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Sample records for acidic organophosphorus extraction

  1. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium and thorium from nitric acid solutions with organophosphorus reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.; Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G. |

    1995-10-01

    Extraction techniques for the recovery of uranium and transuranic elements from acid waste solutions are important in nuclear waste management. This paper examines the feasibility of extracting uranyl and thorium ions from nitric acid solutions with supercritical CO{sub 2} containing the different organophosphorus reagents. In this study, an organophosphorus reagent is dissolved in supercritical CO{sub 2} by passing the fluid through a reagent vessel placed upstream of the sample vessel in the extractor. Using TBPO or TOPO in supercritical CO{sub 2}, effective extraction of uranyl and thorium ions can be achieved even in dilute HNO{sub 3} solutions, thus yielding the possibility of reducing acidic waste volumes in nuclear waste treatment. The results may form the basis of a novel extraction process for the treatment of acidified nuclear wastes, while minimizing the production of secondary wastes. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organophosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, N.; Wu, J.; Yu, Z.; Neuman, R.D.; Wang, D.; Xu, G.

    1997-01-01

    Three acidic extractants (I) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), (II) 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEHPEHE) and (III) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanide-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems. Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) results on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n-heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP. The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent, by which the mixed solvent was formed, increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates. Aggregates formed from the lanthanide ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable. In the case of naphthenic acid, PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent. The extraction of lanthanides by the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent under the given experimental conditions was a process of destruction of the w/o microemulsion. A possible mechanism of the breakdown of the w/o microemulsion droplets is discussed.

  3. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Toxic Heavy Metals and Uranium from Acidic Solutions with Sulfur-Containing Organophosphorus Reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yuehe ); Liu, Chongxuan ); Wu, Hong ); Yak, H K.; Wai, Chien M.

    2003-03-02

    The feasibility of using sulfur-containing organophosphorus reagents for the chelation-supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of toxic heavy metals and uranium from acidic media was investigated. The SFE experiments were conducted in a specially-designed flow-through liquid extractor. Effective extraction of the metal ions from various acidic media was demonstrated. The effect of ligand concentration in supercritical CO{sub 2} on the kinetics of metal extraction was studied. A simplified model is used to describe the extraction kinetics and the good agreement of experimental data with the equilibrium-based model is achieved.

  4. Recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid medium by polymeric composite beads encapsulating organophosphorus extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.K.; Yadav, K.K.; Varshney, L.; Singh, H.

    2013-07-01

    The present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of the poly-ethersulfone (PES) based composite beads encapsulating synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and Cyanex 923 (at 4:1 mole ratio) for the separation of uranium from phosphoric acid medium. SEM was used for the characterization of the composite materials. Addition of 1% PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) improved the internal morphology and porosity of the beads. Additionally, microscopic examination of the composite bead confirmed central coconut type cavity surrounded by porous polymer layer of the beads through which exchange of metal ions take place. Effect of various experimental variables including aqueous acidity, metal ion concentration in aqueous feed, concentration of organic extractant inside the beads, extractant to polymer ratio, liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and temperature on the extraction of uranium was studied. Increase in acidity (1-6 M), L/S ratio (1- 10), metal ion concentration (0.2-3 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and polymer to extractant ratio (1:4 -1:10) led to decrease in extraction of uranium. At 5.5 M (comparable to wet process phosphoric acid concentration) the extraction of uranium was about 85% at L/S ratio 5. Increase in extractant concentration inside the bead resulted in enhanced extraction of metal ion. Increase in temperature in the range of 30 to 50 Celsius degrees increased the extraction, whereas further increase to 70 C degrees led to the decrease in extraction of uranium. Amongst various reagents tested, stripping of uranium was quantitative by 12% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. Polymeric beads were found to be stable and reusable up-to 10 cycles of extraction/stripping. (authors)

  5. Bifunctional organophosphorus liquid-liquid extraction reagents: development and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, W.W.; Navratil, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    American and Russian workers have evidenced great interest in the last decade in the potential application of certain neutral and acidic bifunctional organophosphorus compounds in solvent extraction processes. Triggering this interest is the ability of some carbamoylmethylenephosphorus (CMP) and carbamoylmethylenephosphine oxide (CMPO) compounds to extract trivalent actinides and lanthanides from strong HNO/sub 3/ (>1 M) solutions, a property which distinguishes them from monofunctional organophosphorus reagents. Investigators at several US Department of Energy laboratories have concentrated on synthesis of novel CMP and CMPO reagents and on reactions and mechanisms involved in extraction of metal ions from aqueous nitrate media; application of selected CMP and CMPO reagents in solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane recovery of metal values from nuclear waste solutions have been proposed. This paper, based upon a book now in preparation, provides a brief overview of the current status of the development and application of bifunctional organophosphorus extractants. 44 references, 4 tables.

  6. Bifunctional organophosphorus liquid-liquid extraction reagents: development and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, W.W.; Navratil, J.D.

    1984-03-13

    American and Russian workers have evidenced great interest in the last decade in the potential application of certain neutral and acidic bifunctional organophosphorus compounds in solvent extraction processes. Triggering this interest is the ability of some carbamoylmethylenephosphorus (CMP) and carbamoylmethylenephosphine oxide (CMPO) compounds to extract trivalent actinides and lanthanides from strong HNO/sub 3/ (>1M) solutions, a property which distinguishes them from monofunctional organophosphorus reagents. Investigators at several US Department of Energy laboratories have concentrated on synthesis of novel CMP and CMPO reagents and on reactions and mechanisms involved in extraction of metal ions from aqueous nitrate media; application of selected CMP and CMPO reagents in solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane recovery of metal values from nuclear waste solutions have been proposed. This paper, based upon a book now in preparation, provides a brief overview of the current status of the development and application of bifunctional organophosphorus extractants. 42 references, 4 tables.

  7. Synergistic selective extraction of actinides(III) over lanthanides from nitric acid using new aromatic diorganyldithiophosphinic acids and neutral organophosphorus compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Modolo, G.; Odoj, R.

    1999-01-01

    New aromatic dithiophosphinic acids (R{sub 2}PSSH) with R = C{sub 6}H{sub 5{sup {minus}}}, ClC{sub 6}H{sub 4{sup {minus}}}, FC{sub 6}H{sub 4{sup {minus}}} and CH{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 4{sup {minus}}} were synthesized, characterized and tested as potential separating agents for trivalent actinides over lanthanides. The extraction of Am(III), Eu(III) and other lanthanides was carried out from nitric acid medium with mixtures of R{sub 2}PSSHs and neutral organophosphorus compounds. There was no detectable extraction when R{sub 2}PSSHs were used alone as extractants for either Am(III) or Eu(III) (D{sub Am,Eu} < 10{sup {minus}3}) under the experimental conditions used in this study. High separation factors (D{sub Am}/D{sub Eu} > 20) with D{sub Am} > 1 were achieved in the nitric acid range 0.1--1 mol/L by means of a synergistic mixture of bis(chlorophenyl)dithiophosphinic acid + tributylphosphate (TBP), trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or tributylphosphine oxide (TBPO). The high radiation resistance (up to 10{sup 6} Gy absorbed {gamma}-doses) of the extractants was also demonstrated.

  8. Correlation of the asymmetric and symmetric POO{sup -} frequencies with the ionic potential of the metal ion in compounds of organophosphorus acid extractants : a short review.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraro, J. R.; Herlinger, A. W.; Chiarizia, R.; Chemistry; Loyola Univ.

    1998-01-01

    The correlation between [VASYM(POO-) - VASYM (POO-)], Av, and the ionic potential of the metal ion in metal compounds of alkyl-substituted diphosphonic acid extractants is reviewed. Similar correlations of the ionic potential of the metal ion with {Delta}v in organosubstituted monophosphate, organosubstituted monophosphonate, carbonate and nitrate compounds have been previously demonstrated. In this paper, we discuss the origin, general validity, and utility of the correlation for organophosphorus compounds. Far-infrared and {sup 54}Fe -labeled data were used to identify metal-oxygen stretching vibrations and establish that for some metal ions, e.g., Fe(III) and possibly Th(IV), the metal-oxygen interaction has substantial covalent character. The correlation appears to be valid not only for materials in which the metal-oxygen interaction is predominantly ionic, but also for compounds characterized by a covalent metal-oxygen bonding as well as for polymeric materials, providing the POO- stretching vibrations are assignable.

  9. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  10. Review of third phase formation in extraction of actinides by neutral organophosphorus extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.R.V.; Kolarik, Z.

    1996-11-01

    Data are reviewed on the information of third phase in the extraction of actinide(IV,VI) nitrates by neutral organophosphorus extractants, mainly tributyl phosphate. The data are critically evaluated and the effect of variables on the third phase formation is discussed. The variables are the concentrations of nitric acid and the extractant, temperature, the nature of diluent, addition of modifiers and the ionic strength of the aqueous phase. Also discussed are systems involving two extracted actinide ions. 42 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Lanthanide sorbent based on magnetite nanoparticles functionalized with organophosphorus extractants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basualto, Carlos; Gaete, José; Molina, Lorena; Valenzuela, Fernando; Yañez, Claudia; Marco, Jose F.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, an adsorbent was prepared based on the attachment of organophosphorus acid extractants, namely, D2EHPA, CYANEX 272, and CYANEX 301, to the surface of superparamagnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were coated with oleic acid, first by a chemisorption mechanism and later by the respective extractant via physical adsorption. The obtained core-shell functionalized magnetite nanoparticle composites were characterized by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, infrared absorption and vibrating sample magnetometry. All the prepared nanoparticles exhibited a high saturation magnetization capacity that varied between 72 and 46 emu g-1 and decreased as the magnetite nanoparticle was coated with oleic acid and functionalized. The scope of this study also included adsorption tests for lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium and the corresponding analysis of their results. Sorption tests indicated that the functionalized nanoparticles were able to extract the four studied lanthanide metal ions, although the best extraction performance was observed when the sorbent was functionalized with CYANEX 272, which resulted in a loading capacity of approximately 12-14 mgLa/gMNP. The magnetization of the synthesized nanoparticles was verified during the separation of the lanthanide-loaded sorbent from the raffinate by using a conventional magnet.

  12. Method for purifying bidentate organophosphorus compounds

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1977-01-01

    Bidentate organophosphorus compounds useful for extracting actinide elements from acidic nuclear waste solutions are purified of undesirable acidic impurities by contacting the compounds with ethylene glycol which preferentially extracts the impurities found in technical grade bidentate compounds.

  13. Selective enrichment of the degradation products of organophosphorus nerve agents by zirconia based solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Kanaujia, Pankaj K; Pardasani, Deepak; Tak, Vijay; Purohit, Ajay K; Dubey, D K

    2011-09-23

    Selective extraction and enrichment of nerve agent degradation products has been achieved using zirconia based commercial solid-phase extraction cartridges. Target analytes were O-alkyl alkylphosphonic acids and alkylphosphonic acids, the environmental markers of nerve agents such as sarin, soman and VX. Critical extraction parameters such as modifier concentration, nature and volume of washing and eluting solvents were investigated. Amongst other anionic compounds, selectivity in extraction was observed for organophosphorus compounds. Recoveries of analytes were determined by GC-MS which ranged from 80% to 115%. Comparison of zirconia based solid-phase extraction method with anion-exchange solid-phase extraction revealed its selectivity towards phosphonic acids. The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) with selected analytes were achieved down to 4.3 and 8.5 ng mL(-1), respectively, in selected ion monitoring mode. PMID:21862029

  14. Development and computational modeling of novel bifunctional organophosphorus extractants for lanthanoid separation

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Uezu, Kazuya; Nakashio, Fumiyuki; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu; Inoue, Katsutoshi

    1999-08-01

    Novel organophosphorus extractants, which have two functional groups in the molecular structure, have been developed for the separation of lanthanoids using the liquid-liquid extraction technique. The separation efficiency and extractability of the novel extractants were investigated for nine lanthanoids. These bifunctional extractants have an extremely high extractability to all the lanthanoids compared to those of commercially available organophosphorus extractants. Two isomers having an identical chemical formulation show significantly different behaviors in lanthanoid extraction. This means that the extraction and separation abilities are quite sensitive to the structure of the spacer connecting the two functional groups. The authors also discuss the experimental results with a computational modeling by means of molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital methods. The novel molecular mechanics (MM) calculation program MOMEC enables them to analyze the stable conformation of a series of lanthanoid complexes. The calculation suggests that the structural effect of the spacer is one of the decisive factors for enhancing selectivity and extractability in lanthanoid extraction.

  15. Bidentate organophosphorus solvent extraction process for actinide recovery and partition

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1976-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery and partitioning of actinide values from acidic nuclear waste aqueous solutions, the actinide values including trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent oxidation states is provided and includes the steps of contacting the aqueous solution with a bidentate organophosphorous extractant to extract essentially all of the actinide values into the organic phase. Thereafter the respective actinide fractions are selectively partitioned into separate aqueous solutions by contact with dilute nitric or nitric-hydrofluoric acid solutions. The hexavalent uranium is finally removed from the organic phase by contact with a dilute sodium carbonate solution.

  16. Fluid extraction using carbon dioxide and organophosphorus chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Smart, N.G.; Wai, C.M.; Lin, Y.; Kwang, Y.H.

    1998-11-24

    Methods for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical CO{sub 2}, and a chelating agent are described. The chelating agent forms a chelate with the species, the chelate being soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical CO{sub 2} and the chelating agent comprises an organophosphorous chelating agent, particularly sulfur-containing organophosphorous chelating agents, including mixtures of chelating agents. Examples of chelating agents include monothiophosphinic acid, di-thiophosphinic acid, phosphine sulfite, phosphorothioic acid, and mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metal and metalloids from industrial waste solutions, particularly acidic solutions. Both the chelate and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated and the contaminant species recovered to provide an economic, efficient process. 1 fig.

  17. Fluid extraction using carbon dioxide and organophosphorus chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Smart, Neil G.; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe; Kwang, Yak Hwa

    1998-01-01

    Methods for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical CO.sub.2, and a chelating agent are described. The chelating agent forms a chelate with the species, the chelate being soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical CO.sub.2 and the chelating agent comprises an organophosphorous chelating agent, particularly sulfur-containing organophosphorous chelating agents, including mixtures of chelating agents. Examples of chelating agents include monothiophosphinic acid, di-thiophosphinic acid, phosphine sulfite, phosphorothioic acid, and mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metal and metalloids from industrial waste solutions, particularly acidic solutions. Both the chelate and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated and the contaminant species recovered to provide an economic, efficient process.

  18. Integrated microwave processing system for the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in fresh vegetables.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-03-01

    A simple and efficient integrated microwave processing system (IMPS) was firstly assembled and validated for the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in fresh vegetables. Two processes under microwave irradiation, dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) and microwave-accelerated solvent elution (MASE), were integrated for simplifying the pretreatment of the sample. Extraction, separation, enrichment and elution were finished in a simple step. The organophosphorus pesticides were extracted from the fresh vegetables into hexane with DMAE, and then the extract was directly introduced into the enrichment column packed with active carbon fiber (ACF). Subsequently, the organophosphorus pesticides trapped on the ACF were eluted with ethyl acetate under microwave irradiation. No further filtration or cleanup was required before analysis of the eluate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Some experimental parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, such as microwave output power, kind and volume of extraction solvent, extraction time, amount of sorbent, elution microwave power, kind and volume of elution solvent, elution solvent flow rate. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries were in the range of 71.5-105.2%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 11.6%. The experiment results prove that the present method is a simple and effective sample preparation method for the determination of pesticides in solid samples. PMID:25618681

  19. Zirconium(IV) functionalized magnetic nanocomposites for extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Huang, Tengjun; Feng, Shun; Wang, Jide

    2016-07-22

    The widespread use of organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) in agriculture leads to residue accumulation in the environment which is dangerous to human health and disrupts the ecological balance. In this work, one nanocomposite immobilized zirconium (Zr, IV) was prepared and used as the affinity probes to quickly and selectively extract organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from water samples. The Fe3O4-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)@Zr(IV) nanocomposites (NPs) were prepared by simply mixing Zr(IV) ions with Fe3O4-EDTA NPs synthesized by one-pot chemical co-precipitation method. The immobilized Zr(IV) ions were further utilized to capture OPPs based on their high affinity for the phosphate moiety in OPPs. Coupled with GC-MS, four OPPs were used as models to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection for target OPPs were in the range of 0.10-10.30ngmL(-1) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.61-4.40% (n=3), respectively. The linear ranges were over three orders of magnitudes (correlation coefficients, R(2)>0.9995). The Fe3O4-EDTA@Zr(IV) NPs were successfully applied to extract OPPs samples with recoveries of 86.95-112.60% and RSDs of 1.20-10.42% (n=3) from two spiked real water. By the proposed method, the matrix interference could be effectively eliminated. We hope our finding can provide a promising alternative for the fast extraction of OPPs from complex real samples. PMID:27328881

  20. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in wheat flour by supercritical fluid extraction and gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, D H; Heo, G S; Lee, D W

    1998-10-16

    Application of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for selective isolation of organophosphorus pesticides from a real-world matrix (wheat flour) has been described. The method uses extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide at 206.8 bar and 60 degrees C, followed by quantitation by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorous detection without clean-up of the extracts. Comparison of SFE with a method currently employed for sample preparation (i.e., organic solvent extraction followed by liquid-liquid extraction and gel permeation chromatography clean-up) shows that the SFE technique simplifies the sample preparation step and speeds up the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in flour. Extraction times were 60 min for a 7 g sample size. This technique was able to determine organophosphorus pesticides (ethoprophos, diazinon, chlorpyrifos methyl, fenitrothion, parathion, phenthoate, EPN) in samples at the 10 ng/g level. PMID:9818429

  1. Simple, specific analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediments using column extraction and gas chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belisle, A.A.; Swineford, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    A simple, specific procedure was developed for the analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediment. The wet soil was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulfate to bind water and the residues were column extracted in acetone:methylene chloride (1:l,v/v). Coextracted water was removed by additional sodium sulfate packed below the sample mixture. The eluate was concentrated and analyzed directly by capillary gas chromatography using phosphorus and nitrogen specific detectors. Recoveries averaged 93 % for sediments extracted shortly after spiking, but decreased significantly as the samples aged.

  2. Bidentate organophosphorus compound management of actinide and lanthanide extraction by changing structure and diluent parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Rozen, A.M.; Volk, V.I.; Zakharkin, B.S.; Nikolotova, Z.I.; Kartasheva, N.A.; Bochvar, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    Extraction of actinides and lanthanides by bidentate organophosphorus compounds (diphosphine dioxides and carbamoylphosphine oxides) can be managed by varying the polarity of diluent DP* in the range of 2--5 and by introducing aryl groups (tolyl) into an extractant molecule which results in improved extraction ability due to bidentate coordination and effect of the anomalous aryl strengthening (AAS) of the complexes. Disappearance of AAS effect upon carbamoylphosphine oxide extraction at the lower polarity of diluent (not observed toy diphosphine dioxides) is explained by an increase of the solvate number to three and transfer from bidentate coordination to monodentate one. Due to AAS effect the above mentioned extractants can be used for deep purification of waste to remove actinides without any preliminary conditioning of solutions.

  3. Extraction of rare-earth metal(III) nitrates by neutral organophosphorus compounds from concentrated aqueous salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Pyartman, A.K.; Puzikov, E.A.

    1995-07-20

    Equations describing isotherms of extraction of rare-earth metal(III) nitrates by neutral organo-phosphorus compounds over a wide range of component concentrations in aqueous and organic phases have been proposed. Constants of phase extraction and empirical parameters characterizing the influence of organic phase composition on the activity coefficients of the components have been presented.

  4. Americium purification by a combined anion exchange and bidentate organophosphorus solvent extraction process. [Patent application

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, J.D.; Martella, L.L.

    1981-04-10

    Americium is separated from mixtures containing plutonium, other actinides, and other non-lanthamide impurities, by a combined process of anion exchange resin sorption to remove plutonium, and a bidentate organophosphorus solvent extraction of americium of the anion exchange resin effluent. Dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamylmethylenephosphonate is a preferred solvent. The initial mixture may be subjected to a cation exchange operation to remove monovalent impurities. The process is especially effective when aluminum, zinc, lead, and copper are present in significant quantities in the original mixture.

  5. Purified recombinant organophosphorus acid anhydrase protects mice against soman. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Broomfield, C.A.

    1992-12-31

    Since pharmacologic treatments of organophosphorus anticholinesterases (OPs) are nearing their practical limit other types of treatment are being sought. One approach is the prophylactic administration of scavengers that will detoxify OPs before they reach their critical target site. Using mice that were sensitized to OPs by depletion of their serum carboxylesterase with cresylbenzodioxaphosphorin oxide (CBDP), we have shown that animals pretreated intravenously with a purified organophosphorus acid anhydride hydrolase (parathionase) (0.10 mg per g body wt.) are not measurably affected by up to 34.4 microgram soman per kg, a dose more than double that which is lethal to untreated animals. This result indicates that this approach is worthy of exploration and development for protecting military personnel and agricultural workers against OP intoxication. Scavengers, pretreatment, soman, OP intoxication, mice.

  6. Investigation of the extraction properties of dibutyl ester of dibutoxymethane phosphonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, E.; Hala, J.

    1983-01-01

    The extraction properties of the dibutyl ester of dibutoxymethane phosphonic acid (DBDBMP), an analog of TBP with a P-C bond, were shown to be similar to those of TBP except for hydrolysis of DBDBMP in acidic solutions. The formation of acidic organophosphorus compounds during hydrolysis of DBDBMP was confirmed by /sup 31/P-N.M.R. measurements. 4 figures, 1 table.

  7. Parameters affecting microwave-assisted extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Edwar; Báez, María E; Labra, Ronnie

    2007-10-26

    This work describes an optimised method for the determination of six representative organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) (diazinon, parathion, methyl pirimiphos, methyl parathion, ethoprophos, and fenitrothion) in agricultural soils. The method is based on microwave-assisted extraction using a water-methanol modified mixture for desorption and simultaneous partitioning on n-hexane (MAEP), together with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD). To improve GC-FPD signals (peak intensity and shape) olive oil was used effectively as a "matrix mimic". The optimisation of the extraction method was achieved in two steps: an initial approach through experimental design and principal component analysis where recovery of compounds using a water-methanol mixture ranged from 54 to 77%, and the second one by studying the addition of KH2PO4 to the extracting solution where recoveries were significantly increased, molecular replacing of OPPs from adsorption sites by phosphate being the probable extraction mechanism. Under optimised conditions, recoveries of pesticides from different soils were higher than 73%, except for methyl parathion in some soils, with SD equal or lower than 11% and detection limits ranging from 0.004 to 0.012 microg g(-1). The proposed method was used to determine OPPs in soil samples from different agricultural zones of Chile. PMID:17870081

  8. In vitro release of organophosphorus acid anhydrolase from functionalized mesoporous silica against nerve agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baowei; Shah, Saumil S.; Shin, Yongsoon; Lei, Chenghong; Liu, Jun

    2011-10-02

    We report here that under different physiological conditions, biomolecular drugs can be stockpiled in a nanoporous support and afterward can be instantly released when needed for acute responses, and the biomolecular drug molecules can also be gradually released from the nanoporous support over a long time for a complete recovery. Organophosphorus acid anhydrolase (OPAA) was spontaneously and largely entrapped in functionalized mesoporous silica (FMS) due to the dominant electrostatic interaction. The OPAA-FMS composite exhibited a burst release in a pH 9.0 NaHCO(3)-Na(2)CO(3) buffer system and a gradual release in pH 7.4 simulated body fluid. The binding of OPAA to NH(2)-FMS can result in less tyrosinyl and tryptophanyl exposure OPAA molecules to aqueous environment. The bound OPAA in FMS displayed lower activity than the free OPAA in solution prior to the enzyme entrapment. However, the released enzyme maintained the native conformational structure and the same high enzymatic activity as that prior to the enzyme entrapment. The in vitro results in the rabbit serum demonstrate that both OPAA-FMS and the released OPAA may be used as a medical countermeasure against the organophosphorus nerve agents.

  9. Novel restricted access materials combined to molecularly imprinted polymers for selective solid-phase extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from honey.

    PubMed

    He, Juan; Song, Lixin; Chen, Si; Li, Yuanyuan; Wei, Hongliang; Zhao, Dongxin; Gu, Keren; Zhang, Shusheng

    2015-11-15

    A novel restricted access materials (RAM) combined to molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), using malathion as template molecule and glycidilmethacrylate (GMA) as pro-hydrophilic co-monomer, were prepared for the first time. RAM-MIPs with hydrophilic external layer were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and recognition and selectivity properties were compared with the restricted access materials-non-molecularly imprinted polymers (RAM-NIPs) and unmodified MIPs. RAM-MIPs were used as the adsorbent enclosed in solid phase extraction column and several important extraction parameters were comprehensively optimized to evaluate the extraction performance. Under the optimum extraction conditions, RAM-MIPs exhibited comparable or even higher selectivity with greater extraction capacity toward six kinds of organophosphorus pesticides (including malathion, ethoprophos, phorate, terbufos, dimethoate, and fenamiphos) compared with the MIPs and commercial solid phase extraction columns. The RAM-MIPs solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography was successfully applied to simultaneously determine six kinds of organophosphorus pesticides from honey sample. The new established method showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-1.0 μg mL(-1), low limits of detection (0.0005-0.0019 μg mL(-1)), acceptable reproducibility (RSD, 2.26-4.81%, n = 6), and satisfactory relative recoveries (90.9-97.6%). It was demonstrated that RAM-MIPs solid phase extraction with excellent selectivity and restricted access function was a simple, rapid, selective, and effective sample pretreatment method. PMID:25977034

  10. Enhanced degradation of five organophosphorus pesticides in skimmed milk by lactic acid bacteria and its potential relationship with phosphatase production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Hua; Xu, Di; Liu, Jia-Qi; Zhao, Xin-Huai

    2014-12-01

    Skimmed milk spiked with five organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), chlorpyrifos, diazinon, fenitrothion, malathion and methyl parathion, was fermented by ten lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and four strain combinations at 42°C for 24h. OPPs left in the samples at different times were extracted, purified, detected by gas chromatography and calculated for degradation rate constants, based on a first-order reaction model. OPPs degradation was enhanced by the inoculated LAB, resulting in 0.8-225.4% increase in the rate constants. Diazinon and methyl parathion were more stable whereas chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion and malathion were more labile. Lactobacillus brevis 1.0209 showed the strongest acceleration on OPPs degradation while strain combination could bring about a synergy between the strains of lower ability. Phosphatase production of the strains might be one of the key factors responsible for the enhanced OPPs degradation, as the detected phosphatase activities were positively correlated to the measured degradation rate constants of OPPs (r=0.636-0.970, P<0.05). PMID:24996321

  11. Extraction of organophosphorus pesticides by carbon-coated Fe3 O4 nanoparticles through response surface experimental design.

