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Sample records for acidic nitrate media

  1. Nitrated fatty acids: Synthesis and measurement

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Steven R.; Bonacci, Gustavo; Gelhaus, Stacy L.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrated fatty acids are the product of nitrogen dioxide reaction with unsaturated fatty acids. The discovery of peroxynitrite and peroxidase-induced nitration of biomolecules led to the initial reports of endogenous nitrated fatty acids. These species increase during ischemia reperfusion, but concentrations are often at or near the limits of detection. Here, we describe multiple methods for nitrated fatty acid synthesis, sample extraction from complex biological matrices, and a rigorous method of qualitative and quantitative detection of nitrated fatty acids by LC-MS. In addition, optimized instrument conditions and caveats regarding data interpretation are discussed. PMID:23200809

  2. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Nitric Acid, Nitrates, and Nitro Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretherick, Leslie

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are the potential hazards associated with nitric acid, inorganic and organic nitrate salts, alkyl nitrates, acyl nitrates, aliphatic nitro compounds, aromatic nitro compounds, and nitration reactions. (CW)

  3. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.B.

    1995-08-01

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660{plus_minus}0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46{plus_minus}0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 {times} 10{sup 6}{plus_minus}3.56 {times} 10{sup 4} at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610{plus_minus}0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412{plus_minus}0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72{plus_minus}1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured.

  4. Toluene nitration in irradiated nitric acid and nitrite solution

    SciTech Connect

    Gracy Elias; Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk; Jim Muller; Leigh R. Martin

    2011-04-01

    The kinetics, mechanisms, and stable products produced for the aryl alkyl mild ortho-para director - toluene, in irradiated nitric acid and neutral nitrite solutions were investigated using ?, and pulse radiolysis. Electron pulse radiolysis was used to determine the bimolecular rate constants for the reaction of toluene with different transient species produced by irradiation. HPLC with UV detection was primarily used to assess the stable reaction products. GC-MS and LC-MS were used to confirm the results from HPLC. Free-radical nitration reaction products were found in irradiated acidic and neutral media. In acidic medium, the ring substitution and side chain substitution and oxidation produced different nitro products. In ring substitution, nitrogen oxide radicals were added mainly to hydroxyl radical-produced cyclohexadienyl radical, and in side chain substitution they were added to the carbon-centered benzyl radical produced by H-atom abstraction. In neutral nitrite toluene solution, radiolytic ring nitration products approached a statistically random distribution, suggesting a free-radical reaction involving addition of the •NO2 radical.

  5. The Acid Catalyzed Nitration of Methanol: Formation of Methyl Nitrate via Aerosol Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riffel, Brent G.; Michelsen, Rebecca R.; Iraci, Laura T.

    2004-01-01

    The liquid phase acid catalyzed reaction of methanol with nitric acid to yield methyl nitrate under atmospheric conditions has been investigated using gas phase infrared spectroscopy. This nitration reaction is expected to occur in acidic aerosol particles found in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere as highly soluble methanol and nitric acid diffuse into these aerosols. Gaseous methyl nitrate is released upon formation, suggesting that some fraction of NO(x) may he liberated from nitric acid (methyl nitrate is later photolyzed to NO(x)) before it is removed from the atmosphere by wet deposition. Thus, this reaction may have important implications for the NO(x) budget. Reactions have been initiated in 45-62 wt% H2SO4 solutions at 10.0 C. Methyl nitrate production rates increased exponentially with acidity within the acidity regime studied. Preliminary calculations suggest that the nitronium ion (NO2(+) is the active nitrating agent under these conditions. The reaction order in methanol appears to depend on the water/methanol ratio and varies from first to zeroth order under conditions investigated. The nitration is first order in nitronium at all acidities investigated. A second order rate constant, kappa(sub 2), has been calculated to be 1 x 10(exp 8)/ M s when the reaction is first order in methanol. Calculations suggest the nitration is first order in methanol under tropospheric conditions. The infinitesimal percentage of nitric acid in the nitronium ion form in this acidity regime probably makes this reaction insignificant for the upper troposphere; however, this nitration may become significant in the mid stratosphere where colder temperatures increase nitric acid solubility and higher sulfuric acid content shifts nitric acid speciation toward the nitronium ion.

  6. Heterogeneous Interaction of Peroxyacetyl Nitrate on Liquid Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Renyi; Leu, Ming-Taun

    1996-01-01

    The uptake of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on liquid sulfuric acid surfaces has been investigated using a fast-flow reactor coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. PAN was observed to be reversibly adsorbed on sulfuric acid.

  7. Role of 3-Nitropropanoic Acid in Nitrate Formation by Aspergillus flavus1

    PubMed Central

    Doxtader, K. G.; Alexander, M.

    1966-01-01

    Doxtader, K. G. (Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.), and M. Alexander. Role of 3-nitropropanoic acid in nitrate formation by Aspergillus flavus. J. Bacteriol. 91:1186–1191. 1966.—Aspergillus flavus formed nitrate, 3-nitropropanoic acid (3-NPA), kojic acid, and a substance tentatively identified as N-formyl-N-hydroxy-glycine during growth in a medium with ammonium as sole nitrogen source. The concentration of the nitro compound reached a maximum prior to the appearance of nitrate; the 3-NPA level subsequently decreased with a concomitant increase in nitrate concentration. Replacement cultures of A. flavus produced nitrate from culture filtrates containing 3-NPA or from synthetic 3-NPA but not when supplied with fresh ammonium-sucrose medium, the nitrate-nitrogen formed being equivalent to 50% of the quantity of the 3-NPA-nitrogen initially present. Neither nitrate nor 3-NPA was synthesized by the fungus during growth in media with low pH or low ammonium concentrations. It is proposed that 3-NPA is either an intermediate or is in equilibrium with an intermediate in nitrification by the fungus. PMID:5929750

  8. Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR[gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R.S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR{gamma}. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR{gamma} discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

  9. Evaluation of Perrhenate Spectrophotometric Methods in Bicarbonate and Nitrate Media.

    PubMed

    Lenell, Brian A; Arai, Yuji

    2016-04-01

    2-pyridyl thiourea and methyl-2-pyridyl ketoxime based perrhenate, Re(VII), UV-vis spectrophotometric methods were evaluated in nitrate and bicarbonate solutions ranging from 0.001 M to 0.5 M. Standard curves at [Re]=2.5-50 mg L(-1) for the Re(IV)-thiourea and the Re ketoxime complexes were constructed at 405 nm and 490 nm, respectively. Detection of limits for N-(2-pyridyl) thiourea and methyl-2-pyridyl ketoxime methods in ultrapure water are 3.06 mg/L and 4.03 mg/L, respectively. Influences of NaHCO3 and NaNO3 concentration on absorbance spectra, absorptivity, and linearity were documented. For both methods, samples in ultrapure water and NaHCO3 have an R(2) value>0.99, indicating strong linear relationships. Statistical analysis supports that NaHCO3 does not affect linearity between standards for either method. NaNO3 causes major interference with the ketoxime method above 0.001 M NaNO3. Data provides information for practical use of Re spectrophotometric methods in environmental media that is high in bicarbonate and nitrate. PMID:26838460

  10. Nitrate formation in acid forest soils from the Adirondacks

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, T.M.; Kreitinger, J.P.; Alexander, M.

    1983-01-01

    Nitrate formation in three forest soils from the Adirondacks region of New York was studied in the laboratory. The organic and surface mineral layers of the soils has pH values ranging from 3.6 to 4.1. Nitrate was formed when the soils were treated with artificial rain at pH 3.5, 4.1, or 5.6. Compared to simulated rain at pH 5.6, simulated rain at pH 3.5 enhanced nitrate formation in one soil and inhibited it in two other soils. The rate of nitrate accumulation was about 10 times higher in the organic horizon than in the mineral horizon, and nitrate formation was not enhanced by ammonium additions. Nitrate formation in soil suspensions was dependent on the amount of soil in the suspension, and none was formed if little soil was present. Ammonium did not enhance nitrate production in the suspensions. It is suggested that nitrate formation in these acid soils is not limited by the ammonium supply. 19 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Aldehydes, carboxylic acids and inorganic nitrate during NSMCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosjean, Daniel

    This article describes the methods and results of a study involving measurements of ambient levels of carboxylic acids (formic, acetic and oxalic), aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, n- butanal, n- pentanal and benzaldehyde) and total inorganic nitrate (nitric acid + particulate nitrate) during the Nitrogen Species Methods Comparison Study (NSMCS). Results for inorganic nitrate obtained using Teflon-nylon filter packs are compared to those obtained with nylon-nylon filter units and to those obtained by other methods during NSMCS. Calculations are presented of the distribution of gas phase nitrogen among NO, NO 2, HONO 2 and PAN, and of the positive bias due to PAN and HONO 2 in NOx measurements by chemiluminescence. Data for aldehydes and carboxylic acids are discussed in terms of sampling efficiency, gas-aerosol phase distribution, possible interferents (e.g. PAN as acetate on alkaline filters), diurnal variations, and relative importance of emissions vs in-situ daytime and night-time formation and removal processes.

  12. Nitric acid recycling and copper nitrate recovery from effluent.

    PubMed

    Jô, L F; Marcus, R; Marcelin, O

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of nitric acid and copper nitrate contained in an industrial effluent was studied. The experiments conducted on such a medium showed that the presence of copper nitrate significantly improves nitric acid-water separation during distillation in an azeotropic medium. At the temperature of the azeotrope, however, this metal salt starts to precipitate, making the medium pasty, thus inhibiting the nitric acid extraction process. The optimisation of parameters such as column efficiency and adding water to the boiler at the azeotrope temperature are recommended in this protocol in order to collect the various components while avoiding the formation of by-products: NOx compounds. Thus, the absence of column, along with the addition of a small volume of water at a temperature of 118 °C, significantly increases the yield, allowing 94 % nitric acid to be recovered at the end of the process, along with the residual copper nitrate. The resulting distillate, however, is sufficiently dilute to not be used as is. Rectification is required to obtain concentrated nitric acid at 15 mol·l(-1), along with a weakly acidic distillate from the distillation front. This latter is quenched using potassium hydroxide and is used as a fertiliser solution for horticulture or sheltered market gardening. This process thus allows complete recycling of all the medium's components, including that of the distillate resulting from the nitric acid rectification operation. PMID:24627202

  13. Nonaqueous purification of mixed nitrate heat transfer media

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1983-12-20

    A nonaqueous, in-line method for removing carbonate and hydroxide contamination from a molten mixed sodium nitrate/potassium nitrate heat transfer salt. The method comprises dissolving a stoichiometric quantity of anhydrous Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2 in the melt whereby an insoluble CaCO.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2 precipitate is formed. The precipitate can be removed by settling, filtration or floatation techniques.

  14. 'Low-acid' sulfide oxidation using nitrate-enriched groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donn, Michael; Boxall, Naomi; Reid, Nathan; Meakin, Rebecca; Gray, David; Kaksonen, Anna; Robson, Thomas; Shiers, Denis

    2016-04-01

    Acid drainage (AMD/ARD) is undoubtedly one of the largest environmental, legislative and economic challenges facing the mining industry. In Australia alone, at least 60m is spent on AMD related issues annually, and the global cost is estimated to be in the order of tens of billions US. Furthermore, the challenge of safely and economically storing or treating sulfidic wastes will likely intensify because of the trend towards larger mines that process increasingly higher volumes of lower grade ores and the associated sulfidic wastes and lower profit margins. While the challenge of managing potentially acid forming (PAF) wastes will likely intensify, the industrial approaches to preventing acid production or ameliorating the effects has stagnated for decades. Conventionally, PAF waste is segregated and encapsulated in non-PAF tips to limit access to atmospheric oxygen. Two key limitations of the 'cap and cover' approach are: 1) the hazard (PAF) is not actually removed; only the pollutant linkage is severed; and, 2) these engineered structures are susceptible to physical failure in short-to-medium term, potentially re-establishing that pollutant linkage. In an effort to address these concerns, CSIRO is investigating a passive, 'low-acid' oxidation mechanism for sulfide treatment, which can potentially produce one quarter as much acidity compared with pyrite oxidation under atmospheric oxygen. This 'low-acid' mechanism relies on nitrate, rather than oxygen, as the primary electron accepter and the activity of specifically cultured chemolithoautotrophic bacteria and archaea communities. This research was prompted by the observation that, in deeply weathered terrains of Australia, shallow (oxic to sub-oxic) groundwater contacting weathering sulfides are commonly inconsistent with the geochemical conditions produced by ARD. One key characteristic of these aquifers is the natural abundance of nitrate on a regional scale, which becomes depleted around the sulfide bodies, and

  15. Nitrate and phosphate removal through enhanced bioretention media: mesocosm study.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Eric T; Poor, Cara J; Hinman, Curtis; Stark, John D

    2013-09-01

    Bioretention is an evolving type of Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI) designed to attenuate peak flows, reduce stormwater volume, and treat stormwater. This article examines the capabilities of a bioretention soil mixture of sand and compost enhanced with aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals to reduce nutrients from stormwater runoff. Columns with and without a saturation zone and vegetation were compared to examine their role in removing nitrate and ortho-phosphate from stormwater. Results show that utilization of a saturation zone can significantly reduce nitrate in effluent water (71% compared to 33% without a saturated zone), even in a newly constructed system. However, ortho-phosphate reduction was significantly better in the columns without a saturated zone (80%) compared to columns with (67%). Plants did not significantly improve removal. This suggests amendments such as aluminum-based water treatment residuals for phosphorus removal and a saturation zone for nitrogen removal are needed during the initial establishment period. PMID:24175412

  16. NITRATE REDUCTION AND TRANSFORMATION IN ORGANIC COMPOST MEDIA: LABORATORY BATCH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied the effectiveness of three organic solid reactive media (cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and Canadian sphagnum peat) that may be potentially used in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for groundwater nitrate removal. We aimed at answering the question about the na...

  17. Practical considerations in the concentration and recovery of spent nitration acids

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, C.M.

    1995-12-01

    Most organic nitrations employ sulphuric acid or oleum in the nitration acid. Even in rare nitric acid only nitrations, sulphuric acid is used as the dehydrating agent to produce 99% nitric acid. The used sulphuric acid is discharged in a diluted form contaminated with organic components and nitric/nitrous species. Pressures are emloyed to reconcentrate and reprocess such spent acids. Acid recovery and concentration is expensive. This paper discusses some of the aspects which must be considered when contemplating acid recovery. In the current industrial climate, acid recovery and recycle should be regarded as an integral part of a nitration process development rather than an afterthought. Case histories will be given in which such considerations influenced the course of the development of the nitration process itself. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of well planned bench and pilot scale test programmes.

  18. Heterocyclics as corrosion inhibitors for acid media

    SciTech Connect

    Ajmal, M.; Khan, M.A.W.; Ahmad, S.; Quraishi, M.A.

    1996-12-01

    The available literature on the use of heterocyclic compounds as corrosion inhibitors in acid media has been reviewed. It has been noted that the workers in this field have either used sulfur or nitrogen containing heterocyclic compounds for studying inhibition action. The authors have synthesized compounds containing sulfur and nitrogen both in the same ring and studied their inhibition action in acid media. These compounds were found to be better inhibitors than those containing either atoms alone.

  19. Nitrate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitrate ; CASRN 14797 - 55 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  20. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-25

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  1. Ab Initio Calculations of Singlet and Triplet Excited States of Chlorine Nitrate and Nitric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, Ana M.; Lee, Timothy J.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Ab initio calculations of vertical excitations to singlet and triplet excited states of chlorine nitrate and nitric acid are reported. The nature of the electronic transitions are examined by decomposing the difference density into the sum of detachment and attachment densities. Counterparts for the three lowest singlet excited states of nitric acid survive relatively unperturbed in chlorine nitrate, while other low-lying singlet states of chlorine nitrate appear to be directly dissociative in the ClO chromophore. These results suggest an assignment of the two main peaks in the experimental chlorine nitrate absorption spectrum. In addition, triplet vertical excitations and the lowest optimized triplet geometries of both molecules are studied.

  2. Nitrosation and Nitration of Fulvic Acid, Peat and Coal with Nitric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrohumic acids, produced from base extraction of coals and peats oxidized with nitric acid, have received considerable attention as soil ammendments in agriculture. The nitration chemistry however is incompletely understood. Moreover, there is a need to understand the reaction of nitric acid with natural organic matter (NOM) in general, in the context of a variety of environmental and biogeochemical processes. Suwannee River NOM, Suwannee River fulvic acid, and Pahokee Peat fulvic acid were treated with 15N-labeled nitric acid at concentrations ranging from 15% to 22% and analyzed by liquid and solid state 15N NMR spectroscopy. Bulk Pahokee peat and Illinois #6 coal were also treated with nitric acid, at 29% and 40% respectively, and analyzed by solid state 15N NMR spectroscopy. In addition to nitro groups from nitration of aromatic carbon, the 15N NMR spectra of all five samples exhibited peaks attributable to nitrosation reactions. These include nitrosophenol peaks in the peat fulvic acid and Suwannee River samples, from nitrosation of phenolic rings, and N-nitroso groups in the peat samples, from nitrosation of secondary amides or amines, the latter consistent with the peat samples having the highest naturally abundant nitrogen contents. Peaks attributable to Beckmann and secondary reactions of the initially formed oximes were present in all spectra, including primary amide, secondary amide, lactam, and nitrile nitrogens. The degree of secondary reaction product formation resulting from nitrosation reactions appeared to correlate inversely with the 13C aromaticities of the samples. The nitrosation reactions are most plausibly effected by nitrous acid formed from the reduction of nitric acid by oxidizable substrates in the NOM and coal samples. PMID:27175784

  3. Nitrosation and Nitration of Fulvic Acid, Peat and Coal with Nitric Acid.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Kevin A; Cox, Larry G

    2016-01-01

    Nitrohumic acids, produced from base extraction of coals and peats oxidized with nitric acid, have received considerable attention as soil ammendments in agriculture. The nitration chemistry however is incompletely understood. Moreover, there is a need to understand the reaction of nitric acid with natural organic matter (NOM) in general, in the context of a variety of environmental and biogeochemical processes. Suwannee River NOM, Suwannee River fulvic acid, and Pahokee Peat fulvic acid were treated with 15N-labeled nitric acid at concentrations ranging from 15% to 22% and analyzed by liquid and solid state 15N NMR spectroscopy. Bulk Pahokee peat and Illinois #6 coal were also treated with nitric acid, at 29% and 40% respectively, and analyzed by solid state 15N NMR spectroscopy. In addition to nitro groups from nitration of aromatic carbon, the 15N NMR spectra of all five samples exhibited peaks attributable to nitrosation reactions. These include nitrosophenol peaks in the peat fulvic acid and Suwannee River samples, from nitrosation of phenolic rings, and N-nitroso groups in the peat samples, from nitrosation of secondary amides or amines, the latter consistent with the peat samples having the highest naturally abundant nitrogen contents. Peaks attributable to Beckmann and secondary reactions of the initially formed oximes were present in all spectra, including primary amide, secondary amide, lactam, and nitrile nitrogens. The degree of secondary reaction product formation resulting from nitrosation reactions appeared to correlate inversely with the 13C aromaticities of the samples. The nitrosation reactions are most plausibly effected by nitrous acid formed from the reduction of nitric acid by oxidizable substrates in the NOM and coal samples. PMID:27175784

  4. Nitrosation and nitration of fulvic acid, peat and coal with nitric acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrohumic acids, produced from base extraction of coals and peats oxidized with nitric acid, have received considerable attention as soil ammendments in agriculture. The nitration chemistry however is incompletely understood. Moreover, there is a need to understand the reaction of nitric acid with natural organic matter (NOM) in general, in the context of a variety of environmental and biogeochemical processes. Suwannee River NOM, Suwannee River fulvic acid, and Pahokee Peat fulvic acid were treated with 15N-labeled nitric acid at concentrations ranging from 15% to 22% and analyzed by liquid and solid state 15N NMR spectroscopy. Bulk Pahokee peat and Illinois #6 coal were also treated with nitric acid, at 29% and 40% respectively, and analyzed by solid state 15N NMR spectroscopy. In addition to nitro groups from nitration of aromatic carbon, the 15N NMR spectra of all five samples exhibited peaks attributable to nitrosation reactions. These include nitrosophenol peaks in the peat fulvic acid and Suwannee River samples, from nitrosation of phenolic rings, and N-nitroso groups in the peat samples, from nitrosation of secondary amides or amines, the latter consistent with the peat samples having the highest naturally abundant nitrogen contents. Peaks attributable to Beckmann and secondary reactions of the initially formed oximes were present in all spectra, including primary amide, secondary amide, lactam, and nitrile nitrogens. The degree of secondary reaction product formation resulting from nitrosation reactions appeared to correlate inversely with the 13C aromaticities of the samples. The nitrosation reactions are most plausibly effected by nitrous acid formed from the reduction of nitric acid by oxidizable substrates in the NOM and coal samples.

  5. Nitrate anion templated synthesis of a [2]catenane for nitrate recognition in organic-aqueous solvent media.

    PubMed

    Langton, Matthew J; Beer, Paul D

    2014-08-01

    The first example of a catenane synthesised using a nitrate anion template is demonstrated. Removal of the templating anion reveals a mechanically interlocked molecular host system which is capable of recognising nitrate selectively over a range of more basic mono-anionic oxoanions in a competitive organic-aqueous solvent mixture. PMID:24926915

  6. PROCESS FOR EXTRACTING NEPTUNIUM AND PLUTONIUM FROM NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS OF SAME CONTAINING URANYL NITRATE WITH A TERTIARY AMINE

    DOEpatents

    Sheppard, J.C.

    1962-07-31

    A process of selectively extracting plutonium nitrate and neptunium nitrate with an organic solution of a tertiary amine, away from uranyl nitrate present in an aqueous solution in a maximum concentration of 1M is described. The nitric acid concentration is adjusted to about 4M and nitrous acid is added prior to extraction. (AEC)

  7. Photolysis of Nitric Acid and Nitrate on Natural and Artificial Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chunxiang; Gao, Honglian; Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Xianliang

    2016-04-01

    Photolysis of nitric acid and nitrate (HNO3/nitrate) was investigated on the surfaces of natural and artificial materials, including plant leaves, metal sheets, and construction materials. The surfaces were conditioned in the outdoor air prior to experiments to receive natural depositions of ambient HNO3/nitrate and other atmospheric constituents. The photolysis rate constant (JHNO3(s)) of the surface HNO3/nitrate was measured based on the production rates of nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The JHNO3(s) values, from 6.0 × 10(-6) s(-1) to 3.7 × 10(-4) s(-1), are 1 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that of gaseous HNO3. The HONO was the major product from photolysis of HNO3/nitrate on most plant leaves, whereas NOx was the major product on most artificial surfaces. The JHNO3(s) values decreased with HNO3/nitrate surface density and could be described by a simple analytical equation. Within a typical range of HNO3/nitrate surface density in the low-NOx forested areas, photolysis of HNO3/nitrate on the forest canopy can be a significant source for HONO and NOx for the overlying atmosphere. PMID:26936001

  8. Nitrate Acts as a Signal to Induce Organic Acid Metabolism and Repress Starch Metabolism in Tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Scheible, W. R.; Gonzalez-Fontes, A.; Lauerer, M.; Muller-Rober, B.; Caboche, M.; Stitt, M.

    1997-01-01

    Nia30(145) transformants with very low nitrate reductase activity provide an in vivo screen to identify processes that are regulated by nitrate. Nia30(145) resembles nitrate-limited wild-type plants with respect to growth rate and protein and amino acid content but accumulates large amounts of nitrate when it is grown on high nitrate. The transcripts for nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase, cytosolic glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase increased; NR and nitrite reductase activity increased in leaves and roots; and glutamine synthetase activity increased in roots. The transcripts for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, cytosolic pyruvate kinase, citrate synthase, and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase increased; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity increased; and malate, citrate, isocitrate, and [alpha]-oxoglutarate accumulated in leaves and roots. There was a decrease of the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase transcript and activity, and starch decreased in the leaves and roots. After adding 12 mM nitrate to nitrate-limited Nia30(145), the transcripts for NR and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase increased, and the transcripts for ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase decreased within 2 and 4 hr, respectively. Starch was remobilized at almost the same rate as in wild-type plants, even though growth was not stimulated in Nia30(145). It is proposed that nitrate acts as a signal to initiate coordinated changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:12237366

  9. Proton affinity of methyl nitrate - Less than proton affinity of nitric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Rice, Julia E.

    1992-01-01

    Several state-of-the-art ab initio quantum mechanical methods were used to investigate the equilibrium structure, dipole moments, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and IR intensities of methyl nitrate, methanol, and several structures of protonated methyl nitrate, using the same theoretical methods as in an earlier study (Lee and Rice, 1992) of nitric acid. The ab initio results for methyl nitrate and methanol were found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. The proton affinity (PA) of methyl nitrate was calculated to be 176.9 +/-5 kcal/mol, in excellent agreement with the experimental value 176 kcal/mol obtained by Attina et al. (1987) and less than the PA value of nitric acid. An explanation of the discrepancy of the present results with those of an earlier study on protonated nitric acid is proposed.

  10. Mechanistic studies of nitrations and oxidations in solutions of dinitrogen pentaoxide in nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Willmer, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanisms of nitrations in solutions of dinitrogen pentaoxide in nitric acid of 1,2,4-trichloro-5-nitrobenzene and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene have been proposed. The kinetics and products of the nitration, in the title medium, of substantially deactivated benzoic acids and benzaldehydes have been investigated. Kinetics of nitration of some substituted benzoic acids in nitric acid solutions containing dinitrogen pentaoxide or nitronium trifluoro-methanesulphonate (nitronium triflate) have been compared. Rate coefficients for reactions in dinitrogen pentaoxide solutions were generally similar to those from nitronium triflate solutions of the same estimated nitronium ion concentration. Yields of aromatic products of nitration of some benzoic acid derivatives in the nitric acid solutions have been determined. Nitrodecarboxylation of 4-fluorobenzoic acid occurs as a result of nitronium ion attach at C(1). The competition between oxidation to the corresponding benzoic acid and nitration in the aromatic ring of some substituted benzaldehydes has been probed by kinetic and product studies. 4-Carboxybenzaldehyde is nitrated but more deactivated substrates are predominantly oxidized. Rapid reversible gem-dinitrate formation occurs in concentrated dinitrogen pentaoxide solutions. The equilibrium extent of formation of [alpha]-deuterio-(4-nitropheny)-dinitratomethane from [alpha]-deuterio-4-nitrobenzaldehyde is reported. 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and the gem-dinitrate are oxidized in processes in which [alpha]-hydrogen loss is at least partially rate determining. The relative rates of oxidation in nitronium triflate solutions suggest that the [alpha]-hydrogen is removed as a hydride ion in that medium. There is evidence for the intrusion of a radical mechanism of nitration in concentrated solutions of dinitrogen pentaoxide. (4-Nitrophenyl)dinitratomethane was produced on the addition of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde to a solution of dinitrogen pentaoxide in dichloromethane.

  11. Batch salicylic acid nitration by nitric acid/acetic acid mixture under isothermal, isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, R; Canterino, M; Caprio, V; Di Somma, I; Sanchirico, R

    2006-12-01

    Runaway phenomena and thermal explosions can originate during the nitration of salicylic acid by means of a nitric acid/acetic acid mixture when the thermal control is lost, mainly as a result of the formation and thermal decomposition of picric acid. The prediction of the behaviour of this system is thus of great importance in view of possible industrial applications and the need to avoid the occurrence of unwanted dangerous events. During a previous investigation a model was developed to simulate its behaviour when the starting concentration of the substrate is too low, thus, preventing the precipitation of poor soluble intermediates. In this work this model is extended to deal with more concentrated systems even in case of a solid phase separating during the process. To this purpose the previously assessed dependence of the solubility of 3-nitro and 5-nitrosalicylic acids upon temperature and nitric acid concentration is included in the model. It is assumed that when 3-nitro and 5-nitrosalicylic acids are partially suspended in the reacting medium a kinetic regime of "dissolution with reaction" is established; that is, the redissolution of these species is a fast process compared to the successive nitration to give dinitroderivatives. Good results are obtained in the comparison of the experimental data with those calculated both in isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions when the revised model is used. PMID:16842908

  12. Influence of Acidity on Uranyl Nitrate Association in Aqueous Solutions: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    SciTech Connect

    de Almeida, Valmor F; Cui, Shengting; Khomami, Bamin; Ye, Xianggui; Smith, Rodney Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Uranyl ion complexation with water and nitrate is a key aspect of the uranium/plutonium extraction process. We have carried out a molecular dynamics simulation study to investigate this complexation process, including the molecular composition of the various complex species, the corresponding structure, and the equilibrium distribution of the complexes. The observed structures of the complexes suggest that in aqueous solution, uranyls are generally hydrated by 5 water molecules in the equatorial plane. When associating with nitrate ions, a water molecule is replaced by a nitrate ion, preserving the five-fold coordination and planar symmetry. Analysis of the pair correlation function between uranyl and nitrate suggests that nitrates bind to uranyl in aqueous solution mainly in a monodentate mode, although a small portion of bidentates occur. Dynamic association and dissociation between uranyls and nitrates take place in aqueous solution with a substantial amount of fluctuation in the number of various uranyl nitrate species. The average number of the uranyl mononitrate complexes shows a dependence on acid concentration consistent with equilibrium-constant analysis, namely, the concentration of [UO2NO3]+ increases with nitric acid concentration.

  13. A More Challenging Interpretative Nitration Experiment Employing Substituted Benzoic Acids and Acetanilides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Edward M.; Lin, Tung-Yin

    2008-01-01

    An experiment is described involving the nitration of ortho or meta monosubstituted benzoic acids (XC[subscript 6]H[subscript 4]CO[subscript 2]H, X = Halogen, Me, OH, or OMe) and monochlorinated acetanilides with nitric acid to determine the regioselectivity of addition by [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Students were…

  14. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Klop, G; Hatew, B; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4 cows. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (CON; urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), NO3 [21 g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM)], DHA (3 g of DHA/kg of DM and urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), or NO3 + DHA (21 g of nitrate/kg of DM and 3 g of DHA/kg of DM, respectively). Cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 21% grass silage, 49% corn silage, and 30% concentrates on a DM basis. Feed additives were included in the concentrates. Cows assigned to a treatment including nitrate were gradually adapted to the treatment dose of nitrate over a period of 21 d during which no DHA was fed. The experimental period lasted 17 d, and CH4 production was measured during the last 5d in climate respiration chambers. Cows produced on average 363, 263, 369, and 298 g of CH4/d on CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA treatments, respectively, and a tendency for a nitrate × DHA interaction effect was found where the CH4-mitigating effect of nitrate decreased when combined with DHA. This tendency was not obtained for CH4 production relative to dry matter intake (DMI) or to fat- and protein corrected milk (FPCM). The NO3 treatment decreased CH4 production irrespective of the unit in which it was expressed, whereas DHA did not affect CH4 production per kilogram of DMI, but resulted in a higher CH4 production per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) production. The FPCM production (27.9, 24.7, 24.2, and 23. 8 kg/d for CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA, respectively) was lower for DHA-fed cows because of decreased milk fat concentration. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was decreased by DHA, and the proportion of

  15. The variation of nitric acid vapor and nitrate aerosol concentrations near the island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.

    1992-01-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO + NO[sub 2]) are estimated to be half of the global emissions to the atmosphere. To understand the effect of increasing anthropogenic reactive nitrogen inputs to the global atmosphere, one needs to monitor their long-term variations. This dissertation examines the variations of total nitrate (nitric acid vapor and nitrate aerosol) at the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO), Hawaii. During the Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment (MLOPEX) in May, 1988, six different air types were identified at MLO with statistical analysis. They were: (1) volcano influenced air, (2) stratosphere-like air, (3) boundary-layer air with recent anthropogenic influence, (4) photochemical haze, (5) marine boundary-layer air, (6) well-aged and modified marine air. Samples that might be influenced by marine air or human activity from local islands were eliminated with three meterological criteria (wind direction, condensation nuclei, and dew point). To examine the negative sampling artifacts of nitric acid vapor due to ground loss, mixing ratio gradients with height were measured during August of 1991. The observed gradients of nitric acid vapor indicated that the long-term samplers at 8 m at MLO may underestimate the free tropospheric nitric acid vapor mixing ratio by about 20%. The three year mean and median of free tropospheric total nitrate during long-term measurements were 113 pptv and 93 pptv, respectively. Each year, the total nitrate mixing ratios at MLO during the spring and summer were increased by more than a factor of two higher than fall and winter. NO[sub y] from remote continents (Asia and North America) are likely sources of these increased total nitrate at MLO during these seasons. However, other processes govern the total nitrate mixing ratios, e.g., degree of mixing between free tropospheric air and boundary air at source regions, stratospheric injection, and wet removal of total nitrate.

  16. Surface Nanobubbles in Nonaqueous Media: Looking for Nanobubbles in DMSO, Formamide, Propylene Carbonate, Ethylammonium Nitrate, and Propylammonium Nitrate.

    PubMed

    An, Hongjie; Liu, Guangming; Atkin, Rob; Craig, Vincent S J

    2015-07-28

    Surface nanobubbles produced by supersaturation during the exchange of ethanol for water are routinely observed on hydrophobic surfaces, are stable for days, and have contact angles that are very much greater than observed macroscopically. Here, we test the hypothesis that nanobubbles can also be observed in nonaqueous solvents in order to ascertain if their anomalous lifetimes and contact angles are related to properties of the solvent. Nanobubbles were seen in the protic solvents formamide, ethylammonium nitrate, and propylammonium nitrate, but not in propylene carbonate or dimethyl sulfoxide. Solvents in which nanobubbles were observed exhibit a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network. Like in aqueous systems, the nanobubbles were stable for days and exhibited high contact angles (∼165°). PMID:26153620

  17. Nitrate and nitrosative chemistry within Barrett’s oesophagus during acid reflux

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, H; Iijima, K; Scobie, G; Fyfe, V; McColl, K E L

    2005-01-01

    Background and aims: When saliva, with its high nitrite content derived from the enterosalivary recirculation of dietary nitrate, meets acidic gastric juice, the nitrite is converted to nitrous acid, nitrosative species, and nitric oxide. In healthy volunteers this potentially mutagenic chemistry is focused at the gastric cardia. We have studied the location of this luminal chemistry in Barrett’s patients during acid reflux. Methods: Ten Barrett’s patients were studied before and after administration of 2 mmol nitrate. Using microdialysis probes we measured nitrite, ascorbic acid, total vitamin C, and thiocyanate concentrations and pH simultaneously in the proximal oesophagus, Barrett’s segment, hiatal sac, proximal stomach, and distal stomach. In a subgroup, real time nitric oxide concentrations were also measured. Results: During acid reflux, Barrett’s segment was the anatomical site with maximal potential for acid catalysed nitrosation, with its median concentration of nitrite exceeding that of ascorbic acid in two of 10 subjects before nitrate and in four of nine after nitrate. Thiocyanate, which catalyses acid nitrosation, was abundant at all anatomical sites. On entering the acidic Barrett’s segment, there was a substantial fall in nitrite and the lowest ascorbic acid to total vitamin C ratio, indicative of reduction of salivary nitrite to nitric oxide at this anatomical site. Episodes of acid reflux were observed to generate nitric oxide concentrations of up to 60 μM within the Barrett’s segment. Conclusion: The interaction between acidic gastric refluxate and nitrite rich saliva activates potentially mutagenic luminal nitrosative chemistry within Barrett’s oesophagus. PMID:16227357

  18. Heterogeneous chemical reaction of chlorine nitrate and water on sulfuric-acid surfaces at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Michel J.; Malhotra, Ripudaman; Golden, David M.

    1987-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that the reaction between gaseous chlorine nitrate and water on room temperature liquid sulfuric acid (95.6%) surfaces yields hypochlorous acid in the gas phase. First-order loss rate constants for chlorine nitrate (equivalent to a value of the sticking coefficient γ = 3.2 × 10-4) have been determined. This value is five orders-of-magnitude greater than reported values on similar areas of more inert surfaces. Application of results of this type to stratospheric models must await ongoing studies at lower temperatures.

  19. Effect of free nitrous acid as inhibitors on nitrate reduction by a biological nutrient removal sludge.

    PubMed

    Ma, Juan; Yang, Qing; Wang, Shuying; Wang, Li; Takigawa, Akio; Peng, Yongzhen

    2010-03-15

    Nitrite has been commonly thought to have a broad inhibitory effect on bacterial metabolism. Little is known about the impact of nitrite on nitrate reduction with pH considered as an important factor. This study investigates the nitrite inhibition on nitrate reduction during denitrification under various pH conditions by using a biological nutrient removal (BNR) sludge. The results showed that nitrate reduction performance had a much stronger relationship with the free nitrous acid (FNA) than that of nitrite concentration, implying that FNA, rather than nitrite, is likely the real inhibitor on nitrate reduction. The nitrate reduction activity of the biomass was observed to be inhibited about 60% in the range of 0.01-0.025 mg HNO(2)-N/L and was totally inhibited when FNA level was greater than the threshold concentration (0.2mg HNO(2)-N/L). Moreover, the recovery rate from inhibitory effect was found to be dependent much more strongly on the concentration of FNA, of which the biomass was exposed to during the inhibition period, than on the duration of the inhibition and the feeding mode of inhibitor. It was also found that nitrite reduction was significantly inhibited by FNA and the nitrite reduction rate was linear to nitrate reduction rate due to the inhibitory mechanism under which FNA may react with the enzymes involved in the denitrification process. PMID:19910113

  20. Release of nitrous acid and nitrogen dioxide from nitrate photolysis in acidic aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Scharko, Nicole K; Berke, Andrew E; Raff, Jonathan D

    2014-10-21

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) is an abundant component of aerosols, boundary layer surface films, and surface water. Photolysis of NO3(-) leads to NO2 and HONO, both of which play important roles in tropospheric ozone and OH production. Field and laboratory studies suggest that NO3¯ photochemistry is a more important source of HONO than once thought, although a mechanistic understanding of the variables controlling this process is lacking. We present results of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy measurements of NO2 and HONO emitted during photodegradation of aqueous NO3(-) under acidic conditions. Nitrous acid is formed in higher quantities at pH 2-4 than expected based on consideration of primary photochemical channels alone. Both experimental and modeled results indicate that the additional HONO is not due to enhanced NO3(-) absorption cross sections or effective quantum yields, but rather to secondary reactions of NO2 in solution. We find that NO2 is more efficiently hydrolyzed in solution when it is generated in situ during NO3(-) photolysis than for the heterogeneous system where mass transfer of gaseous NO2 into bulk solution is prohibitively slow. The presence of nonchromophoric OH scavengers that are naturally present in the environment increases HONO production 4-fold, and therefore play an important role in enhancing daytime HONO formation from NO3(-) photochemistry. PMID:25271384

  1. Humic Acid-Oxidizing, Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria in Agricultural Soils

    PubMed Central

    Van Trump, J. Ian; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Thrash, J. Cameron; Weber, Karrie A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Coates, John D.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study demonstrates the prevalence, phylogenetic diversity, and physiology of nitrate-reducing microorganisms capable of utilizing reduced humic acids (HA) as electron donors in agricultural soils. Most probable number (MPN) enumeration of agricultural soils revealed large populations (104 to 106 cells g−1 soil) of microorganisms capable of reducing nitrate while oxidizing the reduced HA analog 2,6-anthrahydroquinone disulfonate (AH2DS) to its corresponding quinone. Nitrate-dependent HA-oxidizing organisms isolated from agricultural soils were phylogenetically diverse and included members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. Advective up-flow columns inoculated with corn plot soil and amended with reduced HA and nitrate supported both HA oxidation and enhanced nitrate reduction relative to no-donor or oxidized HA controls. The additional electron donating capacity of reduced HA could reasonably be attributed to the oxidation of reduced functional groups. Subsequent 16S rRNA gene-based high-density oligonucleotide microarray (PhyloChip) indicated that reduced HA columns supported the development of a bacterial community enriched with members of the Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Betaproteobacteria relative to the no-donor control and initial inoculum. This study identifies a previously unrecognized role for HA in stimulating denitrification processes in saturated soil systems. Furthermore, this study indicates that reduced humic acids impact soil geochemistry and the indigenous bacterial community composition. PMID:21750120

  2. Application of light-weight filtration media in an anoxic biofilter for nitrate removal from micro-polluted surface water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Fei, Xiang; He, Shengbing; Huang, Jungchen; Zhou, Weili

    2016-01-01

    The research investigated nitrate removal from micro-polluted surface water by the single-stage process of anoxic biofilter using light-weight polystyrene beads as filtration media. In this study, sodium acetate was used as an external carbon source and the nitrate removal efficiency under different regimes of hydraulic loading rate (HLR), water temperature, and C/N ratio was studied. In addition, the effect of backwash on denitrification efficiency was investigated. The results show that the biofilter achieved a high nitrate removal efficiency in 2 weeks at water temperatures ranging between 22 and 25 °C at a C/N ratio (COD:NO3(-)-N) of 6:1. Besides, the average removal efficiency of nitrate at HLRs of 5.66, 7.07 and 8.49 m(3) m(-2) h(-1) were 87.5, 87.3 and 87.1%, respectively. The average removal efficiency of nitrate nitrogen was 13.9% at a HLR of 5.66 m(3) m(-2) h(-1) at water temperatures of 12-14 °C, then it increased to 93.7% when the C/N ratio increased to 10. It suggests that the optimal hydraulic retention time is at water temperatures of 8-10 °C. The water consumption rate of backwash was about 0.2-0.3%, and denitrification efficiency returned to the normal level in 12 h after backwash. PMID:27533875

  3. Effect of simulated acid rain on nitrate and ammonium production in soils from three ecosystems of Camels Hump Mountain, Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    Like, D.E.; Klein, R.M.

    1985-11-01

    The authors removed intact soil columns from the Harwood (550 to 790 m), Transition (790 to 1050 m), and Conifer (1050 to 1160 m) ecological zones of Camels Hump Mountain, Vermont, treated them with simulated acid rain (pH 4.0) or nonacidic (pH 5.6) rain, and examined the percolates for ammonium and nitrate ions. Nitrification in soils from all three ecosystems was unaffected by acidic treatments, but mineralization was stimulated by acidic treatment of soil from the Transition Zone. Irrespective of treatment, Conifer Zone soils released less nitrate than did either Transition or Hardwood Zone soils. Soil columns from the Hardwood Zone were treated with acidic or nonacidic simulated rainfall supplemented with nitrate, ammonium, or both N sources. NO3-N in percolates increased when acidic simulated rain was supplemented with ammonium ion or both ammonium and nitrate ions. Efflux of NH4-N was unaffected by supplementing precipitation with either ammonium or nitrate ions.

  4. Influence of nitric acid treatment in different media on X-ray structural parameters of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sudip Maity; Ashim Choudhury

    2008-11-15

    The treatment of coal with nitric acid in aqueous and non-aqueous media introduces changes in the chemical and spatial structure of the organic mass. Four coals of different rank have been treated with nitric acid in aqueous and glacial acetic acid media for assessing the changes in the structural parameters by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Slow-scan XRD has been performed for the raw and treated coals, and X-ray structural parameters (d002, Lc, and Nc) and aromaticity (fa) have been determined by profile-fitting software. Considerable variation of the structural parameters has been observed with respect to the raw coals. The d002 values have decreased in aqueous medium but increased in acetic acid medium; however, Lc, Nc, and fa values have increased in aqueous medium but decreased in acetic acid medium. It is also observed that considerable oxidation takes place during nitric acid treatment in aqueous medium, but nitration is the predominant phenomenon in acetic acid medium. Disordering of the coal structure increases in acetic acid medium, but a reverse trend is observed in the aqueous medium. As a result, structurally modified coals (SMCs) are derived as new coal-derived substances. 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Nitrate reduction

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  6. Silver(I)-Promoted ipso-Nitration of Carboxylic Acids by Nitronium Tetrafluoroborate.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Palani; Chaudhary, Renu; Venugopalan, Paloth

    2015-11-01

    A novel and efficient method for the regioselective nitration of a series of aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to their corresponding nitro compounds using nitronium tetrafluoroborate and silver carbonate in dimethylacetamide has been described. This transformation is believed to proceed via the alkyl-silver or aryl-silver intermediate, which subsequently reacts with the nitronium ion to form nitro substances. Mild reaction conditions, tolerant of a broad range of functional groups, and formation of only the ipso-nitrated products are the key features of this methodology when compared to known methods for syntheses of nitroalkyls and nitroarenes. PMID:26457769

  7. Nitrate sensing and uptake in Arabidopsis are enhanced by ABI2, a phosphatase inactivated by the stress hormone abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Léran, Sophie; Edel, Kai H; Pervent, Marjorie; Hashimoto, Kenji; Corratgé-Faillie, Claire; Offenborn, Jan Niklas; Tillard, Pascal; Gojon, Alain; Kudla, Jörg; Lacombe, Benoît

    2015-05-01

    Living organisms sense and respond to changes in nutrient availability to cope with diverse environmental conditions. Nitrate (NO3-) is the main source of nitrogen for plants and is a major component in fertilizer. Unraveling the molecular basis of nitrate sensing and regulation of nitrate uptake should enable the development of strategies to increase the efficiency of nitrogen use and maximize nitrate uptake by plants, which would aid in reducing nitrate pollution. NPF6.3 (also known as NRT1.1), which functions as a nitrate sensor and transporter; the kinase CIPK23; and the calcium sensor CBL9 form a complex that is crucial for nitrate sensing in Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified two additional components that regulate nitrate transport, sensing, and signaling: the calcium sensor CBL1 and protein phosphatase 2C family member ABI2, which is inhibited by the stress-response hormone abscisic acid. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays and in vitro kinase assays revealed that ABI2 interacted with and dephosphorylated CIPK23 and CBL1. Coexpression studies in Xenopus oocytes and analysis of plants deficient in ABI2 indicated that ABI2 enhanced NPF6.3-dependent nitrate transport, nitrate sensing, and nitrate signaling. These findings suggest that ABI2 may functionally link stress-regulated control of growth and nitrate uptake and utilization, which are energy-expensive processes. PMID:25943353

  8. Electron flow in acidic subsurface sediments co-contaminated with nitrate and uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Lainie; Küsel, Kirsten; Drake, Harold; Kostka, Joel E.

    2007-02-01

    The combination of low pH and high concentrations of nitrate and radionuclides in the subsurface is representative of many sites within the U.S. nuclear weapons complex managed by the Department of Energy (DOE), including the DOE's Environmental Remediation Sciences Program Field Research Center (ORFRC), in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In order to provide a further understanding of the coupled microbiological and geochemical processes limiting radionuclide bioremediation, we determined the rates and pathways of terminal-electron accepting processes (TEAPs) in microcosm experiments using close to in situ conditions with ORFRC subsurface materials. At the in situ pH range of 4-5, carbon substrate utilization and TEAP rates were diminished, such that nitrate was not depleted and metal reduction was prevented. Upon biostimulation by pH neutralization and carbon substrate addition, TEAPs were stimulated to rates that rival those measured in organic-rich surficial sediments of aquatic environments, and extremely high nitrate concentrations (0.4-0.5 M) were not found to be toxic to microbial metabolism. Metal reduction under neutral pH conditions started once nitrate was depleted to low levels in response to biostimulation. Acidity controlled not only the rates but also the pathways of microbial activity. Denitrification predominated in sediments originating from neutral pH zones, while dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium occurred in neutralized acidic microcosms amended with glucose. Electron donors were determined to stimulate microbial metabolism leading to metal reduction in the following order: glucose > ethanol > lactate > hydrogen. In microcosms of neutralized acidic sediments, 80-90% of C equivalents were recovered as fermentation products, mainly as acetate. Due to the stress imposed by low pH on microbial metabolism, our results indicate that the TEAPs of acidic subsurface sediment are inherently different from those of neutral pH environments and

  9. Vapor-liquid equilibria for nitric acid-water and plutonium nitrate-nitric acid-water solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Maimoni, A.

    1980-01-01

    The liquid-vapor equilibrium data for nitric acid and nitric acid-plutnonium nitrate-water solutions were examined to develop correlations covering the range of conditions encountered in nuclear fuel reprocessing. The scanty available data for plutonium nitrate solutions are of poor quality but allow an order of magnitude estimate to be made. A formal thermodynamic analysis was attempted initially but was not successful due to the poor quality of the data as well as the complex chemical equilibria involved in the nitric acid and in the plutonium nitrate solutions. Thus, while there was no difficulty in correlating activity coefficients for nitric acid solutions over relatively narrow temperature ranges, attempts to extend the correlations over the range 25/sup 0/C to the boiling point were not successful. The available data were then analyzed using empirical correlations from which normal boiling points and relative volatilities can be obtained over the concentration ranges 0 to 700 g/l Pu, 0 to 13 M nitric acid. Activity coefficients are required, however, if estimates of individual component vapor pressures are needed. The required ternary activity coefficients can be approximated from the correlations.

  10. Treatment of Selenium and Nitrate in Acid Mine Drainage: A Column Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, H.; Jeen, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Treatment efficiency of selenium and nitrate in acid mine drainage (AMD) by two types of reactive mixtures, i.e., organic carbon-limestone (OC-LS) and organic carbon-zero valent iron (OC-ZVI), was evaluated through column experiments. The influent AMD, collected at an abandoned metal mine site in Korea, had pH of 2.9 and contained 1600 mg/ L of SO42- and elevated concentrations of metals (e.g., Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn). Selenium (40 mg/L) and nitrate (100 mg/L as NO3-N initially and 10 mg/L as NO3-N after 55 days) were spiked into the AMD. The columns were operated for a total of 90 days. The results showed the increase of pH from 2.9 to 7.0 and the decreases in concentrations of most of major ions including selenium and nitrate in both the OC-LS and OC-ZVI columns. The OC-ZVI column had higher removal rates of selenium and nitrate and created a more reduced environment than the OC-LS column due to the abiotic reactions of ZVI. However, a notable amount of ammonia was produced as a reaction product in the OC-ZVI column, while the OC-LS produced a minimum amount of ammonia, suggesting formation of N2 by denitrification. In both columns, removal rates of selenium were substantially increased when the influent NO3-N concentration was changed from 100 mg/L to 10 mg/L. Sulfate was reduced as much as 390 mg/L, as indicated by detection of hydrogen sulfide. The reduction of most metals is considered to be due to precipitation of metal-containing secondary minerals (e.g., sulfides, hydroxides, carbonates). This study shows that treatment of selenium and nitrate in AMD can be achievable using organic carbon-based reactive mixtures through reduction of selenium and nitrate. However, the use of ZVI is not recommended when selenium and nitrate coexist in AMD because of production of ammonia by abiotic reaction between ZVI and nitrate. This study also shows that concentration of nitrate in AMD is an important factor to determine the rate of selenium removal.

  11. Nitrogen isotopes in ice core nitrate linked to anthropogenic atmospheric acidity change.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lei; Alexander, Becky; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Steig, Eric J; Savarino, Joël; Sofen, Eric D; Schauer, Andrew J

    2014-04-22

    Nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ(15)N) in Greenland snow nitrate and in North American remote lake sediments has decreased gradually beginning as early as ∼1850 Christian Era. This decrease was attributed to increasing atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic nitrate, reflecting an anthropogenic impact on the global nitrogen cycle, and the impact was thought to be amplified ∼1970. However, our subannually resolved ice core records of δ(15)N and major ions (e.g., NO3(-), SO4(2-)) over the last ∼200 y show that the decrease in δ(15)N is not always associated with increasing NO3(-) concentrations, and the decreasing trend actually leveled off ∼1970. Correlation of δ(15)N with H(+), NO3(-), and HNO3 concentrations, combined with nitrogen isotope fractionation models, suggests that the δ(15)N decrease from ∼1850-1970 was mainly caused by an anthropogenic-driven increase in atmospheric acidity through alteration of the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric nitrate. The concentrations of NO3(-) and SO4(2-) also leveled off ∼1970, reflecting the effect of air pollution mitigation strategies in North America on anthropogenic NO(x) and SO2 emissions. The consequent atmospheric acidity change, as reflected in the ice core record of H(+) concentrations, is likely responsible for the leveling off of δ(15)N ∼1970, which, together with the leveling off of NO3(-) concentrations, suggests a regional mitigation of anthropogenic impact on the nitrogen cycle. Our results highlight the importance of atmospheric processes in controlling δ(15)N of nitrate and should be considered when using δ(15)N as a source indicator to study atmospheric flux of nitrate to land surface/ecosystems. PMID:24711383

  12. Nitrogen isotopes in ice core nitrate linked to anthropogenic atmospheric acidity change

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Lei; Alexander, Becky; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Steig, Eric J.; Savarino, Joël; Sofen, Eric D.; Schauer, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ15N) in Greenland snow nitrate and in North American remote lake sediments has decreased gradually beginning as early as ∼1850 Christian Era. This decrease was attributed to increasing atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic nitrate, reflecting an anthropogenic impact on the global nitrogen cycle, and the impact was thought to be amplified ∼1970. However, our subannually resolved ice core records of δ15N and major ions (e.g., , ) over the last ∼200 y show that the decrease in δ15N is not always associated with increasing concentrations, and the decreasing trend actually leveled off ∼1970. Correlation of δ15N with H+, , and HNO3 concentrations, combined with nitrogen isotope fractionation models, suggests that the δ15N decrease from ∼1850–1970 was mainly caused by an anthropogenic-driven increase in atmospheric acidity through alteration of the gas−particle partitioning of atmospheric nitrate. The concentrations of and also leveled off ∼1970, reflecting the effect of air pollution mitigation strategies in North America on anthropogenic NOx and SO2 emissions. The consequent atmospheric acidity change, as reflected in the ice core record of H+ concentrations, is likely responsible for the leveling off of δ15N ∼1970, which, together with the leveling off of concentrations, suggests a regional mitigation of anthropogenic impact on the nitrogen cycle. Our results highlight the importance of atmospheric processes in controlling δ15N of nitrate and should be considered when using δ15N as a source indicator to study atmospheric flux of nitrate to land surface/ecosystems. PMID:24711383

  13. Culture media optimization of Porphyridium purpureum: production potential of biomass, total lipids, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Mysore Doddaiah; Kathiresan, Shanmugam; Bhattacharya, Sila; Sarada, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    Porphyridium purpureum a red marine microalga is known for phycobiliproteins (PB), polyunsaturated fatty acids and sulphated exopolysaccharides. In the present study, effects of media constituents for the production of different polyunsaturated fatty acids from P. purpureum were considered using a response surface methodology (RSM). A second order polynomial was used to predict the response functions in terms of the independent variables such as the concentrations of sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, sodium nitrate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The response functions were production of biomass yield, total lipid and polyunsaturated fatty acids like arachidonic acid (AA 20:4) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5). Results corroborated that maximum Biomass (0.95 gL(-1)) yield was at the concentrations of sodium chloride (14.89 gL(-1)), magnesium sulfate (3.93 gL(-1)) and sodium nitrate (0.96 gL(-1)) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (0.09 gL(-1)). Optimum total lipid (17.9 % w/w) and EPA (34.6 % w/w) content was at the concentrations of sodium chloride (29.98 gL(-1)), magnesium sulfate (9.34 gL(-1)) and sodium nitrate (1.86 gL(-1)). Variation in concentration of potassium dihydrogen phosphate for both lipid (0.01gL(-1)) and EPA content (0.20 gL(-1)) was observed. The optimum conditions for biomass, total lipid, AA and EPA varied indicating their batch mode of growth and interaction effect of the salt. PMID:27407193

  14. Recovery of uranium from acid media by macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid resin

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwal, K.N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Rao, P.R.V.; Nandy, K.K.

    1996-11-01

    The extraction of uranium from various acid media such as nitric acid, sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid and perchloric acid by a macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid resin (MPBPA) has been studied. The distribution coefficients for the extraction of uranium by the MPBPA resin are compared with the corresponding values reported in literature for the conventional sulphonic acid resin. The results clearly indicate the suitability of the MPBPA resin to recover uranium from different types of acid solutions of widely ranging acidities. 17 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Biomimetic Nitration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid: Formation and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Conjugated Nitrodienes

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Steven R.; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Bonacci, Gustavo; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Freeman, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Nitro-conjugated linoleic acids (NO2-cLA), endogenous nitrodiene lipids which act as inflammatory signaling mediators, were isolated and single isomers purified from the biomimetic acidic nitration products of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Structures were elucidated by means of detailed NMR and HPLC–MS/MS spectroscopic analysis and the relative double bond configurations assigned. Additional synthetic methods produced useful quantities and similar isomeric distributions of these unusual and reactive compounds for biological studies and isotopic standards, and the potential conversion of nitro-linoleic to nitro-conjugated linoleic acids was explored via a facile base-catalyzed isomerization. This represents one of the few descriptions of naturally occurring conjugated nitro dienes (in particular, 1-nitro 1,3-diene), an unusual and highly reactive motif with few biological examples extant. PMID:24350701

  16. Plutonium (IV) complexation by nitrate in acid solutions of ionic strengths from 2 to 19 molal

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J.M.; Veirs, D.K.; Vaughn, R.B.; Cisneros, M.A.; Smith, C.A.

    1997-09-01

    Titrations of Pu(IV) with HNO{sub 3} in a series of aqueous HClO{sub 4} solutions ranging in ionic strength from 2 to 19 molal were followed using absorption spectrophotometry. The Pu 5f-5f spectra in the visible and near IR range change with complex formation. At each ionic strength, a series of spectra were obtained by varying nitrate concentration. Each series was deconvoluted into spectra f Pu{sup 4+}(aq), Pu(NO{sub 3}){sup 3+} and Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup 2+} complexes, and simultaneously their formation constants were determined. When corrected for the incomplete dissociation of nitric acid, the ionic strength dependence of each formation constant can be described by two parameters, {beta}{sup 0} and {Delta}{var_epsilon} using the formulae of specific ion interaction theory. The difficulties with extending this analysis to higher nitrate coordination numbers are discussed.

  17. Solvent extraction study of the thorium nitrate, nitric acid, and tributyl phosphate-dodecane system: density and acidity relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, A.J.; Marley, J.L.; Costanzo, D.A.

    1980-05-01

    A solvent extraction study to determine equilibrium conditions of thorium nitrate-nitric acid with 30% tributyl phosphate in normal dodecane has been completed. Experimental conditions studied were 30 to 60{sup 0}C, 0.05 to 1.5 M Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, and 0.0 to 3.0 M HNO{sub 3}. The extractant concentration was constant at 30% tributyl phosphate. The equilibrium experiments have produced data which demonstrate that thorium nitrate concentration, free acid, and density are related in equilibrium behavior between the aqueous and organic phases from 30 to 60{sup 0}C in the 30% tributyl phosphate-dodecane solvent extraction system. The concentration interactions apply to both the two- and three-phase regions. A linear correlation was observed for the density (D) of the aqueous or organic phase and the concentration of thorium and free acid. The general form of the equation is D = a(C/sub Th/ + bC/sub H/) + c, where a is the slope, b is the constant, c is the intercept, and C/sub Th/ and C/sub H/ are the molar concentrations of thorium and free acid respectively. The relationship of temperature, thorium nitrate, and free acid makes possible the definitions of the boundaries between the two- and three-phase regions. This dependence, in turn, permits operational control or simulation studies of the system within the two-phase region. The data demonstrate the interactions of the components of the Thorex system and can be used to improve the mathematical description of equilibrium in the SEPHIS-Thorex computer program.

  18. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of nitrate in electrolyte of lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Rocha, F R; Nóbrega, J A

    1997-12-19

    Electrolytes of lead-acid batteries can contain several impurities that reduce battery performance and lifetime. Nitrate ions are among these species because they can be reduced to ammonium in the lead electrode. In this work, an analytical method was developed to determine this anion in electrolytes of batteries used in telephone systems, in which nitrate concentration must be lower than 10 mg l(-1). The procedure consists in the reduction to nitrite in a copperized cadmium column followed by Griess's modified reaction. Due to the high sensitivity of this methodology, a large dispersion flow diagram (dispersion coefficient = 27.8) was projected. Thus, it was possible to eliminate the Schlieren effect and to obtain a NH (3)NH (+)(4) buffer in the sample zone in a suitable pH for reduction reaction (pH congruent with 8). Negative interference due to iron(III) was overcome by addition of excess iron (200 mg l(-1)). A relocatable filter was used to remove iron(III) hydroxide precipitate. This avoided adsorption on the surface of the filings and increase of back pressure. The analytical frequency is 80 measurements/h and the detection limit was estimated as 0.3 mg l(-1) in a 99.7% confidence level. A 2.2% relative standard deviation was obtained in a repeatability study (n = 10) by using a 25 mg l(-1) nitrate solution in a 3.6 mol l(-1) sulfuric acid medium. Recoveries from 95.5 to 104% were obtained by spiking 5.00 or 10.0 mg l(-1) of nitrate in samples of battery electrolyte. PMID:18967001

  19. Nitrate and the Origin of Saliva Influence Composition and Short Chain Fatty Acid Production of Oral Microcosms.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Jessica E; Buijs, Mark J; Brandt, Bernd W; Keijser, Bart J F; Crielaard, Wim; Zaura, Egija

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate is emerging as a possible health benefactor. Especially the microbial conversion of nitrate to nitrite in the oral cavity and the subsequent conversion to nitric oxide in the stomach are of interest in this regard. Yet, how nitrate influences the composition and biochemistry of the oral ecosystem is not fully understood. To investigate the effect of nitrate on oral ecology, we performed a 4-week experiment using the multiplaque artificial mouth (MAM) biofilm model. This model was inoculated with stimulated saliva of two healthy donors. Half of the microcosms (n = 4) received a constant supply of nitrate, while the other half functioned as control (n = 4). Additionally, all microcosms received a nitrate and sucrose pulse, each week, on separate days to measure nitrate reduction and acid formation. The bacterial composition of the microcosms was determined by 16S rDNA sequencing. The origin of the saliva (i.e., donor) showed to be the strongest determinant for the development of the microcosms. The supplementation of nitrate was related to a relatively high abundance of Neisseria in the microcosms of both donors, while Veillonella was highly abundant in the nitrate-supplemented microcosms of only one of the donors. The lactate concentration after sucrose addition was similarly high in all microcosms, irrespective of treatment or donor, while the concentration of butyrate was lower after nitrate addition in the nitrate-receiving microcosms. In conclusion, nitrate influences the composition and biochemistry of oral microcosms, although the result is strongly dependent on the inoculum. PMID:27155967

  20. Enhancing Rain Garden Design to Promote Nitrate Removal: Testing a media carbon amendment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rain gardens effectively remove some stressors from stormwater, in particular heavy metals, phosphorus, and oil and grease, but in most cases they show much smaller removal rates of nitrate. This is likely due to the high sand and low organic matter content specified for rain ga...

  1. Enhancing rain garden design to promote nitrate removal: testing a media carbon amendment.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rain gardens effectively remove some stressors from stormwater, in particular heavy metals, phosphorus, and oil and grease, but in most cases they show much smaller removal rates of nitrate. This is likely due to the high sand and low organic matter content specified for rain ga...

  2. Amino Acids Profiles in Biological Media

    SciTech Connect

    Iordache, A.; Horj, E.; Morar, S.; Cozar, O.; Culea, M.; Ani, A. R.; Mesaros, C.

    2010-08-04

    An accurate analytical method was developed to determine amino acids in some biological specimens by GC/MS technique. Stable isotopes provide useful tools for a variety of studies, offering ideal internal standards in quantitative information. Isotopic dilution gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (ID-GC/MS) is the techniques used for quantitative analysis of compounds labeled with stable isotopes. A Trace DSQ Thermo Finnigan quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled with a Trace GC was used. Amino acids were separated on a Rtx-5 MS capillary column, 30 mx0.25 mm, 0.25 {mu}m film thickness, using a temperature program from 50 deg. C, 1 min, 6 deg. C/min at 100 deg. C, 4 deg. C/min at 200 deg. C, 20 deg. C/min at 300 deg. C, (3 min). The transfer line temperature was 250 deg. C, the injector temperature 200 deg. C and ion source temperature 250 deg. C; splitter: 10:1. Electron energy was 70 eV and emission current, 100 {mu}A. The amino acids were purified on a Dowex 50W-W8 exchange resin and were derivatized in a procedure following two steps to obtain trifluoroacetyl butyl esters. The identification of amino acids was obtained by using NIST library but also by using amino acid standards.

  3. Amino Acids Profiles in Biological Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordache, A.; Horj, E.; Ani, A. R.; Mesaros, C.; Morar, S.; Cozar, O.; Culea, M.

