-shrub vegetation suggest that ground-water recharge has been negligible throughout most of the basin since at least the early Holocene

  8. Visual Inspection of Water Leakage from Ground Penetrating Radar Radargram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimshah, N. N.; Yusup, A.; Mat Amin, Z.; Ghazalli, M. D.

    2015-10-01

    Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a non-destructive method to correctly and efficiently detect mains water leaks has been examined. Several experiments were designed and conducted to prove that GPR can be used as tool for water leakage detection. These include instrument validation test and soil compaction test to clarify the maximum dry density (MDD) of soil and simulation studies on water leakage at a test bed consisting of PVC pipe burying in sand to a depth of 40 cm. Data from GPR detection are processed using the Reflex 2D software. Identification of water leakage was visually inspected from the anomalies in the radargram based on GPR reflection coefficients. The results have ascertained the capability and effectiveness of the GPR in detecting water leakage which could help avoiding difficulties with other leak detection methods.

  9. Ground-water hydraulics - A summary of lectures presented by John G. Ferris at short courses conducted by the Ground Water Branch, part 1, Theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, D.B.

    1955-01-01

    The objective of the Ground Water Branch is to evaluate the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water.  The science of ground-water hydrology is applied toward attaining that goal.  Although many ground-water investigations are of a qualitative nature, quantitative studies are necessarily an integral component of the complete evaluation of occurrence and availability.  The worth of an aquifer as a fully developed source of water depends largely on two inherent characteristics: its ability to store, and its ability to transmit water.  Furthermore, quantitative knowledge of these characteristics facilitates measurement of hydrologic entities such as recharge, leakage, evapotranspiration, etc.  It is recognized that these two characteristics, referred to as the coefficients of storage and transmissibility, generally provide the very foundation on which quantitative studies are constructed.  Within the science of ground-water hydrology, ground-water hydraulics methods are applied to determine these constats from field data.

  10. National water summary 1986; Hydrologic events and ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, David W.; Carr, Jerry E.; Chase, Edith B.; Paulson, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most important natural resources of the United States and degradation of its quality could have a major effect on the welfare of the Nation. Currently (1985), ground water is the source of drinking water for 53 percent of the Nation's population and for more than 97 percent of its rural population. It is the source of about 40 percent of the Nation's public water supply, 33 percent of water for irrigation, and 17 percent of freshwater for selfsupplied industries. Ground water also is the source of about 40 percent of the average annual streamflow in the United States, although during long periods of little or no precipitation, ground-water discharges provide nearly all of the base streamflow. This hydraulic connection between aquifers and streams implies that if a persistent pollutant gets into an aquifer, it eventually could discharge into a stream. Information presented in the 1986 National Water Summary clearly shows that the United States has very large amounts of potable ground water available for use. Although naturally occurring constituents, such as nitrate, and human-induced substances, such as synthetic organic chemicals, frequently are detected in ground water, their concentrations usually do not exceed existing Federal or State standards or guidelines for maximum concentrations in drinking water. Troublesome contamination of ground water falls into two basic categories related to the source or sources of the contamination. Locally, high concentrations of a variety of toxic metals, organic chemicals, and petroleum products have been detected in ground water associated with point sources such as wastedisposal sites, storage-tank leaks, and hazardous chemical spills. These types of local problems commonly occur in densely populated urban areas and industrialized areas. Larger, multicounty areas also have been identified where contamination frequently is found in shallow wells. These areas generally are associated with broad

  11. An Excel Workbook for Identifying Redox Processes in Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; McMahon, Peter B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction/oxidation (redox) condition of ground water affects the concentration, transport, and fate of many anthropogenic and natural contaminants. The redox state of a ground-water sample is defined by the dominant type of reduction/oxidation reaction, or redox process, occurring in the sample, as inferred from water-quality data. However, because of the difficulty in defining and applying a systematic redox framework to samples from diverse hydrogeologic settings, many regional water-quality investigations do not attempt to determine the predominant redox process in ground water. Recently, McMahon and Chapelle (2008) devised a redox framework that was applied to a large number of samples from 15 principal aquifer systems in the United States to examine the effect of redox processes on water quality. This framework was expanded by Chapelle and others (in press) to use measured sulfide data to differentiate between iron(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions. These investigations showed that a systematic approach to characterize redox conditions in ground water could be applied to datasets from diverse hydrogeologic settings using water-quality data routinely collected in regional water-quality investigations. This report describes the Microsoft Excel workbook, RedoxAssignment_McMahon&Chapelle.xls, that assigns the predominant redox process to samples using the framework created by McMahon and Chapelle (2008) and expanded by Chapelle and others (in press). Assignment of redox conditions is based on concentrations of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3-), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), sulfate (SO42-), and sulfide (sum of dihydrogen sulfide [aqueous H2S], hydrogen sulfide [HS-], and sulfide [S2-]). The logical arguments for assigning the predominant redox process to each sample are performed by a program written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The program is called from buttons on the main worksheet. The number of samples that can be analyzed

  12. Supplementary report on surface-water and ground-water surveys, Nueces River Basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broadhurst, W.L.; Ellsworth, C.E.

    1950-01-01

    A report on the ground-water and surface-water surveys of the Nueces River Basin was included in a report by the Bureau of Reclamation, entitled "Comprehensive plan for water-resources development of the Nueces River Basin project planning report number 5-14.04-3, February 1946".

  13. Surface-water/ground-water relations in the Lemhi River Basin, east-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, Mary M.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes work carried out in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation to provide hydrologic information to help Federal, State, and local agencies meet the goals of the Lemhi River Model Watershed Project. The primary goal of the project is to maintain, enhance, and restore anadromous and resident fish habitat in the Lemhi River, while maintaining a balance between resource protection and established water uses. The main objectives of the study were to carry out seepage measurements to determine seasonal distributed gains and losses in the Lemhi River and to estimate annual ground-water underflow from the basin to the Salmon River. In 1997, seepage measurements were made during and after the irrigation season along a 60-mile reach of the Lemhi River between Leadore and Salmon. Except for one 4-mile reach that lost 1.3 cubic feet per second per mile, the river gained from ground water in early August when ground-water levels were high. Highest flows in the Lemhi River in early August were about 400 cubic feet per second. In October, when ground-water levels were low, river losses to ground water were about 1 to 16 cubic feet per second per mile. In October, highest flows in the Lemhi River were about 500 cubic feet per second, near the river's mouth. Annual ground-water underflow from the Lemhi River Basin to the Salmon River was estimated by using a simplified water budget and b