    PubMed

    Maddah, Bozorgmehr; Alidadi, Sattar; Hasanzadeh, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, carbon-coated Fe3 O4 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and used as a magnetic solid-phase extraction absorbent for the preconcentration and extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in environmental water samples. The carbon-coated Fe3 O4 nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water samples with carbon-coated Fe3 O4 nanoparticles was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. Furthermore, the response surface model based on the central composite design was applied to quantitatively investigate the effect of some important variables influencing the extraction efficiency, such as pH, treatment time, amount of nanoparticle sorbents, and amount of salt and to find the optimized conditions providing the highest extraction efficiency. Under optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.5-15.0 ng/mL with a regression coefficient of 0.9948, 0.9958, and 0.9931 for fenitrothion, diazinon, and ethion, respectively. The obtained results showed that this analytical method would be useful for the analysis of fenitrothion, diazinon, and ethion in tap water with high precision and accuracy. PMID:26519201

  12. Poly(ionic liquid) immobilized magnetic nanoparticles as new adsorbent for extraction and enrichment of organophosphorus pesticides from tea drinks.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoyan; He, Lijun; Duan, Yajing; Jiang, Xiuming; Xiang, Guoqiang; Zhao, Wenjie; Zhang, Shusheng

    2014-09-01

    New poly(ionic liquid) immobilized magnetic nanoparticles (PIL-MNPs) were synthesized via co-polymerization of 1-vinyl-3-hexylimidazolium-based ionic liquid and vinyl-modified magnetic particles and were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetic measurements. The PIL-MNPs were utilized as adsorbent phases in magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). The extraction and enrichment efficiency were evaluated by using four organophosphorus pesticides (parathion, fenthion, phoxim and temephos) as test analytes. Various parameters, such as amount of adsorbent, adsorption time, desorption solvent and time, and ionic strength were investigated. The proposed method showed good linearity for the analytes in the concentration range of 1-200μgL(-1) with a correlation coefficient (R)>0.9963. Low limit of detection of 0.01μgL(-1) and high enrichment factors ranging from 84 to 161 were achieved. The proposed method has been successfully used to determine organophosphorus pesticides from three tea drink samples with satisfactory recovery of 81.4-112.6% and RSDs of 4.5-11.3%. The PIL-MNP adsorbent can be reused for 20 times without a noticeable decrease in extraction efficiency. PMID:25022482

  13. Extraction of carboxylic acids by amine extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Tamada, Janet Ayako; King, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    This work examines the chemistry of solvent extraction by long-chain amines for recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution. Long-chain amines act as complexing agents with the acid, which facilitates distribution of the acid into the organic phase. The complexation is reversible, allowing for recovery of the acid from the organic phase and regeneration of the extractant. Batch extraction experiments were performed to study the complexation of acetic, lactic, succinic, malonic, fumaric, and maleic acids with Alamine 336, an aliphatic, tertiary amine extractant, dissolved in various diluents. Results were interpreted by a ''chemical'' model, in which stoichiometric ratios of acid and amine molecules are assumed to form complexes in the solvent phase. From fitting of the extraction data, the stoichiometry of complexes formed and the corresponding equilibrium constants were obtained. The results of the model were combined with infrared spectroscopic experiments and results of past studies to analyze the chemical interactions that are responsible for extraction behavior. The information from the equilibrium studies was used to develop guidelines for large-scale staged extraction and regeneration schemes. A novel scheme, in which the diluent composition is shifted between extraction and regeneration, was developed which could achieve both high solute recovery and high product concentration. 169 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. One-step extraction for gas chromatography with flame photometric detection of 18 organophosphorus pesticides in Chinese medicine health wines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianzhen; Kong, Weijun; Qiu, Feng; Wei, Jianhe; Yang, Shihai; Zheng, Yuguo; Yang, Meihua

    2012-02-15

    An easy, rapid and selective gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) method was established for simultaneously determining 18 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in 80 Chinese medicine (CM) health wines. This method was based on a simple one-step extraction procedure using a little solvent without any further cleanup steps. The optimized extraction solvent for the pesticides is acetone:dichloromethane (1:1, V/V) with extraction recovery of 79.0-109.1% and relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.36-12.68%, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) of the established GC-FPD method for all investigated pesticides ranged from 1 to 15ngmL(-1) and limits of quantification (LOQs) from 4 to 50ngmL(-1). Out of all 80 CM health wines, 18 OPPs were found in 8 samples at low concentrations of 8.2-37.9ngmL(-1). These pesticides were successfully confirmed by GC-MS. This is the first report of determining OPPs in CM health wines, providing references for monitoring the quality of CM health wine in routine analysis. PMID:22285000

  15. Matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction of organophosphorus pesticide using SiO2-poly(N-vinylimidazole)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Solís, M. C.; Muñoz-Rodríguez, D.; Medina-Peralta, S.; Carrera-Figueiras, C.; Ávila-Ortega, A.

    2013-06-01

    A sorbent material based on silica particles modified with poly(N-vinylimidazole) (SiO2-PVI) has been evaluated for the treatment of samples by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD). The extraction of four organophosphorus pesticides was done from a spiked tomato and the extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Six elution solvents were evaluated and acetone was selected due to better recovery of the four pesticides and low background signal in the chromatograms. A factorial design 24 was used for selection of extraction conditions. The factors were contact time, acetone volume, treatment (with or without freeze-drying) and adsorbent (SiO2 or SiO2-PVI). The best recoveries were obtained using 15 minutes of contact, 2 mL of solvent and sorbent without freeze-drying. The recoveries were between 60 and 83% for SiO2-PVI in spiked tomato with 0.2 and 0.8μg/g.

  16. Purification of sulphate leach liquor of spent Raneynickel catalyst containing Al and Ni by solvent extraction with organophosphorus-based extractants.

    PubMed

    Rao, Satunuri Venkateswar; Yang, Dong Hyo; Sohn, Jeong Soo; Kim, Soo-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Solvent extraction (SX) separation of Al from Ni sulphate leach liquor (LL) of spent Raneynickel catalyst containing 0.12 M Al and 1.448 M Ni using organophosphorus extractants has been investigated. Optimization of process conditions includes aqueous pH, extractant concentration, phase ratio, and stripping. Comparison of Al extraction efficiency with 0.45 M extractant concentration for TOPS 99, PC 88 A, and Cyanex 272 at an equilibrium pH of 2.23 was 81.8%, 98.6%, and 75%, respectively. The corresponding coextraction of Ni was 0.65, 0.6, and 0.9. Among the three extractants screened, PC 88A showed better extraction efficiency for Al at lower pH values than the others. Using 0.45 M PC 88 A, extraction isotherm was obtained at an aqueous-to-organic (A : O) phase ratio of 1 : 1-3 and O : A ratio of 1 : 1-5, which predicted possible separation of Al in 2 stages at A/O ratio of 2. Quantitative stripping was achieved by H(2)SO(4). PMID:22505841

  17. Purification of Sulphate Leach Liquor of Spent Raneynickel Catalyst Containing Al and Ni by Solvent Extraction with Organophosphorus-Based Extractants

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Satunuri Venkateswar; Yang, Dong Hyo; Sohn, Jeong Soo; Kim, Soo-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Solvent extraction (SX) separation of Al from Ni sulphate leach liquor (LL) of spent Raneynickel catalyst containing 0.12 M Al and 1.448 M Ni using organophosphorus extractants has been investigated. Optimization of process conditions includes aqueous pH, extractant concentration, phase ratio, and stripping. Comparison of Al extraction efficiency with 0.45 M extractant concentration for TOPS 99, PC 88 A, and Cyanex 272 at an equilibrium pH of 2.23 was 81.8%, 98.6%, and 75%, respectively. The corresponding coextraction of Ni was 0.65, 0.6, and 0.9. Among the three extractants screened, PC 88A showed better extraction efficiency for Al at lower pH values than the others. Using 0.45 M PC 88 A, extraction isotherm was obtained at an aqueous-to-organic (A : O) phase ratio of 1 : 1–3 and O : A ratio of 1 : 1–5, which predicted possible separation of Al in 2 stages at A/O ratio of 2. Quantitative stripping was achieved by H2SO4. PMID:22505841

  18. Extraction equilibria of rare earths by a new reagent (2-ethylhexyl-3-pentadecylphenyl) phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, S; Rao, T P; Narayanan, C S; Damodaran, A D

    1994-03-01

    A new reagent (2-ethylhexyl-3-pentadecylphenyl) phosphoric acid (EPPA = HR) was synthesized from cardanol (I, 37300-39-5) and was used to investigate the extraction behaviour of lanthanum(III), europium(III) and lutetium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. The species extracted were found to be Ln(HR(2))(3) (where Ln = La(III) or Eu(III) or Lu(III)). The extraction behaviour of the above lanthanides has also been compared with yttrium and other rare earths. It was observed that the extraction increases with increase in atomic number of rare earths. In addition, the extraction efficiency of EPPA has also been compared with well known acidic organophosphorus extractants like di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA), 2-ethylhexyl-mono-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (EHEHPA). PMID:18965945

  19. SANS study of HC1 extraction by selected neutral organophosphorus compounds in n-octane.

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Stepinski, D.; Antonio, M. R.

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of HCl by tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP), tri-n-octyl phosphate (TOP), and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in n-octane was investigated by liquid-liquid distribution of acid and water and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements. No formation of a heavy organic phase (third phase) was observed with TEHP and TOP under the experimental conditions used, whereas for 0.4 M TOPO the HCl limiting organic concentration (LOC) at 23 C was 0.32 M (with 5.1 M HCl in the equilibrium aqueous phase). For higher HCl concentrations in the aqueous phase, the organic phase splits into a light and a heavy layer. For TEHP and TOP, the SANS results, interpreted using the Baxter model for hard spheres with surface adhesion, indicated the formation of only small reverse micelles with little intermicellar attraction. For TOPO, the scattering signals suggested the formation of much larger and strongly interacting micelles. The critical values of the stickiness parameter, {tau}{sup -1}, and the interaction potential energy, U(r), for the LOC sample in the TOPO system were consistent with the model for third-phase formation previously developed for tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). According to this model, organic phase splitting is due to van der Waals interactions between the polar cores of reverse micelles formed by the extractants in the organic phase.

  20. An application of new microwave absorption tube in non-polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from fresh vegetable samples.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Xu, Xu; Su, Rui; Zhang, Hanqi; Wang, Ziming

    2012-03-16

    A new self-designed microwave absorption tube was used in microwave-assisted extraction of seven organophosphorus pesticides from four kinds of vegetable samples. The non-polar solvent was used as extraction solvent, and a new portable microwave extraction apparatus was used. By sealing graphite powder in glass tube, microwave absorption tube was made and used to heat samples directly. The extracts were directly analyzed by GC-MS without any clean-up process. The effects of some experimental parameters on extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. 3.0 g of sample, 25 mL of hexane and three microwave absorption tubes were added in the microwave extraction vessel, the extraction was carried out under 425 W irradiation power at 70 °C for 8 min. The recoveries were in the range of 76.5-109.4% and the relative standard deviations were lower than 13.1%. PMID:22321952

  1. [Determination of 21 organophosphorus pesticides in tea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes based on dispersive solid-phase extraction].

    PubMed

    Rong, Jiefeng; Wei, Hang; Li, Yijun; Huang, Huoshui; Xu, Meizhu

    2016-02-01

    A rapid determination method of 21 organophosphorus pesticides in tea was developed by QuEChERS method using modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-OH), primary-secondary amine (PSA) and MgSO4 coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The pesticide residues in tea were extracted with a hexane-acetone (2:1, v/v) mixture, and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction using MWCNTs-OH and primary-secondary amine (PSA) as the sorbents. After centrifugation and filtration, the target compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantified by the external standard method. Under the optimized conditions, good linearities were obtained in the range of 0. 01- 0. 50 mg/kg. The average recoveries were in the range of 81. 5% -109. 4% at three spiked levels, with relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5 ) of 2. 3% - 10. 6%. The limits of quantification were 0. 001-0. 040 mg/kg. This method is simple, fast, sensitive, cheap, and can meet the requirements of the rapid detection of organophosphorus pesticides in tea. PMID:27382726

  2. Microwave accelerated selective Soxhlet extraction for the determination of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in ginseng with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Xiao, Xiaohua; Li, Gongke

    2012-07-01

    Microwave accelerated selective Soxhlet extraction (MA-SSE), a novel selective extraction technique, was investigated in this study. A Soxhlet extraction system containing a glass filter was designed as an extractor. During the procedure of MA-SSE, both the target analytes and the interfering components were extracted from the sample into the extraction solvent enhanced by microwave irradiation. After the solvent flowed though the sorbent, the interfering components were adsorbed by the sorbent, and the target analytes remaining in the solvent were collected in the extraction bottle. No cleanup or filtration was required after extraction. The efficiency of the MA-SSE approach was demonstrated in the determination of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues in ginseng by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Under the optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.050-0.50 μg/kg) were obtained. The recoveries were in the range of 72.0-110.1% with relative standard deviations less than 7.1%. Because of the effect of microwave irradiation, MA-SSE showed significant advantage compared with other extraction techniques. The sorbent used in this study showed good cleanup ability. The mechanism of MA-SSE was demonstrated to be based on the rupture of the cell walls according to the structural changes of ginseng samples. On the basis of the results, MA-SSE as a simple and effective sample preparation technique for the analysis of pesticide residues in complex matrixes shows great promise. PMID:22686368

  3. Medium-assisted non-polar solvent dynamic microwave extraction for determination of organophosphorus pesticides in cereals using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Xu, Xu; Li, Na; Shao, Mingyuan; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Yu, Cui; Ma, Qiang; Lu, Chunmei; Wang, Ziming

    2014-11-01

    A fast and green pretreatment method, medium-assisted non-polar solvent dynamic microwave extraction, was first applied to extract ten of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from five cereal samples. Without adding any polar solvent, graphite powders (GP) were used as microwave absorption medium to transform microwave energy into heat energy. For recycling GP, an extractor was made by sealing GP inside the exterior tube of a glass sleeve. By dynamic microwave extraction using hexane as extraction solvent, ten OPPs could be extracted completely within 200s, and the extract was directly analysed by GC-MS without any clean-up process. The effects of some experimental parameters on extraction efficiency were investigated and optimised. Relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day ranging from 1.02% to 5.32% were obtained. Five real samples were analysed, and the recoveries obtained were in the range of 73.2-99.8%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.63%. PMID:24874384

  4. Extraction of niobium and tantalum isotopes using organophosphorus compounds - Part I - Extraction of 'carrier-free' metal concentrations from HCl solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, Jacklyn; Sudowe, Ralf; Stavsetra, Liv; Ali, Mazhar; Calvert, Michael; Dragojevic, Irena; Ellison, Paul; Garcia, Mitch; Gharibyan, N.; Gregorich, Kenneth; Nelson, Sarah; Neumann, Signe; Parsons-Moss, Tashi; Nitsche, Heino

    2008-09-01

    The extraction of niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) from hydrochloric acid media by bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (HDEHP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphite (BEHP) was studied. The goal of the experiments is to find a system that demonstrates selectivity between the members of group five of the Periodic Table and is also suitable for the study of dubnium (Db, Z = 105). Experiments were performed at the trace level (10-16 M Nb or Ta) using hydrochloric acid with concentrations ranging from 1 - 11 M and short-lived isotopes of Nb and Ta produced in nuclear reactions. When HDEHP was used as the extractant, the Nb extraction yield decreased with increasing acid concentrations above 6 M, while the amount of Ta extracted remained over 75percent for all acid concentrations studied. Tantalum was found to be extracted by BEHP at acid concentrations above 6 M, while niobium was not significantly extracted. The data obtained are used as the basis to discuss the speciation of Nb and Ta under the conditions studied and to evaluate possible extraction mechanisms.

  5. Solvent extraction studies of holmium with acidic extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Gaikwad, A.G.; Damodaran, A.D. )

    1993-03-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction studies of holmium with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester, naphthenic, and Versatic 10 acids have been carried out. The nature of the extracted species and the extraction equilibrium constants of these systems have been determined from aqueous nitrate solution. The extraction mechanism and complexation models have been proposed. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Polyacrylic acid-coated cerium oxide nanoparticles: An oxidase mimic applied for colorimetric assay to organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Xiang; Xue, Shi-Fan; Deng, Jingjing; Zhang, Min; Shi, Guoyue; Zhou, Tianshu

    2016-11-15

    It is important and urgent to develop reliable and highly sensitive methods that can provide on-site and rapid detection of extensively used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) for their neurotoxicity. In this study, we developed a novel colorimetric assay for the detection of OPs based on polyacrylic acid-coated cerium oxide nanoparticles (PAA-CeO2) as an oxidase mimic and OPs as inhibitors to suppress the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Firstly, highly dispersed PAA-CeO2 was prepared in aqueous solution, which could catalyze the oxidation of TMB to produce a color reaction from colorless to blue. And the enzyme of AChE was used to catalyze the substrate of acetylthiocholine (ATCh) to produce thiocholine (TCh). As a thiol-containing compound with reducibility, TCh can decrease the oxidation of TMB catalyzed by PAA-CeO2. Upon incubated with OPs, the enzymatic activity of AChE was inhibited to produce less TCh, resulting in more TMB catalytically oxidized by PAA-CeO2 to show an increasing blue color. The two representative OPs, dichlorvos and methyl-paraoxon, were tested using our proposed assay. The novel assay showed notable color change in a concentration-dependent manner, and as low as 8.62 ppb dichlorvos and 26.73 ppb methyl-paraoxon can be readily detected. Therefore, taking advantage of such oxidase-like activity of PAA-CeO2, our proposed colorimetric assay can potentially be a screening tool for the precise and rapid evaluation of the neurotoxicity of a wealth of OPs. PMID:27208478

  7. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  8. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in ginseng by carbon nanotube envelope-based solvent extraction combined with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Su, Rui; Li, Dan; Wang, Xinghua; Yang, Hongmei; Shi, Xiaoyu; Liu, Shuying

    2016-06-01

    A miniature extraction envelope containing multiwall carbon nanotubes, diatomite, neutral alumina, and anhydrous magnesium sulfate was developed for the solvent extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in dried ginseng. After the powder of dried ginseng sample was introduced into the envelope, the envelope was heat sealed and sonicated in acetonitrile for the extraction and clean-up of analytes. The resulting extracts were analyzed by an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatograph with an electrospray ion source and a quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometer (UHPLC-ESI/Q-Orbitrap MS) under target-MS(2) mode, and the analytes were quantified by matrix-match calibration. Finally, the simultaneous identification and quantification of 19 pesticide residues were carried out by the present method. It is noteworthy that in this method the processes of extraction and clean-up for the analytes could be carried out and accomplished in one step. The recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of analytes were in the range of 82.6-110.8% and 1.0-10.6%, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) for analytes were determined to be 0.08-0.29μgkg(-1) and 0.26-0.98μgkg(-1), respectively. Several pesticide residues investigated in this study were found in 4 real samples, with the concentrations lower than the maximum residue limit (0.050mgkg(-1)) established by European Union. PMID:27093495

  9. Extraction of niobium and tantalum isotopes using organophosphorus compounds -- Part II -- Extraction of 'carrier-free' concentrations from HCl/LiCl solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, J. M.; Stavsetra, L.; Sudowe, R.; Ali, M. N.; Calvert, M. G.; Dragojevic, I.; Dvorak, J.; Dvorakova, Z.; Ellison, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Gregorich, K. E.; Nelson, S. L.; Parsons-Moss, T.; Nitsche, H.

    2008-12-01

    We have studied the extraction of niobium and tantalum from mixed hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride media by bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (HDEHP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphite (BEHP) as a function of hydrogen ion (H+) concentration. The amount of niobium extracted by both HDEHP and BEHP decreased with increasing hydrogen ion concentration. Equilibrium with niobium occurred within 10 s at all hydrogen ion concentrations for both systems. For tantalum, the amount extracted increased until 6 - 9 M H+, before decreasing at higher H+ concentrations when extracted by both HDEHP and BEHP. Equilibrium occurred within 10 s at two H+ concentrations when extracted by HDEHP. The data obtained are used as the basis to discuss the speciation of Nb and Ta under the conditions studied and to evaluate possible extraction mechanisms.

  10. Trapping of organophosphorus chemical nerve agents in water with amino acid functionalized baskets.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yian; Dalkiliç, Erdin; Peterson, Paul W; Pandit, Aroh; Dastan, Arif; Brown, Jason D; Polen, Shane M; Hadad, Christopher M; Badjić, Jovica D

    2014-04-01

    We prepared eleven amino-acid functionalized baskets and used (1) H NMR spectroscopy to quantify their affinity for entrapping dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP, 118 Å(3) ) in aqueous phosphate buffer at pH=7.0±0.1; note that DMMP guest is akin in size to chemical nerve agent sarin (132 Å(3) ). The binding interaction (Ka ) was found to vary with the size of substituent groups at the basket's rim. In particular, the degree of branching at the first carbon of each substituent had the greatest effect on the host-guest interaction, as described with the Verloop's B1 steric parameter. The branching at the remote carbons, however, did not perturb the encapsulation, which is important for guiding the design of more effective hosts and catalysts in future. PMID:24616086

  11. Cholinesterase assay for monitoring the kinetics of the JD6. 5 organophosphorus acid anhydrase in detoxification of diisopropylfluorophosphate. Final report, January-June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.R.; Cheng, T.C.; DeFrank, J.J.

    1992-06-01

    In the present studies, cholinesterase was used for monitoring the enzymatic activities of the JD6.5 organophosphorus acid anhydrase. The kinetic data indicated that: (1) the first order of kinetic constants (k) and Vmax values of the enzymatic reactions increased as the concentrations of the enzyme increased; (2) while the half-life (tl/2) of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) hydrolysis decreased as the enzyme concentrations increased; (3) the minimum time required for hydrolysis of 9mM of DFP was 3 min at the concentrations of the enzyme present; Km values of DFP were found to be in range of 5mM; and (4) both MnCl2 and NaCl were found to be required for the optimal activity of the enzyme.

  12. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes as efficient solid-phase extraction materials of organophosphorus pesticides from apple, grape, orange and pineapple fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2008-11-21

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been used for the first time as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents for the extraction of eight organophosphorus pesticides (i.e. ethoprophos, diazinon, chlorpyriphos-methyl, fenitrothion, malathion, chlorpyriphos, fenamiphos and buprofezin) from different commercial fruit juices (i.e. apple, grape, orange and pineapple). The developed method, which involves SPE and direct gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection analysis, is very fast, simple and cheap: only 1:1 dilution with Milli-Q water and pH adjustment to 6.0 of 10 mL of juice is necessary prior to a quick MWCNTs-SPE procedure that used only 40 mg of stationary phase (MWCNTs of 10-15 nm o.d., 2-6 nm i.d. and 0.1-10 microm length). Mean recovery values were above 73% for all the pesticides and fruit juices (between 77 and 101% for apple juice, 75 and 103% for grape juice, 73 and 103% for orange juice and 73 and 93% for pineapple juice) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 8.5% in all cases. Matrix matched calibration was carried out for each sample matrix since statistical differences between the calibration curves constructed is pure solvent and in the reconstructed juice extracts were found. Limits of detection ranged between 1.85 and 7.32 microg/L (which also represents LODs between 1.85 and 7.34 microg/kg) well below the European Union maximum residue limits for the raw fruits. The proposed method, which is demonstrated to be quick, cheap, accurate and highly selective, was also applied to the analysis of this group of pesticides in several commercial juices in which none of the selected pesticides were found. PMID:18849040

  13. Neurotoxic and teratogenic effects of an organophosphorus insecticide (phenyl phosphonothioic acid-O-ethyl -O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester) on mallard development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.

    1984-01-01

    Phenyl phosphonothioic acid-O-ethyl-O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester (EPN) is one of the 10 most frequently used organophosphorus insecticides and causes delayed neurotoxicity in adult chickens and mallards. Small amounts of organophosphorus insecticides placed on birds' eggs are embryotoxic and teratogenic. For this reason, the effects of topical egg application on EPN were examined on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) embryo development. Mallard eggs were treated topically at 72 hr of incubation with 25 microliter of a nontoxic oil vehicle or with EPN in the vehicle at concentrations of approximately 12, 36, or 108 micrograms/g egg, equivalent to one, three, and nine times the agricultural level of application used to spray crops. Treatment with EPN resulted in 22 to 44% mortality over this dose range by 18 days of development compared with 4 and 5% for untreated and vehicle-treated controls. EPN impaired embryonic growth and was highly teratogenic: 37-42% of the surviving embryos at 18 days were abnormal with cervical and axial scoliosis as well as severe edema. Brain weights were significantly lower in EPN-treated groups at different stages of development including hatchlings. Brain neurotoxic esterase (NTE) activity was inhibited by as much as 91% at 11 days, 81% at 18 days, and 79% in hatchlings. Examination of brain NTE activity during the course of normal development revealed an increase of nearly sixfold from Day 11 through hatching. The most rapid increase occurred between Day 20 and hatching. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was inhibited by as much as 41% at 11 days, 47% at 18 days, and 20% in hatchlings. Plasma cholinesterase and alkaline phosphatase activities were inhibited and plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity was increased at one or more stages of development. Hatchlings from EPN-treated eggs were weaker and slower to right themselves. Histopathological examination did not reveal demyelination and axonopathy of the spinal cord that was

  14. The extraction of americium and strontium by P,P'-Di(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2- diphosphonic acid.

    SciTech Connect

    Otu, E. O.; Chiarizia, R.; Rickert, P. G.; Nash, K. L.; Chemistry; Indiana Univ. Southeast

    2002-01-01

    A new acidic organophosphorus extractant, P,P'-di(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2-diphosphonic acid (H2DEH[1,2-BzDP]), has been synthesized. Though the extractant proved unstable with respect to acid hydrolysis upon storage at room temperature, it was sufficiently stable in o-xylene solution under refrigeration to determine its aggregation and extraction properties for Sr{sup 2+} and Am{sup 3+} between 25 and 60 C. Slope analysis of radioanalytical data and the results of osmometric measurements indicate that the dominant extraction reaction for both metal ions is M{sup n+}+n HL{l_equilibrium}ML{sub n}+n H{sup +} where n=2 for Sr(II) and 3 for Am(III). In the Sr system there is also evidence for the extraction of SrNO{sub 3}{sup +}. As the extractant aggregation and extraction stoichiometries do not change significantly with temperature, it was possible to derive enthalpies and entropies of extraction from the temperature dependence of the metal extraction equilibrium constants between 25.0 and 60.0 C. The extraction of both metal ions is driven by an exothermic enthalpy and opposed by unfavorable entropies. The thermodynamic data are discussed in comparison with earlier data on the thermodynamics of extraction of these metal ions by analogous ligands containing aliphatic alkyl linkages between the functional groups and other data from the literature.

  15. Comparison of extraction techniques, including supercritical fluid, high-pressure solvent, and soxhlet, for organophosphorus hydraulic fluids from soil.

    PubMed

    David, M D; Seiber, J N

    1996-09-01

    The efficiencies of three extraction techniques for removal of nonpesticidal organophosphates from soil were determined. Traditional Soxhlet extraction was compared to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and a low solvent volume flow through technique referred to here as high-pressure solvent extraction (HPSE). SFE, optimized by varying parameters of temperature, pressure, and methanol polarity modifier, showed at least 90% efficiency in the extraction of OPs from both spiked and native soils. HPSE experiments showed efficient and consistent recoveries over a range of temperatures up to 200 °C and pressures up to 170 atm. Recovery of TCP from spiked soils with HPSE depends on the system variables of temperature and pressure, which dictate density and flow rate. HPSE provided extraction efficiencies comparable to those obtained with Soxhlet extraction and SFE but with substantial savings of time and cost. PMID:21619371

  16. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS USING SYNERGISTIC REAGENTS

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, J.M.; Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Coleman, C.F.

    1958-11-01

    Improved methods are presented for recovering uranium values from aqueous solutions by organic solvent extraction. The improvement lies in the use, in combination, of two classes of organic compounds so that their extracting properties are enhanced synergistically. The two classes of organic compounds are dialkylphosphoric acid and certain neutral organophosphorus compounds such as trialkylphosphates, trialkylphosphonates, trlalkylphosphinates and trialkylphosphine oxides.

  17. Polydimethylsiloxane/metal-organic frameworks coated stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to gas chromatography-flame photometric detection for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuowei; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2016-08-15

    In this work, the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), MIL-101-Cr-NH2 was synthesized via a direct hydrothermal method, and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/MIL-101-Cr-NH2 coated stir bar was prepared by sol-gel technique. Good reproducibility was obtained for the preparation of PDMS/MIL-101-Cr-NH2 coated stir bar with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 3.7 to 5.2% (n=7) in one batch, and from 5.4 to 9.2% (n=7) among different batches. With the high surface area and rich benzene ring structure of MIL-101-Cr-NH2, the prepared PDMS/MIL-101-Cr-NH2 coated stir bar presented higher extraction efficiency for target organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs, including phorate, diazinon, malathion, fenthion, quinalphos and ethion) over PDMS coated stir bar. Based on it, a new method of PDMS/MIL-101-Cr-NH2 coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) coupled to gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) was proposed for the determination of six OPPs in environmental water samples. The operation parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of SBSE, including extraction time, stirring rate, desorption time and ionic strength, were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (S/N=3) were found to be in the range of 0.043-0.085μgL(-1) for the six target OPPs, and the linear range was 0.5-100μgL(-1) for malathion and 0.2-100μgL(-1) for other five OPPs. The RSDs of the proposed method evaluated at 1µgL(-1) for each OPP were in the range of 5.9-8.7% (intra-day, n=7) and 6.1-10.7% (inter-day, n=5), respectively. The enrichment factors were varied from 110 to 151-fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 200-fold). The proposed method was applied to the analysis of OPPs in East Lake and pond water samples with recoveries in the range of 89.3-115% and 80.0-113% for the spiked East Lake and pond water samples, respectively. PMID:27260444

  18. Novel solvent-free microwave-assisted extraction coupled with low-density solvent-based in-tube ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for the fast analysis of organophosphorus pesticides in soils.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi-Song; Yan, Cheing-Tong; Ponnusamy, Vinoth Kumar; Jen, Jen-Fon

    2013-07-01

    A novel and rapid solventless microwave-assisted extraction coupled with low-density solvent-based in-tube ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction has been developed for the efficient determination of nine organophosphorus pesticides in soils by GC analysis with microelectron capture detection. A specially designed, homemade glass tube inbuilt with a scaled capillary tube was used as an extraction device to collect and measure the separated extractant phase easily. Parameters affecting the efficiencies of the developed method were thoroughly investigated. From experimental results, the following conditions were selected for the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from 1.0 g of soil sample to 5 mL of aqueous solution under 226 W of microwave irradiation for 2.5 min followed by ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction with 20 μL toluene for 30 s and then centrifugation at 3200 rpm for 3 min. Detections were linear in the range of 0.25-10 ng/g with detection limits between 0.04 and 0.13 ng/g for all target analytes. The applicability of the method to real samples was assessed on agricultural contaminated soils and the recoveries ranged between 91.4 and 101.3%. Compared to other methods, the present method was shown to be highly competitive in terms of sensitivity, cost, eco-friendly nature, and analysis speed. PMID:23681938

  19. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase.