    2010-08-01

    An accurate analytical method was developed to determine amino acids in some biological specimens by GC/MS technique. Stable isotopes provide useful tools for a variety of studies, offering ideal internal standards in quantitative information. Isotopic dilution gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (ID-GC/MS) is the techniques used for quantitative analysis of compounds labeled with stable isotopes. A Trace DSQ Thermo Finnigan quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled with a Trace GC was used. Amino acids were separated on a Rtx-5 MS capillary column, 30 m×0.25 mm, 0.25 μm film thickness, using a temperature program from 50 °C, 1 min, 6 °C/min at 100 °C, 4 °C/min at 200 °C, 20 °C/min at 300 °C, (3 min). The transfer line temperature was 250 °C, the injector temperature 200 °C and ion source temperature 250 °C; splitter: 10:1. Electron energy was 70 eV and emission current, 100 μA. The amino acids were purified on a Dowex 50W-W8 exchange resin and were derivatized in a procedure following two steps to obtain trifluoroacetyl butyl esters. The identification of amino acids was obtained by using NIST library but also by using amino acid standards.

  4. Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum Alloys in Acidic Media

    SciTech Connect

    Ramli, Rosliza; Seoh, S. Y.; Nik, W. B. Wan; Senin, H. B.

    2007-05-09

    The corrosion inhibition of Al and its alloys are the subject of tremendous technological importance due to the increased industrial applications of these materials. This study will report the results of weight loss, polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements on the corrosion inhibition of AA6061 and AA6063 aluminum alloys in acidic media using sodium benzoate as an inhibitor. The results showed that addition of sodium benzoate retards the rate of dissolution and hence inhibits the corrosion of the aluminum alloy in acidic media. The inhibition efficiency increases with the increase of immersion time in acetic acid however it displays a different behavior in sulfuric acid. Langmuir adsorption isotherm fits well with the experimental data. EIS studies showed that there was a significant increase in overall resistance after addition of sodium benzoate, when compared to the case without inhibitor. Langmuir adsorption isotherm fits well with the experimental data.

  5. A Solution-Based Approach for Mo-99 Production: Considerations for Nitrate versus Sulfate Media

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Youker, Amanda J.; Chemerisov, Sergey D.; Kalensky, Michael; Tkac, Peter; Bowers, Delbert L.; Vandegrift, George F.

    2013-01-01

    Molybdenum-99 is the parent of Technetium-99m, which is used in nearly 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures. The medical community has been plagued by Mo-99 shortages due to aging reactors, such as the NRU (National Research Universal) reactor in Canada. There are currently no US producers of Mo-99, and NRU is scheduled for shutdown in 2016, which means that another Mo-99 shortage is imminent unless a potential domestic Mo-99 producer fills the void. Argonne National Laboratory is assisting two potential domestic suppliers of Mo-99 by examining the effects of a uranyl nitrate versus a uranyl sulfate target solution configuration onmore » Mo-99 production. Uranyl nitrate solutions are easier to prepare and do not generate detectable amounts of peroxide upon irradiation, but a high radiation field can lead to a large increase in pH, which can lead to the precipitation of fission products and uranyl hydroxides. Uranyl sulfate solutions are more difficult to prepare, and enough peroxide is generated during irradiation to cause precipitation of uranyl peroxide, but this can be prevented by adding a catalyst to the solution. A titania sorbent can be used to recover Mo-99 from a highly concentrated uranyl nitrate or uranyl sulfate solution; however, different approaches must be taken to prevent precipitation during Mo-99 production.« less

  6. Nitrated fatty acids reverse pulmonary fibrosis by dedifferentiating myofibroblasts and promoting collagen uptake by alveolar macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Aravind T.; Lakshmi, Sowmya P.; Zhang, Yingze; Reddy, Raju C.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fatal disease, thought to be largely transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) driven, for which there is no effective therapy. We assessed the potential benefits in IPF of nitrated fatty acids (NFAs), which are unique endogenous agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a nuclear hormone receptor that exhibits wound-healing and antifibrotic properties potentially useful for IPF therapy. We found that pulmonary PPARγ is down-regulated in patients with IPF. In vitro, knockdown or knockout of PPARγ expression in isolated human and mouse lung fibroblasts induced a profibrotic phenotype, whereas treating human fibroblasts with NFAs up-regulated PPARγ and blocked TGFβ signaling and actions. NFAs also converted TGFβ to inactive monomers in cell-free solution, suggesting an additional mechanism through which they may inhibit TGFβ. In vivo, treating mice bearing experimental pulmonary fibrosis with NFAs reduced disease severity. Also, NFAs up-regulated the collagen-targeting factor milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8), stimulated collagen uptake and degradation by alveolar macrophages, and promoted myofibroblast dedifferentiation. Moreover, treating mice with established pulmonary fibrosis using NFAs reversed their existing myofibroblast differentiation and collagen deposition. These findings raise the prospect of treating IPF with NFAs to halt and perhaps even reverse the progress of IPF.—Reddy, A. T., Lakshmi, S. P., Zhang, Y., Reddy, R. C. Nitrated fatty acids reverse pulmonary fibrosis by dedifferentiating myofibroblasts and promoting collagen uptake by alveolar macrophages. PMID:25252739

  7. Lactic acid conversion to 2,3-pentanedione and acrylic acid over silica-supported sodium nitrate: Reaction optimization and identification of sodium lactate as the active catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Wadley, D.C.; Tam, M.S.; Miller, D.J.

    1997-01-15

    Lactic acid is converted to 2,3-pentanedione, acrylic acid, and other products in vapor-phase reactions over silica-supported sodium lactate formed from sodium nitrate. Multiparameter optimization of reaction conditions using a Box-Benkhen experimental design shows that the highest yield and selectivity to 2,3-pentanedione are achieved at low temperature, elevated pressure, and long contact time, while yield and selectivity to acrylic acid are most favorable at high temperature, low pressure, and short contact time. Post-reaction Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses of the catalyst indicate that sodium nitrate as the initial catalyst material is transformed to sodium lactate at the onset of reaction via proton transfer from lactic acid to nitrate. The resultant nitric acid vaporizes as it is formed, leaving sodium lactate as the sole sodium-bearing species on the catalyst during reaction. 19 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Reversible Post-translational Modification of Proteins by Nitrated Fatty Acids in Vivo*S

    PubMed Central

    Batthyany, Carlos; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Baker, Paul R. S.; Durán, Rosario; Baker, Laura M. S.; Huang, Yingying; Cerveñansky, Carlos; Branchaud, Bruce P.; Freeman, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (˙NO)-derived reactive species nitrate unsaturated fatty acids, yielding nitroalkene derivatives, including the clinically abundant nitrated oleic and linoleic acids. The olefinic nitro group renders these derivatives electrophilic at the carbon β to the nitro group, thus competent for Michael addition reactions with cysteine and histidine. By using chromatographic and mass spectrometric approaches, we characterized this reactivity by using in vitro reaction systems, and we demonstrated that nitroalkene-protein and GSH adducts are present in vivo under basal conditions in healthy human red cells. Nitro-linoleic acid (9-, 10-, 12-, and 13-nitro-9,12-octadecadienoic acids) (m/z 324.2) and nitro-oleic acid (9- and 10-nitro-9-octadecaenoic acids) (m/z 326.2) reacted with GSH (m/z 306.1), yielding adducts with m/z of 631.3 and 633.3, respectively. At physiological concentrations, nitroalkenes inhibited glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), which contains a critical catalytic Cys (Cys-149). GAPDH inhibition displayed an IC50 of ∼3 μm for both nitroalkenes, an IC50 equivalent to the potent thiol oxidant peroxynitrite (ONOO−) and an IC50 30-fold less than H2O2, indicating that nitroalkenes are potent thiol-reactive species. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed covalent adducts between fatty acid nitroalkene derivatives and GAPDH, including at the catalytic Cys-149. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of human red cells confirmed that nitroalkenes readily undergo covalent, thiol-reversible post-translational modification of nucleophilic amino acids in GSH and GAPDH in vivo. The adduction of GAPDH and GSH by nitroalkenes significantly increased the hydrophobicity of these molecules, both inducing translocation to membranes and suggesting why these abundant derivatives had not been detected previously via traditional high pressure liquid chromatography analysis. The occurrence of these

  9. Heterogeneous interactions of chlorine nitrate, hydrogen chloride, and nitric acid with sulfuric acid surfaces at stratospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolbert, Margaret A.; Rossi, Michel J.; Golden, David M.

    1988-01-01

    The heterogeneous interactions of ClONO2, HCl, and HNO3 with sulfuric acid surfaces were studied using a Knudsen cell flow reactor. The surfaces studied, chosen to simulate global stratospheric particulate, were composed of 65-75 percent H2SO4 solutions at temperatures in the range -63 to -43 C. Heterogeneous loss, but not reaction, of HNO3 and HCl occurred on these surfaces; the measured sticking coefficients are reported. Chlorine nitrate reacted on the cold sulfuric acid surfaces, producing gas-phase HOCl and condensed HNO3. CLONO2 also reacted with HCl dissolved in the 65-percent H2SO4 solution at -63 C, forming gaseous Cl2. In all cases studied, the sticking and/or reaction coefficients were much larger for the 65-percent H2SO4 solution at -63 C than for the 75-percent solution at -43 C.

  10. Evaluation of sustainable electron donors for nitrate removal in different water media.

    PubMed

    Fowdar, Harsha S; Hatt, Belinda E; Breen, Peter; Cook, Perran L M; Deletic, Ana

    2015-11-15

    An external electron donor is usually included in wastewater and groundwater treatment systems to enhance nitrate removal through denitrification. The choice of electron donor is critical for both satisfactory denitrification rates and sustainable long-term performance. Electron donors that are waste products are preferred to pure organic chemicals. Different electron donors have been used to treat different water types and little is known as to whether there are any electron donors that are suitable for multiple applications. Seven different carbon rich waste products, including liquid and solid electron donors, were studied in comparison to pure acetate. Batch-scale tests were used to measure their ability to reduce nitrate concentrations in a pure nutrient solution, light greywater, secondary-treated wastewater and tertiary-treated wastewater. The tested electron donors removed oxidised nitrogen (NOx) at varying rates, ranging from 48 mg N/L/d (acetate) to 0.3 mg N/L/d (hardwood). The concentrations of transient nitrite accumulation also varied across the electron donors. The different water types had an influence on NOx removal rates, the extent of which was dependent on the type of electron donor. Overall, the highest rates were recorded in light greywater, followed by the pure nutrient solution and the two partially treated wastewaters. Cotton wool and rice hulls were found to be promising electron donors with good NOx removal rates, lower leachable nutrients and had the least variation in performance across water types. PMID:26379204

  11. Ternary copper complexes and manganese (III) tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) porphyrin catalyze peroxynitrite-dependent nitration of aromatics.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Sueta, G; Ruiz-Ramírez, L; Radi, R

    1997-12-01

    Peroxynitrite is a powerful oxidant formed in biological systems from the reaction of nitrogen monoxide and superoxide and is capable of nitrating phenols at neutral pH and ambient temperature. This peroxynitrite-mediated nitration is catalyzed by a number of Lewis acids, including CO2 and transition-metal ion complexes. Here we studied the effect of ternary copper-(II) complexes constituted by a 1,10-phenanthroline and an amino acid as ligands. All the complexes studied accelerate both the decomposition of peroxynitrite and its nitration of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid at pH > 7. The rate of these reactions depends on the copper complex concentration in a hyperbolic plus linear manner. The yield of nitrated products increases up to 2.6-fold with respect to proton-catalyzed nitration and has a dependency on the concentration of copper complexes which follows the same function as observed for the rate constants. The manganese porphyrin complex, Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin [Mn(tbap)], also promoted peroxynitrite-mediated nitration with an even higher yield (4-fold increase) than the ternary copper complexes. At pH = 7.5 +/- 0.2 the catalytic behavior of the copper complexes can be linearly correlated with the pKa of the phenanthroline present as a ligand, implying that a peroxynitrite anion is coordinated to the copper ion prior to the nitration reaction. These observations may prove valuable to understand the biological effects of these transition-metal complexes (i.e., copper and manganese) that can mimic superoxide dismutase activity and, in the case of the ternary copper complexes, show antineoplastic activity. PMID:9437523

  12. Acid tolerance of rhizobium trifolii in culture media

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, F.C.; Davey, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Tolerance to acidity (pH 4.2 to 4.6), low P (1 to 6 ..mu..M) and high Al (15 to 40..mu..M) for 100 strains of Rhizobium trifolii was assessed in liquid culture media in the laboratory. Response to acidity and Al varied among strains as evidenced by lower maximum cell densities and reduced growth rates, most preceded by a lag phase. Tolerance to acidity did not imply tolerance to Al in all cases. Strains were capable of tolerating higher levels of Al if acidity was reduced. Limitations in rhizobial growth due to low P concentrations were not as severe a stress as high acidity or high Al concentration.

  13. Safe conditions for contacting nitric acid or nitrates with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L

    1994-01-01

    In response to a request from DOE-SR, the current state of knowledge of the reactions between TBP and aqueous nitrate solutions is critically reviewed, and recommendations are made for the safe operation of SRS separations equipment in which this combination of chemicals may be present. The existing limits for evaporation are validated. Guidelines are presented for cases in which general limits do not apply. The rate of reaction between nitric acid and TBP appears to be controlled by the rate of TBP hydrolysis. The hydrolysis reaction produces dibutyl phosphate and n-butanol. The hydrolysis rate is a strong function of temperature, and becomes very fast at temperatures in the range 130{degrees} to 150{degrees}C. The resulting n-butanol is volatile at high temperatures, boiling at 117.5{degrees}C, but is also subject to exothermic oxidation by nitric acid or nitrates. If oxidation occurs before the n-butanol evaporates, the heat of oxidation may exceed local cooling by convection. The resulting heating will further accelerate the reaction, leading to an energetic runaway and possibly (in confined systems) an explosion. Extensive experiments and practice have shown that in a well-mixed and well-vented aqueous system such as an evaporator, at moderate acidities and temperatures below 130{degrees}C, the heat of reaction is adequately removed by vaporization of steam. In general, the heating will be so slow that natural processes provide adequate cooling at temperatures below 80{degrees}C. Above this temperature, care should be taken to ensure that adequate cooling is available for the amount of TBP that may be present. Experiments suggest that in well-ventilated systems n-butanol evaporation and convective cooling are sufficient to control the reaction at temperatures up to 120{degrees}C.

  14. Oxygen and nitrogen isotopic composition of nitrate in commercial fertilizers, nitric acid, and reagent salts.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Greg; Kolanowski, Michelle; Riha, Krystin M

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate is a key component of synthetic fertilizers that can be beneficial to crop production in agro-ecosystems, but can also cause damage to natural ecosystems if it is exported in large amounts. Stable isotopes, both oxygen and nitrogen, have been used to trace the sources and fate of nitrate in various ecosystems. However, the oxygen isotope composition of synthetic and organic nitrates is poorly constrained. Here, we present a study on the N and O isotope composition of nitrate-based fertilizers. The δ(15)N values of synthetic and natural nitrates were 0 ± 2 ‰ similar to the air N2 from which they are derived. The δ(18)O values of synthetic nitrates were 23 ± 3 ‰, similar to air O2, and natural nitrate fertilizer δ(18)O values (55 ± 5 ‰) were similar to those observed in atmospheric nitrate. The Δ(17)O values of synthetic fertilizer nitrate were approximately zero following a mass-dependent isotope relationship, while natural nitrate fertilizers had Δ(17)O values of 18 ± 2 ‰ similar to nitrate produced photochemically in the atmosphere. These narrow ranges of values can be used to assess the amount of nitrate arising from fertilizers in mixed systems where more than one nitrate source exists (soil, rivers, and lakes) using simple isotope mixing models. PMID:26181213

  15. The extraction of water, nitric acid, and uranyl nitrate by di-2-ethylhexyl sulfoxide in dodecane

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; McDowell, W.J.; Caley, C.E.; Case, G.N. )

    1989-01-01

    The extraction of water, nitric acid, and uranyl nitrate by di-2-ethylhexyl sulfoxide (DEHSO) in dodecane has been measured. Using the program SXLSQA, the data were modeled with correction for nonideality effects (treatments of Hildebrand and Scott and of Pitzer) in terms of the organic-phase species (DEHSO)(H{sub 2}O), (DEHSO){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O), (DEHSO)(HNO{sub 3}), (DEHSO){sub 2}(HNO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O), (DEHSO)(HNO{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O), and UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(DEHSO){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub w}. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  16. The photochemical production of organic nitrates from α-pinene and loss via acid-dependent particle phase hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindelaub, Joel D.; McAvey, Kevin M.; Shepson, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    The hydroxyl radical oxidation of α-pinene under high NOx conditions was studied in a photochemical reaction chamber to investigate organic nitrate (RONO2) production and fate between the gas and particle phases. We report an organic nitrate yield of 26 ± 7% from the oxidation of this monoterpene in the presence of nitric oxide (NO). However, the apparent organic nitrate yield was found to be highly dependent on both chamber relative humidity (RH) and seed aerosol acidity, likely as a result of particle phase hydrolysis. The particle phase loss of organic nitrates is believed to increase the gas to particle partitioning within the system, leading to decreased RONO2 yields in both the gas and particle phases at elevated RH and an apparent non-equilibrium partitioning mechanism. The hydrolysis of particle phase organic nitrates in this study, starting at low chamber relative humidity, implies that aerosol partitioning of organic nitrates may be an important sink for atmospheric NOx and may have a significant impact on regional air quality.

  17. Simultaneous removal of nitrate, hydrogen peroxide and phosphate in semiconductor acidic wastewater by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Tokumura, Masahiro; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    The zero-valent iron (ZVI) wastewater treatment has been applied to simultaneous removal of nitrate, hydrogen peroxide and phosphate in semiconductor acidic wastewaters. The simultaneous removal occurs by the reactions performed due to the sequential transformation of ZVI under the acidic condition. Fortunately the solution pH of semiconductor acidic wastewaters is low which is effective for the sequential transformation of ZVI. Firstly the reduction of nitrate is taken place by electrons generated by the corrosion of ZVI under acidic conditions. Secondly the ferrous ion generated by the corrosion of ZVI reacts with hydrogen peroxide and generates ·OH radical (Fenton reaction). The Fenton reaction consists of the degradation of hydrogen peroxide and the generation of ferric ion. Finally phosphate precipitates out with iron ions. In the simultaneous removal process, 1.6 mM nitrate, 9.0 mM hydrogen peroxide and 1.0 mM phosphate were completely removed by ZVI within 100, 15 and 15 min, respectively. The synergy among the reactions for the removal of nitrate, hydrogen peroxide and phosphate was found. In the individual pollutant removal experiment, the removal of phosphate by ZVI was limited to 80% after 300 min. Its removal rate was considerably improved in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and the complete removal of phosphate was achieved after 15 min. PMID:24798898

  18. Characterization of prominent nitrate-reducing and amino acid-utilizing bacteria from nitrotoxin-enriched equine cecal populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the present study, populations of equine cecal microbes enriched for enhanced rates of 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA) or nitrate metabolism were diluted and cultured for NPA-metabolizing bacteria on a basal enrichment medium (BEM) or tryptose soy agar (TSA) medium supplemented with either 5 mM NP...

  19. Plutonium scrap waste processing based on aqueous nitrate and chloride media

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, J D

    1985-05-13

    A brief review of plutonium scrap aqueous waste processing technology at Rocky Flats is given. Nitric acid unit operations include dissolution and leaching, anion exchange purification and precipitation. Chloride waste processing consists of cation exchange and carbonate precipitation. Ferrite and carrier precipitation waste treatment processes are also described. 3 figs.

  20. Water vapor absorption in porous media polluted by calcium nitrate studied by time domain nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Gombia, Mirko; Bortolotti, Villiam; Brown, Robert J S; Camaiti, Mara; Cavallero, Luisa; Fantazzini, Paola

    2009-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analysis of liquid water (1)H nuclei in real porous media, selected for their similar composition (carbonate rocks) and different pore space architecture, polluted with calcium nitrate, is presented to study the kinetics of water condensation and salt deliquescence inside the pore space. These phenomena are responsible for deterioration of porous materials when exposed to environmental injury by pollution in a humid atmosphere. The theory is well described for simple pore geometries, but it is not yet well understood in real porous media with wide distributions of pore sizes and connections. The experiment is performed by following in time the formation of liquid water inside the pore space by T(1) and T(2) relaxation time distributions. The distributions allow one to see the effects of both the salt concentration and the pore space structure on the amount of water vapor condensed and its kinetics. It is shown that, for a given lithotype, even with different amounts of pollutant, the rate-average relaxation time T(1ra) tends to increase monotonically with NMR signal, proportional to the amount of liquid water. T(1ra) is often inversely associated with surface-to-volume ratio. This suggests a trend toward the filling of larger pores as amounts of liquid water increase, but it does not indicate a strict sequential filling of pores in order of size and starting with the smallest; in fact, relaxation time distributions show clearly that this is not the case. Increased amounts of salt lead to both markedly increased rates and markedly increased amounts of water absorption. NMR measurements of amounts of water, together with relaxation time distributions, give the possibility of information on the effect of pollution in porous materials exposed to humid atmospheres but sheltered from liquid water, even before the absorption of large amounts of moisture and subsequent damage. These phenomena are of importance also in other fields

  1. Manifestation of Preferential Flow and Nitrate Transport in Central European Soils on Acid Crystalline Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolezal, F.; Cislerova, M.; Vogel, T.; Zavadil, J.; Vacek, J.; Kvitek, T.; Prazak, P.; Nechvatal, M.; Bayer, T.

    2006-12-01

    Large areas of Central Europe are occupied by highlands and peneplains of medium altitudes, built by acid crystalline rocks. The soils overlying them are typically of medium textures. They are neither markedly water- repellent nor greatly swelling and shrinking. These landscapes are characterized by high vulnerability of water bodies, both surface and subsurface. The existing methodologies of vulnerability assessment regard the heavier among these soils as little vulnerable to diffuse pollution, while in reality they may be virtually equally vulnerable, because of the short-circuiting effect of preferential flow and transport. Our experiment site was Valeèov (49° 38' 40" N, 14° 30' 25" E, 461 m a.s.l.) in the Bohemo-Moravian highland, with average annual precipitation 660 mm and average annual air temperature 7.2 ° C. The field trials, starting from 2001, were focused on growing potato under different conditions. Soil moisture content was measured by Theta- probe capacitance sensors, soil water suction by Watermark sensors and tensiometers. Nitrate leaching was monitored by soil solution sampling with ceramic suction cups and zero-tension lysimeters. The hydraulic conductivity of the soil was measured on small cores and by suction and pressure infiltrometers. The following preferential flow manifestations are analyzed and quantified: a) the spatial variability of soil moisture content and suction after rainstorms, b) the spatial and temporal variability of soil's hydraulic conductivity and its dependence on soil moisture content, c) the spatial variability of percolation volumes in parallel lysimeters, d) the variability of nitrate concentrations in the lysimeter leachate, e) the apparent absence of correlation between leachate volumes and leachate concentrations in lysimeters, f) the lower mean and higher variance of leachate concentrations in lysimeters, in comparison with those in suction cups.

  2. Solidification of Acidic, High Nitrate Nuclear Wastes by Grouting or Absorption on Silica Gel

    SciTech Connect

    A. K. Herbst; S. V. Raman; R. J. Kirkham

    2004-01-01

    The use of grout and silica gel were explored for the solidification of four types of acidic, high nitrate radioactive wastes. Two methods of grouting were tested: direct grouting and pre-neutralization. Two methods of absorption on silica gel were also tested: direct absorption and rotary spray drying. The waste simulant acidity varied between 1 N and 12 N. The waste simulant was neutralized by pre-blending calcium hydroxide with Portland cement and blast furnace slag powders prior to mixing with the simulant for grout solidification. Liquid sodium hydroxide was used to partially neutralize the simulant to a pH above 2 and then it was absorbed for silica gel solidification. Formulations for each of these methods are presented along with waste form characteristics and properties. Compositional variation maps for grout formulations are presented which help determine the optimum "recipe" for a particular waste stream. These maps provide a method to determine the proportions of waste, calcium hydroxide, Portland cement, and blast furnace slag that provide a waste form that meets the disposal acceptance criteria. The maps guide researchers in selecting areas to study and provide an operational envelop that produces acceptable waste forms. The grouts both solidify and stabilize the wastes, while absorption on silica gel produces a solid waste that will not pass standard leaching procedures (TCLP) if required. Silica gel wastes can be made to pass most leach tests if heated to 600ºC.

  3. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    PubMed

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds. PMID:25827307

  4. Re-cultivation of Neochloris oleoabundans in exhausted autotrophic and mixotrophic media: the potential role of polyamines and free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Sabia, Alessandra; Baldisserotto, Costanza; Biondi, Stefania; Marchesini, Roberta; Tedeschi, Paola; Maietti, Annalisa; Giovanardi, Martina; Ferroni, Lorenzo; Pancaldi, Simonetta

    2015-12-01

    Neochloris oleoabundans (Chlorophyta) is widely considered one of the most promising microalgae for biotechnological applications. However, the large-scale production of microalgae requires large amounts of water. In this perspective, the possibility of using exhausted growth media for the re-cultivation of N. oleoabundans was investigated in order to simultaneously make the cultivation more economically feasible and environmentally sustainable. Experiments were performed by testing the following media: autotrophic exhausted medium (E+) and mixotrophic exhausted medium after cultivation with glucose (EG+) of N. oleoabundans cells grown in a 20-L photobioreactor (PBR). Both exhausted media were replenished with the same amounts of nitrate and phosphate as the control brackish medium (C). Growth kinetics, nitrate and phosphate consumption, photosynthetic pigments content, photosynthetic efficiency, cell morphology, and lipid production were evaluated. Moreover, the free fatty acid (FFA) composition of exhausted media and the polyamine (PA) concentrations of both algae and media were analyzed in order to test if some molecules, released into the medium, could influence algal growth and metabolism. Results showed that N. oleoabundans can efficiently grow in both exhausted media, if appropriately replenished with the main nutrients (E+ and EG+), especially in E+ and to the same extent as in C medium. Growth promotion of N. oleoabundans was attributed to PAs and alteration of the photosynthetic apparatus to FFAs. Taken together, results show that recycling growth medium is a suitable solution to obtain good N. oleoabundans biomass concentrations, while providing a more sustainable ecological impact on water resources. PMID:26300293

  5. Comparison of the nitration of polyfluoronitrobenzenes by nitronium salts in superacidic and aprotic media: activation of the nitronium ion by protosolvation.

    PubMed Central

    Olah, G A; Laali, K K; Sandford, G

    1992-01-01

    The reactivity of nitronium tetrafluoroborate in the nitration of deactivated di- and trifluoronitrobenzenes is enhanced in superacidic trifluoromethanesulfonic (triflic) acid compared with aprotic methylene chloride and sulfolane solutions. The enhanced reactivity is discussed in terms of better solubility and higher dissociation of the nitronium salts, as well as protosolvation of NO2+ by superacids. PMID:11607308

  6. Modulation of the nitrate reductase transcript by cytokinin and abscisic acid in etiolated barley seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jia-ling; Enl, J.R.; Chen, Chong-maw )

    1989-04-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanism of the hormonal modulation of nitrate reductase (NR) activity, the influence of benzyladenine (BA) and/or abscisic acid (ABA) on the level of NR poly(A)RNA was studied in etiolated barley seedlings using a {sup 32}P-labelled NR cDNA as a probe. Enhancement of NR activity by 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}M BA was measurable only after 60 minutes of exposure of the seedlings to light, while a significant stimulatory effect on the transcript level could by clearly detected within 15 minutes. Northern blot analyses of the levels of NR poly(A)RNA indicate that the amount present is proportional to the concentration of BA applied to the seedlings. The stimulatory effects seen for BA were nullified by ABA. The counteractive effects of ABA on BA were dose-responsive, with greater inhibition at higher concentrations of ABA. Evidence suggests that the interaction of BA and ABA on NR activity is at the transcriptional level, however, is also possible that interactions occur at the postranscriptional level as well.

  7. The Roles of Four Conserved Basic Amino Acids in a Ferredoxin-Dependent Cyanobacterial Nitrate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Anurag P.; Hirasawa, Masakazu; Bhalla, Megha; Chung, Jung-Sung; Allen, James P.; Johnson, Michael K.; Tripathy, Jatindra N.; Rubio, Luis M.; Vaccaro, Brian; Subramanian, Sowmya; Flores, Enrique; Zabet-Moghaddam, Masoud; Stitle, Kyle; Knaff, David B.

    2013-01-01

    The roles of four conserved basic amino acids in the reaction catalyzed by the ferredoxin-dependent nitrate reductase from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 have been investigated using site-directed mutagenesis in combination with measurements of steady-state kinetics, substrate-binding affinities and spectroscopic properties of the enzyme’s two prosthetic groups. Replacement of either Lys58 or Arg70 by glutamine leads to a complete loss of activity, with both the physiological electron donor, reduced ferredoxin and with a non-physiological electron donor, reduced methyl viologen. More conservative, charge-maintaining K58R and R70K variants were also completely inactive. Replacement of Lys130 by glutamine produced a variant that retained 26% of the wild-type activity with methyl viologen as the electron donor and 22% of the wild-type activity with ferredoxin as the electron donor, while replacement by arginine produces a variant that retains a significantly higher percentage of the wild-type activity with both electron donors. In contrast, replacement of Arg146 by glutamine had minimal effect on the activity of the enzyme. These results, along with substrate-binding and spectroscopic measurements, are discussed in terms of an in silico structural model for the enzyme. PMID:23692082

  8. Competitive Oxidation of Volatile Fatty Acids by Sulfate- and Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria from an Oil Field in Argentina▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Grigoryan, Aleksandr A.; Cornish, Sabrina L.; Buziak, Brenton; Lin, Shiping; Cavallaro, Adriana; Arensdorf, Joseph J.; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, collectively referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFA), are considered among the most important electron donors for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) in oil fields. Samples obtained from a field in the Neuquén Basin, western Argentina, had significant activity of mesophilic SRB, hNRB, and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). In microcosms, containing VFA (3 mM each) and excess sulfate, SRB first used propionate and butyrate for the production of acetate, which reached concentrations of up to 12 mM prior to being used as an electron donor for sulfate reduction. In contrast, hNRB used all three organic acids with similar kinetics, while reducing nitrate to nitrite and nitrogen. Transient inhibition of VFA-utilizing SRB was observed with 0.5 mM nitrite and permanent inhibition with concentrations of 1 mM or more. The addition of nitrate to medium flowing into an upflow, packed-bed bioreactor with an established VFA-oxidizing SRB consortium led to a spike of nitrite up to 3 mM. The nitrite-mediated inhibition of SRB led, in turn, to the transient accumulation of up to 13 mM of acetate. The complete utilization of nitrate and the incomplete utilization of VFA, especially propionate, and sulfate indicated that SRB remained partially inhibited. Hence, in addition to lower sulfide concentrations, an increase in the concentration of acetate in the presence of sulfate in waters produced from an oil field subjected to nitrate injection may indicate whether the treatment is successful. The microbial community composition in the bioreactor, as determined by culturing and culture-independent techniques, indicated shifts with an increasing fraction of nitrate. With VFA and sulfate, the SRB genera Desulfobotulus, Desulfotignum, and Desulfobacter as well as the sulfur-reducing Desulfuromonas and the NR-SOB Arcobacter were detected. With VFA and nitrate, Pseudomonas spp. were

  9. Ammonium nitrate evaporation and nitric acid condensation in DMT CCN counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romakkaniemi, S.; Jaatinen, A.; Laaksonen, A.; Nenes, A.; Raatikainen, T.

    2014-05-01

    The effect of inorganic semivolatile aerosol compounds on the cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity of aerosol particles was studied by using a computational model for a DMT-CCN counter, a cloud parcel model for condensation kinetics and experiments to quantify the modelled results. Concentrations of water vapour and semivolatiles as well as aerosol trajectories in the CCN column were calculated by a computational fluid dynamics model. These trajectories and vapour concentrations were then used as an input for the cloud parcel model to simulate mass transfer kinetics of water and semivolatiles between aerosol particles and the gas phase. Two different questions were studied: (1) how big a fraction of semivolatiles is evaporated from particles after entering but before particle activation in the DMT-CCN counter? (2) How much can the CCN activity be increased due to condensation of semivolatiles prior to the maximum water supersaturation in the case of high semivolatile concentration in the gas phase? Both experimental and modelling results show that the evaporation of ammonia and nitric acid from ammonium nitrate particles causes a 10 to 15 nm decrease to the critical particle size in supersaturations between 0.1% and 0.7%. On the other hand, the modelling results also show that condensation of nitric acid or similar vapour can increase the CCN activity of nonvolatile aerosol particles, but a very high gas phase concentration (as compared to typical ambient conditions) would be needed. Overall, it is more likely that the CCN activity of semivolatile aerosol is underestimated than overestimated in the measurements conducted in ambient conditions.

  10. Artificial Neural Network Prediction for Thermal Decomposition of Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) and Benzoic Acid (C6H5COOH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beken, Murat

    The aim of this work is to correlate the results of experimental data by using the differential thermal analysis (DTA) method and predictions of artificial neural networks (ANNs). Thermal decomposition of potassium nitrate (KNO3) and benzoic acid (C6H5COOH) have been analyzed by the simultaneous DTA method. Kinetic parameters (critical points, the change of enthalpy) have been investigated. A computer model, based on multilayer feed-forwarding back-propagation is used for the prediction of critical points, phase transitions of potassium nitrate (KNO3) and benzoic acid (C6H5COOH). As a result of our study, we conclude that the ANN model shows a considerably good result about the prediction of experimental data.

  11. The decrease in Greenland ice-core δ15N of nitrate in the industrial period: influenced by changes in atmospheric acidity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, L.; Cole-Dai, J.; Alexander, B.; Steig, E. J.; Schauer, A. J.; Savarino, J.

    2012-12-01

    Previous study in a central Greenland ice core has revealed a decreasing trend in δ15N of nitrate (δ15N (nitrate)) starting as early as 1850 C.E.. Lake sediment cores from North America show a similar trend in δ15N of total nitrogen starting around 1895 C.E.. The decrease in δ15N has been proposed to be due to the increasing deposition of anthropogenically derived (i.e., fossil fuel combustion) nitrate in the industrial period. However, this interpretation is questioned by measurements of δ15N in NOx and atmospheric nitrate. Here, we present new, annually-resolved records of δ15N (nitrate) and major ion concentrations (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+) obtained from two central Greenland ice cores. The results (Figure 1) indicate that the significant decrease in δ15N is coincident with an increase in acidity (H+ concentration estimated based on ionic balance) beginning around 1895 C.E., which is about 50 years earlier than the start of the increase in nitrate concentration (~1945 C.E.) . This observation suggests that it is likely the acidity change, instead of the input of anthropogenic nitrate, triggered the decrease in ice-core δ15N (nitrate). Atmospheric aerosol acidity influences the partitioning of atmospheric nitrate between its gaseous (HNO3) and particulate (p-NO3-) phases, resulting in a depletion of δ15N in HNO3 relative to p-NO3-. If atmospheric nitrate is transported to central Greenland preferentially in its gaseous form (HNO3), which is an open question, a decrease in ice-core δ15N (nitrate) would be expected with an increase in atmospheric acidity. We will examine the relationships between δ15N (nitrate) and the ice-core records of acidity, and HNO3, to discern the processes from changes in atmospheric acidity to the observed variability in ice core δ15N (nitrate) during the Industrial era.igure 1. The annual NO3- (blue curve), H+ (black curve) concentrations, and annual δ15N (nitrate) (red curve, y-axis is reversely

  12. Reactivity of Water Soluble Organic Acids with Chloride and Nitrate Particles Investigated by Micro-spectroscopy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; OBrien, R. E.; Kelly, S. T.; Shilling, J. E.; Tivanski, A.; Moffet, R.; Gilles, M. K.; Laskin, A.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric particles often consist of a complex organic and inorganic mixture. Interactions between organic and inorganic species may affect particles' chemical and physical properties thus atmospheric chemistry and climate. Water soluble organic acids (WSOA) can contribute a significant fraction of organic materials in condense phase. Inorganic particles, such as sea salt and mineral dust, are main components in the atmosphere and can undergo complex heterogeneous reactions. For example, depletion of chloride in sea salt particles was reported in previous field studies and was attributed to the acid displacement of chlorides with inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids. Recently, we showed that NaCl can react with WSOA resulting in the release gaseous HCl and formation of organic salts. A similar mechanism is also applicable to mixed WSOA/nitrate particles where acid displacement reactions are mainly driven by the high volatility and evaporation of HNO3 as particles go through dehydration process. Furthermore, secondary organic material (SOM), which contains a complex mixture of carboxylic acids, exhibits a similar reactivity towards chlorides and nitrates. Here, we present field and laboratory studies on the reactions between atmospheric relevant WSOA/SOM and inorganic salts including NaCl, NaNO3, and Ca(NO3)2 using complementary micro-spectroscopy analysis such as computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS), and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show various potentials of chloride and nitrate depletion by WSOA and SOM. Formation of corresponding organic salts is confirmed and quantified.

  13. A speculative discussion of some problems arising from the use of ammonium nitrate fertiliser on acid soil.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, T

    1992-01-01

    Some personal farming experiences are described, and attention is drawn to four anomalies associated with the use of ammonium nitrate. These can be explained if the changes that took place in the formulation of fertilisers around 1960 have led to acidic soils becoming depleted in calcium, and if crops growing in high nitrogen conditions take up their nitrogen as ammonium. It is concluded that the fertiliser recommendations that have been formulated at Rothamsted are unsuitable for use upon acidic soils in wetter parts of the UK because they result in the soil becoming excessively anaerobic so that the balance of nutrients becomes unsuitable for optimal plant and animal growth. PMID:1488214

  14. Degradation of CYANEX 301 in Contact with Nitric Acid Media

    SciTech Connect

    Philippe Marc; Radu Custelcean; Gary S. Groenewold; John R. Klaehn; Dean R. Peterman; Laetitia H. Delmau

    2012-10-01

    The nature of the degradation product obtained upon contacting CYANEX 301 (bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid) with nitric acid has been elucidated and found to be a disulfide derivative. The first step to the degradation of CYANEX 301 in toluene has been studied using 31P{1H} NMR after being contacted with nitric acid media. The spectrum of the degradation product exhibits a complex multiplet around dP = 80 ppm. A succession of purifications of CYANEX 301 has resulted in single crystals of the acidic form and the corresponding ammonium salt. Unlike the original CYANEX 301, which consists of a complex diastereomeric mixture displaying all possible combinations of chiral orientations at the 2-methyl positions, the purified crystals were shown by single-crystal X-ray diffraction to be racemates, containing 50:50 mixtures of the [R;R] and [S;S] diastereomers. The comparison between the 31P {1H} NMR spectra of the degradation products resulting from the diastereomerically pure CYANEX 301 and the original diastereomeric mixture has elucidated the influence of the isomeric composition on the multiplicity of the 31P {1H} NMR peak. These NMR data indicate the initial degradation leads to a disulfide-bridged condensation product displaying multiple resonances due to phosphorus–phosphorus coupling, which is caused by the inequivalence of the two P atoms as a result of their different chirality. A total of nine different NMR resonances, six of which display phosphorus–phosphorus coupling, could be assigned, and the identity of the peaks corresponding to phosphorus atoms coupled to each other was confirmed by 31P {1H} homodecoupled NMR analysis.

  15. The Aerobic Oxidation of Bromide to Dibromine Catalyzed by Homogeneous Oxidation Catalysts and Initiated by Nitrate in Acetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Partenheimer, Walt; Fulton, John L.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Pham, Van Thai; Chen, Yongsheng

    2014-06-01

    A small amount of nitrate, ~0.002 molal, initiates the Co/Mn catalyzed aerobic oxidation of bromide compounds (HBr,NaBr,LiBr) to dibromine in acetic acid at room temperature. At temperatures 40oC or less , the reaction is autocatalytic. Co(II) and Mn(II) themselves and mixed with ionic bromide are known homogeneous oxidation catalysts. The reaction was discovered serendipitously when a Co/Br and Co/Mn/Br catalyst solution was prepared for the aerobic oxidation of methyaromatic compounds and the Co acetate contained a small amount of impurity i.e. nitrate. The reaction was characterized by IR, UV-VIS, MALDI and EXAFS spectroscopies and the coordination chemistry is described. The reaction is inhibited by water and its rate changed by pH. The change in these variables, as well as others, are identical to those observed during homogeneous, aerobic oxidation of akylaromatics. A mechanism is proposed. Accidental addition of a small amount of nitrate compound into a Co/Mn/Br/acetic acid mixture in a large, commercial feedtank is potentially dangerous.

  16. Treatment of chlorinated solvents by nitrogen-fixing and nitrate-supplied methane oxidizers in columns packed with unsaturated porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, K.H.; Alvarez-Cohen, L.

    2000-05-01

    This study compares the feasibility of employing nitrogen-fixing and nitrate-supplied methane-oxidizing cultures grown in unsaturated porous media to degrade cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cDCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in gas streams. Both nitrate-supplied and nitrogen-fixing columns degraded TCE completely at a gaseous concentration of 0.7 mg/L for 8--10 days. However, when columns were supplied with 4% CH{sub 4} and 10% O{sub 2}, nitrate-supplied columns were not able to recover after degrading TCE at a gaseous concentration of 0.13 mg/L for 7 days. In contrast, nitrogen-fixing columns recovered after degrading 0.13--0.4 mg/L TCE for 3--10 days and were capable of repeatedly degrading TCE at gaseous concentrations of 0.03--0.14 mg/L TCE for 3--10 days and were capable of repeatedly degrading TCE at gaseous concentrations of 0.03--0.14 mg/L during long-term intermittent operation that was punctuated by appropriate microbial recovery periods. Both nitrate-supplied and nitrogen-fixing columns were capable of degrading cDCE at concentrations of 0.7--1.0 mg/L for 5--10 days, but only the nitrogen-fixing columns recovered from cDCE exposure. The operating period for columns treating a mixture of TCE and cDCE was significantly shorter than that for treatment of TCE or cDCE alone. Several operating curves were developed to facilitate comparisons between operating conditions and to aid in predicting chlorinated solvent removals in such systems. Nitrogen-fixing columns consistently outperformed nitrate-supplied columns, and columns inoculated with a mixed culture outperformed those inoculated with Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b for TCE removal but not for cDCE removal.

  17. Efficient secretion of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid from Halomonas sp. KM-1 by nitrate fed-batch cultivation with glucose under microaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Ando, Hitoshi; Matsushita, Isao; Tsubota, Jun

    2014-03-01

    To establish a sustainable society, commodity chemicals need to be developed from biomass resources. Recently, (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid ((R)-3-HB), a monomer of bioplastic poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB), has attracted attention for its possible use in the chemical industry. Halophilic bacteria have been considered for bioprocess applications due to certain characteristics such as the ability to grow in media containing high levels of the starting carbon source and the ability to be rarely contaminated. A halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. KM-1 stores PHB intracellularly under aerobic conditions and secretes (R)-3-HB under microaerobic conditions. In this study, we optimized culture conditions to maximize (R)-3-HB secretion by KM-1 cells. By a simple nitrate fed-batch cultivation, Halomonas sp. KM-1 secreted 40.3g/L (R)-3-HB with a productivity of 0.48g L(-1)h(-1) with 20% (w/v) glucose. This level is one of the highest recorded productivity of (R)-3-HB to date. PMID:24503050

  18. The nitrate transporter MtNPF6.8 (MtNRT1.3) transports abscisic acid and mediates nitrate regulation of primary root growth in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Pellizzaro, Anthoni; Clochard, Thibault; Cukier, Caroline; Bourdin, Céline; Juchaux, Marjorie; Montrichard, Françoise; Thany, Steeve; Raymond, Valérie; Planchet, Elisabeth; Limami, Anis M; Morère-Le Paven, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Elongation of the primary root during postgermination of Medicago truncatula seedlings is a multigenic trait that is responsive to exogenous nitrate. A quantitative genetic approach suggested the involvement of the nitrate transporter MtNPF6.8 (for Medicago truncatula NITRATE TRANSPORTER1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER Family6.8) in the inhibition of primary root elongation by high exogenous nitrate. In this study, the inhibitory effect of nitrate on primary root elongation, via inhibition of elongation of root cortical cells, was abolished in npf6.8 knockdown lines. Accordingly, we propose that MtNPF6.8 mediates nitrate inhibitory effects on primary root growth in M. truncatula. pMtNPF6.8:GUS promoter-reporter gene fusion in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-generated transgenic roots showed the expression of MtNPF6.8 in the pericycle region of primary roots and lateral roots, and in lateral root primordia and tips. MtNPF6.8 expression was insensitive to auxin and was stimulated by abscisic acid (ABA), which restored the inhibitory effect of nitrate in npf6.8 knockdown lines. It is then proposed that ABA acts downstream of MtNPF6.8 in this nitrate signaling pathway. Furthermore, MtNPF6.8 was shown to transport ABA in Xenopus spp. oocytes, suggesting an additional role of MtNPF6.8 in ABA root-to-shoot translocation. (15)NO3(-)-influx experiments showed that only the inducible component of the low-affinity transport system was affected in npf6.8 knockdown lines. This indicates that MtNPF6.8 is a major contributor to the inducible component of the low-affinity transport system. The short-term induction by nitrate of the expression of Nitrate Reductase1 (NR1) and NR2 (genes that encode two nitrate reductase isoforms) was greatly reduced in the npf6.8 knockdown lines, supporting a role of MtNPF6.8 in the primary nitrate response in M. truncatula. PMID:25367858

  19. Heterogeneous chemical reaction of chlorine nitrate and water on sulfuric-acid surfaces at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, Michel J.; Malhotra, Ripudaman; Golden, David M.

    1987-01-01

    The use of H2SO4 as a catalyst for aerosol production of chlorine compounds in the chemistry of the antarctic stratosphere was investigated in laboratory trials. The experiments involved the gas surface collision rate of a molecule on a given surface during its residence time in a Knudsen cell in molecular flow conditions. Chlorine nitrate gas was made to flow through a chamber exposed to a container holding a 95.6 pct H2SO4 solution. Gas leaving the cell was scanned with a mass spectrometer. A sticking coefficient of 0.00032 was found for the chlorine nitrate, a value five times that previously reported.

  20. Environmental Nitrate Stimulates Abscisic Acid Accumulation in Arabidopsis Root Tips by Releasing It from Inactive Stores[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling plays a major role in root system development, regulating growth and root architecture. However, the precise localization of ABA remains undetermined. Here, we present a mechanism in which nitrate signaling stimulates the release of bioactive ABA from the inactive storage form, ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE). We found that ABA accumulated in the endodermis and quiescent center of Arabidopsis thaliana root tips, mimicking the pattern of SCARECROW expression, and (to lower levels) in the vascular cylinder. Nitrate treatment increased ABA levels in root tips; this stimulation requires the activity of the endoplasmic reticulum-localized, ABA-GE-deconjugating enzyme β-GLUCOSIDASE1, but not de novo ABA biosynthesis. Immunogold labeling demonstrated that ABA is associated with cytoplasmic structures near, but not within, the endoplasmic reticulum. These findings demonstrate a mechanism for nitrate-regulated root growth via regulation of ABA accumulation in the root tip, providing insight into the environmental regulation of root growth. PMID:26887919

  1. Hexa-μ2-acetato-triaqua-μ3-oxido-triiron(III) nitrate acetic acid solvate

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Sumei; Liu, Jianhua; Han, Qiuxia

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Fe3(CH3COO)6O(H2O)3]NO3·CH3COOH, consists of a hexa-μ2-acetato-triaqua-μ3-oxo-triiron(III) macrocation, a nitrate ion and an acetic acid solvent mol­ecule. In the cation, each Fe3+ ion is coordinated by four carboxyl­ate O atoms, one central bridged O atom and one water mol­ecule, resulting in distorted FeO6 octa­hedra. A network of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds helps to establish the packing. PMID:21203085

  2. Hexa-μ(2)-acetato-triaqua-μ(3)-oxido-triiron(III) nitrate acetic acid solvate.

    PubMed

    Yao, Sumei; Liu, Jianhua; Han, Qiuxia

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Fe(3)(CH(3)COO)(6)O(H(2)O)(3)]NO(3)·CH(3)COOH, consists of a hexa-μ(2)-acetato-triaqua-μ(3)-oxo-triiron(III) macrocation, a nitrate ion and an acetic acid solvent mol-ecule. In the cation, each Fe(3+) ion is coordinated by four carboxyl-ate O atoms, one central bridged O atom and one water mol-ecule, resulting in distorted FeO(6) octa-hedra. A network of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds helps to establish the packing. PMID:21203085

  3. Yeast Extract and Silver Nitrate Induce the Expression of Phenylpropanoid Biosynthetic Genes and Induce the Accumulation of Rosmarinic Acid in Agastache rugosa Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Park, Woo Tae; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Yeo, Sun Kyung; Jeon, Jin; Park, Jong Seok; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of yeast extract and silver nitrate on the enhancement of phenylpropanoid pathway genes and accumulation of rosmarinic acid in Agastache rugosa cell cultures. The treatment of cell cultures with yeast extract (500 mg/L) and silver nitrate (30 mg/L) for varying times enhanced the expression of genes in the phenylpropanoid pathway and the production of rosmarinic acid. The results indicated that the expression of RAS and HPPR was proportional to the amount of yeast extract and silver nitrate. The transcript levels of HPPR under yeast extract treatment were 1.84-, 1.97-, and 2.86-fold higher than the control treatments after 3, 6, and 12 h, respectively, whereas PAL expression under silver nitrate treatment was 52.31-fold higher than in the non-treated controls after 24 h of elicitation. The concentration of rosmarinic acid was directly proportional to the concentration of the applied elicitors. Yeast extract supplementation documented the highest amount of rosmarinic acid at 4.98 mg/g, whereas silver nitrate addition resulted in a comparatively lower amount of rosmarinic acid at 0.65 mg/g. In conclusion, addition of yeast extract to the cell cultures enhanced the accumulation of rosmarinic acid, which was evidenced by the expression levels of the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes in A. rugosa. PMID:27043507

  4. Activation of Carbonyl-Containing Molecules with Solid Lewis Acids in Aqueous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Román-Leshkov, Yuriy; Davis, Mark E.

    2011-09-28

    Current interest in reacting carbonyl-containing molecules in aqueous media is primarily due to the growing emphasis on conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Recently, solid Lewis acids have been shown to perform catalytic reactions with carbonyl-containing molecules such as sugars in aqueous media. Here, catalysis mediated by Lewis acids is briefly discussed, Lewis acid solids that perform catalysis in aqueous media are then described, and the review is concluded with a few comments on the outlook for the future.

  5. Polymerization of acrylamide at acid pH using uranyl nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, V.V.; Bodhe, A.M.; Pawar, H.S.; Vartak, H.G.

    1986-03-01

    A new photopolymerizing reagent, uranyl nitrate, is used for the polymerization of acrylamide gels at low pH. The amount of uranyl nitrate (0.2 mg/ml) required for the polymerization of gels at pH 3.0 is considerably less than that of persulfate (7 mg/ml). Use of this reagent obviates the need for the removal of excess of persulfate by preelectrophoresis. The electrophoretic separation of basic proteins in uranium-polymerized gels showed faster movement and better resolution of proteins and proved the gels to be versatile, uniform, and reproducible. Electrophoresis of trypsin in these gels does not affect the enzymatic activity. The catalyst can also be used for the polymerization of gels containing 3 M urea.

  6. Influence of the Metal Nitrates to Citric Acid Molar Ratio on the Processing of Nickel Zinc Ferrite Nanocrystalline Powders Synthesized by a Sol-Gel Auto Combustion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barati, M. R.; Ebrahimi, S. A. Seyyed; Badiei, A.

    2009-06-01

    Nanocrystalline powder of the single phase nickel-zinc ferrite have been prepared by a sol-gel auto-combustion process. The nitrate-citrate gels were prepared from metal nitrates and citric acid solutions with various molar ratios of the metal nitrates to citric acid. The results showed that the nitrate citrate gels exhibit a self-propagating behavior after ignition in air. The thermal decomposition of nitrate-citrate gels and the phase evolution of the as-burnt powder were investigated by differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry (DTA/TG) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques respectively. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to characterize the microstructure of the material. Magnetic properties were also measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) with a maximum applied field of 10 kOe. The results also revealed that the molar ratio of the metal nitrates to citric acid has important effects on the formation temperature and the crystallite size which affect the magnetic properties of the nickel-zinc ferrite.

  7. Effect of the cathode material on the removal of nitrates by electrolysis in non-chloride media.

    PubMed

    Lacasa, Engracia; Cañizares, Pablo; Llanos, Javier; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2012-04-30

    In this work, the effect of the cathode material (conductive diamond, stainless steel, silicon carbide, graphite or lead) and the current density (150-1400 A m(-2)) on the removal of nitrates from aqueous solutions is studied by electrolysis in non-divided electrochemical cells equipped with conductive diamond anodes, using sodium sulphate as the electrolyte. The results show that the cathode material very strongly influences both the process performance and the product distribution. The main products obtained are gaseous nitrogen (NO, N(2)O and NO(2)) and ammonium ions. Nitrate removal follows first order kinetics, which indicates that the electrolysis process is controlled by mass transfer. Furthermore, the stainless steel and graphite cathodes show a great selectivity towards the production of ammonium ions, whereas the silicon carbide cathode leads to the highest formation of gaseous nitrogen, which production is promoted at low current densities. PMID:22387000

  8. Effects of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate on polar lipids and Fatty acids in leaves of morning glory and kidney bean.

    PubMed

    Nouchi, I; Toyama, S

    1988-07-01

    To compare the effects of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on leaf lipids, fatty acids and malondialdehyde (MDA), morning glory (Pharbitis nil Choisy cv Scarlet O'Hara) and kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Gintebo) plants were exposed to either ozone (0.15 microliter per liter for 8 hours) or PAN (0.10 microliter per liter for up to 8 hours). Ozone increased phospholipids in morning glory and decreased in kidney bean at the initial stage (2-4 hours) of exposure, while it scarcely changed glycolipids, the unsaturated fatty acids, and MDA in both plants. A large reduction of glycolipids occurred 1 day after ozone exposure in both plants. PAN caused marked drops in phospholipids and glycolipids in kidney bean at relatively late stage (6-8 hours) of exposure, while it increased phosphatidic acid and decreased the unsaturated fatty acids, an increase which was accompanied by a large increase in MDA. These results suggest that ozone may not directly oxidize unsaturated fatty acids at the initial stage of exposure, but may alter polar lipid metabolism, particularly phospholipids. On the other hand, PAN may abruptly and considerably degrade phospholipids and glycolipids by peroxidation or hydrolysis at the late stage of exposure. The present study shows that ozone and PAN affect polar lipids in different manners. PMID:16666199

  9. Acidic gases and nitrate and sulfate particles in the atmosphere in the city of Guadalajara, México.

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Waliszewski, Stefan; Murillo-Tovar, Mario; Hernández-Mena, Leonel; de la Garza-Rodríguez, Iliana; Colunga-Urbina, Edith; Cuevas-Ordaz, Rosalva

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of nitrous acid, nitric acid, nitrate and sulfate particles were obtained in this study from April to June 2008 in the center of the city of Guadalajara, while concentrations of ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and meteorological parameters (temperature and relative humidity), were acquired by the Secretaría del Medio Ambiente para el Desarrollo Sustentable del Estado de Jalisco (SEMADES). The results showed that nitric acid (2.7 μg m(-3)) was 2.7 times higher than nitrous acid (1.0 μg m(-3)). The sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) concentration indicated an opposite trend to sulfate (SO(4) (2-)), with the average concentration of SO(2) (6.9 μg m(-3)) higher in almost the entire period of study. The sulfur conversion ratio (Fs, 24.9%) and nitrogen conversion ratio (Fn, 6.2%), were revealed to be similar to that reported in other urban areas during warm seasons. It is also noted that ozone is not the main oxidizer of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. This determination was made by taking into account the slightly positively correlation determined for Fn (r(2) = 0.084) and Fs (r(2) = 0.092) with ozone that perhaps suggests there are other oxidizing species such as the radical OH, which are playing an important role in the processes of atmospheric oxidation in this area. PMID:22358115

  10. Thermodynamics of Cesium Extraction from Acidic Media by HCCD and PEG

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R. S.; Peterman, D. R.; Zalupski, Peter R.; Nash, Ken L; Tillotson, R. D.; Delmau, Laetitia Helene

    2010-01-01

    In this study, details of cesium extraction from nitrate media using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (HCCD) dissolved in the polar phenyl trifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13) diluent have been examined. It has been verified that Cs{sup +} phase transfer is based solely on cation exchange (H{sup +} for Cs{sup +}) that is, that a previously reported nitrate dependency arises from nonideal behavior of solute species. The enthalpy and entropy of the system calculated using appropriate corrections to the van't Hoff analysis are found to be in good agreement with independently measured calorimetry results. Finally, it is demonstrated that synergistic extraction of Cs{sup +} by HCCD and PEG does not occur. Although there is a definite interaction between HCCD and PEG (and it is well established that this interaction is responsible for the extraction of Sr{sup 2+}), this association is actually antagonistic to the extraction of Cs{sup +}.

  11. Nitrate removal properties of solid-phase denitrification processes using acid-blended poly(L-lactic acid) as the sole substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.; Matsuoka, H.; Sun, J.; Yoshikawa, S.; Tsuji, H.; Hiraishi, A.

    2013-04-01

    The large amount of waste that is discharged along with the diffusion of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) articles in use is persistent concern. Previously, we studied solid-phase denitrification (SPD) processes using PLLA to establish an effective re-use of PLLA waste. We found that PLLA with a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of approximately 10,000 was suitable for SPD processes; however, the recycling of PLLA waste consumes a high energy. A new PLLA plastic including 5% poly(ethylene oxalate) (PEOxPLLA) as a blend material has attracted attention because recycling of PEOxPLLA consumes less electricity than that of PLLA. In this study, our main objectives were to evaluate whether PEOxPLLA can be used for SPD processes by changing its Mw and to investigate the bioavailability for denitrification of hydrolysates released from PEOxPLLA. The predicted hydrolysates, including oxalic acid, ethylene glycol, and lactate, are abiotically released, leading to different biological nitrate removal rates. Consequently, the nitrate removal rate of PEOxPLLA ranged from 0.9-4.1 mg-NO3--N·g-MLSS·h-1 by changing the Mw in the range of 8,500-238,000. In culture-dependent approaches, denitrifying bacteria using each substrate as an electron donor are found in activated sludge, suggesting that all hydrolysates functioned in the SPD processes using PEOxPLLA.

  12. Nitrate, ascorbic acid, mineral and antioxidant activities of Cosmos caudatus in response to organic and mineral-based fertilizer rates.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Siti Aishah; Mijin, Salumiah; Yusoff, Umi Kalsom; Ding, Phebe; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat

    2012-01-01

    The source and quantity of nutrients available to plants can affect the quality of leafy herbs. A study was conducted to compare quality of Cosmos caudatus in response to rates of organic and mineral-based fertilizers. Organic based fertilizer GOBI (8% N:8% P₂O₅:8% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O) were evaluated based on N element rates at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 kg h⁻¹. Application of organic based fertilizer reduced nitrate, improved vitamin C, antioxidant activity as well as nitrogen and calcium nutrients content. Antioxidant activity and chlorophyll content were significantly higher with increased fertilizer application. Fertilization appeared to enhance vitamin C content, however for the maximum ascorbic acid content, regardless of fertilizer sources, plants did not require high amounts of fertilizer. PMID:22743588

  13. COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS FOR MEASUREMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC NITRIC ACID AND AEROSOL NITRATE AND AMMONIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three methods for measuring gaseous ambient nitric acid in the low concentration range 0-15 mcg/cum were compared under field conditions in southwestern Ontario during June 1-14, 1982. The methods employed were (1) tunable diode laser absorption, (2) a tungstic acid denuder tube,...

  14. Adhesive Properties and Acid-Forming Activity of Lactobacilli and Streptococci Under Inhibitory Substances, Such as Nitrates.

    PubMed

    Hakobyan, L; Harutyunyan, K; Harutyunyan, N; Melik-Andreasyan, G; Trchounian, A

    2016-06-01

    One of the main requirements for probiotics is their ability to survive during passage through gastrointestinal tract and to maintain their activity at different adverse conditions. The aim of the study was to look for the strains of lactobacilli and streptococci with high adhesive properties even affected by inhibitory substances, such as nitrates (NO3 (-)). To study the adhesion properties hemagglutination reaction of bacterial cells with red blood cells of different animals and humans was used. The acid formation ability of bacteria was determined by the method of titration after 7 days of incubation in the sterile milk. These properties were investigated at different concentrations of NO3 (-). The high concentration (mostly ≥2.0 %) NO3 (-) inhibited the growth of both lactobacilli and streptococci, but compared with streptococcal cultures lactobacilli, especially Lactobacillus acidophilus Ep 317/402, have shown more stability and higher adhesive properties. In addition, the concentrations of NO3 (-) of 0.5-2.0 % decreased the acid-forming activity of the strains, but even under these conditions they coagulated milk and, in comparison to control, formed low acidity in milk. Thus, the L. acidophilus Ep 317/402 with high adhesive properties has demonstrated a higher activity of NO3 (-) transformation. PMID:26942420

  15. Nitrate and amino acid availability affects glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine in response to changes of salinity in a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica.

    PubMed

    Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Kageyama, Hakuto; Fukaya, Minoru; Rai, Vandna; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-12-01

    A halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica thrives in extreme salinity with accumulation of a potent osmoprotectant glycine betaine. Recently, this cyanobacterium was shown to accumulate sunscreen molecule mycosporine-2-glycine significantly at high salinity. In this study, we investigated effects of nitrate and amino acid provision on the accumulation of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine. With elevated nitrate concentrations at high salinity, intracellular levels of both metabolites were enhanced. Six-fold high nitrate concentration increased the relative amounts of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine to be 1.5 and 2.0 folds compared with control condition : Increased levels were time- and dose-dependent manner. Exogenous supply of glycine/serine at high salinity resulted in the similar trends as observed in excess nitrate experiment. Intracellular level of glycine betaine increased ∼1.6 folds with glycine/serine supplementation. These supplementations also caused the increased level of mycosporine-2-glycine, namely 1.4 and 2 folds by glycine and serine, respectively. The transcription of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine biosynthetic genes was strongly induced under high-nitrate-salt condition. These results suggest the dependence of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine productions on substrate availability, and the effect of nitrate was possibly associated with stimulation of osmoprotectant increment in this extremophile. PMID:26474598

  16. Acidity decline in Antarctic ice cores during the Little Ice Age linked to changes in atmospheric nitrate and sea salt concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasteris, Daniel; McConnell, Joseph R.; Edwards, Ross; Isaksson, Elizabeth; Albert, Mary R.

    2014-05-01

    Acidity is an important chemical variable that impacts atmospheric and snowpack chemistry. Here we describe composite time series and the spatial pattern of acidity concentration (Acy = H+ - HCO3-) during the last 2000 years across the Dronning Maud Land region of the East Antarctic Plateau using measurements in seven ice cores. Coregistered measurements of the major ion species show that sulfuric acid (H2SO4), nitric acid (HNO3), and hydrochloric acid (HCl) determine greater than 98% of the acidity value. The latter, also described as excess chloride (ExCl-), is shown mostly to be derived from postdepositional diffusion of chloride with little net gain or loss from the snowpack. A strong inverse linear relationship between nitrate concentration and inverse accumulation rate provides evidence of spatially homogenous fresh snow concentrations and reemission rates of nitrate from the snowpack across the study area. A decline in acidity during the Little Ice Age (LIA, 1500-1900 Common Era) is observed and is linked to declines in HNO3 and ExCl- during that time. The nitrate decline is found to correlate well with published methane isotope data from Antarctica (δ13CH4), indicating that it is caused by a decline in biomass burning. The decrease in ExCl- concentration during the LIA is well correlated to published sea surface temperature reconstructions in the Atlantic Ocean, which suggests increased sea salt aerosol production associated with greater sea ice extent.

  17. Identification of mRNA transcript and screening of amino acids in response to interaction of salinity and nitrate in aquatic fern Azolla caroliniana.