  20. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

  1. Surface-enhanced Raman spectrometry of organophosphorus chemical agents

    SciTech Connect

    Alak, A.M.; Vo-Dinh, T.

    1987-09-01

    Organophosphorus chemical agents have been analyzed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrometry. Significant spectral enhancement was achieved with special substrates that were prepared with silver-coated microspheres. Organophosphorus compounds were easily and rapidly measured at nanogram levels. The SERS spectra of eight of these organophosphorus chemical agents are presented. The sensitivity and spectral selectivity of this new spectrochemical technique for trace organic analysis of toxic chemical agents are discussed. Analyses of a two-component mixture and contaminated soil sample extract are illustrated.

  2. Nondispersive extraction for recovering lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.J.; Bajpai, R.K.; Iannotti, E.L.

    1991-12-31

    A nondispersive extraction process for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is being developed. The criteria for selection of solvent, distribution of lactic acid between the aqueous and solvent phases, and the effect of presence of other compounds in the broth, are discussed. Working with a simulated fermentation broth (without cells), a hydrophobic membrane module has been evaluated for its effectiveness as extractor. Back extraction and its role has been demonstrated. A theoretical comparison of this process with electrodialysis shows membrane extraction to be more desirable.

  3. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1962-01-23

    A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

  4. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  5. Ascorbic acid surface modified TiO2-thin layers as a fully integrated analysis system for visual simultaneous detection of organophosphorus pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shunxing; Liang, Wenjie; Zheng, Fengying; Lin, Xiaofeng; Cai, Jiabai

    2014-11-01

    TiO2 photocatalysis and colorimetric detection are coupled with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the first time to develop a fully integrated analysis system. Titania@polystyrene hybrid microspheres were surface modified with ascorbic acid, denoted AA-TiO2@PS, and used as the stationary phase for TLC. Because the affinity between AA-TiO2@PS and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was different for different species of OPs (including chlopyrifos, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, and methamidophos), OPs could be separated simultaneously by the mobile phase in 12.0 min with different Rf values. After surface modification, the UV-vis wavelength response range of AA-TiO2@PS was expanded to 650 nm. Under visible-light irradiation, all of the OPs could be photodegraded to PO43- in 25.0 min. Based on the chromogenic reaction between PO43- and chromogenic agents (ammonium molybdate and ascorbic acid), OPs were quantified from color intensity images using a scanner in conjunction with image processing software. So, AA-TiO2@PS was respectively used as the stationary phase of TLC for efficient separation of OPs, as a photocatalyst for species transformation of phosphorus, and as a colorimetric probe for on-field simultaneous visual detection of OPs in natural water. Linear calibration curves for each OP ranged from 19.3 nmol P L-1 to 2.30 μmol P L-1. This integrated analysis system was simple, inexpensive, easy to operate, and sensitive.TiO2 photocatalysis and colorimetric detection are coupled with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the first time to develop a fully integrated analysis system. Titania@polystyrene hybrid microspheres were surface modified with ascorbic acid, denoted AA-TiO2@PS, and used as the stationary phase for TLC. Because the affinity between AA-TiO2@PS and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was different for different species of OPs (including chlopyrifos, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, and methamidophos), OPs could be separated

  6. Microwave-assisted extraction and high-throughput monolithic-polymer-based micro-solid-phase extraction of organophosphorus, triazole, and organochlorine residues in apple.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Habib; Es'haghi, Ali; Es-Haghi, Ali; Basiripour, Fatemeh

    2016-02-01

    A high-throughput micro-solid-phase extraction device based on a 96-well plate was constructed and applied to the determination of pesticide residues in various apple samples. Butyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were copolymerized as a monolithic polymer and placed in the cylindrically shaped stainless-steel meshes of 96-micro-solid-phase extraction device and used as an extracting unit. Before the micro-solid-phase extraction, microwave-assisted extraction was employed to facilitate the transfer of the pesticide residues from the apple matrix to liquid media. Then, 1 mL of the aquatic samples was transferred into the 96-well plate and the 96-micro-solid-phase extraction device was applied for the extraction of the selected pesticides. Influential parameters, such as sorbent-to-sorbent reproducibility, microwave-assisted extraction time, ionic strength and micro-solid-phase extraction time, were optimized. The limits of quantitation were below 120 μg/kg, which are lower than the maximum residue limits. The developed method was successfully implemented for the extraction and determination of the selected pesticides from 20 different apple samples gathered from local markets. Phosalone was identified and quantified at the concentration level of 147 (±16.4) μg/kg in one of the samples. PMID:26614571

  7. Kinetics of mercury extraction using oleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, K.A.; Wiencek, J.M. )

    1993-11-01

    In the absence of halide ion, Hg[sup 2+] is the predominant species in water and can be effectively extracted using oleic acid. The organic phase complex that is formed is HgR[sub 2] [center dot] 2(RH). The presence of polar modifiers in the organic phase facilitates the formation of a complex dimer, [HgR[sub 2] [center dot] 2(RH)][sub 2]. Kinetics of the extraction reaction have been studied as a function of pH, Hg[sup 2+] concentration, oleic acid concentration, and mixing rate in a stirred cell reactor. Extraction kinetics are first order in mercury concentration and zero order with respect to oleic acid concentration and pH. This is consistent with film theory predictions for an instantaneous reaction that is mass transfer controlled. A diffusion/reaction model for mercury extraction in a batch stirred tank reactor has been developed that incorporates this information, and includes mass transfer of mercuric ion from the bulk solution to the droplet surface, equilibrium between aqueous mercury and organic mercury complex at the droplet interface, and diffusion and dimer formation of the complex within the organic phase droplet. Without the use of adjustable parameters, this model successfully predicts mercury extraction rate and equilibrium.

  8. Neodymium(III) Complexes of Dialkylphosphoric and Dialkylphosphonic Acids Relevant to Liquid-Liquid Extraction Systems.

    PubMed

    Lumetta, Gregg J; Sinkov, Sergey I; Krause, Jeanette A; Sweet, Lucas E

    2016-02-15

    The complexes formed during the extraction of neodymium(III) into hydrophobic solvents containing acidic organophosphorus extractants were probed by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry, visible spectrophotometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the compound Nd(DMP)3 (1, DMP = dimethyl phosphate) revealed a polymeric arrangement in which each Nd(III) center is surrounded by six DMP oxygen atoms in a pseudo-octahedral environment. Adjacent Nd(III) ions are bridged by (MeO)2POO(-) anions, forming the polymeric network. The diffuse reflectance visible spectrum of 1 is nearly identical to that of the solid that is formed when an n-dodecane solution of di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HA) is saturated with Nd(III), indicating a similar coordination environment around the Nd center in the NdA3 solid. The visible spectrum of the HA solution fully loaded with Nd(III) is very similar to that of the NdA3 material, both displaying hypersensitive bands characteristic of an pseudo-octahedral coordination environment around Nd. These spectral characteristics persisted across a wide range of organic Nd concentrations, suggesting that the pseudo-octahedral coordination environment is maintained from dilute to saturated conditions. PMID:26815878

  9. Acid gas extraction of pyridine from water

    SciTech Connect

    Laitinen, A.; Kaunisto, J.

    2000-01-01

    Pyridine was extracted from aqueous solutions initially containing 5 or 15 wt % pyridine by using liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide at 10 MPa as a solvent in a mechanically agitated countercurrent extraction column. The lowest pyridine concentration in the raffinate was 0.06 wt %, whereas the pyridine concentration in the extract was 86--94 wt %. From the initial amount of pyridine, 96--99% was transferred from the feed stream to the extract by using relatively small solvent-to-feed ratios of 2.8--4.6 (kg of solvent/kg of feed). The measured distribution coefficients for the water/pyridine/carbon dioxide system ranged from 0.3 to 1 (weight units), depending on the initial pyridine concentration in water. Carbon dioxide is a particularly suitable solvent for the extraction of pyridine from concentrated aqueous solutions. The efficiency may be the result of an acid-base interaction between weakly basic pyridine solute and weakly acidic carbon dioxide solvent in an aqueous environment.

  10. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  11. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  12. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  13. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  14. Organophosphorus Compounds in Organic Electronics.

    PubMed

    Shameem, Muhammad Anwar; Orthaber, Andreas

    2016-07-25

    This Minireview describes recent advances of organophosphorus compounds as opto-electronic materials in the field of organic electronics. The progress of (hetero-) phospholes, unsaturated phosphanes, and trivalent and pentavalent phosphanes since 2010 is covered. The described applications of organophosphorus materials range from single molecule sensors, field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, to polymeric materials for organic photovoltaic applications. PMID:27276233

  15. Liquid-phase microextraction of organophosphorus pesticides using supramolecular solvent as a carrier for ferrofluid.

    PubMed

    Zohrabi, Parvin; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Mahdi; Hashemi, Beshare

    2016-11-01

    A liquid-phase microextraction based on application of supramolecular solvent as a carrier for ferrofluid has been developed for the extraction and determination of three organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs). The ferrofluid was produced from combination of oleic acid coated magnetic particles and supramolecular solvent as the extractant solvent. Ferrofluid can be attracted by a magnet, and no centrifugation step was needed for phase separation. A response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was used for efficient optimization of the main variables in the extraction procedure. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the calibration curves found to be linear in the range of 0.5-400µgL(-1) with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9967 to 0.9984. The intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD %) for 100 and 200µgL(-1) of each pesticides were in the range of 2.0-5.3% and 2.6-5.7%, respectively. The limit of detection (S/N=3), ranged from 0.1 to 0.35μgL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in water and fruit juice samples. PMID:27591622

  16. Organophosphorus Insecticide Pharmacokinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This chapter highlights a number of current and future applications of pharmacokinetics to assess organophosphate (OP) insecticide dosimetry, biological response and risk in humans exposed to these agents. Organophosphates represent a large family of pesticides where insecticidal as well as toxicological mode of action is associated with their ability to target and inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Pharmacokinetics entails the quantitative integration of physiological and metabolic processes associated with the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of drugs and xenobiotics. Pharmacokinetic studies provide important data on the amount of toxicant delivered to a target site as well as species-, age-, gender-specific and dose-dependent differences in biological response. These studies have been conducted with organophosphorus insecticides in multiple species, at various dose levels, and across different routes of exposure to understand their in vivo pharmacokinetics and how they contribute to the observed toxicological response. To access human exposure to organophosphorus insecticides, human pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted and used to develop biological monitoring strategies based on the quantitation of key metabolites in biological fluids. Pharmacokinetic studies with these insecticides are also useful to facilitate extrapolation of dosimetry and biological response from animals to humans and for the assessment of human health risk. In this regard, physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models are being utilized to assess risk and understand the toxicological implications of known or suspected exposures to various insecticides. In this chapter a number of examples are presented that illustrate the utility and limitation of pharmacokinetic studies to address human health concerns associated with organophosphorus insecticides.

  17. Extraction of alkaline earth and actinide cations by mixtures of Di(2-ethylhexyl)alkylenediphosphonic acids and neutral synergists.

    SciTech Connect

    McAlister, D. R.; Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M. L.; Herlinger, A. W.; Zalupski, P. R.; Chemistry; Loyola Univ.

    2002-09-18

    The synergistic extraction of alkaline earth (Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+} and Ra{sup 2+}) and actinide (Am{sup 3+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+}) cations from aqueous nitric acid solutions by mixtures of P,P'-di(2-ethylhexyl) methylene-(H{sub 2}DEH[MDP]), ethylene-(H{sub 2}DEH[EDP]), and butylene-(H{sub 2}DEH[BuDP]) diphosphonic acids and neutral extractants in o-xylene has been investigated. The cis-syn-cis and cis-anti-cis stereoisomers of dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6), the unsubstituted 21-crown-7 (21C7) and dicyclohexano-21-crown-7 (DCH21C7) were used as neutral synergists of the crown ether type. For Am(III) synergistic effects were also investigated using neutral organophosphorus esters, such as, tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP), diamyl amylphosphonate (DA[AP]) and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as co-extractants. In all systems investigated, no synergistic extraction enhancement was observed for actinide ions. For the alkaline earth cations, synergistic effects were only observed when mixtures of H{sub 2}DEH[EDP] or H{sub 2}DEH-[BuDP] with DCH18C6 were used to extract Sr{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+} and Ra{sup 2+}. No synergistic effects were observed for the extraction of alkaline earth cations by H{sub 2}DEH[MDP] or for the extraction of Ca{sup 2+} by any of the diphosphonic acids studied. The synergistic effects obtained with DCH18C6 were significantly higher for the cis-syn-cis than for the cis-anti-cis stereoisomer.

  18. Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...

  19. Quantification of Bacterial Fatty Acids by Extraction and Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Politz, Mark; Lennen, Rebecca; Pfleger, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes two similar methods for the extraction and methylation of fatty acids from bacterial cultures. The acid derivatization protocol (Lennen et al., 2013; Bligh and Dyer, 1959) results in the extraction and methylation of all fatty acids, both free and bound, from a bacterial culture, while the base derivatization protocol (Lennen and Pfleger, 2013) captures only bound (phospholipid, acyl-thioester) species. After extraction into hexane, the lipids may be analyzed by gas chromatography.

  20. Recovery of boric acid from wastewater by solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Michiaki; Kondo, Kazuo; Hirata, Makoto; Kokubu, Shuzo; Hano, Tadashi

    1997-03-01

    An extraction system for the recovery of boric acid using 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) as an extractant was studied. Loss of the extractant to the aqueous solution was lowered by using 2-ethylhexanol as a diluent. The extraction equilibrium of boric acid with BEPD was clarified, and the equilibrium constants for various diluents were determined. Furthermore, continuous operation for the recovery of boric acid using mixer-settlers for extraction and stripping was successfully conducted during 100 hours. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Three-dimensional graphene aerogel-supported iron oxide nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent for magnetic solid phase extraction of organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruit juices followed by gas chromatographic determination.

    PubMed

    Mahpishanian, Shokouh; Sereshti, Hassan

    2016-04-22

    In this research, a magnetic three dimensional-graphene nanocomposite (3D-G-Fe3O4) was prepared, characterized and used as an effective nanoadsorbent in magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from juice samples prior to gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detection (GC-NPD). The properties and morphology of 3D-G-Fe3O4 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The main experimental parameters affecting extraction recoveries including extraction time, amount of adsorbent, pH of sample solution, salt concentration and desorption conditions were carefully studied and optimized. The results showed wide linear concentration ranges with determination coefficients between 0.9973 and 0.9999. The limits of detection (S/N=3) of the method and limits of quantification (S/N=10) were from 1.2 to 5.1 ng L(-1) and 3.4-17.0 ng L(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day RSDs were 2.6-5.1% and 3.5-6.9%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of OPPs in fruit juices (apple, orange, grape, sour-cherry and apricot) with recoveries in range of 86.6-107.5%. The GC-NPD results were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results demonstrated that with combination of highly interconnected 3D network structure and magnetism property of adsorbent, 3D-G-Fe3O4 aerogel exhibited exceptional extraction ability towards the OPPs. PMID:27018186

  2. Novel and rapid method for determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in edible fungus using direct gas purge microsyringe extraction coupled on-line with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nan, Jingxi; Wang, Juan; Piao, Xiangfan; Yang, Cui; Wu, Xue; Quinto, Maurizio; Li, Donghao

    2015-09-01

    In this work a new analytical method for a rapid and simultaneous determination of 28 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) residues in edible fungus using gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE), coupled with on-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GP-MSE-GC-MS) has been developed and optimized. GP-MSE, a novel gas flow liquid-phase microextraction technique, has been then fruitfully used as innovative and one-step extraction procedure, allowing a direct injection into the gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) system without any further cleaning step. Once optimized, the GP-MSE-GC-MS analysis procedure showed reproducibility values, resolutions, linear responses, detection and quantification limits that allowed to consider this method suitable for the analysis of the 28 OPPs in real samples. Furthermore, OPP recoveries and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 85.26% to 100.21%, and from 1.6% to 6.9%, respectively. This procedure was then used for the analysis of real samples and the obtained results were compared with those of ultrasonic extraction-solid phase extraction. Among the 28 OPPs, 14 of them were found in Lentinus edodes and Enoki mushrooms fungus samples, with a total concentrations of 112.7 and 210.7 μg kg(-1), respectively. This work demonstrated then that GP-MSE-GC-MS provided a highly efficient, solvent-saving, accurate and sensitive quantitative analysis method for a rapid determination of OPPs in edible fungus. PMID:26003693

  3. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preliminary survey information on the organophosphorus pesticide industry wastewater streams and analytical methods to monitor levels of organic compounds present in these streams are presented. The identification and quantification of organophosphorus compounds was emphasized, b...

  4. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum Ait.

    PubMed

    Xia, En-Qin; Yu, Ying-Ying; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Deng, Gui-Fang; Guo, Ya-Jun; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-07-01

    Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are the main bioactive compounds in fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait, which possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiprotozoal, antimutagenic and anticancer properties. In this study, the ultrasound-assisted extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from L. lucidum Ait was investigated with HPLC-photodiode array detection. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as type and concentration of extraction solvent, ratio of liquid to material, extraction temperature and extraction time, on extraction efficiencies of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from L. lucidum were evaluated. The influence of experimental parameters on extraction efficiency of ursolic acid was more significant than that of oleanolic acid. The optimal extraction conditions were 95% ethanol, the ratio of material to liquid at 1:20, and extraction for 10 min at 40°C under ultrasonic irradiation. Under the optimal conditions, the yields of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were 6.3 ± 0.25 and 9.8 ± 0.30 mg/g, respectively. The results indicated that the ultrasound-assisted extraction is a very useful method for the extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from L. lucidum. PMID:22197019

  5. Extraction of Nucleic Acids from Lyophilized Plant Material

    PubMed Central

    Guinn, Gene

    1966-01-01

    Four methods for extracting nucleic acids from lyophilized cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Stoneville 62) leaves and roots were compared. They were based on the use of: (I) HC104; (II) KOH; (III) a mixture of 90% phenol, Tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane buffer, and sodium lauryl sulfate; and (IV) NaCl. (I) extracted large amounts of RNA but little DNA and extracted much carbohydrate and protein contaminants. (II) gave a good yield of both RNA and DNA but extracted such large amounts of contaminating material that purification of RNA on an anion exchange column was necessary. (III) extracted only part of the RNA and practically no DNA, but extracted contaminating materials. (IV) resulted in high yields of both RNA and DNA when modified to omit preliminary acid extraction of impurities. The use of cold trichloroacetic acid instead of ethanol, to precipitate NaCl-extracted nucleic acids, separated the nucleic acids from most of the carbohydrate and acid-soluble phosphate contaminants and resulted in good agreement among results by ultraviolet absorbance, pentose tests, and phosphate analysis. This method also resulted in lower protein contents and better ultraviolet absorption spectra than the other methods tested. Nucleic acids were extracted from leaves of 14 other species of plants, in addition to cotton, by this modified NaCl procedure. PMID:16656306

  6. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  7. Pectin extraction from pomegranate peels with citric acid.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo Henrique F; Oliveira, Túlio Ítalo S; Rosa, Morsyleide F; Cavalcante, Fabio Lima; Moates, Graham K; Wellner, Nikolaus; Waldron, Keith W; Azeredo, Henriette M C

    2016-07-01

    Pectins were extracted from pomegranate peels with citric acid, according to a central composite design with three variables: pH (2-4), temperature (70-90°C), and extraction time (40-150min). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to follow changes in material composition during the main steps of pectin extraction, and also to determine the degree of methyl esterification and galacturonic acid content of pectins produced under different conditions. Harsh conditions enhanced the extraction yield and the galacturonic acid contents, but decreased the degree of methoxylation. The optimum extraction conditions, defined as those predicted to result in a yield of galacturonic acid higher than 8g/100g while keeping a minimum degree of methoxylation of 54% were: 88°C, 120min, pH 2.5. Close agreement was found between experimental and predicted values at the extraction conditions defined as optimum. PMID:27044343

  8. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Oleanolic Acid and Ursolic Acid from Ligustrum lucidum Ait

    PubMed Central

    Xia, En-Qin; Wang, Bo-Wei; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhu, Li; Song, Yang; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are the main active components in fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait, and possess anticancer, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiprotozoal activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum was investigated with HPLC-photodiode array detection. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as type and concentration of extraction solvent, ratio of liquid to material, microwave power, extraction temperature and microwave time, on the extraction efficiencies of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum were evaluated. The influence of experimental parameters on the extraction efficiency of ursolic acid was more significant than that of oleanolic acid (p < 0.05). The optimal extraction conditions were 80% ethanol aqueous solution, the ratio of material to liquid was 1:15, and extraction for 30 min at 70 °C under microwave irradiation of 500 W. Under optimal conditions, the yields of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were 4.4 ± 0.20 mg/g and 5.8 ± 0.15 mg/g, respectively. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of Ligustrum lucidum, which also indicated that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from plant materials. PMID:21954361

  9. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  10. Multiresidue determination of organophosphorus pesticides in solid waste environmental samples by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shijian; Zhang, Huanyan; Chen, Beibei; Liu, Ming; Shen, Yanjun; Sha, Qichao; Zhi, Yuee; Zhou, Pei

    2014-01-01

    The method for the determination of 12 organophosphorus pesticides in solid waste was established. The organophosphorus pesticides were analyzed by Soxhlet extraction or accelerated solvent extraction (ASE)-SPE cartridge-flame photometric detector (FPD), and leaching solution by rotary oscillation-positive pressure filtration-liquid-liquid extraction-SPE cartridge-FPD. The differences of extraction efficiencies between Soxhlet and ASE were compared. Solvent of Soxhlet extraction, purification and recovery of organophosphorus pesticides in leaching conditions were also studied. The recoveries were 54.2-119.8%, and the average recovery was 87.7%. The RSD was 1.89-9.10% (n = 6), the average RSD was 6.88%, and the detection limit was 0.27-0.69 μg/kg. PMID:25903001

  11. Extraction of actinides and nitric acid by crown ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Rozen, A.M.; Nikolotova, Z.I.; Kartasheva, N.A.; Luk'yanenko, N.G.; Bogatskii, A.V.

    1982-10-01

    This work studied the extraction of thorium nitrate, and an extraction isotherm of uranyl nitrate was obtained; the distribution of HNO/sub 3/ was studied over a wide range of acidity (up to 18M), which uses different concepts on the mechanism of the process. The extraction of Pu(VI) and Np(IV) was studied up to a 12 M acidity; two crown ethers had not previously been used for the extraction of the actinides. A quantitative description of the equilibria studied is given, and the influence of the structure of the ethers on the complex formation is discussed.

  12. Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Acero, Juan L; Benítez, F Javier; Real, Francisco J; González, Manuel

    2008-05-01

    Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 degrees C and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M(-1) s(-1) for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L(-1) was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety. PMID:17904287

  13. ALUMINUM RECLAMATION BY ACIDIC EXTRACTION OF ALUMINUM-ANODIZING SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extraction of aluminum-anodizing sludges with sulfuric acid was examined to determine the potential for production of commercial-strength solutions of aluminum sulfate, that is liquid alum. The research established kinetic and stoichiometric relationships and evaluates product qu...

  14. Recovery of organic extractant from secondary emulsions formed in the extraction of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Korchnak, J.D.; Fett, R.H.G.

    1984-01-03

    Uranium in wet-process phosphoric acid is extracted with an organic extractant. The pregnant extractant is then centrifuged to separate contaminants from the extractant. Secondary emulsions obtained by separating the contaminants following centrifugation are mixed with water or an acid leaching solution. After mixing, the mixture is centrifuged to separate and recover extractant which is recycled for stripping.

  15. Extraction of protactinium from mineral acid-alcohol media.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Sanad, W; Shabana, R

    1968-07-01

    The extraction of protactinium with organic solvents has been investigated in the presence of water-miscible alcohols and acetone. These additives were found to increase considerably the extraction of protactinium in the cases of trilaurylamine, tributyl phosphate and isobutyl methyl ketone. The influence was less in the case of thenoyltrifluoroacetone. In mixtures of an acid with various alcohols, the influence depended on the alcohol concentration, the acidity and on the chain lengths and dielectric constants of the alcohol introduced into the extraction system. PMID:18960346

  16. Approaches for regeneration of amine-carboxylic acid extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y.; King, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    Extraction processes based on reversible chemical complexation can be useful for separation of polar organics from dilute solution. Tertiary amines are effective extractants for the recovery of carboxylic acids from aqueous solution. The regeneration of aminecarboxylic acid extracts is an important step which strongly influences the economic viability of the separation process. Several regeneration methods are critically reviewed, and the factors that affect swing regeneration processes, including temperature-swing, diluent composition-swing and pH-swing with a volatile base are discussed. Interest in this area comes from interest in treatment of waste streams, particularly in petrochemical and fermentation manufacture.

  17. Selective separation of uranyl ion from TRU`s in a combined solvent extraction process using tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Diamond, H.; Rickert, P.G.; Muntean, J.V.; Mendoza, M.D.; Giuseppe, G. di

    1996-01-01

    Selective partitioning of uranyl from transuranic elements in a solvent extraction system which employs a neutral organophosphorus extractant and an aqueous complexant has been demonstrated in a previous report. The extractant solution combines octyl(phenyl)-N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), diamyl(amyl)phosphonate (or tributylphosphate), and di(t-butylcyclohexano)-18-crown-6 in Isopar L, and is designed for simultaneous removal of strontium, technetium, lanthanides and actinides from radioactive wastes. The aqueous complexant is tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid (THFTCA). In this report, the separation of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} from Np(IV), Eu(III), Am(III), and Pu(IV) using the Combined Process Solvent has been optimized. Potentiometric titration and NMR spectroscopic results describe the distribution of THFTCA into the organic phase as a function of acidity and [THFTCA]. Further potentiometric titration experiments have determined the stoichiometry and stability of uranyl complexes in the aqueous phase. The thermodynamic data indicate that the uranyl complexes are anomalously weak which partially accounts for the selectivity. Ternary complexes involving UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, CMPO, and THFTCA in the extractant phase also appear to play a role. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Fatty and resinic acids extractions from crude tall oil

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-11-01

    The separation of fatty and resinic acidic fractions from crude tall-oil soap solutions with n-heptane by the technique of dissociation extraction is discussed. The theory of the overall process is supported by a systematic study developed to cover the high selectivity demonstrated in the differential solubility and the aptness between fatty and diterpenic acids to both liquids phases. To study the main factors affecting those liquid-liquid extraction systems and the amphiphilic behavior of such molecules involved, sodium salts aqueous solutions of crude tall oil and synthetic mixtures as molecular acidic models were used.