    PubMed

    Tammam, A A; Mostafa, E M

    2012-06-01

    The mechanisms by which Azolla caroliniana respond to salt stress in absence and presence of nitrate is investigated. Screening of amino acid and differential display is used to compare overall differences in gene expression between salinity-stressed and unstressed Azolla caroliniana by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PC R). Results showed that under saline conditions, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and leucine were the amino acids found to be abundant in Azolla caroliniana, accounting for 11.26%, 8.66%, 9.43%, and 12.36%, respectively. Following salinity stress, a decrease in free glutamate concomitant with a parallel decrease in free proline was indeed evident. Interaction between nitrate and salinity stress increased proline content significantly. By screening a cDNA library, we have identified protein products by homology with known proteins. The RNA transcripts encoding protein influencing secondary metabolites and vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter that facilitate the transport system. The databasematched under interaction of nitrate and 50 mM NaCl were associated with wall biosynthesis, disease resistance, metabolite transport and protein regulator, other gene for metabolism of steroids and secondary transport. Results obtained from this research could represent a key step in understanding the molecular mechanism of salt tolerance of Azolla caroliniana in the presence and absence of nitrate. PMID:22695523

  18. Rapid (<3 min) microwave synthesis of block copolymer templated ordered mesoporous metal oxide and carbonate films using nitrate-citric acid systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanzhong; Bhaway, Sarang M; Wang, Yi; Cavicchi, Kevin A; Becker, Matthew L; Vogt, Bryan D

    2015-03-25

    Rapid chemical transformation from micelle templated precursors (metal nitrate and citric acid) to ordered mesoporous metal carbonates and oxides is demonstrated using microwave heating for cobalt, copper, manganese and zinc. Without aging requirements, <3 min of microwave processing yields highly ordered mesoporous films. PMID:25714045

  19. IMPACT OF PRIMARY SULFATE AND NITRATE EMISSIONS FROM SELECTED MAJOR SOURCES. PHASE 2: SULFURIC ACID PLANT AND PULP AND PAPER MILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report covers Phase two of a two phase study of the near source impacts of primary sulfate and nitrate emission sources. The phase two portion of the study was an investigation of the impact of the emissions from a sulfuric acid plant, and a pulp and paper mill. The study was...

  20. Dry deposition of ammonia, nitric acid, ammonium, and nitrate to alpine tundra at Niwot Ridge, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattray, G.; Sievering, H.

    2001-01-01

    Micrometeorological measurements and ambient air samples, analyzed for concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NH4+, and NO3-, were collected at an alpine tundra site on Niwot Ridge, Colorado. The measured concentrations were extremely low and ranged between 5 and 70ngNm-3. Dry deposition fluxes of these atmospheric species were calculated using the micrometeorological gradient method. The calculated mean flux for NH3 indicates a net deposition to the surface and indicates that NH3 contributed significantly to the total N deposition to the tundra during the August-September measurement period. Our pre-measurement estimate of the compensation point for NH3 in air above the tundra was 100-200ngNm-3; thus, a net emission of NH3 was expected given the low ambient concentrations of NH3 observed. Based on our results, however, the NH3 compensation point at this alpine tundra site appears to have been at or below about 20ngNm-3. Large deposition velocities (>2cms-1) were determined for nitrate and ammonium and may result from reactions with surface-derived aerosols. Copyright (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.Micrometeorological measurements and ambient air samples, analyzed for concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NH4+, and NO3-, were collected at an alpine tundra site on Niwot Ridge, Colorado. The measured concentrations were extremely low and ranged between 5 and 70 ng N m-3. Dry deposition fluxes of these atmospheric species were calculated using the micrometeorological gradient method. The calculated mean flux for NH3 indicates a net deposition to the surface and indicates that NH3 contributed significantly to the total N deposition to the tundra during the August-September measurement period. Our pre-measurement estimate of the compensation point for NH3 in air above the tundra was 100-200 ng N m-3; thus, a net emission of NH3 was expected given the low ambient concentrations of NH3 observed. Based on our results, however, the NH3 compensation point at this alpine tundra site appears to

  1. Effect of acidity on the glycine-nitrate combustion synthesis of nanocrystalline alumina powder

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Tianyou . E-mail: typeng@whu.edu.cn; Liu Xun; Dai Ke; Xiao Jiangrong; Song Haibo

    2006-09-14

    Nanocrystalline alumina powders were prepared by combustion synthesis using glycine as fuel and nitrate as an oxidizer. The effect of the pH values in the precursor solutions on crystallite sizes, surface areas and morphologies of the synthesized alumina powder has been investigated by X-ray diffractometry, thermal analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and transmission electron microscopy. With decreasing the pH values in the precursor solutions, the obtained materials could be modified from segregated nanoparticles (pH 10.5) to aggregates of nanoparticles (pH 6.0), and finally to a flaky morphology (pH 2.5). The rates of decomposition, the interaction of coordination as well as the hydrogen bonding of the glycine and the Al-hydroxides species at different pH values were found to be responsible for the generation of flake and/or segregated nanoparticles during auto-ignition reactions. The as-prepared combustion ashes were converted into pure nanocrystalline alumina after calcination at elevated temperatures. The specific surface areas of the products calcined at 800 deg. C ranged from 96 to 39 m{sup 2}/g with the pH decreased from 10.5 to 2.5.

  2. Rainfall scavenging coefficients for atmospheric nitric acid and nitrate in a subtropical coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, Silvia M.; Poor, Noreen D.; Campbell, Scott W.; Tate, Paul; Hartsell, Ben

    Hourly-measured gas concentrations and 24-h integrated PM 10 concentrations were used in conjunction with a below-cloud scavenging model to explain nitrate (NO 3-) concentrations in rainwater samples collected at a bayside monitoring site in Tampa, Florida, USA. Mass particle concentrations were assumed to have a log-normal distribution as a function of particle diameter based on experimental data from the monitoring site. The effect of rain droplet diameter on modeled scavenging rates was studied using exponential, gamma, and log-normal droplet size distributions (DSD). For 11 summertime rain events and across these three DSDs, normalized mean scavenging coefficients (average ± standard deviation) for HNO 3 and NO 3- were 2.90 × 10 -5 ± 1.80 × 10 -5 (s × mm/h) -1 and 2.78 × 10 -5 ± 0.56 × 10 -5 (s mm/h) -1. Rainwater concentrations were modeled for two different cases: the first case assumed constant gas and particle concentrations and the second case assumed first-order removal of gases and particles. The below-cloud scavenging model explained 92.0 ± 40.2% of NO 3- concentrations in the first case and 40.0 ± 24.6% in the second case. The model predicted that aerosol NO 3- constituted the largest fractions of rainwater NO 3-.

  3. Oxidized and nitrated oleic acid in biological systems: analysis by GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS, and biological significance.

    PubMed

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Zoerner, Alexander A; Jordan, Jens

    2011-11-01

    Compared to the arachidonic acid (C20:4) cascade, the oleic acid (C18:1) family comprises a handful known metabolites. The pathophysiology of oleic acid and its oxidized and nitrated metabolites, i.e., cis-9,10-epoxyoctadecanoic acid (cis-EpOA) and the two vinylic nitro-oleic acids cis-9-nitro-oleic acid (9-NO(2)-OA) and cis-10-nitro-oleic acid (10-NO(2)-OA), is only little investigated and little understood. cis-EpOA, 9-NO(2)-OA and 10-NO(2)-OA have been detected in plasma of healthy and ill human subjects by means of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques in their acid and esterified forms. cis-EpOA is formed from oleic acid by the catalytic action of various cytochrome P450 isozymes. In end-stage liver disease, cis-EpOA plasma concentration is lower than in healthy subjects suggesting liver as the main organ responsible for cis-EpOA synthesis. The origin of 9-NO(2)-OA and 10-NO(2)-OA and of other nitrated oleic acid metabolites is unknown. In vitro models, nitro-oleic acid species can be formed non-enzymatically from oleic acid and nitrogen dioxide. Thus, endogenous nitro-oleic acids could serve as biomarkers of fatty acid nitration by reactive nitrogen species. Synthetic 9-NO(2)-OA and 10-NO(2)-OA at concentrations of three orders of magnitude higher than their endogenous counterparts have interesting pharmacological features and are currently intensely investigated. The present article reviews and discusses currently available analytical methods for the quantitative determination of cis-EpOA, 9-NO(2)-OA and 10-NO(2)-OA in biological samples, notably in human plasma, and the potential biological significance of these oleic acid metabolites. Special emphasis is given to GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS methods utilizing the stable-isotope dilution technique. The sensitivity and specificity of the MS/MS approach make electron-capture negative ion chemical ionization (ECNICI) GC

  4. Nitrated Fatty Acids Reverse Cigarette Smoke-Induced Alveolar Macrophage Activation and Inhibit Protease Activity via Electrophilic S-Alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Aravind T.; Lakshmi, Sowmya P.; Muchumarri, Ramamohan R.; Reddy, Raju C.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrated fatty acids (NFAs), endogenous products of nonenzymatic reactions of NO-derived reactive nitrogen species with unsaturated fatty acids, exhibit substantial anti-inflammatory activities. They are both reversible electrophiles and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists, but the physiological implications of their electrophilic activity are poorly understood. We tested their effects on inflammatory and emphysema-related biomarkers in alveolar macrophages (AMs) of smoke-exposed mice. NFA (10-nitro-oleic acid or 12-nitrolinoleic acid) treatment downregulated expression and activity of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB while upregulating those of PPARγ. It also downregulated production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and of the protease cathepsin S (Cat S), a key mediator of emphysematous septal destruction. Cat S downregulation was accompanied by decreased AM elastolytic activity, a major mechanism of septal destruction. NFAs downregulated both Cat S expression and activity in AMs of wild-type mice, but only inhibited its activity in AMs of PPARγ knockout mice, pointing to a PPARγ-independent mechanism of enzyme inhibition. We hypothesized that this mechanism was electrophilic S-alkylation of target Cat S cysteines, and found that NFAs bind directly to Cat S following treatment of intact AMs and, as suggested by in silico modeling and calculation of relevant parameters, elicit S-alkylation of Cys25 when incubated with purified Cat S. These results demonstrate that NFAs’ electrophilic activity, in addition to their role as PPARγ agonists, underlies their protective effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and support their therapeutic potential in this disease. PMID:27119365

  5. Metal-Free Oxidative Nitration of α-Carbon of Carbonyls Leads to One-Pot Synthesis of Thiohydroximic Acids from Acetophenones.

    PubMed

    Dighe, Shashikant U; Mukhopadhyay, Sushobhan; Priyanka, Kumari; Batra, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    A metal-free nitration of the α-C-H to carbonyl in propiophenones was achieved with I2/NaNO2 in the presence of an oxidant in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the medium. Conversely under similar conditions, reaction of acetophenones produced thiohydroximic acids via a radical-based cascade event which involves oxidative nitration of the α-carbon to a carbonyl followed by Michael addition of the thiomethyl group from DMSO and subsequent rearrangement. Besides DMSO, the scope of the reaction encompasses other symmetrical and unsymmetrical dialkylsulfoxides. PMID:27541178

  6. Reactive uptake of N2O5 by aerosols containing dicarboxylic acids. Effect of particle phase, composition, and nitrate content.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Paul T; Badger, Claire L; Cox, R Anthony; Folkers, Mareike; Henk, Hartmut H; Mentel, Thomas F

    2009-04-30

    Reactive uptake coefficients for loss of N(2)O(5) to micron-size aerosols containing oxalic malonic, succinic, and glutaric acids, and mixtures with ammonium hydrogen sulfate and ammonium sulfate, are presented. The uptake measurements were made using two different systems: atmospheric pressure laminar flow tube reactor (Cambridge) and the Large Indoor Aerosol Chamber at Forschungszentrum Juelich. Generally good agreement is observed for the data recorded using the two techniques. Measured uptake coefficients lie in the range 5 x 10(-4)-3 x 10(-2), dependent on relative humidity, on particle phase, and on particle composition. Uptake to solid particles is generally slow, with observed uptake coefficients less than 1 x 10(-3), while uptake to liquid particles is around an order of magnitude more efficient. These results are rationalized using a numerical model employing explicit treatment of both transport and chemistry. Our results indicate a modest effect of the dicarboxylic acids on uptake and confirm the strong effect of particle phase, liquid water content, and particulate nitrate concentrations. PMID:19385680

  7. Methane production and emission from peat. the influence of anions (sulphate, nitrate) from acid rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Andrea; Nedwell, David B.

    The influence of sulphate concentrations on the production and emission of methane in two contrasting peat sites was determined. Seasonal changes in sulphate concentrations appeared to influence the amount of organic carbon oxidised to carbon dioxide by sulphate reduction at both peat sites. For the majority of the year at both sites the amount of carbon mineralised through sulphate reduction exceeded that being transformed to methane by methanogenic bacteria, except when sulphate reduction became sulphate limited. In order to sustain the high sulphate reduction rates measured in the peat sulphide formed from dissimilatory sulphate reduction must be reoxidised rapidly to sulphate within the peat. Laboratory experiments showed that addition of 500 μM sulphate and 100 μM nitrate to peat samples significantly inhibited methanogenesis. Sulphate appeared to be the more important inhibitor of methanogenesis since inhibition of methane formation occurred with additions of sulphate reflecting in situ concentrations. Supplements of either acetate and/or hydrogen in combination with molybdate to peat samples revealed that methanogenesis was hydrogen limited and that the majority of active methanogens were hydrogen-utilising methanogens. Methanogenesis in peat samples appeared to be dependant on sulphate reducing bacteria for provision of substrates. Great Dun Fell, receiving the largest sulphate loading, had the lower rates of microbial activity (methane formation and sulphate reduction rates) than Ellergower, which received less than half the annual sulphate deposition of Great Dun Fell. This implied that some other factor—possibly organic matter lability, was limiting microbial rates of methane formation and sulphate reduction at Great Dun Fell.

  8. Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Lee E., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    Intended for secondary English teachers, the materials and ideas presented here suggest ways to use media in the classroom in teaching visual and auditory discrimination while enlivening classes and motivating students. Contents include "Media Specialists Need Not Apply," which discusses the need for preparation of media educators with…

  9. Iridium-based double perovskites for efficient water oxidation in acid media

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Morales, Oscar; Raaijman, Stefan; Kortlever, Ruud; Kooyman, Patricia J.; Wezendonk, Tim; Gascon, Jorge; Fu, W. T.; Koper, Marc T. M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of active, cost-effective and stable oxygen-evolving catalysts is one of the major challenges for solar-to-fuel conversion towards sustainable energy generation. Iridium oxide exhibits the best available compromise between catalytic activity and stability in acid media, but it is prohibitively expensive for large-scale applications. Therefore, preparing oxygen-evolving catalysts with lower amounts of the scarce but active and stable iridium is an attractive avenue to overcome this economical constraint. Here we report on a class of oxygen-evolving catalysts based on iridium double perovskites which contain 32 wt% less iridium than IrO2 and yet exhibit a more than threefold higher activity in acid media. According to recently suggested benchmarking criteria, the iridium double perovskites are the most active catalysts for oxygen evolution in acid media reported until now, to the best of our knowledge, and exhibit similar stability to IrO2. PMID:27498694

  10. Iridium-based double perovskites for efficient water oxidation in acid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Morales, Oscar; Raaijman, Stefan; Kortlever, Ruud; Kooyman, Patricia J.; Wezendonk, Tim; Gascon, Jorge; Fu, W. T.; Koper, Marc T. M.

    2016-08-01

    The development of active, cost-effective and stable oxygen-evolving catalysts is one of the major challenges for solar-to-fuel conversion towards sustainable energy generation. Iridium oxide exhibits the best available compromise between catalytic activity and stability in acid media, but it is prohibitively expensive for large-scale applications. Therefore, preparing oxygen-evolving catalysts with lower amounts of the scarce but active and stable iridium is an attractive avenue to overcome this economical constraint. Here we report on a class of oxygen-evolving catalysts based on iridium double perovskites which contain 32 wt% less iridium than IrO2 and yet exhibit a more than threefold higher activity in acid media. According to recently suggested benchmarking criteria, the iridium double perovskites are the most active catalysts for oxygen evolution in acid media reported until now, to the best of our knowledge, and exhibit similar stability to IrO2.

  11. Iridium-based double perovskites for efficient water oxidation in acid media.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Morales, Oscar; Raaijman, Stefan; Kortlever, Ruud; Kooyman, Patricia J; Wezendonk, Tim; Gascon, Jorge; Fu, W T; Koper, Marc T M

    2016-01-01

    The development of active, cost-effective and stable oxygen-evolving catalysts is one of the major challenges for solar-to-fuel conversion towards sustainable energy generation. Iridium oxide exhibits the best available compromise between catalytic activity and stability in acid media, but it is prohibitively expensive for large-scale applications. Therefore, preparing oxygen-evolving catalysts with lower amounts of the scarce but active and stable iridium is an attractive avenue to overcome this economical constraint. Here we report on a class of oxygen-evolving catalysts based on iridium double perovskites which contain 32 wt% less iridium than IrO2 and yet exhibit a more than threefold higher activity in acid media. According to recently suggested benchmarking criteria, the iridium double perovskites are the most active catalysts for oxygen evolution in acid media reported until now, to the best of our knowledge, and exhibit similar stability to IrO2. PMID:27498694

  12. [The use of hydroxamic acids and sodium nitrate to enhance the antitumor effect of cyclophosphamide].

    PubMed

    Bogatyrenko, T N; Kuropteva, Z V; Sashenkova, T E; Baĭder, L M; Konovalova, N P

    2013-01-01

    It has been showed that the introduction of nitrocompounds (as nitic oxide donors) in to the compositions of cyclophosphamide and hydroxamic acids for curing animals having leukemia P-388 increased duration of life by 290%. Thereby 40% of animals have recovered. The therapeutic dose cyclophosphamide have been reduced by 6 times. PMID:23814833

  13. NITRIC ACID-NITRATE AEROSOL MEASUREMENTS BY A DIFFUSION DENUDER: A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nitric acid diffusion denuder made of nylon was operated in Riverside, CA, Houston, TX, and Claremont, CA. The pre-exponential and diffusion coefficients for the first term of the Gormley-Kennedy equation were estimated by regressing the log (mass deposited) against the axial d...

  14. Effects of root-zone acidity on utilization of nitrate and ammonium in tobacco plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1989-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., cv. 'Coker 319') plants were grown for 28 days in flowing nutrient culture containing either 1.0 mM NO3- or 1.0 mM NH4+ as the nitrogen source in a complete nutrient solution. Acidities of the solutions were controlled at pH 6.0 or 4.0 for each nitrogen source. Plants were sampled at intervals of 6 to 8 days for determination of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation. Specific rates of NO3- or NH4+ uptake (rate of uptake per unit root mass) were calculated from these data. Net photosynthetic rates per unit leaf area were measured on attached leaves by infrared gas analysis. When NO3- [correction of NO-] was the sole nitrogen source, root growth and nitrogen uptake rate were unaffected by pH of the solution, and photosynthetic activity of leaves and accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen in the whole plant were similar. When NH4+ was the nitrogen source, photosynthetic rate of leaves and accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen in the whole plant were not statistically different from NO3(-) -fed plants when acidity of the solution was controlled at pH 6.0. When acidity for NH4(+) -fed plants was increased to pH 4.0, however, specific rate of NH4+ uptake decreased by about 50% within the first 6 days of treatment. The effect of acidity on root function was associated with a decreased rate of accumulation of nitrogen in shoots that was accompanied by a rapid cessation of leaf development between days 6 and 13. The decline in leaf growth rate of NH4(+) -fed plants at pH 4.0 was followed by reductions in photosynthetic rate per unit leaf area. These responses of NH4(+) -fed plants to increased root-zone acidity are characteristic of the sequence of responses that occur during onset of nitrogen stress.

  15. Effects of varying media, temperature, and growth rates on the intracellular concentrations of yeast amino acids.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Force, E; Benítez, T

    1995-01-01

    Variations of the yeast free amino acid pool under different culture conditions were studied in two Saccharomyces strains, the laboratory haploid strain S288C and the industrial fermentative yeast IFI256. The internal amino acid pool of both strains was measured when grown in laboratory (minimal and complete) versus semiindustrial (molasses with or without added biotin and/or diammonium phosphate) media, in fermentable (glucose, fructose, sucrose) versus respirable (glycerol) carbon sources, in different temperatures (22, 30, and 37 degrees C), pHs (2.0-4.75), and growth rates (0.018-0.24 h-1) in continuous culture, and at different phases of the growth curve in batch culture (lag, exponential, early and late stationary). Results indicated that environmental conditions, particularly the presence of amino acids in the media, enormously influenced the intracellular amino acid concentration. Higher values were detected in molasses than in laboratory media and in fermentable carbon sources (glucose, fructose, sucrose) than in glycerol. Variations in the amino acid pool along the growth curve were greater at 37 degrees C than at other temperatures; in all cases, the highest values were measured at the beginning of the exponential phase. In continuous culture and at different growth rates, intracellular free amino acid concentrations increased by 3-10-fold when the growth rate was lower than 0.05 h-1, representing 20-35% of the total (free plus protein) amino acid content and indicating that amino acid yield was a partly growth-linked parameter. PMID:7654310

  16. Selective extraction of cesium from acidic nitrate solutions with didodecylnaphthalenesulfonic acid synergized with bis(tert-butylbenzo)-21-crown-7

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N. ); McDonough, J.A.; Bartsch, R.A. )

    1992-12-01

    The behavior of other crown ether-synergized sulfonic acid extraction systems suggested that the title system would be selective for cesium. Synthesis of the new lipophilic crown ether, bis[4(5)-tert-butylbenzo]-21-crown-7 (D(tBB)21C7), allowed testing of this hypothesis. Under nonloading conditions, the distribution coefficient for cesium between a toluene solution 0.025 M in didodecylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDDNS) and D(tBB)21C7 and an aqueous phase 0.1 M in nitric acid is 100 with separation factors of 1.2 from rubidium, 5.6 from potassium, and 294 from sodium. Under loading and competitive extraction conditions, the distribution coefficients were lower (5 for cesium), but the separation factors remained in the same order and of useful magnitude, 1.5 from rubidium, 6.4 from potassium, and 192 from sodium. Increasing the concentrations of D(tBB)21C7 and HDDNS in the organic phase gives higher distribution coefficients for cesium as did lower aqueous acid concentrations. 23 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Field Observation of Heterogeneous Formation of Dicarboxylic acids, Keto-carboxylic acids, α-Dicarbonyls and Nitrate in Xi'an, China during Asian dust storm periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Wang, J.; Ren, Y.; Li, J.

    2015-12-01

    To understand the formation mechanism of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) on dust surfaces, this study investigated the concentrations and compositions of dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11), keto-carboxylic acids (C3-C7), α-dicarbonyls and inorganic ions in size-segregated aerosols (9-stages) collected in Xi'an, China during the nondust storm and dust storm periods of 2009 and 2011. During the events the ambient particulate dicarboxylic acids were 932-2240 ng m-3, which are comparable and even higher than those in nondust periods. Molecular compositions of the above SOA are similar to those in nondust periods with oxalic acid being the leading species. In the presence of the dust storms, all the above mentioned SOA species in Xi'an were predominantly enriched on the coarse particles (>2.1μm), and oxalic acid well correlated with NO3- (R2=0.72, p<0.001) rather than SO42-.This phenomenon differs greatly from the SOA in any other nondust period that is characterized by an enrichment of oxalic acid in fine particles and a strong correlation of oxalic acid with SO42-. Our results further demonstrate that NO3- in the dust periods in Xi'an was mostly derived from secondary oxidation, whereas SO42- during the events was largely derived from surface soil of Gobi deserts. We propose a formation pathway to explain these observations, in which nitric acid and/or nitrogen oxides react with dust to produce Ca(NO3)2 and form a liquid phase on the surface of dust aerosols via water vapor-absorption of Ca(NO3)2, followed by a partitioning of the gas-phase water-soluble organic precursors (e.g.,glyoxal and methylglyoxal) into the aqueous-phase and a subsequent oxidation into oxalic acid. To the best of our knowledge, we found for the first time the enrichment of glyoxal and methylglyoxal on dust surface. Our data suggest an important role of nitrate in the heterogeneous formation process of SOA on the surface of Asian dust.

  18. Extraction of protactinium from mineral acid-alcohol media.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Sanad, W; Shabana, R

    1968-07-01

    The extraction of protactinium with organic solvents has been investigated in the presence of water-miscible alcohols and acetone. These additives were found to increase considerably the extraction of protactinium in the cases of trilaurylamine, tributyl phosphate and isobutyl methyl ketone. The influence was less in the case of thenoyltrifluoroacetone. In mixtures of an acid with various alcohols, the influence depended on the alcohol concentration, the acidity and on the chain lengths and dielectric constants of the alcohol introduced into the extraction system. PMID:18960346

  19. Characterizing the Chemical Composition of the Columbia River Plume: the use of Silicic Acid, Nitrate, Manganese and Salinity as Tracers of Sources of Waters Contributing to the Plume.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruland, K. W.; Aguilar-Islas, A. M.; Lohan, M. C.

    2004-12-01

    The RISE program is examining the influence of the Columbia River plume on the coastal waters off Washington and Oregon. It is important to define the macro and micro nutrient chemistry of the plume as it enters these coastal waters. Low salinity waters of the Columbia River are encountered just a short distance inside the mouth of the Columbia River estuary. These low salinity waters (salinities of 1 to 5) are low in nitrate (3 to 10 μ M), high in silicic acid (140 to 160 μ M), high in dissolved manganese and relatively high in dissolved iron. Within a remarkably short distance of exiting the mouth of the estuary into the coastal waters, the plume has attained salinities of roughly 13 to 22. The source of seawater that is entrained together with the river water in this near-field mixing regime to form the Columbia River plume can be defined using silicic acid, nitrate, manganese and salinity as tracers. During June and July of 2004, it appears that the seawater being initially entrained with the plume is subsurface, high salinity (>33), nutrient rich (nitrate 25 μ M and silicic acid 35 μ M) water. This is particularly important for the macronutrient nitrate, as this adds a substantial amount of additional nitrate to the plume. The plume water then advects and mixes further away from the source. The combination of these same tracers is useful in identifying the far-field mixing as well. We will present examples of these processes and tracers using data from the 2004 RISE cruises.

  20. The removal of uranium from acidic media using ion exchange and/or extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Schake, B.S.; Murphy, J.; Holmes, K; West, M.H.

    1996-06-01

    The separation and purification of uranium from either nitric acid or hydrochloric acid media can be accomplished by using either solvent extraction or ion-exchange. Over the past two years at Los Alamos, emerging programs are focused on recapturing the expertise required to do limited, small-quantity processing of enriched uranium. During this period of time, we have been investigating ion-addition, waste stream polishing is associated with this effort in order to achieve more complete removal of uranium prior to recycle of the acid. Extraction chromatography has been demonstrated to further polish the uranium from both nitric and hydrochloric acid media thus allowing for a more complete recovery of the actinide material and creation of less waste during the processing steps.

  1. Differential regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis in two Chlorella species in response to nitrate treatments and the potential of binary blending microalgae oils for biodiesel application.

    PubMed

    Cha, Thye San; Chen, Jian Woon; Goh, Eng Giap; Aziz, Ahmad; Loh, Saw Hong

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of different nitrate concentrations in culture medium on oil content and fatty acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris (UMT-M1) and Chlorella sorokiniana (KS-MB2). Results showed that both species produced significant higher (p<0.05) oil content at nitrate ranging from 0.18 to 0.66 mM with C. vulgaris produced 10.20-11.34% dw, while C. sorokiniana produced 15.44-17.32% dw. The major fatty acids detected include C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3. It is interesting to note that both species displayed differentially regulated fatty acid accumulation patterns in response to nitrate treatments at early stationary growth phase. Their potential use for biodiesel application could be enhanced by exploring the concept of binary blending of the two microalgae oils using developed mathematical equations to calculate the oil mass blending ratio and simultaneously estimated the weight percentage (wt.%) of desirable fatty acid compositions. PMID:21967717

  2. Nitrate and periplasmic nitrate reductases

    PubMed Central

    Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha

    2014-01-01

    The nitrate anion is a simple, abundant and relatively stable species, yet plays a significant role in global cycling of nitrogen, global climate change, and human health. Although it has been known for quite some time that nitrate is an important species environmentally, recent studies have identified potential medical applications. In this respect the nitrate anion remains an enigmatic species that promises to offer exciting science in years to come. Many bacteria readily reduce nitrate to nitrite via nitrate reductases. Classified into three distinct types – periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), respiratory nitrate reductase (Nar) and assimilatory nitrate reductase (Nas), they are defined by their cellular location, operon organization and active site structure. Of these, Nap proteins are the focus of this review. Despite similarities in the catalytic and spectroscopic properties Nap from different Proteobacteria are phylogenetically distinct. This review has two major sections: in the first section, nitrate in the nitrogen cycle and human health, taxonomy of nitrate reductases, assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, cellular locations of nitrate reductases, structural and redox chemistry are discussed. The second section focuses on the features of periplasmic nitrate reductase where the catalytic subunit of the Nap and its kinetic properties, auxiliary Nap proteins, operon structure and phylogenetic relationships are discussed. PMID:24141308

  3. Modeling nitrate removal in a denitrification bed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denitrification beds are being promoted to reduce nitrate concentrations in agricultural drainage water to alleviate the adverse environmental effects associated with nitrate pollution in surface water. In this system, water flows through a trench filled with a carbon media where nitrate is transfor...

  4. Cellulose degradation in alkaline media upon acidic pretreatment and stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Testova, Lidia; Nieminen, Kaarlo; Penttilä, Paavo A; Serimaa, Ritva; Potthast, Antje; Sixta, Herbert

    2014-01-16

    The present study reports on a revised kinetic model for alkaline degradation of cellulose accounting for primary peeling/stopping reactions as well as for alkaline hydrolysis followed by secondary peeling. Oxalic acid pretreated cotton linters was utilised as the model substrate for the prehydrolysis-soda anthraquinone process. The main emphasis was investigating the effect of end-group stabilising additives such as sodium borohydride (BH), anthraquinone (AQ), and anthraquinone-2-sulphonic acid sodium salt (AQS) on the rates of the yield loss reactions. BH and AQS ensured a cellulose yield gain of 13% and 11%, respectively, compared to the reference. Both stabilisation agents decreased the content of the reducing end groups in the samples, while in the case of AQS stabilisation a 25% increase in carboxyl group content compared to the reference was also observed. As expected, the addition of end group stabilisers resulted in a significant decrease in the peeling-to-stopping rate constants ratio. PMID:24188853

  5. Development and validation of dissolution testings in acidic media for rabeprazole sodium delayed-release capsules.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yinhe; Si, Xiaoqing; Zhong, Lulu; Feng, Xin; Yang, Xinmin; Huang, Min; Wu, Chuanbin

    2016-10-01

    Rabeprazole sodium (RAB) dissolved in acidic media is accompanied by its degradation in the course of dissolution testing. To develop and establish the accumulative release profiles of ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle (RAB) delayed-release capsules (ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle) in acidic media using USP apparatus 2 (paddle apparatus) as a dissolution tester, the issues of determination of accumulative release amount of RAB in these acidic media and interference of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose phthalate were solved by adding appropriate hydrochloric acid (HCl) into dissolution samples coupled with centrifugation so as to remove the interference and form a solution of degradation products of RAB, which is of a considerably stable ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at the wavelength of 298 nm within 2.0 h. Therefore, the accumulative release amount of RAB in dissolution samples at each sample time points could be determined by UV-spectrophotometry, and the accumulative release profiles of ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle in the media of pH 1.0, pH 6.0, and pH 6.8 could be established. The method was validated per as the ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines and demonstrated to be adequate for quality control of ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle and the accumulative release profiles can be used as a tool to guide the formulation development and quality control of a generic drug for ACIPHEX(®) Sprinkle. PMID:27066697

  6. Development and validation of dissolution testings in acidic media for rabeprazole sodium delayed-release capsules

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yinhe; Si, Xiaoqing; Zhong, Lulu; Feng, Xin; Yang, Xinmin; Huang, Min; Wu, Chuanbin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rabeprazole sodium (RAB) dissolved in acidic media is accompanied by its degradation in the course of dissolution testing. To develop and establish the accumulative release profiles of ACIPHEX® Sprinkle (RAB) delayed-release capsules (ACIPHEX® Sprinkle) in acidic media using USP apparatus 2 (paddle apparatus) as a dissolution tester, the issues of determination of accumulative release amount of RAB in these acidic media and interference of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose phthalate were solved by adding appropriate hydrochloric acid (HCl) into dissolution samples coupled with centrifugation so as to remove the interference and form a solution of degradation products of RAB, which is of a considerably stable ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at the wavelength of 298 nm within 2.0 h. Therefore, the accumulative release amount of RAB in dissolution samples at each sample time points could be determined by UV-spectrophotometry, and the accumulative release profiles of ACIPHEX® Sprinkle in the media of pH 1.0, pH 6.0, and pH 6.8 could be established. The method was validated per as the ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines and demonstrated to be adequate for quality control of ACIPHEX® Sprinkle and the accumulative release profiles can be used as a tool to guide the formulation development and quality control of a generic drug for ACIPHEX® Sprinkle. PMID:27066697

  7. Using acid-washed waste tire rubber in soilless media for tomato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Cerasiforne’ tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was grown in soilless potting media contained different substrate formulas including 25:25:50 volume ratio of acid-washed (AWR) or non-washed shredded rubber (NAWR): vermiculite or zeolite: perlite. Additionally, plants were grown in a peat: perli...

  8. Aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the ability of Campylobacter spp. to grow aerobically in media supplemented with selected organic acids. Basal broth media composed of tryptose, yeast extract, and a mineral-vitamin solution was supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids. The fina...

  9. Extraction of selected transplutonium(III) and lanthanide(III) ions by dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate from aqueous nitrate media

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Muscatello, A.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.

    1981-05-01

    The extraction behavior of selected transplutonium(III) and lanthanide(III) ions from nitrate solution was studied using relatively pure dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP). The data obtained for Am(III) and Eu(III) using DHDECMP were compared with analogous measurements obtained with dibutyl butylphosphonate (DB(BP)) and in certain cases with dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylethylphosphonate (DHDECEP). It was found that both the nitrate and extractant concentration dependencies were third power. The K/sub d/'s for Am(III) and for Eu(III) measured from low acid LiNO/sub 3/ solutions were similar for DHDECMP, DHDECEP, and DB(BP), thus giving no evidence for any significant chelation effect for DHDECMP. Significant differences among DHDECMP, DHDECEP, and DB(BP) are found for the extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) from 1 to 5 M HNO/sub 3/. These differences are explained by the ability of DHDECMP (and to a lesser extent, DHDECEP) to buffer itself against HNO/sub 3/ by protonation of the amide group. The K/sub d/'s for Am(III) through Fm(III) and for La(III) through Lu(III) measured from LiNO/sub 3/ and HNO/sub 3/ using DHDECMP show a definite tetrad effect when plotted as a function of Z. The K/sub d/'s for the lanthanides generally decrease with Z whereas the K/sub d/'s for the transplutonium elements change very little with Z.

  10. Light-source-dependent role of nitrate and humic acid in tetracycline photolysis: kinetics and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Niu, Junfeng; Li, Yang; Wang, Wenlong

    2013-09-01

    To elucidate the environmental fate of tetracycline (TC), we reported the light-source-dependent dual effects of humic acid (HA) and NO3(-) on TC photolysis. TC photolysis rate was highly pH- and concentration-dependent, and was especially enhanced at higher pH and lower initial TC concentrations. Under UV-254 and UV-365 irradiation, HA inhibited TC photolysis through competitive photoabsorption or reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching with TC; under solar and xenon lamp irradiation, TC photolysis was enhanced at low HA concentration due to its photosensitization, whereas was suppressed at high HA concentration due to competitive photoabsorption or ROS quenching with TC. Similarly, the effect of NO3(-) on TC photolysis varied with light irradiation conditions. Even under the same light irradiation conditions, the effects of HA or NO3(-) on TC photolysis varied with their concentrations. The electron spin resonance spectrometer and ROS scavenger experiments demonstrated that TC photolysis was involved in O2(-)-mediated self-sensitized photolysis. The photolysis pathways were involved in hydroxylation and loss of some groups. More toxic intermediates than TC were generated under different light irradiation conditions. These results can provide insight into the potential fate and transformation of TC in surficial waters. PMID:23618345

  11. Hydrogen-bubble-propelled zinc-based microrockets in strongly acidic media.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Uygun, Aysegul; Wang, Joseph

    2012-01-18

    Tubular polyaniline (PANI)/Zn microrockets are described that display effective autonomous motion in extreme acidic environments, without any additional chemical fuel. These acid-driven hydrogen-bubble-propelled microrockets have been electrosynthesized using the conical polycarbonate template. The effective propulsion in acidic media reflects the continuous thrust of hydrogen bubbles generated by the spontaneous redox reaction occurring at the inner Zn surface. The propulsion characteristics of PANI/Zn microrockets in different acids and in human serum are described. The observed speed-pH dependence holds promise for sensitive pH measurements in extreme acidic environments. The new microrockets display an ultrafast propulsion (as high as 100 body lengths/s) along with attractive capabilities including guided movement and directed cargo transport. Such acid-driven microtubular rockets offer considerable potential for diverse biomedical and industrial applications. PMID:22188367

  12. Thallium Transfer from Hydrochloric Acid Media into Pure Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Tereshatov, Evgeny E; Boltoeva, Maria Yu; Mazan, Valerie; Volia, Merinda F; Folden, Charles M

    2016-03-10

    Pure hydrophobic ionic liquids are known to extract metallic species from aqueous solutions. In this work we have systematically investigated thallium (Tl) extraction from aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions into six pure fluorinated ionic liquids, namely imidazolium- and pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and bis(fluorosulfonyl)-imide anions. The dependence of the Tl extraction efficiency on the structure and composition of the ionic liquid ions, metal oxidation state, and initial metal and aqueous acid concentrations have been studied. Tl concentrations were on the order of picomolar (analyzed using radioactive tracers) and millimolar (analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). The extraction of the cationic thallium species Tl(+) is higher for ionic liquids with more hydrophilic cations, while for the TlX(z)(3-z) anionic species (where X = Cl(-) and/or Br(-)), the extraction efficiency is greater for ionic liquids with more hydrophobic cations. The highest distribution value of Tl(III) was approximately 2000. An improved mathematical model based on ion exchange and ion pair formation mechanisms has been developed to describe the coextraction of two different anionic species, and the relative contributions of each mechanism have been determined. PMID:26769597

  13. Removal of phosphorus from agricultural wastewaters using adsorption media prepared from acid mine drainage sludge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Montgomery, Gary A.; Ritenour, Kelsey L.; Tucker, Travis W.

    2009-01-01

    Excess phosphorus in wastewaters promotes eutrophication in receiving waterways. A??cost-effective method for the removal of phosphorus from water would significantly reduce the impact of such wastewaters on the environment. Acid mine drainage sludge is a waste product produced by the neutralization of acid mine drainage, and consists mainly of the same metal hydroxides used in traditional wastewater treatment for the removal of phosphorus. In this paper, we describe a method for the drying and pelletization of acid mine drainage sludge that results in a particulate media, which we have termed Ferroxysorb, for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater in an efficient packed bed contactor. Adsorption capacities are high, and kinetics rapid, such that a contact time of less than 5 min is sufficient for removal of 60-90% of the phosphorus, depending on the feed concentration and time in service. In addition, the adsorption capacity of the Ferroxysorb media was increased dramatically by using two columns in an alternating sequence so that each sludge bed receives alternating rest and adsorption cycles. A stripping procedure based on treatment with dilute sodium hydroxide was also developed that allows for recovery of the P from the media, with the possibility of generating a marketable fertilizer product. These results indicate that acid mine drainage sludges - hitherto thought of as undesirable wastes - can be used to remove phosphorus from wastewater, thus offsetting a portion of acid mine drainage treatment costs while at the same time improving water quality in sensitive watersheds.

  14. Root-zone acidity affects relative uptake of nitrate and ammonium from mixed nitrogen sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.; Chaillou, S.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) were grown for 21 days on 4 sources of N (1.0 mM NO3-, 0.67 mM NO3- plus 0.33 mM NH4+, 0.33 mM NO3- plus 0.67 mM NH4+, and 1.0 mM NH4+) in hydroponic culture with the acidity of the nutrient solution controlled at pH 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5. Dry matter and total N accumulation of the plants was not significantly affected by N-source at any of the pH levels except for decreases in these parameters in plants supplied solely with NH4+ at pH 4.5. Shoot-to-root ratios increased in plants which had an increased proportion [correction of proporiton] of NH4(+)-N in their nutrient solutions at all levels of root-zone pH. Uptake of NO3- and NH4+ was monitored daily by ion chromatography as depletion of these ions from the replenished hydroponic solutions. At all pH levels the proportion of either ion that was absorbed increased as the ratio of that ion increased in the nutrient solution. In plants which were supplied with sources of NO3- plus NH4+, NH4+ was absorbed at a ratio of 2:1 over NO3- at pH 6.0. As the pH of the root-zone declined, however, NH4+ uptake decreased and NO3- uptake increased. Thus, the NH4+ to NO3- uptake ratio declined with decreases in root-zone pH. The data indicate a negative effect of declining root-zone pH on NH4+ uptake and supports a hypothesis that the inhibition of growth of plants dependent on NH4(+)-N at low pH is due to a decline in NH4+ uptake and a consequential limitation of growth by N stress.

  15. THERMODYNAMICS OF CESIUM EXTRACTION FROM ACIDIC MEDIA BY HCCD and PEG

    SciTech Connect

    R. Scott Herbst; Dean R. Peterman; Peter R. Zalupski; Ken L. Nash; Richard D. Tillotson; Laetitia H. Delmau

    2010-09-01

    This is a companion study to previous publications which expands the understanding of cesium extraction from nitrate media using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (HCCD) dissolved in the polar phenyl trifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13) diluent. First, it is verified that the system is based solely on cation exchange between H+ and Cs+ and that NO3- does not intervene, i.e., that the apparent nitrate dependency is merely an artifact of solution non-idealities. Next, the enthalpy and entropy of the system were determined using appropriate corrections in the van’t Hoff analysis and are in excellent agreement with independently published calorimetry results. Finally, the extraction of Cs by the system containing both HCCD and polyethylene glycol (PEG) in FS-13 was characterized by the determination the species produced in the organic and aqueous phases and it is further demonstrated that synergistic extraction of Cs by HCCD and PEG does not occur. Although there is a definite interaction between HCCD and PEG, and it is well established that this interaction is responsible for the extraction of Sr, this association is actually antagonist with respect to the extraction of Cs.

  16. Simultaneous removal of cadmium and nitrate in aqueous media by nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) and Au doped nZVI particles.

    PubMed

    Su, Yiming; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Huang, Yuxiong; Sun, Xiaoya; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei; Keller, Arturo A

    2014-10-15

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) has demonstrated high efficacy for treating nitrate or cadmium (Cd) contamination, but its efficiency for simultaneous removal of nitrate and Cd has not been investigated. This study evaluated the reactivity of nZVI to the co-contaminants and by-product formation, employed different catalysts to reduce nitrite yield from nitrate, and examined the transformation of nZVI after reaction. Nitrate reduction resulted in high solution pH, negatively charged surface of nZVI, formation of Fe3O4 (a stable transformation of nZVI), and no release of ionic iron. Increased pH and negative charge contributed to significant increase in Cd(II) removal capacity (from 40 mg/g to 188 mg/g) with nitrate present. In addition, nitrate reduction by nZVI could be catalyzed by Cd(II): while 30% of nitrate was reduced by nZVI within 2 h in the absence of Cd(II), complete nitrate reduction was observed in the presence of 40 mg-Cd/L due to the formation of Cd islands (Cd(0) and CdO) on the nZVI particles. While nitrate was reduced mostly to ammonium when Cd(II) was not present or at Cd(II) concentrations ≥ 40 mg/L, up to 20% of the initial nitrate was reduced to nitrite at Cd(II) concentrations < 40 mg/L. Among nZVI particles doped with 1 wt. % Cu, Ag, or Au, nZVI deposited with 1 wt. % Au reduced nitrite yield to less than 3% of the initial nitrate, while maintaining a high Cd(II) removal capacity. PMID:24999115

  17. The Arabidopsis Ethylene/Jasmonic Acid-NRT Signaling Module Coordinates Nitrate Reallocation and the Trade-Off between Growth and Environmental Adaptation[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-Bin; Yi, Hong-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Stresses decouple nitrate assimilation and photosynthesis through stress-initiated nitrate allocation to roots (SINAR), which is mediated by the nitrate transporters NRT1.8 and NRT1.5 and functions to promote stress tolerance. However, how SINAR communicates with the environment remains unknown. Here, we present biochemical and genetic evidence demonstrating that in Arabidopsis thaliana, ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) affect the crosstalk between SINAR and the environment. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that ethylene response factors (ERFs), including OCTADECANOID-RESPONSIVE ARABIDOPSIS AP2/ERF59, bind to the GCC boxes in the NRT1.8 promoter region, while ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) binds to the EIN3 binding site motifs in the NRT1.5 promoter. Genetic assays showed that cadmium and sodium stresses initiated ET/JA signaling, which converged at EIN3/EIN3-Like1 (EIL1) to modulate ERF expression and hence to upregulate NRT1.8. By contrast, ET and JA signaling mediated the downregulation of NRT1.5 via EIN3/EIL1 and other, unknown component(s). SINAR enhanced stress tolerance and decreased plant growth under nonstressed conditions through the ET/JA-NRT1.5/NRT1.8 signaling module. Interestingly, when nitrate reductase was impaired, SINAR failed to affect either stress tolerance or plant growth. These data suggest that SINAR responds to environmental conditions through the ET/JA-NRT signaling module, which further modulates stress tolerance and plant growth in a nitrate reductase-dependent manner. PMID:25326291

  18. 2′-Deoxymugineic acid promotes growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by orchestrating iron and nitrate uptake processes under high pH conditions

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Ryoichi; Kousaka, Kayoko; Namba, Kosuke; Murata, Yoshiko; Murata, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Poaceae plants release 2′-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) and related phytosiderophores to chelate iron (Fe), which often exists as insoluble Fe(III) in the rhizosphere, especially under high pH conditions. Although the molecular mechanisms behind the biosynthesis and secretion of DMA have been studied extensively, little information is known about whether DMA has biological roles other than chelating Fe in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that hydroponic cultures of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings show almost complete restoration in shoot height and soil-plant analysis development (SPAD) values after treatment with 3–30 μm DMA at high pH (pH 8.0), compared with untreated control seedlings at normal pH (pH 5.8). These changes were accompanied by selective accumulation of Fe over other metals. While this enhanced growth was evident under high pH conditions, DMA application also enhanced seedling growth under normal pH conditions in which Fe was fairly accessible. Microarray and qRT-PCR analyses revealed that exogenous DMA application attenuated the increased expression levels of various genes related to Fe transport and accumulation. Surprisingly, despite the preferential utilization of ammonium over nitrate as a nitrogen source by rice, DMA application also increased nitrate reductase activity and the expression of genes encoding high-affinity nitrate transporters and nitrate reductases, all of which were otherwise considerably lower under high pH conditions. These data suggest that exogenous DMA not only plays an important role in facilitating the uptake of environmental Fe, but also orchestrates Fe and nitrate assimilation for optimal growth under high pH conditions. PMID:25393516

  19. The study of interaction of modified fatty acid with 99mTc in alcoholic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Nesterov, E. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Sadkin, V. L.; Rogov, A. S.; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Sazonova, S. I.; Zelchan, R. V.; Villa, N. E.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory research aimed at the development of methods of synthesis of new radiodiagnostic agents based on modified fatty acid labelled with technetium-99m intended for scintigraphic evaluation of myocardial metabolism. In particular, the interaction of substance with 99mTc in alcoholic media and the use of ethanol as solvent in the synthesis of the radiopharmaceutical were studied.

  20. Thermal Decomposition of Gaseous Ammonium Nitrate at Low Pressure: Kinetic Modeling of Product Formation and Heterogeneous Decomposition of Nitric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Lin, M. C.

    2009-10-01

    The thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3 (AN), in the gas phase has been studied at 423-56 K by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry under low-pressure conditions using a Saalfeld reactor coated with boric acid. The sublimation of NH4NO3 at 423 K was proposed to produce equal amounts of NH3 and HNO3, followed by the decomposition reaction of HNO3, HNO3 + M → OH + NO2 + M (where M = third-body and reactor surface). The absolute yields of N2, N2O, H2O, and NH3, which can be unambiguously measured and quantitatively calibrated under a constant pressure at 5-6.2 torr He are kinetically modeled using the detailed [H,N,O]-mechanism established earlier for the simulation of NH3-NO2 (Park, J.; Lin, M. C. Technologies and Combustion for a Clean Environment. Proc. 4th Int. Conf. 1997, 34-1, 1-5) and ADN decomposition reactions (Park, J.; Chakraborty, D.; Lin, M. C. Proc. Combust. Inst. 1998, 27, 2351-2357). Since the homogeneous decomposition reaction of HNO3 itself was found to be too slow to account for the consumption of reactants and the formation of products, we also introduced the heterogeneous decomposition of HNO3 in our kinetic modeling. The heterogeneous decomposition rate of HNO3, HNO3 + (B2O3/SiO2) → OH + NO2 + (B2O3/SiO2), was determined by varying its rate to match the modeled result to the measured concentrations of NH3 and H2O; the rate could be represented by k2b = 7.91 × 107 exp(-12 600/T) s-1, which appears to be consistent with those reported by Johnston and co-workers (Johnston, H. S.; Foering, L.; Tao, Y.-S.; Messerly, G. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1951, 73, 2319-2321) for HNO3 decomposition on glass reactors at higher temperatures. Notably, the concentration profiles of all species measured could be satisfactorily predicted by the existing [H,N,O]-mechanism with the heterogeneous initiation process.

  1. Evaluating Potential Bias in Media Coverage of the Public Debate over Acid Rain and Chlorofluorocarbons in the 1980s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Tiffany Dawn; Moore, Rebecca; Markewitz, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates media coverage of two important environmental issues from the 1980s (acid rain and chlorofluorocarbons), providing historical context for current media coverage analysis. Focusing on popular magazine articles, this study identifies key characteristics of content and presentation. Content-related characteristics are inclusion…

  2. The nitrate dihydrate of an aquadicopper(II) complex cation with guanidinoacetic acid and a novel trianionic disubstituted guanidine as ligands at 120 K.

    PubMed

    Felcman, Judith; Howie, R Alan; Lopes de Miranda, Jussara; Skakle, Janet M S; Wardell, James L

    2003-03-01

    The structure of the title compound, aqua[mu-(N(1)-carboxylatomethylguanidino)oxidoacetato](mu-guanidinoacetic acid)dicopper(II) nitrate dihydrate, [Cu(2)(C(5)H(6)N(3)O(5))(C(3)H(7)N(3)O(2))(H(2)O)]NO(3) x 2H(2)O, contains two enantiomers of the dicopper(II) complex cation that comprise water, neutral zwitterionic guanidinoacetic acid and the trianion of (N(1)-carboxymethylguanidino)hydroxyacetic acid as ligands. Extensive hydrogen bonding creates three-dimensional connectivity but is largely confined to layers that each contain both cation enantiomers. These layers are related to one another by crystallographic symmetry and are therefore identical in composition and connectivity. PMID:12711772

  3. Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Proteinaceous Coral Skeletal Amino Acids Records Change in Source Nitrate to the Euphotic Zone in the Western Tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, B.; Thibodeau, B.; Chikaraishi, Y.; Ohkouchi, N.; Grottoli, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    Instrumental and proxy data and global climate model experiments indicate a multi-decadal shoaling of the western tropical Pacific (WTP) thermocline potentially related to a shift in ENSO frequency. In the WTP, the nutricline coincides with the thermocline, and a shoaling of the nutricline brings more nitrate-rich seawater higher in the water column and within the sunlit euphotic zone. In the nutrient-poor WTP, this incursion of nitrate-rich water at the bottom of the euphotic zone may stimulate productivity in the water column. However, there is a general paucity of measurements below the surface with which to investigate recent changes in seawater chemistry. Nitrogen isotope (δ15N) measurements of particulate organic matter (POM) can elucidate the source of nitrogen to the WTP and related trophic dynamics. This POM is the food source to the long-lived proteinaceous corals, and drives the nitrogen isotopic composition of their skeleton. Here, we report time series δ15N values from the banded skeletons of proteinaceous corals from offshore Palau in the WTP that provide proxy information about past changes in euphotic zone nitrogen dynamics. Bulk skeletal δ15N values declined between 1977 and 2010 suggesting a progressively increasing contribution of deep water with isotopically-light nitrate to the euphotic zone and/or a shortening of the planktonic food web. Since only some amino acids are enriched in δ15N with each trophic transfer in a food web, we measured the δ15N composition of seven individual amino acids in the same coral skeleton. The δ15N time series of the individual amino acids also declined over time, mirroring the bulk values. These new data indicate that the changes in the source nitrogen to the base of the euphotic zone drives a decline in coral skeletal δ15N values, consistent with the shoaling nutricline, with no coinciding alteration of the trophic structure in the WTP.

  4. Evaluation of seed and seedling emergence enhancement of some population of Sahandy savory (Satureja sahendica) by gibberlic acid, potasium nitrate, pre-cooling, physical and chemical scarification treatment.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, M A; Arab, H A; Tabaie, R; Nasiri, M

    2013-10-15

    In greenhouse experiment, the seed samples of 3 populations were treated with treatments including: cold stratification, Gibberlic Acid (50 ppm and 100 ppm), Potassium nitrate (0.2%, 0.4%), physical scarification (sand paper), chemical scarification (Ethylic alcohol 70%) and distilled water (control), then these treated seed samples were sown in pots as randomize design with three replication. The germination characteristics including: germination percentage, speed of germination, length of root and shoot, seedling length, ratio of root length by shoot length, vigor index, fresh weight arid dry weight, ratio of dry weight by fresh weight were evaluated during 45 days of experiment. Comparing between three populations of Sahandy savory, seed germination characteristics of the Ghazvin population was higher than the other two populations. According to effect of treatment on germination seed characteristics, the species of savory and their population, it was concluded that effect of Gibberlic Acid and Potassium nitrate was higher than physical scarification and chemical scarification comparing with control. With more effective of gibberlic acid and KNO3 and cold treatment on seed germination enhancement of the population, it was clarified that the type of dormancy of some population of Sahandy savory was physiological dormancy. PMID:24506025

  5. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Lin, Yuehe

    1998-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  6. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Lin, Y.

    1998-06-23

    A method is described for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 7 figs.

  7. Direct synthesis of formic acid from carbon dioxide by hydrogenation in acidic media

    PubMed Central

    Moret, Séverine; Dyson, Paul J.; Laurenczy, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    The chemical transformation of carbon dioxide into useful products becomes increasingly important as CO2 levels in the atmosphere continue to rise as a consequence of human activities. In this article we describe the direct hydrogenation of CO2 into formic acid using a homogeneous ruthenium catalyst, in aqueous solution and in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), without any additives. In water, at 40 °C, 0.2 M formic acid can be obtained under 200 bar, however, in DMSO the same catalyst affords 1.9 M formic acid. In both solvents the catalysts can be reused multiple times without a decrease in activity. Worldwide demand for formic acid continues to grow, especially in the context of a renewable energy hydrogen carrier, and its production from CO2 without base, via the direct catalytic carbon dioxide hydrogenation, is considerably more sustainable than the existing routes. PMID:24886955

  8. Absorption, fluorescence, and acid-base equilibria of rhodamines in micellar media of sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Obukhova, Elena N; Mchedlov-Petrossyan, Nikolay O; Vodolazkaya, Natalya A; Patsenker, Leonid D; Doroshenko, Andrey O; Marynin, Andriy I; Krasovitskii, Boris M

    2017-01-01

    Rhodamine dyes are widely used as molecular probes in different fields of science. The aim of this paper was to ascertain to what extent the structural peculiarities of the compounds influence their absorption, emission, and acid-base properties under unified conditions. The acid-base dissociation (HR(+)⇄R+H(+)) of a series of rhodamine dyes was studied in sodium n-dodecylsulfate micellar solutions. In this media, the form R exists as a zwitterion R(±). The indices of apparent ionization constants of fifteen rhodamine cations HR(+) with different substituents in the xanthene moiety vary within the range of pKa(app)=5.04 to 5.53. The distinct dependence of emission of rhodamines bound to micelles on pH of bulk water opens the possibility of using them as fluorescent interfacial acid-base indicators. PMID:27423469

  9. TREATMENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, T.W.; MacHutchin, J.G.; Yaffe, L.

    1958-06-10

    The treatment of waste solutions obtained in the processing of neutron- irradiated uranium containing fission products and ammonium nitrate is described. The object of this process is to provide a method whereby the ammonium nitrate is destroyed and removed from the solution so as to permit subsequent concentration of the solution.. In accordance with the process the residual nitrate solutions are treated with an excess of alkyl acid anhydride, such as acetic anhydride. Preferably, the residual nitrate solution is added to an excess of the acetic anhydride at such a rate that external heat is not required. The result of this operation is that the ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride react to form N/sub 2/ O and acetic acid.

  10. Isotopic Systematics (U, nitrate and Sr) of the F-Area Acidic Contamination Plume at the Savannah River Site: Clues to Contaminant History and Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. N.; Conrad, M. E.; Bill, M.; Denham, M.; Wan, J.; Rakshit, S.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Spycher, N.

    2010-12-01

    Seepage basins in the F-Area of the Savannah River Site were used from 1955 to 1989 for the disposal of low-level radioactive acidic (ave. pH ˜2.9) waste solutions from site operations involving irradiated uranium billets and other materials used in the production of radionuclides. These disposal activities resulted in a persistent acidic groundwater plume (pH as low as 3.2) beneath the F-Area including contaminants such as tritium, nitrate, 90Sr, 129I and uranium and that has impinged on surface water (Four Mile Branch) about 600 m from the basins. After cessation of disposal in 1989, the basins were capped in 1991. Since that time, remediation has consisted of a pump-and-treat system that has recently been replaced with in situ treatment using a funnel-and-gate system with injection of alkaline solutions in the gates to neutralize pH. In order to delineate the history of contamination and the current mobility and fate of contaminants in F-Area groundwater, we have undertaken a study of variations in the isotopic compositions of U (234U/238U, 235U/238U, 236U/238U), Sr (87Sr/86Sr) and nitrate (δ15N, δ18O) within the contaminant plume. This data can be used to trace U transport within the plume, evaluate chemical changes of nitrate, and potentially track plume/sediment chemical interaction and trace the migration of 90Sr. We have analyzed a suite of groundwater samples from monitoring wells, as well as pore-water samples extracted from aquifer sediment cores to map out the isotopic variation within the plume. The isotopic compositions of U from well samples and porewater samples are all consistent with the variable burn-up of depleted U. The variation in U isotopic composition requires at least three different endmembers, without any significant influence of background natural U. The δ15N and δ18O of nitrate from F-Area plume groundwater are distinct both from natural and unaltered synthetic nitrate, and likely represents fractionation due to waste volume

  11. Ammonia Formation by the Reduction of Nitrite/Nitrate by FeS: Ammonia Formation Under Acidic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, David P.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    FeS reduces nitrite to, ammonia at pHs lower than the corresponding reduction by aqueous Fe+2. The reduction follows a reasonable first order decay, in nitrite concentration, with a half life of about 150 min (room temperature, CO2, pH 6.25). The highest ammonia product yield measured was 53%. Under CO2, the product yield decreases from pH 5.0 to pH 6.9. The increasing concentration of bicarbonate at higher pH interferes with the reaction. Bicarbonate interference is shown by comparing runs under N2 and CO2. The reaction proceeds well in the presence of such species as chloride, sulfate, and phosphate though the yield drops significantly with phosphate. FeS also reduces nitrate and, unlike with Fe+2, the reduction shows more reproducibility. Again, the product yield decreases with increasing pH, from 7% at pH 4.7 to 0% at pH 6.9. It appears as if nitrate is much more sensitive to the presence of added species, perhaps not competing as well for binding sites on the FeS surface. This may be the cause of the lack of reproducibility of nitrate reduction by Fe+2 (which also can be sensitive to binding by certain species).

  12. Geographic variation in the relationships of temperature, salinity or sigma sub t versus plant nutrient concentrations in the world ocean. [silicic acid, nitrate, and phosphate concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamykowski, D.; Zentara, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A NODC data set representing all regions of the world ocean was analyzed for temperature and sigma-t relationships with nitrate, phosphate or silicic acid. Six cubic regressions were for each ten degree square of latitude and longitude containing adequate data. World maps display the locations that allow the prediction of plant nutrient concentrations from temperature or sigma-t. Geographic coverage improves along the sequence: nitrate, phosphate, and silicic acid and is better for sigma-t than for temperature. Contour maps of the approximate temperature of sigma-t at which these nitrients are no longer measurable in a parcel of water are generated, based on a percentile analysis of the temperature or sigma-t at which less than a selected amount of plant nutrient occurs. Results are stored on magnetic tape in tabular form. The global potential to predict plant nutrient concentrations from remotely sensed temperature of sigma-t and to emphasize the latitudinally and longitudinally changing phytoplankton growth environment in present and past oceans is demonstrated.

  13. Determination of uranium isotopes in environmental samples by anion exchange in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media.

    PubMed

    Popov, L

    2016-09-01

    Method for determination of uranium isotopes in various environmental samples is presented. The major advantages of the method are the low cost of the analysis, high radiochemical yields and good decontamination factors from the matrix elements, natural and man-made radionuclides. The separation and purification of uranium is attained by adsorption with strong base anion exchange resin in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media. Uranium is electrodeposited on a stainless steel disk and measured by alpha spectrometry. The analytical method has been applied for the determination of concentrations of uranium isotopes in mineral, spring and tap waters from Bulgaria. The analytical quality was checked by analyzing reference materials. PMID:27451111

  14. Effect of acidity on the polarization sensitivity of azo-indicator based recording media*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaverdova, V. G.; Petrova, S. S.; Purtseladze, A. L.; Tarasashvili, V. I.; Obolashvili, N. Z.

    2013-01-01

    This is an experimental study of the photoanisotropic gyrotropic properties of recording media based on azoindicators — homologs (five dyes) of methyl orange-- introduced into the polymer matrix. Samples were prepared by a technology we have developed employing solvents with different acidities (pH 1.68-12.48). The samples were exposed to actinic radiation (λ = 488 nm) from an argon laser, and the photoinduced anisotropy measured in real time. The circular dichroism and circular birefringence in the layers under study are calculated for a neutral medium and at different pH levels.

  15. Furfural production in biphasic media using an acidic ionic liquid as a catalyst.

    PubMed

    Peleteiro, Susana; Santos, Valentín; Parajó, Juan C

    2016-11-20

    Ionic liquids are valuable tools for biorefineries. This study provides an experimental assessment on the utilization of an acidic ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate) as a catalyst for furfural production in water/solvent media. The substrates employed in experiments were commercial xylose (employed as a reference compound) or hemicellulosic saccharides obtained by hydrothermal processing of Eucalyptus globulus wood (which were employed as produced, after membrane concentration or after freeze-drying). A variety of reaction conditions (defined by temperature, reaction time and type of organic solvent) were considered. The possibility of recycling the catalyst was assessed in selected experiments. PMID:27561513

  16. Electrochemistry of poly(vinylferrocene) modified electrodes in aqueous acidic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Touma B.; Singh, Pritam; Baker, Murray V.

    A cyclic voltammetric study of the electrochemistry and chemical stability of the poly(vinylferrocene) (PVFc) redox couple, coated on a gold substrate, in aqueous solutions of H 2SO 4, HClO 4 and HCl was carried out. It was found that the anodic peak potential ( Epa) did not depend on the acid concentration in the range (1.0 × 10 -2 to 1.0 × 10 -7 mol L -1). However, the Epa values shifted linearly to less positive potentials when investigated in more concentrated acid solutions in the range 1-5 mol L -1. The slope of the Epa versus acid concentration graph was found to be in the order H 2SO 4 > HCl > HClO 4. In this regard PVFc behaved very similar to 1,1'-bis(11-mercaptoundecyl)ferrocene (Fc(C 11SH) 2) except for its chemical stability. In H 2SO 4 media the PVFc was found to be much less stable than 1,1'-Fc(C 11SH) 2. The dependence of Epa on acid concentration could be used to monitor state of charge of lead-acid batteries. However, for this application Fc(C 11SH) 2 would be a better choice because of its superior chemical stability.