  19. Direct acid methylation for extraction of fatty acid content from microalgae cells.

    PubMed

    Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin D; Wang, Ping

    2014-08-01

    Direct acid methylation was examined as a means for both analysis of fatty acid content in microalgal cells and biodiesel production without pretreatment. Microalgal cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Dunaliella tertiolecta were prepared and examined. It appeared that direct acid methylation extracted higher fatty acid content than the solvent-based Soxhlet extraction process. It also revealed that the latter was prone to extract a significant amount of nonlipid hydrophobic impurities, including hydrophobic proteins and phytol-type compounds, while direct methylation produces essentially pure ester product. This work demonstrates that direct acid methylation provides superior fatty acid extraction, promising an efficient process for either quantification of lipid content or production of biodiesel. PMID:24838798

  20. Supercritical fluid extraction of free amino acids from broccoli leaves.

    PubMed

    Arnáiz, E; Bernal, J; Martín, M T; Nozal, M J; Bernal, J L; Toribio, L

    2012-08-10

    The extraction of free amino acids (AAs) from broccoli leaves using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) modified with methanol, is presented in this work. The effect of the different variables was studied, showing the percentage of methanol a strong influence on the extraction. The best results in terms of extraction yield were obtained at 250 bar, 70°C, 35% methanol as organic modifier, a flow rate of 2 mL/min, and 5 min and 30 min as static and dynamic extraction times, respectively. The extraction yield obtained with the SFE method was comparable to that obtained employing conventional solvent extraction with methanol-water (70:30) and minor than using water, but the relative proportion of the AAs in the extracts was very different. For example, the use of SFE allowed the enrichment in proline and glutamine of the extracts. The selected conditions were applied to obtain SFE extracts of broccoli leaves from different varieties (Naxos, Nubia, Marathon, Parthenon and Viola). The highest levels of AAs were found in the SFE extracts from the Nubia variety. PMID:22608777

  1. Determination of organophosphorus and triazine pesticides in ground- and drinking water by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus or mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Psathaki, M; Manoussaridou, E; Stephanou, E G

    1994-04-29

    Trace enrichment and determination of ethoprophos, fenamiphos, fenthion, isophenphos, mevinphos, monocrotophos, atrazine and simazine were performed by solid-phase extraction on XAD-2 columns and Sep-Pak C18 cartridges, subsequent elution with an organic solvent and determination by GC with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD) and mass spectrometry in the selected-ion monitoring mode (MS-SIM). Ground- and drinking water volumes of 1-2.5 l at concentrations levels of 0.1-5 micrograms/l were used for application of the method. Both adsorbents provided recoveries of 75-95%. The limits of detection were 0.08-0.60 micrograms/l with NPD and 0.03-0.13 micrograms/l with MS-SIM. PMID:8025630

  2. Development, validation, and uncertainty measurement of multi-residue analysis of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides using pressurized liquid extraction and dispersive-SPE techniques.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Doyeli; Rani, Anita; Alam, Samsul; Gujral, Seema; Gupta, Ruchi

    2011-11-01

    Simple and efficient multi-residue analytical methods were developed and validated for the determination of 13 organochlorine and 17 organophosphorous pesticides from soil, spinach and eggplant. Techniques namely accelerated solvent extraction and dispersive SPE were used for sample preparations. The recovery studies were carried out by spiking the samples at three concentration levels (1 limit of quantification (LOQ), 5 LOQ, and 10 LOQ). The methods were subjected to a thorough validation procedure. The mean recovery for soil, spinach and eggplant were in the range of 70-120% with median CV (%) below 10%. The total uncertainty was evaluated taking four main independent sources viz., weighing, purity of the standard, GC calibration curve and repeatability under consideration. The expanded uncertainty was well below 10% for most of the pesticides and the rest fell in the range of 10-20%. PMID:21210211

  3. The extraction of actinides from nitric acid solutions with diamides of dipicolinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapka, Joseph L.; Paulenova, Alena; Alyapyshev, Mikhail Yu; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Law, Jack D.; Herbst, R. Scott

    2010-03-01

    Diamides of dipicolinic acid (N,N'-diethyl-N,N'-ditolyl-dipicolinamide, EtTDPA) were synthesized and evaluated for their extraction capability for actinides. In this work the extractions of neptunium(V), protactinium(V), and thorium(IV) with EtTDPA in a polar fluorinated diluent from nitric acid were investigated. EtTDPA shows a high affinity for Th(IV) even at millimolar concentrations. Np(V) and Pa(V) are both reasonably extractable with EtTDPA; however, near saturated solutions are required to achieve appreciable distribution ratios. A comparison with previously published actinide extraction data is given.

  4. Method for liquid chromatographic extraction of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  5. Separation of Minor Actinides from Lanthanides by Dithiophosphinic Acid Extractants

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Peterman; M. R. Greenhalgh; R. D. Tillotson; J. R. Klaehn; M. K. Harrup; T. A. Luther; J. D. Law; L. M. Daniels

    2008-09-01

    The selective extraction of the minor actinides (Am(III) and Cm(III)) from the lanthanides is an important part of advanced reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This separation would allow the Am/Cm to be fabricated into targets and recycled to a reactor and the lanthanides to be dispositioned. This separation is difficult to accomplish due to the similarities in the chemical properties of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides. Research efforts at the Idaho National Laboratory have identified an innovative synthetic pathway yielding new regiospecific dithiophosphinic acid (DPAH) extractants. The synthesis provides DPAH derivatives that can address the issues concerning minor actinide separation and extractant stability. For this work, two new symmetric DPAH extractants have been prepared. The use of these extractants for the separation of minor actinides from lanthanides will be discussed.

  6. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J.; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick II, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B. Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-01-01

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning. PMID:26489395

  7. The toxicity of organophosphorus compounds to mammals

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, Kenneth P.

    1971-01-01

    The acute toxicity of most of the commonly used organophosphorus insecticides is essentially the same. A few compounds with low toxicity, such as malathion, have been developed but further efforts in that direction are needed. Most of the organophosphorus insecticides exert a generalized cholinergic action by inhibiting central and peripheral cholinesterases. The phosphoramides are an exception in that they do not gain access to the cholinesterase of the central nervous system in vivo and consequently atropine is a more effective antidote for them than for organophosphorus compounds. Young animals are more susceptible to the organophosphorus compounds than are adults. Enzyme-inducing agents decrease the toxicity of the phosphorothioates and phosphorodithioates. All organophosphorus insecticides can inhibit esterases that catalyse the detoxification of some insecticides of this class and ester-type drugs. PMID:4328820

  8. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-01-01

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning. PMID:26489395

  9. Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by the aqueous extract and purified extracts of Stachytarpheta cayennensis.

    PubMed

    Vela, S M; Souccar, C; Lima-Landman, M T; Lapa, A J

    1997-02-01

    Stachytarpheta cayennensis Schauer (Verbenaceae) is used in folk medicine to treat gastric and intestinal disturbances. The freeze-dried aqueous extract of the whole plant tested to rodents up to the dose of 2 g kg-1, p.o., did not produce signs of toxicity. The extract (0.5-2 g kg-1, p.o.) increased the intestinal motility and protected mice against ulcers induced by restraintin-cold, ethanol or indomethacin. Injected into the duodenal lumen the extract inhibited the basal acid secretion as well as that induced by histamine and bethanecol in pylorus-ligated mice. Partition of the aqueous extract in organic solvents yielded semipurified fractions whose antiacid activity guided further chemical purification. All the fractions were chromatographically characterized, the main substances in the active extract being flavonoids and amines; some substances were revealed only under UV light. The most purified active fraction obtained presented a specific activity 5-10 times higher than that detected in the original extract. Data from pharmacological studies indicate that the antiulcer activity of S. cayennensis is related to a specific inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Cholinergic and histaminergic stimulation of acid secretion were similarly reduced by the extracts suggesting inhibition of common steps in both pathways, possibly at the level of histamine release/H2 receptor interaction, or at the proton pump. Whatever the mechanisms involved, the present data confirm the plant effectiveness as antiacid/antiulcer and laxative. PMID:9063095

  10. Acidic solvent extraction of gossypol from cottonseed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to expand the use of cottonseed meal in animal feeding, extraction of the meal gossypol was studied with acetic acetone- and ethanol-based solutions. Phosphoric acid was added to hydrolyze and release gossypol bound within the meal. Both solvent systems were effective at reducing gossypo...

  11. Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

    1983-07-26

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  12. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) reduces the concentrations and/or leachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. he objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and commercial viabili...

  13. Superheated water extraction of glycyrrhizic acid from licorice root.

    PubMed

    Shabkhiz, Mohammad A; Eikani, Mohammad H; Bashiri Sadr, Zeinolabedin; Golmohammad, Fereshteh

    2016-11-01

    Superheated water extraction (SWE) has become an interesting green extraction method for different classes of compounds. In this study, SWE was used to extract glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice root. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate and optimize the extraction conditions. The influence of operating conditions such as water temperature (100, 120 and 140°C) and solvent flow rates (1, 3 and 5mL/min) were investigated at 0.5mm mean particle size and 20bar pressure. Separation and identification of the glycyrrhizic acid, as the main component, was carried out by the RP-HPLC method. The best operating conditions for the SWE of licorice were determined to be 100°C temperature,15mL/min flow rate and 120min extraction time. The results showed that the amount of the obtained GA was relatively higher using SWE (54.760mg/g) than the Soxhlet method (28.760mg/g) and ultrasonic extraction (18.240mg/g). PMID:27211663

  14. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173... Solvent extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid from conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid...

  15. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173... Solvent extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid from conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid...

  16. Myocradial extraction of 1-[{sup 11}C] betamethylheptadecanoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Elmaleh, D.R.; Livni, E.; Alpert, N.M.

    1994-03-01

    Betamethylheptadecanoic acid (BMHA) is a branched chain fatty acid analog that is transported into myocardial cells by the same long chain fatty acid carrier protein mechanism as natural fatty acids, but cannot be completely catabolzied and accumulates in the tissue. Thus, {sup 11}C-labeled BMHA is a useful tracer for the noninvasive evaluation of myocardial fatty acid utilization by positron emission tomography (PET). As a prelude to PET studies, the metabolism of BMHA was studied by classical techniques. The authors measured the net extraction fraction (E{sub n}) of 1-[{sup 11}C]-beta-R,S-methylheptadecanoic acid (1-[{sup 11}C]BMHA) and compared it to that of natural fatty acids in dogs, using arterial/venous measurements and a mathematical model. Two groups of conditioned dogs were studied. In the first group, measurements were made under fasting (normal control) conditions and in the second group, measurements were made during glucose and insulin infusion. Myocardial blood flow, and the extraction/utilization of other substrates (glucose, oxygen and lactate) were also measured. For natural fatty acids in the basal state, E{sub n}(FA) was 0.335. After glucose/insulin infusion, this value decreased to 0.195. The 1-[{sup 11}C]BMHA showed a similar decrease in E{sub n}(BMHA) from 0.220 in the control group to 0.100 in the group treated with glucose/insulin infusion. Preliminary PET studies with 1-[{sup 11}C]BMHA verified the validity of performing these measurements noninvasively. The results of these studies indicate that rates of fatty acid metabolism in the myocardium can be determined from steady-state concentrations of 1-[{sup 11}C]BMHA. 36 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Application of carboxyphenylboronic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for extracting nucleic acid from seeds.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Ge, Guanglu; Xia, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with 4-carboxyphenylboronic acid (CPBA-MNPs) were developed for extracting genomic DNA, total RNA and nucleic acids from seeds. The seed samples were genetically-modified maize seeds and unmodified soybean seeds infected by bean pod mottle virus and tobacco ringspot virus. The total nucleic acids, genomic DNA, and RNA could be separately extracted from these seeds with high qualities using CPBA-MNPs under different conditions. Furthermore, the results of real-time quantitative qPCR and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that the nucleic acids extracted from these seeds using CPBA-MNPs were suitable for the detection of genetically-modified seeds and seed-borne viruses. PMID:25214223

  18. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  19. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  20. The research of Organophosphorus pesticide biosensor characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yong; Luo, Xixian; Cheng, Yi

    2010-10-01

    To study the fiber-sensor film applied in detecting Organophosphorus pesticide, methyltriethoxysilane was used as precursor, which was doped by FITC- AchE. Consequently, the excellent Acetylcholinesterase biology sensitivity film was prepared. Physics characteristic of the film and sensitivity of Organophosphorus pesticide were researched. In organophosphorus pesticide residue testing, the experimental results indicated that the linear measurement range could reach 10-7{10-6 mol/L, moreover the detection limit is 10-8 mol/L. The sensor could be applied in biological / chemical research, clinical medicine, environmental protection, food inspection, biochemical preventive war field and so on.

  1. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.B.

    1995-08-01

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660{plus_minus}0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46{plus_minus}0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 {times} 10{sup 6}{plus_minus}3.56 {times} 10{sup 4} at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610{plus_minus}0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412{plus_minus}0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72{plus_minus}1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured.

  2. Hydrothermal acid treatment for sugar extraction from Golenkinia sp.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-A; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Jin-Suk; Kim, Seung Wook; Lee, Gye-An; Yun, Jihyun; Park, Ji-Yeon

    2015-08-01

    In this study, hydrothermal acid treatment for efficient recovery of sugar from Golenkinia sp. was investigated. The initial glucose and XMG (xylose, mannose, and galactose) contents of a prepared Golenkinia sp. solution (40g/L) were 15.05 and 5.24g/L, respectively. The microalgal cell walls were hydrolyzed, for sugar recovery, by enzymatic saccharification and/or hydrothermal acid treatment. Among the various hydrothermal acid treatment conditions, the most optimal were the 2.0% H2SO4 concentration at 150°C for 15min, under which the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were 71.7% and 64.9%, respectively. By pH 4.8, 50°C enzymatic hydrolysis after optimal hydrothermal acid treatment, the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were additionally increased by 8.3% and 0.8%, respectively. After hydrothermal acid treatment, the combination with the enzymatic hydrolysis process improved the total sugar yield of Golenkinia sp. to 75.4%. PMID:25976916

  3. Unusual stable isotope ratios in amino acid and carboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, S.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Yuen, G. U.

    1987-01-01

    The isotopic composition of hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon in amino acid and monocarboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite has been determined. The unusually high D/H and N-15/N-14 ratios in the amino acid fraction are uniquely characteristic of known interstellar organic materials. The delta D value of the monocarboxylic acid fraction is lower but still consistent with an interstellar origin. These results confirm the extraterrestrial origin of both classes of compound and provide the first evidence suggesting a direct relationship between the massive organosynthesis occurring in interstellar clouds and the presence of prebiotic compounds in primitive planetary bodies.

  4. Lactic acid bacterial extract as a biogenic mineral growth modifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Ballav M.; Singh, Atul K.; Ramesh, Aiyagari; Das, Gopal

    2009-04-01

    The formation of minerals and mechanisms by which bacteria could control their formation in natural habitats is now of current interest for material scientists to have an insight of the mechanism of in vivo mineralization, as well as to seek industrial and technological applications. Crystalline uniform structures of calcium and barium minerals formed micron-sized building blocks when synthesized in the presence of an organic matrix consisting of secreted protein extracts from three different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz.: Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1325, Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B4495 and Pediococcus acidilactici CFR K7. LABs are not known to form organic matrix in biological materialization processes. The influence of these bacterial extracts on the crystallization behavior was investigated in details to test the basic coordination behavior of the acidic protein. In this report, varied architecture of the mineral crystals obtained in presence of high molecular weight protein extracts of three different LAB strains has been discussed. The role of native form of high molecular weight bacterial protein extracts in the generation of nucleation centers for crystal growth was clearly established. A model for the formation of organic matrix-cation complex and the subsequent events leading to crystal growth is proposed.

  5. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential. PMID:23109836

  6. BIODEGRADATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES BY SURFACE-EXPRESSED ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE. (R823663)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) was displayed and anchored onto the surface of
    Escherichia coli using an Lpp-OmpA fusion system. Production of the fusion proteins in membrane
    fractions was verified by immunoblotting with OmpA antisera. inclusion of the organophosphorus
    ...

  7. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Solvent extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid...

  8. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid...

  9. Silica with immobilized phosphinic acid-derivative for uranium extraction.

    PubMed

    Budnyak, Tetyana M; Strizhak, Alexander V; Gładysz-Płaska, Agnieszka; Sternik, Dariusz; Komarov, Igor V; Kołodyńska, Dorota; Majdan, Marek; Tertykh, Valentin А

    2016-08-15

    A novel adsorbent benzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid/aminosilica adsorbent (BImPhP(O)(OH)/SiO2NH2) was prepared by carbonyldiimidazole-mediated coupling of aminosilica with 1-carboxymethylbenzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid. It was obtained through direct phosphorylation of 1-cyanomethylbenzoimidazole by phenylphosphonic dichloride followed by basic hydrolysis of the nitrile. The obtained sorbent was well characterized by physicochemical methods, such as differential scanning calorimetry-mass spectrometry (DSC-MS), surface area and pore distribution analysis (ASAP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. The adsorption behavior of the sorbent and initial silica gel as well as aminosilica gel with respect to uranium(VI) from the aqueous media has been studied under varying operating conditions of pH, concentration of uranium(VI), contact time, and desorption in different media. The synthesized material was found to show an increase in adsorption activity with respect to uranyl ions in comparison with the initial compounds. In particular, the highest adsorption capacity for the obtained modified silica was found at the neutral pH, where one gram of the adsorbent can extract 176mg of uranium. Under the same conditions the aminosilica extracts 166mg/g, and the silica - 144mg/g of uranium. In the acidic medium, which is common for uranium nuclear wastes, the synthesized adsorbent extracts 27mg/g, the aminosilica - 16mg/g, and the silica - 14mg/g of uranium. It was found that 15% of uranium ions leached from the prepared material in acidic solutions, while 4% of uranium can be removed in a phosphate solution. PMID:27177215

  10. Organophosphorus reagents as extractants-part 3. Synergic effect of triphenyl phosphine oxide and bis(diphenyl phosphinyl) alkanes on extraction of iron(III) from thiocyanate medium with 2,4-pentdione.

    PubMed

    Lobana, T S; Bhatia, P K

    1992-06-01

    The extraction of iron(III) from thiocyanate medium was carried out with a synergic combination of 2,4-pentdione (Hacac) and either triphenyl phosphine oxide (Ph(3) PO) or bis (diphenylphosphinyl) alkanes, Ph(2)P(O)(CH(2))(n).P(O)PH(2) [ligand abbreviation, n: dpeO(2), 2; dpbO(2), 4]. Iron(III) was quantitatively separated from its binary mixture with chromium(III), manganese(III), cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II), mercury(II), lead(II), magnesium(II) and from steel samples. Copper(II) and silver(I) however, interfered. The percentage extraction was 99.0%. The respective extraction constants, K(HA), K(L) or K(syn), for the extracted species, [Fe(NCS)(acac)(2)(H(2)O)] (HA Hacac), Fe(NCS)(3)L(2) [L b Ph(3)PO, dpeO(2) or dpbO(2)], or Fe(NCS)(acac)(2)L were found to be: K(HA), 1.48 x 10(3), K(L), 1.80 x 10(2) (L Ph(3)PO), 2.02 x 10(2) (L dpeO(2) or dpbO(2)) and K(syn), 1.87 x 10(6) (L Ph(3)PO), 2.56 x 10(6) [L dpeO(2) or dpbO(2)]. PMID:18965433

  11. Simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs via on-chip electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Asl, Yousef Abdossalami; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Rezazadeh, Maryam

    2016-09-21

    In the present work, a on-chip electromembrane extraction (CEME) was designed and employed for simultaneous extraction of mefenamic acid (MEF) and diclofenac (DIC), as acidic model analytes, and betaxolol (BET), as a basic model analyte, followed by HPLC-UV. The CEME consists of two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) parts which each part consists of two separated microfluidic channels. A polypropylene sheet membrane impregnated with an organic solvent was sandwiched between the parts. One of the parts was used as the flow path for the sample solution and the other one as holder for the acceptor phases. The separated microfluidic channels of the sample solution part were connected to each other using a small piece of a capillary tube and the sample solution was pumped through them by means of a micro-syringe pump. However, the acceptor phases of the acidic and basic analytes were separately kept stagnant in the two microfluidic channels during the extraction process. A d.c. potential was applied for migration of the analytes from sample solution through the organic membrane into the acceptor phases. All effective variables on the extraction efficiency of the analytes were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, preconcentration factors higher than 15 were achieved and the calibration curves were linear in the range of 10-500 μg L(-1) (r(2) > 0.9982). RSD% values (n = 4) and LODs were less than 7.1% and 5.0 μg L(-1). The results demonstrated that CEME could efficiently be used for the simultaneous analysis of acidic and basic analytes in biological samples. PMID:27590546

  12. EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON NEURONAL DEVELOPMENT IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increased use of organophosphorus compounds as alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has led to widespread human exposure, There is, however, limited information on their potential health effects. This study compared the effects of nii ne organophosphorus flame...

  13. IMPROVED SILICA GEL CLEANUP METHOD FOR ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative recovery of some organophosphorus pesticide residues has not been possible with existing silica gel-cleanup procedures. The authors have developed a modification that permits quantitative recovery of all organophosphorus pesticides tested, except those with a carbama...

  14. An acidic method of zein extraction from DDGS.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weijie; Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

    2007-07-25

    Zein with a higher intrinsic viscosity and phosphorus content, similar protein content, lower yellowness, and at potentially much lower cost than commercially available zein was obtained from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). A novel extraction method using acidic conditions in the presence of a reducing agent has been used to obtain about 10% aqueous ethanol soluble zein from DDGS. The optimum pH, time, temperature, and amount of reducing agent that can produce zein with high quality and yield have been developed. In addition to the zein, about 17% oil based on the dry weight of DDGS has also been obtained during zein extraction. The zein obtained from this research is expected to be suitable for use as fibers, films, and binders and in paints. PMID:17590006

  15. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a conc...

  16. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Kalina, Dale G.; Kaplan, Louis; Mason, George W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions with an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  17. 40 CFR 721.10618 - Polyaromatic organophosphorus compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyaromatic organophosphorus compound... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10618 Polyaromatic organophosphorus compound (generic). (a) Chemical... as polyaromatic organophosphorus compound (PMN P-11-607) is subject to reporting under this...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10618 - Polyaromatic organophosphorus compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyaromatic organophosphorus compound... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10618 Polyaromatic organophosphorus compound (generic). (a) Chemical... as polyaromatic organophosphorus compound (PMN P-11-607) is subject to reporting under this...

  19. Extraction of Palladium from Nitric Acid by Diamides of Di-picolinic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Alyapyshev, M.Yu.; Babain, V.A.; Pokhitonov, Yu.A.; Esimantovskiy, V.M.

    2007-07-01

    The most complicated and urgent problem of atomic industry consists in the safe isolation and storage of radioactive wastes. The long-lived radionuclides presented in high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) pose a potential threat to environment for hundreds and thousands of years. One of the possible ways to reduce the danger of HLLW storages is concerned with treatment of HLLW intended to recovery of long-lived radionuclides and their partitioning into separate fractions. The separation of the most hazardous radionuclides (like transplutonium elements (TPE)) to the individual fraction of low volume leads to decrease of the total volume of HLLW and therefore to decrease of solidified waste storage costs. It should be noted that only in the case of reprocessing it can be possible to recover individual radionuclides (or their fractions) into separate flows with further special approach to each of them. Partitioning of different HLLW is under investigation in many countries now. Numerous processes for recovery of Cs, Sr, TPE and REE have been already developed and tested. At the same time partitioning is only the first step on the road to the following synthesis of materials providing the safe storage of long-lived radionuclides over many thousands of years. The metallic palladium contained in HLLW seems to be a promising material for producing of matrices for incorporation of radioactive wastes. Different methods for palladium recovery have been investigated: reductive precipitation, electrochemical precipitation, sorption and extraction. Of prime importance are extraction methods. Phosphine oxides, carbamoyl-phosphine oxides, crown-ethers, oximes, sulfides and some other compounds were proposed as extractants towards palladium from nitric acid media. It is reasonable to recover palladium into individual fraction during waste partitioning. Diamides of malonic, di-glycolic and pyridine-dicarboxylic (di-picolinic) acids are intensively investigated as extractants for HLLW

  20. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    PubMed

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions. PMID:24152670

  1. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  2. The antioxidant and chlorogenic acid profiles of whole coffee fruits are influenced by the extraction procedures.

    PubMed

    Mullen, W; Nemzer, B; Ou, B; Stalmach, A; Hunter, J; Clifford, M N; Combet, E

    2011-04-27

    Commercial whole coffee fruit extracts and powder samples were analyzed for chlorogenic acids (CGA), caffeine and antioxidant activities. CGA and caffeine were characterized by LC-MS(n) and HPLC accordingly, and quantified by UV absorbance. ORAC, HORAC, NORAC, SORAC and SOAC (antioxidant capacities) were assessed. Three caffeoylquinic acids, three feruloylquinic acids, three dicaffeoylquinic acids, one p-coumaroylquinic acid, two caffeoylferuloylquinic acids and three putative chlorogenic lactones were quantified, along with a methyl ester of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (detected in one sample, the first such report in any coffee material). Multistep whole coffee fruit extracts displayed higher CGA content than single-step extracts, freeze-dried, or air-dried whole raw fruits. Caffeine in multistep extracts was lower than in the single-step extracts and powders. Antioxidant activity in whole coffee fruit extracts was up to 25-fold higher than in powders dependent upon the radical. Total antioxidant activity of samples displayed strong correlation to CGA content. PMID:21401105

  3. Hydrolysis of VX and related compounds by organophosphorus hydrolase. Final report, Februray-December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kolakowski, J.E.; DeFrank, J.J.; Lai, K.; Wild, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    Organophosphorus Hydrolase (OPH) is a fully characterized and cloned enzyme, derived from Pseudomonas diminuta, consisting of 365 amino acids with a total molecular weight of 38,0(X). The enzyme has a leader sequence of 29 amino acids which has been removed in the construction used in this study. OPH was evaluated for its effectiveness in catalyzing the S-(2-diisopwpylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX) and its analogs.

  4. Use of extractive distillation to produce concentrated nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.C.; Griffin, T.P.; Irwin, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrated nitric acid (> 95 wt %) is needed for the treatment of off-gases from a fuels-reprocessing plant. The production of concentrated nitric acid by means of extractive distillation in the two-pot apparatus was studied to determine the steady-state behavior of the system. Four parameters, EDP volume (V/sub EDP/) and temperature (T/sub EDP/), acid feed rate, and solvent recycle, were independently varied. The major response factors were percent recovery (CPRR) and product purity (CCP). Stage efficiencies also provided information about the system response. Correlations developed for the response parameters are: CPRR = 0.02(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) + 53.5; CCP = -0.87 (T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 81; eta/sub V,EDP/ = 9.1(F/sub feed/ - 11.5 cc/min) - 0.047(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) - 2.8(F/sub Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2// - 50 cc/min) + 390; and eta/sub L,EDP/ = 1.9(T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 79. A computer simulation of the process capable of predicting steady-state conditions was developed, but it requires further work.

  5. Self-powered switch-controlled nucleic acid extraction system.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungsup; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Shin, Yong; Park, Mi Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technologies have played a great role in revolutionizing the way in vitro medical diagnostics are conducted and transforming bulky and expensive laboratory instruments and labour-intensive tests into easy to use, cost-effective miniaturized systems with faster analysis time, which can be used for near-patient or point-of-care (POC) tests. Fluidic pumps and valves are among the key components for LOC systems; however, they often require on-line electrical power or batteries and make the whole system bulky and complex, therefore limiting its application to POC testing especially in low-resource setting. This is particularly problematic for molecular diagnostics where multi-step sample processing (e.g. lysing, washing, elution) is necessary. In this work, we have developed a self-powered switch-controlled nucleic acid extraction system (SSNES). The main components of SSNES are a powerless vacuum actuator using two disposable syringes and a switchgear made of PMMA blocks and an O-ring. In the vacuum actuator, an opened syringe and a blocked syringe are bound together and act as a working syringe and an actuating syringe, respectively. The negative pressure in the opened syringe is generated by a restoring force of the compressed air inside the blocked syringe and utilized as the vacuum source. The Venus symbol shape of the switchgear provides multiple functions including being a reagent reservoir, a push-button for the vacuum actuator, and an on-off valve. The SSNES consists of three sets of vacuum actuators, switchgears and microfluidic components. The entire system can be easily fabricated and is fully disposable. We have successfully demonstrated DNA extraction from a urine sample using a dimethyl adipimidate (DMA)-based extraction method and the performance of the DNA extraction has been confirmed by genetic (HRAS) analysis of DNA biomarkers from the extracted DNAs using the SSNES. Therefore, the SSNES can be widely

  6. Biological and nonbiological modifications of organophosphorus compounds*

    PubMed Central

    Dauterman, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    The general types of biological reaction that are most prominent in the modification of organophosphorus compounds involve the mixed-function oxidases, hydrolases, or transferases. In certain cases, more than one of these reactions may be involved at the same site on the pesticide molecule. Examples of various organophosphorus pesticides that are altered by oxidation, hydrolysis, alkyl- or aryl-group transfer, reduction, and conjugation are discussed. The increase or decrease in toxicity of a pesticide that can result from biological modification is emphasized. Non-biological transformations of organophosphorus compounds involve the effect ou the compounds of such factors as light, air, temperature, and solvent. These factors are discussed with special emphasis on desulfuration, rearrangement, and oxidation. PMID:4938021

  7. Phototransformation of selected organophosphorus pesticides in dilute aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zamy, Cécile; Mazellier, Patrick; Legube, Bernard

    2004-05-01

    The photochemical transformation of four selected organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) has been studied in water. Because of their extensive use, disulfoton, isofenfos, isazofos and profenofos were chosen for this study. A solid phase extraction method has been developed to allow low-concentration experiments. Photolysis experiments have been performed both in purified water and in Capot river water (natural water from Martinique) using either monochromatic light at 253.7 nm (purified water) or polychromatic light greater than 285 nm (purified and Capot river waters). Kinetic investigations coupled with analytical studies (identification of degradation products) were performed for the four pesticides. Upon monochromatic irradiation, quantum yields of OP photolysis have been evaluated and in polychromatic irradiation experiments, apparent first-order kinetic constants have been determined. The reactivity is similar in purified and natural water, but differences are observed for each pesticide according to the role that natural organic matter (NOM) plays: filter effect of the light or photosensitizer. For each organophosphorus pesticide, experiments have been performed to identify the photodegradation products. Some photoproduct structures will be proposed according to mass spectral informations. PMID:15142791

  8. Homogeneous Liquid-Liquid Microextraction for Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Environmental Water Samples Prior to Gas Chromatography-Flame Photometric Detection.

    PubMed

    Berijani, Sana; Sadigh, Mirhanif; Pournamdari, Elham

    2016-07-01

    In this study, homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction (HLLME) was developed for preconcentration and extraction of 15 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from water samples coupling with gas chromatography followed by a flame photometric detector (HLLME-GC-FPD). In this method, OPPs were extracted by the homogeneous phase in a ternary solvent system (water/acetic acid/chloroform). The homogeneous solution was excluded by the addition of sodium hydroxide as a phase separator reagent and a cloudy solution was formed. After centrifugation (3 min at 5,000 rpm), the fine particles of extraction solvent (chloroform) were sedimented at the bottom of the conical test tube (10.0 ± 0.5 µL). Furthermore, 0.5 µL of the sedimented phase was injected into the GC for separation and determination of OPPs. Optimal results were obtained under the following conditions: volume of the extracting solvent (chloroform), 53 µL; volume of the consolute solvent (acetic acid), 0.76 mL and concentration of sodium hydroxide, 40% (w/v). Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors of (260-665), the extraction percent of 75.8-104%, the dynamic linear range of 0.03-300 µg L(-1) and the limits of detection of 0.004-0.03 µg L(-1) were obtained for the OPPs. This method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of the OPPs in environmental water samples. PMID:26944949

  9. Antioxidant activity and sensory assessment of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The ext...

  10. Descriptors for the Prediction of Partition Coefficients and Solubilities of Organophosphorus Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Acree, William E.

    2013-01-01

    From literature data on partition coefficients and in some cases solubilities in nonaqueous solvents we have been able to determine Abraham descriptors for several series of organophosphorus compounds including the dialkyl- and diaryl-phosphates (dialkylphosphoric acids), trialkyl- and triphenyl-phosphates, dialkylphosphinic acids and diphenylphosphinic acid, trialkyl- and triaryl-phosphine oxides, and dialkylphosphites and triarylphosphines. Other organophosphorus compounds studied were dimethyl methylphosphonate and the flame retardant PBMP. For all these compounds, knowledge of the Abraham descriptors enables partition coefficients to be predicted for transfer from water to over 40 (wet) solvents. If the solubility of a given compound in just one dry solvent (out of a list of 47 dry solvents) is available, then the solubility in all the other listed dry solvents can be predicted through very simple equations. PMID:25170182

  11. Improved Butanol-Methanol (BUME) Method by Replacing Acetic Acid for Lipid Extraction of Biological Samples.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Mutya; Wang, Miao; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica; Han, Xianlin

    2016-07-01

    Extraction of lipids from biological samples is a critical step in lipidomics, especially for shotgun lipidomics where lipid extracts are directly infused into a mass spectrometer. The butanol-methanol (BUME) extraction method was originally developed to extract lipids from plasma samples with 1 % acetic acid. Considering some lipids are sensitive to acidic environments, we modified this protocol by replacing acetic acid with lithium chloride solution and extended the modified extraction to tissue samples. Although no significant reduction of plasmalogen levels in the acidic BUME extracts of rat heart samples was found, the modified method was established to extract various tissue samples, including rat liver, heart, and plasma. Essentially identical profiles of the majority of lipid classes were obtained from the extracts of the modified BUME and traditional Bligh-Dyer methods. However, it was found that neither the original, nor the modified BUME method was suitable for 4-hydroxyalkenal species measurement in biological samples. PMID:27245345

  12. Detection of gaseous organophosphorus compounds using secondary ion mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Groenewold, G.S.; Todd, P.J.

    1985-04-01

    Molecular secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has been investigated for sensitivity and selectivity in the analysis of gaseous organophosphorus compounds. Abundant analyte ions were observed when the gaseous organophosphorus compounds were admitted into the secondary ion source, where a matrix was under primary ion bombardment. The best matrix for the detection of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), trimethyl phosphate (TMP), and diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) was determined to be polyphosphoric acid. The abundance of secondary analyte ions was observed to be linear with the introduction rate of gaseous analyte. The introduction rate necessary to produce a 3:1 signal-to-noise ratio in the intensity of secondary protonated molecular ions from DMMP was estimated to be 4 x 10/sup -11/ mols/sup -1/. Substantially more analyte fragmentation is observed by using SIMS than by using methane chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Ten compounds representative of other compound classes were investigated in the same manner as the organic phosphonates; characteristic secondary protonated molecular ions were detected from amines only.

  13. Alteromonas prolidase for organophosphorus G-agent decontamination.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T C; DeFrank, J J; Rastogi, V K

    1999-05-14

    Enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of highly toxic organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are classified as organophosphorus acid anhydrolases (OPAA; EC 3.1.8.2). Recently, the genes encoding OPAA from two species of Alteromonas were cloned and sequenced. Sequence and biochemical analyses of the cloned genes and enzymes have established Alteromonas OPAAs to be prolidases (E.C. 3.4.13.9), a type of dipeptidase hydrolyzing dipeptides with a prolyl residue in the carboxyl-terminal position (X-Pro). Alteromonas prolidases hydrolyze a broad range of G-type chemical warfare (CW) nerve agents. Efforts to over-produce a prolidase from A. sp.JD6.5 with the goal of developing strategies for long-term storage and decontamination have been successfully achieved. Large-scale production of this G-agent degrading enzyme is now feasible with the availability of an over-producing recombinant cell line. Use of this enzyme for development of a safe and non-corrosive decontamination system is discussed. PMID:10421483

  14. Fatty acid extracts from Lucilia sericata larvae promote murine cutaneous wound healing by angiogenic activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background fatty acids are considered to be effective components to promote wound healing and Lucilia sericata larvae are applied clinically to treat intractable wounds. We aimed to investigat the effect of fatty acid extracts from dried Lucilia sericata larvae on murine cutaneuous wound healing as well as angiogenesis. Results On day 7 and 10 after murine acute excision wounds creation, the percent wound contraction of fatty acid extracts group was higher than that of vaseline group. On day 3, 7 and 10 after wounds creation, the wound healing quality of fatty acid extracts group was better than that of vaseline group on terms of granulation formation and collagen organization. On day 3 after wounds creation, the micro vessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor expression of fatty acid extracts group were higher than that of vaseline group. Component analysis of the fatty acid extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed there were 10 kinds of fatty acids in total and the ratio of saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was: 20.57%:60.32%:19.11%. Conclusions Fatty acid extracts from dried Lucilia sericata larvae, four fifths of which are unsaturated fatty acids, can promote murine cutaneous wound healing probably resulting from the powerful angiogenic activity of the extracts. PMID:20211009

  15. Acid extraction and purification of recombinant spider silk proteins.

    PubMed

    Mello, Charlene M; Soares, Jason W; Arcidiacono, Steven; Butler, Michelle M

    2004-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for the isolation of recombinant spider silk proteins based upon their unique stability and solubilization characteristics. Three recombinant silk proteins, (SpI)7, NcDS, and [(SpI)4/(SpII)1]4, were purified by extraction with organic acids followed by affinity or ion exchange chromatography resulting in 90-95% pure silk solutions. The protein yield of NcDS (15 mg/L culture) and (SpI)7 (35 mg/L) increased 4- and 5-fold, respectively, from previously reported values presumably due to a more complete solubilization of the expressed recombinant protein. [(SpI)4/(SpII)1]4, a hybrid protein based on the repeat sequences of spidroin I and spidroin II, had a yield of 12.4 mg/L. This method is an effective, reproducible technique that has broad applicability for a variety of silk proteins as well as other acid stable biopolymers. PMID:15360297

  16. Lysophospholipase inhibition by organophosphorus toxicants.

    PubMed

    Quistad, Gary B; Casida, John E

    2004-05-01

    Lysophospholipases (LysoPLAs) are a large family of enzymes for removing lysophospholipids from cell membranes. Potent inhibitors are needed to define the importance of LysoPLAs as targets for toxicants and potential therapeutics. This study considers organophosphorus (OP) inhibitors with emphasis on mouse brain total LysoPLA activity relative to the mipafox-sensitive neuropathy target esterase (NTE)-LysoPLA recently established as 17% of the total activity and important in the action of OP delayed toxicants. The most potent inhibitors of total LysoPLA in mouse brain are isopropyl dodecylphosphonofluoridate (also for LysoPLA of Vibrio bacteria), ethyl octylphosphonofluoridate (EOPF), and two alkyl-benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxides (BDPOs)[(S)-octyl and dodecyl] (IC50 2-8 nM). OP inhibitors acting in vitro and in vivo differentiate a more sensitive portion but not a distinct NTE-LysoPLA compared with total LysoPLA activity. For 10 active inhibitors, NTE-LysoPLA is 17-fold more sensitive than total LysoPLA, but structure-activity comparisons give a good correlation (r(2) = 0.94) of IC50 values, suggesting active site structural similarity or identity. In mice 4 h after intraperitoneal treatment with discriminating doses, EOPF, tribufos (a plant defoliant), and dodecanesulfonyl fluoride inhibit 41-57% of the total brain LysoPLA and 85-99% of the NTE-LysoPLA activity. Total LysoPLA as well as NTE-LysoPLA is decreased in activity in Nte(+/-)-haploinsufficient mice compared to their Nte(+/+) littermates. The lysolecithin level of spinal cord but not brain is elevated significantly following EOPF treatment (3 mg/kg), thereby focusing attention on localized rather than general alterations in lysophospholipid metabolism in OP-induced hyperactivity and toxicity. PMID:15094302

  17. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  18. Extraction of amino acids from soils and sediments with superheated water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, C. N.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1974-01-01

    A method of extraction for amino acids from soils and sediments involving superheated water has been investigated. About 75-97 per cent of the amino acids contained in four soils of a soil profile from Illinois were extracted by this method. Deep penetration of water into soil aggregates and partial hydrolysis of peptide bonds during this extraction by water at high temperature are likely mechanisms responsible for the release of amino acids from samples. This extraction method does not require subsequent desalting treatments when analyses are carried out with an ion-exchange amino acid analyzer.

  19. Hydrothermal nitric acid treatment for effectual lipid extraction from wet microalgae biomass.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ilgyu; Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Sun-A; Oh, You-Kwan; Han, Jong-In

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal acid (combined with autoclaving and nitric acid) pretreatment was applied to Nannochloropsis salina as a cost-effective yet efficient way of lipid extraction from wet biomass. The optimal conditions for this pretreatment were determined using a statistical approach, and the roles of nitric acid were also determined. The maximum lipid yield (predicted: 24.6%; experimental: 24.4%) was obtained using 0.57% nitric acid at 120°C for 30min through response surface methodology. A relatively lower lipid yield (18.4%) was obtained using 2% nitric acid; however, chlorophyll and unsaturated fatty acids, both of which adversely affect the refinery and oxidative stability of biodiesel, were found to be not co-extracted. Considering its comparable extractability even from wet biomass and ability to reduce chlorophyll and unsaturated fatty acids, the hydrothermal nitric acid pretreatment can serve as one direct and promising route of extracting microalgae oil. PMID:25255190

  20. CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS OR CARBAMATE PESTICIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter strives to summarize the body of literature exploring the toxic interaction of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in mixtures. This review represents one of the only reviews of the subject that has been published within the last 20 years. Specifically, th...

  1. CUMULATIVE RISK ANALYSIS FOR ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cumulative Risk Analysis for Organophosphorus Pesticides
    R. Woodrow Setzer, Jr. NHEERL MD-74, USEPA, RTP, NC 27711

    The US EPA has recently completed a risk assessment of the effects of exposure to 33 organophosphorous pesticides (OPs) through the diet, water, and resi...

  2. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1984-05-21

    A process has been developed for the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from acidic waste solutions, and for the separation of these values from fission product and other values, which utilizes a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N, N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides, in combination with a phase modifier to form an extraction solution. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  3. Screening of halophilic bacteria and Alteromonas species for organophosphorus hydrolyzing enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    DeFrank, J J; Beaudry, W T; Cheng, T C; Harvey, S P; Stroup, A N; Szafraniec, L L

    1993-06-01

    Previously, a G-type nerve agent degrading enzyme activity was found in a halophilic bacterial isolate designated JD6.5. This organism was tentatively identified as an unknown species of the genus Alteromonas. In order to determine whether this type of enzyme activity was common in other species of Alteromonas, a screening program was initiated. A number of Alteromonas species and five halophilic bacterial isolates were cultured and their crude cell extracts screened for hydrolytic activity against several organophosphorus chemical agents and other related compounds. The samples were also screened for cross-reactivity with a monoclonal antibody raised against the purified enzyme from JD6.5 and for hybridization with a DNA probe based on its N-terminal amino acid sequence A wide spectrum of activities and reactivities were seen, suggesting a significant heterogeneity between the functionally similar enzymes that are present in these bacterial species. Enzymes of the type described here have considerable potential for the decontamination and demilitarization of chemical warfare agents. PMID:8393735

  4. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    PubMed

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration. PMID:25829628

  5. Modeling of nickel extraction between Di-n-butyl phosphorodithioate and acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacki, M.B.; Szymanowski, J. . Inst. of Chemical Technology and Engineering); Cote, G. . Lab. de Chimie Analytique)

    1993-11-01

    A chemical model for nickel(II) extraction from acidic sulfate solutions with O,O-di-n-butyl phosphorodithioate and for nickel stripping with hydrochloric acid solutions is presented and used for discussion of extraction-stripping systems with either conventional sequential stages of extraction and stripping or unconventional cross-current flows. A good agreement of the model with experimental extraction data is observed. The number of extraction and stripping stages necessary to obtain a given yield of transfer of nickel(II) has been found to be lower in unconventional extraction-stripping systems than in conventional systems with sequential stages of extraction and stripping. The use of hydrochloric acid for stripping instead of sulfuric acid leads to an important increase of nickel transfer from the feed to the strip liquor.

  6. Inhibition of mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium by Glycyrrhiza glabra extract, glycyrrhizinic acid, 18 alpha- and 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acids.

    PubMed

    Zani, F; Cuzzoni, M T; Daglia, M; Benvenuti, S; Vampa, G; Mazza, P

    1993-12-01

    The effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract, glycyrrhizinic acid, 18 alpha- and 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acids on the mutagenicity of the ethyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, and ribose-lysine Maillard model systems were investigated by using the Salmonella/microsome reversion assay. The protocol used allowed us to detect desmutagenic and antimutagenic activity and to avoid false positive results due to toxicity. For all the compounds tested, no desmutagenic activity was observed against ethyl methanesulfonate and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine; only Glycyrrhiza glabra extract showed antimutagenic activity against ethyl methanesulfonate. On using the ribose-lysine mutagenic browning mixture, the desmutagenic activities of the Glycyrrhiza glabra extract, glycyrrhizinic acid, 18 alpha- and 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acids were observed. 18 beta-Glycyrrhetinic acid was the most active compound. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract also exhibited antimutagenic activity against ribose-lysine. PMID:8302947

  7. Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Merve; Sousa, António G.; Crépeau, Marie-Jeanne; Sørensen, Susanne O.; Ralet, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Pectin is a complex macromolecule, the fine structure of which is influenced by many factors. It is used as a gelling, thickening and emulsifying agent in a wide range of applications, from food to pharmaceutical products. Current industrial pectin extraction processes are based on fruit peel, a waste product from the juicing industry, in which thousands of tons of citrus are processed worldwide every year. This study examines how pectin components vary in relation to the plant source (orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit) and considers the influence of extraction conditions on the chemical and macromolecular characteristics of pectin samples. Methods Citrus peel (orange, lemon, lime and grapefruit) from a commercial supplier was used as raw material. Pectin samples were obtained on a bulk plant scale (kilograms; harsh nitric acid, mild nitric acid and harsh oxalic acid extraction) and on a laboratory scale (grams; mild oxalic acid extraction). Pectin composition (acidic and neutral sugars) and physicochemical properties (molar mass and intrinsic viscosity) were determined. Key Results Oxalic acid extraction allowed the recovery of pectin samples of high molecular weight. Mild oxalic acid-extracted pectins were rich in long homogalacturonan stretches and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches with conserved side chains. Nitric acid-extracted pectins exhibited lower molecular weights and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches encompassing few and/or short side chains. Grapefruit pectin was found to have short side chains compared with orange, lime and lemon. Orange and grapefruit pectin samples were both particularly rich in rhamnogalacturonan I backbones. Conclusions Structural, and hence macromolecular, variations within the different citrus pectin samples were mainly related to their rhamnogalacturonan I contents and integrity, and, to a lesser extent, to the length of their homogalacturonan domains. PMID:25081519

  8. Extraction of amino acids by reverse iontophoresis: simulation of therapeutic monitoring in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Anke; Jeanneret, Fabienne; Fathi, Marc; Hochstrasser, Denis; Rudaz, Serge; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guy, Richard H; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña

    2008-11-01

    Reverse iontophoresis across the skin has been investigated as alternative, non-invasive method for clinical and therapeutic drug monitoring. This research investigated the reverse iontophoretic extraction of 19 amino acids present at clinically relevant levels in the subdermal compartment of an in vitro diffusion cell. Over a simulated, systemic concentration range of 0-500 microM, the extraction of amino acids was linear. Charged amino acids were extracted towards the electrode of opposite polarity, while zwitterionic species were extracted to both anode and cathode with the latter predominating. The reverse iontophoretic extraction flux was a linear function of amino acid isoelectric point, reflecting the different contributions of electromigration and electroosmosis to electrotransport. Overall, the results confirm the feasibility of monitoring amino acids at clinically relevant levels and provide an incentive for in vivo research to further explore the clinical potential of reverse iontophoresis for the non-invasive monitoring of amino acids. PMID:18675906

  9. Development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction of waste with acidic extraction fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Sorini, S.S.

    1993-08-01

    Subject is characterization of waste materials. Since acid rain is increasingly prevalent throughout the world, a sequential batch extraction method was developed which uses a dilute acid solution as the extraction fluid. A collaborative study was conducted in which the draft method was used to treat a spray dryer waste from a clean coal technology process and a composite mining waste. Effects of filter pore size and digestion vs nondigestion on analytical concentrations in extracts were also studied. Elements determined included Al, Ba, B, Ca, Cr, Si, Na, Sr, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Zn. The draft method will be published as ASTM Method D5284-92.

  10. Application of anion-exchange imidazolium silica for the multiphase dispersive extraction of phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung Ho

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports the application of a multiphase dispersive extraction method to the extraction, separation, and determination of the phenolic acids from Salicornia herbacea L. using silica-confined ionic liquids as sorbents. A suitable sorbent for phenolic acid extraction and separation was first identified based on the adsorption behavior of the phenolic acids on different silica-confined ionic liquids. The sample was then mixed with the optimized sorbent and solvent to achieve multiphase dispersive extraction. The sample/sorbent ratio was optimized using theoretical calculations from the adsorption isotherm and experiments. After transferring the supernatant to an empty cartridge, an SPE process was used to separate the three phenolic acids from the other interference. Through systematic optimization, the optimal conditions produced high recovery rates of protocatechuic acid (91.20%), caffeic acid (94.03%), and ferulic acid (91.33%). Overall, the proposed method is expected to have wide applicability. PMID:23861179

  11. Transformation of Organophosphorus Pesticides in the Presence of Aqueous Chlorine: Kinetics, Pathways, and Structure-Activity Relationships

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides in the presence of aqueous chlorine was investigated under simulated drinking water treatment conditions. Intrinsic rate coefficients were found for the reaction of hypochlorous acid (kHOCl,OP) and hypochlorite ion (kOCl,OP) for eight...

  12. The behavior and importance of lactic acid complexation in Talspeak extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Travis S.; Nilsson, Mikael; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-07-01

    Advanced partitioning of spent nuclear fuel in the UREX +la process relies on the TALSPEAK process for separation of fission-product lanthanides from trivalent actinides. The classic TALSPEAK utilizes an aqueous medium of both lactic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and the extraction reagent di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid in an aromatic diluent. In this study, the specific role of lactic acid and the complexes involved in the extraction of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides have been investigated using {sup 14}C-labeled lactic acid. Our results show that lactic acid partitions between the phases in a complex fashion. (authors)

  13. Comparative Assessment of Automated Nucleic Acid Sample Extraction Equipment for Biothreat Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kalina, Warren Vincent; Douglas, Christina Elizabeth; Coyne, Susan Rajnik

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic beads offer superior impurity removal and nucleic acid selection over older extraction methods. The performances of nucleic acid extraction of biothreat agents in blood or buffer by easyMAG, MagNA Pure, EZ1 Advanced XL, and Nordiag Arrow were evaluated. All instruments showed excellent performance in blood; however, the easyMAG had the best precision and versatility. PMID:24452173

  14. Interactions of cyclodextrins and their derivatives with toxic organophosphorus compounds

    PubMed Central

    Letort, Sophie; Balieu, Sébastien; Erb, William; Gouhier, Géraldine

    2016-01-01

    Summary The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current use of cyclodextrins against organophosphorus compound intoxications. Organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents play a determinant role in the inhibition of cholinesterases. The cyclic structure of cyclodextrins and their toroidal shape are perfectly suitable to design new chemical scavengers able to trap and hydrolyze the organophosphorus compounds before they reach their biological target. PMID:26977180

  15. Interactions of cyclodextrins and their derivatives with toxic organophosphorus compounds.

    PubMed

    Letort, Sophie; Balieu, Sébastien; Erb, William; Gouhier, Géraldine; Estour, François

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current use of cyclodextrins against organophosphorus compound intoxications. Organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents play a determinant role in the inhibition of cholinesterases. The cyclic structure of cyclodextrins and their toroidal shape are perfectly suitable to design new chemical scavengers able to trap and hydrolyze the organophosphorus compounds before they reach their biological target. PMID:26977180

  16. Preparation method and stability of ellagic acid-rich pomegranate fruit peel extract.

    PubMed

    Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom; Itsuriya, Atcharaporn; Sirikatitham, Anusak

    2010-02-01

    A simple one-step purification using liquid-liquid extraction for preparing pomegranate peel extract rich in ellagic acid has been demonstrated. The method involved partitioning of the 10% v/v water in methanol extract of pomegranate peel between ethyl acetate and 2% aqueous acetic acid. This method was capable of increasing the ellagic acid content of the extract from 7.06% to 13.63% w/w. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the extract evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was also increased (ED(50) from 38.21 to 14.91 micro/mL). Stability evaluations of the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract in several conditions through a period of four months found that the extracts were stable either kept under light or protected from light. The extracts were also stable under 4 degrees +/- 2 degrees C, 30 degrees +/- 2 degrees C and accelerated conditions at 45 degrees C with 75% relative humidity. However, study on the effect of pH on stability of the extract in the form of solution revealed that the extract was not stable in all tested pH (5.5, 7 and 8). These results indicated that the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract was stable when it was kept as dried powder, but it was not stable in any aqueous solution. PMID:20645841

  17. Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres for solid-phase extraction of protocatechuic acid in Rhizoma homalomenae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Fang; Wang, Guo-Ying; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2011-10-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) had been prepared by precipitation polymerization method using acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, acetonitrile as the porogen solvent and protocatechuic acid (PA), one of phenolic acids, as the template molecule. The MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared, and their performance relative to non-imprinted polymers was assessed by equilibrium binding experiments. Six structurally similar phenolic acids, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, salicylic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid were selected to assess the selectivity and recognition capability of the MIPs. The MIPs were applied to extract PA from the traditional Chinese medicines as a solid-phase extraction sorbent. The resultant cartridge showed that the MIPs have a good extraction performance and were able to selectively extract almost 82% of PA from the extract of Rhizoma homalomenae. Thus, the proposed molecularly imprinted-solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography method can be successfully used to extract and analyse PA in traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:21809445

  18. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  19. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF CHLOROPHENOXY ACID HERBICIDES FROM SOIL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extraction of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides from soil samples with supercritical carbon dioxide as extractant and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and methyl iodide as derivatization agents was investigated. The extraction was carried out at 400 atm and 80 C for 15 min static, follow...

  20. Antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) extract, blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Naciye; Ayranci, Guler; Ayranci, Erol

    2008-09-01

    Antioxidant activities of three pure compounds: carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol, as well as two plant extracts: rosemary extract and blackseed essential oil, were examined by applying DPPH and ABTS(+) radical-scavenging assays and the ferric thiocyanate test. All three test methods proved that rosemary extract had a higher antioxidant activity than blackseed essential oil. The order of antioxidant activity of pure compounds showed variations in different tests. This was attributed to structural factors of individual compounds. Phenolic contents of blackseed essential oil and rosemary extract were also determined. Rosemary extract was found to have a higher phenolic content than blackseed essential oil. This fact was utilised in explaining the higher antioxidant activity of rosemary extract. PMID:26050168

  1. Evaluation of extractant-coated ferromagnetic microparticles for the recovery of hazardous metals from waste solution

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, M.D.; Nunez, L.; Visser, A.E.

    1999-04-01

    A magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process developed at Argonne National Laboratory is a compact method for the extraction of transuranic (TRU) metals from, and volume reduction of, liquid waste streams that exist at many DOE sites. The MACS process utilized the selectivity afforded by solvent extractant/ion-exchange materials in conjunction with magnetic separation to provide a more efficient chemical separation. Recently, the principle of the MACS process has been extended to the evaluation of acidic organophosphorus extractants for hazardous metal recovery from waste solutions. Moreover, process scale-up design issues were addressed in respect to particle filtration and recovery. Two acidic organophosphorus compounds have been investigated for hazardous metal recovery, bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid (Cyanex{reg_sign} 272) and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid (Cyanex{reg_sign} 301). These extractants coated onto magnetic microparticles demonstrated superior recovery of hazardous metals from solution as compared with data from solvent extraction experiments. The results illustrate the possibility for diverse applications of this technology for dilute waste streams. Preliminary process scale-up experiments with a high-gradient magnetic separator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory revealed the potential for very low microparticle loss rates.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract in milk.

    PubMed

    Min, Keun Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu) peels were extracted with hot water and then acid-hydrolyzed using hydrochloric acid. Antimicrobial activities of acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract were evaluated against pathogenic bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Antilisterial effect was also determined by adding extracts at 1, 2, and 4% to whole, low-fat, and skim milk. The cell numbers of B. cereus, Staph. aureus, and L. monocytogenes cultures treated with acid-hydrolyzed extract for 12h at 35°C were reduced from about 8log cfu/mL to <1log cfu/mL. Bacillus cereus was more sensitive to acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract than were the other bacteria. The addition of 4% acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu extracts to all types of milk inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes within 1d of storage at 4°C. The results indicated that Citrus unshiu peel extracts, after acid hydrolysis, effectively inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria. These findings indicate that acid hydrolysis of Citrus unshiu peel facilitates its use as a natural antimicrobial agent for food products. PMID:24534507

  3. [Today's threat of use of organophosphorus compounds].