  17. The complete genome sequence of Natrinema sp. J7-2, a haloarchaeon capable of growth on synthetic media without amino acid supplements.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Ziqian; Ren, Yan; Li, Yang; Gan, Fei; Huang, Yuping; Chen, Xiangdong; Shen, Ping; Wang, Lei; Tang, Bing; Tang, Xiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Natrinema sp. J7-2 is an extreme haloarchaeon capable of growing on synthetic media without amino acid supplements. Here we report the complete genome sequence of Natrinema sp. J7-2 which is composed of a 3,697,626-bp chromosome and a 95,989-bp plasmid pJ7-I. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the genus Natrinema. We demonstrate that Natrinema sp. J7-2 can use gluconate, glycerol, or acetate as the sole carbon source and that its genome encodes complete metabolic pathways for assimilating these substrates. The biosynthetic pathways for all 20 amino acids have been reconstructed, and we discuss a possible evolutionary relationship between the haloarchaeal arginine synthetic pathway and the bacterial lysine synthetic pathway. The genome harbors the genes for assimilation of ammonium and nitrite, but not nitrate, and has a denitrification pathway to reduce nitrite to N(2)O. Comparative genomic analysis suggests that most sequenced haloarchaea employ the TrkAH system, rather than the Kdp system, to actively uptake potassium. The genomic analysis also reveals that one of the three CRISPR loci in the Natrinema sp. J7-2 chromosome is located in an integrative genetic element and is probably propagated via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Finally, our phylogenetic analysis of haloarchaeal genomes provides clues about evolutionary relationships of haloarchaea. PMID:22911826

  18. Effects of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate on polar lipids and fatty acids in leaves of morning glory and kidney bean. [Pharbitis nil; Phaseolus vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Nouchi, Isamu; Toyama, Susumu Ochanomizu Univ., Tokyo )

    1988-07-01

    To compare the effects of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on leaf lipids, fatty acids and malondialdehyde (MDA), morning glory (Pharbitis nil Choisy cv Scarlet O'Hara) and kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Gintebo) plants were exposed to either ozone (0.15 microliter per liter for 8 hours) or PAN (0.10 microliter per liter for up to 8 hours). Ozone increased phospholipids in morning glory and decreased in kidney bean at the initial stage (2-4 hours) of exposure, while it scarcely changed glycolipids, the unsaturated fatty acids, and MDA in both plants. A large reduction of glycolipids occurred 1 day after ozone exposure in both plants. PAN caused marked drops in phospholipids and glycolipids in kidney bean at relatively late stage (6-8 hours) of exposure, while it increased phosphatidic acid and decreased the unsaturated fatty acids, an increase which was accompanied by a large increase in MDA. These results suggest that ozone may not directly oxidize unsaturated fatty acids at the initial stage of exposure, but may alter polar lipid metabolism, particularly phospholipids. On the other hand, PAN may abruptly and considerably degrade phospholipids and glycolipids by peroxidation or hydrolysis at the late stage of exposure. The present study shows that ozone and PAN affect polar lipids in different manners.

  19. Ozonation of azo dyes (Orange II and Acid Red 27) in saline media.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alessandra C; Pic, Jean Stephane; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L; Dezotti, Marcia

    2009-09-30

    Ozonation of two azo dyes was investigated in a monitored bench scale bubble column reactor (8.5-L), varying liquid media salt content (0, 1, 40 and 100 g L(-1), NaCl). In experiments with Orange II pH was varied (5, 7.5 and 9) but ozonation of Acid Red 27 was performed at pH 7.5. Ozone self-decomposition rate-constant increased with salt concentration. Color removal was very effective and fast achieved under all experimental conditions. For the two azo dyes tested, more than 98% of color intensity was removed in 30-min ozonation assays. However, only partial mineralization of azo dyes (45%-Orange II; 20%-Acid Red 27) was attained in such experiments. The degree of mineralization (TOC removal) was negatively affected by salt concentration. Biodegradation assays conducted by respirometry revealed the inhibitory effect of dye degradation products formed during ozonation. PMID:19443113

  20. Dissolution properties of co-amorphous drug-amino acid formulations in buffer and biorelevant media.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, A T; DeClerck, L; Löbmann, K; Grohganz, H; Rades, T; Laitinen, R

    2015-07-01

    Co-amorphous formulations, particularly binary drug-amino acid mixtures, have been shown to provide enhanced dissolution for poorly-soluble drugs and improved physical stability of the amorphous state. However, to date the dissolution properties (mainly intrinsic dissolution rate) of the co-amorphous formulations have been tested only in buffers and their supersaturation ability remain unexplored. Consequently, dissolution studies in simulated intestinal fluids need to be conducted in order to better evaluate the potential of these systems in increasing the oral bioavailability of biopharmaceutics classification system class II drugs. In this study, solubility and dissolution properties of the co-amorphous simvastatin-lysine, gibenclamide-serine, glibenclamide-threonine and glibenclamide-serine-threonine were studied in phosphate buffer pH 7.2 and biorelevant media (fasted and fed state simulated intestinal fluids (FaSSIF and FeSSIF, respectively)). The co-amorphous formulations were found to provide a long-lasting supersaturation and improve the dissolution of the drugs compared to the crystalline and amorphous drugs alone in buffer. Similar improvement, but in lesser extent, was observed in biorelevant media suggesting that a dissolution advantage observed in aqueous buffers may overestimate the advantage in vivo. However, the results show that, in addition to stability advantage shown earlier, co-amorphous drug-amino acid formulations provide dissolution advantage over crystalline drugs in both aqueous and biorelevant conditions. PMID:26373205

  1. Photosynthesis and water relations in tomato plants cultivated long-term in media containing (+)-usnic acid.

    PubMed

    Latkowska, E; Lechowski, Z; Bialczyk, J; Pilarski, J

    2006-09-01

    The influence of (+)-usnic acid on rates of gas exchange (photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration) in long-term cultivation of tomato plants was studied. The effect was dose-dependent. Plants grown in media containing the maximum concentration of (+)-usnic acid (30 muM) had photosynthetic and respiration rates reduced by 41% and 80%, respectively. The effect on photosynthesis rate may be the result of a multidirectional effect at various stages of this process, which at the highest usnic acid concentration underwent reduction: content of chlorophylls by 30%, carotenoids by 35%, and Hill reaction activity by 75%. Usnic acid also raises the susceptibility of chlorophyll to photodegradation. Under some conditions, transpiration was reduced by 2.1-fold in light and 3.7-fold in dark. This result was correlated with (1) an increase in the diffusive resistance of the stomata (3.1-fold in upper and 1.5-fold in lower surface of leaf), (2) a reduction of stomata density (by 60% on upper and 40% on lower surface), and (3) a 12.3-fold decrease in root hydraulic conductance. PMID:16902819

  2. Cotransport of bacteria with hematite in porous media: Effects of ion valence and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiyan; Ge, Zhi; Wu, Dan; Tong, Meiping; Ni, Jinren

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of multiple colloids (hematite and humic acid) on the transport and deposition of bacteria (Escherichia coli) in packed porous media in both NaCl (5 mM) and CaCl2 (1 mM) solutions at pH 6. Due to the alteration of cell physicochemical properties, the presence of hematite and humic acid in cell suspensions significantly affected bacterial transport and deposition in quartz sand. Specifically, the presence of hematite (5 mg/L) decreased cell transport (increased cell deposition) in quartz sand in both NaCl and CaCl2 solutions, which could be attributed to the less negative overall zeta potentials of bacteria induced by the adsorption of positively charged hematite onto cell surfaces. The presence of a low concentration (0.1 mg/L) of humic acid in bacteria and hematite mixed suspensions reduced the adsorption of hematite onto cell surfaces, leading to increased cell transport in quartz sand in NaCl solutions, whereas, in CaCl2 solutions, the presence of 0.1 mg/L humic acid increased the formation of hematite-cell aggregates and thus decreased cell transport in quartz sand. When the concentration of humic acid was increased to 1 mg/L, enhanced cell transport was observed in both NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. The decreased adsorption of hematite onto cell surfaces as well as the competition of deposition sites on quartz sand with bacteria by the suspended humic acid contributed to the increased cell transport. PMID:26558710

  3. Mobility of acid-treated carbon nanotubes in water-saturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Peng, X J; Du, C J; Liang, Z; Wang, J; Luan, Z K; Li, W J

    2011-01-01

    The production, use, and disposal of nanomaterials may inevitably lead to their appearance in water. With the development of new industries around nanomaterials, it seems necessary to be concerned about the transport of nanomaterials in the environment. In this paper, the transport of acid-treated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in porous media was investigated. Before the mobility investigation, the stability of acid-treated CNT dispersions was studied using ultraviolet-visible spectra and it was indicated that, under the chemical conditions employed in this work, there was no apparent aggregation. The mobility investigation showed that transport of acid-treated CNTs increased with treatment time due to increase in particle zeta potential. Carbon nanotubes treated with nitric acid for 2, 6, and 12 h possessed measured zeta potentials of -30.0, -43.0, and -48.5 mV, respectively. Utilizing clean-bed filtration theory, we showed that acid-treated CNTs have the potential to migrate 3.28, 5.67, and 7.69 m in saturated glass beads, respectively. We showed that solution ionic strength and pH have important effects on the mobility of acid-treated CNTs. Increasing the pH from 6.0 to 7.9 resulted in an increase in migration potential from 2.96 to 10.86 m. Increasing the ionic strength from 0.005 to 0.020 M resulted in a decrease in CNT migration potential from 5.67 to 1.42 m. PMID:22031583

  4. Dissolution difference between acidic and neutral media of acetaminophen tablets containing a super disintegrant and a soluble excipient. II.

    PubMed

    Chen, C R; Cho, S L; Lin, C K; Lin, Y H; Chiang, S T; Wu, H L

    1998-03-01

    The disintegration and dissolution of acetaminophen tablets containing sucrose and Ac-Di-Sol/Primojel was significantly different between acidic and neutral media. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of this phenomenon and to propose a way of reducing the dissolution difference between the two media. Tablets of different combinations of active ingredient, sucrose, and Ac-Di-Sol/Primojel were prepared and their dissolution in various media was evaluated. The dissolution differences were found to be largely related to the hydrophobicity of the active ingredient and pH difference of the two media. This difference was even more evident under the condition where acetaminophen, sucrose, and Primojel were combined. The dissolution difference was therefore attributed to the depressed function of Primojel in the acidic medium, the stronger binding of sucrose, the hydrophobicity of the active ingredient and pH difference of the two media. Increasing the concentration of Primojel or incorporating the surfactant in the tablet can thus greatly decrease the dissolution difference between acidic and neutral media. PMID:9549889

  5. Solid and liquid media for isolating and cultivating acidophilic and acid-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ňancucheo, Ivan; Rowe, Owen F; Hedrich, Sabrina; Johnson, D Barrie

    2016-05-01

    Growth media have been developed to facilitate the enrichment and isolation of acidophilic and acid-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria (aSRB) from environmental and industrial samples, and to allow their cultivation in vitro The main features of the 'standard' solid and liquid devised media are as follows: (i) use of glycerol rather than an aliphatic acid as electron donor; (ii) inclusion of stoichiometric concentrations of zinc ions to both buffer pH and to convert potentially harmful hydrogen sulphide produced by the aSRB to insoluble zinc sulphide; (iii) inclusion of Acidocella aromatica (an heterotrophic acidophile that does not metabolize glycerol or yeast extract) in the gel underlayer of double layered (overlay) solid media, to remove acetic acid produced by aSRB that incompletely oxidize glycerol and also aliphatic acids (mostly pyruvic) released by acid hydrolysis of the gelling agent used (agarose). Colonies of aSRB are readily distinguished from those of other anaerobes due to their deposition and accumulation of metal sulphide precipitates. Data presented illustrate the effectiveness of the overlay solid media described for isolating aSRB from acidic anaerobic sediments and low pH sulfidogenic bioreactors. PMID:27036143

  6. Sensitivity of nitrate aerosols to ammonia emissions and to nitrate chemistry: implications for present and future nitrate optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulot, F.; Ginoux, P.; Cooke, W. F.; Donner, L. J.; Fan, S.; Lin, M.; Mao, J.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2015-09-01

    We update and evaluate the treatment of nitrate aerosols in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) atmospheric model (AM3). Accounting for the radiative effects of nitrate aerosols generally improves the simulated aerosol optical depth, although nitrate concentrations at the surface are biased high. This bias can be reduced by increasing the deposition of nitrate to account for the near-surface volatilization of ammonium nitrate or by neglecting the heterogeneous production of nitric acid to account for the inhibition of N2O5 reactive uptake at high nitrate concentrations. Globally, uncertainties in these processes can impact the simulated nitrate optical depth by up to 25 %, much more than the impact of uncertainties in the seasonality of ammonia emissions (6 %) or in the uptake of nitric acid on dust (13 %). Our best estimate for present-day fine nitrate optical depth at 550 nm is 0.006 (0.005-0.008). We only find a modest increase of nitrate optical depth (< 30 %) in response to the projected changes in the emissions of SO2 (-40 %) and ammonia (+38 %) from 2010 to 2050. Nitrate burden is projected to increase in the tropics and in the free troposphere, but to decrease at the surface in the midlatitudes because of lower nitric acid concentrations. Our results suggest that better constraints on the heterogeneous chemistry of nitric acid on dust, on tropical ammonia emissions, and on the transport of ammonia to the free troposphere are needed to improve projections of aerosol optical depth.

  7. Nitrate removal by organotrophic anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria with C2/C3 fatty acid in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuhai; Li, Dong; Zhang, Xiaojing; Zeng, Huiping; Yang, Yin; Zhang, Jie

    2015-10-01

    In anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process, a harsh ratio of nitrite to ammonia in influent was demanded, and the max nitrogen removal efficiency could only achieve to 89%, both of which limited the development of Anammox. The aim of this work was to study the nitrate removal by organotrophic anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AAOB) with C2/C3 fatty acid in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. In this study, organotrophic AAOB was successfully enriched by adding acetate and propionate with the total organic carbon to nitrogen (TOC/N) ratio of 0.1. In the condition of low substrate, the TN removal efficiency reached 90%, with the effluent TN of around 11.8 mg L(-1). After the addition of acetate and propionate, the predominant species in Anammox granular sludge transformed to Candidatus Jettenia that belonging to organotrophic AAOB from the Candidatus Kuenenia relating to general AAOB. PMID:26151852

  8. The effect of nitrate, bicarbonate and natural organic matter on the degradation of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid by simulated solar irradiation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liang; Meng, Cui; Zeng, Chao; Ji, Yuefei; Yang, Xi; Gao, Shixiang

    2011-11-15

    Our experiments revealed that a model sunscreen agent, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), can be effectively transformed through reactions that are mediated by simulated solar irradiation. We systematically explored the effects of nitrate ions, bicarbonate and different types of natural organic matter (NOM) on the degradation of PABA by simulated solar irradiation. Experimental data suggest that these components ubiquitous in nature water have different influence on the rates of the photoinduced removal of PABA. Products were extracted and analyzed using LC/MS and a total of four products probably resulting from OH and NO2 radicals attack were identified and the possible reaction pathways were proposed. The findings in this study provide useful information for understanding the environmental transformation of sunscreen agent in aquatic system. PMID:21975008

  9. Export of Abscisic Acid, 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid, Phosphate, and Nitrate from Roots to Shoots of Flooded Tomato Plants (Accounting for Effects of Xylem Sap Flow Rate on Concentration and Delivery).

    PubMed Central

    Else, M. A.; Hall, K. C.; Arnold, G. M.; Davies, W. J.; Jackson, M. B.

    1995-01-01

    We determined whether root stress alters the output of physiologically active messages passing from roots to shoots in the transpiration stream. Concentrations were not good measures of output. This was because changes in volume flow of xylem sap caused either by sampling procedures or by effects of root stress on rates of whole-plant transpiration modified concentrations simply by dilution. Thus, delivery rate (concentration x sap flow rate) was preferred to concentration as a measure of solute output from roots. To demonstrate these points, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid, phosphate, nitrate, and pH were measured in xylem sap of flooded and well-drained tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv Ailsa Craig) plants expressed at various rates from pressurized detopped roots. Concentrations decreased as sap flow rates were increased. However, dilution of solutes was often less than proportional to flow, especially in flooded plants. Thus, sap flowing through detopped roots at whole-plant transpiration rates was used to estimate solute delivery rates in intact plants. On this basis, delivery of ACC from roots to shoots was 3.1-fold greater in plants flooded for 24 h than in well-drained plants, and delivery of phosphate was 2.3-fold greater. Delivery rates of abscisic acid and nitrate in flooded plants were only 11 and 7%, respectively, of those in well-drained plants. PMID:12228364

  10. Flows of elements, ions and abscisic acid in Ricinus communis and site of nitrate reduction under potassium limitation.

    PubMed

    Peuke, Andreas D; Jeschke, W Dieter; Hartung, Wolfram

    2002-02-01

    In a pot experiment Ricinus communis plants were cultivated in quartz sand and supplied daily with a nutrient solution which contained 4 mol m(-3) nitrate as the nitrogen source and either full strength potassium (1.3 mol m(-3), control) or 8% potassium (0.1 mol m(-3), K(+)-limitation). Although the final fresh weight of the whole plant was not affected by K(+)-limitation, the root-shoot ratio was increased due to a relatively increased root growth and inhibited development of younger shoot parts. Owing to K(+)-limitation, photosynthesis was slightly decreased, while dark respiration of the shoot markedly decreased and root respiration was nearly doubled. The transport of carbon in the phloem, and to some extent in the xylem, was greater and the root was favoured in the partitioning of carbon. This was also true for nitrogen and potassium which were both taken up at lower rates, particularly potassium. In these two cases a high remobilization and recycling from the old part of the shoot was observed. By contrast, uptake of sodium was 2.4-fold higher under K(+)-limitation and this resulted in increased flows in the plants, which was discussed generally as a means for charge balance (in combination with a slight increase in uptake of magnesium and calcium). Nitrate reduction took place in the same portion in the root and shoot. This was a shift to the root compared to the control and points to an inhibition of xylem transport caused by limitation of K(+) as an easily permeating countercation. Low K(+) supply also resulted in an increased biosynthesis of ABA in the roots (265%). This caused a slightly increased deposition of ABA in the roots (193%) and a 4.6-fold higher root-to-shoot and a doubled shoot-to-root ABA signal in the xylem or phloem, respectively. The high degradation of ABA in the shoots prevented ABA accumulation there. PMID:11807128

  11. Chronic suppurative otitis media due to nontuberculous mycobacteria: A case of successful treatment with topical boric acid.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Marie-Astrid; Quach, Caroline; Daniel, Sam J

    2015-07-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an increasingly recognized cause of chronic suppurative otitis media in children with tympanostomy tubes. Treatment of this condition is difficult and typically requires a combination of systemic antibiotics and surgical debridement. We present the first case of a 2-year-old male with chronic suppurative otitis media due to NTM who failed systemic antibiotic therapy and was successfully managed with topical boric acid powder. This report highlights the challenges involved in treating this infection, and introduces boric acid as a potentially valuable component of therapy. PMID:26026892

  12. Biomineralization of lepidocrocite and goethite by nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria: Effect of pH, bicarbonate, phosphate, and humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larese-Casanova, Philip; Haderlein, Stefan B.; Kappler, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Fe(III) solid phases are the products of Fe(II) oxidation by Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria, but the Fe(III) phases reported to form within growth experiments are, at times, poorly crystalline and therefore difficult to identify, possibly due to the presence of ligands (e.g., phosphate, carbonate) that complex iron and disrupt iron (hydr)oxide precipitation. The scope of this study was to investigate the influences of geochemical solution conditions (pH, carbonate, phosphate, humic acids) on the Fe(II) oxidation rate and Fe(III) mineralogy. Fe(III) mineral characterization was performed using 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy and μ-X-ray diffraction after oxidation of dissolved Fe(II) within Mops-buffered cell suspensions of Acidovorax sp. BoFeN1, a nitrate-reducing, Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium. Lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) (90%), which also forms after chemical oxidation of Fe(II) by dissolved O 2, and goethite (α-FeOOH) (10%) were produced at pH 7.0 in the absence of any strongly complexing ligands. Higher solution pH, increasing concentrations of carbonate species, and increasing concentrations of humic acids promoted goethite formation and caused little or no changes in Fe(II) oxidation rates. Phosphate species resulted in Fe(III) solids unidentifiable to our methods and significantly slowed Fe(II) oxidation rates. Our results suggest that Fe(III) mineralogy formed by bacterial Fe(II) oxidation is strongly influenced by solution chemistry, and the geochemical conditions studied here suggest lepidocrocite and goethite may coexist in aquatic environments where nitrate-reducing, Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are active.

  13. Impaired transactivation of the human CYP2J2 arachidonic acid epoxygenase gene in HepG2 cells subjected to nitrative stress

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Pei H; Lee, Andy C; Zhou, Fanfan; Murray, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Human cytochrome P450 2J2 (CYP2J2) generates epoxyfatty acids that modulate cellular apoptosis and proliferation. CYP2J2 regulation has not been intensively studied but induction of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) subunit c-fos mediates CYP2J2 down-regulation in hypoxia, a component of ischaemic injury. Decreased CYP2J2 expression may contribute to tissue injury. Experimental approach: HepG2 cells were treated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to induce nitrative stress, which has been associated with inflammation and infection in liver and other tissues. CYP2J2 protein and mRNA expression were evaluated by immunoblotting and real-time PCR respectively. The role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in CYP2J2 dysregulation was assessed using specific inhibitors and dominant negative MAP kinase expression plasmids. CYP2J2-luciferase reporter constructs and electromobility shift assays (EMSAs) were used to identify SNP-regulated regions in the CYP2J2 gene. Key results: Cytochrome P450 2J2 was down-regulated by SNP while the AP-1 proteins c-jun and c-fos were up-regulated; inhibition of p38 and ERK MAP kinases normalized their expression. The gene elements at −105/−95 and −56/−63 were required for the down-regulation of CYP2J2 induced by nitrative stress. Conclusions and implications: p38 and ERK MAP kinases transduce stress stimuli that down-regulate CYP2J2. Targeting these kinases may prevent the loss of CYP2J2 and epoxy-fatty acids that protect cells against deleterious stresses. PMID:20180943

  14. Catalyzed reduction of nitrate in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    Sodium nitrate and other nitrate salts in wastes is a major source of difficulty for permanent disposal. Reduction of nitrate using aluminum metal has been demonstrated, but NH{sub 3}, hydrazine, or organic compounds containing oxygen would be advantageous for reduction of nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions. Objective of this seed money study was to determine minimum conditions for reduction. Proposed procedure was batchwise heating of aqueous solutions in closed vessels with monitoring of temperatures and pressures. A simple, convenient apparatus and procedure were demonstrated for observing formation of gaseous products and collecting samples for analyses. The test conditions were 250{degree}C and 1000 psi max. Any useful reduction of sodium nitrate to sodium hydroxide as the primary product was not found. The nitrate present at pHs < 4 as HNO{sub 3} or NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} is easily decomposed, and the effect of nitromethane at these low pHs was confirmed. When acetic acid or formic acid was added, 21 to 56% of the nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions was reduced by methanol or formaldehyde. With hydrazine and acetic acid, 73 % of the nitrate was decomposed to convert NaNO{sub 3} to sodium acetate. With hydrazine and formic acid, 36% of the nitrate was decomposed. If these products are more acceptable for final disposal than sodium nitrate, the reagents are cheap and the conversion conditions would be practical for easy use. Ammonium acetate or formate salts did not significantly reduce nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions.

  15. Effects of chemical oxidants on perfluoroalkyl acid transport in one-dimensional porous media columns.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Erica R; Siegrist, Robert L; McCray, John E; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-02-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a remediation approach that is often used to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with fuels and chlorinated solvents. At many aqueous film-forming foam-impacted sites, perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) can also be present at concentrations warranting concern. Laboratory experiments were completed using flow-through one-dimensional columns to improve our understanding of how ISCO (i.e., activated persulfate, permanganate, or catalyzed hydrogen peroxide) could affect the fate and transport of PFAAs in saturated porous media. While the resultant data suggest that standard ISCO is not a viable remediation strategy for PFAA decomposition, substantial changes in PFAA transport were observed upon and following the application of ISCO. In general, activated persulfate decreased PFAA transport, while permanganate and catalyzed hydrogen peroxide increased PFAA transport. PFAA sorption increased in the presence of increased aqueous polyvalent cation concentrations or decreased pH. The changes in contaminant mobility were greater than what would be predicted on the basis of aqueous chemistry considerations alone, suggesting that the application of ISCO results in changes to the porous media matrix (e.g., soil organic matter quality) that also influence transport. The application of ISCO is likely to result in changes in PFAA transport, where the direction (increased or decreased transport) and magnitude are dependent on PFAA characteristics, oxidant characteristics, and site-specific factors. PMID:25621878

  16. New hydrolytically stable solvent for Am/Eu separation in acidic media

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, I.V.; Babain, V.A.; Chirkov, A.V.

    2007-07-01

    Americium and europium extraction by synergistic mixture of 2,6-bis(1-aryl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridines (ATP) - chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) in polar diluent s from HNO{sub 3} media was studied. Meta-nitro-benzo-trifluoride, phenyl-tri-fluoro-methyl sulfone and 1,2-dichloroethane were used as diluents. The effect of diluent, composition of aqueous phase and substituent nature in aryl ring of ATPs on the extraction efficiency and selectivity of americium and europium separation was investigated. At the optimal ratio of nATP:CCD 1:1 the Am - Eu separation factor exceeded 90. Extraction of {sup 85}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 133}Ba was investigated and it was found that the mixture nATP-CCD provided the separation of Sr /Ba pair with a factor of 35. High resistance of 2,6-bisaryltetrazolyl pyridines to the action of nitric acid was demonstrated. (authors)

  17. Review and assessment of technologies for the separation of strontium from alkaline and acidic media

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.J.; Kurath, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    A literature survey has been conducted to identify and evaluate methods for the separation of strontium from acidic and alkaline media as applied to Hanford tank waste. The most promising methods of solvent extraction, precipitation, and ion exchange are described. The following criteria were used for evaluating the separation methods: Appreciable strontium removal must be demonstrated; Strontium selectivity over bulk components must be demonstrated; The method must show promise for evolving into a practical and fairly simple process; The process should be safe to operate; The method must be robust (i.e., capable of separating strontium from various waste types); Secondary waste generation must be minimized; and The method must show resistance to radiation damage. The methods discussed did not necessarily satisfy all of the above criteria; thus, key areas requiring further development are also given for each method. Less promising solvent extraction, precipitation, and ion exchange methods were also identified; areas for potential development are included in this report.

  18. Voltammetric detection of phenol at platinum-polytyramine composite electrodes in acidic media.

    PubMed

    Spătaru, Tanţa; Spătaru, Nicolae

    2010-08-15

    A composite obtained by depositing platinum nanoparticles in a polytyramine (PTy) matrix, electrochemically formed on graphite substrate, was used as electrode material for the investigation of phenol oxidation by use of anodic voltammetry. The results show that, in acidic media, the measurement of the oxidation peak current can be used as the basis for a simple, rapid method for the determination of phenol within a concentration range of 0.3-10 mM. A much better resistance to fouling during phenol detection (compared both with smooth platinum and with Pt nanoparticles on bare graphite substrate) is the main advantage of the Pt-PTy composite. These results are also noteworthy because they provide a basis for additional experiments devoted to obtaining new composite materials with improved performances for phenol anodic oxidation. PMID:20462693

  19. Degradation of emerging contaminants from water under natural sunlight: The effect of season, pH, humic acids and nitrate and identification of photodegradation by-products.

    PubMed

    Koumaki, Elena; Mamais, Daniel; Noutsopoulos, Constantinos; Nika, Maria-Christina; Bletsou, Anna A; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Eftaxias, Alexander; Stratogianni, Georgia

    2015-11-01

    Both photodegradation and hydrolysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were investigated in order to evaluate their photochemical fate in aquatic environment and to assess the effect of season and specific characteristics of water (pH, humic acids and nitrate concentration) on the removal of target EDCs and NSAIDs through photodegradation. An additional objective was the identification of the photodegradation by-products of specific NSAIDs and their dependence on irradiation time. Selected compounds' transformation was investigated under natural sunlight radiation while control experiments were conducted in the dark. As expected, most of compounds' degradation rate decreased with decreasing light intensity between two different experimental periods. Most of the tested compounds exhibited different rates of degradation during direct and indirect photolysis. The degradation rate of the selected compounds increased in the presence of NO3(-) and the photodegradation rate was higher for some compounds in alkaline than in acidic solution. The effect of humic acids' presence in the water depends on the absorbance spectrum of the compound and the produced photosensitizers. More specifically, humic acids act as inner filter toward most of the selected NSAIDs and as photosensitizers toward most of the EDCs. The results of the irradiation experiments in the presence of both humic acids and NO3(-), indicate that the direct photolysis is much more efficient than indirect photochemical processes. Finally, several degradation by-products of ketoprofen and diclofenac were identified in the samples, exposed to sunlight. The dependence of these by-products on radiation time is also demonstrated. PMID:26246277

  20. Trace analysis of oxidized, nitrated, and chlorinated aromatic amino acids by capillary electrophoresis with electroosmotic flow modification allowing large-volume sample stacking.

    PubMed

    Tábi, Tamás; Magyar, Kálmán; Szöko, Eva

    2005-05-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of the oxidized, nitrated, and chlorinated aromatic amino acids, as well as their parent compounds. These modifications of the aromatic amino acids in proteins or free form are induced by the attack of reactive, mainly free radical species generated during cell stress, and these stable products may serve as biomarkers of cell damage. The analytes tyrosine, phenylalanine, dihydroxyphenylalanine, tryptophan, 3-nitrotyrosine, 3-chlorotyrosine, ortho-tyrosine, meta-tyrosine, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (internal standard 1), and alpha-methyltyrosine (internal standard 2) were separated in their anionic forms in alkaline borate buffer. The polyamine spermine was used as electroosmotic flow (EOF) modifier. Adsorbing to the capillary wall, spermine can either suppress or even reverse the EOF depending on its concentration and the pH. The effects of the pH of the separation buffer, the spermine concentration, the temperature, and the applied field strength on the separation were examined. The modified aromatic amino acids are present in biological fluids in a much lower concentration than their parent compounds, thus high detection sensitivity of the analytical method is required. To achieve good detection sensitivity, field-amplified sample stacking of large injection volumes was applied. Omitting polyamine from the sample buffer allowed local reversal of the EOF, thus removal of the low conductivity sample buffer at the capillary inlet. In this way, 100% of the capillary to the detection window could be filled with the sample, and the detection limits achieved for the modified aromatic amino acids were in the range of 2.5-10 nM. PMID:15818575

  1. Simultaneous determination of amino acids and carbohydrates in culture media of Clostridium thermocellum by valve-switching ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fa, Yun; Yang, Haiyan; Ji, Chengshuai; Cui, He; Zhu, Xinshu; Du, Juan; Gao, Jun

    2013-10-10

    An improved method for the simultaneous determination of 20 amino acids and 7 carbohydrates using one-valve switching after injection, ion chromatography, and integrated pulsed amperometric detection is proposed. The resolution of the amino acids and carbohydrates in the cation trap column was investigated. In addition, parameters including flow liquid type, flow rate, concentration, and valve-switch timing were optimized. The method is time-saving, effective, and accurate for the simultaneous separation of amino acids and carbohydrates, with a mean correlation coefficient of >0.99 and repeatability of 0.5-4.6% for eight replicates. The method was successfully applied in the analysis of amino acids and carbohydrates in aseptic media and in extracellular culture media of three phenotypes of Clostridium thermocellum. PMID:24070489

  2. Sensitivity of nitrate aerosols to ammonia emissions and to nitrate chemistry: implications for present and future nitrate optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulot, F.; Ginoux, P.; Cooke, W. F.; Donner, L. J.; Fan, S.; Lin, M.-Y.; Mao, J.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2016-02-01

    We update and evaluate the treatment of nitrate aerosols in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) atmospheric model (AM3). Accounting for the radiative effects of nitrate aerosols generally improves the simulated aerosol optical depth, although nitrate concentrations at the surface are biased high. This bias can be reduced by increasing the deposition of nitrate to account for the near-surface volatilization of ammonium nitrate or by neglecting the heterogeneous production of nitric acid to account for the inhibition of N2O5 reactive uptake at high nitrate concentrations. Globally, uncertainties in these processes can impact the simulated nitrate optical depth by up to 25 %, much more than the impact of uncertainties in the seasonality of ammonia emissions (6 %) or in the uptake of nitric acid on dust (13 %). Our best estimate for fine nitrate optical depth at 550 nm in 2010 is 0.006 (0.005-0.008). In wintertime, nitrate aerosols are simulated to account for over 30 % of the aerosol optical depth over western Europe and North America. Simulated nitrate optical depth increases by less than 30 % (0.0061-0.010) in response to projected changes in anthropogenic emissions from 2010 to 2050 (e.g., -40 % for SO2 and +38 % for ammonia). This increase is primarily driven by greater concentrations of nitrate in the free troposphere, while surface nitrate concentrations decrease in the midlatitudes following lower concentrations of nitric acid. With the projected increase of ammonia emissions, we show that better constraints on the vertical distribution of ammonia (e.g., convective transport and biomass burning injection) and on the sources and sinks of nitric acid (e.g., heterogeneous reaction on dust) are needed to improve estimates of future nitrate optical depth.

  3. Sampling of nitrates in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, B. R.; Tokiwa, Y.; Haik, M.

    Methods for the measurement of nitric acid, particulate nitrate and total inorganic nitrate (i.e. HNO 3 plus particulate nitrate) are compared using atmospheric samples from the Los Angeles Basin. Nitric acid was measured by (1) the nitrate collected on nylon or NaCl-impregnated cellulose filters after removal of particulate matter with Teflon prefilters, (2) long-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) performed by a collaborating investigator, and (3) the difference between total inorganic nitrate (TIN) and particulate nitrate (PN). TIN was measured by the sum of the nitrate collected with a Teflon prefilter and nylon or NaCl-impregnated after-filter. PN was measured by the nitrate able to penetrate a diffusion dénuder coated to remove acidic gases (e.g. HNO 3). Losses of nitrate from Teflon prefilters were determined by comparing the nitrate retained by these filters to the nitrate penetrating the acid gas denuder. TIN and the nitrate collected with glass fiber filters were compared to assess the origin of the artifact particulate nitrate on the latter. Nitric acid measurements using nylon or NaCl-impregnated after-filters were substantially higher than those by the difference technique. This correlated with losses of nitrate from the Teflon prefilters, which exceeded 50 % at high ambient temperature and low relative humidity. Nitric acid by the difference method exceeded that by FTIR by, on average, 20 %. Thus errors inferred in HNO 3 measurements by comparison to the difference measurements are considered minimum values. The high values for HNO 3 by the difference method are consistent with the partial loss of PN in the acid gas denuder. However, no loss of 0.1 μm to 3 μm diameter NH 4NO 3 particles was observed. Thus, if significant, such loss is restricted to coarse particulate nitrate. Heating the filter samplers was shown to increase sampling errors. Nitrate results obtained in short-term, low volume sampling with Gelman A glass fiber

  4. Effect of polymer species and concentration on the production of mefenamic acid nanoparticles by media milling.

    PubMed

    Ito, Atsutoshi; Konnerth, Christoph; Schmidt, Jochen; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of four structurally different polymer species (hydroxypropylcellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone, vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer and polyvinyl alcohol) on the production of mefenamic acid nanoparticles during media milling has been studied. It was found that product particle sizes are strongly determined by the type of polymeric stabiliser as well as by its concentration at constant process conditions. With respect to small product particle sizes an optimum excipient concentration was identified and adjusted for colloidal stability of the drug nanosuspensions. Furthermore, it was found that overdosing of excipients must be omitted to suppress ripening due to enhanced solubilisation phenomena. Hence, the smallest product particle sizes were obtained using a polymeric stabiliser which exhibits a high affinity to the model drug compound and a low solubilisation capacity. Affinities of each polymer species to mefenamic acid and corresponding surface concentrations were determined using straightforward and simple viscosity measurements of the supernatant. A relationship between polymer affinity, solubilisation capacity and limiting product particle size has been observed, which supports the hypothesis that final product particle sizes are rather determined by the solid-liquid equilibrium than by pure mechanical fracture. PMID:26592155

  5. Noble metal-free bifunctional oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction acidic media electro-catalysts.

    PubMed

    Patel, Prasad Prakash; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I; Kuruba, Ramalinga; Damodaran, Krishnan; Jampani, Prashanth; Gattu, Bharat; Shanthi, Pavithra Murugavel; Damle, Sameer S; Kumta, Prashant N

    2016-01-01

    Identification of low cost, highly active, durable completely noble metal-free electro-catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in PEM based water electrolysis and metal air batteries remains one of the major unfulfilled scientific and technological challenges of PEM based acid mediated electro-catalysts. In contrast, several non-noble metals based electro-catalysts have been identified for alkaline and neutral medium water electrolysis and fuel cells. Herein we report for the very first time, F doped Cu1.5Mn1.5O4, identified by exploiting theoretical first principles calculations for ORR and OER in PEM based systems. The identified novel noble metal-free electro-catalyst showed similar onset potential (1.43 V for OER and 1 V for ORR vs RHE) to that of IrO2 and Pt/C, respectively. The system also displayed excellent electrochemical activity comparable to IrO2 for OER and Pt/C for ORR, respectively, along with remarkable long term stability for 6000 cycles in acidic media validating theory, while also displaying superior methanol tolerance and yielding recommended power densities in full cell configurations. PMID:27380719

  6. Noble metal-free bifunctional oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction acidic media electro-catalysts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Patel, Prasad Prakash; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Kuruba, Ramalinga; Damodaran, Krishnan; Jampani, Prashanth; Gattu, Bharat; Shanthi, Pavithra Murugavel; Damle, Sameer S.; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2016-07-06

    We report that identification of low cost, highly active, durable completely noble metal-free electro-catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in PEM based water electrolysis and metal air batteries remains one of the major unfulfilled scientific and technological challenges of PEM based acid mediated electro-catalysts. In contrast, several non-noble metals based electro-catalysts have been identified for alkaline and neutral medium water electrolysis and fuel cells. Furthermore, we report for the very first time, F doped Cu1.5Mn1.5O4, identified by exploiting theoretical first principles calculations for ORR and OER in PEM basedmore » systems. The identified novel noble metal-free electro-catalyst showed similar onset potential (1.43 V for OER and 1 V for ORR vs RHE) to that of IrO2 and Pt/C, respectively. The system also displayed excellent electrochemical activity comparable to IrO2 for OER and Pt/C for ORR, respectively, along with remarkable long term stability for 6000 cycles in acidic media validating theory, while also displaying superior methanol tolerance and yielding recommended power densities in full cell configurations.« less

  7. Noble metal-free bifunctional oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction acidic media electro-catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Prasad Prakash; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Kuruba, Ramalinga; Damodaran, Krishnan; Jampani, Prashanth; Gattu, Bharat; Shanthi, Pavithra Murugavel; Damle, Sameer S.; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2016-07-01

    Identification of low cost, highly active, durable completely noble metal-free electro-catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in PEM based water electrolysis and metal air batteries remains one of the major unfulfilled scientific and technological challenges of PEM based acid mediated electro-catalysts. In contrast, several non-noble metals based electro-catalysts have been identified for alkaline and neutral medium water electrolysis and fuel cells. Herein we report for the very first time, F doped Cu1.5Mn1.5O4, identified by exploiting theoretical first principles calculations for ORR and OER in PEM based systems. The identified novel noble metal-free electro-catalyst showed similar onset potential (1.43 V for OER and 1 V for ORR vs RHE) to that of IrO2 and Pt/C, respectively. The system also displayed excellent electrochemical activity comparable to IrO2 for OER and Pt/C for ORR, respectively, along with remarkable long term stability for 6000 cycles in acidic media validating theory, while also displaying superior methanol tolerance and yielding recommended power densities in full cell configurations.

  8. Selective production of fungal beauveriolide I or III by fermentation in amino acid-supplemented media.

    PubMed

    Namatame, Ichiji; Matsuda, Daisuke; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yuichi; Masuma, Rokuro; Kobayashi, Susumu; Omura, Satoshi

    2002-12-01

    Beauveriolides I and III, cyclic depsipeptides composed of L-Phe, L-Ala, D-Leu and (3S,4S)-3-hydroxy-4-methyloctanoic acid, and L-Phe, L-Ala, L-allo-Ile and (3S,4S)-3-hydroxy-4-methyloctanoic acid, respectively, were previously isolated from the culture broth of fungal Beauveria sp. FO-6979 as inhibitors of macrophage foam cell formation. To improve the production of these compounds by fermentation, the culture conditions were studied. The production of both beauveriolides was increased five to ten folds by fermentation in the culture media containing tryptone. Further study revealed that addition of L-Leu/L-Ile, but not D-Leu/D-allo-Ile, to the culture medium yielded a high and selective production of beauveriolide I or III. As a result, regardless of their separation difficulty due to the similar physico-chemical properties, a large amount of beauveriolide I or III was prepared from the culture broth obtained from L-Leu- or L-Ile-supplemented fermentation, respectively, by one step purification using silica gel column chromatography. PMID:12617514

  9. Noble metal-free bifunctional oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction acidic media electro-catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Prasad Prakash; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Kuruba, Ramalinga; Damodaran, Krishnan; Jampani, Prashanth; Gattu, Bharat; Shanthi, Pavithra Murugavel; Damle, Sameer S.; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of low cost, highly active, durable completely noble metal-free electro-catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in PEM based water electrolysis and metal air batteries remains one of the major unfulfilled scientific and technological challenges of PEM based acid mediated electro-catalysts. In contrast, several non-noble metals based electro-catalysts have been identified for alkaline and neutral medium water electrolysis and fuel cells. Herein we report for the very first time, F doped Cu1.5Mn1.5O4, identified by exploiting theoretical first principles calculations for ORR and OER in PEM based systems. The identified novel noble metal-free electro-catalyst showed similar onset potential (1.43 V for OER and 1 V for ORR vs RHE) to that of IrO2 and Pt/C, respectively. The system also displayed excellent electrochemical activity comparable to IrO2 for OER and Pt/C for ORR, respectively, along with remarkable long term stability for 6000 cycles in acidic media validating theory, while also displaying superior methanol tolerance and yielding recommended power densities in full cell configurations. PMID:27380719

  10. Understanding Strategy of Nitrate and Urea Assimilation in a Chinese Strain of Aureococcus anophagefferens through RNA-Seq Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hong-Po; Huang, Kai-Xuan; Wang, Hua-Long; Lu, Song-Hui; Cen, Jing-Yi; Dong, Yue-Lei

    2014-01-01

    Aureococcus anophagefferens is a harmful alga that dominates plankton communities during brown tides in North America, Africa, and Asia. Here, RNA-seq technology was used to profile the transcriptome of a Chinese strain of A. anophagefferens that was grown on urea, nitrate, and a mixture of urea and nitrate, and that was under N-replete, limited and recovery conditions to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie nitrate and urea utilization. The number of differentially expressed genes between urea-grown and mixture N-grown cells were much less than those between urea-grown and nitrate-grown cells. Compared with nitrate-grown cells, mixture N-grown cells contained much lower levels of transcripts encoding proteins that are involved in nitrate transport and assimilation. Together with profiles of nutrient changes in media, these results suggest that A. anophagefferens primarily feeds on urea instead of nitrate when urea and nitrate co-exist. Furthermore, we noted that transcripts upregulated by nitrate and N-limitation included those encoding proteins involved in amino acid and nucleotide transport, degradation of amides and cyanates, and nitrate assimilation pathway. The data suggest that A. anophagefferens possesses an ability to utilize a variety of dissolved organic nitrogen. Moreover, transcripts for synthesis of proteins, glutamate-derived amino acids, spermines and sterols were upregulated by urea. Transcripts encoding key enzymes that are involved in the ornithine-urea and TCA cycles were differentially regulated by urea and nitrogen concentration, which suggests that the OUC may be linked to the TCA cycle and involved in reallocation of intracellular carbon and nitrogen. These genes regulated by urea may be crucial for the rapid proliferation of A. anophagefferens when urea is provided as the N source. PMID:25338000

  11. Understanding strategy of nitrate and urea assimilation in a Chinese strain of Aureococcus anophagefferens through RNA-seq analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hong-Po; Huang, Kai-Xuan; Wang, Hua-Long; Lu, Song-Hui; Cen, Jing-Yi; Dong, Yue-Lei

    2014-01-01

    Aureococcus anophagefferens is a harmful alga that dominates plankton communities during brown tides in North America, Africa, and Asia. Here, RNA-seq technology was used to profile the transcriptome of a Chinese strain of A. anophagefferens that was grown on urea, nitrate, and a mixture of urea and nitrate, and that was under N-replete, limited and recovery conditions to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie nitrate and urea utilization. The number of differentially expressed genes between urea-grown and mixture N-grown cells were much less than those between urea-grown and nitrate-grown cells. Compared with nitrate-grown cells, mixture N-grown cells contained much lower levels of transcripts encoding proteins that are involved in nitrate transport and assimilation. Together with profiles of nutrient changes in media, these results suggest that A. anophagefferens primarily feeds on urea instead of nitrate when urea and nitrate co-exist. Furthermore, we noted that transcripts upregulated by nitrate and N-limitation included those encoding proteins involved in amino acid and nucleotide transport, degradation of amides and cyanates, and nitrate assimilation pathway. The data suggest that A. anophagefferens possesses an ability to utilize a variety of dissolved organic nitrogen. Moreover, transcripts for synthesis of proteins, glutamate-derived amino acids, spermines and sterols were upregulated by urea. Transcripts encoding key enzymes that are involved in the ornithine-urea and TCA cycles were differentially regulated by urea and nitrogen concentration, which suggests that the OUC may be linked to the TCA cycle and involved in reallocation of intracellular carbon and nitrogen. These genes regulated by urea may be crucial for the rapid proliferation of A. anophagefferens when urea is provided as the N source. PMID:25338000

  12. Incorporation of alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid as a Fixed Bed Scrubber Media for the Neutralization of Hydrazine Family Hypergolic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVor, R. W.; Santiago-Maldonado, E.; Parkerson, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    A candidate scrubber media, alpha-ketoglutaric acid (aKGA) adsorbed onto a silica-based substrate was examined as a potential alternative to the hydrazine-family hypergolic fuel neutralization techniques currently utilized at NASA/Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Helvenson et. al. has indicated that aKGA will react with hydrazines to produce non-hazardous, possibly biodegradable products. Furthermore, the authors have previously tested and demonstrated the use of aKGA aqueous solutions as a replacement neutralizing agent for citric acid, which is currently used as a scrubbing agent in liquid scrubbers at KSC. Specific properties examined include reaction efficiency, the loading capacity of aKGA onto various silica substrates, and the comparison of aKGA media performance to that of the citric acid vapor scrubber systems at KSC and a commercial vapor scrubber media. Preliminary investigations showed hydrophobic aerogel particles to be an ideal substrate for the deposition of the aKGA. Current studies have shown that the laboratory produced aKGA-Aerogel absorbent media are more efficient and cost effective than a commercially available fixed bed scrubber media, although much less cost effective than liquid-based citric acid scrubbers (although possibly safer and less labor intensive). A comparison of all three alternative scrubber technologies (liquid aKGA, solid-phase aKGA, and commercially available sorbent materials) is given considering both hypergolic neutralization capabilities and relative costs (as compared to the current citric acid scrubbing technology in use at NASA/KSC).

  13. Lewis Acid Pairs for the Activation of Biomass-derived Oxygenates in Aqueous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, Yuriy

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this project is to understand the mechanistic aspects behind the cooperative activation of oxygenates by catalytic pairs in aqueous media. Specifically, we will investigate how the reactivity of a solid Lewis acid can be modulated by pairing the active site with other catalytic sites at the molecular level, with the ultimate goal of enhancing activation of targeted functional groups. Although unusual catalytic properties have been attributed to the cooperative effects promoted by such catalytic pairs, virtually no studies exist detailing the use heterogeneous water-tolerant Lewis pairs. A main goal of this work is to devise rational pathways for the synthesis of porous heterogeneous catalysts featuring isolated Lewis pairs that are active in the transformation of biomass-derived oxygenates in the presence of bulk water. Achieving this technical goal will require closely linking advanced synthesis techniques; detailed kinetic and mechanistic investigations; strict thermodynamic arguments; and comprehensive characterization studies of both materials and reaction intermediates. For the last performance period (2014-2015), two technical aims were pursued: 1) C-C coupling using Lewis acid and base pairs in Lewis acidic zeolites. Tin-, zirconium-, and hafnium containing zeolites (e.g., Sn-, Zr-, and Hf-Beta) are versatile solid Lewis acids that selectively activate carbonyl functional groups. In this aim, we demonstrate that these zeolites catalyze the cross-aldol condensation of aromatic aldehydes with acetone under mild reaction conditions with near quantitative yields. NMR studies with isotopically labeled molecules confirm that acid-base pairs in the Si-O-M framework ensemble promote soft enolization through α-proton abstraction. The Lewis acidic zeolites maintain activity in the presence of water and, unlike traditional base catalysts, in acidic solutions. 2) One-pot synthesis of MWW zeolite nanosheets for activation of bulky substrates. Through

  14. Effect of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid and naphthalene acetic acid on regeneration of damask rose cuttings in three growing media.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rahmat Ullah; Khan, Muhammad Sohail; Rashid, Abdur; Farooq, Arshad

    2007-10-15

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of various levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) treatments i.e., 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 mg L(-1) on the regeneration of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cuttings in different growing media at the research farm of Arid Zone Research Institute D.I. Khan during 2004. The data revealed significant effect of different levels of growth regulators and growing media on the rose establishment parameters viz., plant height, plant spread, number of primary shoots, secondary shoots and survival percentage. Maximum plant height (134.2 cm), plant spread (46.3 cm), primary shoots (6.3), secondary shoots (25) and survival percentage (94.72%) were recorded when the rose cuttings were applied with NAA at the rate of 50 mg L(-1). Among the plant growth regulators, Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) was found to be superior to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) for its stronger effect regarding all parameters. The optimum level of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) was found in the range of 50 and 75 mg L(-1), while no such conclusion could be drawn for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) as all growth parameters were linearly increased up to the highest concentrations of IAA i.e., 100 mg L(-1). Regarding growing media, the leaf mould appeared the best in terms of its positive effect on establishment of rose cuttings by giving the maximum plant height (125.1 cm), plant spread (37 cm), primary shoots (5.2), secondary shoots (19.48) and survival percentage (85.67%), followed by soil + leaf mould, while soil media was least effective. PMID:19093472

  15. Production of Antilisterial Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria in Dairy-Based Media: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Ünlü, Gülhan; Nielsen, Barbara; Ionita, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    One hundred and eight strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were screened for bacteriocin production by the modified deferred antagonism and agar well diffusion methods. When the modified deferred antagonism method was employed, 82 LAB strains showed inhibitory action against Listeria monocytogenes v7 ½a, whereas 26 LAB strains expressed no inhibition. Only 12 LAB strains exhibited inhibitory activity when the agar well diffusion method was used, 11 of which had been previously recognized as bacteriocin production positive (Bac(+)). Lactobacillus viridescens NRRL B-1951 was determined, for the first time, to produce an inhibitory compound with a proteinaceous nature. The inhibitory activity was observed in the presence of lipase, α-chymotrypsin, and trypsin, but no inhibition zone could be detected in the presence of proteinase K, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the inhibitory compound. The inhibitory compound was active against Lact. sake ATCC 15521 and Lact. plantarum NCDO 995. Bacteriocin production by the Bac(+) LAB strains was assessed in Lactobacillus MRS Broth as well as in dairy-based media such as nonfat milk, demineralized whey powder, and cheddar cheese whey supplemented with complex nutrient sources that are rich in nitrogen. Lact. sake ATCC 15521 and L. monocytogenes CWD 1002, CWD 1092, CWD 1157, CWD 1198, and v7 ½a were used as indicators. The inhibitory activities of the bacteriocins varied depending on the indicator strains and the growth media used. The LAB indicator strains were found to be more sensitive to inhibition by bacteriocins when compared to the listerial indicator strains. Among the listerial indicators, L. monocytogenes CWD 1002 and CWD 1198 were the most sensitive strains to the bacteriocins investigated in this study. Media composition had a significant influence on bacteriocin production and activity. When compared to demineralized whey powder medium and cheddar cheese whey medium supplemented with whey protein concentrate

  16. Anisole Nitration During Gamma-Irradiation of Aqueous Nitrite and Nitrate Solutions: Free Radical Versus Ionic Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Gracy Elias; Bruce J. Mincher; Leigh R. Martin; Stephen P. Mezyk; Thomas D. Cullen

    2010-04-01

    The nitration of aromatic compounds in the condensed phase is of interest to nuclear waste treatment applications. This chapter discusses our investigation of radiolytic aromatic nitration mechanisms in the condensed phase toward understanding the nitration products created during nuclear fuel reprocessing. The nitration reactions of anisole, a model aromatic compound, were studied in ?-irradiated acidic nitrate, neutral nitrate, and neutral nitrite solutions. The nitrated anisole product distributions were the same with and without radiation in acidic solution, although more products were formed with radiation. In the irradiated acidic condensed phase, radiation-enhanced nitrous acid-catalyzed nitrosonium ion electrophilic aromatic substitution followed by oxidation reactions dominated over radical addition reactions. Neutral nitrate anisole solutions were dominated by mixed nitrosonium/nitronium ion electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions, but with lower product yields. Irradiation of neutral nitrite anisole solution resulted in a statistical substitution pattern for nitroanisole products, suggesting non-electrophilic free radical reactions involving the •NO2 radical.

  17. Lipase in biphasic alginate beads as a biocatalyst for esterification of butyric acid and butanol in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Ng, Choong Hey; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Esterification of organic acids and alcohols in aqueous media is very inefficient due to thermodynamic constraints. However, fermentation processes used to produce organic acids and alcohols are often conducted in aqueous media. To produce esters in aqueous media, biphasic alginate beads with immobilized lipase are developed for in situ esterification of butanol and butyric acid. The biphasic beads contain a solid matrix of calcium alginate and hexadecane together with 5 mg/mL of lipase as the biocatalyst. Hexadecane in the biphasic beads serves as an organic phase to facilitate the esterification reaction. Under optimized conditions, the beads are able to catalyze the production of 0.16 mmol of butyl butyrate from 0.5 mmol of butyric acid and 1.5 mmol of butanol. In contrast, when monophasic beads (without hexadecane) are used, only trace amount of butyl butyrate is produced. One main application of biphasic beads is in simultaneous fermentation and esterification (SFE) because the organic phase inside the beads is very stable and does not leach out into the culture medium. SFE is successfully conducted with an esterification yield of 6.32% using biphasic beads containing iso-octane even though the solvent is proven toxic to the butanol-producing Clostridium spp. PMID:26672465

  18. A new role for an old enzyme: Nitrate reductase-mediated nitric oxide generation is required for abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Desikan, Radhika; Griffiths, Rachael; Hancock, John; Neill, Steven

    2002-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), synthesized in response to water-deficit stress, induces stomatal closure via activation of complex signaling cascades. Recent work has established that nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule mediating ABA-induced stomatal closure. However, the biosynthetic origin of NO in guard cells has not yet been resolved. Here, we provide pharmacological, physiological, and genetic evidence that NO synthesis in Arabidopsis guard cells is mediated by the enzyme nitrate reductase (NR). Guard cells of wild-type Arabidopsis generate NO in response to treatment with ABA and nitrite, a substrate for NR. Moreover, NR-mediated NO synthesis is required for ABA-induced stomatal closure. However, in the NR double mutant, nia1, nia2 that has diminished NR activity, guard cells do not synthesize NO nor do the stomata close in response to ABA or nitrite, although stomatal opening is still inhibited by ABA. Furthermore, by using the ABA-insensitive (ABI) abi1–1 and abi2–1 mutants, we show that the ABI1 and ABI2 protein phosphatases are downstream of NO in the ABA signal-transduction cascade. These data demonstrate a previously uncharacterized signaling role for NR, that of mediating ABA-induced NO synthesis in Arabidopsis guard cells. PMID:12446847

  19. The role of vacuolar malate-transport capacity in crassulacean acid metabolism and nitrate nutrition. Higher malate-transport capacity in ice plant after crassulacean acid metabolism-induction and in tobacco under nitrate nutrition.

    PubMed

    Lüttge, U; Pfeifer, T; Fischer-Schliebs, E; Ratajczak, R

    2000-11-01

    Anion uptake by isolated tonoplast vesicles was recorded indirectly via increased H(+)-transport by H(+)-pumping of the V-ATPase due to dissipation of the electrical component of the electrochemical proton gradient, Deltamu(H+), across the membrane. ATP hydrolysis by the V-ATPase was measured simultaneously after the Palmgren test. Normalizing for ATP-hydrolysis and effects of chloride, which was added to the assays as a stimulating effector of the V-ATPase, a parameter, J(mal)(rel), of apparent ATP-dependent malate-stimulated H(+)-transport was worked out as an indirect measure of malate transport capacity. This allowed comparison of various species and physiological conditions. J(mal)(rel) was high in the obligate crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species Kalanchoë daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier, it increased substantially after CAM induction in ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), and it was positively correlated with NO(3)(-) nutrition in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). For tobacco this was confirmed by measurements of malate transport energized via the V-PPase. In ice plant a new polypeptide of 32-kD apparent molecular mass appeared, and a 33-kD polypeptide showed higher levels after CAM induction under conditions of higher J(mal)(rel). It is concluded that tonoplast malate transport capacity plays an important role in physiological regulation in CAM and NO(3)(-) nutrition and that a putative malate transporter must be within the 32- to 33-kD polypeptide fraction of tonoplast proteins. PMID:11080309

  20. The role of acid-base effects on particle charging in apolar media.

    PubMed

    Gacek, Matthew Michael; Berg, John C

    2015-06-01

    The creation and stabilization of electric charge in apolar environments (dielectric constant≈2) have been an area of interest dating back to when an explanation was sought for the occurrence of what are now known as electrokinetic explosions during the pumping of fuels. More recently attention has focused on the charging of suspended particles in such media, underlying such applications as electrophoretic displays (e.g., the Amazon Kindle® reader) and new printing devices (e.g., the HP Indigo® Digital Press). The endeavor has been challenging owing to the complexity of the systems involved and the large number of factors that appear to be important. A number of different, and sometimes conflicting, theories for particle surface charging have been advanced, but most observations obtained in the authors' laboratory, as well as others, appear to be explainable in terms of an acid-base mechanism. Adducts formed between chemical functional groups on the particle surface and monomers of reverse micelle-forming surfactants dissociate, leaving charged groups on the surface, while the counter-charges formed are sequestered in the reverse micelles. For a series of mineral oxides in a given medium with a given surfactant, surface charging (as quantified by the maximum electrophoretic mobility or zeta potential obtained as surfactant concentration is varied) was found to scale linearly with the aqueous PZC (or IEP) values of the oxides. Different surfactants, with the same oxide series, yielded similar behavior, but with different PZC crossover points between negative and positive particle charging, and different slopes of charge vs. PZC. Thus the oxide series could be used as a yardstick to characterize the acid-base properties of the surfactants. This has led directly to the study of other materials, including surface-modified oxides, carbon blacks, pigments (charge transfer complexes), and polymer latices. This review focuses on the acid-base mechanism of particle

  1. An efficient nitration of light alkanes and the alkyl side-chain of aromatic compounds with nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid catalyzed by N-hydroxyphthalimide.

    PubMed

    Nishiwaki, Yoshiki; Sakaguchi, Satoshi; Ishii, Yasutaka

    2002-08-01

    Nitration of light alkanes and the alkyl side-chain of aromatic compounds with NO(2) and HNO(3) was successfully achieved by the use of N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI) as a catalyst under relatively mild conditions. For example, the nitration of propane with NO(2) catalyzed by NHPI at 100 degrees C for 14 h gave 2-nitropropane in good yield without formation of 1-nitropropane and cleaved products such as nitroethane and nitromethane. Various aliphatic nitroalkanes, which are difficult to prepare by conventional methods, could be selectively obtained by means of the present methodology by using NHPI as the key catalyst. In addition, the side-chain nitration of alkylbenzenes such as toluene was selectively carried out to lead to alpha-nitrotoluene without the ring nitration. The present reaction provides an efficient selective method for the nitration of light alkanes and alkylbenzenes, which has been very difficult to carry out so far. PMID:12153265

  2. Crystalline Metaphosphate Acid Salts: Synthesis in Organic Media, Structures, Hydrogen-Bonding Capability, and Implication of Superacidity.

    PubMed

    Chakarawet, Khetpakorn; Knopf, Ioana; Nava, Matthew; Jiang, Yanfeng; Stauber, Julia M; Cummins, Christopher C

    2016-06-20

    Metaphosphate acids cannot be thoroughly studied in aqueous media because their acidity is leveled by the solvent, and the resulting metaphosphates are susceptible to acid-catalyzed hydrolysis. Exploration of metaphosphate acid chemistry has now been made possible with the development of a general synthetic method for organic media soluble metaphosphate acids. Protonation of the [PPN](+) salts ([PPN](+) = [N(PPh3)2](+)) of tri-, tetra-, and hexametaphosphates results in five new metaphosphate acids, [PPN]2[P3O9H] (2), [PPN]4[(P4O12)3H8] (3), [PPN]4[P6O18H2]·2H2O (4), [PPN]3[P6O18H3] (5), and [PPN]2[P6O18H2(H3O)2] (6), obtained in yields of 80, 71, 66, 88, and 76%, respectively. Additionally, our synthetic method can be extended to pyrophosphate to produce [PPN][P2O7H3] (7) in 77% yield. The structural configurations of these oxoacids are dictated by strong hydrogen bonds and the anticooperative effect. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds are observed in 2, 4, and 5 and the previously reported [PPN]2[P4O12H2] (1), while intermolecular hydrogen bonds are observed in 3, 6, and 7. The hydrogen bonds in 3-7 possess short distances and are classified as low-barrier hydrogen bonds. Gas-phase acidity computations reveal that the parent tri- and tetrametaphosphoric acids are superacids. Their remarkable acidity is attributable to the stabilization of their corresponding conjugate bases via intramolecular hydrogen bonding. PMID:27267865

  3. Characterization of bacteria that suppress rhizoctonia damping-off in bark compost media by analysis of Fatty Acid biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Tunlid, A; Hoitink, H A; Low, C; White, D C

    1989-06-01

    Examination of cucumber roots (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in bark compost media and of the surrounding edaphic substrate showed profiles of polar lipid fatty acids commonly found in bacteria. The composition of fatty acids in these profiles differed significantly between roots grown in a medium naturally suppressive to Rhizoctonia damping-off and roots from a conducive medium. Cucumber roots from the suppressive medium had higher proportions of cis-vaccenic acid (18:1 omega 7c) and the iso-branched monoenoic fatty acid i17:1 omega 8 but lower proportions of several iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids compared with roots from the conducive medium. The concentrations of the bacterial fatty acids were significantly lower in the surrounding media. However, the suppressive and conducive growth substrates had differences in the composition of the bacterial fatty acids similar to those found between the cucumber roots proper. These results suggest major differences in bacterial community composition between suppressive and conducive systems. Fatty acid analyses were also utilized to examine the effects on bacterial community composition of root colonization by Flavobacterium balustinum 299, a biocontrol agent. The concentration of the most prominent fatty acid in this bacterium, i17:1 omega 8, was increased on roots produced from inoculated seeds in a medium rendered suppressive by the treatment. This change was concomitant with a significant increase in the concentration of 18:1 omega 7c, not present in the lipids of the antagonist, indicating a shift in the microflora from a conducive to a suppressive bacterial community. PMID:16347930

  4. Nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes with encapsulated ferric carbide as excellent electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in acid and alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Guoyu; Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Hao; Peng, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) with encapsulated Fe3C nanoparticles (Fe3C@NCNTs) are synthesized by a simple direct pyrolysis of melamine and ferric chloride. The characterization results reveal that Fe3C is mainly encapsulated in the interior of NCNTs and N species is mainly distributed on the outside surface of NCNTs. Iron and iron carbide catalyze the growth of NCNTs and are wrapped by carbon to form Fe3C@NCNTs. The as-prepared Fe3C@NCNTs catalyst exhibits superior oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity, excellent methanol tolerance and long-term stability in both acid and alkaline media. It is proven that the doped N is the main active site for ORR and the inner Fe3C with outside carbon form the synergetic active site to enhance ORR activity. The ORR mechanism of direct four electron transfer pathway is proved in acid and alkaline media.

  5. Impairment of ascorbic acid's anti-oxidant properties in confined media: inter and intramolecular reactions with air and vanadate at acidic pH.