    PubMed

    Sokołowski, Rafał; Płusa, Tadeusz

    2015-09-01

    Organophosphates are stable cholinesterases inhibitors (AChE). Inhibition of AChE activity leads to the accumulation of large amounts of acetylcholine and hyperactivity of the cholinergic system by stimulating acetylcholine receptors - muscarinic and nicotinic. This group included tabun, sarin, soman and VX gases. Exposure to gaseous form causes symptoms within a few seconds of exposure. This depends on the gas concentration in the atmosphere. The most sensitive organ is the eyes and the respiratory system. Severe poisoning are characterized by the immediate loss of consciousness with convulsions. Therapeutic management of acute poisoning organophosphorus compounds boils down to treating symptomatic and supportive vital functions. Monitoring of cardiovascular, respiratory and renal failure in intensive care gives only guarantee the effective treatment of poisoning. Properties toxic organophosphorus compounds also are of interest to terrorist groups. PMID:26449583

  4. Sorption of norfloxacin onto humic acid extracted from weathered coal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Zhao, Ling; Dong, Yuan-Hua; Huang, Guan-Yi

    2012-07-15

    Norfloxacin (NOR), is an ionizable and polar antimicrobial compound, and it may enter the environment in substantial amounts via the application of manure or sewage as a fertilizer. Sorption of NOR onto humic acid (HA) may affect its environmental fate. In this study, HA extracted from weathered coal was used to investigate the sorption of NOR at different solution chemistry conditions (pH, ionic strength) and temperatures. The sorption of NOR onto HA showed a two-stage sorption process with an equilibration time of 48 h. The sorption kinetic curve fitted well with a pseudo second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic characteristics demonstrated that the sorption of NOR onto HA was a spontaneous and exothermic process predominated by physical sorption. All sorption isotherms fitted well with the Freundlich and Langmuir models and they were highly nonlinear with values of n between 0.4 and 0.5, suggesting the high heterogeneity of HA. Increasing Ca2+ concentration resulted in a considerable reduction in the K(d) values of NOR, hinting that Ca2+ had probably competed with NOR(+,0) for the cation exchange sites on the surfaces of HA. The sorption reached a maximum at pH 6.0 over the pH range of 2.0-8.0, implying that the primary sorption mechanism was cation exchange interaction between NOR(+,0) species and the negatively charged functional groups of HA. Spectroscopic evidence demonstrated that the piperazinyl moiety of NOR was responsible for sorption onto HA, while the carbonyl group and the aromatic structure of HA participated in adsorbing NOR. PMID:22459013

  5. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers based on magnetic nanoparticles for the selective extraction of protocatechuic acid from plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoyu; Wei, Fen; Chen, Liang; Wang, Sicen

    2015-03-01

    In this study, highly selective core-shell molecularly imprinted polymers on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles were prepared using protocatechuic acid as the template molecule. The resulting magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The binding performances of the prepared materials were evaluated by static and selective adsorption. The binding isotherms were obtained for protocatechuic acid and fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model and Freundlich isotherm model. Furthermore, the resulting materials were used as the solid-phase extraction materials coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography for the selective extraction and detection of protocatechuic acid from the extracts of Homalomena occulta and Cynomorium songaricum with the recoveries in the range 86.3-102.2%. PMID:25641806

  6. Extraction of ethanol with higher carboxylic acid solvents and their toxicity to yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a screening exercise for ethanol-selective extraction solvents, partitioning of ethanol and water from a 5 wt% aqueous solution into several C8 – C18 carboxylic acids was studied. Results for the acids are compared with those from alcohols of similar structure. In all cases studied, the acids exh...

  7. Ultrasound versus microwave as green processes for extraction of rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids from rosemary.

    PubMed

    Jacotet-Navarro, M; Rombaut, N; Fabiano-Tixier, A-S; Danguien, M; Bily, A; Chemat, F

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound and microwave as green processes are investigated in this study, focusing on the extraction selectivity towards antioxidant extraction from rosemary leaves. Due to its richness in valuable compounds such as rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids, rosemary is a reference matrix for extraction study. In this work, six alternative processes are compared: ultrasound (bath, reactor and probe), microwave (reflux under microwave, microwave under nitrogen pressure and microwave under vapor pressure). The main result of this study is that selective extraction can be achieved according to extraction techniques and therefore to the extraction process. PMID:26186826

  8. Sulfonic acids: catalysts for the liquid-liquid extraction of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Keeney, M.E.

    1980-05-01

    Three sulfonic acid extractants, dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HDNNS), didodecylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HDDNS) and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT, AOT) are compared as to their effects on the extraction of nickel with LIX63. The acidic extractants interact synergistically with the oxime. Interfacial tension results are presented which demonstrate that the sulfonates form reversed micelles in non-polar organic solvents. It is proposed that the reversed micelles catalyze the extraction by specific solubilization of both the metal and the extractant, resulting in an increase in the interfacial concentration of the reacting species. The ability of LIX63 to chelate with nickel without deprotonating permits the synergism to occur at low pH.

  9. Aggregation of dialkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids and its effect on metal ion extraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Barrans, R. E., Jr.; Ferraro, J. R. Herlinger, A. W.; McAlister, D. R.

    1999-10-22

    Solvent extraction reagents containing the diphosphonic acid group exhibit an extraordinary affinity for tri-, tetra- and hexavalent actinides. Their use has been considered for actinide separation and pre-concentration procedures. Solvent extraction data obtained with P,P{prime}-di(2-ethylhexyl) methane-, ethane- and butanediphosphonic acids exhibit features that are difficult to explain without Knowledge of the aggregation state of the extractants. Information about the aggregation of the dialkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids in aromatic diluents has been obtained using the complementary techniques of vapor pressure osmometry (VPO), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), infrared spectroscopy and molecular mechanics. The results from these techniques provide an understanding of the aggregation behavior of these extractants that is fully compatible with the solvent extraction data. The most important results and their relevance to solvent extraction are reviewed in this paper.

  10. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane. PMID:27451203

  11. Solvent systems combining neutral and acidic extractants for separating trivalent lanthanides from the transuranic elements.

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, G. J.; Gelis, A. V.; Vandegrift, G. F.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; PNL

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a review of recent publications that have focused on combined extractant systems for separating trivalent actinides from the lanthanides. These mixed solvent systems combine an acidic extractant with a neutral extractant to achieve the actinide/lanthanide separation. Depending on the neutral extractant used, three categorizations of systems can be considered, including combinations of acidic extractants with 1 diamides, 2 carbamoylmethylphosphine oxides, and 3 polydentate nitrogen-donor ligands. This review of relevant publications indicates that, although there is significant potential for practical exploitation of mixed neutral/acidic extractant systems to achieve a single-step separation of trivalent actinides from acidic high-level waste solutions, the fundamental chemistry underlying these combined systems is not yet well understood. For example, although there is strong evidence suggesting that adducts form between the neutral and acidic extractants, the nature of these adducts generally is not known. Likewise, the structures of the mixed complexes formed between the metal ions and the two different extractants are not fully understood. Research into these basic phenomena likely will provide clues about how to design practical mixed-extractant systems that can be used to efficiently separate the transuranic elements from the lanthanides and other components of irradiated fuel.

  12. Nucleotide sequence of a gene encoding an organophosphorus nerve agent degrading enzyme from Alteromonas haloplanktis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T; Liu, L; Wang, B; Wu, J; DeFrank, J J; Anderson, D M; Rastogi, V K; Hamilton, A B

    1997-01-01

    Organophosphorus acid anhydrolases (OPAA) catalyzing the hydrolysis of a variety of toxic organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitors offer potential for decontamination of G-type nerve agents and pesticides. The gene (opa) encoding an OPAA was cloned from the chromosomal DNA of Alteromonas haloplanktis ATCC 23821. The nucleotide sequence of the 1.7 -kb DNA fragment contained the opa gene (1.3 kb) and its flanking region. We report structural and functional similarity of OPAAs from A. haloplanktis and Alteromonas sp JD6.5 with the enzyme prolidase that hydrolyzes dipeptides with a prolyl residue in the carboxyl-terminal position. These results corroborate the earlier conclusion that the OPAA is a type of X-Pro dipeptidase, and that X-Pro could be the native substrate for such an enzyme in Alteromonas cells. PMID:9079288

  13. Extensive hydrolysis of phosphonates as unexpected behaviour of the known His6-organophosphorus hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Lyagin, Ilya V; Andrianova, Mariia S; Efremenko, Elena N

    2016-07-01

    The catalytic activity of hexahistidine-tagged organophosphorus hydrolase (His6-OPH) in hydrolytic reactions of methylphosphonic acid (MPA) and its monoesters and diesters being decomposition products of R-VX was demonstrated for the first time. The catalytic constants of enzyme in such reactions were determined. The mechanism of C-P bond cleavage in the MPA by His6-OPH was proposed. Such reaction was estimated to be carried out with the soluble and nanocapsulated forms of His6-OPH. His6-OPH was demonstrated to be capable of degrading the key organophosphorus components of reaction masses (RMs) that are produced by the chemical detoxification of R-VX and RMs are multi-substrate mixtures for this enzyme. The kinetic model describing the behaviour of His6-OPH in RMs was proposed and was shown to adequately fit experimental points during degradation of the real samples of RMs. PMID:26932546

  14. Environmental Fate of Organophosphorus Compounds Related to Chemical Weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L; Love, A H; Vance, A; Reynolds, J G

    2005-02-08

    Man-made organophosphorus compounds have been widely distributed throughout our environment as pesticides since their development during and after WWII. Many important studies have documented their relative persistence and toxicity. Development and use of some organophosphorus compounds as nerve agents gave rise to a separate but parallel effort to understand environmental persistence. In this latter case, the experiments have focused mainly on evaporation rates and first-order reaction kinetics. However, because organophosphorus compounds are easily polarized, the ionic content of a surrounding media directly factors into these reaction rates, but limited work in this regard has been done under environmentally relevant conditions. Furthermore, limited experiments investigating persistence of these agents on soil has resulted in widely varying degradation rates. Not surprisingly, no studies have investigated affinities of organophosphorus nerve agents to mineral or organic matter typically found in soil. As a result, we initiated laboratory experiments on dilute concentrations of nerve agent O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate (VX) to quantify persistence in simulated environmental aqueous conditions. A quantitative analytical method was developed for VX and its degradation products using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). VX hydrolysis rate is known to have a pH-dependency, however, the type of buffer and the relative proportion of different nucleophiles in solution significantly affect the overall rate and mechanism of degradation. For example, dissolved carbonate, a weak nucleophile dominating natural water, yielded pseudo-first order rate constants of {approx} 8 x 10{sup -3}/hr at pH 5 and 2 x 10{sup -2}/hr at pH 11. This small pH-dependent variation departs significantly from widely accepted rates at this pH range (4 x 10{sup -4}/hr to 8 x 10{sup -2}/hr) that were based on

  15. Effects of organophosphorus insecticides on sage grouse in southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Staley, C.S.; Henny, C.J.; Pendleton, G.W.; Craig, T.H.; Craig, E.H.; Halford, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Unverified reports indicated die-offs of sage grouse have occurred since the 1970s in southeastern Idaho. Some verification that organophosphorus insecticides were involved was obtained in 1981 and 1983. A radio telemetry study indicated that dimethoate was responsible for most mortality. Methamidophos also acounted for mortality. Sage grouse populations may be adversely affected by organophosphorus insecticides.

  16. Toxic effects produced in insects by organophosphorus compounds*

    PubMed Central

    Dahm, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    This paper reviews the toxicity of organophosphorus compounds in relation to cholinesterase inhibition in insects. It covers anticholinesterase effects on different stages of the life cycle and the relationship between cholinesterase inhibition and lethality. Other effects of organophosphorus compounds, which may account for anomalies in insecticidal action, are also considered. PMID:4398522

  17. Solvent effects on focused microwave assisted extraction of polyphenolic acids from Eucommia ulmodies.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Chen, Bo; Nie, Lihua; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2004-01-01

    An open microwave-assisted extraction system was used to extract gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid from Eucommia ulmodies. The effect of extraction variables, especially solvent, on the recoveries of these polyphenolic compounds was investigated using factorial design. As extracting solvent for these compounds, methanol produced a higher recovery than pure water. For straight chain alcohol solvents, the lower the carbon number, the higher the recoveries of the polyphenolic acids. The optimal ratio of methanol:water:glacial acetic acid in the solvent mixture used in microwave-assisted extraction was 2:8:0.3 (v/v) and this solvent could be directly used as the mobile phase in HPLC separation without additional intermittent treatment as reported in literature. The extraction under the condition of 50% microwave power and 30 s irradiation at a solvent:sample ratio of 10 (mL/g) was found to be the most advantageous. The repeatability test of extraction and chromatographic analysis was satisfactory for the analysis of these polyphenolic compounds. PMID:15508835

  18. Solvent Systems Combining Neutral and Acidic Extractants for Separating Trivalent Lanthanides from the Transuranic Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Gelis, Artem V.; Vandegrift, George F.

    2010-04-23

    This paper is a review of recent publications that have focused on combined extractant systems for separating trivalent actinides from the lanthanides. These mixed solvent systems combine an acidic extractant with a neutral extractant to achieve the actinide/lanthanide separation. Depending on the neutral extractant used, three categorizations of systems can be considered, including combinations of acidic extractants with 1) diamides, 2) carbamoylmethylphosphine oxides, and 3) polydentate nitrogen-donor ligands. This review of relevant publications indicates that, although there is significant potential for practical exploitation of mixed neutral/acidic extractant systems to achieve a single-step separation of trivalent actinides from acidic high-level waste solutions, the fundamental chemistry underlying these combined systems is not yet well understood. For example, although there is strong evidence suggesting that adducts form between the neutral and acidic extractants, the nature of these adducts generally is not known. Likewise, the structures of the mixed complexes formed between the metal ions and the two different extactants are not fully understood. Research into these basic phenomena likely will provide clues about how to design practical mixed-extractant systems that can be used to efficiently separate the transuranic elements from the lanthanides and other components of irradiated fuel.

  19. Evaluation of extractant-coated ferromagnetic microparticles for the recovery of hazardous metals from waste solution.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, M. D.

    1998-05-08

    A magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process was developed earlier at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This compact process was designed for the separation of transuranics (TRU) and radionuclides from the liquid waste streams that exist at many DOE sites, with an overall reduction in waste volume requiring disposal. The MACS process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractant/ion exchange materials with magnetic separation to provide an efficient chemical separation. Recently, the MACS process has been evaluated with acidic organophosphorus extractants for hazardous metal recovery from waste solutions. Moreover, process scale-up design issues have been addressed with respect to particle filtration and recovery. Two acidic organophosphorus compounds have been investigated for hazardous metal recovery, bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid (Cyanex{reg_sign} 272) and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid (Cyanex{reg_sign} 301). Coated onto magnetic microparticles, these extractants demonstrated superior recovery of hazardous metals from solution, relative to what was expected on the basis of results from solvent extraction experiments. The results illustrate the diverse applications of MACS technology for dilute waste streams. Preliminary process scale-up experiments with a high-gradient magnetic separator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have revealed that very low microparticle loss rates are possible.

  20. The solvent extraction of Americium(III) by 2,6-bis[(diphenylphosphino)-methyl]pyridine N,P,P` trioxide from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, E.M.; Engelhardt, U.; Deere, T.P.; Rapko, B.M.; Paine, R.T.

    1997-12-31

    The liquid/liquid extractions of Am(III) from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions with chloroform solutions of 2,6-bis[(diphenylphosphino)methyl]pyridine N,P,P{prime} trioxide will be described. Americium(III) extracts well from high concentration nitric acid solutions (D>3000 at 6M nitric acid) and can be back extracted from the organic phase at 0.01M Nitric Acid. Americium(III) exhibits modest extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions (D=2.2 at 5M hydrochloric acid) and can be back extracted from the organic phase at 0.1M hydrochloric acid. The ligand dependency data suggest that two ligand molecules are coordinated to americium in the nitric acid system and three ligand molecules are coordinated to the americium in the hydrochloric acid system.

  1. Inhibitory effects of rosemary extracts, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid on the growth of various human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem; Sevimli, Canan; Bedir, Erdal; Vardar-Sukan, Fazilet

    2010-06-01

    The leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis harvested from three different locations of Turkey were extracted by both methanolic and supercritical CO(2) extraction. Subsequently, six extracts and the active compounds, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid were applied to various human cancer cell lines including NCI-H82 (human, small cell lung, carcinoma), DU-145 (human, prostate, carcinoma), Hep-3B (human, black, liver, carcinoma, hepatocellular), K-562 (human chronic myeloid leukemia), MCF-7 (human, breast, adenocarcinoma), PC-3 (human, prostate, adenocarcinoma) and MDA-MB-231 (human, breast, adenocarcinoma) by MTT assay. Supercritical CO(2) extracts had superior antiproliferative effect compared to the soxhlet extracts. Although the extracts exhibited various cytotoxic effects against different cell lines, comparatively low IC(50) values ranging between 12.50 and 47.55 microg/ml were attained against K-562, being the most sensitive cell line. Moreover, carnosic acid caused the lowest cell viability with values ranging from 13 to 30 % at a concentration of 19 muM after 48 h of treatments, resulting in superior antiproliferative effect. Rosemary extract is a potential candidate to be included in the anti-cancer diet with pre-determined doses avoiding toxicity. PMID:20449663

  2. COMBINING NEUTRAL AND ACIDIC EXTRACTANTS FOR RECOVERING TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS FROM NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Neiner, Doinita; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Latesky, Stanley; Gelis, Artem V.; Tkac, Peter; Vandegrift, George F.

    2011-10-03

    We have been investigating a solvent extraction system that combines a neutral extractant--octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO)--with an acidic extractant--bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP)--to form a single process solvent for separating Am and Cm from the other components of irradiated nuclear fuel. It was originally hypothesized that the extraction chemistry of CMPO would dominate under conditions of high acidity (> 1 M HNO3), resulting in co-extraction of the transuranic and lanthanide elements into the organic phase. Contacting the loaded solvent with a solution of diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) buffered with lactic or citric acid at pH {approx}3 to 4 would result in a condition in which the HDEHP chemistry dominates. Although the data somewhat support this hypothesis, it is clear that there are interactions between the two extractants such that they do not act independently in the extraction and stripping regimes. We report here studies directed at determining the nature and extent of interaction between CMPO and HDEHP, the synergistic behavior of CMPO and HDEHP in the extraction of americium and neodymium, and progress towards determining the thermodynamics of this extraction system. Neodymium and americium behave similarly in the combined solvent system, with a significant synergy between CMPO and HDEHP in the extraction of both of these trivalent elements from lactate-buffered DTPA solutions. In contrast, a much weaker synergistic behaviour is observed for europium. Thus, investigations into the fundamental chemistry involved in this system have focused on the neodymium extraction. The extraction of neodymium has been systematically investigated, individually varying the HDEHP concentration, the CMPO concentration, or the aqueous phase composition. Thermodynamic modeling of the neodymium extraction system has been initiated. Interactions between CMPO and HDEHP in the organic phase must be taken into account in

  3. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Saccharide (Neutral and Acidic) Composition of the Crude Pectic Extract from Various Agro-Industrial Residues.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Neha; Roy, Sandra Van; Wijnants, Marc; Dejonghe, Winnie; Caligiani, Augusta; Sforza, Stefano; Elst, Kathy

    2016-01-13

    The influence of different extraction methodologies was assessed on the composition of both neutral (arabinose, rhamnose, galactose) and acidic (galacturonic acid) pectic polysaccharides obtained from four agro-industrial residues, namely, berry pomace (BP), onion hulls (OH), pressed pumpkin (PP), and sugar beet pulp (SBP). For acidic pectic polysaccharides, the extraction efficiency was obtained as BP (nitric acid-assisted extraction, 2 h, 62.9%), PP (enzymatic-assisted extraction, 12 h, 75.0%), SBP (enzymatic-assisted extraction, 48 h, 89.8%; and nitric acid-assisted extraction, 4 h, 76.5%), and OH (sodium hexametaphosphate-assisted extraction, 0.5 h, 100%; and ammonium oxalate-assisted extraction, 0.5 h, 100%). For neutral pectic polysaccharides, the following results were achieved: BP (enzymatic-assisted extraction, 24 h, 85.9%), PP (nitric acid-assisted extraction, 6 h, 82.2%), and SBP (enzymatic assisted extraction, 48 h, 97.5%; and nitric acid-assisted extraction, 4 h, 83.2%). On the basis of the high recovery of pectic sugars, SBP and OH are interesting candidates for the further purification of pectin and production of pectin-derived products. PMID:26652767

  4. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed. PMID:18639982

  5. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl P.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  6. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1994-07-26

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulfur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

  7. Membrane extraction with thermodynamically unstable diphosphonic acid derivatives

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1997-10-14

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

  8. Membrane extraction with thermodynamically unstable diphosphonic acid derivatives

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl Philip; Gatrone, Ralph Carl; Nash, Kenneth LaVerne

    1997-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  9. Nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction hybrid system for separation of fumaric acid from fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Krystyna; Staszak, Katarzyna; Woźniak-Budych, Marta Joanna; Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena; Adamczak, Michalina; Wiśniewski, Maciej; Staniewski, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    A novel approach based on a hybrid system allowing nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction, was proposed to remove fumaric acid from fermentation broth left after bioconversion of glycerol. The fumaric salts can be concentrated in the nanofiltration process to a high yield (80-95% depending on pressure), fumaric acid can be selectively separated from other fermentation components, as well as sodium fumarate can be conversed into the acid form in bipolar electrodialysis process (stack consists of bipolar and anion-exchange membranes). Reactive extraction with quaternary ammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) or alkylphosphine oxides (Cyanex 923) solutions (yield between 60% and 98%) was applied as the final step for fumaric acid recovery from aqueous streams after the membrane techniques. The hybrid system permitting nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction was found effective for recovery of fumaric acid from the fermentation broth. PMID:24983693

  10. Linking Laboratory Experiences to the Real World: The Extraction of Octylphenoxyacetic Acid from Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Torrents, Alba; Rosales-Rivera, Georgina C.; Rice, Clifford C.

    2006-01-01

    Several chemical concepts to the extraction of a water pollutant OPC (octylphenoxyacetic acid) is presented. As an introduction to the laboratory experiment, a discussion on endocrine disrupters is conducted to familiarize the student with the background of the experiment and to explain the need for the extraction and quantitation of the OPC which…

  11. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  12. Microwave-Assisted Solvent Extraction and Analysis of Shikimic Acid from Plant Tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple method using microwave-assisted extraction (MWAE) using water as the extraction solvent was developed for the determination of shikimic acid in plant tissue of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, an important Poaceae forage and weed species widely spread in agricultural and non-agricultural areas t...

  13. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS ACIDIC SOLUTIONS OF NEUTRON IRRADIATED URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruce, F.R.

    1962-07-24

    A solvent extraction process was developed for separating actinide elements including plutonium and uranium from fission products. By this method the ion content of the acidic aqueous solution is adjusted so that it contains more equivalents of total metal ions than equivalents of nitrate ions. Under these conditions the extractability of fission products is greatly decreased. (AEC)

  14. Hydrothermal-acid treatment for effectual extraction of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-abundant lipids from Nannochloropsis salina.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ilgyu; Han, Jong-In

    2015-09-01

    Hydrothermal acid treatment, was adopted to extract eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from wet biomass of Nannochloropsis salina. It was found that sulfuric acid-based treatment increased EPA yield from 11.8 to 58.1 mg/g cell in a way that was nearly proportional to its concentration. Nitric acid exhibited the same pattern at low concentrations, but unlike sulfuric acid its effectiveness unexpectedly dropped from 0.5% to 2.0%. The optimal and minimal conditions for hydrothermal acid pretreatment were determined using a statistical approach; its maximum EPA yield (predicted: 43.69 mg/g cell; experimental: 43.93 mg/g cell) was established at a condition of 1.27% of sulfuric acid, 113.34 °C of temperature, and 36.71 min of reaction time. Our work demonstrated that the acid-catalyzed cell disruption, accompanied by heat, can be one potentially promising option for ω-3 fatty acids extraction. PMID:25966023

  15. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives Obtained from a Commercial Crataegus Extract and from Authentic Crataegus spp.

    PubMed

    Kuczkowiak, Ulrich; Petereit, Frank; Nahrstedt, Adolf

    2014-12-01

    Eleven hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were isolated from a 70% methanolic Crataegus extract (Crataegi folium cum flore) and partly verified and quantified for individual Crataegus species (C. laevigata, C. monogyna, C. nigra, C. pentagyna) by HPLC: 3-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (1), 5-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-quinic acid (2), 4-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (3), 3-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (4), 4-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (5), 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (6), 3,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (7), 4,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (8), (-)-2-O-(E)-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (9), (-)-4-O-(E)-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (10), and (-)-4-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-L-threonic acid (11). Further, (-)-2-O-(E)-caffeoyl-D-malic acid (12) was isolated from C. submollis and also identified for C. pentagyna and C. nigra by co-chromatography. The isolates 10 and 11 were not found in the authentic fresh specimen, indicating that they may be formed during extraction by acyl migration from the 2-O-acylderivatives. Also, 9 and 11 are described here for the first time. All structures were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data ((1)H-, (13)C-NMR, MS, optical rotation). PMID:26171328

  16. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives Obtained from a Commercial Crataegus Extract and from Authentic Crataegus spp.§

    PubMed Central

    Kuczkowiak, Ulrich; Petereit, Frank; Nahrstedt, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Eleven hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were isolated from a 70% methanolic Crataegus extract (Crataegi folium cum flore) and partly verified and quantified for individual Crataegus species (C. laevigata, C. monogyna, C. nigra, C. pentagyna) by HPLC: 3-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (1), 5-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-quinic acid (2), 4-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (3), 3-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (4), 4-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (5), 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (6), 3,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (7), 4,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (8), (-)-2-O-(E)-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (9), (-)-4-O-(E)-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (10), and (-)-4-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-L-threonic acid (11). Further, (-)-2-O-(E)-caffeoyl-D-malic acid (12) was isolated from C. submollis and also identified for C. pentagyna and C. nigra by co-chromatography. The isolates 10 and 11 were not found in the authentic fresh specimen, indicating that they may be formed during extraction by acyl migration from the 2-O-acylderivatives. Also, 9 and 11 are described here for the first time. All structures were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data (1H-, 13C-NMR, MS, optical rotation). PMID:26171328

  17. Application of dissolvable layered double hydroxides as sorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction and extraction by co-precipitation for the determination of aromatic acid anions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sheng; Lee, Hian Kee

    2013-08-01

    Three types of magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides were synthesized and employed as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents to extract several aromatic acids (protocatechuic acid, mandelic acid, phthalic acid, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid) from aqueous samples. An interesting feature of these sorbents is that they dissolve when the pH of the solution is lower than 4. Thus, the analyte elution step, as needed in conventional sorbent-based extraction, was obviated by dissolving the sorbent in acid after extraction and separation from the sample solution. The extract was then directly injected into a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection system for analysis. In the key adsorption process, both dispersive SPE and co-precipitation extraction with the sorbents were conducted and experimental parameters such as pH, temperature, and extraction time were optimized. The results showed that both extraction methods provided low limits of detection (0.03-1.47 μg/L) and good linearity (r(2) > 0.9903). The optimized extraction conditions were applied to human urine and sports drink samples. This new and interesting extraction approach was demonstrated to be a fast and efficient procedure for the extraction of organic anions from aqueous samples. PMID:23855757

  18. Stimuli-responsive chromism in organophosphorus chemistry.

    PubMed

    Reus, Christian; Baumgartner, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Changes in color are one of the most obvious and easily followed responses that can be induced by an external stimulus. π-Conjugated organophosphorus compounds are on the rise to challenge established systems by opening up new and simple pathways to diversely modified optoelectronic properties--the main challenge for the development of new chromic materials. Relevant stimuli highlighted in this Frontier article include electronic current (electrochromism), light (photochromism), solvent polarity (solvatochromism), aggregation formation (aggregation induced emission, AIE), mechanical force (mechanochromism), temperature (thermochromism), organic solvent vapor (vapochromism), and pH (halochromism). PMID:26286166

  19. Biodegradation of brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Waaijers, Susanne L; Parsons, John R

    2016-04-01

    Brominated flame retardants account for about 21% of the total production of flame retardants and many of these have been identified as persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. Nevertheless, debromination of these chemicals under anaerobic conditions is well established, although this can increase their toxicity. Consequently, the production and use of these chemicals has been restricted and alternative products have been developed. Many of these are brominated compounds and share some of the disadvantages of the chemicals they are meant to replace. Therefore, other, nonbrominated, flame retardants such as organophosphorus compounds are also being used in increasing quantities, despite the fact that knowledge of their biodegradation and environmental fate is often lacking. PMID:26748263

  20. Selectivity between lactic acid and glucose during recovery of lactic acid with basic extractants and polymeric sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y.; King, C.J.