    PubMed

    Crans, Debbie C; Baruah, Bharat; Gaidamauskas, Ernestas; Lemons, Brant G; Lorenz, Bret B; Johnson, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    The anti-oxidant properties of L-ascorbic acid were investigated in the confined medium produced by a sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (aerosol-OT, AOT) self-assembled reverse micelle. Using 1H-1H NOESY (proton-proton 2D nuclear overhauser enhancement correlation spectroscopy) NMR spectroscopy, the location of ascorbic acid was investigated and found to be at the AOT-interface in contrast to earlier studies where the ascorbate was assumed to be in the water pool in these microemulsions. The reaction of ascorbic acid with oxygen was investigated using EPR spectroscopy. A delocalized monoanionic ascorbate radical was observed in microemulsions prepared from pH 5.6 stock solutions. This is in contrast to studies carried out in aqueous media where no radical formation was observed. The oxidation of ascorbic acid by aqueous V(V) was investigated in reverse micelles. Modest changes in the kinetic parameters were observed for this system compared to that in water. Details of these reactions were examined and can be summarized as the microemulsion solvating and stabilizing reactive intermediates via rate inhibition or enhancement. The inhibition of the oxidation is due to solvation stabilization of ascorbic acid in microemulsion media. Since ascorbate is a valuable marker of oxidative stress, our results suggest that compartmentization can modify the stabilization of the ascorbate radical and the changes in properties could be important in biological systems. PMID:18331759

  6. Application of talcum powder, trichloroacetic acid and silver nitrate in female rats for non-surgical sterilization: evaluation of the apoptotic pathway mRNA and miRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Yumrutas, Onder; Kara, Murat; Atilgan, Remzi; Kavak, Salih Burcin; Bozgeyik, Ibrahim; Sapmaz, Ekrem

    2015-04-01

    There are several methods used for non-surgical sterilization in birth control including quinacrine, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), erythromycin, tetracycline, silver nitrate and talcum powder. Among these, talcum powder, TCA and silver nitrate are the most commonly used. However, the toxic and carcinogenic activities of these chemicals in ovarian tissue have been poorly elucidated. This study demonstrates the expression levels of antioxidant, apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes after administration of talc powder, TCA and silver nitrate for non-surgical sterilization in female rat models. The expression changes of some microRNAs (miR-15b, miR-21, miR-34a and miR-98) that play key roles in the apoptosis pathway were also included. All expression analyses were evaluated with real-time PCR. The expression levels of all genes appeared to be upregulated in the talcum powder group, but the results were not statistically significant. Increased expression of Gsr and Sod1 genes was statistically significant in the talcum powder group. In TCA and silver nitrate group, expression of all genes was appeared to be elevated but only the Gsr expression was statistically significant in the TCA-administrated group; there were no statistically significant changes in the silver nitrate group. miRNA expression levels were increased in talcum powder and TCA-administrated groups, but these results were not significant. Expression levels of miR-15b, miR-21 and miR-98 in the silver nitrate group were significantly increased. Consequently, these chemicals appear to be non-carcinogenic agents for rat ovarian tissue which do not induce apoptosis. However, talcum powder and TCA can be considered as agents that are toxic to ovarian tissue. PMID:25885949

  7. Anion Recognition Triggered Nanoribbon-Like Self-Assembly: A Fluorescent Chemosensor for Nitrate in Acidic Aqueous Solution and Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaping; Chen, Shiyan; Ni, Xin-Long

    2015-07-21

    A water-soluble π-conjugated bispyridinium phenylenevinylene-based fluorogenic probe has been developed as a novel fluorescent chemosensor for highly selective, sensitive, and rapid detection of NO3(-) anion in acidic aqueous media. This system self-assembles to a nanoribbon as a result of ionic interaction. The positively charged chemosensor generates a nearly instantaneous significant fluorescence signal (475 vs 605 nm) in response to NO3(-) in the green/yellow spectral region, with a large Stokes shift (130 nm). The fluorescence changes can be attributed to the self-aggregation of the sensor triggered by ionic interaction, which occurs as a consequence of the subtle cooperation of electrostatic ionic bonding, van der Waals forces, and π-stacking of the π-conjugated aromatic moieties. Importantly, this chemosensor has been employed for the first time for the fluorescence detection of intracellular NO3(-) anion in cultured cells. PMID:26084357

  8. Fluorine-Doped and Partially Oxidized Tantalum Carbides as Nonprecious Metal Electrocatalysts for Methanol Oxidation Reaction in Acidic Media.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xin; He, Chunyong; Zhong, Chengyong; Chen, Yuanping; Jiang, San Ping; Shen, Pei Kang

    2016-03-16

    A nonprecious metal electrocatalyst based on fluorine-doped tantalum carbide with an oxidative surface on graphitized carbon (TaCx FyOz/(g)C) is developed by using a simple one-pot in situ ion exchange and adsorption method, and the TaCxFyOz/(g)C shows superior performance and durability for methanol oxidation reaction and extreme tolerance to CO poisoning in acidic media. PMID:26779940

  9. Dissolution Profile of Mefenamic Acid Solid Dosage Forms in Two Compendial and Biorelevant (FaSSIF) Media.

    PubMed

    Nurhikmah, Wilda; Sumirtapura, Yeyet Cahyati; Pamudji, Jessie Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Mefenamic acid is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is widely used for the treatment of mild-to-moderate pain. Mefenamic acid belongs to the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class II drug which has lower water solubility but high permeability. There are two different compendial methods available for dissolution tests of mefenamic acid solid dosage forms, i.e. methods of United States Pharmacopeia 37 (USP) and Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2010 (PPRC). Indonesian Pharmacopeia V ed. (FI) adopted the USP method. On the other hand, many researches focused on the use of a 'biorelevant' medium to develop the dissolution test method. The aim of this research was to study the dissolution profile of mefenamic acid from its solid dosage forms (caplet and capsule) available in the Indonesian market with three different dissolution medium: USP, PPRC, and biorelevant fasted simulated small intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) media. The tested products consisted of the innovator's product (available only in caplet dosage form, FN caplet) and generic products (available as caplet and capsule). The dissolution test of the drug products in all dissolution media was performed in 900 mL of medium using apparatus II (paddle) at a temperature of 37°C and rotation speed of 75 rpm, except for the capsule product and for USP medium, both of which tests were done using apparatus I (basket) with rotation speed of 100 rpm. The solubility test of mefenamic acid was carried out in all media at temperature of 37°C. The result obtained from the solubility test showed that the the highest solubility of mefenamic acid was obtained in USP medium (approximately 2 mg/mL), followed by PPRC medium (about 0.5 mg/mL), and FaSSIF medium (approximately 0.06 mg/ml). In the dissolution test, percentage of drug dissolved in in the USP and PPRC media after 45 min for all products reached more than 75%, except for the PN caplet in USP medium which reached only about 44

  10. Dissolution Profile of Mefenamic Acid Solid Dosage Forms in Two Compendial and Biorelevant (FaSSIF) Media

    PubMed Central

    Nurhikmah, Wilda; Sumirtapura, Yeyet Cahyati; Pamudji, Jessie Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Mefenamic acid is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is widely used for the treatment of mild-to-moderate pain. Mefenamic acid belongs to the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class II drug which has lower water solubility but high permeability. There are two different compendial methods available for dissolution tests of mefenamic acid solid dosage forms, i.e. methods of United States Pharmacopeia 37 (USP) and Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China 2010 (PPRC). Indonesian Pharmacopeia V ed. (FI) adopted the USP method. On the other hand, many researches focused on the use of a ‘biorelevant’ medium to develop the dissolution test method. The aim of this research was to study the dissolution profile of mefenamic acid from its solid dosage forms (caplet and capsule) available in the Indonesian market with three different dissolution medium: USP, PPRC, and biorelevant fasted simulated small intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) media. The tested products consisted of the innovator’s product (available only in caplet dosage form, FN caplet) and generic products (available as caplet and capsule). The dissolution test of the drug products in all dissolution media was performed in 900 mL of medium using apparatus II (paddle) at a temperature of 37°C and rotation speed of 75 rpm, except for the capsule product and for USP medium, both of which tests were done using apparatus I (basket) with rotation speed of 100 rpm. The solubility test of mefenamic acid was carried out in all media at temperature of 37°C. The result obtained from the solubility test showed that the the highest solubility of mefenamic acid was obtained in USP medium (approximately 2 mg/mL), followed by PPRC medium (about 0.5 mg/mL), and FaSSIF medium (approximately 0.06 mg/ml). In the dissolution test, percentage of drug dissolved in in the USP and PPRC media after 45 min for all products reached more than 75%, except for the PN caplet in USP medium which reached only

  11. Role of acid and aluminum-rich media in the growth and nutrition of Pacific Northwest conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Forest soils of coastal Washington and Oregon tend to be very acidic with large accumulations of organic matter. Yet the productivity of forest species on these sites can attain record levels. The effect of acid and aluminum-rich media on the growth and nutrition of Pacific Northwest conifer species was investigated for western hemlock, Douglas-fir, western redcedar, and Sitka spruce. The four different types of growth media utilized were solution cultures, sand cultures, mineral soils, and forest floor organic matter. Hydroponic nutrient solutions and sand cultures were used in experiments designed to differentiate the effect of aluminum ions from the hydrogen ions generated by hydrolysis of Al/sup 3 +/. Relative to agronomic plants, all the conifers were found tolerant of the acid solutions and high levels of aluminum. Species differed in their relative tolerance to H/sup +/ and Al/sup 3/ ions. Western hemlock seedling growth was superior to Douglas-fir in the acidified soils and forest floor media, while Ca(OH)/sub 2/ amendment favored Douglas-fir. The marginal increase in western hemlock growth in N + P treated soils was highest in acidified soils. Western hemlock exhibited an ability to absorb nutrients in the presence of excess solution H/sup +/ ions, maintain growth with low tissue requirements of Ca and Mg, and accumulate high levels of aluminum in its roots and foliage without major adverse effect. These attributes are considered to make western hemlock the most acid and Al-tolerant of the four Pacific Northwest forest species studied. Western redcedar was second in acid tolerance to western hemlock. This species' ability to accumulate Ca minimized Al absorption and H/sup +/ damage to its roots.

  12. Root-zone acidity and nitrogen source affects Typha latifolia L. growth and uptake kinetics of ammonium and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Brix, Hans; Dyhr-Jensen, Kirsten; Lorenzen, Bent

    2002-12-01

    H levels around the roots are very stressful for the plant. The common occurrence of T. latifolia in very acidic areas is probably only possible because of the plant's ability to modify pH-conditions in the rhizosphere. PMID:12432036

  13. Pseudo-constitutivity of nitrate-responsive genes in nitrate reductase mutants

    PubMed Central

    Schinko, Thorsten; Gallmetzer, Andreas; Amillis, Sotiris; Strauss, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    that transporter-mediated NO3- accumulation in NR deficient mutants, originating from traces of nitrate in the media, is responsible for the constitutive expression of NirA-regulated genes, and the associated phenotype is thus termed “pseudo-constitutive”. PMID:23454548

  14. Synthesis and characterization of Gd{sup 3+} and Nd{sup 3+} co-doped ceria by using citric acid-nitrate combustion method

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Hong-Chang; Zhang, Yu-Xin; Henan Vocational College of Chemical Technology, Zhengzhou 450052 ; Liu, Jia-Jia; Li, Yue-Li; Wang, Jian-She; Li, Zhong-Jun

    2011-01-15

    A series of Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2-x}Nd{sub x}O{sub 2-{delta}} (x = 0-0.20) compositions have been synthesized by citric acid-nitrate combustion method. XRD measurements indicate that all the obtained materials crystallized in cubic fluorite-type structure. Lattice parameters were calculated by Rietveld method and the parameter a values in Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2-x}Nd{sub x}O{sub 2-{delta}} system obey Vegard's law, a (A) = 5.4224 + 0.1208x. The obtained powders have good sinterability and the relative density could reach above 95% after being sintered at 1400 {sup o}C. Impedance spectroscopy measurements indicated that the conductivity of Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2-x}Nd{sub x}O{sub 2-{delta}} first increased and then decreased with Nd dopant content x. The maximum conductivity, {sigma}{sub 700{sup o}C} = 6.26 x 10{sup -2} S/cm, was found in Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.12}Nd{sub 0.08}O{sub 1.9} when sintered at 1300 {sup o}C. The corresponding activation energies of conduction had a minimum value E{sub a} = 0.676 eV. The results tested experimentally the validity of the effective atomic number concept of recent density functional theory, which had suggested that co-dopant with effective atomic number between 61 (Pm) and 62 (Sm) was the ideal dopant exhibiting high ionic conductivity and low activation energy.

  15. An efficient protocol for incorporation of an unnatural amino acid in perdeuterated recombinant proteins using glucose-based media.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Vincenzo; Fawzi, Nicolas L; Clore, G Marius

    2012-03-01

    The in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins is a well-established technique requiring an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair specific for the unnatural amino acid that is incorporated at a position encoded by a TAG amber codon. Although this technology provides unique opportunities to engineer protein structures, poor protein yields are usually obtained in deuterated media, hampering its application in the protein NMR field. Here, we describe a novel protocol for incorporating unnatural amino acids into fully deuterated proteins using glucose-based media (which are relevant to the production, for example, of amino acid-specific methyl-labeled proteins used in the study of large molecular weight systems). The method consists of pre-induction of the pEVOL plasmid encoding the tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair in a rich, H(2)O-based medium prior to exchanging the culture into a D(2)O-based medium. Our protocol results in high level of isotopic incorporation (~95%) and retains the high expression level of the target protein observed in Luria-Bertani medium. PMID:22350951

  16. Curcumin-cysteine and curcumin-tryptophan conjugate as fluorescence turn on sensors for picric Acid in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Bedanta; Sen Sarma, Neelotpal

    2015-06-01

    Rapid detection of picric acid in real sample is of outmost importance from the perspective of health, safety, and environment. In this study, a very simple and cost-effective detection of picric acid is accomplished by developing a couple of biobased conjugates curcumin-cysteine (CC) and curcumin-tryptophan (CT), which undergo efficient fluorescence turn on toward picric acid in aqueous media. Both the probes experience about 26.5-fold fluorescence enhancements at 70 nM concentration of the analyte. Here, the fluorescence turn on process is governed by the aggregation induced emission, which is induced from the electrostatic interaction between the conjugates with picric acid. The detection limit of CC and CT are about 13.51 and 13.54 nM of picric acid, respectively. Importantly, both the probes exhibit high selectivity and low interference of other analogues toward the detection of picric acid. In addition, the probes are highly photostable, show low response time and are practically applicable for sensing picric acid in real environmental samples, which is the ultimate goal of this work. PMID:25955402

  17. CRASH-2 Study of Tranexamic Acid to Treat Bleeding in Trauma Patients: A Controversy Fueled by Science and Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Binz, Sophia; McCollester, Jonathon; Thomas, Scott; Miller, Joseph; Pohlman, Timothy; Waxman, Dan; Shariff, Faisal; Tracy, Rebecca; Walsh, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of tranexamic acid, an antifibrinolytic, to trauma. CRASH-2, a large randomized controlled trial, was the first to show a reduction in mortality and recommend tranexamic acid use in bleeding trauma patients. However, this paper was not without controversy. Its patient recruitment, methodology, and conductance in moderate-to-low income countries cast doubt on its ability to be applied to trauma protocols in countries with mature trauma networks. In addition to traditional vetting in scientific, peer-reviewed journals, CRASH-2 came about at a time when advances in communication technology allowed debate and influence to be leveraged in new forms, specifically through the use of multimedia campaigns, social media, and Internet blogs. This paper presents a comprehensive view of tranexamic acid utilization in trauma from peer-reviewed evidence to novel multimedia influences. PMID:26448897

  18. Cell culture media supplementation of bioflavonoids for the targeted reduction of acidic species charge variants on recombinant therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Hossler, Patrick; Wang, Min; McDermott, Sean; Racicot, Christopher; Chemfe, Kofi; Zhang, Yun; Chumsae, Christopher; Manuilov, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Charge variants in recombinant proteins are an important series of protein modifications, whose potential role on protein stability, activity, immunogenicity, and pharmacokinetics continues to be studied. Monoclonal antibodies in particular have been shown to have a wide range of acidic species variants, including those associated with the addition of covalent modifications as well as the chemical degradation at specific peptide regions on the antibody. These variants play a significant role toward the overall heterogeneity of recombinant therapeutic proteins and are typically monitored during manufacturing to ensure they lie within proven acceptable ranges. In this work, it has been found that the supplementation of members of the bioflavonoid chemical family into mammalian cell culture media was effective toward the reduction of acidic species charge variants on recombinant monoclonal antibodies and dual variable domain immunoglobulins. The demonstrated reduction in acidic species through the use of bioflavonoids facilitates the manufacturing of a less heterogeneous product with potential improvements in antibody structure and function. PMID:25920009

  19. The Lewis acid catalyzed synthesis of hyperbranched Oligo(glycerol-diacid)s in aprotic polar media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lewis-acid, titanium (IV) butoxide (15% (w/w; catalyst/reactants)), was used to catalyze the condensation of 0.05 mol glycerol with 0.10 mol of either succinic acid, glutaric acid, or azelaic acid to produce oligomers. The reactions were refluxed in dilute solutions of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) o...

  20. Short communication: Using diurnal patterns of (13)C enrichment of CO2 to evaluate the effects of nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid on fiber degradation in the rumen of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Klop, G; Bannink, A; Dieho, K; Gerrits, W J J; Dijkstra, J

    2016-09-01

    Nitrate decreases enteric CH4 production in ruminants, but may also negatively affect fiber degradation. In this experiment, 28 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 isonitrogenous treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement: control (CON); NO3 [21g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM)]; DHA [3g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/kg of DM]; or NO3+DHA (21g of nitrate/kg of DM and 3g of DHA/kg of DM). Cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 21% grass silage, 49% corn silage, and 30% concentrates on a DM basis. Based on the difference in natural (13)C enrichment and neutral detergent fiber and starch content between grass silage and corn silage, we investigated whether a negative effect on rumen fiber degradation could be detected by evaluating diurnal patterns of (13)C enrichment of exhaled carbon dioxide. A significant nitrate × DHA interaction was found for neutral detergent fiber digestibility, which was reduced on the NO3 treatment to an average of 55%, as compared with 61, 64, and 65% on treatments CON, DHA, and NO3+DHA, respectively. Feeding nitrate, but not DHA, resulted in a pronounced increase in (13)C enrichment of CO2 in the first 3 to 4 h after feeding only. Results support the hypothesis that effects of a feed additive on the rate of fiber degradation in the rumen can be detected by evaluating diurnal patterns of (13)C enrichment of CO2. To be able to detect this, the main ration components have to differ considerably in fiber and nonfiber carbohydrate content as well as in natural (13)C enrichment. PMID:27344384

  1. Elucidation of adsorption processes at the surface of Pt(331) model electrocatalysts in acidic aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Marcus D; Colic, Viktor; Scieszka, Daniel; Bandarenka, Aliaksandr S

    2016-04-20

    The Pt(331) surface has long been known to be the most active pure metal electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic media. Its activity is often higher than those known for the Pt-based alloys towards ORR, being comparable with the most active Pt3Ni(111), Pt3Y or Pt5Gd, and being more active than e.g. polycrystalline Pt3Ni. Multiple active sites at this surface offer adsorption energies which are close to the optimal binding energy with respect to the main ORR intermediates; nevertheless, the exact location of these sites is still not clear. Taking into account the unique surface geometry of Pt(331), some adsorbates (including some oxygenated ORR-intermediates) should also contribute to the electronic structure of the neighbouring catalytic centres. However, the experimental elucidation of the specific adsorption of oxygenated species at this surface appears to be a non-trivial task. Such information holds the keys to the understanding of the high activity of this material and would enable the rational design of nanostructured ORR catalysts even without alloying. In this work, the electrified Pt(331)/electrolyte interface has been characterised using cyclic voltammetry (CV) combined with potentiodynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (PDEIS) in 0.1 M HClO4 solutions. The systems were studied in the potential region between 0.05 V and 1.0 V vs. RHE, where the adsorption of *H, *OH and *O species is possible in both O2-free and O2-saturated electrolytes. Our CV and PDEIS results support the hypothesis that in contrast to Pt(111), many Pt(331) surface sites are likely blocked by *O species at the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell benchmark potential of 0.9 V (RHE). We propose a model illustrated by simplified adsorbate structures at different electrode potentials, which is, however, able to explain the voltammetric and impedance data, and which is in good agreement with previously reported electrocatalytic measurements. PMID

  2. Ultrasensitive and simultaneous determination of twenty-one amino acids and amines in culture media, red wine and beer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhongqiu; Li, Lin; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasensitive and simultaneous determination of amino acids and amines (AAs) in media and winemaking products is very important for evaluating the relationship profile between the depletion of AAs and aroma compounds formation. In this work, by combing the advantages of Taguchi's scheme with Pareto graphs and Range analysis pattern, an analytical method with efficiently improving fluorescence intensity and resolutions of AAs while saving the time and resources is developed to simultaneously and ultrasensitively detect 21 AAs in media, wine and beer. The results indicate the detection limit (DL) could be reached at ng L(-1) level (3.34-284.3 ng L(-1)), which is 10(6) higher than that of DL obtained by general method. Furthermore, the linear ranges are also established so that the proposed method could be accurately applied. These results demonstrate the method provides an easy and effective way to ultrasensitively and simultaneously analyse AAs in complex products. PMID:24731314

  3. Determination of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) in ferric chloride-hydrochloric acid leaching media by ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, L.K.; Dutrizac, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    An analytical method has been developed to determine arsenic(V) in ferric chloride-hydrochloric acid leaching media using ion chromatography with conductivity detection. Oxidation of As(III) by aqua regia allows arsenic(III) to be determined by difference. The method involves a preseparation of trace quantities of arsenic from the relatively large concentrations of ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid prior to the ion chromatography measurement. Iron(III) is separated by passing through a hydrogen-form cation exchange column, and arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) are then eluted with water. The effect of the concentration of acid in this separation is discussed. The effluent collected from the cation exchange column is evaporated to remove the hydrochloric acid. The accuracy and precision of the method were determined from the analysis of various synthetic solutions and are discussed; an accuracy of +/-4% was obtained even at arsenic(V) concentrations as low as 10 ppm. The extent of oxidation of arsenic(III) in acidic ferric chloride solution and the reduction of arsenic(V) in acidic ferrous chloride solution were measured. The results obtained by ion chromatography are compared to the values realized using colorimetry after the preseparation step. 13 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  4. Determination of the H 2ONO +2 and CH 3O(H)NO +2 bond strenghts and the proton affinities of nitric acid and methyl nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunderlin, L. S.; Squires, Robert R.

    1993-09-01

    The binding energies of water and methanol to NO +2 have been measured to be 14.8 ± 2.3 and 19.2 ± 2.3 kcal/mol, respectively, using energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation of H 2ONO +2 and CH 3O(H)NO +2 in a flowing afterglow triple quadrupole apparatus. These values are used with literature thermochemistry to derive proton affinities for nitric acid and methyl nitrate; PA(HONO 2) = 177.7 ± 2.3 kcal/mol and PA(CH 3ONO 2) = 175.0 ± 2.5 kcal/mol. These results are in good agreement with recent calculations by Lee and Rice, but only the methyl nitrate result is in agreement with experimental results of Cacace and co-workers.

  5. Improvement of production of citric acid from oil palm empty fruit bunches: optimization of media by statistical experimental designs.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Niamul; Alam, Md Zahangir; Muyibi, Suleyman A; Jamal, Parveen; Abdullah-Al-Mamun

    2009-06-01

    A sequential optimization based on statistical design and one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method was employed to optimize the media constituents for the improvement of citric acid production from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) through solid state bioconversion using Aspergillus niger IBO-103MNB. The results obtained from the Plackett-Burman design indicated that the co-substrate (sucrose), stimulator (methanol) and minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn and Mg) were found to be the major factors for further optimization. Based on the OFAT method, the selected medium constituents and inoculum concentration were optimized by the central composite design (CCD) under the response surface methodology (RSM). The statistical analysis showed that the optimum media containing 6.4% (w/w) of sucrose, 9% (v/w) of minerals and 15.5% (v/w) of inoculum gave the maximum production of citric acid (337.94 g/kg of dry EFB). The analysis showed that sucrose (p<0.0011) and mineral solution (p<0.0061) were more significant compared to inoculum concentration (p<0.0127) for the citric acid production. PMID:19231166

  6. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  7. Synergistic extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinides from acidic chloride media by tetra(n-octyl)diglycolamide

    SciTech Connect

    McAlister, D.R.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2008-07-01

    Ferric chloride has been found to induce a significant synergistic enhancement of the extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinides by tetra(n-octyl)diglycolamide (TODGA) from acidic chloride media. In this manuscript, results of a thorough investigation of the TODGA-HCl-Fe(III) system using solvent-extraction experiments designed to elucidate the stoichiometry of the synergistic species will be described. Results for Ac(III), Am(III), Eu(III), Pm(III), Y(III), Th(IV), Pu(IV), and U(VI) will be discussed. (authors)

  8. Adsorption and corrosion-inhibiting effect of Dacryodis edulis extract on low-carbon-steel corrosion in acidic media.

    PubMed

    Oguzie, E E; Enenebeaku, C K; Akalezi, C O; Okoro, S C; Ayuk, A A; Ejike, E N

    2010-09-01

    The inhibition of low-carbon-steel corrosion in 1M HCl and 0.5M H(2)SO(4) by extracts of Dacryodis edulis (DE) was investigated using gravimetric and electrochemical techniques. DE extract was found to inhibit the uniform and localized corrosion of carbon steel in the acidic media, affecting both the cathodic and anodic partial reactions. The corrosion process was inhibited by adsorption of the extracted organic matter onto the steel surface in a concentration-dependent manner and involved both protonated and molecular species. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to illustrate the process of adsorption of some specific components of the extract. PMID:20609846

  9. Comparative avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts of Cd, Cu and Zn using filter paper and extruded water agar gels as exposure media.

    PubMed

    Demuynck, Sylvain; Lebel, Aurélie; Grumiaux, Fabien; Pernin, Céline; Leprêtre, Alain; Lemière, Sébastien

    2016-07-01

    We studied the avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards Cd, Cu, and Zn, trace elements (TEs) tested as chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts. Sub adults were exposed individually using dual-cell chambers at 20+2°C in the dark. Recordings were realised at different dates from 2h to 32h. We used filter paper and extruded water agar gel as exposure media to evaluate the contribution of the dermal and the digestive exposure routes on the avoidance reactions. Exposures to Cu or Cd (10mgmetal ionL(-1)) resulted in highly significant avoidance reactions through the exposure duration. Worms avoided Zn poorly and reactions towards Zn salts varied along the exposure. Worm sensitivity towards TEs differed between salts and this could result from differential toxicity or accessibility of these TE salts to earthworms. The anion in itself was not the determinant of the avoidance reactions since exposures to similar concentrations of these anions using calcium salts did not result in significant avoidance worm behaviour. Avoidance responses towards TEs were higher in the case of water agar exposures than in filter paper exposures. Thus, dermal contacts with TE solutions would elicit worm avoidance but signals from receptors located inside the digestive tract could reinforce this behaviour. The use of extruded water agar gels as the substrate allows checking the real sensitivity of earthworm species towards TEs since the TE concentrations leading to significant avoidance reactions were below those reported in the literature when using TE-spiked soils. PMID:26995062

  10. Desulfonation of amino sulfonic acids of the benzene series in proton-donor media

    SciTech Connect

    Khelevin, R.N.

    1986-11-10

    In this work the desulfonation of amino sulfonic acids was studied by the determination of the kinetics of homogeneous isotopic exchange in radioactive sulfuric acid labeled with the isotope /sup 35/S, either containing HB(HSO/sub 4/)/sub 4/, or not containing it. The radioactive sulfuric acid was taken in an amount of 20 moles per mole of the amino sulfonic acid. Preliminary experiments showed that under these conditions neither the formation of disulfonic acids, nor the accumulation of desulfonated products occurs.

  11. Modeling nitrate removal in a denitrification bed.

    PubMed

    Ghane, Ehsan; Fausey, Norman R; Brown, Larry C

    2015-03-15

    Denitrification beds are promoted to reduce nitrate load in agricultural subsurface drainage water to alleviate the adverse environmental effects associated with nitrate pollution of surface water. In this system, drainage water flows through a trench filled with a carbon media where nitrate is transformed into nitrogen gas under anaerobic conditions. The main objectives of this study were to model a denitrification bed treating drainage water and evaluate its adverse greenhouse gas emissions. Field experiments were conducted at an existing denitrification bed. Evaluations showed very low greenhouse gas emissions (mean N2O emission of 0.12 μg N m(-2) min(-1)) from the denitrification bed surface. Field experiments indicated that nitrate removal rate was described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with the Michaelis-Menten constant of 7.2 mg N L(-1). We developed a novel denitrification bed model based on the governing equations for water flow and nitrate removal kinetics. The model evaluation statistics showed satisfactory prediction of bed outflow nitrate concentration during subsurface drainage flow. The model can be used to design denitrification beds with efficient nitrate removal which in turn leads to enhanced drainage water quality. PMID:25638338

  12. L-ascorbic acid quenching of singlet delta molecular oxygen in aqueous media: generalized antioxidant property of vitamin C

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P.T.; Khan, A.U.

    1983-09-30

    L-ascorbic acid quenches singlet (/sup 1/..delta../sub g/) molecular oxygen in aqueous media (pH 6.8 for (/sup 1/H)H/sub 2/O and pD 7.2 for (/sup 2/H)D/sub 2/O) as measured directly by monitoring (0,0) /sup 1/..delta../sub g/ ..-->.. /sup 3/..sigma../sub g//sup -/ emission at 1.28 micron. Singlet oxygen was generated at room temperature in the solutions via photosensitization of sodium chrysene sulfonate; this sulfonated polycyclic hydrocarbon was synthesized to provide a water soluble chromophore inert to usual dye-ascorbate photobleaching. A marked isotope effect is found; k/sub Q//sup H/sub 2/O/ is 3.3 times faster than k/sub Q//sup D/sub 2/O/, suggesting ascorbic acid is chemically quenching singlet oxygen.

  13. Nitrate Transport, Sensing, and Responses in Plants.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, José A; Vega, Andrea; Bouguyon, Eléonore; Krouk, Gabriel; Gojon, Alain; Coruzzi, Gloria; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient that affects plant growth and development. N is an important component of chlorophyll, amino acids, nucleic acids, and secondary metabolites. Nitrate is one of the most abundant N sources in the soil. Because nitrate and other N nutrients are often limiting, plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to ensure adequate supply of nutrients in a variable environment. Nitrate is absorbed in the root and mobilized to other organs by nitrate transporters. Nitrate sensing activates signaling pathways that impinge upon molecular, metabolic, physiological, and developmental responses locally and at the whole plant level. With the advent of genomics technologies and genetic tools, important advances in our understanding of nitrate and other N nutrient responses have been achieved in the past decade. Furthermore, techniques that take advantage of natural polymorphisms present in divergent individuals from a single species have been essential in uncovering new components. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how nitrate signaling affects biological processes in plants. Moreover, we still lack an integrated view of how all the regulatory factors identified interact or crosstalk to orchestrate the myriad N responses plants typically exhibit. In this review, we provide an updated overview of mechanisms by which nitrate is sensed and transported throughout the plant. We discuss signaling components and how nitrate sensing crosstalks with hormonal pathways for developmental responses locally and globally in the plant. Understanding how nitrate impacts on plant metabolism, physiology, and growth and development in plants is key to improving crops for sustainable agriculture. PMID:27212387

  14. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33... nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued... potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and cured poultry products....

  15. Investigation of reduction and tolerance capability of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi against nitrate and nitrite in fermented sausage condition.

    PubMed

    Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lee, Joo-Yeon

    2014-08-01

    Lactobacillus brevis KGR3111, Lactobacillus curvatus KGR 2103, Lactobacillus plantarum KGR 5105, and Lactobacillus sakei KGR 4108 isolated from kimchi were investigated for their potential to be used as starter culture for fermented sausages with the capability to reduce and tolerate nitrate/nitrite. The reduction capability of tested strains for nitrate was not dramatic. All tested strains, however, showed the capability to produce nitrite reductase with the reduction amount of 58.46-75.80 mg/l of NO(2)(-). L. brevis and L. plantarum showed nitrate tolerance with the highest number of 8.71 log cfu/ml and 8.81 log cfu/ml, and L. brevis and L. sakei exhibited nitrite tolerance with the highest number of 8.24 log cfu/ml and 8.25 log cfu/ml, respectively. As a result, L. brevis, L. plantarum, and L. sakei isolated from kimchi showed a tolerance against nitrate or nitrite with a good nitrite reduction capability, indicating the satisfaction of one of the selection criteria to be used as starter culture for fermented sausages. PMID:24821591

  16. Nitration of sym-trichlorobenzene

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlin, W.T.

    1981-02-01

    Basic thermal and kinetic data were obtained for the nitration of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene to trichlorotrinitrobenzene in the presence of oleum/nitric acid. A limiting specific production rate of 5.4 kg/l/hr was determined for the addition of the first two nitro groups at 130 C and a rate of 0.16 kg/l/hr was obtained at 150 C for the addition of the third nitro group.

  17. Synthesis of ascorbyl oleate by transesterification of olive oil with ascorbic acid in polar organic media catalyzed by immobilized lipases.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Perez, Sonia; Filice, Marco; Guisan, Jose M; Fernandez-Lorente, Gloria

    2013-09-01

    The reaction of transesterification between oils (e.g., olive oil) and ascorbic acid in polar anhydrous media (e.g., tert-amyl alcohol) catalyzed by immobilized lipases for the preparation of natural liposoluble antioxidants (e.g., ascorbyl oleate) was studied. Three commercial lipases were tested: Candida antarctica B lipase (CALB), Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) and Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML). Each lipase was immobilized by three different protocols: hydrophobic adsorption, anionic exchange and multipoint covalent attachment. The highest synthetic yields were obtained with CALB adsorbed on hydrophobic supports (e.g., the commercial derivative Novozym 435). The rates and yields of the synthesis of ascorbyl oleate were higher when using the solvent dried with molecular sieves, at high temperatures (e.g. 45°C) and with a small excess of oil (2 mol of oil per mol of ascorbic acid). The coating of CALB derivatives with polyethyleneimine (PEI) improved its catalytic behavior and allowed the achievement of yields of up to 80% of ascorbyl oleate in less than 24h. CALB adsorbed on a hydrophobic support and coated with PEI was 2-fold more stable than a non-coated derivative and one hundred-fold more stable than the best TLL derivative. The best CALB derivative exhibited a half-life of 3 days at 75°C in fully anhydrous media, and this derivative maintained full activity after 28 days at 45°C in dried tert-amyl alcohol. PMID:23891831

  18. Fixed bed sorption of phosphorus from wastewater using iron oxide-based media derived from acid mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Tucker, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) releases to the environment have been implicated in the eutrophication of important water bodies worldwide. Current technology for the removal of P from wastewaters consists of treatment with aluminum (Al) or iron (Fe) salts, but is expensive. The neutralization of acid mine drainage (AMD) generates sludge rich in Fe and Al oxides that has hitherto been considered a waste product, but these sludges could serve as an economical adsorption media for the removal of P from wastewaters. Therefore, we have evaluated an AMD-derived media as a sorbent for P in fixed bed sorption systems. The homogenous surface diffusion model (HSDM) was used to analyze fixed bed test data and to determine the value of related sorption parameters. The surface diffusion modulus Ed was found to be a useful predictor of sorption kinetics. Values of Ed < 0.2 were associated with early breakthrough of P, while more desirable S-shaped breakthrough curves resulted when 0.2 < Ed < 0.5. Computer simulations of the fixed bed process with the HSDM confirmed that if Ed was known, the shape of the breakthrough curve could be calculated. The surface diffusion coefficient D s was a critical factor in the calculation of Ed and could be estimated based on the sorption test conditions such as media characteristics, and influent flow rate and concentration. Optimal test results were obtained with a relatively small media particle size (average particle radius 0.028 cm) and resulted in 96 % removal of P from the influent over 46 days of continuous operation. These results indicate that fixed bed sorption of P would be a feasible option for the utilization of AMD residues, thus helping to decrease AMD treatment costs while at the same time ameliorating the impacts of P contamination.

  19. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is ineffective at preventing otitis media in children with presumed viral upper respiratory infection: a randomized, double-blind equivalence, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Autret-Leca, Elisabeth; Giraudeau, Bruno; Ployet, Marie Joseph; Jonville-Béra, Annie-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Aims To assess the equivalence of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and placebo in the prevention of acute otitis media in children at high risk of acute otitis media who develop upper respiratory tract infection. Methods This was a multicentre, equivalence, randomized, double-blind trial of two parallel groups comparing 5 days of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 75 mg kg−1 day−1 (i.e. 25 mg kg−1 every 8 h) and placebo. The main outcome measure was acute otitis media occurring within 8–12 days of initiating treatment. Results Two hundred and three infants, aged 3 months−3 years with upper respiratory tract infection over 36 h and a history of recurrent acute otitis media were included over 8.5 months. Two children were lost to follow-up. Patient characteristics were similar in both groups. In the intention to treat analysis the frequency of acute otitis media was 16.2% (16/99) in the placebo group and 9.6% (10/104) in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid group (P= 0.288). The difference between acute otitis media rates was 6.6% (one-sided 95% confidence interval of 14.3%). The occurrence of side-effects was similar in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and placebo groups. Conclusions The difference in effectiveness between antibiotic and placebo was not greater than 14.3%, and we calculated that 94 children would need to be exposed to antibiotics to avoid six cases of acute otitis media. In view of the risk of development of resistance due to frequent exposure to antibiotics, our study supports the need for reduction in the administration of antibiotics in upper respiratory tract infection even in children at high risk of acute otitis media. PMID:12492614

  20. Formation of complex precursors of amino acids by irradiation of simulated interstellar media with heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Suzuki, N.; Taniuchi, T.; Kaneko, T.; Yoshida, S.

    A wide variety of organic compounds have been detected in such extraterrestrial bodies as meteorites and comets Amino acids were identified in the extracts from Murchison meteorite and other carbonaceous chondrites It is hypothesized that these compounds are originally formed in ice mantles of interstellar dusts ISDs in molecular clouds by cosmic rays and ultraviolet light UV Formation of amino acid precursors by high energy protons or UV irradiation of simulated ISDs was reported by several groups The amino acid precursors were however not well-characterized We irradiated a frozen mixture of methanol ammonia and water with heavy ions to study possible organic compounds abiotically formed in molecular clouds by cosmic rays A mixture of methanol ammonia and water was irradiated with carbon beams 290 MeV u from a heavy ion accelerator HIMAC of National Institute of Radiological Sciences Japan Irradiation was performed either at room temperature liquid phase or at 77 K solid phase The products were characterized by gel filtration chromatography GFC FT-IR pyrolysis PY -GC MS etc Amino acids were analyzed by HPLC and GC MS after acid hydrolysis or the products Amino acids such as glycine and alanine were identified in the products in both the cases of liquid phase and solid phase irradiation Energy yields G-values of glycine were 0 014 liquid phase and 0 007 solid phase respectively Average molecular weights of the products were estimated as to 2300 in both the case Aromatic hydrocarbons N-containing heterocyclic

  1. A comparison of the equilibrium constants for the dissociation of carbonic acid in seawater media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, A. G.; Millero, F. J.

    1987-10-01

    The published experimental data of Hansson and of Mehrbach et al. have been critically compared after adjustment to a common pH scale based upon total hydrogen ion concentration. No significant systematic differences are found within the overall experimental error of the data. The results have been pooled to yield reliable equations that can be used to estimate pK 1∗and pK 2∗ for seawater media a salinities from 0 to 40 and at temperatures from 2 to 35°C.

  2. Energy coupling to nitrate uptake into the denitrifying cells of Paracoccus denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Kucera, Igor

    2005-09-01

    This study deals with the effects of the agents that dissipate the individual components of the proton motive force (short-chain fatty acids, nigericin, and valinomycin) upon the methyl viologen-coupled nitrate reductase activity in intact cells. Substitution of butyrate or acetate for chloride in Tris-buffered assay media resulted in a marked inhibition at pH 7. In a Tris--chloride buffer of neutral pH, the reaction was almost fully inhibitable by nigericin. Alkalinisation increased the IC(50) value for nigericin and decreased the maximal inhibition attained. Both types of inhibitions could be reversed by the permeabilisation of cells or by the addition of nitrite, and that caused by nigericin disappeared at high extracellular concentrations of potassium. These data indicate that nitrate transport step relies heavily on the pH gradient at neutral pH. Since the affinity of cells for nitrate was strongly diminished by imposing an inside-positive potassium (or lithium) diffusion potential at alkaline external pH, a potential dependent step may be of significance in the transporter cycle under these conditions. Experiments with sodium-depleted media provided no hints for Na(+) as a possible H(+) substitute. PMID:16112075

  3. Photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, W.K.

    1993-10-20

    The photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate solutions to tetravalent uranium was investigated as a means of producing uranium dioxide feed for the saltless direct oxide reduction (SDOR) process. At high uranium concentrations, reoxidation of U{sup +4} occurs rapidly. The kinetics of the nitric oxidation of tetravalent uranium depend on the concentrations of hydrogen ion, nitrate ion, nitrous acid, and tetravalent uranium in the same manner as was reported elsewhere for the nitrate oxidation of PU{sup +3}. Reaction rate data were successfully correlated with a mechanism in which nitrogen dioxide is the reactive intermediate. Addition of a nitrous acid scavenger suppresses the reoxidation reaction. An immersion reactor employing a mercury vapor lamp gave reduction times fast enough for routine production usage. Precipitation techniques for conversion of aqueous U(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} to hydrous UO{sub 2} were evaluated. Prolonged dewatering times tended to make the process time consuming. Use of 3- to 4-M aqueous NaOH gave the best dewatering times observed. Reoxidation of the UO{sub 2} by water of hydration was encountered, which required the drying process to be carried out under a reducing atmosphere.

  4. Microbial Reduction of Chromate in the Presence of Nitrate by Three Nitrate Respiring Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Chovanec, Peter; Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Zhang, Ning; Basu, Partha; Stolz, John F.

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge for the bioremediation of toxic metals is the co-occurrence of nitrate, as it can inhibit metal transformation. Geobacter metallireducens, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, and Sulfurospirillum barnesii are three soil bacteria that can reduce chromate [Cr(VI)] and nitrate, and may be beneficial for developing bioremediation strategies. All three organisms respire through dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA), employing different nitrate reductases but similar nitrite reductase (Nrf). G. metallireducens reduces nitrate to nitrite via the membrane bound nitrate reductase (Nar), while S. barnesii and D. desulfuricans strain 27774 have slightly different forms of periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap). We investigated the effect of DNRA growth in the presence of Cr(VI) in these three organisms and the ability of each to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and found that each organisms responded differently. Growth of G. metallireducens on nitrate was completely inhibited by Cr(VI). Cultures of D. desulfuricans on nitrate media was initially delayed (48 h) in the presence of Cr(VI), but ultimately reached comparable cell yields to the non-treated control. This prolonged lag phase accompanied the transformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Viable G. metallireducens cells could reduce Cr(VI), whereas Cr(VI) reduction by D. desulfuricans during growth, was mediated by a filterable and heat stable extracellular metabolite. S. barnesii growth on nitrate was not affected by Cr(VI), and Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III). However, Cr(VI) reduction activity in S. barnesii, was detected in both the cell free spent medium and cells, indicating both extracellular and cell associated mechanisms. Taken together, these results have demonstrated that Cr(VI) affects DNRA in the three organisms differently, and that each have a unique mechanism for Cr(VI) reduction. PMID:23251135

  5. Aminocarbonyloxymethyl ester prodrugs of flufenamic acid and diclofenac: suppressing the rearrangement pathway in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Lina; Silva, Nuno; Iley, Jim; Rautio, Jarkko; Järvinen, Tomi; Mota-Filipe, Hélder; Moreira, Rui; Mendes, Eduarda

    2007-01-01

    Aminocarbonyloxymethyl ester prodrugs are known to undergo rearrangement in aqueous solutions to form the corresponding N-acylamine side product via an O-->N intramolecular acyl transfer from the carbamate conjugate base. Novel aminocarbonyloxymethyl esters of diclofenac and flufenamic acid containing amino acid amide carriers were synthesized and evaluated as potential prodrugs displaying less ability to undergo rearrangement. These compounds were prepared in reasonable yield by a four-step synthetic method that uses the appropriate N-Boc-protected amino acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester and secondary amine and chloromethyl chloroformate as key reactants. Their reactivity in pH 7.4 buffer and 80% human plasma at 37 degrees C was assessed by RP-HPLC. The aminocarbonyloxymethyl esters containing a secondary carbamate group derived from amino acids such as glycine or phenylalanine were hydrolyzed quantitatively to the parent drug both in non-enzymatic and enzymatic conditions, with no rearrangement product being detected. The oral bioavailability in rats was determined for selected diclofenac derivatives. These derivatives displayed a bioavailability of 25 to 68% relative to that of diclofenac, probably due to their poor aqueous solubility and lipophilicity. These results suggest that further optimization of aminocarbonyloxymethyl esters as potential prodrugs for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs require the use of amino acid carriers with ionizable groups to improve aqueous solubility. PMID:17206608

  6. Direct Capture of Organic Acids From Fermentation Media Using Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.

    2004-11-03

    Several ionic liquids have been investigated for the extraction of organic acids from fermentation broth. Partitioning of representative organic acids (lactic, acetic, and succinic) between aqueous solution and nine hydrophobic ionic liquids was measured. The extraction efficiencies were strongly dependent on pH of the aqueous phase. Distribution coefficient was very good (approximately 60) at low succinic acid concentrations for one of the ionic liquids (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium methanesulfonate) at neutral pH. However, this ionic liquid had to be diluted with nonanol due to its high viscosity in order to be useful. A diluent (trioctylamine) was also added to this mixture. The results suggest that an extraction system based on ionic liquids may be feasible for succinic acid recovery from fermentation broth and that two ideal extraction stages are needed to reduce the concentration from 33 g/L to 1 g/L of succinic acid. Further studies are needed to evaluate other issues related to practical applications, including ionic liquid loss in the process, toxicity effects of ionic liquids during simultaneous fermentation and extractions.

  7. Novel method based on chromogenic media for discrimination and selective enumeration of lactic acid bacteria in fermented milk products.

    PubMed

    Galat, Anna; Dufresne, Jérôme; Combrisson, Jérôme; Thépaut, Jérôme; Boumghar-Bourtchai, Leyla; Boyer, Mickaël; Fourmestraux, Candice

    2016-05-01

    Microbial analyses of fermented milk products require selective methods to discriminate between close species simultaneously present in high amounts. A culture-based method combining novel chromogenic agar media and appropriate incubation conditions was developed to enumerate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains in fermented milk. M1 agar, containing two chromogenic substrates, allowed selective enumeration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two strains of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus based on differential β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities. Depending on the presence of some or all of the above strains, M1 agar was supplemented with L-rhamnose or vancomycin and incubations were carried out at 37 °C or 44 °C to increase selectivity. A second agar medium, M2, containing one chromogenic substrates was used to selectively enumerate β-galactosidase producing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus at 47 °C. By contrast with the usual culture media, the chromogenic method allowed unambiguous enumeration of each species, including discrimination between the two L. paracasei, up to 10(9) CFU/g of fermented milk. In addition, the relevance of the method was approved by enumerating reference ATCC strains in pure cultures and fermented milk product. The method could also be used for enumerations on non-Danone commercial fermented milk products containing strains different from those used in this study, showing versatility of the method. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a chromogenic culture method applied to selective enumeration of LAB. PMID:26742619

  8. Theoretical study of inhibition efficiencies of some amino acids on corrosion of carbon steel in acidic media: green corrosion inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dehdab, Maryam; Shahraki, Mehdi; Habibi-Khorassani, Sayyed Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition efficiencies of three amino acids [tryptophan (B), tyrosine (c), and serine (A)] have been studied as green corrosion inhibitors on corrosion of carbon steel using density functional theory (DFT) method in gas and aqueous phases. Quantum chemical parameters such as EH OMO (highest occupied molecular orbital energy), E LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy), hardness (η), polarizability ([Formula: see text]), total negative charges on atoms (TNC), molecular volume (MV) and total energy (TE) have been calculated at the B3LYP level of theory with 6-311++G** basis set. Consistent with experimental data, theoretical results showed that the order of inhibition efficiency is tryptophan (B) > tyrosine (C) > serine (A). In order to determine the possible sites of nucleophilic and electrophilic attacks, local reactivity has been evaluated through Fukui indices. PMID:26347374

  9. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products...

  10. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products...

  11. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products...

  12. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products...

  13. Use of fatty acid methyl ester profiles for discrimination of Bacillus cereus T-strain spores grown on different media.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Chu, Vivian; Brown, TeeCie; Simmons, Terrie L; Swan, Brandon K; Bannan, Jason; Robertson, James M

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if cellular fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling could be used to distinguish among spore samples from a single species (Bacillus cereus T strain) that were prepared on 10 different medium formulations. To analyze profile differences and identify FAME biomarkers diagnostic for the chemical constituents in each sporulation medium, a variety of statistical techniques were used, including nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), analysis of similarities (ANOSIM), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The results showed that one FAME biomarker, oleic acid (18:1 omega9c), was exclusively associated with spores grown on Columbia agar supplemented with sheep blood and was indicative of blood supplements that were present in the sporulation medium. For spores grown in other formulations, multivariate comparisons across several FAME biomarkers were required to discern profile differences. Clustering patterns in nMDS plots and R values from ANOSIM revealed that dissimilarities among FAME profiles were most pronounced when spores grown with disparate sources of complex additives or protein supplements were compared (R > 0.8), although other factors also contributed to FAME differences. DFA indicated that differentiation could be maximized with a targeted subset of FAME variables, and the relative contributions of branched FAME biomarkers to group dissimilarities changed when different media were compared. When taken together, these analyses indicate that B. cereus spore samples grown in different media can be resolved with FAME profiling and that this may be a useful technique for providing intelligence about the production methods of Bacillus organisms in a forensic investigation. PMID:20097814

  14. Cylodextrin Polymer Nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosowski, Bernard; Ruebner, Anja; Statton, Gary; Robitelle, Danielle; Meyers, Curtis

    2000-01-01

    The development of the use of cyclodextrin nitrates as possible components of insensitive, high-energy energetics is outlined over a time period of 12 years. Four different types of cyclodextrin polymers were synthesized, nitrated, and evaluated regarding their potential use for the military and aerospace community. The synthesis of these novel cyclodextrin polymers and different nitration techniques are shown and the potential of these new materials is discussed.

  15. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOEpatents

    Cox, John L.; Hallen, Richard T.; Lilga, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrates present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C., and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  16. Polymerization of euphorbia oil with Lewis acid in carbon dioxide media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3-OEt2) Lewis acid catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of euphorbia oil (EO), a natural epoxy oil, in liquid carbon dioxide was conducted in an effort to develop useful vegetable oil based polymers. The resulting polymers (RPEO) were characterized by FTIR, 1H-...

  17. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Methimazole by Chlorite in Slightly Acidic Media.

    PubMed

    Chipiso, Kudzanai; Simoyi, Reuben H

    2016-06-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of methimazole (1-methyl-3H-imidazole), MMI, by chlorite in mildly acidic environments were studied. It is a complex reaction that gives oligo-oscillations in chlorine dioxide concentrations in excess chlorite conditions. The stoichiometry is strictly 2:1, with the sulfur center being oxidized to sulfate and the organic moiety being hydrolyzed to several indeterminate species. In excess MMI conditions over chlorite, the sulfinic acid and sulfonic acid were observed as major intermediates. The sulfenic acid, which was observed in the electrochemical oxidation of MMI, was not observed with chlorite oxidations. Initial reduction of chlorite produced HOCl, an autocatalytic species in chlorite oxidations. HOCl rapidly reacts with chlorite to produce chlorine dioxide, which, in turn, reacts rapidly with MMI to produce more chlorite. The reaction of chlorine dioxide with MMI is competitive, in rate, with the chlorite-MMI and HOCl-ClO2(-) reactions. This explains the oligo-oscillations in ClO2 concentrations. PMID:27126471

  18. Field determination of nitrate using nitrate reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, E.R.; Corrigan, J.S.; Campbell, W.H.

    1997-12-31

    Nitrate is routinely measured in a variety of substrates - water, tissues, soils, and foods - both in the field and in laboratory settings. The most commonly used nitrate test methods involve the reduction of nitrate to nitrite via a copper-cadmium reagent, followed by reaction of the nitrite with the Griess dye reagents. The resulting color is translated into a nitrate concentration by comparison with a calibrated color chart or comparator, or by reading the absorbance in a spectrophotometer. This basic method is reliable and sufficiently sensitive for many applications. However, the cadmium reagent is quite toxic. The trend today is for continued increase in concern for worker health and safety; in addition, there are increasing costs and logistical problems associated with regulatory constraints on transport and disposal of hazardous materials. Some suppliers have substituted a zinc-based reagent powder for the cadmium in an effort to reduce toxicity. We describe here an enzyme-based nitrate detection method as an improvement on the basic Griess method that demonstrates equal or superior sensitivity, superior selectivity, and is more environmentally benign. Comparisons between the enzyme-based method and some standard field test kits being used today are made.

  19. Determination of the optimum conditions for boric acid extraction with carbon dioxide gas in aqueous media from colemanite containing arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Ata, O.N.; Colak, S.; Copur, M.; Celik, C.

    2000-02-01

    The Taguchi method was used to determine optimum conditions for the boric acid extraction from colemanite ore containing As in aqueous media saturated by CO{sub 2} gas. After the parameters were determined to be efficient on the extraction efficiency, the experimental series with two steps were carried out. The chosen experimental parameters for the first series of experiments and their ranges were as follows: (1) reaction temperature, 25--70 C; (2) solid-to-liquid ratio (by weight), 0.091 to 0.333; (3) gas flow rate (in mL/min), 66.70--711; (4) mean particle size, {minus}100 to {minus}10 mesh; (5) stirring speed, 200--600 rpm; (6) reaction time, 10--90 min. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: reaction temperature, 70 C; solid-to-liquid ratio, 0.091; gas flow rate, 711 (in mL/min); particle size, {minus}100 mesh; stirring speed, 500 rpm; reaction time, 90 min. Under these optimum conditions, the boric acid extraction efficiency from the colemanite containing As was approximately 54%. Chosen experimental parameters for the second series of experiments and their ranges were as follows: (1) reaction temperature, 60--80 C; (2) solid-to-liquid ratio (by weight), 0.1000 to 0.167; (3) gas pressure (in atm), 1.5; 2.7; (4) reaction time, 45--120 min. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: reaction temperature, 70 C; solid-to-liquid ratio, 0.1; gas pressure, 2.7 atm; reaction time, 120 min. Under these optimum conditions the boric acid extraction efficiency from the colemanite ore was approximately 75%. Under these optimum conditions, the boric acid extraction efficiency from calcined colemanite ore was approximately 99.55%.

  20. S-oxygenation of thiocarbamides V: oxidation of tetramethylthiourea by chlorite in slightly acidic media.

    PubMed

    Chigwada, Tabitha; Mbiya, Wilbes; Chipiso, Kudzanai; Simoyi, Reuben H

    2014-08-01

    The reaction between tetramethylthiourea (TTTU) and slightly acidic chlorite has been studied. The reaction is much faster than comparable oxidations of the parent thiourea compound as well as other substituted thioureas. The stoichiometry of the reaction in excess oxidant showed a complete desulfurization of the thiocarbamide to yield the corresponding urea and sulfate: 2ClO2(-) + (Me2N)2C ═ S + H2O → (Me2N)2C ═ O + SO4(2-) + 2Cl(-) + 2H(+). The reaction mechanism is unique in that the most stable metabolite before formation of the corresponding urea is the S-oxide. This is one of the rare occasions in which a low-molecular-weight S-oxide has been stabilized without the aid of large steric groups. ESI-MS data show almost quantitative formation of the S-oxide and negligible formation of the sulfinic and sulfonic acids. TTTU, in contrast to other substituted thioureas, can only stabilize intermediate oxoacids, before formation of sulfate, in the form of zwitterions. With a stoichiometric excess of TTTU over oxidant, the TTTU dimer is the predominant product. Chlorine dioxide, which is formed from the reaction of excess chlorite and HOCl, is a very important reactant in the overall mechanism. It reacts rapidly with TTTU to reform ClO2(-). Oxidation of TTTU by chlorite has a complex dependence on acid as a result of chlorous acid dissociation and protonation of the thiol group on TTTU in high-acid conditions, which renders the thiol center a less effective nucleophile. PMID:24922053

  1. Regulation of the Neurospora crassa assimilatory nitrate reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Ketchum, P A; Zeeb, D D; Owens, M S

    1977-01-01

    Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-nitrate reductase from Neurospora crassa was purified and found to be stimulated by certain amino acids, citrate, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Stimulation by citrate and the amino acids was dependent upon the prior removal of EDTA from the enzyme preparations, since low quantities of EDTA resulted in maximal stimulation. Removal of EDTA from enzyme preparations by dialysis against Chelex-containing buffer resulted in a loss of nitrate reductase activity. Addition of alanine, arginine, glycine, glutamine, glutamate, histidine, tryptophan, and citrate restored and stimulated nitrate reductase activity from 29- to 46-fold. The amino acids tested altered the Km of NADPH-nitrate reductase for NADPH but did not significantly change that for nitrate. The Km of nitrate reductase for NADPH increased with increasing concentrations of histidine but decreased with increasing concentrations of glutamine. Amino acid modulation of NADPH-nitrate reductase activity is discussed in relation to the conservation of energy (NADPH) by Neurospora when nitrate is the nitrogen source. PMID:19423

  2. Effect of storage time and temperature on the survival of Clostridium botulinum spores in acid media.

    PubMed Central

    Odlaug, T E; Pflug, I J

    1977-01-01

    Clostridium-botulinum type A and type B spores were stored in tomato juice (pH 4.2) and citric acid-phosphate buffer (pH 4.2) at 4, 22, and 32 degrees C for 180 days. The spore count was determined at different intervals over the 180-day storage period. There was no significant decrease in the number of type A spores in either the tomato juice or citric acid-phosphate buffer stored for 180 days at 4, 22, and 32 degrees C. The number of type B spores did not decrease when storage was at 4 degrees C, but there was an approximately 30% decrease in the number of spores after 180 days of storage at 22 and 32 degrees C. PMID:18990

  3. Electrochemical degradation of trichloroacetic acid in aqueous media: influence of the electrode material.

    PubMed

    Esclapez, M D; Díez-García, M I; Sàez, V; Bonete, P; González-García, José

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical degradation of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in water has been analysed through voltammetric studies with a rotating disc electrode and controlled-potential bulk electrolyses. The influence of the mass-transport conditions and initial concentration of TCAA for titanium, stainless steel and carbon electrodes has been studied. It is shown that the electrochemical reduction of TCAA takes place prior to the massive hydrogen evolution in the potential window for all electrode materials studied. The current efficiency is high (> 18%) compared with those normally reported in the literature, and the fractional conversion is above 50% for all the electrodes studied. Only dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and chloride anions were routinely detected as reduction products for any of the electrodes, and reasonable values of mass balance error were obtained. Of the three materials studied, the titanium cathode gave the best results. PMID:23530352

  4. Reactivity of D-fructose and D-xylose in acidic media in homogeneous phases.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Maxime B; Chagnault, Vincent; Postel, Denis

    2015-05-29

    Chemistry development of renewable resources is a real challenge. Carbohydrates from biomass are complex and their use as substitutes for fossil materials remains difficult (European involvement on the incorporation of 20% raw material of plant origin in 2020). Most of the time, the transformation of these polyhydroxylated structures are carried out in acidic conditions. Recent reviews on this subject describe homogeneous catalytic transformations of pentoses, specifically toward furfural, and also the transformation of biomass-derived sugars in heterogeneous conditions. To complete these informations, the objective of this review is to give an overview of the structural variety described during the treatment of two monosaccharides (D-Fructose and D-xylose) in acidic conditions in homogeneous phases. The reaction mechanisms being not always determined with certainty, we will also provide a brief state of the art regarding this. PMID:25889471

  5. Modeling of dissolution patterns for carbonate acidizing in the porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi, Fereshteh; Esmaeilzadeh, Feridun; Mowla, Dariush

    2012-05-01

    Matrix acidizing is a common technique to stimulate wells for improving well inflow performance. In this treatment that is widely used in the oil industry, acid solution is injected into the formation to dissolve some minerals to increase permeability of carbonate near the wellbore. The aim of the treatment is to create empty channels called wormholes. Wormholing in carbonate rocks is a complex 3-D phenomenon. Matrix acidizing generally should be applied when a well has a high skin factor that cannot be attributed to partial penetration, perforation efficiency or other mechanical aspects of the completion. Obviously, it is of extreme importance to quantify the skin factor to evaluate the effectiveness of stimulation treatments. When wormholes extend beyond the damaged zone or connect with natural fissures in the formation, a negative skin effect is obtained. An ideal matrix treatment restores the permeability in the near wellbore region to a value at least as high as the original undamaged permeability; it accomplishes this over the entire completed interval and it leaves the formation in the treated region with high relative permeability to the oil and/or gas phase. Designing a treatment should strive to achieve this ideal at the lowest possible cost, which requires consideration of the many physical and chemical interactions taking place between the injected fluids and the reservoir minerals and fluids. In this work, a threescale continuum model is used to model reactive dissolution of carbonate rocks in radial flow. Both the Darcy and pore scale physics such as mass transfer of acid molecules to the mineral surface and subsequent reaction at the surface, changing pore structure and variations in reservoir permeability are included in this model. Partial differential equations obtained from the model, have been solved by numerical method. The influence of reservoir temperature on optimum injection rate is investigated. Results show that optimum injection rate

  6. Phosphine and thiophene cyclopalladated complexes: hydrolysis reactions in strong acidic media.

    PubMed

    García, Begoña; Hoyuelos, Francisco J; Ibeas, Saturnino; Muñoz, María S; Navarro, Ana M; Peñacoba, Indalecio A; Leal, José M

    2010-12-01

    The mechanisms for the hydrolysis of organopalladium complexes [Pd(CNN)R]BF(4) (R=P(OPh)(3), PPh(3), and SC(4)H(8)) were investigated at 25 °C by using UV/Vis absorbance measurements in 10 % v/v ethanol/water mixtures containing different sulphuric acid concentrations in the 1.3-11.7 M range. In all cases, a biphasic behavior was observed with rate constants k(1obs), which corresponds to the initial step of the hydrolysis reaction, and k(2obs), where k(1obs)>k(2obs). The plots of k(1obs) and k(2obs) versus sulfuric acid concentration suggest a change in the reaction mechanism. The change with respect to the k(1obs) value corresponds to 35 %, 2 %, and 99 % of the protonated complexes for R=PPh(3), P(OPh)(3), and SC(4)H(8), respectively. Regarding k(2obs), the change occurred in all cases at about 6.5 M H(2)SO(4) and matched up with the results reported for the hydrolysis of the 2-acetylpyridinephenylhydrazone (CNN) ligand. By using the excess acidity method, the mechanisms were elucidated by carefully looking at the variation of k(i),(obs) (i=1,2) versus cH+. The rate-determining constants, k(0,A-1), k(0,A-2), and k(0,A-SE2) were evaluated in all cases. The R=P(OPh)(3) complex was most reactive due to its π-acid character, which favors the rupture of the trans nitrogen-palladium bond in the A-2 mechanism and also that of the pyridine nitrogen-palladium bond in the A-1 mechanism. The organometallic bond exerts no effect on the relative basicity of the complexes, which are strongly reliant on the substituent. PMID:21125574

  7. Transport and Retention of TiO2 Rutile Nanoparticles in Saturated Porous Media: Influence of Solution pH, Ionic Strength, and the Presence of Humic Acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of solution pH, ionic strength, and varying concentrations of the Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA) on the transport of titanium dioxide (TiO2, rutile) nanoparticle aggregates (nTiO2) in saturated porous media was investigated through systematically examining the tra...

  8. Nitrate Concentration near the Surface of Frozen Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Marrocco, Harley A; Michelsen, Rebecca R H

    2014-12-26

    Photolysis of nitrate plays an important role in the emission of nitrogen oxides from snow and ice, which affects the composition of the overlying atmosphere. In order to quantify these reactions, it is necessary to know how much nitrate is available for photolysis near the surfaces of snow and ice. The concentration of nitrate excluded from frozen solutions of nitric acid, sodium nitrate, and magnesium nitrate was measured with attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. Liquid water and nitrate were observed at and near the bottom surface of frozen aqueous solutions during annealing from -18 to -2 °C. At -2 °C, the nitrate concentration was determined to be ∼1.0 mol/L for frozen NaNO(3) and Mg(NO(3))(2) solutions and ∼0.8 mol/L for frozen HNO(3) solutions. At lower temperatures, nitrate concentration ranged from 1.6 to 3.7 mol/L. Ideal thermodynamics overestimates nitrate concentration at colder temperatures where the brine is highly concentrated for all solutions. The nitrate concentration at ice surfaces is well described by bulk freezing point depression data close to the melting point of ice and for nitric acid at colder temperatures. Effects of temperature and counterions and implications for modeling snow chemistry are discussed. PMID:25495473

  9. Dissociation quotient of benzoic acid in aqueous sodium chloride media to 250{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Kettler, R.M.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

    1995-04-01

    The dissociation quotient of benzoic acid was determined potentiometrically in a concentration cell fitted with hydrogen electrodes. The hydrogen ion molality of benzoic acid/benzoate solutions was measured relative to a standard aqueous HCl solution at seven temperatures from 5 to 250{degrees}C and at seven ionic strengths ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 molal (NaCl). The molal dissociation quotients and selected literature data were fitted in the isocoulombic (all anionic) form by a six-term equation. This treatment yielded the following thermodynamic quantities for the acid dissociation equilibrium at 25{degrees}C and 1 bar: logK{sub a} = -4.206{+-}0.006, {Delta}H{sub a}{sup 0} = 0.3{+-}0.3 kJ-mol{sup {minus}1}, {Delta}S{sub a}{sup 0} = -79.6{+-}1.0 J-mol{sup {minus}1}-K{sup {minus}1}, and {Delta}C{sub p;a}{sup 0} = -207{+-}5 J-mol{sup {minus}1}-K{sup {minus}1}. A five-term equation derived to describe the dependence of the dissociation constant on solvent density is accurate to 250{degrees}C and 200 MPa.

  10. Review and assessment of technologies for the separation of cesium from acidic media

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.J.; Brooks, K.P.; Kurath, D.E.

    1994-09-01

    A preliminary literature survey has been conducted to identify and evaluate methods for the separation of cesium from acidic waste. The most promising solvent extraction, precipitation, and ion exchange methods, along with some of the attributes for each method, are listed. The main criteria used in evaluating the separation methods were as follows: (1) good potential for cesium separation must be demonstrated (i.e., cesium decontamination factors on the order of 50 to 100). (2) Good selectivity for cesium over bulk components must be demonstrated. (3) The method must show promise for evolving into a practical and fairly simple process. (4) The process should be safe to operate. (5) The method must be robust (i.e., capable of separating cesium from various acidic waste types). (6) Secondary waste generation must be minimized. (7) The method must show resistance to radiation damage. The most promising separation methods did not necessarily satisfy all of the above criteria, thus key areas requiring further development are suggested for each method. The report discusses in detail these and other areas requiring further development, as well as alternative solvent extraction, precipitation, ion exchange, and {open_quote}other{close_quote} technologies that, based on current information, show less promise for the separation of cesium from acidic wastes because of significant process limitations. When appropriate, the report recommends areas of future development.

  11. Contribution of trans-aconitic acid to DPPH scavenging ability in different media.

    PubMed

    Piang-Siong, William; de Caro, Pascale; Marvilliers, Arnaud; Chasseray, Xavier; Payet, Bertrand; Shum Cheong Sing, Alain; Illien, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of trans-aconitic acid (TAA) alone or in the presence of usual antioxidants were assessed by DPPH assay. The IC50 value equal to 70mM was very high compared to usual antioxidants (vitamin C and trolox). A joint experimental/theoretical study suggested that hydrogen atom abstraction in TAA by DPPH was located on -CH2- methylene bridge because the corresponding radical was more stabilized than COO(·) and CC(·) radicals. In combination with antioxidants (vitamin C, gallic acid, caffeic acid, trolox), synergy or additivity effects were noticed. The magnitude of the synergistic effect varied between 1.06 and 1.24 depending on the type and concentration of antioxidant for a concentration of TAA equal to 22.3mM. Especially, the addition of TAA at a concentration below 32mM to a solution containing 20μM of vitamin C had a synergy effect. Beyond this concentration, TAA showed an additive effect. PMID:27507497

  12. Comparison of the structural characterization and biological activity of acidic polysaccharides from Cordyceps militaris cultured with different media.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengyao; Yan, Hui; Ma, Xiaoning; Jia, Junqiang; Zhang, Guozheng; Guo, Xijie; Gui, Zhongzheng

    2012-05-01

    Two acidic polysaccharide fractions, CM-jd-CPS2 and CM-jd(Y)-CPS2, were isolated from the fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps militaris grown on solid rice medium and silkworm pupa, respectively, by hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation and fractionation using ion-exchange column (DEAE-cellulose-52) and gel-filtration column (Sephadex G-100) chromatography. Their structural characterizations were performed by gas chromatography and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Some differences existed between their structures, which indicated that culture media could influence the structure of polysaccharides of C. militaris. The antioxidant activities of CM-jd-CPS2 and CM-jd(Y)-CPS2 were evaluated by various methods in vitro. They had strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ferrous ion-chelating capacity, but moderate reducing power. The antioxidant activities of CM-jd(Y)-CPS2 were slightly higher than those of CM-jd-CPS2. These two acidic fractions were evaluated for proliferation of mouse splenocyte activity in vitro. They both possessed does-dependent mitogenic effects on mouse splenocytes, and could synergistically promote murine T- and B-lymphocytes induced by Con A and LPS. CM-jd(Y)-CPS2 exhibited stronger stimulatory activities upon immunomodulation than CM-jd-CPS2. These results are beneficial for the interpretation of the connection between polysaccharide structures and their biological activities. PMID:22806024

  13. Influence of poly(aminoquinone) on corrosion inhibition of iron in acid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyaprabha, C.; Sathiyanarayanan, S.; Phani, K. L. N.; Venkatachari, G.

    2005-11-01

    The inhibitor performance of chemically synthesized water soluble poly(aminoquinone) (PAQ) on iron corrosion in 0.5 M sulphuric acid was studied in relation to inhibitor concentration using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. On comparing the inhibition performance of PAQ with that of the monomer o-phenylenediamine (OPD), the OPD gave an efficiency of 80% for 1000 ppm while it was 90% for 100 ppm of PAQ. PAQ was found to be a mixed inhibitor. Besides, PAQ was able to improve the passivation tendency of iron in 0.5 M H 2SO 4 markedly.

  14. Coal desulfurization in oxidative acid media using hydrogen peroxide and ozone: a kinetic and statistical approach

    SciTech Connect

    F.R. Carrillo-Pedroza; A. Davalos Sanchez; M. Soria-Aguilar; E.T. Pecina Trevino

    2009-07-15

    The removal of pyritic sulfur from a Mexican sub-bituminous coal in nitric, sulfuric, and hydrochloric acid solutions was investigated. The effect of the type and concentration of acid, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and ozone as oxidants, in a temperature range of 20-60{sup o}C, was studied. The relevant factors in pyrite dissolution were determined by means of the statistical analysis of variance and optimized by the response surface method. Kinetic models were also evaluated, showing that the dissolution of pyritic sulfur follows the kinetic model of the shrinking core model, with diffusion through the solid product of the reaction as the controlling stage. The results of statistical analysis indicate that the use of ozone as an oxidant improves the pyrite dissolution because, at 0.25 M HNO{sub 3} or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 20{sup o}C and 0.33 g/h O{sub 3}, the obtained dissolution is similar to that of 1 M H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and 1 M HNO{sub 3} or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 40{sup o}C. 42 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Cu(II) - Catalyzed Hydrazine Reduction of Ferrous Nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Karraker, D.G.

    2001-10-15

    This report discusses the results of a study of catalyzed hydrazine reduction of ferrous nitrate. It is apparent that there is a substantial reaction between hydrazine and nitrate ion (or nitric acid) to produce HN3 during both the reduction of Fe(III) and during storage at room temperature.

  16. Heterocarbon nanosheets incorporating iron phthalocyanine for oxygen reduction reaction in both alkaline and acidic media.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Koangyong; Ueno, Tomonaga; Panomsuwan, Gasidit; Li, Oi Lun; Saito, Nagahiro

    2016-04-28

    Heterocarbon nanosheets incorporating iron phthalocyanine (FP-NCNs-SP) have been successfully synthesized by a facile one-pot solution plasma process at high repetition frequency. It was found that the Fe-N4 catalytic active sites could be preserved on the FP-NCNs-SP without degradation. The FP-NCNs-SP also possessed large surface area, good conductivity and high degree of graphitization. Electrochemical evaluations demonstrated that NCNs-SP had excellent electrocatalytic activity and selectivity toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline medium through a direct four-electron pathway. Although the significant improvement in ORR activity was clearly observed in acidic medium, it was much poorer than in alkaline medium. We believe that the results presented in this work will shed light on the advanced synthesis and design of ORR electrocatalysts at room temperature with an abundance of catalytically active sites and high ORR performance. PMID:27055883

  17. Effects of Peptone Supplementation in Different Culture Media on Growth, Metabolic Pathway and Productivity of CHO DG44 Cells; a New Insight into Amino Acid Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Davami, Fatemeh; Eghbalpour, Farnaz; Nematollahi, Leila; Barkhordari, Farzaneh; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: The optimization of bioprocess conditions towards improved growth profile and productivity yield is considered of great importance in biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Peptones as efficient sources of nutrients have been studied for their effect on media development; however, their role on metabolic pathway is not well understood. Methods: In the present study, the effect of different concentration of peptones on a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line grown in three serum-free suspension cultures was determined. Six peptones of different origins and available amino acid profiles were investigated regarding their impact on cell growth, productivity, and metabolic pathways changes. Results: In optimized feeding strategies, increases of 136% and 159% in volumetric productivity (for a low-nutrient culture media) and 55% (for a high-nutrient culture media) were achieved. Furthermore, particular sources of peptones with specific amino acid profile developed preferential results for each different culture medium. Two peptones, SoyA2SC and SoyE-110, were the only hydrolysates that showed production improvement in all three media. Casein Peptone plus Tryptone N1 and SoyA3SC showed different improved results based on their implemented concentration for each individual basal medium. Conclusion: The amino acid profile of peptones may provide clues to identify the most effective feeding strategies for recombinant CHO cells. PMID:26232332

  18. Process for decomposing nitrates in aqueous solution

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a process for decomposing ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrates in an aqueous solution at an elevated temperature and pressure. Where the compound to be decomposed is a metal nitrate (e.g., a nuclear-fuel metal nitrate), a hydroxylated organic reducing agent therefor is provided in the solution. In accordance with the invention, an effective proportion of both nitromethane and nitric acid is incorporated in the solution to accelerate decomposition of the ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrate. As a result, decomposition can be effected at significantly lower temperatures and pressures, permitting the use of system components composed of off-the-shelf materials, such as stainless steel, rather than more costly materials of construction. Preferably, the process is conducted on a continuous basis. Fluid can be automatically vented from the reaction zone as required to maintain the operating temperature at a moderate value--e.g., at a value in the range of from about 130.degree.-200.degree. C.

  19. Evaluation of ability of ferulic acid to control growth and fumonisin production of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum on maize based media.

    PubMed

    Ferrochio, Laura; Cendoya, Eugenia; Farnochi, María Cecilia; Massad, Walter; Ramirez, María Laura

    2013-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ferulic acid (1, 10, 20 and 25 mM) at different water activity (aw) values (0.99, 0.98, 0.96 and 0.93) at 25 °C on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum on maize based media. For both Fusarium species, the lag phase significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.001), and the growth rates increased (p ≤ 0.001) at the lowest ferulic acid concentration used (1mM), regardless of the aw. However, high doses of ferulic acid (10 to 25 mM) significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.001) the growth rate of both Fusarium species, regardless of the a(w). In general, growth rate inhibition increased as ferulic acid doses increased and as media aw decreased. Fumonisin production profiles of both Fusarium species showed that low ferulic acid concentrations (1-10mM) significantly increased (p ≤ 0.001) toxin production, regardless of the aw. High doses of ferulic acid (20-25 mM) reduced fumonisin production, in comparison with the controls, by both Fusarium species but they were not statistically significant in most cases. The results show that the use of ferulic acid as a post-harvest strategy to reduce mycotoxin accumulation on maize needs to be discussed. PMID:24140805

  20. A selective defect in arachidonic acid release from macrophage membranes in high potassium media.

    PubMed

    Aderem, A A; Scott, W A; Cohn, Z A

    1984-10-01

    Murine peritoneal macrophages cultured in minimal essential medium (alpha-MEM; 118 mM Na+, 5 mM K+) released arachidonic acid (20:4) from phospholipids on encountering a phagocytic stimulus of unopsonized zymosan. In high concentrations of extracellular K+ (118 mM), 3H release from cells prelabeled with [3H]20:4 was inhibited 80% with minimal reduction (18%) in phagocytosis. The inhibitory effect of K+ on 20:4 release was fully reversed on returning cells to medium containing Na+ (118 mM). Preingestion of zymosan particles by macrophages maintained in high K+ medium resulted in cells being "primed" for 20:4 release, which was only effected (without the further addition of particles) by changing the medium to one containing Na+. In contrast, 20:4 release from cells stimulated with the calcium ionophore A23187 was unimpaired by the elevated K+ medium, suggesting no direct effect of high K+ on the phospholipase. Macrophages stimulated with zymosan in alpha-MEM metabolized the released 20:4 to prostacyclin, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and leukotriene C (LTC). The smaller quantity of released 20:4 in high K+ medium was recovered as 6-Keto-PGF1 alpha, the breakdown product of prostacyclin, and PGE2. No LTC was synthesized. In high K+, resting (no zymosan) macrophages synthesized hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids from exogeneously supplied 20:4 in proportions similar to cells maintained in alpha-MEM. These findings and the similarity of products (including LTC) produced by A23187 stimulated cells in alpha-MEM and high K+ medium indicated that the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathway enzymes were not directly inhibited by high extracellular K+. We conclude that high concentrations of extracellular K+ uncouple phagocytosis of unopsonized zymosan from the induction of the phospholipase responsible for the 20:4 cascade and suggest that the lesion is at the level of signal transduction between the receptor-ligand complex and the phospholipase. PMID:6434547

  1. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOEpatents

    Cox, J.L.; Hallen, R.T.; Lilga, M.A.

    1992-06-02

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrites present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200 C to about 600 C, and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  2. The Chilean nitrate deposits.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    The nitrate deposits in the arid Atacama desert of northern Chile consist of saline-cemented surficial material, apparently formed in and near a playa lake that formerly covered the area. Many features of their distribution and chemical composition are unique. The author believes the principal sources of the saline constituents were the volcanic rocks of late Tertiary and Quaternary age in the Andes and that the nitrate is of organic origin. Possible sources of the nitrate, iodate, perchlorate and chromate are discussed. -J.J.Robertson

  3. A Conserved Acidic Motif in the N-Terminal Domain of Nitrate Reductase Is Necessary for the Inactivation of the Enzyme in the Dark by Phosphorylation and 14-3-3 Binding1

    PubMed Central

    Pigaglio, Emmanuelle; Durand, Nathalie; Meyer, Christian

    1999-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the N-terminal domain of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) nitrate reductase (NR) is involved in the inactivation of the enzyme by phosphorylation, which occurs in the dark (L. Nussaume, M. Vincentz, C. Meyer, J.P. Boutin, and M. Caboche [1995] Plant Cell 7: 611–621). The activity of a mutant NR protein lacking this N-terminal domain was no longer regulated by light-dark transitions. In this study smaller deletions were performed in the N-terminal domain of tobacco NR that removed protein motifs conserved among higher plant NRs. The resulting truncated NR-coding sequences were then fused to the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter and introduced in NR-deficient mutants of the closely related species Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. We found that the deletion of a conserved stretch of acidic residues led to an active NR protein that was more thermosensitive than the wild-type enzyme, but it was relatively insensitive to the inactivation by phosphorylation in the dark. Therefore, the removal of this acidic stretch seems to have the same effects on NR activation state as the deletion of the N-terminal domain. A hypothetical explanation for these observations is that a specific factor that impedes inactivation remains bound to the truncated enzyme. A synthetic peptide derived from this acidic protein motif was also found to be a good substrate for casein kinase II. PMID:9880364

  4. Enhancing isobutyric acid production from engineered Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans cells via media optimization.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaozheng; West, Alan C; Banta, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans has previously been genetically modified to produce isobutyric acid (IBA) from carbon dioxide while obtaining energy from the oxidation of ferrous iron. Here, a combinatorial approach was used to explore the influence of medium composition in both batch and chemostat cultures in order to improve IBA yields (g IBA/mol Fe(2+)) and productivities (g IBA/L/d). Medium pH, ferrous concentration (Fe(2+)), and inclusion of iron chelators all had positive impact on the IBA yield. In batch experiments, gluconate was found to be a superior iron chelator because its use resulted in smaller excursions in pH. In batch cultures, IBA yields decreased linearly with increases in the final effective Fe(3+) concentrations. Chemostat cultures followed similar trends as observed in batch cultures. Specific cellular productivities were found to be a function of the steady state ORP (Oxidation-reduction potential) of the growth medium, which is primarily determined by the Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) ratio. By operating at low ORP, chemostat cultures were able to achieve volumetric productivities as high as 3.8 ± 0.2 mg IBA/L/d which is a 14-fold increase over the previously reported value. PMID:26370386

  5. Recovery of zinc and manganese from spent batteries by reductive leaching in acidic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzatu, M.; Săceanu, S.; Petrescu, M. I.; Ghica, G. V.; Buzatu, T.

    2014-02-01

    A systematic investigation has been carried out on the influence of the acid leaching process parameters on the simultaneous metal recovery (Zn and Mn) from the electrode paste of spent alkaline Zn-MnO2 and spent Zn-C batteries. By introducing a reducing agent namely 30% H2O2 in the H2SO4 leaching solution the extraction efficiency for Mn was increased from 43.5% (no addition of H2O2) up to 97.54% (50% excess H2O2 in comparison with the required stoichiometric amount of H2O2). This H2O2 addition proved to have no influence on Zn extraction efficiency which kept constant at a high level (∼98.4%). A less important influence has been noticed for the molar concentration of H2SO4 in the leaching solution. In the range 0.5 M up to 2 M molar concentration of H2SO4 the extraction efficiency was increased from 78.2% up to 98.4% for Zn and from 63.1% up to 97.2% for Mn. Leaching time up to 60 min proved to gradually increase the extraction efficiency up to 96% for Mn and 98% for Zn but further time increase has no more influence. An attempt has been made to recover the carbon from the leaching residue but its structural characterization is still required.

  6. Transport of trivalent and hexavalent chromium through different ion-selective membranes in acidic aqueous media

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, R.F.D.; Rodrigues, M.A.S.; Ferreira, J.Z.

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the transport of trivalent and hexavalent chromium through anion- and cation-selective membranes using two- and three-compartment electrodialysis cells. Tests were done with acidic solutions of trivalent chromium ions, Cr{sup 3+}, and hexavalent chromium ions, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2{minus}}. In each situation the transport of metallic ions through the membrane was evaluated. In the tests with trivalent chromium, Nafion 417 and Selemion CMT cation-selective membranes were used, and in the tests with hexavalent chromium, Selemion AMT membrane was used. The influence of SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} ions and of the concentration of H{sup +} ions in the solutions was also analyzed. Results showed the oxidation of the Cr{sup 3+} ion at the anode and the reduction of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2{minus}} ion at the cathode. The maximum yield in the process was reached when hexavalent chromium solutions were used in the absence of sulfate ions and a Selemion AMT membrane in a three-compartment cell.

  7. Hydrothermal oxidation of organic wastes using reclaimed ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Proesmans, P.I.; Luan, L.; Buelow, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    Ammonium nitrate is being studied as an alternative for ammonium perchlorate as an oxidizing agent in Department of Defense 1.1 and 1.3 rocket propellants. Use of ammonium nitrate would eliminate the HCl produced by ammonium perchlorate upon thermal decomposition. To stabilize the ammonium nitrate, which suffers from phase instability, potassium dinitramide (KDN) is added. This increased use of ammonium nitrate will ultimately create a need for environmentally responsible processes to reuse ammonium nitrate extracted from demilitarized rocket motors. Ammonium Nitrate was investigated as an oxidizing agent for methanol, acetic acid and phenol. High removal of organic, ammonia and nitrate was achieved at stoichiometric concentrations. The oxidation of ammonia by nitrate was much faster than the oxidation of either methanol or acetic acid. Phenol, however, was in strong competition with ammonia for the oxidizer (nitrate). Nitrogen products included N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2{sup {minus}}} as well as toxic NO and trace amounts of NO{sub 2}. Carbon products were CO{sub 2}, HCO{sub 3{sup {minus}}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, and CO.

  8. Influence of acid-etched splinting methods on discoloration of dental enamel in four media: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Oikarinen, K S; Nieminen, T M

    1994-12-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the staining of enamel in relation to fixation of luxated teeth. Color changes induced by chlorhexidine, red wine, tea, and coffee were detected with a Minolta Chroma Meter (CR-121) after extracted teeth were treated to simulate construction of dental splinting. L*a*b* color readings were made before and after 7 days of incubation in the above-mentioned media in teeth treated 1) by acid-etching, 2) by acid-etching followed by resin, 3) by resin and composite, 4) by Triad Gel, and 5) by Protemp. L* is an indicator of black (0) and white (100). The a* values relate to the red (+100)-green (-100) color axes, and the b* values to the yellow (+100) and blue (-100) axes. Untreated teeth served as controls. One-way analysis of variance of mean L* values revealed no statistically significant differences in treatment. Discoloration was observed in all teeth, including the control ones. However, Protemp yielded the largest changes in mean L* values. Analysis of variance of mean L* values revealed statistically significant differences between incubation liquids because no increase in staining of enamel was noted after 7 days' incubation in chlorhexidine. Red wine increased the mean L* values more than coffee or tea. Changes in a*b* readings were toward red (+a*) after incubation in red wine, except in the case of teeth treated with resin. The color of all such teeth changed more toward yellow (+b*), because the resin used was yellow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7871352

  9. Organic Nitrates: A Complex Family of Atmospheric Trace Constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballschmiter, K.; Fischer, R. G.; Grünert, A.; Kastler, J.; Schneider, M.; Woidich, S.

    2003-04-01

    Biogenic and geogenic hydrocarbons are the precursors of organic nitrates that are formed as tropospheric photo-oxidation products in the presence of NOx. Air chemistry leads to a very complex pattern of nitric acid esters: alkyl nitrates, aryl-alkyl nitrates, and bifunctional nitrates like alkyl dinitrates, hydroxy alkyl nitrates and carbonyl alkyl nitrates. We have analyzed the pattern of organic nitrates in air samples after adsorption/thermal desorption (low volume sampling-LVS) or adsorption/solvent desorption (high volume sampling-HVS) by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture (ECD) and mass spectrometric detection (MSD) using air aliquotes of 100 up to 3000 liters on column. The complexity of the organic nitrates found in air requires a group pre-separation by normal phase liquid chromatography. A detection limit per compound of 0.005 ppt(v) is achieved by our approach. We have synthesized a broad spectrum of organic nitrates as reference compounds. Air samples were taken from central Europe, the US West (Utah, Nevada, California), and the North- and South Atlantic including Antarctica. Levels and patterns of the regional and global occurrence of the various groups of C1-C12 organic nitrates including dinitrates and hydroxy nitrates and nitrates of isoprene (2-methylbutadiene) are presented. Werner G., J. Kastler, R. Looser, K. Ballschmiter: "Organic nitrates of isoprene as atmospheric trace compounds" Angewandte Chemie - International Edition (1999) 38: 1634-1637. Woidich S., O. Froescheis, O. Luxenhofer, K. Ballschmiter: "EI- and NCI-mass spectrometry of arylalkyl nitrates and their occurrence in urban air" Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. (1999) 364 : 91-99. Kastler, J; Jarman, W; Ballschmiter, K.: "Multifunctional organic nitrates as constituents in European and US urban photo-smog" Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. (2000) 368:244-249. Schneider M., K. Ballschmiter: "C3-C14 alkyl nitrates in remote South Atlantic air" Chemosphere (1999) 38: 233-244. Fischer

  10. Transport in Porous Media of Poly(Acrylic Acid) Coated Ferrihydrite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Xiang, A.; Koel, B. E.

    2012-12-01

    Augmentation of soils with iron to enhance biological processes such as uranium reduction via iron reducing bacteria, e.g., Geobacter sp., might be achieved via the injection of iron nanoparticles into the subsurface. The challenge is to make these nanoparticles transportable in the subsurface while not affecting the iron bioavailability. Poorly crystallized 2-line ferrihydrite iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and coated with different amounts of poly(acrylic acid) polymers (Na-PAA6K or Na-PAA140K). Analyses were then performed on these particles, including sorption/desorption of the polymer onto the iron nanoparticles, particle size, zeta potential, transport in sand and soil columns, and bioavailabity of the Fe(III) in the absence and presence of the coating to iron reducing organisms. Results showed that at pH values of environmental relevance, the zeta potential of the particles varied from about 3 mV (pH=8.2) for the non-coated particles to about -30 mV for the particles coated with the polymers to their highest sorption capacity. The coated particle diameter was shown to be in the range of 200 nm. Column transport experiments showed that for the highest polymer coating the nanoparticle breakthrough was virtually identical to that of bromide, while significant filtration was observed for particles with an intermediate coating, and complete particle removal via filtration was observed for the non-coated particles. These results held for sand as well as for soil, which had been previously characterized, from a field site at Rifle, CO. Bioavailability experiments showed no difference in the iron reduction rate between the untreated and treated nanoparticles. These results show that it is possible to manufacture iron nanoparticles to enhance biological iron reduction, and that the transport properties of these treated particles is tunable so that a desired retention in the porous medium can be achieved.

  11. Stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue on 316L stainless steel in boric acid concentrated media at 320 C

    SciTech Connect

    Herms, E.; Olive, J.M.; Puiggali, M.; Boursier, J.M.

    1999-07-01

    Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) and Corrosion-Fatigue (CF) tests were performed in autoclave at 320 C in concentrated boric acid chlorinated media in presence of oxygen or hydrogen on type 316L austenitic stainless steel. Crack Growth Rates (CGR) are higher in non deaerated solutions for both SCC and CF than in hydrogenated solutions. CGR are relatively similar in CF and in SCC, excepted for high load ratio in CF where CGR are higher than in SCC. Detailed analysis of the fracture surface shows some distinct features between SCC and CF. Intergranular and transgranular mode of fracture are observed on SCC and CF. Fracture modes depend on the chemistry of solution in SCC and on frequency in CF. Traces of slip bands and crack front marking associated with oxide scale present on fracture surfaces exist in SCC and CF. Fatigue striations appear for low load ratio and high frequency. Secondary intergranular and transgranular cracking is observed only on SCC fracture surfaces and ligament morphology can be different in SCC relative to FC.

  12. Kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of C-N bond rotation by N-methylacetohydroxamic acid in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Sippl, Stefanie P; White, Paul B; Fry, Charles G; Volk, Sarah E; Ye, Lingxiao; Schenck, Heather L

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxamic acids (HAs) perform tasks in medicine and industry that require bidentate metal binding. The two favored conformations of HAs are related by rotation around the C(=O)-N bond. The conformations are unequal in stability. Recently, we reported that the most stable conformation of a small secondary HA in water places the oxygen atoms anti to one another. The barrier to C-N bond rotation may therefore modulate metal binding by secondary HAs in aqueous media. We have now determined the activation barrier to C-N rotation from major to minor conformation of a small secondary HA in D2O to be 67.3 kJ/mol. The HA rotational barrier scales with solvent polarity, as is observed in amides, although the HA barrier is less than that of a comparable tertiary amide in aqueous solution. Successful design of new secondary HAs to perform specific tasks requires solid understanding of rules governing HA structural behavior. Results from this work provide a more complete foundation for HA design efforts. PMID:26477862

  13. Evidence for a plasma-membrane-bound nitrate reductase involved in nitrate uptake of Chlorella sorokiniana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischner, R.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Anti-nitrate-reductase (NR) immunoglobulin-G (IgG) fragments inhibited nitrate uptake into Chlorella cells but had no affect on nitrate uptake. Intact anti-NR serum and preimmune IgG fragments had no affect on nitrate uptake. Membrane-associated NR was detected in plasma-membrane (PM) fractions isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning. The PM-associated NR was not removed by sonicating PM vesicles in 500 mM NaCl and 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and represented up to 0.8% of the total Chlorella NR activity. The PM NR was solubilized by Triton X-100 and inactivated by Chlorella NR antiserum. Plasma-membrane NR was present in ammonium-grown Chlorella cells that completely lacked soluble NR activity. The subunit sizes of the PM and soluble NRs were 60 and 95 kDa, respectively, as determined by sodium-dodecyl-sulfate electrophoresis and western blotting.

  14. SEPARATION OF URANYL NITRATE BY EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Stoughton, R.W.; Steahly, F.L.

    1958-08-26

    A process is presented for obtaining U/sup 233/ from solutions containing Pa/sup 233/. A carrier precipitate, such as MnO/sub 2/, is formed in such solutions and carries with it the Pa/sup 233/ present. This precipitate is then dissolved in nitric acid and the solution is aged to allow decay of the Pa/ sup 233/ into U/sup 233/. After a sufficient length of time the U/sup 233/ bearing solution is made 2.5 to 4.5 Molar in manganese nitrate by addition thereof, and the solution is then treated with ether to obtain uranyl nitrate by solvent extraction techniques.

  15. Methylhydrazinium nitrate. [rocket plume deposit chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, E. A.; Moran, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Methylhydrazinium nitrate was synthesized by the reaction of dilute nitric acid with methylhydrazine in water and in methanol. The white needles formed are extremely hygroscopic and melt at 37.5-40.5 C. The IR spectrum differs from that reported elsewhere. The mass spectrum exhibited no parent peak at 109 m/z, and thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the compound decomposed slowly at 63-103 C to give ammonium and methylammonium nitrate. The density is near 1.55 g/cu cm.

  16. Isolation, Characterization, and U(VI)-Reducing Potential of a Facultatively Anaerobic, Acid-Resistant Bacterium from Low-pH, Nitrate- and U(VI)-Contaminated Subsurface Sediment and Description of Salmonella subterranea sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Shelobolina, Evgenya S.; Sullivan, Sara A.; O'Neill, Kathleen R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2004-01-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, acid-resistant bacterium, designated strain FRCl, was isolated from a low-pH, nitrate- and U(VI)-contaminated subsurface sediment at site FW-024 at the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research Field Research Center in Oak Ridge, Tenn. Strain FRCl was enriched at pH 4.5 in minimal medium with nitrate as the electron acceptor, hydrogen as the electron donor, and acetate as the carbon source. Clones with 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences identical to the sequence of strain FRCl were also detected in a U(VI)-reducing enrichment culture derived from the same sediment. Cells of strain FRCl were gram-negative motile regular rods 2.0 to 3.4 μm long and 0.7 to 0.9 μm in diameter. Strain FRCl was positive for indole production, by the methyl red test, and for ornithine decarboxylase; it was negative by the Voges-Proskauer test (for acetylmethylcarbinol production), for urea hydrolysis, for arginine dihydrolase, for lysine decarboxylase, for phenylalanine deaminase, for H2S production, and for gelatin hydrolysis. Strain FRCl was capable of using O2, NO3−, S2O32−, fumarate, and malate as terminal electron acceptors and of reducing U(VI) in the cell suspension. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence of the isolate indicated that this strain was 96.4% similar to Salmonella bongori and 96.3% similar to Enterobacter cloacae. Physiological and phylogenetic analyses suggested that strain FRCl belongs to the genus Salmonella and represents a new species, Salmonella subterranea sp. nov. PMID:15128557

  17. Isolation, characterization, and U(VI)-reducing potential of a facultatively anaerobic, acid-resistant Bacterium from Low-pH, nitrate- and U(VI)-contaminated subsurface sediment and description of Salmonella subterranea sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Shelobolina, Evgenya S; Sullivan, Sara A; O'Neill, Kathleen R; Nevin, Kelly P; Lovley, Derek R

    2004-05-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, acid-resistant bacterium, designated strain FRCl, was isolated from a low-pH, nitrate- and U(VI)-contaminated subsurface sediment at site FW-024 at the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research Field Research Center in Oak Ridge, Tenn. Strain FRCl was enriched at pH 4.5 in minimal medium with nitrate as the electron acceptor, hydrogen as the electron donor, and acetate as the carbon source. Clones with 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences identical to the sequence of strain FRCl were also detected in a U(VI)-reducing enrichment culture derived from the same sediment. Cells of strain FRCl were gram-negative motile regular rods 2.0 to 3.4 micro m long and 0.7 to 0.9 microm in diameter. Strain FRCl was positive for indole production, by the methyl red test, and for ornithine decarboxylase; it was negative by the Voges-Proskauer test (for acetylmethylcarbinol production), for urea hydrolysis, for arginine dihydrolase, for lysine decarboxylase, for phenylalanine deaminase, for H(2)S production, and for gelatin hydrolysis. Strain FRCl was capable of using O(2), NO(3)(-), S(2)O(3)(2-), fumarate, and malate as terminal electron acceptors and of reducing U(VI) in the cell suspension. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence of the isolate indicated that this strain was 96.4% similar to Salmonella bongori and 96.3% similar to Enterobacter cloacae. Physiological and phylogenetic analyses suggested that strain FRCl belongs to the genus Salmonella and represents a new species, Salmonella subterranea sp. nov. PMID:15128557

  18. Electrolytic Removal of Nitrate From CELSS Crop Residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colon, Guillermo; Sager, John

    1996-01-01

    The controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) resource recovery system is a waste processing system using aerobic and anaerobic bioreactors to recover plant nutrients and secondary foods from inedible biomass. Crop residues contain significant amounts of nitrate which presents two problems: (1) both CELSS biomass production and resource recovery consume large quantities of nitric acid, (2) nitrate causes a variety of problems in both aerobic and anaerobic bioreactors. A technique was proposed to remove the nitrate from potato inedible biomass leachate and to satisfy the nitric acid demand using a four compartment electrolytic cell.

  19. Conversion of carbohydrate biomass to γ-valerolactone by using water-soluble and reusable iridium complexes in acidic aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jin; Wang, Yan; Pan, Tao; Xu, Qing; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2013-07-01

    Mild-mannered manipulation: A catalytic method for the conversion of carbohydrate biomass to γ-valerolactone in acidic aqueous media has been developed. The water-soluble iridium complexes were observed to be extremely catalytically active for providing γ-valerolactone in high yields with high TONs. The homogeneous catalysts can also be recycled and reused by applying a simple phase separation process. PMID:23757330

  20. Exfoliation corrosion susceptibility and mechanisms of Al -- Li 2060 T8E30 aluminum lithium alloy in acidic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karayan, Ahmad Ivan

    The Al - Li 2060 aluminum lithium alloy was first launched in 2011. This alloy is a potential candidate for the use at wing/fuselage forgings, lower wing, and fuselage/pressure cabin. However, since its first launching, the corrosion properties of this alloy has not been extensively explored. There are three common laboratory tests for assessing the exfoliation corrosion (EFC) susceptibility of aluminum alloy 2XXX, namely EFC test in EXCO, modified EXCO and MASTMAASIS media. The objectives of this work is to study the susceptibility and mecahnism of corrosion of this alloy in EXCO, modified EXCO and MATSMAASIS media. These three media are acid. In the EXCO solution, this alloy suffers EFC after a 96-hour EFC test. The pH dramatically increases in the first 11 hours from 0.25 to 0.30. The pH then slightly increases and tends to remain constant at pH of 3.45 after 96 hours. The cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) test results show the presence of negative hysteresis and one breakdwon potential. This negative hysteresis suggests the absence of pitting corrosion due to the breakdown of passive film. The potentiostatic tests at potentials below and above the breakdown potential show an abrupt increase in potential in the first minutes and the presence of current transients. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) examination confirms that the Al 20Cu2Mn3 particles preferentially dissolve, leaving the pitting after a potentiostatic test below the breakdown potential. From the potentiostatic test at a potential above the breakdown potential and an SEM examination after this potentiostatic test, intergranular corrosion (IGC) was observed. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test and mathematical modeling indicates that the adsorption of intermediates in reduction of hydrogen ions is dominant in the first hours of immersion. The two time constants are observed when EFC occurs. The video capture microscopy

  1. Stability and effectiveness of linear polyacrylamide capillary coating to suppress EOF in acidic media in the presence of surfactants, ionic liquids and organic modifiers.

    PubMed

    Beneito-Cambra, Miriam; Anres, Philippe; Vial, Jérôme; Gareil, Pierre; Delaunay, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    Because of its high hydrophilicity, linear polyacrylamide (LPA) has often been used as a coating to suppress electroosmotic flow (EOF) in capillary electrophoresis (CE); however, its stability and effectiveness in acidic media, with or without organic modifiers, surfactants or ionic liquids is not well documented. In this work, the adequacy of LPA coating to suppress EOF in those different conditions was studied. It was shown that electroosmotic mobilities (µEO) did not change for at least 70h of non-stopped operation in all the tested conditions and the coating was stable. It was also shown that LPA coating efficiently suppresses EOF in acidic media (pH 4.0, 3.1, and 2.3) with or without organic modifiers (50% methanol or acetonitrile, ACN), as measured µEO values were between 18 and 84 times lower than those obtained with bare fused-silica capillaries. In acidic media with anionic surfactant (50mM sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS), ionic liquid (25 mM dodecyldimethylimidazolium bromide) or both SDS and ACN (buffer pH 2.1/ACN (8:2, v/v)+50mM SDS) EOF was reduced to a magnitude lower than with bare fused-silica capillaries, even though slight adsorptions of these surfactants were observed. LPA showed its superiority to hydroxypropyl cellulose, for which marked adsorption occurred because of its lower hydrophilicity. PMID:26838442

  2. Monitoring utilizations of amino acids and vitamins in culture media and Chinese hamster ovary cells by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jinshu; Chan, Pik Kay; Bondarenko, Pavel V

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring amino acids and vitamins is important for understanding human health, food nutrition and the culture of mammalian cells used to produce therapeutic proteins in biotechnology. A method including ion pairing reversed-phase liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed and optimized to quantify 21 amino acids and 9 water-soluble vitamins in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and culture media. By optimizing the chromatographic separation, scan time, monitoring time window, and sample preparation procedure, and using isotopically labeled (13)C, (15)N and (2)H internal standards, low limits of quantitation (≤0.054 mg/L), good precision (<10%) and good accuracy (100±10%) were achieved for nearly all the 30 compounds. Applying this method to CHO cell extracts, statistically significant differences in the metabolite levels were measured between two cell lines originated from the same host, indicating differences in genetic makeup or metabolic activities and nutrient supply levels in the culture media. In a fed-batch process of manufacturing scale bioreactors, two distinguished trends for changes in amino acid concentrations were identified in response to feeding. Ten essential amino acids showed a zigzag pattern with maxima at the feeding days, and 9 non-essential amino acids displayed a smoothly changing profile as they were mainly products of cellular metabolism. Five of 9 vitamins accumulated continuously during the culture period, suggesting that they were fed in access. The method serves as an effective tool for the development and optimization of mammalian cell cultures. PMID:26355770

  3. A convenient method for preparation of pure standards of peroxyacetyl nitrate for atmospheric analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Torben; Hansen, Anne Maria; Thomsen, Erling Lund

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is synthesized by nitration of peracetic acid (1.2 M), extracted by n- heptane, and purified with normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The purified PAN solution is free of acetyl nitrate. The content of PAN is determined by means of hydrolysis of PAN into nitrite, and determination by ion chromatography of nitrite and nitrate (formed by oxidation of nitrite). The purified PAN solution is used for the calibration of the gas Chromatograph with electron capture detection.

  4. Simple Resolution of Enantiomeric NMR Signals of α-Amino Acids by Using Samarium(III) Nitrate With L-Tartarate.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Sen-Ichi; Kidani, Takahiro; Takada, Sayuri; Ofusa, Yumika

    2015-05-01

    Readily available L-tartaric acid, which is a bidentate ligand with two chiral centers forming a seven-membered chelate ring, was applied to the chiral ligand for the chiral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shift reagent of samarium(III) formed in situ. This simple method does not cause serious signal broadening in the high magnetic field. Enantiomeric (13)C and (1)H NMR signals and enantiotopic (1)H NMR signals of α-amino acids were successfully resolved at pH 8.0 and the 1:3 molar ratio of Sm(NO3)3:L-tartaric acid. It is elucidated that the enantiomeric signal resolution is attributed to the anisotropic magnetic environment for the enantiomers induced by the chiral L-tartarato samarium(III) complex rather than differences in stability of the diastereomeric substrate adducts. The present (13)C NMR signal resolution was also effective for the practical simultaneous analysis of plural kinds of DL-amino acids. PMID:25847749

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the Nitrate- and Phosphate-Accumulating Bacillus sp. Strain MCC0008

    PubMed Central

    DebRoy, Shreya; Bhattacharjee, Amrita; Thakur, Ashoke Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the nitrate- and phosphate-accumulating Bacillus sp. strain MCC0008, isolated from a consortium enriched from municipal sewage in nitrate broth (HiMedia M439). The total size of the genome is 5,609,456 bp, with a G+C content of 35.1%. PMID:23409265

  6. Decay Mechanism of NO3(•) Radical in Highly Concentrated Nitrate and Nitric Acidic Solutions in the Absence and Presence of Hydrazine.

    PubMed

    Garaix, Guillaume; Horne, Gregory P; Venault, Laurent; Moisy, Philippe; Pimblott, Simon M; Marignier, Jean Louis; Mostafavi, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    The decay mechanism of NO3(•) has been determined through a combination of experiment and calculation for 7 mol dm(-3) solutions of deaerated aqueous LiNO3 and HNO3, in the absence and presence of hydrazine (N2H4, N2H5(+), and N2H6(2+)). In the absence of hydrazine, the predominant NO3(•) decay pathways are strongly dependent upon the pH of the solution. For neat, neutral pH LiNO3 solutions (7 mol dm(-3)), NO3(•) produced by the pulse is fully consumed within 160 μs by OH(•) (37%), H2O (29%), NO2(-) (17%), and NO2 (17%). For acidic HNO3 solutions (7 mol dm(-3)), radiolytically produced NO3(•) is predominantly consumed within 1 ms by HNO2 (15%) and NO2 (80%). Intervening formulations exhibit the mechanistic transition from neat LiNO3 to neat HNO3. In highly acidic nitric acid solution, hydrazine exists mainly as N2H5(+) and N2H6(2+), both of which rapidly consume NO3(•) in addition to other decay mechanisms, with rate constants of 2.9 (±0.9) × 10(7) and 1.3 (±0.3) × 10(6) dm(3) mol(-1) s(-1), respectively. PMID:27171587

  7. Nitrate promotes capsaicin accumulation in Capsicum chinense immobilized placentas.

    PubMed

    Aldana-Iuit, Jeanny G; Sauri-Duch, Enrique; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Cuevas-Glory, Luis F; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A

    2015-01-01

    In chili pepper's pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs), the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium's nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM) resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod's placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis. PMID:25710024

  8. Nitrate Promotes Capsaicin Accumulation in Capsicum chinense Immobilized Placentas

    PubMed Central

    Aldana-Iuit, Jeanny G.; Sauri-Duch, Enrique; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A.; Cuevas-Glory, Luis F.; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A.

    2015-01-01

    In chili pepper's pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs), the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium's nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM) resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod's placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis. PMID:25710024

  9. Effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculum treatments in increasing pH and reducing sulfur-total of acid sulfate soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufieq, Nur Anny Suryaningsih; Rahim, Sahibin Abdul; Jamil, Habibah

    2013-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness ofsulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in using bran as a source of food and energy, and to see the effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculums treatments for pH and sulfur-total of acid sulfate reduction insoils. This study used two factors in group random designs with four treatments for bacteria inoculum of B1 (1%), B2 (5%), B3 (10%), B4 (15%) and two treatments for organic media (bran) of D1 (1:1) and D2 (1:19). Based on three replications, the combination resulted in a total of 24 treatments. Soil pH was measured using the Duddridge and Wainright method and determination of sulfate content in soil was conducted by the spectrophotometry method. The data obtained was analyzed for significance by Analysis of Variance and the Least Significant Difference Test. The pH of the initial acid sulfate soils ranged from 3 to 4 and the soil sulfur-total ranged from 1.4% to 10%. After mixing sulfate reducing bacteria with the bran mediaand incubated for four days, the pH of the acid sulfate soils increased from 3.67 to 4.20, while the soil sulfur-total contents had been reduced by 2.85% to 0.35%. This experiment has proven that an acid sulfate soil with low pH is a good growth medium for the sulfate reducing bacteria. The bestincubation period to achieve an effective bioremediation resultthrough sulfate percentage reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria was 10 days, while the optimum bran media dose was 1:19, and the bacteria inoculums dose was 10%.

  10. Changes in membrane fatty acids composition of microbial cells induced by addiction of thymol, carvacrol, limonene, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol in the growing media.

    PubMed

    Di Pasqua, Rosangela; Hoskins, Nikki; Betts, Gail; Mauriello, Gianluigi

    2006-04-01

    Major active compounds from essential oils are well-known to possess antimicrobial activity against both pathogen and spoilage microorganisms. The aim of this work was to determine the alteration of the membrane fatty acid profile as an adaptive mechanism of the cells in the presence of a sublethal concentration of antimicrobial compound in response to a stress condition. Methanolic solutions of thymol, carvacrol, limonene, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol were added into growth media of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and Staphylococcus aureus strains. Fatty acid extraction and gas chromatographic analysis were performed to assess changes in membrane fatty acid composition. Substantial changes were observed on the long chain unsaturated fatty acids when the E. coli and Salmonella strains grew in the presence of limonene and cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol and eugenol, respectively. All compounds influenced the fatty acid profile of B. thermosphacta, while Pseudomonas and S. aureus strains did not show substantial changes in their fatty acid compositions. PMID:16569070

  11. The effect of nitrate on ethylene biofiltration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hun; Li, Congna; Heber, Albert J

    2012-11-30

    This study investigated the effects of filter media types and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) concentrations in nutrient solutions on C(2)H(4) biofiltration. A new nutrient solution with zero NO(3)(-) concentration was supplied to two perlite-bed biotrickling filters, two perlite-bed biofilters, and two GAC (Granular Activated Carbon)-bed biofilters, while the other with 2 g L(-1) of NO(3)(-) was used for the other two GAC biofilters. All reactors underwent a total test duration of over 175 days with an EBRT (Empty Bed Residence Time) of 30 s, inlet gas flow rate of 7 L min(-1), and inlet C(2)H(4) concentrations of 20-30 mg m(-3). NO(3)(-) concentration and media type significantly affected the C(2)H(4) removal efficiencies in all types of biofiltration. The perlite media with no NO(3)(-) achieved C(2)H(4) removal efficiencies 10-50% higher than the others. A NO(3)(-) concentration as high as 2 g L(-1) in the original nutrient solution may act as an inhibitor that suppresses the growth or activity of C(2)H(4) degraders. In addition, the perlite media resulted in higher C(2)H(4) removal efficiencies than GAC media, because the hydrophilic surface of the perlite leads to a higher moisture content and thus to favorable microbial growth. PMID:23063558

  12. Insights into the interplay of Lewis and Brønsted acid catalysts in glucose and fructose conversion to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural and levulinic acid in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Vinit; Mushrif, Samir H; Ho, Christopher; Anderko, Andrzej; Nikolakis, Vladimiros; Marinkovic, Nebojsa S; Frenkel, Anatoly I; Sandler, Stanley I; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2013-03-13

    5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) and levulinic acid production from glucose in a cascade of reactions using a Lewis acid (CrCl3) catalyst together with a Brønsted acid (HCl) catalyst in aqueous media is investigated. It is shown that CrCl3 is an active Lewis acid catalyst in glucose isomerization to fructose, and the combined Lewis and Brønsted acid catalysts perform the isomerization and dehydration/rehydration reactions. A CrCl3 speciation model in conjunction with kinetics results indicates that the hydrolyzed Cr(III) complex [Cr(H2O)5OH](2+) is the most active Cr species in glucose isomerization and probably acts as a Lewis acid-Brønsted base bifunctional site. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations indicate a strong interaction between the Cr cation and the glucose molecule whereby some water molecules are displaced from the first coordination sphere of Cr by the glucose to enable ring-opening and isomerization of glucose. Additionally, complex interactions between the two catalysts are revealed: Brønsted acidity retards aldose-to-ketose isomerization by decreasing the equilibrium concentration of [Cr(H2O)5OH](2+). In contrast, Lewis acidity increases the overall rate of consumption of fructose and HMF compared to Brønsted acid catalysis by promoting side reactions. Even in the absence of HCl, hydrolysis of Cr(III) decreases the solution pH, and this intrinsic Brønsted acidity drives the dehydration and rehydration reactions. Yields of 46% levulinic acid in a single phase and 59% HMF in a biphasic system have been achieved at moderate temperatures by combining CrCl3 and HCl. PMID:23432136

  13. Effects of Nitrate Addition on Rumen Fermentation, Bacterial Biodiversity and Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang; Ren, Liping; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xinzhuang; Huo, Yunlong; Zhou, Zhenming

    2015-01-01

    This study examined changes of rumen fermentation, ruminal bacteria biodiversity and abundance caused by nitrate addition with Ion Torrent sequencing and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Three rumen-fistulated steers were fed diets supplemented with 0%, 1%, and 2% nitrate (dry matter %) in succession. Nitrate supplementation linearly increased total volatile fatty acids and acetate concentration obviously (p = 0.02; p = 0.02; p<0.01), butyrate and isovalerate concentration numerically (p = 0.07). The alpha (p>0.05) and beta biodiversity of ruminal bacteria were not affected by nitrate. Nitrate increased typical efficient cellulolytic bacteria species (Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus ablus, and Fibrobacter succinogenes) (p<0.01; p = 0.06; p = 0.02). Ruminobactr, Sphaerochaeta, CF231, and BF311 genus were increased by 1% nitrate. Campylobacter fetus, Selenomonas ruminantium, and Mannheimia succiniciproducens were core nitrate reducing bacteria in steers and their abundance increased linearly along with nitrate addition level (p<0.01; p = 0.02; p = 0.04). Potential nitrate reducers in the rumen, Campylobacter genus and Cyanobacteria phyla were significantly increased by nitrate (p<0.01; p = 0.01). To the best of our knowledge, this was the first detailed view of changes in ruminal microbiota by nitrate. This finding would provide useful information on nitrate utilization and nitrate reducer exploration in the rumen. PMID:26194220

  14. Characterization of the winter midwestern particulate nitrate bulge.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, Marc L; Poirot, Richard L; Schichtel, Bret A; Maim, William C

    2009-09-01

    A previously unobserved multi-state region of elevated particulate nitrate concentration was detected as a result of the expansion of the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network of remote-area particulate matter (PM) speciation monitoring sites into the midwestern United States that began in 2002. Mean winter ammonium nitrate concentrations exceed 4 microg/m3 in a region centered in Iowa, which makes it responsible for as much as half of the particle light extinction. Before these observations, particulate nitrate in the United States was only observed to be a dominant component of the fine PM (PM2.5) in parts of California and some urban areas. Comparisons of the spatial patterns of particulate nitrate with spatial patterns of ammonia and nitrogen oxide emissions suggest that the nitrate bulge is the result of the high emissions of ammonia associated with animal agriculture in the Midwest. Nitrate episodes at several locations in the eastern United States are shown to be associated with transport pathways over the Midwest, suggesting long-range transport of either ammonia or ammonium nitrate. Thermodynamic equilibrium modeling conducted by others on data from the Midwest shows the relative importance of atmospheric ammonia and nitric acid in the production of PM2.5. This is a particular concern as the sulfur dioxide emissions in the United States are reduced, which increases the amount of ammonia available for ammonium nitrate production. PMID:19785273

  15. Efficient combination of promoter and catalyst for chromic acid oxidation of propan-2-ol to acetone in aqueous acid media at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Kakali; Saha, Rumpa; Ghosh, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sumanta K; Saha, Bidyut

    2013-01-15

    Oxidation of propan-2-ol to acetone was carried out in aqueous media at room temperature. The effect of promoter (PA, bpy, phen), micellar catalyst (SDS, CPC, TX-100) and their combination has been studied. The reactions were performed under the condition [Propan-2-ol]T≫[Cr(VI)]T at 30°C. Then kobs and half life of all the reaction were determined to identify which promoter and which combination are the most effective for this oxidation. Among the promoters phen accelerates the reaction most in aqueous media. In absence of promoters anionic surfactant SDS increases the rate more effectively than neutral surfactant TX-100. CPC retards the rate in comparison to aqueous media. The rate of the oxidation is highest in presence of the combination of bpy and SDS. PMID:23123236

  16. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., described and defined as an oxidizer by the regulations of 49 CFR part 173 is handled, stored, stowed...) must be eliminated or plugged. Note: See 49 CFR 176.415 for permit requirements for nitro carbo nitrate... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section...

  17. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., described and defined as an oxidizer by the regulations of 49 CFR part 173 is handled, stored, stowed...) must be eliminated or plugged. Note: See 49 CFR 176.415 for permit requirements for nitro carbo nitrate... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section...

  18. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., described and defined as an oxidizer by the regulations of 49 CFR part 173 is handled, stored, stowed...) must be eliminated or plugged. Note: See 49 CFR 176.415 for permit requirements for nitro carbo nitrate... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section...

  19. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., described and defined as an oxidizer by the regulations of 49 CFR part 173 is handled, stored, stowed...) must be eliminated or plugged. Note: See 49 CFR 176.415 for permit requirements for nitro carbo nitrate... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section...

  20. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., described and defined as an oxidizer by the regulations of 49 CFR part 173 is handled, stored, stowed...) must be eliminated or plugged. Note: See 49 CFR 176.415 for permit requirements for nitro carbo nitrate... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section...

  1. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  2. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coburn, M.D.; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1981-11-17

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  3. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M.; Coburn, Michael D.

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  4. Nitrate Storage and Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction by Eukaryotic Microbes.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Stief, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players like diatoms, foraminifers, and fungi. This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine eukaryotes placed into an eco-physiological context. The advantage of intracellular nitrate storage for anaerobic energy conservation in oxygen-depleted habitats is explained and the life style enabled by this metabolic trait is described. A first compilation of intracellular nitrate inventories in various marine sediments is presented, indicating that intracellular nitrate pools vastly exceed porewater nitrate pools. The relative contribution by foraminifers to total sedimentary denitrification is estimated for different marine settings, suggesting that eukaryotes may rival prokaryotes in terms of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Finally, this review article sketches some evolutionary perspectives of eukaryotic nitrate metabolism and identifies open questions that need to be addressed in future investigations. PMID:26734001

  5. Nitrate Storage and Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction by Eukaryotic Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Stief, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players like diatoms, foraminifers, and fungi. This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine eukaryotes placed into an eco-physiological context. The advantage of intracellular nitrate storage for anaerobic energy conservation in oxygen-depleted habitats is explained and the life style enabled by this metabolic trait is described. A first compilation of intracellular nitrate inventories in various marine sediments is presented, indicating that intracellular nitrate pools vastly exceed porewater nitrate pools. The relative contribution by foraminifers to total sedimentary denitrification is estimated for different marine settings, suggesting that eukaryotes may rival prokaryotes in terms of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Finally, this review article sketches some evolutionary perspectives of eukaryotic nitrate metabolism and identifies open questions that need to be addressed in future investigations. PMID:26734001

  6. Effects of decreased pH on membrane structural organization of Escherichia coli grown in different fatty acid-supplemented media: a 31P NMR study.

    PubMed

    Ianzini, F; Guidoni, L; Simone, G; Viti, V; Yatvin, M B

    1990-04-01

    Total membranes from Escherichia coli cells grown in different fatty acid-supplemented media have been examined by 31P NMR at different pH values. The isolated inner and outer membranes were also studied and compared to the liposomes formed with the corresponding extracted lipids. While the liposomes show structures that are correlated with lipid composition, degree of fatty acid unsaturation, and pH, the membrane structure is mainly bilayer. The presence of two bilayer phases characterized by different chemical shift anisotropy values (delta nu csa) is detectable at neutral pH; a perturbation of the bilayer phase characterized by the smallest delta nu csa is produced by low pH. Moreover, an isotropic peak is always present in the membrane NMR spectra: its attribution to cardiolipin molecules is discussed on the basis of digestion experiments with phospholipase C. PMID:2181934

  7. Organic acids pretreatment effect on Rosa bourbonia phyto-biomass for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Qaisar; Nadeem, Raziya; Iqbal, Munawar; Saeed, Rashid; Ansari, Tariq M

    2013-03-01

    The sorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) form aqueous media by Rosa bourbonia waste phyto-biomass (RBWPB) pretreated with organic acids was investigated as a function of biosorbent dosage, initial metal ions concentration and contact time. The equilibrium biosorption data was analyzed using two kinetic models (pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order) and two isotherm models (Langmuir and Freundlich). The RBWPB was successfully applied for sequestration of both heavy metal ions; however, organic acids pretreatments decreased the metal adsorption capacity of RBWPB. The Langmuir model fitted well to the data, and the pseudo-second order kinetic equation could best describe the biosorption kinetics of Pb(II) and Cu(II) metal ions. Gibbs free energy indicated the spontaneous adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) onto RBWPB. PMID:23433975

  8. Nitrogen nutrition in the cyanobacterium Nostoc ANTH, a symbiotic isolate from Anthoceros: uptake and assimilation of inorganic-n and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Rai, Amar Nath

    2002-06-01

    Amino acid uptake and utilization of various nitrogen sources (amino acids, nitrite, nitrate and ammonia) were studied in Nostoc ANTH and i ts mu tant (Het(-)Nif(-)) isolate defective in heterocyst formation and N2-fixation. Both parent and its mutant grew at the expense of glutamine, asparagine and arginine as a source of fixed-nitrogen. Growth was better in glutamine-and asparagine-media as compared to that in arginine media. Glutamine and asparagine repressed heterocyst formation, N2-fixation and nitrate reduction in Nostoc ANTH, but arginine did so only partially. The poor growth in arginine-medium was not due to poor uptake rates, since the uptake rates were not significantly different from those for glutamine or asparagine. The glutamine synthetase activity remained unaffected during cultivation in media containing any one of the three amino acids tested. The uptake of amino acids was substrate-inducible, energy-dependent and required de novo protein synthesis. Nitrate and ammonium repressed ammonium uptake, but did not repress uptake of amino acids. In N2-medium (BG-11(0)), the uptake of ammonium and amino acids in the mutant was significantly higher than its parent strain. This was apparently due to nitrogen limitation since the mutant was unable to fix N2 and the growth medium lacked combined-N. PMID:22905386

  9. Production of citric and oxalic acids and solubilization of calcium phosphate by Penicillium bilaii.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, J E; Kuiack, C

    1992-01-01

    An isolate of Penicillium bilaii previously reported to solubilize mineral phosphates and enhance plant uptake of phosphate was studied. Using agar media with calcium phosphate and the pH indicator alizarin red S, the influence of the medium composition on phosphate solubility and medium acidification was recorded. The major acidic metabolites produced by P. bilaii in a sucrose nitrate liquid medium were found to be oxalic acid and citric acid. Citric acid production was promoted under nitrogen-limited conditions, while oxalic acid production was promoted under carbon-limited conditions. Citric acid was produced in both growth and stationary phases, but oxalic acid production occurred only in stationary phase. When submerged cultures which normally produce acid were induced to sporulate, the culture medium shifted toward alkaline rather than acid reaction with growth. PMID:1622211

  10. Evidence for a close similarity in the catalytic sites of papain and ficin in near-neutral media despite differences in acidic and alkaline media. Kinetics of the reactions of papain and ficin with chloroacetate.

    PubMed Central

    Brocklehurst, K; Mushiri, S M; Patel, G; Willenbrock, F

    1982-01-01

    1. The pH-dependences of the second-order rate constants (k) for the alkylation by chloroacetate of the active-centre thiol groups of papain (EC 3.4.22.2) and ficin (EC 3.4.22.3) were determined over a wide range of pH at 25 degrees C at I 0.1. 2. The main feature of both pH-k profiles is a striking rate maximum at pH6 (characterizing parameters in both cases pKI approx. 3.5, pKII approx. 8.4 and pH-independent rate constant approximately kXH 2.5-3.0 M-1 . s-1). 3. The profile for the ficin reaction contains a plateau at high pH, with approximately kX 0.10 M-1 . s-1; if an analogous plateau exists in the papain reaction, approximately kX ix much lower, less than 0.02 M-1 . s-1. 4. Both enzymes appear to contain closely similar thiolate-imidazolium interactive systems at pH6, but differences in their behaviour in more-acidic media and in alkaline media suggest differences in interaction with the postulated carboxylate component of the putative catalytic triad. PMID:7044370

  11. Nitrate biosensors and biological methods for nitrate determination.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Manzar; Adeloju, Samuel B

    2016-06-01

    The inorganic nitrate (NO3‾) anion is present under a variety of both natural and artificial environmental conditions. Nitrate is ubiquitous within the environment, food, industrial and physiological systems and is mostly present as hydrated anion of a corresponding dissolved salt. Due to the significant environmental and toxicological effects of nitrate, its determination and monitoring in environmental and industrial waters are often necessary. A wide range of analytical techniques are available for nitrate determination in various sample matrices. This review discusses biosensors available for nitrate determination using the enzyme nitrate reductase (NaR). We conclude that nitrate determination using biosensors is an excellent non-toxic alternative to all other available analytical methods. Over the last fifteen years biosensing technology for nitrate analysis has progressed very well, however, there is a need to expedite the development of nitrate biosensors as a suitable alternative to non-enzymatic techniques through the use of different polymers, nanostructures, mediators and strategies to overcome oxygen interference. PMID:27130094

  12. Amino Acid-Based Stabilization of Oxide Nanocrystals in Polar Media: From Insight in Ligand Exchange to Solution ¹H NMR Probing of Short-Chained Adsorbates.

    PubMed

    De Roo, Jonathan; Coucke, Sofie; Rijckaert, Hannes; De Keukeleere, Katrien; Sinnaeve, Davy; Hens, Zeger; Martins, José C; Van Driessche, Isabel

    2016-03-01

    Ligand exchange is a crucial step between nanocrystal synthesis and nanocrystal application. Although colloidal stability and ligand exchange in nonpolar media are readily established, the exchange of native, hydrophobic ligands with polar ligands is less systematic. In this paper, we present a versatile ligand exchange strategy for the phase transfer of carboxylic acid capped HfO2 and ZrO2 nanocrystals to various polar solvents, based on small amino acids as the incoming ligand. To gain insight in the fundamental mechanism of the exchange, we study this system with a combination of FTIR, zeta potential measurements, and solution (1)H NMR techniques. The detection of surface-associated, small ligands with solution NMR proves challenging in this respect. Tightly bound amino acids are undetectable, but their existence can be proven through displacement with other ligands in titration experiments. Alternatively, we find that methyl moieties belonging to bound species can circumvent these limitations because of their more favorable relaxation properties as a result of internal mobility. As such, our results are not limited to amino acids but to any short-chained ligand and will therefore facilitate the rigorous investigation and understanding of various ligand exchange processes. PMID:26854070

  13. Effects of different media and nitrogen sources and levels on growth and lipid of green microalga Botryococcus braunii KMITL and its biodiesel properties based on fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Ruangsomboon, Suneerat

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to find an optimum culture medium for green microalga Botryococcus braunii KMITL and investigate its biodiesel properties based on fatty acid composition. Four different media were tested. Chlorella medium was the best medium for lipid yield. Among four nitrogen sources tested, KNO3 produced the highest lipid yield. When varied the nitrogen concentrations, this strain gave the highest lipid yield at the highest nitrogen level. When cultivated in the best medium and nitrogen source and level for 30 days, and then cultivated further for 14 days in the medium with no nitrogen, the highest lipid content and yield were 49.94±0.82% and 2.71±0.02 g L(-1), respectively. C16:0 fatty acid was the major fatty acid found. Fatty acid profiles of B. braunii KMITL cultivated in Chlorella medium with 1.25 g L(-1) KNO3 gave the best biodiesel properties with the lowest iodine value, maximum cetane number, and lowest degree of unsaturation. PMID:25677535

  14. Functional complementation of a nitrate reductase defective mutant of a green alga Dunaliella viridis by introducing the nitrate reductase gene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Gao, Xiaoshu; Li, Qiyun; Zhang, Qingqi; Xu, Zhengkai

    2006-08-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR) catalyzes NAD (P) H dependent reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Transformation systems have been established in several species of green algae by nitrate reductase gene functional complementation. In this report, an endogenous NR cDNA (3.4 kb) and a genomic fragment (14.6 kb) containing the NR gene (DvNIA1) were isolated from the D. viridis cDNA and genomic libraries respectively. Southern blot and Northern blot analyses showed that this gene exists as a single copy in D. viridis and is induced by nitrate. To obtain a NR defective mutant as a recipient strain, D. viridis cells were treated with a chemical mutagen and then cultured on a chlorate-containing plate to enrich chlorate tolerant mutants. Southern analysis showed that one isolate, B14, had a deletion in the DvNIA1 gene region. Using electroporation conditions determined in this laboratory, plasmid pDVNR containing the intact DvNIA1 gene has been electroporated into the defective mutant B14. Strains retaining a nitrate assimilation phenotype were obtained from nitrate plates after spreading the electroporated cells. In some individual strains, transcription of the introduced gene was detected. NR activity in these strains was slightly higher than that in the defective B14 cell, but excretion of nitrite into culture media was almost as high as that of the wild-type cell. Possible episomal presence of the introduced DNA in D. viridis is discussed. PMID:16797881

  15. Nitrate therapy in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Alpert, J S

    1990-06-01

    Changes in the heart and blood vessels with age alter the response of the cardiovascular system to pharmacologic agents. Nitrate plasma half-life is longer and volume of distribution is larger in older persons. Apparently, these pharmacokinetic differences in older persons lead to increased venous smooth muscle responsivity to nitrates which, in turn, leads to greater reductions in central venous and pulmonary arterial pressures after nitrate administration. This is probably the explanation for the greater frequency of nitrate-induced severe hypotension and bradycardia in elderly patients with myocardial infarction compared with younger patients. Clinicians should be cognizant of the changes in the cardiovascular system which occur with age that sensitize the elderly patient to the action of organic nitrates. Initial dosages of nitrates should accordingly be less than in younger patients. PMID:2112335

  16. Nanocrystalline ceria powders through citrate-nitrate combustion.

    PubMed

    Purohit, R D; Saha, S; Tyagi, A K

    2006-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ceria powders have been synthesized by combustion technique using citric acid as a fuel and nitrate as an oxidizer. The auto-ignition of the gels containing cerium nitrate and citric acid resulted in ceria powders. A theory based on adiabatic flame temperature for different citric acid-to-cerium nitrate molar ratios has been proposed to explain the nature of combustion reaction and its correlation with the powder characteristics. Specific surface area and primary particle size of the ceria powder obtained through fuel-deficient precursor was found to be approximately = 127 m2/g and 2.5-10 nm, respectively. The combustion synthesized ceria powder when cold pressed and sintered in air at 1250 degrees C for 1 hour resulted in approximately = 96% of its theoretical density with sub-micron grains. PMID:16573097

  17. COMPARISON OF MUTAGENIC ACTIVITIES OF SEVERAL PEROXYACL NITRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmonella typhimurium, strain TA100 was exposed to a series of peroxyacyl nitrates including peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN), peroxybutyryl nitrate (PBN), peroxybenzoyl nitrate (PBzN), and chloroperoxyacetyl nitrate (CPAN). as-phase concentrations for t...