    1996-04-01

    During recovery of product carboxylic acids from fermentation broths, it is important to maximize the selectivity for the desired acid, as opposed to substrate sugars. In this work uptakes of glucose and competitive uptakes of lactic acid and glucose have been measured for the extractant Alamine 336 in various diluents and three commercially available basic solid polymeric sorbents. The results show that swelling is the main factor governing the selectivity between lactic acid and glucose for the polymeric sorbents. Because of a high uptake capacity and relatively low swelling, Dowex MWA-1 gives a higher selectivity in the pH 5--6 range than do Amberlite IRA-35 and Reillex 425. Extraction with Alamine 336 provides a much higher selectivity, but a lower capacity, than the polymeric sorbents. The extent of water coextraction depends strongly on the diluent used, and larger amounts of water coextracted correspond to larger uptakes of glucose.

  1. New crystallization of fatty acids from aqueous ethanol solution combined with liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Kouji; Nomura, Yoshihisa; Tai, Kimihiko; Ueno, Yoshitaka; Fukui, Keisuke; Hirota, Syouji

    1999-06-01

    A new separation process of saturated fatty acids (lauric acid-myristic acid) using crystallization from an aqueous ethanol solution has been examined. There were two vessels in this separation process: an extraction vessel and a crystallization vessel. The fatty acids in the aqueous phase were first extracted from their organic phase (melt) in the extraction vessel. The fatty acids in the aqueous phase were continuously introduced to the crystallization vessel, and then the fatty acids were crystallized there. The crystals of the fatty acids were collected continuously above the aqueous phase in the crystallization vessel. In this process, the yield and the purity of the crystals over time were measured, and it was found that the purity of lauric acid increased unsteadily up to 0.98 mole fraction of lauric acid with an increase in the yield of the low yield range. The mole fraction of ethanol in the aqueous phase could be significant to control the relationship between the yield and the purity of the crystals. Three different mole fractions of lauric acid in the organic phase were used to be separated in this process. Moreover, the authors have considered the effective separations of this process, and the maximum yield and purity of the crystals have been estimated by a simple mass balance.

  2. Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Solid Phase Extraction for Urinary Organic Acids: A Comparative Study from a Resource Constraint Setting.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Chandrawati; Varughese, Bijo; Ramji, Siddarth; Kapoor, Seema

    2016-10-01

    Pre analytical process of extraction for accurate detection of organic acids is a crucial step in diagnosis of organic acidemias by GCMS analysis. This process is accomplished either by solid phase extraction (SPE) or by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Both extraction procedures are used in different metabolic laboratories all over the world. In this study we compared these two extraction procedures in respect of precision, accuracy, percent recovery of metabolites, number of metabolites isolated, time and cost in a resource constraint setup. We observed that the mean recovery from SPE was 84.1 % and by LLE it was 77.4 % (p value <0.05). Moreover, the average number of metabolites isolated by SPE and LLE was 161.8 ± 18.6 and 140.1 ± 20.4 respectively. The processing cost of LLE was economical. In a cost constraint setting using LLE may be the practical option if used for organic acid analysis. PMID:27605738

  3. Optimization of extraction of phenolic acids from a vegetable waste product using a pressurized liquid extractor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers are eaten worldwide for their nutritional value, but potato peels are often disposed as waste. This study identified the phenolic acids content in potato peels, tuber, and developed an optimized method for extraction of phenolic acids from potato peels using a pressurized liquid extrac...

  4. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED... fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal feed... glutamic acid. (b) It is used or intended for use as follows: (1) In poultry feed as a source of protein...

  5. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED... fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal feed... glutamic acid. (b) It is used or intended for use as follows: (1) In poultry feed as a source of protein...

  6. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED... fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal feed... glutamic acid. (b) It is used or intended for use as follows: (1) In poultry feed as a source of protein...

  7. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED... fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal feed... glutamic acid. (b) It is used or intended for use as follows: (1) In poultry feed as a source of protein...

  8. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  9. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) concentration quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913 µg/g) w...

  10. Effects of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) extract on volatile fatty acid production by rumen bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To determine the effects of hops extract, on in vitro volatile fatty acid (VFA) production by bovine rumen microorganisms. Methods and Results: When mixed rumen microbes were suspended in media containing carbohydrates, the initial rates of VFA production were suppressed by beta-acid rich hops...

  11. Effects of ultrahigh pressure extraction on yield and antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside extracted from flower buds of Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen; Guo, Ting; Jiang, Wen-Jun; Dong, Guang-Li; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Shi-Lin; Li, He-Ran

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to establish and optimize a new method for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from Lonicera japonica Thunb. through orthogonal experimental designl. A new ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from L. japonica. The influential factors, including solvent type, ethanol concentration, extraction pressure, time, and temperature, and the solid/liquid ratio, have been studied to optimize the extraction process. The optimal conditions for the UPE were developed by quantitative analysis of the extraction products by HPLC-DAD in comparison with standard samples. In addition, the microstructures of the medicinal materials before and after extraction were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the extraction efficiency of different extraction methods and the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of the extracts were investigated. The optimal conditions for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were as follows: ethanol concentration, 60%; extraction pressure, 400 MPa; extraction time, 2 min; extraction temperature, 30 °C; and the solid/liquid ratio, 1 : 50. Under these conditions, the yields of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were raised to 4.863% and 0.080%, respectively. Compared with other extraction methods, such as heat reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and Sohxlet extraction (SE), the UPE method showed several advantages, including higher extraction yield, shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption, and higher purity of the extracts. This study could help better utilize L. japonica flower buds as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26073341

  12. Flame retardant cotton fabrics treated with organophosphorus polymer.

    PubMed

    Abou-Okeil, A; El-Sawy, S M; Abdel-Mohdy, F A

    2013-02-15

    Organo-phosphorus compounds was prepared and applied onto cotton fabrics as flame retarding agent. methacryloloxyethylorthophoshor tetraethyl diamidate (MPD) was prepared and its structure was confirmed by IR, NMR and mass spectroscopy. Pyrovatex as commercial flame retardant was used for comparative study. Impregnation method was used as coating for the application of the organophosphorus compounds to cotton fabrics. The major factors affecting the reaction were studied. The results show that the prepared organophosphorus compound can be successfully used as flame retardant for cotton fabrics. PMID:23399290

  13. Characterization and functional properties of mango peel pectin extracted by ultrasound assisted citric acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miaomiao; Huang, Bohui; Fan, Chuanhui; Zhao, Kaili; Hu, Hao; Xu, Xiaoyun; Pan, Siyi; Liu, Fengxia

    2016-10-01

    Pectin was extracted from 'Tainong No. 1' mango peels, using a chelating agent-citric acid as extraction medium by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction (CE) at temperatures of 20 and 80°C. Chemical structures, rheological and emulsifying properties of mango peel pectins (MPPs) were comparatively studied with laboratory grade citrus pectin (CP). All MPPs exhibited higher protein content (4.74%-5.94%), degree of methoxylation (85.43-88.38%), average molecular weight (Mw, 378.4-2858kDa) than the CP, but lower galacuronic acid content (GalA, 52.21-53.35%). CE or UAE at 80°C resulted in significantly higher pectin yield than those at 20°C, while the extraction time for UAE-80°C (15min) was significantly shorter compared to CE-80°C (2h) with comparable pectin yield. Moreover, MPPs extracted at 80°C were observed with higher GalA and protein content, higher Mw, resulting in higher viscosity, better emulsifying capacity and stability, as compared to those extracted at 20°C and the CP. Therefore, these results suggested that MPPs from 'Tainong No. 1' may become a highly promising pectin with good thickening and emulsifying properties, using ultrasound-assisted citric acid as an efficient and eco-friendly extraction method. PMID:27283236

  14. Comparison of some spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge and bottom sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, J.; Bartoszek, M.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2009-04-01

    Comparison of the physico-chemical properties was carried out for humic acids extracted from sewage sludge and bottom sediments. The isolated humic acids were investigated by means of EPR, IR, UV/vis spectroscopic methods and elementary analysis AE. On the basis of earlier studies it was stated that humic acids extracted from sewage sludge can be divided into humic acids extracted from raw sewage sludge and from sewage sludge after the digestion process. The digestion process was found to have the most significant effect on the physico-chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sludge during sewage treatment. Humic acids extracted from sewage sludge had higher free radical concentration than humic acid extracted from bottom sediments. Values of the g-factor were similar for all studied samples. However, it is noteworthy that g-factor values for humic acid extracted from raw sewage sludge and from bottom sediments were lower in comparison to the humic acid extracted from sewage sludge after the fermentation processes. The IR spectra of all studied humic acids confirmed the presence of functional groups characteristic for humic substances. It was also observed that humic acids extracted from bottom sediments had a more aromatic character and contained less carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen than those extracted from the sewage sludge.

  15. Simultaneous Extraction of Viral and Bacterial Nucleic Acids for Molecular Diagnostic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kajiura, Lauren N.; Stewart, Scott D.; Dresios, John; Uyehara, Catherine F. T.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular detection of microbial pathogens in clinical samples requires the application of efficient sample lysis protocols and subsequent extraction and isolation of their nucleic acids. Here, we describe a simple and time-efficient method for simultaneous extraction of genomic DNA from gram-positive and -negative bacteria, as well as RNA from viral agents present in a sample. This method compared well with existing bacterial- and viral-specialized extraction protocols, worked reliably on clinical samples, and was not pathogen specific. This method may be used to extract DNA and RNA concurrently from viral and bacterial pathogens present in a sample and effectively detect coinfections in routine clinical diagnostics. PMID:26543438

  16. Simultaneous extraction and derivatization of 2-chlorovinylarsonous acid from soils using supercritical and pressurized fluids.

    PubMed

    Chaudot, X; Tambuté, A; Caude, M

    2000-08-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide and pressurized fluids are compared for the extraction with in situ derivatization of 2-chlorovinylarsonous acid (CVAA) from a series of seven spiked soils. Samples are allowed to age (up to 42 days) and periodically extracted. Sample ageing leads to a recovery decrease due to the development of strong interactions between CVAA and matrix active sites, as time elapses. A similar behavior is observed when usual ultrasonic extraction is performed. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with in situ derivatization leads to the highest recovery. Moreover, SFE allows a solvent consumption reduction. A limit of detection of 0.2 microg/g is reached with the SFE method. PMID:10949499

  17. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALS FROM PHOSPHORIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.

    1958-11-01

    > A solvent extraction process is presented for recovering metal values including uranium, thorium, and other lanthanide and actinide elements from crude industrial phosphoric acid solutions. The process conslsts of contacting said solution with an immisclble organic solvent extractant containing a diluent and a material selected from the group consisting of mono and di alkyl phosphates, alkyl phosphonates and alkyl phosphites. The uranlum enters the extractant phase and is subsequently recovered by any of the methods known to the art. Recovery is improved if the phosphate solution is treated with a reducing agent such as iron or aluminum powder prior to the extraction step.

  18. Subchronic organophosphorus ester-induced delayed neurotoxicity in mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Murray, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    Eighteen-week-old mallard hens received 0, 10, 30, 90, or 270 ppm technical grade EPN (phenylphosphonothioic acid O-ethyl-O-4-nitrophenyl ester) in the diet for 90 days. Ataxia was first observed in the 270-ppm group after 16 days, in the 90-ppm group after 20 days, in the 30-ppm group after 38 days; 10 ppm failed to produce ataxia. By the end of 90 days all 6 birds in the 270-ppm group exhibited ataxia or paralysis whereas 5 of 6 birds in the 90-ppm group and 2 of 6 birds in the 30-ppm group were visibly affected. Treatment with 30 ppm or more resulted in a significant reduction in body weight. Brain neurotoxic esterase activity was inhibited by averages of 16, 69, 73, and 74% in the 10-, 30-, 90-, and 270-ppm groups, respectively. Brain acetylcholinesterase, plasma cholinesterase, and plasma alkaline phosphatase were significantly inhibited as well. Distinct histopathological effects were seen in the 30-, 90-, and 270-ppm groups which included demyelination and degeneration of axons of the spinal cord. Additional ducks were exposed in a similar manner to 60-, 270-, or 540-ppm leptophos (phosphonothioic acid O-4-bromo-2,5-dichlorophenyl-O-methylphenyl ester) which resulted in similar behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological alterations. These findings indicate that adult mallards are probably somewhat less sensitive than chickens to subchronic dietary exposure to organophosphorus insecticides that induce delayed neurotoxicity.

  19. Studies of the acidic components of the Colorado Green River formation oil shale-Mass spectrometric identification of the methyl esters of extractable acids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haug, P.; Schnoes, H. K.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Study of solvent extractable acidic constituents of oil shale from the Colorado Green River Formation. Identification of individual components is based on gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric data obtained for their respective methyl esters. Normal acids, isoprenoidal acids, alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids, mono-alpha-methyl dicarboxylic acids and methyl ketoacids were identified. In addition, the presence of monocyclic, benzoic, phenylalkanoic and naphthyl-carboxylic acids, as well as cycloaromatic acids, is demonstrated by partial identification.

  20. Separation of phenolic acids from natural plant extracts using molecularly imprinted anion-exchange polymer confined ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-04-01

    Polymer-confined ionic liquids were used for the separation of phenolic acids from natural plant extract by utilizing an anion-exchange mechanism. They were synthesized using molecular imprinting technique to reduce non-directional ion-ion interactions during anion-exchange and other interactions with interference substances that could decrease selectivity. A suitable sorbent for phenolic acid separation could be identified based on the adsorption behaviors of phenolic acids on different polymer-confined ionic liquids. Thus, the developed ionic liquid-based molecularly imprinted anion-exchange polymer (IMAP) achieved high recovery rates by solid-phase extraction of phenolic acids from Salicornia herbacea L. extract: 90.1% for protocatechuic acid, 95.5% for ferulic acid and 96.6% for caffeic acid. Moreover, the phenolic acids were separable from each other by repeated solid phase extraction cycles. The proposed method could be used to separate other phenolic acids or organic acids from complex samples. PMID:21903215

  1. Direct lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract using Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwa-Young; Ryu, Hee-Kyoung; Park, Kyung-Min; Lee, Eun Gyo; Lee, Hongweon; Kim, Seon-Won; Choi, Eui-Sung

    2012-06-01

    Lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber was performed with strains of Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis prior to fermentation. Some strains of L. paracasei, notably KCTC13090 and KCTC13169, could ferment hot-water extract of Jerusalem artichoke tuber more efficiently compared with other Lactobacillus spp. such as L. casei type strain KCTC3109. The L. paracasei strains could utilize almost completely the fructo-oligosaccharides present in Jerusalem artichoke. Inulin-fermenting L. paracasei strains produced c.a. six times more lactic acid compared with L. casei KCTC3109. Direct lactic fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract at 111.6g/L of sugar content with a supplement of 5 g/L of yeast extract by L. paracasei KCTC13169 in a 5L jar fermentor produced 92.5 ce:hsp sp="0.25"/>g/L of lactic acid with 16.8 g/L fructose equivalent remained unutilized in 72 h. The conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to lactic acid was 98% of the theoretical yield. PMID:22516247

  2. Permeability of Rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and Ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis Extracts across Caco-2 Cell Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Zhiyi; Ye, Zhong; Hauck, Cathy; Murphy, Patricia A.; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Reddy, Manju B.; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. Aim of the study To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in P. vulgaris and S. officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. Materials and methods The permeabilities and Phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal extracts were compared using Caco-2 cells with HPLC detection. Results The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) for RA and RA in P. vulgaris extracts was 0.2 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s, significantly increased to 0.9 ± 0.2 × 10−6 cm/s after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. Papp for UA and UA in S. officinalis extract was 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10−6 cm/s and 2.3 ± 0.5 × 10−6 cm/s before and after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, respectively. Neither compound was affected in permeability by the herbal extract matrix. Conclusion RA and UA in herbal extracts had similar uptake as that found using the pure compounds, which may simplify the prediction of compound efficacy, but the apparent lack of intestinal glucuronidation/sulfation of UA is likely to further enhance the bioavailability of that compound compared with RA. PMID:21798330

  3. QSAR for cholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus esters and CNDO/2 calculations for organophosphorus ester hydrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H.; Kenley, R. A.; Rynard, C.; Golub, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships were derived for acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition by various organophosphorus esters. Bimolecular inhibition rate constants correlate well with hydrophobic substituent constants, and with the presence or absence of catonic groups on the inhibitor, but not with steric substituent constants. CNDO/2 calculations were performed on a separate set of organophosphorus esters, RR'P(O)X, where R and R' are alkyl and/or alkoxy groups and X is fluorine, chlorine or a phenoxy group. For each subset with the same X, the CNDO-derived net atomic charge at the central phosphorus atom in the ester correlates well with the alkaline hydrolysis rate constant. For the whole set of esters with different X, two equations were derived that relate either charge and leaving group steric bulk, or orbital energy and bond order to the hydrogen hydrolysis rate constant.

  4. Superparamagnetic core-shells anchored onto graphene oxide grafted with phenylethyl amine as a nano-adsorbent for extraction and enrichment of organophosphorus pesticides from fruit, vegetable and water samples.

    PubMed

    Mahpishanian, Shokouh; Sereshti, Hassan; Baghdadi, Majid

    2015-08-01

    A novel adsorbent composed of silica coated magnetic microparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2) and graphene oxide (GO) functionalized with phenylethyl amine (PEA) was synthesized and characterized using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and CHN elemental analysis techniques. The adsorbent (Fe3O4@SiO2@GO-PEA) was then used in a magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of six organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs) including methyl parathion, fenitrothion, methidathion, ethion, methyl azinphos and coumaphos prior to gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC-NPD). The fabricated adsorbent combines the advantages of superior adsorption capability of modified GO and magnetic separability of magnetite microparticles to provide high adsorption capacity, and easy isolation from sample solutions. The main experimental parameters affecting the extraction recovery of OPPs including extraction time, pH, adsorbent dosage, salt concentration, and desorption conditions were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, linear responses were obtained in the concentration range of 0.06-200μgL(-1) with the determination coefficients (R(2)) between 0.9945 and 0.9996. The limits of detection were from 0.02 to 0.1μgL(-1) and the intraday and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 4.8 and 6.4%, respectively. The method was successfully applied for determination of the OPPs in apple, grape, pear, bell pepper, celery and water samples. The obtained recoveries were in the range of 90.4-108.0% (RSDs=1.9-6.6%, n=3) for fruits and vegetables, and 94.6-104.2% (RSDs=2.0-4.8%, n=3) for water samples. The excellent extraction performance of the adsorbent can be attributed to its structure characteristics where the phenyl rings of PEA grafted on the GO nanosheets are accessible to interact effectively with OPPs via delocalized π-electron system. PMID:26129984

  5. Comparison of an automated nucleic acid extraction system with the column-based procedure

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Rebecca; Hagen, Ralf Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Here, we assessed the extraction efficiency of a deployable bench-top nucleic acid extractor EZ1 in comparison to the column-based approach with complex sample matrices. A total of 48 EDTA blood samples and 81 stool samples were extracted by EZ1 automated extraction and the column-based QIAamp DNA Mini Kit. Blood sample extractions were assessed by two real-time malaria PCRs, while stool samples were analyzed by six multiplex real-time PCR assays targeting bacterial, viral, and parasitic stool pathogens. Inhibition control PCR testing was performed as well. In total, 147 concordant and 13 discordant pathogen-specific PCR results were obtained. The latter comprised 11 positive results after column-based extraction only and two positive results after EZ1 extraction only. EZ1 extraction showed a higher frequency of inhibition. This phenomenon was, however, inconsistent for the different PCR schemes. In case of concordant PCR results, relevant differences of cycle threshold numbers for the compared extraction schemes were not observed. Switches from well-established column-based extraction to extraction with the automated EZ1 system do not lead to a relevantly reduced yield of target DNA when complex sample matrices are used. If sample inhibition is observed, column-based extraction from another sample aliquot may be considered. PMID:25883797

  6. Preparative yield and properties of humic acids obtained by sequential alkaline extractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodov, V. A.; Yaroslavtseva, N. V.; Konstantinov, A. I.; Perminova, I. V.

    2015-10-01

    The preparative yield, composition, and structure of humic acids obtained by sequential alkaline extractions from two soils (a soddy-podzolic soil under forest and a typical chernozem in treatment with permanent black fallow of a long-term experiment since 1964) have been studied. The preparative yield of humic acids from the first extraction is 0.40 and 0.94% for the soddy-podzolic soil (Retisols) and the chernozem, respectively. The preparative yield from the second extraction is lower by several times, and the yield from the third extraction is lower by an order of magnitude. The study of the obtained preparations by elemental analysis, gel-permeation chromatography, and 13C NMR spectroscopy has shown insignificant changes in the elemental, molecular-weight, and structural-group composition of humic acids among the extractions. It has been supposed that this is related to the soil features: typical climatic factors for the formation of soil subtype in the case of soddy-podzolic soil and the land use in the long-term experiment in the case of typical chernozem. It has been concluded that that a single extraction is sufficient for the separation of humic acids and the preparation of a representative sample.

  7. Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. Our observation that raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:24699912

  8. Membrane-mediated extractive fermentation for lactic acid production from cellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Rongfu; Lee, Y.Y.

    1997-12-31

    Lactic acid production from cellulosic biomass by cellulose and Lactobacillus delbrueckii was studied in a fermenter-extractor employing a microporous hollow fiber membrane (NIHF). This bioreactor system was operated under a fed-batch mode with continuous removal of lactic acid by an in situ extraction. A tertiary amine (Alamine 336) was used as an extractant for lactic acid. The extraction capacity of Alamine 336 is greatly enhanced by addition of alcohol. Long-chain alcohols serve well for this purpose since they are less toxic to micro-organism. Addition of kerosene, a diluent, was necessary to reduce the solvent viscosity. A solvent mixture of 20% Alamine 336,40% oleyl alcohol, and 40% kerosene was found to be most effective in the extraction of lactic acid. Progressive change of pH from an initial value of 5.0 down to 4.3 has significantly improved the overall performance of the simultaneous saccharification and extractive fermentation over that of constant pH operation. The change of pH was applied to promote cell growth in the early phase, and extraction in the latter phase. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Determination of volatile fatty acids in wastewater by solvent extraction and gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkhize, Nontando T.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Momba, Maggy

    The purpose of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction method for the analysis of volatile fatty acids collected at the elutriation units of Unit 3, 4 and 5 at Johannesburg Water-Northern Works Wastewater Treatment Plant. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method employing dichloromethane (DCM) and methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) as extracting solvents was used during the quantitative analysis of volatile fatty acids namely acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric and heptanoic acid. The detection of the extracts was by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating under electron ionization mode (GC-EI-MS). The results showed that MTBE was a better extraction solvent than DCM as it gave much higher recoveries (>5 folds). On the other hand, the overall reactor performance for all the three units in the period when the samples were collected, which was measured by the ratio of propionic to acetic acid was good since the ratio o did not exceed 1.4 with the exception of the samples collected on the 3rd of October where the ratio exceeded 1.4 significantly. The concentration of acetic acid, another indicator for the reactor performance in all three units was way below 800 mg/L thus the digester balance was on par.

  10. Ulcer healing activity of Mumijo aqueous extract against acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahrokhi, Nader; Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Gastric ulcer is an important clinical problem, chiefly due to extensive use of some drugs. The aim was to assess the activity of Mumijo extract (which is used in traditional medicine) against acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of Mumijo was prepared. Animals were randomly (n = 10) divided into four groups: Control, sham-operated group (received 0.2 ml of acetic acid to induce gastric ulcer), Mumijo (100 mg/kg/daily) were given for 4 days postacetic acid administration, and ranitidine group (20 mg/kg). The assessed parameters were pH and pepsin levels (by Anson method) of gastric contents and gastric histopathology. Ranitidine was used as reference anti-ulcer drug. Results: The extract (100 mg/kg/daily, p.o.) inhibited acid acetic-induced gastric ulceration by elevating its pH versus sham group (P < 0.01) and decreasing the pepsin levels compared to standard drug, ranitidine (P < 0.05). The histopathology data showed that the treatment with Mumijo extract had a significant protection against all mucosal damages. Conclusion: Mumijo extract has potent antiulcer activity. Its anti-ulcer property probably acts via a reduction in gastric acid secretion and pepsin levels. The obtained results support the use of this herbal material in folk medicine. PMID:25709338

  11. Mercury analysis of various types of coal using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jae Young Park; Jong Hyun Won; Tai Gyu Lee

    2006-12-15

    The mercury contents of various types of coal currently consumed in Korea were analyzed using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods. The results of analysis by acid extraction and pyrolysis methods were compared and discussed. Generally, high mercury concentrations of 105.6 to 434.5 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 125.7 to 475.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis) were obtained for tested anthracite coals in this study. For bituminous coals, the mercury contents were 11.5-48 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 12.5-52.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis). For coal samples, much simpler and far less time-consuming pyrolysis method tends to give higher values for the Hg concentration than the acid extraction method (by less than 10%) because of the interference from a UV absorption by SOx generated during thermal destruction of coal matrix. Also, further analysis shows that coals with higher densities have higher mercury contents and that the sulfur and mercury contents of coals are positively correlated with each other. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Recovery and separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent and waste sulfuric acid by solvent extraction and stripping.

    PubMed

    Qifeng, Wei; Xiulian, Ren; Jingjing, Guo; Yongxing, Chen

    2016-03-01

    The recovery and simultaneous separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent (DASE) and waste sulfuric acid (WSA) have been an earnest wish for researchers and the entire sulfate process-based titanium pigment industry. To reduce the pollution of the waste acid and make a comprehensive use of the iron and sulfuric acid in it, a new environmentally friendly recovery and separation process for the DASE and the WSA is proposed. This process is based on the reactive extraction of sulfuric acid and Fe(III) from the DASE. Simultaneously, stripping of Fe(III) is carried out in the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Compared to the conventional ways, this innovative method allows the effective extraction of sulfuric acid and iron from the DASE, and the stripping of Fe(III) from the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Trioctylamine (TOA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene (10-50%) were used as organic phases for solvent extraction. Under the optimal conditions, about 98% of Fe(III) and sulfuric acid were removed from the DASE, and about 99.9% of Fe(III) in the organic phase was stripped with the WSA. PMID:26546698

  13. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  14. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  15. Two-step voltage dual electromembrane extraction: A new approach to simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Sakine; Nojavan, Saeed

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, acidic and basic drugs were simultaneously extracted by a novel method of high efficiency herein referred to as two-step voltage dual electromembrane extraction (TSV-DEME). Optimizing effective parameters such as composition of organic liquid membrane, pH values of donor and acceptor solutions, voltage and duration of each step, the method had its figures of merit investigated in pure water, human plasma, wastewater, and breast milk samples. Simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs was done by applying potentials of 150 V and 400 V for 6 min and 19 min as the first and second steps, respectively. The model compounds were extracted from 4 mL of sample solution (pH = 6) into 20 μL of each acceptor solution (32 mM NaOH for acidic drugs and 32 mM HCL for basic drugs). 1-Octanol was immobilized within the pores of a porous hollow fiber of polypropylene, as the supported liquid membrane (SLM) for acidic drugs, and 2-ethyle hexanol, as the SLM for basic drugs. The proposed TSV-DEME technique provided good linearity with the resulting correlation coefficients ranging from 0.993 to 0.998 over a concentration range of 1-1000 ng mL(-1). The limit of detections of the drugs were found to range within 0.3-1.5 ng mL(-1), while the corresponding repeatability ranged from 7.7 to 15.5% (n = 4). The proposed method was further compared to simple dual electromembrane extraction (DEME), indicating significantly higher recoveries for TSV-DEME procedure (38.1-68%), as compared to those of simple DEME procedure (17.7-46%). Finally, the optimized TSV-DEME was applied to extract and quantify model compounds in breast milk, wastewater, and plasma samples. PMID:27155299

  16. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work was to investigate organophosphorus (OP) pesticide transformation pathways as a class in the presence of aqueous chlorine. Seven priority OP pesticides were examined for their reactivity with aqueous chlorine: chlorpyrifos (CP), parathion (PA), diazino...

  17. Chloramination of Organophosphorus Pesticides Found in Drinking Water Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The degradation of commonly detected organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, in drinking water sources, was investigated under simulated chloramination conditions. Due to monochloramine autodecomposition, it is difficult to observe the direct reaction of monochloramine with each OP pe...

  18. Study on synthetic methods of trialkyl phosphate oxide and its extraction behavior of some acids

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, M.J.; Su, Y.F.

    1987-01-01

    Trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) is useful for the extraction of many inorganic and organic compounds. A mixed trialkyl phosphine oxide (TRPO) is similar in property to TOPO. The total number of carbon atoms per molecule of TRPO ranges from 15 to 27. Three methods for synthesizing TRPO are described in this paper. When TRPO is synthesized from an alcohol mixture it is significantly cheaper than a single pure alcohol as required for the production of TOPO; tedious purification steps are eliminated. TRPO is a brown liquid which is very slightly soluble in water. Toxicological measurements of LD50, AMES test, hereditary and accumulative toxicity show that TRPO is safe for use in the extraction of some pharmaceutical and biochemical compounds. Examinations of IR and NMR show that the complex interaction of P=O bond of TRPO with extracted substances is the same as that of TOPO. The distribution coefficients of phosphoric acid, citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, and tartaric acid with TRPO are reported. The extraction of these acids is believed to proceed by neutral-complex mechanism.