  18. COMPARISON OF MUTAGENIC ACTIVITIES OF SEVERAL PEROXYACYL NITRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 was exposed to a series of peroxyacyl nitrates including peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), peroxypropionyl nitrate peroxybutyryl nitrate (PBN), peroxybenzoyl nitrate (PBzN), and chlororoxyacetyl nitrate (CPAN). as phase concentrations for the individ...

  19. Inorganic Nitrate Promotes the Browning of White Adipose Tissue through the Nitrate-Nitrite-Nitric Oxide Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lee D; Ashmore, Tom; Kotwica, Aleksandra O; Murfitt, Steven A; Fernandez, Bernadette O; Feelisch, Martin; Griffin, Julian L

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic nitrate was once considered an oxidation end-product of nitric oxide metabolism with little biological activity. However, recent studies have demonstrated that dietary nitrate can modulate mitochondrial function in man and is effective in reversing features of the metabolic syndrome in mice. Using a combined histological, metabolomics, and transcriptional and protein analysis approach we mechanistically define that nitrate not only increases the expression of thermogenic genes in brown-adipose tissue but also induces the expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes and proteins in white adipose tissue, substantially increasing oxygen consumption and fatty acid β-oxidation in adipocytes. Nitrate induces these phenotypic changes through a mechanism distinct from known physiological small molecule activators of browning, the recently identified nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. The nitrate-induced browning effect was enhanced in hypoxia, a serious co-morbidity affecting white adipose tissue in obese individuals, and corrected impaired brown adipocyte-specific gene expression in white adipose tissue in a murine model of obesity. Since resulting beige/brite cells exhibit anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects, nitrate may be an effective means of inducing the browning response in adipose tissue to treat the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25249574

  20. Tracing Nitrate Deposition Using Δ 17O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, G m; Hernandez, L.; Meixner, T.; Fenn, M.; Thiemens, M.

    2001-12-01

    Assessing the impact of atmospheric deposition of fixed nitrogen on local, regional, and global biogeochemical cycles has received much attention in recent years. Local and regional ecosystems can suffer from eutrophication and shrinking biodiversity from the increased nitrogen flux, in addition to degradation associated with acid rain ( an increasing proportion of which is as HNO3 ). On a global scale, the effect of nitrogen fertilization on CO2 uptake rates is one of the biggest unknowns in global warming research. This renewed interest has led to new attempts to utilize current, and in the development of new, analytical techniques in order to better understand the source, sink and transport mechanisms of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Its role as the primary sink of the NOx cycle makes atmospheric nitrate (as particulate nitrate or nitric acid ) the primary source of nitrogen deposition. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen have been used by several researchers to trace atmospheric nitrate through the biogeochemical system. 15N ratios have been problematic due to the lack of large fractionations and an overlap of 15N ratios between sources. Initial studies of 18O ratios showed promise due to the large enrichment (60 ‰ ) in atmospheric nitrate. However, subsequent studies showed an δ 18O spread of 25 - 80 ‰ and have made quantitative analysis of mixing reservoirs difficult. No studies of δ 17O nitrates have been published. For δ 17O, thermodynamic, kinetic, and equilibrium isotope effects dictate that δ 17O = .52 x δ 18O . Certain photochemical processes violate this rule due to quantum effects and are quantified by Δ 17O = δ 17O -.52 x δ 18O which are called mass independent fractionations (MIF). Atmospheric nitrates have now been measured and have been found to have a large MIF; Δ 17O ~ 25 ‰ and a small range +/- 4‰ . The large variations in δ 18O of atmospheric nitrate are due to mass dependent fractions from transport and source ratios

  1. Observations of fine and coarse particle nitrate at several rural locations in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taehyoung; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Ayres, Benjamin; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Malm, William C.; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    Nitrate comprises an important part of aerosol mass at many non-urban locations during some times of the year. Little is known, however, about the chemical form and size distribution of particulate nitrate in these environments. While submicron ammonium nitrate is often assumed to be the dominant species, this assumption is rarely tested. Properties of aerosol nitrate were characterized at several IMPROVE monitoring sites during a series of field studies. Study sites included Bondville, Illinois (February 2003), San Gorgonio Wilderness Area, California (April and July 2003), Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona (May 2003), Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge, New Jersey (November 2003), and Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee (July/August 2004). Nitrate was found predominantly in submicron ammonium nitrate particles during the Bondville and San Gorgonio (April) campaigns. Coarse mode nitrate particles, resulting from reactions of nitric acid or its precursors with sea salt or soil dust, were more important at Grand Canyon and Great Smoky Mountains. Both fine and coarse mode nitrate were important during the studies at Brigantine and San Gorgonio (July). These results, which complement earlier findings about the importance of coarse particle nitrate at Yosemite and Big Bend National Parks, suggest a need to more closely examine common assumptions regarding the importance of ammonium nitrate at non-urban sites, to include pathways for coarse mode nitrate formation in regional models, and to consider impacts of coarse particle nitrate on visibility. Because coarse particle nitrate modes often extend well below 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter, measurements of PM 2.5 nitrate in these environments should not automatically be assumed to contain only ammonium nitrate.

  2. Observations of Fine and Coarse Particle Nitrate at Several Rural Locations in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Taehyoung; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Ayres, Benjamin; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Malm, William C.; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2008-04-01

    Nitrate comprises an important part of aerosol mass at many non-urban locations during some times of the year. Little is known, however, about the chemical form and size distribution of particulate nitrate in these environments. While submicron ammonium nitrate is often assumed to be the dominant species, this assumption is rarely tested. Properties of aerosol nitrate were characterized at several IMPROVE monitoring sites during a series of field studies. Study sites included Bondville, Illinois (February 2003), San Gorgonio Wilderness Area, California (April and July 2003), Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona (May 2003), Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge, New Jersey (November 2003), and Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee (July/August 2004). Nitrate was found predominantly in submicron ammonium nitrate particles during the Bondville and San Gorgonio (April) campaigns. Coarse mode nitrate particles, resulting from reactions of nitric acid or its precursors with sea salt or soil dust, were more important at Grand Canyon and Great Smoky Mountains. Both fine and coarse mode nitrate were important during the studies at Brigantine and San Gorgonio (July). These results, which complement earlier findings about the importance of coarse particle nitrate at Yosemite and Big Bend National Parks, suggest a need to more closely examine common assumptions regarding the importance of ammonium nitrate at non-urban sites, to include pathways for coarse mode nitrate formation in regional models, and to consider impacts of coarse particle nitrate on visibility. Because coarse particle nitrate modes often extend well below 2.5 µm aerodynamic diameter, measurements of PM2.5 nitrate in these environments should not automatically be assumed to contain only ammonium nitrate.

  3. Suitable combination of promoter and micellar catalyst for kilo fold rate acceleration on benzaldehyde to benzoic acid conversion in aqueous media at room temperature: a kinetic approach.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Aniruddha; Saha, Rumpa; Ghosh, Sumanta K; Mukherjee, Kakali; Saha, Bidyut

    2013-05-15

    The kinetics of oxidation of benzaldehyde by chromic acid in aqueous and aqueous surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, alkyl phenyl polyethylene glycol, Triton X-100 and N-cetylpyridinium chloride, CPC) media have been investigated in the presence of promoter at 303 K. The pseudo-first-order rate constants (kobs) were determined from a logarithmic plot of absorbance as a function time. The rate constants were found to increase with introduction of heteroaromatic nitrogen base promoters such as Picolinic acid (PA), 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). The product benzoic acid has been characterized by conventional melting point experiment, NMR, HRMS and FTIR spectral analysis. The mechanism of both unpromoted and promoted reaction path has been proposed for the reaction. In presence of the anionic surfactant SDS, cationic surfactant CPC and neutral surfactant TX-100 the reaction can undergo simultaneously in both aqueous and micellar phase with an enhanced rate of oxidation in the micellar phase. Both SDS and TX-100 produce normal micellar effect whereas CPC produce reverse micellar effect in the presence of benzaldehyde. The observed net enhancement of rate effects has been explained by considering the hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the surfactants and reactants. SDS and bipy combination is the suitable one for benzaldehyde oxidation. PMID:23501718

  4. Suitable combination of promoter and micellar catalyst for kilo fold rate acceleration on benzaldehyde to benzoic acid conversion in aqueous media at room temperature: A kinetic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Aniruddha; Saha, Rumpa; Ghosh, Sumanta K.; Mukherjee, Kakali; Saha, Bidyut

    2013-05-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of benzaldehyde by chromic acid in aqueous and aqueous surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, alkyl phenyl polyethylene glycol, Triton X-100 and N-cetylpyridinium chloride, CPC) media have been investigated in the presence of promoter at 303 K. The pseudo-first-order rate constants (kobs) were determined from a logarithmic plot of absorbance as a function time. The rate constants were found to increase with introduction of heteroaromatic nitrogen base promoters such as Picolinic acid (PA), 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). The product benzoic acid has been characterized by conventional melting point experiment, NMR, HRMS and FTIR spectral analysis. The mechanism of both unpromoted and promoted reaction path has been proposed for the reaction. In presence of the anionic surfactant SDS, cationic surfactant CPC and neutral surfactant TX-100 the reaction can undergo simultaneously in both aqueous and micellar phase with an enhanced rate of oxidation in the micellar phase. Both SDS and TX-100 produce normal micellar effect whereas CPC produce reverse micellar effect in the presence of benzaldehyde. The observed net enhancement of rate effects has been explained by considering the hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the surfactants and reactants. SDS and bipy combination is the suitable one for benzaldehyde oxidation.

  5. Factors influencing nitrogen isotopes of snow nitrate: implications for interpretations of ice core nitrate records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, L.; Alexander, B.; Cole-Dai, J.; Steig, E. J.; Savarino, J. P.; Sofen, E. D.; Schauer, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The records of nitrate concentration and its isotopic composition (δ15N, δ18O and Δ17O) in ice cores are sought to reconstruct past levels of atmospheric NOx, the natural variability in NOx sources, and variations in tropospheric oxidants. However, these practices have been hampered by post-depositional processing of snow nitrate, which alters snow nitrate concentrations as well as its isotopic composition. Snow accumulation rates influence the degree of post-depositional processing. At sites with high snow accumulation rates, such as Summit, Greenland, the degree of post-depositional processing is thought to be minimal. Thus, variations in δ15N(NO3-) in Summit ice cores have been linked to NOx source changes, assuming the conservation of nitrogen isotope signatures during the conversion of NOx to nitrate. However, the marked decrease in δ15N(NO3-) from ~1850 to 1970 observed in Summit ice cores is difficult to explain by the addition of anthropogenic NOx to the natural background, as higher atmospheric δ15N(NO3-) values are frequently observed in polluted regions compared to pristine regions. Alternatively, we hypothesized that this decrease can be explained by changes in atmospheric acidity. Atmospheric acidity influences the partitioning of nitrate in gas- and aerosol-phases, inducing isotopic effects. Increased atmospheric acidity beginning ~ 1850 arising from anthropogenic SO2 emissions leads to elevated gas-phase HNO3 which is depleted in δ15N relative to aerosol nitrate. The preferential transport of HNO3 to the Arctic then leads to a decrease in ice core δ15N(NO3-). This hypothesis is supported by the significant correlation between δ15N(NO3-) and acidity records, and is supported by a model simulation. The result of this study indicates the importance of atmospheric processes to ice core δ15N(NO3-), and suggests that the link between ice core δ15N(NO3-) and NOx sources could be problematic even at high snow accumulation sites. In addition, our

  6. Oxidative leaching process with cupric ion in hydrochloric acid media for recovery of Pd and Rh from spent catalytic converters.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C A; Paiva, A P; Oliveira, P C; Costa, M C; da Costa, A M Rosa

    2014-08-15

    The recycling of platinum-group metals from wastes such as autocatalytic converters is getting growing attention due to the scarcity of these precious metals and the market pressure originated by increase of demand in current and emerging applications. Hydrometallurgical treatment of such wastes is an alternative way to the most usual pyrometallurgical processes based on smelter operations. This paper focuses on the development of a leaching process using cupric chloride as oxidising agent, in HCl media, for recovery of palladium and rhodium from a spent catalyst. The chloride media allows the adequate conditions for oxidising and solubilising the metals, as demonstrated by equilibrium calculations based on thermodynamic data. The experimental study of the leaching process revealed that Pd solubilisation is clearly easier than that of Rh. The factors temperature, time, and HCl and Cu(2+) concentrations were significant regarding Pd and Rh leaching, the latter requiring higher factor values to achieve the same results. Leaching yields of 95% Pd and 86% Rh were achieved under optimised conditions (T = 80 °C, t = 4h, [HCl] = 6M, [Cu(2+)] = 0.3M). PMID:24953939

  7. Alleviation of proton toxicity by nitrate uptake specifically depends on nitrate transporter 1.1 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xian Zhi; Tian, Wen Hao; Liu, Xing Xing; Lin, Xian Yong; Jin, Chong Wei; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2016-07-01

    Protons in acid soil are highly rhizotoxic to plants, but the mechanism of tolerance of plants to protons is largely unknown. Nitrate uptake by root cells is accompanied by the uptake of protons. Therefore, nitrate uptake transporters (NRTs) may be involved in plant tolerance to proton toxicity. We investigated the root nitrate uptake response to proton stress in Arabidopsis and its association with proton tolerance using NRT-related mutants and pharmacological methods. Lack of NRT1.1 in knockout nrt1.1 mutants led to impaired proton tolerance in nitrate-sufficient growth medium, whereas no difference was seen between wild-type plants and NRT1.2-, NRT2.1-, NRT2.2-, and NRT2.4-null mutants. Another nrt1.1 point mutant, which is defective in nitrate uptake but has a normal nitrate-sensing function, also had impaired proton tolerance compared with the wild-type plant. Furthermore, proton stress induced NRT1.1-mediated nitrate uptake. These results indicate that NRT1.1-conferred proton tolerance depends on nitrate uptake activity. In addition, the rooting medium was alkalified by wild-type plants, but not by knockout nrt1.1 mutants, and in pH-buffered medium, there were no differences in proton tolerance between wild-type plants and knockout nrt1.1 mutants. We conclude that NRT1.1-mediated nitrate uptake plays a crucial role in plant proton tolerance by alkalifying the rhizosphere. PMID:26864608

  8. Some History of Nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    2003-12-01

    The history of saltpeter is an interesting combination of chemistry, world trade, technology, politics, and warfare. Originally it was obtained from the dirt floors of stables, sheep pens, pigeon houses, caverns, and even peasants' cottages; any place manure and refuse accumulated in soil under dry conditions. When these sources became inadequate to meet demand it was manufactured on saltpeter plantations, located in dry climates, where piles of dirt, limestone, and manure were allowed to stand for three to five years while soil microbes oxidized the nitrogen to nitrate—an example of early bioengineering. Extensive deposits of sodium nitrate were mined in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile from 1830 until the mid 1920s when the mines were displaced by the Haber Ostwald process.

  9. Acidity and complex formation studies of 3-(adenine-9-yl)-propionic and 3-(thymine-1-yl)-propionic acids in ethanol-water media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammud, Hassan H.; El Shazly, Shawky; Sonji, Ghassan; Sonji, Nada; Bouhadir, Kamal H.

    2015-05-01

    The ligands 3-(adenine-9-yl)propionic acid (AA) and 3-(thymine-1-yl)propionic acid (TA) were prepared by N9-alkylation of adenine and N1-alkylation of thymine with ethylacrylate in presence of a base catalyst, followed by acid hydrolysis of the formed ethyl esters to give the corresponding propionic acid derivatives. The products were characterized by spectral methods (FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR), which confirm their structures. The dissociation constants of ligands, were potentiometrically determined in 0.3 M KCl at 20-50 °C temperature range. The work was extended to study complexation behavior of AA and TA with various biologically important divalent metal ions (Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Mn2+ and Pb2+) in 50% v/v water-ethanol medium at four different temperatures, keeping ionic strength constant (0.3 M KCl). The order of the stability constants of the formed complexes decreases in the sequence Cu2+ > Pb2+ > Zn2+ > Ni2+ > Co2+ > Mn2+ > Cd2+ for both ligands. The effect of temperature was also studied and the corresponding thermodynamic functions (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) were derived and discussed. The formation of metal complexes has been found to be spontaneous, and the stability constants were dependant markedly on the basicity of the ligands.

  10. Mortality of nitrate fertiliser workers.

    PubMed

    Al-Dabbagh, S; Forman, D; Bryson, D; Stratton, I; Doll, R

    1986-08-01

    An epidemiological cohort study was conducted to investigate the mortality patterns among a group of workers engaged in the production of nitrate based fertilisers. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals exposed to high concentrations of nitrates might be at increased risk of developing cancers, particularly gastric cancer. A total of 1327 male workers who had been employed in the production of fertilisers between 1946 and 1981 and who had been occupationally exposed to nitrates for at least one year were followed up until 1 March 1981. In total, 304 deaths were observed in this group and these were compared with expected numbers calculated from mortality rates in the northern region of England, where the factory was located. Analysis was also carried out separately for a subgroup of the cohort who had been heavily exposed to nitrates--that is, working in an environment likely to contain more than 10 mg nitrate/m3 for a year or longer. In neither the entire cohort nor the subgroup was any significant excess observed for all causes of mortality or for mortality from any of five broad categories of cause or from four specific types of cancer. A small excess of lung cancer was noted more than 20 years after first exposure in men heavily exposed for more than 10 years. That men were exposed to high concentrations of nitrate was confirmed by comparing concentrations of nitrates in the saliva of a sample of currently employed men with control men, employed at the same factory but not in fertiliser production. The men exposed to nitrate had substantially raised concentrations of nitrate in their saliva compared with both controls within the industry and with men in the general population and resident nearby. The results of this study therefore weight against the idea that exposure to nitrates in the environment leads to the formation in vivo of material amounts of carcinogens. PMID:3015194

  11. Crystallization of sodium nitrate from radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Krapukhin, V.B.; Krasavina, E.P. Pikaev, A.K.

    1997-07-01

    From the 1940s to the 1980s, the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPC/RAS) conducted research and development on processes to separate acetate and nitrate salts and acetic acid from radioactive wastes by crystallization. The research objective was to decrease waste volumes and produce the separated decontaminated materials for recycle. This report presents an account of the IPC/RAS experience in this field. Details on operating conditions, waste and product compositions, decontamination factors, and process equipment are described. The research and development was generally related to the management of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The waste solutions resulted from recovery and processing of uranium, plutonium, and other products from irradiated nuclear fuel, neutralization of nuclear process solutions after extractant recovery, regeneration of process nitric acid, equipment decontamination, and other radiochemical processes. Waste components include nitric acid, metal nitrate and acetate salts, organic impurities, and surfactants. Waste management operations generally consist of two stages: volume reduction and processing of the concentrates for storage, solidification, and disposal. Filtration, coprecipitation, coagulation, evaporation, and sorption were used to reduce waste volume. 28 figs., 40 tabs.

  12. Lewis acid catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of natural epoxy oil (Euphorbia oil) in carbon dioxide media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an attempt to build up useful application of plant oil based polymers, natural epoxy oil (euphorbia oil-EuO) was polymerized in liquid carbon dioxide in the presence of Lewis acid catalyst [Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3•OEt2)]. The resulting polymers (RPEuO) were characterized by FTIR ...

  13. Physicochemical properties and ecotoxicological effects of yttrium oxide nanoparticles in aquatic media: Role of low molecular weight natural organic acids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Zhuang; Wang, Se; Fang, Hao; Chen, Mindong; Xu, Defu; Tang, Lili; Wang, Degao

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) interact with natural organic acids is important to ecological risk assessment of ENPs, but this interaction remains poorly studied. Here, we investigate the dispersion stability, ion release, and toxicity of yttrium oxide nanoparticles (nY2O3) suspensions after exposure to two low molecular weight natural organic acids (LOAs), namely benzoic acid and gallic acid. We find that in the presence of LOAs the nY2O3 suspensions become more stable with surface zeta potential more positive or negative, accompanied by small agglomerated size. LOA interaction with nY2O3 is shown to promote the release of dissolved yttrium from the nanoparticles, depending on the concentrations of LOAs. Toxic effects of the nY2O3 suspensions incubated with LOAs on Scenedesmus obliquus as a function of their mixture levels show three types of signs: stimulation, inhibition, and alleviation. The mechanism of the effects of LOAs on the nY2O3 toxicity may be mainly associated with the degree of agglomeration, particle-induced oxidative stress, and dissolved yttrium. Our results stressed the importance of LOA impacts on the fate and toxicity of ENPs in the aquatic environment. PMID:26840524

  14. ANSID: A Solid-Phase Proteomic Approach for Identification and Relative Quantification of Aromatic Nitration Sites

    PubMed Central

    Nuriel, Tal; Whitehouse, Julia; Ma, Yuliang; Mercer, Emily J.; Brown, Neil; Gross, Steven S.

    2016-01-01

    Nitration of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acid residues in proteins occurs in the setting of inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases—importantly, this modification has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases and the physiological process of aging. To understand the biological consequences of aromatic nitration in both health and disease, it is critical to molecularly identify the proteins that undergo nitration, specify their cognate modification sites and quantify their extent of nitration. To date, unbiased identification of nitrated proteins has often involved painstaking 2D-gel electrophoresis followed by Western Blotting with an anti-nitrotyrosine antibody for detection. Apart from being relatively slow and laborious, this method suffers from limited coverage, the potential for false-positive identifications, and failure to reveal specific amino acid modification sites. To overcome these shortcomings, we have developed a solid-phase, chemical-capture approach for unbiased and high-throughput discovery of nitrotyrosine and nitrotryptophan sites in proteins. Utilizing this method, we have successfully identified several endogenously nitrated proteins in rat brain and a total of 244 nitrated peptides from 145 proteins following in vitro exposure of rat brain homogenates to the nitrating agent peroxynitrite (1 mM). As expected, Tyr residues constituted the great majority of peroxynitrite-mediated protein nitration sites; however, we were surprised to discover several brain proteins that contain nitrated Trp residues. By incorporating a stable-isotope labeling step, this new Aromatic Nitration Site IDentification (ANSID) method was also adapted for relative quantification of nitration site abundances in proteins. Application of the ANSID method offers great potential to advance our understanding of the role of protein nitration in disease pathogenesis and normal physiology. PMID:26779476

  15. CONTROL OF NITRATE REDUCTASE BY CIRCADIAN AND DURRAL RHYTHM IN TOMATO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate reductase (NR) (E.C. 1.6.6.1) is a key, regulatory step in the assimilation of nitrate into amino acids in plant leaves. NR activity is intricately controlled by multifarious regulatory mechanisms acting at different levels ranging from transcription to protein degradation. It is one of a ...

  16. Nitration of Phenols Using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2]: Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, Urvashi; Mande, Hemant; Ghalsasi, Prasanna

    2012-01-01

    An easy-to-complete, microwave-assisted, green chemistry, electrophilic nitration method for phenol using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2] in acetic acid is discussed. With this experiment, students clearly understand the mechanism underlying the nitration reaction in one laboratory session. (Contains 4 schemes.)

  17. SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF TOTAL NITRATE CONCENTRATIONS USING DYNAMIC STATISTICAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric concentrations of total nitrate (TNO3), defined here as gas-phase nitric acid plus particle-phase nitrate, are difficult to simulate in numerical air quality models due to the presence of a variety of formation pathways and loss mechanisms, some of which ar...

  18. Media Clips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vennebush, G. Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Media Clips aims to offer readers contemporary, authentic applications of quantitative reasoning based on print or electronic media. Clips may be in text or graphic format, and clip sources may be either print or electronic media.

  19. [Photodegradation of UV filter PABA in nitrate solution].

    PubMed

    Meng, Cui; Ji, Yue-Fei; Zeng, Chao; Yang, Xi

    2011-09-01

    The aqueous photolysis of a UV filter p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) using Xe lamp as simulated solar irradiation source was investigated in the presence of nitrate ions. The effects of pH, concentration of nitrate ions and concentration of humic substance in natural water on the photodegradation of PABA were studied. The results showed that photodegradation of PABA in nitrate solution followed the first order kinetics. The increasing concentration of nitrate ion increased favored the photodegradaton of PABA, of which the first order constant increased from 0.002 2 min(-10 to 0.017 9 min(-1). The photodegradation of PABA promoted with the increase of pH while the increasing concentration of humic substance showed inhibiting effect. Hydroxyl radicals determined by the molecular probe method played a very importnant role in the photolysis process of PABA. Photoproducts upon irradiation of PABA in nitrate solution were isolated by means of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and identified by LC-MS techniques. The probable photoinduced degradation pathways in nitrate solution were proposed. PMID:22165219

  20. Photochemistry of adsorbed nitrate on aluminum oxide particle surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rubasinghege, Gayan; Grassian, Vicki H

    2009-07-01

    Nitrogen oxides, including nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid, react with mineral dust particles in the atmosphere to yield adsorbed nitrate. Although nitrate ion is a well-known chromophore in natural waters, little is known about the surface photochemistry of nitrate adsorbed on mineral particles. In this study, nitrate adsorbed on aluminum oxide, a model system for mineral dust aerosol, is irradiated with broadband light (lambda > 300 nm) as a function of relative humidity (RH) in the presence of molecular oxygen. Upon irradiation, the nitrate ion readily undergoes photolysis to yield nitrogen-containing gas-phase products including NO(2), NO, and N(2)O, with NO being the major product. The relative ratio and product yields of these gas-phase products change with RH, with N(2)O production being highest at the higher relative humidities. Furthermore, an efficient dark reaction readily converts the major NO product into NO(2) during post-irradiation. Photochemical processes on mineral dust aerosol surfaces have the potential to impact the chemical balance of the atmosphere, yet little is known about these processes. In this study, the impact that adsorbed nitrate photochemistry may have on the renoxification of the atmosphere is discussed. PMID:19534452

  1. Nitrate concentrations under irrigated agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years, considerable interest has been expressed in the nitrate content of water supplies. The most notable toxic effect of nitrate is infant methemoglobinemia. The risk of this disease increases significantly at nitrate-nitrogen levels exceeding 10 mg/l. For this reason, this concentration has been established as a limit for drinking water in many countries. In natural waters, nitrate is a minor ionic constituent and seldom accounts for more than a few percent of the total anions. However, nitrate in a significant concentration may occur in the vicinity of some point sources such as septic tanks, manure pits, and waste-disposal sites. Non-point sources contributing to groundwater pollution are numerous and a majority of them are related to agricultural activities. The largest single anthropogenic input of nitrate into the groundwater is fertilizer. Even though it has not been proven that nitrogen fertilizers are responsible for much of nitrate pollution, they are generally recognized as the main threat to groundwater quality, especially when inefficiently applied to irrigated fields on sandy soils. The biggest challenge facing today's agriculture is to maintain the balance between the enhancement of crop productivity and the risk of groundwater pollution. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  2. Biological nitrate removal processes from drinking water supply-a review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews both heterotrophic and autotrophic processes for the removal of nitrate from water supplies. The most commonly used carbon sources in heterotrophic denitrification are methanol, ethanol and acetic acid. Process performance for each feed stock is compared with particular reference nitrate and nitrite residual and to toxicity potential. Autotrophic nitrate removal has the advantages of not requiring an organic carbon source; however the slow growth rate of autotrophic bacteria and low nitrate removal rate have contributed to the fact that relatively few full scale plants are in operation at the present time. PMID:24355262

  3. Biological nitrate removal processes from drinking water supply-a review.

    PubMed

    Mohseni-Bandpi, Anoushiravan; Elliott, David Jack; Zazouli, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews both heterotrophic and autotrophic processes for the removal of nitrate from water supplies. The most commonly used carbon sources in heterotrophic denitrification are methanol, ethanol and acetic acid. Process performance for each feed stock is compared with particular reference nitrate and nitrite residual and to toxicity potential. Autotrophic nitrate removal has the advantages of not requiring an organic carbon source; however the slow growth rate of autotrophic bacteria and low nitrate removal rate have contributed to the fact that relatively few full scale plants are in operation at the present time. PMID:24355262

  4. Porous media investigation before and after hydrochloric acid injection on a pre-salt carbonate coquinas sample.

    PubMed

    Machado, A C; Teles, A P; Pepin, A; Bize-Forest, N; Lima, I; Lopes, R T

    2016-04-01

    Porous space characterization of carbonate rocks is an important aid in petroleum exploration from carbonate reservoir. In this study, X-ray microtomography technique was applied to evaluate total porosity of a coquina sample extracted from pre-salt reservoir, in Brazil, before and after acid injection. Two image processing program were used in order to assess performance. The results showed that microtomography has potential to compute porosity of coquina samples and provides information about rock porous network. PMID:26794261

  5. Perfluorinated carboxylic and sulphonic acids in surface water media from the regions of Tibetan Plateau: Indirect evidence on photochemical degradation?

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Eriko; Falandysz, Jerzy; Taniyasu, Sachi; Hui, Ge; Jurkiewicz, Gabriela; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Yang, Yong-Liang; Lam, Paul K S

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated surfactants and repellents are synthetic substances that have found numerous industrial and customer applications. Due to their persistence, at least two groups of these substances-perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs)-are diffused widely in the environment. It is hypothesized that the Tibetan Plateau, is one of few unique places on the Earth, due to its topography, specifically the vast space and high elevation above sea level, geographic location, climate, high solar radiation, lack of industry, little urbanization and general lack of significant direct sources of pollution. There it is believed possible to gain an insight into atmospheric fate (possible photochemical degradation of higher molecular mass and formation of lower molecular mass PFCAs and PFSAs) of PFASs under un-disturbed environmental conditions. Ultratrace analytical method for PFCAs and PFSAs and use of transportation and field blanks, laboratory blanks and isotopically labelled surrogates for recovery control has allowed the determination of nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids and six perfluorinated sulfonic acids at ultra-trace levels in water based samples from the alpine dimension regions of the Tibetan Plateau, the eastern slope of Minya Konka peak at the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and also from the city of Chengdu from the lowland of the Sichuan Province in China. The specific compositional pattern of PFCAs and PFSAs and low levels of pollution with those compounds were observed in the central region of the Tibetan Plateau and in the region adjacent to the peaks of Minya Konka in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau. The fingerprint of the compositional pattern of PFCAs and PFSAs in water samples in the central region of the Tibetan Plateau and in the alpine region adjacent to the peaks of Minya Konka in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau may be explained by the result of photochemical degradation with dealkylation of longer chain

  6. Effect of media compositions on α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, growth and fatty acid content in mycelium extracts of Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 from Taxus Sumatrana (Miq.) de Laub.

    PubMed

    Artanti, Nina; Tachibana, Sanro; Kardono, Leonardus B S

    2014-07-01

    The active α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 were found to be the unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids). These compounds have potential as antidiabetic agents. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of various media composition on growth (mycelium dry weight) and the fatty acids content (μg mg(-1) mycelium DW) of Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 in relation to its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. For that purpose, the experiments were set up by varying the carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions and desaturase and fatty acid synthase inhibitors in the media. Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 grown on potato dextrose broth (PDB) was used as control. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were (range from 43.9 ± 2.5 to 88.6 ± 5.2%) at 10 μg mL(-1). This activity seemed to correlate with the unsaturated fatty acids content of the samples. Different sugars as carbon source experiment showed that xylose gave the highest growth (938.7 ± 141.6 mg). However, the highest fatty acids content was obtained from fructose medium which containing linoleic acid (38.8 ± 4.9 μ g mg(-1) DW). Soluble starch gave better growth (672.5 ± 62.3 mg) but very low fatty acids content (2.8 ± 0.1 μg mg(-1) DW) was obtained. Yeast extract was the best nitrogen source. Fatty acids production was better as compared to beef extract and soytone. This is the first report of various media compositions on fatty acids content in Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 in relation to its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:26035936

  7. Removal of CdTe in acidic media by magnetic ion-exchange resin: a potential recycling methodology for cadmium telluride photovoltaic waste.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Teng; Dong, Zebin; Qu, Fei; Ding, Fazhu; Peng, Xingyu; Wang, Hongyan; Gu, Hongwei

    2014-08-30

    Sulfonated magnetic microspheres (PSt-DVB-SNa MPs) have been successfully prepared as adsorbents via an aqueous suspension polymerization of styrene-divinylbenzene and a sulfonation reaction successively. The resulting adsorbents were confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The leaching process of CdTe was optimized, and the removal efficiency of Cd and Te from the leaching solution was investigated. The adsorbents could directly remove all cations of Cd and Te from a highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. The adsorption process for Cd and Te reached equilibrium in a few minutes and this process highly depended on the dosage of adsorbents and the affinity of sulfonate groups with cations. Because of its good adsorption capacity in strong acidic media, high adsorbing rate, and efficient magnetic separation from the solution, PSt-DVB-SNa MPs is expected to be an ideal material for the recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste. PMID:25128764

  8. Assessing Contamination Potential of Nitrate-N in Groundwater of Lanyang Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Tu, Yu-Lin; Lin, Chien-Wen; Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2013-04-01

    Nitrate-N pollution is often relevant to agricultural activities such as the fertilization of crops. Significant increases in the nitrate-N pollution of groundwater are found in natural recharging zones of Taiwan. The increasing nitrate-N contamination seriously threatens public drinking water supply and human health. Constructing a correct map of aquifer contamination potential is an effective and feasible way to protect groundwater for quality assessment and management. Therefore, in this study, we use DRASTIC model with the help of geographic information system (GIS) to assess and predict the contamination potential of nitrate-N in the aquifer of Lanyang Plain, Taiwan. Seven factors of hydrogeology and hydrology, which includes seven parameters - Depth to groundwater, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone, and hydraulic Conductivity, are considered to carry out this assessment. The validity of the presented model is established by comparing the results with the measured nitrate concentration in wells within the study area. Adjusting factor weightings via the discriminant analysis is performed to improve the assessment and prediction. The analyzed results can provide residents with suggestive strategies against nitrate-N pollution in agricultural regions and government administrators with explicit information of Nitrate-N pollution extents when plans of water resources are considered.

  9. Mutational Analysis of the Respiratory Nitrate Transporter NarK2 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Giffin, Michelle M.; Raab, Ronald W.; Morganstern, Melissa; Sohaskey, Charles D.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces nitrate reductase activity in response to decreasing oxygen levels. This is due to regulation of both the transcription and the activity of the nitrate transporter NarK2. A model of NarK2 structure is proposed containing 12 membrane spanning regions consistent with other members of the major facilitator superfamily. The role of the proton gradient was determined by exposing M. tuberculosis to uncouplers. Nitrite production decreased indicating that the importation of nitrate involved an H+/nitrate symporter. The addition of nitrite before nitrate had no effect, suggesting no role for a nitrate/nitrite antiporter. In addition the NarK2 knockout mutant showed no defect in nitrite export. NarK2 is proposed to be a Type I H+/nitrate symporter. Site directed mutagenesis was performed changing 23 amino acids of NarK2. This allowed the identification of important regions and amino acids of this transporter. Five of these mutants were inactive for nitrate transport, seven produced reduced activity and eleven mutants retained wild type activity. NarK2 is inactivated in the presence of oxygen by an unknown mechanism. However none of the mutants, including those with mutated cysteines, were altered in their response to oxygen levels. The assimilatory nitrate transporter NasA of Bacillus subtilis was expressed in the M. tuberculosis NarK2 mutant. It remained active during aerobic incubation showing that the point of oxygen control is NarK2. PMID:23029022

  10. Reduction of Sodium Nitrate Liquid Waste in Nuclear Reprocessing Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Numata, M.; Mihara, S.; Kojima, S.; Ito, H.; Kato, T.

    2006-07-01

    Sodium nitrate solution has been generated from nuclear reprocessing plant as a result of neutralization of nitric acid. The sodium nitrate has been immobilized by bitumen, cement or other material in the site and waste packages have been produced. In order to reduce an environmental impact of the waste packages from the reprocessing plant, it is preferable to decompose nitrate ion to harmless gases such as nitrogen. A combination of formic acid and catalyst has been proposed for this purpose. But, the method is inadequate for a full decomposition of the nitrate ion. In addition, a mixture of NO and NO{sub 2} is produced during the reaction. Formaldehyde and hydrazine were selected as reductants and a combined use of Pd-Cu catalyst was tried to decompose the nitrate ion. As a result, the nitrate ion can almost entirely be decomposed without any generation of NO and NO{sub 2}. The test was conducted by 1 L flask. In case of formaldehyde, nitrate ion concentration can be reduced from 0.017 mol/l to 3.9x10{sup -4} mol/l. In case of hydrazine, nitrate concentration can be decreased from 2.8 mol/l to 9.5 x 10{sup -3} mol/l and ammonium ion is detected. The ammonium ion concentration in the final solution is 0.12 mol/l when 2.8 mol/l nitrate is reduced by hydrazine. Chemical reactions for formaldehyde on the Pd-Cu catalyst are estimated as combination of: NO{sub 3-} + HCHO = NO{sub 2-} + HCOOH; 2NO{sub 2-} + 3HCOOH = N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + 2H{sub 2}O + 2OH-; 4NO{sub 2-} + 3HCHO = 2N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + 4OH-. the other hand, for hydrazine with the Pd-Cu catalyst: 3N{sub 2}H{sub 4} = 2NH{sub 3} + 2N{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2}; NO{sub 3-} + H{sub 2} = NO{sub 2-} + H{sub 2}O; NO{sub 2-} + NH{sub 3} = N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + OH-. The fundamental research shows that the combination usage of the Pd-Cu catalyst and formaldehyde or hydrazine is applicable for the reduction of nitrate liquid waste in the nuclear reprocessing plant. (authors)

  11. Urea nitrate, an exceptionally easy-to-make improvised explosive: studies towards trace characterization.

    PubMed

    Tamiri, Tsippy; Rozin, Rinat; Lemberger, Nitay; Almog, Joseph

    2009-09-01

    Urea nitrate is a powerful improvised explosive, frequently used by terrorists in the Israeli arena. It was also used in the first World Trade Center bombing in New York in February 1993. It is difficult to identify urea nitrate in post-explosion debris, since only a very small fraction survives the blast. Also, in the presence of water, it readily decomposes to its original components, urea and nitric acid. It is suspected that post-blast debris of urea nitrate can be confused with ammonium nitrate, the main solid product of urea nitrate thermal decomposition. In a comprehensive study towards identification of urea nitrate in post-blast traces, a spectrophotometric technique for quantitative determination of urea nitrate was developed, and conditions were found for extraction and separation of un-exploded traces of urea nitrate with minimal decomposition. Nevertheless, out of 28 samples collected from a series of three controlled firings of urea nitrate charges, only one gave the typical adduct ion by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. We found that urea nitrate can be extracted from solid mixtures to organic solvents by using Crown ethers as "host compounds." The adducts thus formed are solid, crystalline compounds that can be characterized by microanalysis and spectroscopic techniques. PMID:19575193

  12. Extraction of actinides and fission products by octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide from nitric acid media.

    PubMed

    Mathur, J N; Murali, M S; Natarajan, P R; Badheka, L P; Banerji, A

    1992-05-01

    Extraction of promethium(III), uranium(VI), plutonium(IV), americium(III), zirconium(IV), ruthenium(III), iron(III) and palladium(II) has been carried out with a mixture of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) in dodecane. The effects of nitric acid, TBP and CMPO concentrations on the extraction of these metal ions have been studied. The nature of the species of the above metal ions extracted into the organic phase has been suggested. PMID:18965406

  13. Nitrates in Wisconsin ground water.

    PubMed

    Schuknecht, B; Lawton, G W; Steinka, P; Delfino, J J

    1975-01-01

    Nitrate analyses were performed on ground water well samples originating from sources throughout Wisconsin. The data ranged from below the analytical detection limit up to 140 mg NO3-N/1. Over nine percent of all wells sampled has nitrate concentrations in excess of 10 mg NO3-N/1. Six individual counties had more than 10 mg NO3-N/1 in at least twenty percent of the wells covered in this survey. However, data reported for over eight thousand new wells driven in 1971-1972 showed only slightly more than two percent with nitrate levels above 10 mg NO3-N/1. This reflected the trend toward drilling deeper wells which are influenced less by nitrate seepage as well as adherence to new and stricter well construction codes. PMID:1183417

  14. Thermal decomposition of isooctyl nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, H.O.

    1989-03-01

    The diesel ignition improver DII-3, made by Ethyl Corporation, also known as isooctyl nitrate, is a mixture whose principal constituent (about 95%) is 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate. This note describes an investigation of the thermal decomposition that is not exhaustive, but that is intended to provide sufficient information on the rate and the mechanism so as to make possible the educated guesses needed for modeling the effect of isooctyl nitrate on the diesel ignition process. As is the case with other alkyl nitrates, the decomposition of the neat material is a complex one giving a complicated pressure versus time curve, unsuitable for a quick derivation of the rate constant. However, in the presence of toluene, whose intended purpose is to trap reactive free radicals and thereby simplify the overall mechanism, the pressure rises approximately exponentially to a limit; thus, on the assumption that the reaction is homogeneous and of first order, the rate constants can be determined from the half-life.

  15. Complexation of Cu(II) by original tartaric acid-based ligands in nonionic micellar media: thermodynamic study and applications.

    PubMed

    Dupont-Leclercq, Laurence; Giroux, Sébastien; Parant, Stéphane; Khoudour, Leïla; Henry, Bernard; Rubini, Patrice

    2009-04-01

    The complexation of Cu(II) with original alkylamidotartaric acids (C(x)T) is investigated in homogeneous aqueous medium and in the presence of nonionic micelles of Brij 58 (C16EO20), thanks to various analytical techniques such as NMR self-diffusion experiments, CD and UV-vis spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry, pHmetry and micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF). First, a complete speciation study proves the formation of dimeric complexes in water and provides their formation constants. Second, a similar study is led in the presence of nonionic micelles. It underlines a modification of the apparent equilibrium constants in micellar medium and demonstrates that the structure of the complexes is slightly modified in the presence of micelles. This thermodynamic and structural study is applied to modelize the evolution of the extraction yields of Cu(II) by the micelles as a function of pH and to identify the complexes extracted in the micelles. The effects of the chain length of the ligand (C3T vs C8T) on the solubilization properties are put into relief and discussed. Anionic species are proved to be more incorporated in the nonionic micelles than the cationic species. The extracting system constituted of octylamidotartaric acid (CsT) solubilized in nonionic micelles of Brij 58 is demonstrated to be very efficient for the extraction of Cu(II) by MEUF, this technique being an interesting green alternative to traditional solvent extraction. PMID:19708239

  16. Impact assessment and remediation strategies for roadway construction in acid-bearing media: case study from Mid-Appalachia

    SciTech Connect

    Viadero, R.C.; Fortney, R.H.; Creel, A.T.

    2008-09-15

    The likelihood of encountering land impacted by current and/or historic coal mining activities is high when constructing roadways in the Mid-Appalachian region. Through additional disturbance of these lands, environmental impacts such as acid and dissolved metals loading and subsequent impacts to aquatic flora and fauna will ensue. Consequently, it is necessary to affect a paradigm shift in roadway design and construction to account for the presence of factors that compound the already difficult task of working in a region characterized by steep topography and aggressive geochemistry. In this study, assessments of the water chemistry and biological impacts of a waste pile containing spoils from previous mining and the presence of an exposed coal mine bench were made as representative microcosmic examples of typical conditions found in the region. Based on quantitative measurements of water quality and biological conditions, recommendations are presented for the assessment and avoidance of impacts prior to construction through acid-bearing materials and suggestions are offered for postconstruction remediation at previously impacted sites.

  17. ANSID: a Solid-Phase Proteomic Approach for Identification and Relative Quantification of Aromatic Nitration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuriel, Tal; Whitehouse, Julia; Ma, Yuliang; Mercer, Emily; Brown, Neil; Gross, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Nitration of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acid residues in proteins occurs in the setting of inflammatory, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases – importantly, this modification has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases and the physiological process of tissue aging. To understand the biological consequences of aromatic nitration in both health and disease, it is critical to molecularly identify the proteins that undergo nitration, specify their cognate modification sites and quantify their extent of nitration. To date, unbiased identification of nitrated proteins has painstakingly employed 2D-gel electrophoresis followed by Western Blotting with an anti-nitrotyrosine antibody for detection. Apart from being relatively slow and laborious, this method suffers from limited coverage, the potential for false-positive identifications and failure to reveal specific amino acid modification sites. To overcome these shortcomings, we have developed a solid-phase, chemical-capture approach for unbiased and high-throughput discovery of nitrotyrosine and nitrotryptophan sites in proteins. Utilizing this method, we have successfully identified several endogenously nitrated proteins in rat brain and a total of 244 nitrated peptides from 145 proteins following in vitro exposure of rat brain homogenates to the nitrating agent peroxynitrite (1 mM). As expected, Tyr residues constituted the great majority of peroxynitrite-mediated protein nitration sites; however, we were surprised to discover several brain proteins that contain nitrated Trp residues. By incorporating a stable-isotope labeling step, this new Aromatic Nitrtion Site IDentification (ANSID) method was also adapted for relative quantification of nitration site abundances in proteins. Application of the quantitative ANSID method offers great potential to advance our understanding of the role of protein nitration in disease pathogenesis and normal physiology.

  18. Listeria Phage and Phage Tail Induction Triggered by Components of Bacterial Growth Media (Phosphate, LiCl, Nalidixic Acid, and Acriflavine)

    PubMed Central

    Duroux, Amandine; Pimpie, Romain; Duez, Jean-Marie; Milat, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The detection of Listeria monocytogenes from food is currently carried out using a double enrichment. For the ISO methodology, this double enrichment is performed using half-Fraser and Fraser broths, in which the overgrowth of L. innocua can occur in samples where both species are present. In this study, we analyzed the induction of phages and phage tails of Listeria spp. in these media and in two brain heart infusion (BHI) broths (BHIM [bioMérieux] and BHIK [Biokar]) to identify putative effectors. It appears that Na2HPO4 at concentrations ranging from 1 to 40 g/liter with an initial pH of 7.5 can induce phage or phage tail production of Listeria spp., especially with 10 g/liter of Na2HPO4 and a pH of 7.5, conditions present in half-Fraser and Fraser broths. Exposure to LiCl in BHIM (18 to 21 g/liter) can also induce phage and phage tail release, but in half-Fraser and Fraser broths, the concentration of LiCl is much lower (3 g/liter). Low phage titers were induced by acriflavine and/or nalidixic acid. We also show that the production of phages and phage tails can occur in half-Fraser and Fraser broths. This study points out that induction of phages and phage tails could be triggered by compounds present in enrichment media. This could lead to a false-negative result for the detection of L. monocytogenes in food products. PMID:25595760

  19. Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequence of a chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate proteoglycan isolated from intima/media preparations of human aorta.

    PubMed

    Stöcker, G; Meyer, H E; Wagener, C; Greiling, H

    1991-03-01

    A proteoglycan (PG) was purified to homogeneity from intima/media preparations of human aorta specimens by the following chromatographic steps: Sepharose Q anion exchange, Sepharose CL-4B size exclusion, hydroxyapatite, MonoQ anion exchange and TSK G 4000 SW size exclusion. The purity of the preparation was established by SDS/PAGE using direct staining by silver or Dimethylmethylene Blue, as well as by Western blots of biotin-labelled samples. The electrophoretic mobility of the native PG was less than that of a 200,000-Mr standard protein. After treatment with chondroitin sulphate lyase ABC, a core protein of Mr 15,000 was revealed. The Mr of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) peptides was less than 24,000, by comparison with a keratan sulphate peptide. The composition of the GAG chains was determined by differential digestion of the PG by chondroitin sulphate lyases AC/ABC or chondroitin sulphate lyase AC alone followed by anion-exchange chromatography of the resulting disaccharides. The GAG chains are composed of approximately one-third of dermatan sulphate and two-thirds chondroitin sulphate disaccharide units. The sequence of the 20 N-terminal amino acids is identical with the sequence previously reported for PG I isolated from human developing bone [Fisher, Termine & Young (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 4571-4576]. The assignment of glycosylation sites to the serine residues in positions 5 and 10 was confirmed. The findings indicate that the chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate PG is a major PG in intima/media preparations of human aorta and represents a biglycan-type PG. PMID:1848758

  20. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN THE SINGLE, BINARY, AND TERNARY SYSTEMS OF COTTON BURR COMPOST, ZEROVALENT IRON, AND SEDIMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION USING PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent research has shown that carbonaceous solid materials and zerovalent iron (Fe0) may potentially be used as media in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to degrade groundwater nitrate via heterotrophic denitrification in the solid carbon system, and via abiotic reduction and ...

  1. Electrochemical reduction of nitrate in the presence of an amide

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrates in aqueous solutions thereof in the presence of amides to gaseous nitrogen (N.sub.2) is described. Generally, electrochemical reduction of NO.sub.3 proceeds stepwise, from NO.sub.3 to N.sub.2, and subsequently in several consecutive steps to ammonia (NH.sub.3) as a final product. Addition of at least one amide to the solution being electrolyzed suppresses ammonia generation, since suitable amides react with NO.sub.2 to generate N.sub.2. This permits nitrate reduction to gaseous nitrogen to proceed by electrolysis. Suitable amides include urea, sulfamic acid, formamide, and acetamide.

  2. Corrosion Inhibitive Evaluation of an Environmentally Friendly Water-Base Acrylic Terpolymer on Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azghandi, Mojtaba Vakili; Davoodi, Ali; Farzi, Gholam Ali; Kosari, Ali

    2013-12-01

    The corrosion inhibitive performance of an environmentally friendly water-base acrylic terpolymer [methyl methacrylate/Butyl Acrylate/Acrylic acid (ATP)] on mild steel in 1 M HCl was investigated by alternating current and direct current electrochemical techniques and the quantum chemical method. An efficiency of more than 97 pct was obtained with 0.8 mmol/L ATP. The increase in inhibitor concentration and immersion time has a positive effect, while the temperature influence is negligible on the inhibitor efficiency. The present terpolymer obeys the Langmuir isotherm, and thermodynamic calculation reveals a chemisorption type on the surface. Density functional calculations showed that the lone pairs of electrons of oxygen in the structure of three monomers are suitable sites to adsorb onto the metal surface. Finally, in the presence of ATP, a decrease in surface roughness and corrosion attacks was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy examinations, respectively.

  3. Ionic conductivity, sintering and thermal expansion behaviors of mixed ion conductor BaZr 0.1Ce 0.7Y 0.1Yb 0.1O 3- δ prepared by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid assisted glycine nitrate process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoliang; Liu, Limin; Zhen, Jiangman; Zhu, Shengcai; Li, Baowen; Sun, Kening; Wang, Peng

    BaZr 0.1Ce 0.7Y 0.1Yb 0.1O 3- δ as a candidate electrolyte material is prepared by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid assisted glycine-nitrate process. After calcining at 900 °C, the single-phase perovskite is obtained due to the better distribution of starting materials and the more feasible reaction kinetic conditions than solid state reaction method. The relative densities reach 96.8 and 98.4% respectively after sintering the pressed pellets at 1280 and 1400 °C for 10 h. In humidified oxygen the ionic conductivities are 0.015, 0.045, 0.101 and 0.207 S cm -1 at 500, 600, 700 and 800 °C, respectively. In air and humidified oxygen the activation energies for ionic conductivity are 66.1 and 68.9 kJ mol -1. In humidified hydrogen, however, different activation energies occur in low and high temperature ranges. The thermal expansion curve inflections at 500-800 °C with respect to possible phase changes are found. Zirconia aggregation possibly results in the higher activation energy and peculiar thermal expansion behavior. The results indicate the ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid assisted glycine-nitrate process is a very promising preparation method for solid oxide fuel cell practical application.

  4. Media education.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents. PMID:20876180

  5. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  6. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  7. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  8. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  9. Vibrational analysis of amino acids and short peptides in hydrated media. VIII. Amino acids with aromatic side chains: L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, and L-tryptophan.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Belén; Pflüger, Fernando; Adenier, Alain; Kruglik, Sergei G; Ghomi, Mahmoud

    2010-11-25

    Four out of the 20 natural α-amino acids (α-AAs) contain aromatic rings in their side chains. In a recent paper (J. Phys. Chem. B 2010, 114, 9072-9083), we have analyzed the structural and vibrational features of l-histidine, one of the potent elements of this series. Here, we report on the three remaining members of this family, i.e., l-phenylalanine, l-tyrosine, and l-tryptophan. Their solution (H(2)O and D(2)O) Raman scattering and Fourier transform infrared absorption attenuated total reflection (FT-IR ATR) spectra were measured at room temperature from the species corresponding to those existing at physiological conditions. Because of the very low water solubility of tyrosine, special attention was paid to avoid any artifact concerning the report of the vibrational spectra corresponding to nondissolved powder of this AA in aqueous solution. Finally, we could obtain for the first time the Raman and FT-IR spectra of tyrosine at very low concentration (2.3 mM) upon long accumulation time. To clarify this point, those vibrational spectra of tyrosine recorded either in the solid phase or in a heterogeneous state, where dissolved and nondissolved species of this AA coexist in aqueous solution, are also provided as Supporting Information . To carry out a discussion on the general geometrical and vibrational behavior of these AAs, we resorted to quantum mechanical calculations at the DFT/B3LYP/6-31++G* level, allowing (i) determination of potential energy surfaces of these AAs in a continuum solvent as a function of the torsion angles χ(1) and χ(2), defining the conformation of each aromatic side chain around C(α)-C(β) and C(β)-C(γ) bonds, respectively; (ii) analysis of geometrical features of the AAs surrounded by clusters of n explicit (n = 5-7) water molecules interacting with the backbone and aromatic rings; and (iii) assignment of the observed vibrational modes by means of the theoretical data provided by the lowest energy conformers of explicitly

  10. EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Furman, N.H.; Mundy, R.J.

    1957-12-10

    An improvement in the process is described for extracting aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions with an organic solvent such as ether. It has been found that the organic phase will extract a larger quantity of uranyl nitrate if the aqueous phase contains in addition to the uranyl nitrate, a quantity of some other soluble nitrate to act as a salting out agent. Mentioned as suitable are the nitrates of lithium, calcium, zinc, bivalent copper, and trivalent iron.

  11. Modeling nitrate-nitrogen load reduction strategies for the des moines river, iowa using SWAT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2009-01-01

    The Des Moines River that drains a watershed of 16,175 km2 in portions of Iowa and Minnesota is impaired for nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) due to concentrations that exceed regulatory limits for public water supplies. The Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to model streamflow and nitrate loads and evaluate a suite of basin-wide changes and targeting configurations to potentially reduce nitrate loads in the river. The SWAT model comprised 173 subbasins and 2,516 hydrologic response units and included point and nonpoint nitrogen sources. The model was calibrated for an 11-year period and three basin-wide and four targeting strategies were evaluated. Results indicated that nonpoint sources accounted for 95% of the total nitrate export. Reduction in fertilizer applications from 170 to 50 kg/ha achieved the 38% reduction in nitrate loads, exceeding the 34% reduction required. In terms of targeting, the most efficient load reductions occurred when fertilizer applications were reduced in subbasins nearest the watershed outlet. The greatest load reduction for the area of land treated was associated with reducing loads from 55 subbasins with the highest nitrate loads, achieving a 14% reduction in nitrate loads achieved by reducing applications on 30% of the land area. SWAT model results provide much needed guidance on how to begin implementing load reduction strategies most efficiently in the Des Moines River watershed. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  12. Optimization and effect of dairy industrial waste as media components in the production of hyaluronic acid by Streptococcus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Naresh; Balakrishnan, Rengesh; Sivaprakasam, Senthilkumar

    2016-08-17

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) production using a dairy industrial waste is a more cost-efficient strategy than using an expensive synthetic medium. In this study, we investigated the production of HA using Streptococcus thermophilus under shake flask conditions using dairy industrial waste as nutritional supplements, namely whey permeate (WP) and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH). Preliminary screening using Plackett-Burman design exhibited WP, WPH, initial pH, and inoculum size as significant factors influencing HA titer. Response surface methodology design of four factors was formulated at three levels for enhanced production of HA. Shake flask HA fermentation by S. thermophilus was performed under global optimized process conditions and the optimal HA titer (342.93 mg L(-1)) corroborates with Box-Behnken design prediction. The molecular weight of HA was elucidated as 9.22-9.46 kDa. The ultralow-molecular weight HA reported in this study has a potential role in drug and gene delivery applications. PMID:26681350

  13. Selectivity of Candida antarctica B lipase toward fatty acid and (Iso)propanol substrates in esterification reactions in organic media.

    PubMed

    Arsan, J; Parkin, K L

    2000-08-01

    Fatty acid (FA) selectivity of immobilized Candida antarctica B lipase was assessed as influenced by various cosubstrate systems for ester synthesis. Reaction mixtures contained a homologous series of even-chain n-acyl donor (C(4)(-)(16)) substrates (FA or their methyl esters, FAME) and a single alcohol cosubstrate (propanol, 2-propanol, or their acetate derivatives) in hexane. Multiple FA optima were often observed, with preferences for C(6) (or C(4)) followed by C(14) and sometimes C(10). The degree of selectivity among acyl donors was modest (up to 1.28-2.60, based on ratios of selectivity constants) and was dependent on the choice of cosubstrate system. Acyl group selectivity ranged up to 1.31-1.36 for [FA + alcohol], 1. 48-2.60 for [FAME + alcohol], 1.30-1.72 for [FA + alcohol acetate], and 1.28-1.88 [FAME + alcohol acetate] reaction systems. General shifts in selectivity were observed between short-chain (C(4)(-)(8)) and long-chain (C(10)(-)(16)) FA as groups with propanol cosubstrate, whereas shifts in reaction selectivity were observed toward specific FA(s) for 2-propanol cosubstrate. Selectivity among a series of alcohol cosubstrates ranged up to 13-fold in esterification reactions with C(6) FA. PMID:10956180

  14. Sonosynthesis of nano TiO2 on wool using titanium isopropoxide or butoxide in acidic media producing multifunctional fabric.

    PubMed

    Behzadnia, Amir; Montazer, Majid; Rashidi, Abousaeid; Rad, Mahnaz Mahmoudi

    2014-09-01

    This study presents a novel idea to prepare nanocrystalline structure of TiO2 under ambient pressure at 60-65 °C using in situ sonochemical synthesis by hydrolysis of either titanium isopropoxide or titanium butoxide in an acidic aqueous solution. The nano titanium dioxide coated wool fabrics possess significant antibacterial/antifungal activity and self-cleaning property by discoloring Methylene blue stain under sunlight irradiation. This process has no negative effect on cytotoxicity and tensile strength of the sonotreated fabric even reduces alkaline solubility and photoyellowing and improves hydrophilicity. More titanium isopropoxide or titanium butoxide as a precursor led to higher photocatalytic activities of the treated fabrics. Also introducing more ethanol improved the adsorption of TiO2 on the wool fabric surface leading to enhanced photocatalytic activity. EDS and XRD patterns, SEM images, X-ray mapping confirmed the presence of nano TiO2 particles on the fabric surface. The role of both solvent and precursor concentrations on the various properties of the fabric was investigated and the optimized conditions were obtained using response surface methodology. PMID:24703433

  15. Nitrate anion exchange in 238Pu aqueous scrap recovery operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pansoy-Hjelvik, M. E.; Silver, G. L.; Reimus, M. A. H.; Ramsey, K. B.

    1999-01-01

    Strong base, nitrate anion exchange (IX) is crucial to the purification of 238Pu solution feedstocks with gross levels of impurities. This paper discusses the work involved in bench scale experiments to optimize the nitrate anion exchange process. In particular, results are presented of experiments conducted to a) demonstrate that high levels of impurities can be separated from 238Pu solutions via nitrate anion exchange and, b) work out chemical pretreatment methodology to adjust and maintain 238Pu in the IV oxidation state to optimize the Pu(IV)-hexanitrato anionic complex sorption to Reillex-HPQ resin. Additional experiments performed to determine the best chemical treatment methodology to enhance recovery of sorbed Pu from the resin and VIS-NIR absorption studies to determine the steady state equilibrium of Pu(IV), Pu(III), and Pu(VI) in nitric acid are discussed.

  16. Nitrate transport is independent of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases in barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductase isozymes. Four isogenic lines with different nitrate reductase isozyme combinations were used to determine the role of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases on nitrate transport and assimilation in barley seedlings. Both nitrate reductase isozymes were induced by nitrate and were required for maximum nitrate assimilation in barley seedlings. Genotypes lacking the NADH isozyme (Az12) or the NAD(P)H isozyme (Az70) assimilated 65 or 85%, respectively, as much nitrate as the wild type. Nitrate assimilation by genotype (Az12;Az70) which is deficient in both nitrate reductases, was only 13% of the wild type indicating that the NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductase isozymes are responsible for most of the nitrate reduction in barley seedlings. For all genotypes, nitrate assimilation rates in the dark were about 55% of the rates in light. Hypotheses that nitrate reductase has direct or indirect roles in nitrate uptake were not supported by this study. Induction of nitrate transporters and the kinetics of net nitrate uptake were the same for all four genotypes indicating that neither nitrate reductase isozyme has a direct role in nitrate uptake in barley seedlings.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of carboxyl terminated poly(methacrylic acid) grafted chitosan/bentonite composite and its application for the recovery of uranium(VI) from aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Rijith, S

    2012-04-01

    A novel adsorbent poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted chitosan/bentonite (CTS-g-PMAA/Bent) composite was prepared through graft copolymerization reaction of methacrylic acid and chitosan in the presence of bentonite (Bent) and N,N'- methylenebisacrylamide as a crosslinker. The composite was well characterized using FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM-EDS, surface area and zeta potential analyzers. The adsorption behavior of the composite toward uranium(VI) from aqueous media was studied under varying operating conditions of pH, concentration of U(VI), contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature. The optimum pH range for U(VI) adsorption was 5.5 at 30 °C. Concentration and temperature dependent rate constants were evaluated using pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data were correlated with the Langmuir isotherm model with an endothermic behavior. The equilibrium U(VI) sorption capacity was estimated to be 117.2 mg g(-1) at 30 °C. For the quantitative recovery of 100 mg L(-1) U(VI) from 1.0 L simulated nuclear industry wastewater, a minimum adsorbent dosage of 2.0 g CTS-g-PMAA/Bent was required. The calculated energy of activation (E(a) = 47.83 kJ/mol) was positively correlated with chemical adsorption process. The values of enthalpy, entropy and free energy of activation were calculated to explain the nature of adsorption process. Adsorption-desorption experiments over four cycles illustrate the feasibility of the repeated uses of this composite for the extraction of U(VI) from aqueous solutions. PMID:22304995

  18. Increased Salivary Nitrite and Nitrate Excretion in Rats with Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Somayeh; Rahmatollahi, Mahdieh; Shahsavari, Fatemeh; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Grayesh-Nejad, Siyavash; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2015-11-01

    Increased nitric oxide (NO) formation is mechanistically linked to pathophysiology of the extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis. NO is formed by either enzymatic or non-enzymatic pathways. Enzymatic production is catalyzed by NO synthase (NOS) while entero-salivary circulation of nitrate and nitrite is linked to non-enzymatic formation of NO under acidic pH in the stomach. There is no data on salivary excretion of nitrate and nitrite in cirrhosis. This study was aimed to investigate salivary levels of nitrate and nitrite in a rat model of biliary cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Four weeks after the operation, submandibular ducts of anesthetized BDL and control rats were cannulated with polyethylene microtube for saliva collection. Assessment of pH, nitrite and nitrate levels was performed in our research. We also investigated NOS expression by real time RT-PCR to estimate eNOS, nNOS and iNOS mRNA levels in the submandibular glands. Salivary pH was significantly lower in BDL rats in comparison to control animals. We also observed a statistically significant increase in salivary levels of nitrite as well as nitrate in BDL rats while there was no elevation in the mRNA expression of nNOS, eNOS, and iNOS in submandibular glands of cirrhotic groups. This indicates that an increased salivary level of nitrite/nitrate is less likely to be linked to increased enzymatic production of NO in the salivary epithelium. It appears that nitrate/nitrite can be transported from the blood stream by submandibular glands and excreted into saliva as entero-salivary circulation, and this mechanism may have been exaggerated during cirrhosis. PMID:26786986

  19. Acidaminococcus gen. n., Acidaminococcus fermentans sp. n., Anaerobic Gram-negative Diplococci Using Amino Acids as the Sole Energy Source for Growth

    PubMed Central

    Rogosa, Morrison

    1969-01-01

    Acidaminococcus gen. n. and the type species Acidaminococcus fermentans sp. n. were described. Amino acids, of which glutamic acid is the most important, could serve as the sole energy source for growth. Acetic and butyric acids and CO2 were produced; propionic acid and hydrogen were not produced. Amino acid media supporting growth and the amino acid and vitamin requirements were described. Glucose was frequently not fermented or was weakly catabolized. Derivative products from glucose autoclaved in media, but not glucose itself, stimulated or were required for growth in amino acid media. A wide range of polyols and carbohydrates were not attacked. Lactate, fumarate, malate, succinate, citrate, and pyruvate were not used as energy sources for growth. Pyruvate completely suppressed growth. Cytochrome oxidase and benzidine reactions were negative; catalase, indole, acetyl methyl carbinol, and H2S were not produced; nitrate and sulfonthalein indicators were not reduced; ammonia was produced; gelatin liquefaction was negative or slow and partial; vancomycin (7.5 μg/ml) was resisted. Acidaminococcus was different from Veillonella in morphology, serology, nutrition, utilization of substrates, and accumulation of products in media supporting growth; Acidaminococcus resembled Peptococcus in utilization of glutamic acid and accumulation of similar products, but the two genera differed in morphology, gram reaction, serology, guanine plus cytosine content of deoxyribonucleic acid, and nutrition. Images PMID:5784223

  20. Comparative fatty acid selectivity of lipases in esterification reactions with glycerol and diol analogues in organic media.

    PubMed

    Lee, C H; Parkin, K L

    2000-01-01

    Reaction selectivity of Pseudomonas cepacia, Rhizomucor miehei, and Candida antarctica B lipases was assessed in multicompetitive esterification reaction mixtures containing an homologous series of n-chain even carbon number fatty acid (FA; C4-C18) substrates and a single alcohol cosubstrate (glycerol, 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD), or 1, 3-propanediol (1,3-PD)) in tert-butyl methyl ether at water activity of 0.69 or 0.90 and a reaction temperature of 35 degrees C. For P. cepacia lipase, the ordinal patterns of FA selectivities observed were, with glycerol, C8 > C10, C6, C16 > other FA; with 1,2-PD and 1, 3-PD, C16 > C8 > C14 > other FA. For R. miehei lipase, the ordinal patterns of FA selectivities observed were, with glycerol, C8 > C12 > C10, C14 > other FA; with 1,2-PD and 1,3-PD, C8 > C12 > other FA. For C. antarctica B lipase, the ordinal patterns of FA selectivities observed were, with glycerol, C8 > C10, C6, C12 > other FA; with 1, 2-PD, C8 > C10, C6 > other FA; and with 1,3-PD, C8 > C10 > C6 > other FA. The differences in selectivity among FA ranged up to 16-fold, depending upon the lipase and alcohol cosubstrate used. These findings represent intrinsic and substrate-modulated features of FA selectivities that are of particular relevance to the use of lipases for acylglycerol synthesis reactions. PMID:10835238

  1. Salvianolic Acid B Prevents Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Acute Renal Injury in Rats via the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tongqiang, Liu; Shaopeng, Liu; Xiaofang, Yu; Nana, Song; Xialian, Xu; Jiachang, Hu; Ting, Zhang; Xiaoqiang, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-induced acute renal injury (CI-AKI) has become a common cause of hospital-acquired renal failure. However, the development of prophylaxis strategies and approved therapies for CI-AKI is limited. Salvianolic acid B (SB) can treat cardiovascular-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of SB on prevention of CI-AKI and explore its underlying mechanisms. We examined its effectiveness of preventing renal injury in a novel CI-AKI rat model. Compared with saline, intravenous SB pretreatment significantly attenuated elevations in serum creatinine and the histological changes of renal tubular injuries, reduced the number of apoptosis-positive tubular cells, activated Nrf2, and lowered the levels of renal oxidative stress induced by iodinated contrast media. The above renoprotection of SB was abolished by the PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin). In HK-2 cells, SB activated Nrf2 and decreased the levels of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide and subsequently improved cell viability. The above cytoprotection of SB was blocked by the PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) or siNrf2. Thus, our results demonstrate that, due to its antioxidant properties, SB has the potential to effectively prevent CI-AKI via the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 pathway. PMID:27382429

  2. Sono-assisted photocatalytic degradation of styrene-acrylic acid copolymer in aqueous media with nano titania particles and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Saien, J; Delavari, H; Solymani, A R

    2010-05-15

    The ultrasonic irradiation (28 kHz, 50 W) in pre-cavitations regime was employed to enhance the degradation rate of styrene-acrylic acid copolymer in aqueous media with nano titania photocatalyst particles. A stainless steel cylindrical sono-photo reactor with capacity of about 1.25 L, equipped with a UV lamp (250 W) was used. The influence of operational parameters, i.e. catalyst concentration, pH and temperature was studied and the role of active species was also distinguished. For an initial substrate concentration of 30 mg L(-1), under mild applied conditions of 30 mg L(-1) of photocatalyst, 25 degrees C and natural pH, a degradation and mineralization conversion of 96% and 91%, respectively, was achieved using sono-assisted photocatalysis process in about only 60 min. These efficiencies are much higher than those obtained with only photocatalysis process. Meanwhile, the threshold of cavitations was found corresponded to catalyst concentration of about 70 mg L(-1). Kinetic studies based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood and power law models in addition to the results from radical scavenger usage revealed that for sono-assisted process, the substrate undergoes degradation mainly via electron-hole redox on the surface of titania particles. It is while for the only photocatalysis process, the reaction proceeds via hydroxyl radicals in the solution bulk. PMID:20092940

  3. Reduction of nitrate in Shewanella

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Haichun; Yang, Zamin Koo; Barua, Sumitra; Reed, SB; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Fredrikson, JK; Tiedje, James; Zhou, Jizhong

    2009-01-01

    In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, a napDAGHB gene cluster encoding periplasmic nitrate reductase (NapA) and accessory proteins and an nrfA gene encoding periplasmic nitrite reductase (NrfA) have been identified. These two systems seem to be atypical because the genome lacks genes encoding cytoplasmic membrane electron transport proteins, NapC for NAP and NrfBCD/NrfH for NRF, respectively. Here, we present evidence that reduction of nitrate to ammonium in S. oneidensis is carried out by these atypical systems in a two-step manner. Transcriptional and mutational analyses suggest that CymA, a cytoplasmic membrane electron transport protein, is likely to be the functional replacement of both NapC and NrfH in S. oneidensis. Surprisingly, a strain devoid of napB encoding the small subunit of nitrate reductase exhibited the maximum cell density sooner than the wild type. Further characterization of this strain showed that nitrite was not detected as a free intermediate in its culture and NapB provides a fitness gain for S. oneidensis to compete for nitrate in the environments. On the basis results from mutational analyses of napA, napB, nrfA and napBnrfA in-frame deletion mutants, we propose that NapB is able to favor nitrate reduction by routing electrons to NapA exclusively.

  4. Molecular ecological responses of dinoflagellate, Karenia mikimotoi to environmental nitrate stress.

    PubMed

    Lei, Qiang-Yong; Lü, Song-Hui

    2011-12-01

    Karenia mikimotoi is one of the most important harmful algal species in the Chinese coastal waters, and which produce hemolytic toxins and ichthyotoxins, resulting in devastating economic losses. Previous studies demonstrated that the increase of nitrate concentration could promote the growth and reproduction of K. mikimotoi. However, the intrinsic mechanisms regarding the effects of nitrate on the K. mikimotoi photosynthesis, nucleic acid replication and differential protein expression remain to be elucidated. Our study demonstrated that nitrate stress inhibited growth of K. mikimotoi (p<0.01). Algal chlorophyll fluorescence intensity varied slightly while algal cell cycle succession was significantly retarded by nitrate stress (p<0.05). Sixteen proteins were detected only in nitrate-limited cultures which related to nitrate transport, signal transduction, amino acid metabolism, DNA repair and hemolysin manufacture. Eleven proteins were detected only in nitrate-replete sample and were related to photorespiration, reproduction and growth, assistance of protein modification, cytoskeleton stability and signal transduction. Based on analysis of differential proteomic functional annotations, we hypothesized a proteomic response mechanism of K. mikimotoi to environmental nitrate stress. PMID:22019194

  5. NITRATE DESTRUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY AND EVALUATION CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.

    2011-02-01

    This report satisfies the initial phase of Task WP-2.3.4 Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology, Subtask 1; Develop Near-Tank Nitrate/Nitrite Destruction Technology. Some of the more common anions in carbon steel waste tanks at SRS and Hanford Site are nitrate which is corrosive, and nitrite and hydroxide which are corrosion inhibitors. At present it is necessary to periodically add large quantities of 50 wt% caustic to waste tanks. There are three primary reasons for this addition. First, when the contents of salt tanks are dissolved, sodium hydroxide preferentially dissolves and is removed. During the dissolution process the concentration of free hydroxide in the tank liquid can decrease from 9 M to less than 0.2 M. As a result, roughly half way through the dissolution process large quantities of sodium hydroxide must be added to the tank to comply with requirements for corrosion control. Second, hydroxide is continuously consumed by reaction with carbon dioxide which occurs naturally in purge air used to prevent buildup of hydrogen gas inside the tanks. The hydrogen is generated by radiolysis of water. Third, increasing the concentration of hydroxide increases solubility of some aluminum compounds, which is desirable in processing waste. A process that converts nitrate and nitrite to hydroxide would reduce certain costs. (1) Less caustic would be purchased. (2) Some of the aluminum solid compounds in the waste tanks would become more soluble so less mass of solids would be sent to High Level Vitrification and therefore it would be not be necessary to make as much expensive high level vitrified product. (3) Less mass of sodium would be fed to Saltstone at SRS or Low Level Vitrification at Hanford Site so it would not be necessary to make as much low level product. (4) At SRS less nitrite and nitrate would be sent to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so less formic acid would be consumed there and less hydrogen gas would be generated. This task involves

  6. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  7. Robust protein nitration contributes to acetaminophen-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Jang, Sehwan; Banerjee, Atrayee; Hardwick, James P.; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP), a widely-used analgesic agent, can cause liver injury through increased nitrative stress, leading to protein nitration. However, the identities of nitrated proteins and their roles in hepatotoxicity are poorly understood. Thus, we aimed at studying the mechanism of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by systematic identification and characterization of nitrated proteins in the absence or presence of an anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The levels of nitrated proteins markedly increased at 2 h in mice exposed to a single APAP dose (350 mg/kg ip), which caused severe liver necrosis at 24 h. Protein nitration and liver necrosis were minimal in mice exposed to nontoxic 3-hydroxyacetanilide or animals co-treated with APAP and NAC. Mass-spectral analysis of the affinity-purified nitrated proteins identified numerous mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins including mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, Mn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, ATP synthase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase involved in anti-oxidant defense, energy supply, and fatty acid metabolism, respectively. Immunoprecipitation followed by immunoblot with anti-3-NT antibody confirmed that the aforementioned proteins were nitrated in APAP-exposed mice but not in NAC-co-treated mice. Consistently, NAC co-treatment significantly restored the suppressed activities of these enzymes. Thus, we demonstrate a new mechanism by which many nitrated proteins with concomitantly suppressed activities promotes APAP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatotoxicity. PMID:23454065

  8. Induction of the Nitrate Assimilation nirA Operon and Protein-Protein Interactions in the Maturation of Nitrate and Nitrite Reductases in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Frías, José E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nitrate is widely used as a nitrogen source by cyanobacteria, in which the nitrate assimilation structural genes frequently constitute the so-called nirA operon. This operon contains the genes encoding nitrite reductase (nirA), a nitrate/nitrite transporter (frequently an ABC-type transporter; nrtABCD), and nitrate reductase (narB). In the model filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, which can fix N2 in specialized cells termed heterocysts, the nirA operon is expressed at high levels only in media containing nitrate or nitrite and lacking ammonium, a preferred nitrogen source. Here we examined the genes downstream of the nirA operon in Anabaena and found that a small open reading frame of unknown function, alr0613, can be cotranscribed with the operon. The next gene in the genome, alr0614 (narM), showed an expression pattern similar to that of the nirA operon, implying correlated expression of narM and the operon. A mutant of narM with an insertion mutation failed to produce nitrate reductase activity, consistent with the idea that NarM is required for the maturation of NarB. Both narM and narB mutants were impaired in the nitrate-dependent induction of the nirA operon, suggesting that nitrite is an inducer of the operon in Anabaena. It has previously been shown that the nitrite reductase protein NirA requires NirB, a protein likely involved in protein-protein interactions, to attain maximum activity. Bacterial two-hybrid analysis confirmed possible NirA-NirB and NarB-NarM interactions, suggesting that the development of both nitrite reductase and nitrate reductase activities in cyanobacteria involves physical interaction of the corresponding enzymes with their cognate partners, NirB and NarM, respectively. IMPORTANCE Nitrate is an important source of nitrogen for many microorganisms that is utilized through the nitrate assimilation system, which includes nitrate/nitrite membrane transporters and the nitrate and nitrite reductases. Many

  9. Tracking sources of unsaturated zone and groundwater nitrate contamination using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes at the Hanford site, Washington.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Michael J; Woods, Katharine N; Conrad, Mark E; Depaolo, Donald J; Dresel, P Evan

    2005-05-15

    The nitrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate in pore water extracts from unsaturated zone (UZ) core samples and groundwater samples indicate at least four potential sources of nitrate in groundwaters at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site in south-central Washington. Natural sources of nitrate identified include microbially produced nitrate from the soil column (delta15N of 4 - 8 per thousand, delta18O of -9 to 2 per thousand) and nitrate in buried caliche layers (delta15N of 0-8 per thousand, delta 18O of -6to 42 per thousand). Isotopically distinctindustrial sources of nitrate include nitric acid in low-level disposal waters (delta15N approximately per thousand, delta 18O approximately 23%o) per thousandnd co-contaminant nitrate in high-level radioactive waste from plutonium processing (6'5delta1of 8-33 % o, per thousand18delta oO -9 to 7%0). per thousandThe isotopic compositions of nitrate from 97 groundwater wells with concentrations up to 1290 mg/L NO3- have been analyzed. Stable isotope analyses from this study site, which has natural and industrial nitrate sources, provide a tool to distinguish nitrate sources in an unconfined aquiferwhere concentrations alone do not. These data indicate that the most common sources of high nitrate concentrations in groundwater at Hanford are nitric acid and natural nitrate flushed out of the UZ during disposal of low-level wastewater. Nitrate associated with high-level radioactive UZ contamination does not appear to be a major source of groundwater nitrate at this time. PMID:15952359

  10. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate using titanium dioxide for regeneration of ion exchange brine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Doudrick, Kyle; Westerhoff, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate is often removed from groundwater by ion exchange (IX) before its use as drinking water. Accumulation of nitrate in IX brine reduces the efficiency of IX regeneration and the useful life of the regeneration brine. For the first time, we present a strategy to photocatalytically reduce nitrate in IX brine, thereby extending the use of the brine. Titanium dioxide (Evonik P90), acting as photocatalyst, reduced nitrate effectively in both synthetic brines and sulfate-removed IX brine when formic acid (FA) was used as the hole scavenger (i.e., electron donor) and the initial FA to nitrate molar ratio (IFNR) was 5.6. Increasing the NaCl level in the synthetic brine slowed the nitrate reduction rate without affecting byproduct selectivity of ammonium and gaseous N species (e.g., N2, N2O). In a non-modified IX brine, nitrate removal was greatly inhibited owing to the presence of sulfate, which competed with nitrate for active surface sites on P90 and induced aggregation of P90 nanoparticles. After removing sulfate through barium sulfate precipitation, nitrate was effectively reduced; approximately 3.6 × 1024 photons were required to reduce each mole of nitrate to 83% N Gases and 17% NH4+. To make optimum use of FA and control the residual FA level in treated brine, the IFNR was varied. High IFNRs (e.g., 4, 5.6) were found to be more efficient for nitrate reduction but left higher residual FA in brine. IX column tests were performed to investigate the impact of residual FA for brine reuse. The residual FA in the brine did not significantly affect the nitrate removal capacity of IX resins, and formate contamination of treated water could be eliminated by rinsing with one bed volume of fresh brine. PMID:23276425

  11. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate using titanium dioxide for regeneration of ion exchange brine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Doudrick, Kyle; Westerhoff, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Nitrate is often removed from groundwater by ion exchange (IX) before its use as drinking water. Accumulation of nitrate in IX brine reduces the efficiency of IX regeneration and the useful life of the regeneration brine. For the first time, we present a strategy to photocatalytically reduce nitrate in IX brine, thereby extending the use of the brine. Titanium dioxide (Evonik P90), acting as photocatalyst, reduced nitrate effectively in both synthetic brines and sulfate-removed IX brine when formic acid (FA) was used as the hole scavenger (i.e., electron donor) and the initial FA to nitrate molar ratio (IFNR) was 5.6. Increasing the NaCl level in the synthetic brine slowed the nitrate reduction rate without affecting by-product selectivity of ammonium and gaseous N species (e.g., N(2), N(2)O). In a non-modified IX brine, nitrate removal was greatly inhibited owing to the presence of sulfate, which competed with nitrate for active surface sites on P90 and induced aggregation of P90 nanoparticles. After removing sulfate through barium sulfate precipitation, nitrate was effectively reduced; approximately 3.6 × 10(24) photons were required to reduce each mole of nitrate to 83% N Gases and 17% NH(4)(+). To make optimum use of FA and control the residual FA level in treated brine, the IFNR was varied. High IFNRs (e.g., 4, 5.6) were found to be more efficient for nitrate reduction but left higher residual FA in brine. IX column tests were performed to investigate the impact of residual FA for brine reuse. The residual FA in the brine did not significantly affect the nitrate removal capacity of IX resins, and formate contamination of treated water could be eliminated by rinsing with one bed volume of fresh brine. PMID:23276425

  12. Aniline-induced nitrosative stress in rat spleen: Proteomic identification of nitrated proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Xiuzhen; Wang Jianling; Soman, Kizhake V.; Ansari, G.A.S.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2011-08-15

    Aniline exposure is associated with toxicity to the spleen which is characterized by splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis, and a variety of sarcomas on chronic exposure in rats. However, mechanisms by which aniline elicits splenotoxic responses are not well understood. Earlier we have shown that aniline exposure leads to increased nitration of proteins in the spleen. However, nitrated proteins remain to be characterized. Therefore, in the current study using proteomic approaches, we focused on characterizing the nitrated proteins in the spleen of aniline-exposed rats. Aniline exposure led to increased tyrosine nitration of proteins, as determined by 2D Western blotting with anti-3-nitrotyrosine specific antibody, compared to the controls. The analyzed nitrated proteins were found in the molecular weight range of 27.7 to 123.6 kDa. A total of 37 nitrated proteins were identified in aniline-treated and control spleens. Among them, 25 were found only in aniline-treated rats, 11 were present in both aniline-treated and control rats, while one was found in controls only. The nitrated proteins identified mainly represent skeletal proteins, chaperones, ferric iron transporter, enzymes, nucleic acids binding protein, and signaling and protein synthesis pathways. Furthermore, aniline exposure led to significantly increased iNOS mRNA and protein expression in the spleen, suggesting its role in increased reactive nitrogen species formation and contribution to increased nitrated proteins. The identified nitrated proteins provide a global map to further investigate alterations in their structural and functional properties, which will lead to a better understanding of the role of protein nitration in aniline-mediated splenic toxicity. - Highlights: > Proteomic approaches are used to identify nitrated proteins in the spleen. > Twenty five nitrated proteins were found only in the spleen of aniline-treated rats. > Aniline exposure led to increased iNOS mRNA and protein expression in

  13. Effect of nitrate, organic carbon, and temperature on potential denitrification rates in nitrate-rich riverbed sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfenning, K.S.; McMahon, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    A study conducted in 1994 as part of the US Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, South Platte River Basin investigation, examined the effect of certain environmental factors on potential denitrification rates in nitrate-rich riverbed sediments. The acetylene block technique was used to measure nitrous oxide (N2O) production rates in laboratory incubations of riverbed sediments to evaluate the effect of varying nitrate concentrations, organic carbon concentrations and type, and water temperature on potential denitrification rates. Sediment incubations amended with nitrate, at concentrations ranging from 357 to 2142 ??mol l-1 (as measured in the field), produced no significant increase (P > 0.05) in N2O production rates, indicating that the denitrification potential in these sediments was not nitrate limited. In contrast, incubations amended with acetate as a source of organic carbon, at concentrations ranging from 0 to 624 ??mol l-1, produced significant increases (P < 0.05) in N2O production rates with increased organic carbon concentration, indicating that the denitrification potential in these sediments was organic carbon limited. Furthermore, N2O production rates also were affected by the type of organic carbon available as an electron donor. Acetate and surface-water-derived fulvic acid supported higher N2O production rates than groundwater-derived fulvic acid or sedimentary organic carbon. Lowering incubation temperatures from 22 to 4??C resulted in about a 77% decrease in the N2O production rates. These results help to explain findings from previous studies indicating that only 15-30% of nitrate in groundwater was denitrified before discharging to the South Platte River and that nitrate concentrations in the river generally were higher in winter than in summer.

  14. Electroactive Materials for Anion Separation - Technetium from Nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Sukamto, Johanes H.; Smyrl, William H.; McBreen, James; Hubler, Timothy L.; Lilga, Michael A.

    2000-06-01

    Many contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) exist as anions. These include the high priority pollutants chromate, pertechnetate, and nitrate ions. In addition, there are also industrial and urban applications where the separation of anionic species from aqueous streams is critical. Examples include industrial water recycle and waste water treatment (e.g., chloride ion removal for the pulp and paper industry, borate ion in the chemical and nuclear industries) and drinking water and agricultural waste treatment (e.g., nitrate removal). In the proposed research, technetium is chosen as the target pollutant. Because of its half-life of 213,000 years, technetium (99Tc) presents a long-term hazard for waste disposal. Much of the 99Tc in the tank wastes is present as pertechnetate (TcO4-), accounting for its high solubility and mobility in aqueous systems. Several sorbents are available for removing TcO4- from alkaline waste brines, but each has important drawbacks. The use of commercial ion exchange (IX) resins to extract TcO4-, e.g., Reillex{trademark}-HPQ (Reilly Industries) and ABEC 5000 (Eichrom Industries), generates significant secondary waste. The elution of TcO4- from Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resins requires either concentrated nitric acid or a concentrated caustic solution of ethylene-diamine containing a small amount of tin chloride. This eluant has a short shelf life requiring frequent preparation, and the 99Tc is delivered in a complexed, reduced form. While TcO4- can be eluted from ABEC 5000 resins using de-ionized water, the much-reduced capacity of ABEC 5000 resins in comparison to the Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resins leads to a low column capacity. In general, unwanted secondary wastes are generated because (1) the only effective eluant happens to be hazardous and/or (2) the IX material has a low capacity or selectivity for the target ion, resulting in more frequent elution and column replacements. Alternative IX materials that have

  15. Characterization of the Tuber borchii nitrate reductase gene and its role in ectomycorrhizae.

    PubMed

    Guescini, M; Pierleoni, R; Palma, F; Zeppa, S; Vallorani, L; Potenza, L; Sacconi, C; Giomaro, G; Stocchi, V

    2003-09-01

    The nitrate assimilation pathway represents a useful model system in which to study the contribution of a mycorrhizal fungus to the nitrogen nutrition of its host plant. In the present work we cloned and characterized the nitrate reductase gene (tbnr1) from Tuber borchii. The coding region of tbnr1 is 2,787 nt in length, and it encodes a protein of 929 amino acids. Biochemical and Northern-blot analyses revealed that nitrate assimilation in T. borchii is an inducible system that responds mainly to nitrate. Furthermore, we cloned a nitrate reductase cDNA (tpnr1) from Tilia platyphyllos to set up a quantitative real-time PCR assay that would allow us to determine the fungal contribution to nitrate assimilation in ectomycorrhizal tissue. Using this approach we demonstrated that the level of tbnr1 expression in ectomycorhizae is eight times higher than in free-living mycelia, whereas tpnr1 transcription was found to be down-regulated after the establishment of the symbiosis. Enzymatic assays showed that NADPH-dependent nitrite formation markedly increases in ectomycorrhizae. These findings imply that the fungal partner plays a fundamental role in nitrate assimilation by ectomycorrhizae. Amino acid determination by HPLC revealed higher levels of glutamate, glutamine and asparagine in symbiotic tissues compared with mycelial controls, thus suggesting that these amino acids may represent the compounds that serve to transfer nitrogen to the host plant. PMID:12898221

  16. New Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downtown Business Quarterly, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue explores lower Manhattan's burgeoning "New Media" industry, a growing source of jobs in lower Manhattan. The first article, "New Media Manpower Issues" (Rodney Alexander), addresses manpower, training, and workforce demands faced by new media companies in New York City. The second article, "Case Study: Hiring @ Dynamid" (John…

  17. Media Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marklund, Inger, Ed.; Hanse, Mona-Britt, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The Swedish Media Panel is a research program about children and young persons and their use of mass media. The aim of the ten-year (1975-1985) project is to explain how media habits originate, how they change as children grow older, what factors on the part of children themselves and in their surroundings may be connected with a certain use of…

  18. A biological source of oceanic alkyl nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, E. E.; Lewis, C. B.; Velasco, F. L.; Escobar, C.; Kellogg, D.; Velcamp, M.

    2013-12-01

    Alkyl nitrates are an important component of reactive nitrogen in the troposphere. The oceans are a source of alkyl nitrates to the atmosphere, however the source of alkyl nitrates in the oceans is unknown. It has been demonstrated that the reaction of alkyl peroxy radicals (ROO) with nitric oxide (NO) produces alkyl nitrates in the aqueous phase. We hypothesize that alkyl nitrates may be formed by organisms through the same reaction and therefore biological production could be a source of alkyl nitrates to the troposphere. This work focuses on the production of alkyl nitrates by the diatoms Chaetoceros muelleri and Thalassiosira weisfloggi. Using chemostats, we measure alkyl nitrates formed under nitrate limited conditions. We also use triggers and inhibitors of nitric oxide formation to determine if alkyl nitrate formation is affected by changes in NO production. To date, the rates of production of alkyl nitrates in our cultures, lead us to estimate a production rate on the order of femtomolar/day for C1-C3 alkyl nitrates by diatom species in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. This suggests that diatoms may contribute to the overall ocean source of alkyl nitrates; however, it is possible that other types of phytoplankton, such as cyanobacteria, that are more abundant in the open ocean, may contribute to a greater extent.

  19. Performance of experimental bioreactors developed for removing nitrate from nursery runoff water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bacterial-based bioreactor containing Kaldness media as a substrate for bacteria to grow on was established at a commercial nursery. Data from approximately 90 sampling events are reported. Results indicate that the system, when properly managed, offers much potential for removing nitrate from s...

  20. Determining nitrate and ammonium requirements for optimal in vitro response of diverse pear species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inorganic nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) are the two major components in nitrogen (N) nutrition of typical tissue culture growth media, and the total amounts and ratios influence both shoot induction and differentiation. This study was designed to determine the optimal N requirements and NH4+ to...

  1. Short-Term Effects of a High Nitrate Diet on Nitrate Metabolism in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bondonno, Catherine P.; Liu, Alex H.; Croft, Kevin D.; Ward, Natalie C.; Puddey, Ian B.; Woodman, Richard J.; Hodgson, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary nitrate, through the enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, can improve blood pressure and arterial stiffness. How long systemic nitrate and nitrite remain elevated following cessation of high nitrate intake is unknown. In 19 healthy men and women, the time for salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite to return to baseline after 7 days increased nitrate intake from green leafy vegetables was determined. Salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite was measured at baseline [D0], end of high nitrate diet [D7], day 9 [+2D], day 14 [+7D] and day 21 [+14D]. Urinary nitrite and nitrate was assessed at D7 and +14D. Increased dietary nitrate for 7 days resulted in a more than fourfold increase in saliva and plasma nitrate and nitrite (p < 0.001) measured at [D7]. At [+2D] plasma nitrite and nitrate had returned to baseline while saliva nitrate and nitrite were more than 1.5 times higher than at baseline levels. By [+7D] all metabolites had returned to baseline levels. The pattern of response was similar between men and women. Urinary nitrate and nitrate was sevenfold higher at D7 compared to +14D. These results suggest that daily ingestion of nitrate may be required to maintain the physiological changes associated with high nitrate intake. PMID:25774606

  2. Thermal Decomposition of Nitrated Tributyl Phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Paddleford, D.F.; Hou, Y.; Barefield, E.K.; Tedder, D.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    Contact between tributyl phosphate and aqueous solutions of nitric acid and/or heavy metal nitrate salts at elevated temperatures can lead to exothermic reactions of explosive violence. Even though such operations have been routinely performed safely for decades as an intrinsic part of the Purex separation processes, several so-called ``red oil`` explosions are known to have occurred in the United States, Canada, and the former Soviet Union. The most recent red oil explosion occurred at the Tomsk-7 separations facility in Siberia, in April 1993. That explosion destroyed part of the unreinforced masonry walls of the canyon-type building in which the process was housed, and allowed the release of a significant quantity of radioactive material.

  3. Compost product optimization for surface water nitrate treatment in biofiltration applications.

    PubMed

    Alcala, Martin; Jones, Kim D; Ren, Jianhong; Andreassen, Thomas E

    2009-09-01

    Compost based material has been proposed for use as media for biofiltration for environmental restoration in many areas to remediate contaminated water and soil. The objective of this project was to develop techniques to produce compost products for nitrate removal in storm water biofiltration applications, from typical solid waste materials. Compost products were manufactured from different feedstocks and evaluated for their nitrate removal efficiencies. Three different compost products manufactured from varying feedstock amounts of wood chips and grass clippings, along with some dry compost material from the City of Brownsville Municipal Landfill Facility (BMLF), were evaluated using column studies. Indicators of the compost product's quality included moisture % content, pH, and conductivity measurements. The columns were loaded with water containing at least 13.5mg/L nitrate-nitrogen and effluent water from the columns was tested to determine the nitrate reduction for the different products. All of the manufactured compost products and the BMLF material removed some nitrate. The project demonstrated that compost product materials can be effectively used for some nitrate removal for surface water quality improvement and that compost product feedstocks and blends can influence the materials capability for nitrate removal. PMID:19375308

  4. Practical Application of Electrochemical Nitrate Sensor under Laboratory and Forest Nursery Conditions.

    PubMed

    Caron, William-Olivier; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S; Viens, Jeff; Messaddeq, Younès

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of nitrate leaching to ensure greater protection of groundwater quality has become a global issue. The development of new technologies for more accurate dosing of nitrates helps optimize fertilization programs. This paper presents the practical application of a newly developed electrochemical sensor designed for in situ quantification of nitrate. To our knowledge, this paper is the first to report the use of electrochemical impedance to determine nitrate concentrations in growing media under forest nursery conditions. Using impedance measurements, the sensor has been tested in laboratory and compared to colorimetric measurements of the nitrate. The developed sensor has been used in water-saturated growing medium and showed good correlation to certified methods, even in samples obtained over a multi-ion fertilisation season. A linear and significant relationship was observed between the resistance and the concentration of nitrates (R² = 0.972), for a range of concentrations of nitrates. We also observed stability of the sensor after exposure of one month to the real environmental conditions of the forest nursery. PMID:27483266

  5. Dietary nitrate and cardiovascular health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahluwalia, A.; Gladwin, M.T.; Harman, Jane L.; Ward, M.H.; Nolan, Bernard T.

    2014-01-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened this workshop to discuss the results of recent research on the effects of inorganic nitrate and nitrite on the cardiovascular system, possible long term effects of these compounds in the diet and drinking water, and future research needs including population-wide effects examined through epidemiological studies.

  6. Biological denitrification of high concentration nitrate waste

    DOEpatents

    Francis, Chester W.; Brinkley, Frank S.

    1977-01-01

    Biological denitrification of nitrate solutions at concentrations of greater than one kilogram nitrate per cubic meter is accomplished anaerobically in an upflow column having as a packing material a support for denitrifying bacteria.

  7. Assessment of the Early Effects of 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-Acetic Acid Using Macromolecular Contrast Media-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Ectopic Versus Orthotopic Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, Mukund Bellnier, David A.; Cheney, Richard T.

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the early effects of a vascular disrupting agent (VDA) in ectopic and orthotopic tumors by using macromolecular contrast media (MMCM)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MMCM-MRI). Methods and Materials: The MMCM-MRI of ectopic and orthotopic MCA205 murine fibrosarcomas was performed using the intravascular contrast agent albumin-(gadopentetate dimeglumine){sub 35}. Change in longitudinal relaxation rate ({delta}R1) was measured 24 hours after treatment with 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA; 30 mg/kg) and used to compute tumor vascular volume and permeability. Correlative histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation was carried out, along with measurement of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in whole tumor extracts using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Orthotopic tumors showed higher vascular volume (p < 0.05) than ectopic tumors before treatment. Twenty-four hours after DMXAA treatment, a significant (p < 0.0001), but differential, decrease in {delta}R1 (70% in ectopic and 50% in orthotopic tumors) was observed compared with baseline estimates. Consistent with this observation, greater levels of tumor necrosis factor {alpha}, an important mediator of the antivascular activity of DMXAA, were measured in ectopic tumors 3 hours posttreatment compared with orthotopic tumors (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemical (CD31) and histologic (hematoxylin and eosin) sections of ectopic and orthotopic tumors showed highly tumor-selective vascular damage after treatment with the presence of viable surrounding normal tissue. Conclusions: The MMCM-MRI provided early quantitative estimates of change in tumor perfusion after VDA treatment that showed good correlation with cytokine induction. Differences in the response of ectopic and orthotopic tumors highlight the influence of the host microenvironment in modulating the activity of VDAs.

  8. Electron-exchange rates of polypyridine complexes: electron-transfer reactions involving the tris(polypyridine)nickel(II/III) couple in acidic aqueous media

    SciTech Connect

    Macartney, D.H.; Sutin, N.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of NiL/sub 3//sup 3 +/ by NiL'/sub 3//sup 2 +/ complexes (where L and L' are substituted 2,2'-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives) and by NiH/sub 2/A/sup 2 +/ (H/sub 2/A = 3,14-dimethyl-4,7,10,13-tetraazahexadeca-3,13-diene-2,15-dione dioxime), tris(5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II), and Fe(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/ in acidic aqueous media have been studied by the stopped-flow technique. The kinetic data yield 1.5 x 10/sup 3/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ for the NiL/sub 3//sup 2 +/-NiL/sub 3//sup 3 +/ self-exchange rate constant at 25/sup 0/C and 1.00 M ionic strength. The Fe(H/sub 2/O)/sup 62 +/ reduction of both Ni(4,4'-(CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/bpy)/sub 3//sup 3 +/ and Ni(bpy)/sub 3//sup 3 +/ is 10/sup 2/ times slower than predicted by the Marcus cross-relation, and reasons for this disagreement are discussed. The rate constant for the Ni(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +/-Ni(bpy)/sub 3//sup 3 +/ exchange is compared with other tris(2,2'-bipyridine) exchange rate constants, and the rate variations are discussed in terms of differences in the inner-shell reorganization barriers and electronic factors for the reactions. 39 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  9. A Novel Chemical Nitrate Destruction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrates represent one of the most significant pollutant discharged to the Baltic Sea by the Sliiamae hydrometallurgical plant. This article contains a brief overview of the existing nitrate destruction technologies followed by the description of a new process developed by the authors. The new chemical process for nitrate destruction is cost effective and simple to operate. It converts the nitrate to nitrogen gas which goes to the atmosphere.

  10. Nitrate reduction in sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Marietou, Angeliki

    2016-08-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) gain their energy by coupling the oxidation of organic substrate to the reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Several SRBs are able to use alternative terminal electron acceptors to sulfate such as nitrate. Nitrate-reducing SRBs have been isolated from a diverse range of environments. In order to be able to understand the significance of nitrate reduction in SRBs, we need to examine the ecology and physiology of the nitrate-reducing SRB isolates. PMID:27364687

  11. Plasma nitrate and nitrite are increased by a high nitrate supplement, but not by high nitrate foods in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gary D.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Dove, Robin W.; Beavers, Daniel; Presley, Tennille; Helms, Christine; Bechtold, Erika; King, S. Bruce; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of dietary nitrate on the nitrate/nitrite/NO (nitric oxide) cycle in older adults. We examined the effect of a 3-day control diet vs. high nitrate diet, with and without a high nitrate supplement (beetroot juice), on plasma nitrate and nitrite kinetics, and blood pressure using a randomized four period cross-over controlled design. We hypothesized that the high nitrate diet would show higher levels of plasma nitrate/nitrite and blood pressure compared to the control diet, which would be potentiated by the supplement. Participants were eight normotensive older men and women (5 female, 3 male, 72.5±4.7 yrs) with no overt disease or medications that affect NO metabolism. Plasma nitrate and nitrite levels and blood pressure were measured prior to and hourly for 3 hours after each meal. The mean daily changes in plasma nitrate and nitrite were significantly different from baseline for both control diet+supplement (p<0.001 and =0.017 for nitrate and nitrite, respectively) and high nitrate diet+supplement (p=0.001 and 0.002), but not for control diet (p=0.713 and 0.741) or high nitrate diet (p=0.852 and 0.500). Blood pressure decreased from the morning baseline measure to the three 2 hr post-meal follow-up time-points for all treatments, but there was no main effect for treatment. In healthy older adults, a high nitrate supplement consumed at breakfast elevated plasma nitrate and nitrite levels throughout the day. This observation may have practical utility for the timing of intake of a nitrate supplement with physical activity for older adults with vascular dysfunction. PMID:22464802

  12. Clorate Metabolism in Pure Cultures of E.Coli 0157:H7 Pretreated with Either Nitrate or Chlorate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of 5, 7.5, and 10 mM nitrate, and 5, 10, or 20 mM chlorate on total E. coli counts, chlorate metabolism, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in anaerobic ruminal fluid cultures. Nitrate did not affect total E. coli counts (P = 0.05), chlor...

  13. Metolachor-ESA as a marker for nitrate flux in a first-order stream and riparian zones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There appears to be a connection with nitrate cycling in subsurface systems of the soil and metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA) which is a major environmental metabolite of metolachlor. This linkage has the potential to better define agricultural inputs of nitrate versus non-agricultural source...

  14. Enrichment and detection of tyrosine-nitrated proteins.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Frank; Abello, Nicolas; Wisastra, Rosalina; Bischoff, Rainer

    2012-08-01

    Nitrotyrosine is a post-translationally modified amino acid with distinctly different properties than tyrosine or any other of the genetically encoded amino acids. Detecting proteins containing nitrotyrosine is the first step towards a better understanding of the role of nitrotyrosine in health and disease. Moreover, quantifying the extent of nitrotyrosine and determining its location in a protein forms the basis for a better understanding of the effect of tyrosine nitration on biological function. Described in this unit is a method to detect tyrosine-nitrated proteins in tissue sections and on western blots after creating a fluorescent complex between aminotyrosine, salicylaldehyde, and Al(3+). In addition, an approach is detailed for labeling aminotyrosine with biotin to enrich peptides from complex samples. Both methods require reduction of nitrotyrosine to aminotyrosine, which can be achieved with sodium dithionite or hemin plus dithiothreitol. PMID:22851496

  15. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  16. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  17. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  18. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  19. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  20. Efflux Of Nitrate From Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.; Aslam, M.; Ward, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments to measure influx, and efflux of nitrate from hydroponically grown wheat seedlings. Ratio between efflux and influx greater in darkness than in light; increased with concentration of nitrate in nutrient solution. On basis of experiments, authors suggest nutrient solution optimized at lowest possible concentration of nitrate.

  1. Post-translational Regulation of Nitrate Reductase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate reductase (NR) catalyzes the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, which is the first step in the nitrate assimilation pathway, but can also reduce nitrite to nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule that is thought to mediate a wide array of of developmental and physiological processes...

  2. Nitration of Naphthol: A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowery, Dwight F.

    1982-01-01

    Products of nitrations, upon distillation or steam distillation, may produce dermatitis in some students. A procedure for nitration of beta-naphthol producing a relatively non-volatile product not purified by steam distillation is described. Nitration of alpha-naphthol by the same procedure yields Martius Yellow dye which dyes wool yellow or…

  3. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a...

  4. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing agent in the processing of...

  5. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  6. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  7. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  8. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    DOEpatents

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-12-23

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent.

  9. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  10. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  11. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified foods in accordance with...

  12. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  13. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  14. Nitrate Reduction to Nitrite, Nitric Oxide and Ammonia by Gut Bacteria under Physiological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tiso, Mauro; Schechter, Alan N.

    2015-01-01

    The biological nitrogen cycle involves step-wise reduction of nitrogen oxides to ammonium salts and oxidation of ammonia back to nitrites and nitrates by plants and bacteria. Neither process has been thought to have relevance to mammalian physiology; however in recent years the salivary bacterial reduction of nitrate to nitrite has been recognized as an important metabolic conversion in humans. Several enteric bacteria have also shown the ability of catalytic reduction of nitrate to ammonia via nitrite during dissimilatory respiration; however, the importance of this pathway in bacterial species colonizing the human intestine has been little studied. We measured nitrite, nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia formation in cultures of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species grown at different sodium nitrate concentrations and oxygen levels. We found that the presence of 5 mM nitrate provided a growth benefit and induced both nitrite and ammonia generation in E.coli and L.plantarum bacteria grown at oxygen concentrations compatible with the content in the gastrointestinal tract. Nitrite and ammonia accumulated in the growth medium when at least 2.5 mM nitrate was present. Time-course curves suggest that nitrate is first converted to nitrite and subsequently to ammonia. Strains of L.rhamnosus, L.acidophilus and B.longum infantis grown with nitrate produced minor changes in nitrite or ammonia levels in the cultures. However, when supplied with exogenous nitrite, NO gas was readily produced independently of added nitrate. Bacterial production of lactic acid causes medium acidification that in turn generates NO by non-enzymatic nitrite reduction. In contrast, nitrite was converted to NO by E.coli cultures even at neutral pH. We suggest that the bacterial nitrate reduction to ammonia, as well as the related NO formation in the gut, could be an important aspect of the overall mammalian nitrate/nitrite/NO metabolism and is yet another way in which the microbiome

  15. Nitrate reduction to nitrite, nitric oxide and ammonia by gut bacteria under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Tiso, Mauro; Schechter, Alan N

    2015-01-01

    The biological nitrogen cycle involves step-wise reduction of nitrogen oxides to ammonium salts and oxidation of ammonia back to nitrites and nitrates by plants and bacteria. Neither process has been thought to have relevance to mammalian physiology; however in recent years the salivary bacterial reduction of nitrate to nitrite has been recognized as an important metabolic conversion in humans. Several enteric bacteria have also shown the ability of catalytic reduction of nitrate to ammonia via nitrite during dissimilatory respiration; however, the importance of this pathway in bacterial species colonizing the human intestine has been little studied. We measured nitrite, nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia formation in cultures of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species grown at different sodium nitrate concentrations and oxygen levels. We found that the presence of 5 mM nitrate provided a growth benefit and induced both nitrite and ammonia generation in E.coli and L.plantarum bacteria grown at oxygen concentrations compatible with the content in the gastrointestinal tract. Nitrite and ammonia accumulated in the growth medium when at least 2.5 mM nitrate was present. Time-course curves suggest that nitrate is first converted to nitrite and subsequently to ammonia. Strains of L.rhamnosus, L.acidophilus and B.longum infantis grown with nitrate produced minor changes in nitrite or ammonia levels in the cultures. However, when supplied with exogenous nitrite, NO gas was readily produced independently of added nitrate. Bacterial production of lactic acid causes medium acidification that in turn generates NO by non-enzymatic nitrite reduction. In contrast, nitrite was converted to NO by E.coli cultures even at neutral pH. We suggest that the bacterial nitrate reduction to ammonia, as well as the related NO formation in the gut, could be an important aspect of the overall mammalian nitrate/nitrite/NO metabolism and is yet another way in which the microbiome

  16. Formation kinetics and abundance of organic nitrates in α-pinene ozonolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkemeier, Thomas; Ammann, Markus; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2016-04-01

    Formation of organic nitrates affects the total atmospheric budget of oxidized nitrogen (NOy) and alters the total aerosol mass yield from secondary sources. We investigated the formation of organic nitrate species during ozonolysis of α-pinene and subsequent formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) using the short-lived radioactive tracer 13N inside an aerosol flow reactor (Ammann et al., 2001). The results represent direct measurements of the organic nitrate content of α-pinene secondary aerosol and give insight into the kinetics of organic nitrate formation. Organic nitrates constituted up to 40 % of aerosol mass with a pronounced influence during the initial period of particle growth. Kinetic modelling, as well as additional experiments using OH scavengers and UV irradiation, suggests that organic peroxy radicals (RO2) from the reaction of α-pinene with secondarily produced OH are important intermediates in the organic nitrate formation process. Direct oxidation of α-pinene by NO3 was found to be a less efficient pathway for formation of particle phase nitrate. The organic nitrate content decreased very slightly with an increase of relative humidity on the experimental time scale. The experiments show a tight correlation between organic nitrate content and SOA number concentrations, implying that organic nitrates play an important role in nucleation and growth of nanoparticles. Since present in large amounts in organic aerosol, organic nitrates deposited in the lung might have implications for human health as they release nitric acid upon hydrolysis, especially in regions influenced by urban pollution and large sources of monoterpene SOA precursors. References Ammann et al. (2001) Radiochimica Acta 89, 831.

  17. Protective effect of salivary nitrate and microbial nitrate reductase activity against caries.

    PubMed

    Doel, J J; Hector, M P; Amirtham, C V; Al-Anzan, L A; Benjamin, N; Allaker, R P

    2004-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that a combination of high salivary nitrate and high nitrate-reducing capacity are protective against dental caries, 209 children attending the Dental Institute, Barts and The London NHS Trust were examined. Salivary nitrate and nitrite levels, counts of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp., and caries experience were recorded. Compared with control subjects, a significant reduction in caries experience was found in patients with high salivary nitrate and high nitrate-reducing ability. Production of nitrite from salivary nitrate by commensal nitrate-reducing bacteria may limit the growth of cariogenic bacteria as a result of the production of antimicrobial oxides of nitrogen, including nitric oxide. PMID:15458501

  18. Nitrate in Ground Waters of the United States: Contrasting Scales and Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, B. T.

    2002-12-01

    Carolina-Virginia Coastal Plain contain sufficient organic carbon (4.2 mg/L) for bacterial reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas, and median nitrate concentration in the area is <0.05 mg/L. Median depth to water in the area is about 2 m. In contrast, nitrate concentration is high (median = 4.6 mg/L) in ground water samples from the Great Valley Carbonate area of the Potomac River Basin. Acidic water creates solution channels in carbonate rocks that readily convey nitrate and other contaminants to ground water. Nitrate concentration is related to land use and point estimates of ground-water recharge in a subregional scale study conducted in a North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer in southern New Jersey. The recharge estimates are based on pedotransfer functions that relate water-retention parameters to measured soil texture and bulk density. Ranked nitrate concentration was grouped by low (29.1 cm/yr or less) and high (>29.1 cm/yr) recharge categories in a two-way analysis of variance that compensated for land use. Nitrate concentration is significantly lower in the high recharge category (p = 0.024), suggesting possible dilution by infiltrating water or by bulk flow within the aquifer. This is in contrast to the leaching process indicated by the national-scale model. Although median depth to ground water in the area is only about 1 m, median nitrate concentration is 5.5 mg/L in the low recharge category and 2.4 mg/L in the high recharge category, irrespective of land use. The high nitrate concentration relative to ground waters of the North Carolina-Virginia Coastal Plain indicates that denitrification is not a mitigating factor in the southern New Jersey study area.

  19. Modeling the Current and Future Roles of Particulate Organic Nitrates in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Pye, Havala O T; Luecken, Deborah J; Xu, Lu; Boyd, Christopher M; Ng, Nga L; Baker, Kirk R; Ayres, Benjamin R; Bash, Jesse O; Baumann, Karsten; Carter, William P L; Edgerton, Eric; Fry, Juliane L; Hutzell, William T; Schwede, Donna B; Shepson, Paul B

    2015-12-15

    Organic nitrates are an important aerosol constituent in locations where biogenic hydrocarbon emissions mix with anthropogenic NOx sources. While regional and global chemical transport models may include a representation of organic aerosol from monoterpene reactions with nitrate radicals (the primary source of particle-phase organic nitrates in the Southeast United States), secondary organic aerosol (SOA) models can underestimate yields. Furthermore, SOA parametrizations do not explicitly take into account organic nitrate compounds produced in the gas phase. In this work, we developed a coupled gas and aerosol system to describe the formation and subsequent aerosol-phase partitioning of organic nitrates from isoprene and monoterpenes with a focus on the Southeast United States. The concentrations of organic aerosol and gas-phase organic nitrates were improved when particulate organic nitrates were assumed to undergo rapid (τ = 3 h) pseudohydrolysis resulting in nitric acid and nonvolatile secondary organic aerosol. In addition, up to 60% of less oxidized-oxygenated organic aerosol (LO-OOA) could be accounted for via organic nitrate mediated chemistry during the Southern Oxidants and Aerosol Study (SOAS). A 25% reduction in nitrogen oxide (NO + NO2) emissions was predicted to cause a 9% reduction in organic aerosol for June 2013 SOAS conditions at Centreville, Alabama. PMID:26544021

  20. Prediction of Coarse Particle Nitrate From Fine Particle Measurements in a Coastal Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, S. W.; Evans, M. C.; Poor, N. D.

    2003-12-01

    Nutrient induced algal growth is one cause of decreased seagrass in the Tampa Bay Estuary. This influx of nutrients arises from the presence of fixed nitrogen in various flows and discharges to the estuary and from atmospheric deposition. One of the goals of BRACE (Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) is to obtain improved estimates of the atmospheric nitrogen deposition to Tampa Bay. Previous estimates of atmospheric dry deposition of nitrogen to Tampa Bay have been based on Annular Denuder System (ADS) measurements of gaseous nitric acid and ammonia and fine particle (PM2.5) nitrate and ammonium, which extend back to 1996. However, recent coarse particle measurements indicate that, while ammonium primarily exists in fine particles, nitrate is preferentially found in the coarse fraction. The goal of this study is to examine whether the historical data for fine particle nitrate can be used to predict the amount of nitrate in the coarse fraction so as to obtain a more accurate estimate of dry particle deposition of nitrate to the Tampa Bay Estuary. Specifically, it is shown that averaged nitrate distributions obtained from recent micro-orifice impactor data can be used to predict the coarse to fine ratios observed for dichotomous samplers and the fine particle concentrations obtained from the Annular Denuder System. This provides some confidence that the impactor results may be used in conjunction with earlier fine particle data to obtain an estimate of coarse particle nitrate concentrations, and therefore an improved estimate of nitrate flux to the estuary.

  1. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D.

    1992-10-07

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F{sup {minus}} ions from the synthetic mix migrating across the cation exchange membrane and forming HF in the acid anolyte. Other possibilities for anode materials were explored. A membrane separation process was investigated which employs an anion and cation exchange membrane to remove nitrite and nitrate, recovering caustic and nitric acid. Present research has shown poor current efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate transport across the anion exchange membrane due to co-migration of hydroxide anions. Precipitates form within the anion exchange membranes which would eventually result in the failure of the membranes. Electrochemical processing offers a highly promising and viable method for the treatment of nitrate waste solutions.

  2. Electrochemical treatment of wastewater polluted by nitrate: selective reduction to N2 on boron-doped diamond cathode.

    PubMed

    Georgeaud, V; Diamand, A; Borrut, D; Grange, D; Coste, M

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical tests of nitrate reduction on Boron-Doped Diamond cathode are investigated through a Design of Experiments (DOE) method. The results show good reduction of nitrate into almost exclusively N2. In the studied domain, the best experimental conditions are high initial nitrate content, low acidic pH values and low working current densities. The application of DOE conclusions on an agro-industrial wastewater gives really satisfying results: final nitrate contents lower than 50 mg/L without nitrite or ammonium formation, and with low energy consumption (under 25 kWh/kgNO3). PMID:21252421

  3. Effects of nitrate injection on microbial enhanced oil recovery and oilfield reservoir souring.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcio Luis Busi; Soares, Hugo Moreira; Furigo, Agenor; Schmidell, Willibaldo; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

    2014-11-01

    Column experiments were utilized to investigate the effects of nitrate injection on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) inhibition and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). An indigenous microbial consortium collected from the produced water of a Brazilian offshore field was used as inoculum. The presence of 150 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFA´s) in the injection water contributed to a high biological electron acceptors demand and the establishment of anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions. Continuous injection of nitrate (up to 25 mg/L) for 90 days did not inhibit souring. Contrariwise, in nitrogen-limiting conditions, the addition of nitrate stimulated the proliferation of δ-Proteobacteria (including SRB) and the associated sulfide concentration. Denitrification-specific nirK or nirS genes were not detected. A sharp decrease in water interfacial tension (from 20.8 to 14.5 mN/m) observed concomitantly with nitrate consumption and increased oil recovery (4.3 % v/v) demonstrated the benefits of nitrate injection on MEOR. Overall, the results support the notion that the addition of nitrate, at this particular oil reservoir, can benefit MEOR by stimulating the proliferation of fortuitous biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Higher nitrate concentrations exceeding the stoichiometric volatile fatty acid (VFA) biodegradation demands and/or the use of alternative biogenic souring control strategies may be necessary to warrant effective SRB inhibition down gradient from the injection wells. PMID:25149457

  4. Continuous flow nitration in miniaturized devices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review highlights the state of the art in the field of continuous flow nitration with miniaturized devices. Although nitration has been one of the oldest and most important unit reactions, the advent of miniaturized devices has paved the way for new opportunities to reconsider the conventional approach for exothermic and selectivity sensitive nitration reactions. Four different approaches to flow nitration with microreactors are presented herein and discussed in view of their advantages, limitations and applicability of the information towards scale-up. Selected recent patents that disclose scale-up methodologies for continuous flow nitration are also briefly reviewed. PMID:24605161

  5. Ammonium nitrate and iron nutrition effects on some nitrogen assimilation enzymes and metabolites in Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Esen, Merve; Ozturk Urek, Raziye

    2015-01-01

    The effect of various concentrations of ammonium nitrate (5-60 mM), an economical nitrogen source, on the growth, nitrate-ammonium uptake rates, production of some pigments and metabolites, and some nitrogen assimilation enzymes such as nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in Spirulina platensis (Gamont) Geitler was investigated. Ten millimolars of ammonium nitrate stimulated the growth, production of pigments and the other metabolites, and enzyme activities, whereas 30 and 60 mM ammonium nitrate caused inhibition. In the presence of 10 mM ammonium nitrate, different concentrations of iron were tried in the growth media of S. platensis. After achieving the best growth, levels of metabolite and pigment production, and enzyme activities in the presence of 10 mM ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source, different iron concentrations (10-100 µM) were tried in the growth medium of S. platensis. The highest growth, pigment and metabolite levels, and enzyme activities were determined in the medium containing 50 µM iron and 10 mM ammonium nitrate. In this optimum condition, the highest dry biomass level, chlorophyll a, and pyruvate contents were obtained as 55.42 ± 3.8 mg mL(-1) , 93.114 ± 7.9 µg g(-1) , and 212.5 ± 18.7 µg g(-1) , respectively. The highest NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT activities were 67.16 ± 5.1, 777.92 ± 52, 0.141 ± 0.01, and 44.45 ± 3.6, respectively. Additionally, 10 mM ammonium nitrate is an economical and efficient nitrogen source for nitrogen assimilation of S. platensis, and 50 µM iron is optimum for the growth of S. platensis. PMID:25425155

  6. Deconstructing nitrate isotope dynamics in aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, J.

    2012-12-01

    The natural abundance N and O stable isotope ratios of nitrate provide an invaluable tool to differentiate N sources to the environment, track their dispersal, and monitor their attenuation by biological transformations. The interpretation of patterns in isotope abundances relies on knowledge of the isotope ratios of the source end-members, as well as on constraints on the isotope discrimination imposed on nitrate by respective biological processes. Emergent observations from mono-culture experiments of denitrifying bacteria reveal nitrate fractionation trends that appear at odds with trends ascribed to denitrification in soils and aquifers. This discrepancy raises the possibility that additional biological N transformations may be acting in tandem with denitrification. Here, the N and O isotope enrichments associated with nitrate removal by denitrification in aquifers are posited to bear evidence of coincident biological nitrate production - from nitrification and/or from anammox. Simulations are presented from a simple time-dependent one-box model of a groundwater mass ageing that is subject to net nitrate loss by denitrification with coincident nitrate production by nitrification or anammox. Within boundary conditions characteristic of freshwater aquifers, the apparent slope of the parallel enrichments in nitrate N and O isotopes associated with net N loss to denitrification can vary in proportion to the nitrate added simultaneous by oxidative processes. Pertinent observations from nitrate plumes in suboxic to anoxic aquifers are examined to validate this premise. In this perspective, nitrate isotope distributions suggest that we may be missing important N fluxes inherent to most aquifers.

  7. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, M.; Yoo, C. S.

    2014-05-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.

  8. Dietary nitrate supplementation and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew M

    2014-05-01

    Dietary nitrate is growing in popularity as a sports nutrition supplement. This article reviews the evidence base for the potential of inorganic nitrate to enhance sports and exercise performance. Inorganic nitrate is present in numerous foodstuffs and is abundant in green leafy vegetables and beetroot. Following ingestion, nitrate is converted in the body to nitrite and stored and circulated in the blood. In conditions of low oxygen availability, nitrite can be converted into nitric oxide, which is known to play a number of important roles in vascular and metabolic control. Dietary nitrate supplementation increases plasma nitrite concentration and reduces resting blood pressure. Intriguingly, nitrate supplementation also reduces the oxygen cost of submaximal exercise and can, in some circumstances, enhance exercise tolerance and performance. The mechanisms that may be responsible for these effects are reviewed and practical guidelines for safe and efficacious dietary nitrate supplementation are provided. PMID:24791915

  9. Intrinsic Hydration of Uranyl-Hydroxide, -Nitrate and -Acetate Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Winnie Chien; Dorothy Hanna; Victor Anbalagan; Garold Gresham; Gary Groenewold; Michael Van Stipdonk

    2004-06-01

    The intrinsic hydration of three monopositive uranyl-anion complexes (UO2A)+ (where A = acetate, nitrate, or hydroxide) was investigated using ion-trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). The relative rates for the formation of the monohydrates [(UO2A)(H2O)]+, with respect to the anion, followed the trend: Acetate = nitrate >> hydroxide. This finding was rationalized in terms of the donation of electron density by the strongly basic OH- to the uranyl metal center, thereby reducing the Lewis acidity of U and its propensity to react with incoming nucleophiles, viz., H2O. An alternative explanation is that the more complex acetate and nitrate anions provide increased degrees of freedom that could accommodate excess energy from the hydration reaction. The monohydrates also reacted with water, forming dihydrates and then trihydrates. The rates for formation of the nitrate and acetate dihydrates [(UO2A)(H2O)2]+ were very similar to the rates for formation of the monohydrates; the presence of the first H2O ligand had no influence on the addition of the second. In contrast, formation of the [(UO2OH)(H2O)2]+ was nearly three times faster than the formation of the monohydrate.

  10. High performance ammonium nitrate propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A high performance propellant having greatly reduced hydrogen chloride emission is presented. It is comprised of: (1) a minor amount of hydrocarbon binder (10-15%), (2) at least 85% solids including ammonium nitrate as the primary oxidizer (about 40% to 70%), (3) a significant amount (5-25%) powdered metal fuel, such as aluminum, (4) a small amount (5-25%) of ammonium perchlorate as a supplementary oxidizer, and (5) optionally a small amount (0-20%) of a nitramine.

  11. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  12. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  13. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  14. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  15. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  16. Nitrate removal with sulfur-limestone autotrophic denitrification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Flere, J.M.; Zhang, T.C.

    1999-08-01

    Nitrate removal using sulfur and limestone autotrophic denitrification (SLAD) processes was evaluated with four laboratory-scale fixed-bed column reactors. The research objectives were (1) to determine the optimum design criteria of the fixed-bed SLAD columns; and (2) to evaluate the effects of biofouling on the SLAD column performance. A maximum denitrification rate of 384 g NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N(m{sup 3}{center_dot}day) was achieved at a loading rate between 600 and 700 g NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N(m{sup 3}{center_dot}day). The effluent nitrite concentration started to rise gradually once the loading rate was above 600 g NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N(m{sup 3}{center_dot}day). A loading rate between 175 and 225 g NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N(m{sup 3}{center_dot}day) achieved the maximum nitrate-N removal efficiency ({approximately}95%). Biofouling was evaluated based on tracer studies, the measured biofilm thickness, and modeling. The porosities of the columns fluctuated with time, and the elongation of the filter media was observed. Biofouling caused short-circuiting and decreased nitrate removal efficiency. A SLAD column will require backwashing after 6 months of operation when the influent is synthetic ground water but will foul and require backwashing within 1--2 months when the influent is real ground water.

  17. The Impact of Nitration on the Structure and Immunogenicity of the Major Birch Pollen Allergen Bet v 1.0101

    PubMed Central

    Ackaert, Chloé; Kofler, Stefan; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta; Zulehner, Nora; Asam, Claudia; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Fuchs, Julian E.; Briza, Peter; Liedl, Klaus R.; Bohle, Barbara; Ferreira, Fátima; Brandstetter, Hans; Oostingh, Gertie J.; Duschl, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Allergy prevalence has increased in industrialized countries. One contributing factor could be pollution, which can cause nitration of allergens exogenously (in the air) or endogenously (in inflamed lung tissue). We investigated the impact of nitration on both the structural and immunological behavior of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101 to determine whether nitration might be a factor in the increased incidence of allergy. Bet v 1.0101 was nitrated with tetranitromethane. Immune effects were assessed by measuring the proliferation of specific T-cell lines (TCLs) upon stimulation with different concentrations of nitrated and unmodified allergen, and by measurement of cytokine release of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) and primary DCs (primDCs) stimulated with nitrated versus unmodified allergen. HPLC-MS, crystallography, gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, size exclusion chromatography and molecular dynamics simulation were performed to characterize structural changes after nitration of the allergen. The proliferation of specific TCLs was higher upon stimulation with the nitrated allergen in comparison to the unmodified allergen. An important structural consequence of nitration was oligomerization. Moreover, analysis of the crystal structure of nitrated Bet v 1.0101 showed that amino acid residue Y83, located in the hydrophobic cavity, was nitrated to 100%. Both moDCs and primDCs showed decreased production of TH1-priming cytokines, thus favoring a TH2 response. These results implicate that nitration of Bet v 1.0101 might be a contributing factor to the observed increase in birch pollen allergy, and emphasize the importance of protein modifications in understanding the molecular basis of allergenicity. PMID:25126882

  18. Structure and spectroscopy of hydrated neptunyl(VI) nitrate complexes.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist-Reis, Patric; Apostolidis, Christos; Walter, Olaf; Marsac, Remi; Banik, Nidhu Lal; Skripkin, Mikhail Yu; Rothe, Jörg; Morgenstern, Alfred

    2013-11-21

    Complexation between hexavalent neptunium and nitrate was studied in aqueous nitric acid solution using optical absorption, vibrational and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. Distributions of aqueous [NpO2](2+), [NpO2(NO3)](+) and [NpO2(NO3)2] species were obtained as a function of nitric acid concentration between 0 and 14 M. The crystal structure of [NpO2(NO3)2(H2O)2]·H2O was determined. PMID:24042456

  19. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1987-02-27

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

  20. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-01-01

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.