  19. Production and characterization of a broad-specificity polyclonal antibody for O,O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides and a quantitative structure-activity relationship study of antibody recognition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyclonal antibody (PAb) with broad-specificity for O,O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) against a generic hapten, 4-(diethoxyphosphoro thioyloxy) benzoic acid, was produced. The obtained PAb showed high sensitivity to seven commonly used O,O-diethyl OPs in a competitive indirect enzyme-l...

  20. Broad-specificity immunoassay for O,O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides: Application of molecular modeling to improve assay sensitivity and study antibody recognition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb) against 4-(diethoxyphosphorothioyloxy)benzoic acid (hapten 1) was raised and used to develop a broad-specificity competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) for 14 O,O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). Computer-assisted molecular modeling was...

  1. Multiresponse optimization of an extraction procedure of carnosol and rosmarinic and carnosic acids from rosemary.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gerlon de A R; de Oliveira, Anselmo E; da Conceição, Edemílson C; Leles, Maria I G

    2016-11-15

    A green solvent-based optimization for rosmarinic acid (RA), carnosol (COH), and carnosic acid (CA) extraction, the three main antioxidants from rosemary, was performed. The conventional solid-liquid extraction was optimized using a central composite design (CCD) followed by the desirability approach. In the CCD analysis the quantitative effects of extraction time (4.8-55.2min), liquid-to-solid ratio (4.6-21.4mLg(-1)), and ethanol content (44.8-95.2% v/v) were determined for the extracted amount of antioxidants, their concentrations in the extract, and the extraction yield. Samples were analyzed by HPLC and the antioxidants were identified by comparison with pure standard retention times and UV spectra. The desirability function that simultaneously maximizes the antioxidants extraction and their concentrations in the final product was validated. The extraction using a hydroalcoholic solution 70% v/v, at low liquid-to-solid ratio (5mLg(-1)), and after 55-min yielded an antioxidant recovery rate of 89.8%, and a final product 4.75 times richer in the main antioxidants than the raw material. PMID:27283656

  2. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of garden sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. Th...

  3. Comparison of Dithiophosphinic and Phosphinic Acid Derivatives for Minor Actinide Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Mason K Harrup; Dean R. Peterman; Thomas A. Luther; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; John R. Klaehn

    2008-03-01

    A new extractant for the separation of actinide(III) and lanthanide(III), bis(otrifluoromethylphenyl) phosphinic acid (O-PA) was synthesized. The synthetic route employed mirrors one that was employed to produce the sulfur containing analog bis(otrifluoromethylphenyl) dithiophosphinic acid (S-PA). Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy was used for elementary characterization of the new O-PA derivative. This new O-PA extractant was used to perform Am(III)/Eu(III) separations and the results were directly compared to those obtained in identical separation experiments using S-PA, an extractant that is known to exhibit separation factors of ~100,000 at low pH. The separations data are presented and discussed in terms comparing the nature of the oxygen atom as a donor to that of the sulfur atom in extractants that are otherwise identical.

  4. Comparison of Aromatic Dithiophoshinic and Phosphinic Acid Derivatives for Minor Actinide Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Klaehn; Dean R. Peterman; Mason K. Harrup; Richard D. Tillotson; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Thomas A. Luther; Jack D. Law; Lee M. Daniels

    2008-03-01

    A new extractant for the separation of actinide(III) and lanthanide(III), bis(otrifluoromethylphenyl) phosphinic acid (O-PA) was synthesized. The synthetic route employed mirrors one that was employed to produce the sulfur containing analog bis(otrifluoromethylphenyl) dithiophosphinic acid (S-PA). Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy was used for elementary characterization of the new O-PA derivative. This new O-PA extractant was used to perform Am(III)/Eu(III) separations and the results were directly compared to those obtained in identical separation experiments using S-PA, an extractant that is known to exhibit separation factors of ~100,000 at low pH. The separations data are presented and discussed in terms comparing the nature of the oxygen atom as a donor to that of the sulfur atom in extractants that are otherwise identical.

  5. Procedure optimization for extracting short-chain fatty acids from human faeces.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolska Iwanek, Justyna; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Woźniakiewicz, Michał; Woźniakiewicz, Aneta; Zwolińska Wcisło, Małgorzata; Winnicka, Diana; Paśko, Paweł

    2016-05-30

    Short-chain fatty acids play an important role in the physiology and metabolism of the colon. Disturbed balance of such compounds in human gut can significantly contribute to etiological factors of various gastrointestinal disorders and it may also increase the risk of developing cancer or cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was to select the optimal parameters for acetic, propionic and butyric acids extraction from stool samples. The experimental conditions were optimized with respect to the solvent sample shacking time, sample ultrasounds (Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, UAE) exposure time and the number of extractions from the particulate stool samples. The screening of experimental parameters was conducted with fractional factorial design of experiments, namely 3(3-1). The optimal conditions for UAE were found, namely ultrasound digestion time of 40min (at 35°C), shaking time of 4min, and the three subsequent extractions. PMID:26977586

  6. Competitive reactions of organophosphorus radicals on coke surfaces.

    PubMed

    Catak, Saron; Hemelsoet, Karen; Hermosilla, Laura; Waroquier, Michel; Van Speybroeck, Veronique

    2011-10-17

    The efficacy of organophosphorus radicals as anticoking agents was subjected to a computational study in which a representative set of radicals derived from industrially relevant organophosphorus additives was used to explore competitive reaction pathways on the graphene-like coke surface formed during thermal cracking. The aim was to investigate the nature of the competing reactions of different organophosphorus radicals on coke surfaces, and elucidate their mode of attack and inhibiting effect on the forming coke layer by use of contemporary computational methods. Density functional calculations on benzene and a larger polyaromatic hydrocarbon, namely, ovalene, showed that organophosphorus radicals have a high propensity to add to the periphery of the coke surface, inhibiting methyl radical induced hydrogen abstraction, which is known to be a key step in coke growth. Low addition barriers reported for a phosphatidyl radical suggest competitive aptitude against coke formation. Moreover, organophosphorus additives bearing aromatic substituents, which were shown to interact with the coke surface through dispersive π-π stacking interactions, are suggested to play a nontrivial role in hindering further stacking among coke surfaces. This may be the underlying rationale behind experimental observation of softer coke in the presence of organophosphorus radicals. The ultimate goal is to provide information that will be useful in building single-event microkinetic models. This study presents pertinent information on potential reactions that could be taken up in these models. PMID:21956815

  7. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Methanolic Extracts, Infusions and Tinctures from Commercial Samples of Lemon Balm.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Ulewicz-Magulska, Beata

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the levels of flavonoids (rutin, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol) and phenolic acids (gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, syringic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ellagic, ferulic) in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) commonly used as a culinary, aromatic and medicinal herb. A rapid and reliable HPLC procedure was developed to determine the phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts, infusions and tinctures prepared from lemon balm. Except for myricetin and quercetin, as well as ellagic, gallic and rosmarinic acids, higher levels of the analytes under study were determined in the methanolic extracts (up to 22 mg/g of dry weight, DW), than in infusions (up to 5 mg/g DW). Tinctures were the poorest in flavonoids and phenolic acids (below 550 μg/g DW), except for ellagic and rosmarinic acids, which were quantified in tinctures at higher levels (mg/g DW). To sum up, the flavonoids were extracted more effectively in the infusions and tinctures than the phenolic acids. Statistically significant correlations were found between phenolic acids, possibly owing to similar biochemical pathways of the compounds. The hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses have also shown that the samples of lemon balm could be differentiated based on the levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids. PMID:26197530

  8. SIMPLE METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION OF PHOTOPIGMENTS AND MYCOSPORINE-LIKE AMINO ACIDS (MAAS) FROM SYMBIODINIUM SPP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous extraction methods have been developed and used in the quantitation of both photopigments and mycosporine amino acids (MAAs) found in Symbiodinium sp. and zooanthellate metazoans. We have development of a simple, mild extraction procedure using methanol, which when coupl...

  9. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction of acidic drugs from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Pijuán, Mercedes; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2015-04-01

    The new sample preparation concept "Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME)" was evaluated for extraction of the acidic drugs ketoprofen, fenoprofen, diclofenac, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, and gemfibrozil from human plasma samples. Plasma samples (250 μL) were loaded into individual wells in a 96-well donor plate and diluted with HCl to protonate the acidic drugs. The acidic drugs were extracted as protonated species from the individual plasma samples, through corresponding artificial liquid membranes each comprising 2 μL of dihexyl ether, and into corresponding acceptor solutions each comprising 50 μL of 25 mM ammonia solution (pH 10). The liquid membranes and the acceptor solutions were located in a 96-well filter plate, which was sandwiched with the 96-well donor plate during extraction. Parallel extraction of several samples was performed for 15 to 60 min, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection of the individual acceptor solutions. Important PALME parameters including the chemical composition of the liquid membrane, extraction time, and sample pH were optimized, and the extraction performance was evaluated. Except for flurbiprofen, exhaustive extraction was accomplished from plasma. Linearity was obtained for all six drugs in the range 0.025-10 μg/mL, with r (2) values ranging between 0.998 and 1.000. Precision data were in the range 3-22% RSD, and accuracy data were within 72-130% with spiked plasma samples. Based on the current experiences, PALME showed substantial potential for future high-throughput bioanalysis of non-polar acidic drugs. PMID:25682297

  10. Effect of temperature on the extraction of Cu(II) by oleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Fatibello-Filho, O.; Trofino, J.C.; Neves, E.F.A.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of the temperature on the extraction of Cu(II) with oleic acid has been studied in the temperature range 283-323K. The temperature dependence of the conditional constant of extraction is given in the form: lnK/sub ext/ = -2.46 + 4352.21 (- 1/T) with ..delta..H/sup 0//sub ext/ equal to 36.2KJ/mol.K (endothermic process).

  11. Biotransformation and improved enzymatic extraction of chlorogenic acid from coffee pulp by filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Torres-Mancera, María Teresa; Baqueiro-Peña, Itzamná; Figueroa-Montero, Arturo; Rodríguez-Serrano, Gabriela; González-Zamora, Eduardo; Favela-Torres, Ernesto; Saucedo-Castañeda, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The highest enzymatic extraction of covalent linked chlorogenic (36.1%) and caffeic (CA) (33%) acids from coffee pulp (CP) was achieved by solid-state fermentation with a mixture of three enzymatic extracts produced by Aspergillus tamarii, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Trametes sp. Enzyme extracts were produced in a practical inexpensive way. Synergistic effects on the extraction yield were observed when more than one enzyme extract was used. In addition, biotransformation of chlorogenic acid (ChA) by Aspergillus niger C23308 was studied. Equimolar transformation of ChA into CA and quinic acids (QA) was observed during the first 36 h in submerged culture. Subsequently, after 36 h, equimolar transformation of CA into protocatechuic acid was observed; this pathway is being reported for the first time for A. niger. QA was used as a carbon source by A. niger C23308. This study presents the potential of using CP to produce enzymes and compounds such as ChA with biological activities. PMID:23341203

  12. Enhanced absorption of boswellic acids by a lecithin delivery form (Phytosome(®)) of Boswellia extract.

    PubMed

    Hüsch, Jan; Bohnet, Janine; Fricker, Gert; Skarke, Carsten; Artaria, Christian; Appendino, Giovanni; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2013-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory potential of Boswellia serrata gum resin extracts has been demonstrated in vitro and in animal studies as well as in pilot clinical trials. However, pharmacokinetic studies have evidenced low systemic absorption of boswellic acids (BAs), especially of KBA and AKBA, in rodents and humans. This observation has provided a rationale to improve the formulation of Boswellia extract. We present here the results of a murine comparative bioavailability study of Casperome™, a soy lecithin formulation of standardized B. serrata gum resin extract (BE), and its corresponding non-formulated extract. The concentration of the six major BAs [11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA), acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), β-boswellic acid (βBA), acetyl-β-boswellic acid (AβBA), α-boswellic acid (αBA), and acetyl-α-boswellic acid (AαBA)] was evaluated in the plasma and in a series of tissues (brain, muscle, eye, liver and kidney), providing the first data on tissue distribution of BAs. Weight equivalent and equimolar oral administration of Casperome™ provided significantly higher plasma levels (up to 7-fold for KBA, and 3-fold for βBA quantified as area under the plasma concentration time curve, AUC(last)) compared to the non-formulated extract. This was accompanied by remarkably higher tissue levels. Of particular relevance was the marked increase in brain concentration of KBA and AKBA (35-fold) as well as βBA (3-fold) following Casperome™ administration. Notably, up to 17 times higher BA levels were observed in poorly vascularized organs such as the eye. The increased systemic availability of BAs and the improved tissue distribution, qualify Casperome™ for further clinical development to fully exploit the clinical potential of BE. PMID:23092618

  13. Distribution of zirconium in petroleum sulfoxides during extraction and sorption from nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Turanov, A.N.

    1988-11-20

    Petroleum sulfoxides (PSO) are effective extractants for several metals. We discussed the distribution of petroleum sulfoxides and zirconium between aqueous solutions of hydrochloric and nitric acid and organic solvents, and also the macroporous sorbent impregnated with PSO. For the investigation we used a macroposous copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene. Our investigation showed a noticeable decrease in the contamination of the raffinates by petroleum sulfoxides and their more complete utilization as extractant of metals from solutions of acids when PSO is deposited on a macroporous copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene.

  14. Optimization of pectin extraction from banana peels with citric acid by using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Túlio Ítalo S; Rosa, Morsyleide F; Cavalcante, Fabio Lima; Pereira, Paulo Henrique F; Moates, Graham K; Wellner, Nikolaus; Mazzetto, Selma E; Waldron, Keith W; Azeredo, Henriette M C

    2016-05-01

    A central composite design was used to determine effects of pH (2.0-4.5), extraction temperature (70-90 °C) and time (120-240 min) on the yield, degree of methoxylation (DM) and galacturonic acid content (GA) of pectins extracted from banana peels with citric acid. Changes in composition during the main steps of pectin extraction were followed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR was also used to determine DM and GA of pectins. Harsh temperature and pH conditions enhanced the extraction yield, but decreased DM. GA presented a maximum value at 83 °C, 190 min, and pH 2.7. The yield of galacturonic acid (YGA), which took into account both the extraction yield and the pectin purity, was improved by higher temperature and lower pH values. The optimum extraction conditions, defined as those resulting in a maximum YGA while keeping DM at a minimum of 51%, were: 87 °C, 160 min, pH 2.0. PMID:26769512

  15. Recovery of acids from anaerobic acidification broth by liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Alkaya, Emrah; Kaptan, Serkan; Ozkan, Leyla; Uludag-Demirer, Sibel; Demirer, Göksel N

    2009-11-01

    In this study, anaerobic acidification of sugar beet processing wastes and subsequent liquid-liquid extraction of produced fermentation metabolites were investigated. The aim of extraction experiments was to asses the influence of pH and extractant (trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in kerosene) concentrations on the recovery of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from fermentation broth. The effect of TOPO in kerosene concentration was as crucial as the effect of pH on the recovery of VFAs via extraction. Consequently, pH 2.5 was determined as optimum. At this pH, percent recoveries of VFAs were changed from 43% to 98%, depending on the type of the acid extracted (acetic, butyric, propionic and valeric acids) and the concentration of TOPO in kerosene (5-20%). As the concentration of TOPO in kerosene was increased, efficiency of extraction was increased. As a result, highest VFA recoveries (61-98%) were observed at 20% TOPO in kerosene with distribution ratio values ranging between 1.54 and 40.79. At pH 2.5, the increase in TOPO concentration directly increased the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies, as it does for total VFA recovery. Up to 72% COD removals were achieved, at 20% TOPO in kerosene at pH 2.5, while the removal efficiencies remained between 19% and 22% at pH 5.5. PMID:19747710

  16. EXTRACTION AND ELECTROSPINNING OF ZEIN EXTRACTED FROM CORN GLUTEN MEAL USING ACETIC ACID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been demonstrated that zein fibers can be produced using the electrospinning technique. Fibers electrospun from acetic acid solution under suitable conditions provide fibers with a more consistent morphology (round 0.5-2.0 micro fibers) compared to fibers produced from aqueous ethanol soluti...

  17. Mix-mode TiO-C18 monolith spin column extraction and GC-MS for the simultaneous assay of organophosphorus compounds and glufosinate, and glyphosate in human serum and urine.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takeshi; Aoki, Hiromichi; Namera, Akira; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Shota; Nakamoto, Akihiro; Inokuchi, Sadaki

    2011-01-01

    A rapid, specific, and sensitive method for the simultaneous quantitation of organophosphates (fenitrothion (MEP), malathion, and phenthoate (PAP)), glufosinate (GLUF), and glyphosate (GLYP) in human serum and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been validated. All of the targeted compounds together with the internal standard were extracted from the serum and urine using a mix-mode TiO-C(18) monolithic spin column. The recovery of organophosphates from serum and urine ranged from 12.7 to 49.5%. The recovery of GLUF and GLYP from serum and urine ranged from 1.9 to 7.9%. The intra- and inter-accuracy and precision (expressed as relative standard deviation, %RSD) were within 96.7-107.7% and 4.0-13.8%, respectively. The detection and quantitation limits for serum and urine were 0.1 and 0.1 µg/ml, respectively, for organophosphates, 0.1 and 0.5 µg/ml, respectively for GLUF and GLYP. The method had linear calibration curves ranging from 0.1 to 25.0 µg/ml for organophosphates and 0.5-100.0 µg/ml for GLUF, and GLYP. The validated method was successfully applied to a clinical GLYP poisoning case. PMID:21985924

  18. Fluorescent sensors for organophosphorus nerve agent mimics.

    PubMed

    Dale, Trevor J; Rebek, Julius

    2006-04-12

    We present a small molecule sensor that provides an optical response to the presence of an organophosphorus (OP)-containing nerve agent mimic. The design contains three key features: a primary alcohol, a tertiary amine in close proximity to the alcohol, and a fluorescent group used as the optical readout. In the sensor's rest state, the lone pair of electrons of the basic amine quenches the fluorescence of the nearby fluorophore through photoinduced electron transfer (PET). Exposure to an OP nerve agent mimic triggers phosphorylation of the primary alcohol followed rapidly by an intramolecular substitution reaction as the amine displaces the created phosphate. The quaternized ammonium salt produced by this cyclization reaction no longer possesses a lone pair of electrons, and a fluorescence readout is observed as the nonradiative PET quenching pathway of the fluorophore is shut down. PMID:16594648

  19. The removal of uranium from acidic media using ion exchange and/or extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Schake, B.S.; Murphy, J.; Holmes, K; West, M.H.

    1996-06-01

    The separation and purification of uranium from either nitric acid or hydrochloric acid media can be accomplished by using either solvent extraction or ion-exchange. Over the past two years at Los Alamos, emerging programs are focused on recapturing the expertise required to do limited, small-quantity processing of enriched uranium. During this period of time, we have been investigating ion-addition, waste stream polishing is associated with this effort in order to achieve more complete removal of uranium prior to recycle of the acid. Extraction chromatography has been demonstrated to further polish the uranium from both nitric and hydrochloric acid media thus allowing for a more complete recovery of the actinide material and creation of less waste during the processing steps.

  20. Identification and characterization of biomarkers of organophosphorus exposures in humans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jerry H; Stevens, Richard C; MacCoss, Michael J; Goodlett, David R; Scherl, Alex; Richter, Rebecca J; Suzuki, Stephanie M; Furlong, Clement E

    2010-01-01

    Over 1 billion pounds of organophosphorus (OP) chemicals are manufactured worldwide each year, including 70 million pounds of pesticides sprayed in the US. Current methods to monitor environmental and occupational exposures to OPs such as chlorpyrifos (CPS) have limitations, including low specificity and sensitivity, and short time windows for detection. Biomarkers for the OP tricresyl phosphate (TCP), which can contaminate bleed air from jet engines and cause an occupational exposure of commercial airline pilots, crewmembers and passengers, have not been identified. The aim of our work has been to identify, purify, and characterize new biomarkers of OP exposure. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition has been a standard for monitoring OP exposure. By identifying and characterizing molecular biomarkers with longer half-lives, we should be able to clinically detect TCP and OP insecticide exposure after longer durations of time than are currently possible. Acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) is a red blood cell (RBC) cytosolic serine proteinase that removes N-acetylated amino acids from peptides and cleaves oxidized proteins. Due to its properties, it is an excellent candidate for a biomarker of exposure. We have been able to purify APH and detect inhibition by both CPS and metabolites of TCP. The 120-day lifetime of the RBC offers a much longer window for detecting exposure. The OP-modified serine conjugate in the active site tryptic peptide has been characterized by mass spectrometry. This research uses functional proteomics and enzyme activities to identify and characterize useful biomarkers of neurotoxic environmental and occupational OP exposures. PMID:20221871

  1. Identification and Characterization of Biomarkers of Organophosphorus Exposures in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jerry H.; Stevens, Richard C.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Goodlett, David R.; Scherl, Alex; Richter, Rebecca J.; Suzuki, Stephanie M.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2010-01-01

    Over 1 billion pounds of organophosphorus (OP) chemicals are manufactured worldwide each year, including 70 million pounds of pesticides sprayed in the US. Current methods to monitor environmental and occupational exposures to OPs such as chlorpyrifos (CPS) have limitations, including low specificity and sensitivity, and short time windows for detection. Biomarkers for the OP tricresyl phosphate (TCP), which can contaminate bleed air from jet engines and cause an occupational exposure of commercial airline pilots, crewmembers and passengers, have not been identified. The aim of our work has been to identify, purify, and characterize new biomarkers of OP exposure. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition has been a standard for monitoring OP exposure. By identifying and characterizing molecular biomarkers with longer half-lives, we should be able to clinically detect TCP and OP insecticide exposure after longer durations of time than are currently possible. Acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) is a red blood cell (RBC) cytosolic serine proteinase that removes N-acetylated amino acids from peptides and cleaves oxidized proteins. Due to its properties, it is an excellent candidate for a biomarker of exposure. We have been able to purify APH and detect inhibition by both CPS and metabolites of TCP. The 120-day lifetime of the RBC offers a much longer window for detecting exposure. The OP-modified serine conjugate in the active site tryptic peptide has been characterized by mass spectrometry. This research uses functional proteomics and enzyme activities to identify and characterize useful biomarkers of neurotoxic environmental and occupational OP exposures. PMID:20221871

  2. One-solvent extraction of astaxanthin from lactic acid fermented shrimp wastes.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Miquel; Ramírez-Hernández, Jessica Yesemite; Mártinez-Ibarra, César; Pacheco, Neith; García-Arrazola, Roeb; Bárzana, Eduardo; Shirai, Keiko

    2007-12-12

    Free astaxanthin one-solvent extractions with ethanol, acetone, and liquid 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane from raw and lactic acid fermented (ensilaged) shrimp residues were investigated. The total carotenoid recovery from ensilaged shrimp wastes was higher than that from non-ensilaged ones as assessed by HPLC analyses. Acetone gave the highest extraction yields of free astaxanthin with up to 115 microg/g of material. Moreover, liquid tetrafluoroethane is reported for the first time in a successful one-solvent extraction of carotenoids from shrimp. PMID:18020413

  3. One-stop Genomic DNA Extraction by Salicylic Acid Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhongwu; Kadam, Ulhas; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid coated magnetic nanoparticles were prepared via a modified, one-step synthesis and used for a one-stop extraction of genomic DNA from mammalian cells. The synthesized magnetic particles were used for magnetic separation of cells from the media by non-specific binding of the particles, as well as extraction of genomic DNA from the lysate. The quantity and quality were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction. The entire process of extraction and isolation can be completed within 30 min. Compared to traditional methods based on centrifugation and filtration, the established method is fast, simple, reliable, and environmentally-friendly. PMID:23911528

  4. Extraction of lycopene from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid using the selective inclusion complex method.

    PubMed

    Seifi, Mahmoud; Seifi, Parisa; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Lycopene, a precursor of β-carotene with well-known antioxidant activity and powerful health properties, can be found in many natural products such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), watermelon, red pepper, and papaya. Many separation methods have been reported for extracting lycopene from its sources. The inclusion complex is an effective method for extraction and purification of organic chemicals. This procedure has 2 main components: host and guest molecules. In this study, lycopene (guest) was extracted from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid, the inclusive agent (host). The molecular structure of the extracted lycopene was then confirmed by (1) HNMR and its purity was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis spectrophotometry methods, in comparison with a standard product. The results indicated that the proposed separation method was very promising and could be used for the extraction and purification of lycopene from tomato paste. PMID:24111697

  5. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Kalina, Dale G.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  6. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1986-03-04

    A process is described for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula as shown in a diagram where [phi] is phenyl, R[sup 1] is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R[sup 2] is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions. 6 figs.

  7. COMPARISON OF CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY, RESIDUE LEVELS, AND URINARY METABOLITE EXCRETION OF RATS EXPOSED TO ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blood cholinesterase activity, urinary levels of phenolic and organophosphorus metabolites, and residues of intact compounds in blood and fat were determined following exposure of rats to organophosphorus pesticides. The eight pesticides studied included representative halogenate...

  8. Plant uptake of cadmium from acid-extracted anaerobically digested sewage sludge. [Beta vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, T.J.; Feltz, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the Cd in an anaerobically digested sewage sludge was removed by acid extraction and dewatering. The acid extracted sludge was treated by (i) neutralization to pH 5.9 with Ca(OH)/sub 2/, (ii) addition of monocalcium phosphate (MCP) followed by Ca(OH)/sub 2/ neutralization to pH 5.9, and, (iii) addition of rock phosphate (RP) followed by Ca(OH)/sub 2/ neutralization to pH 5.9. The three treated sludges and the non acid-extracted sludge were applied to Spinks loamy sand at rates equivalent to 18.7 and 37.4 ..mu..mol Cd kg/sup -1/. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) was grown in the greenhouse for 56 d. Cadmium, Fe, Ca, and P were measured in saturation extracts of treated soil after sludge addition. These data indicated that hydroxyapatite was stable throughout the study in the soil receiving MCP treated sludge but not in other soil treatments. Cadmium concentration in saturation extracts of the soil with MCP sludge decreased while Cd concentration in saturation extracts of the other sludge treatments were much higher throughout the study. Chard yields were higher in the control than in any of the sludge treatments, and the difference was attributed to greater N availability in the control. Cadmium concentration in Swiss chard tissue at harvest was significantly lower from the MCP sludge than from the other sludges. Cadmium concentration in chard tissue was also higher from the aerated sludge (11.9 mmol Cd kg/sup -1/) than from the three acid-extracted sludges (2.58-3.29 mmol Cd kg/sup -1/). No significant difference in the Cd concentration of chard was obtained for the 18.7 and 37.4 ..mu..mol Cd kg/sup -1/ rates of the MCP sludge, while Cd concentrations in chard increased linearly with Cd applied by the other sludges.

  9. HPLC quantification of all five ginkgolic acid derivatives in Ginkgo biloba extracts using 13 : 0 ginkgolic acid as a single marker compound.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruwei; Kobayashi, Yuta; Lin, Yu; Rauwald, Hans Wilhelm; Yao, Jianbiao; Fang, Ling; Qiao, Hongxiang; Kuchta, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    An HPLC quantification method for ginkgolic acid derivatives in Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts was developed. Using 13 : 0 ginkgolic acid as a marker compound, the relative correlation factors of the four other ginkgolic acid derivatives - namely, 15 : 0 ginkgolic acid, 15 : 1 ginkgolic acid, 17 : 1 ginkgolic acid, and 17 : 2 ginkgolic acid - to 13 : 0 ginkgolic acid were determined by HPLC and subsequently used for calculating their contents in ten hydro-ethanolic refined extract samples. In other words, the content of 13 : 0 ginkgolic acid in the extracts was determined using the isolated compound as an external standard. Subsequently the now known concentration of this compound functioned as an internal standard for the quantification of the other four ginkgolic acid derivatives via the described correlation factors. This HPLC method was validated by two independent control measurements, one with an external standard for every individual compound and one based on the present method with the single marker compound alone. The results did not differ significantly in any of the 10 tested extract samples. The protocol presented here thus not only uses the same reference substance for G. biloba extracts as the current Chinese Pharmacopoeia method but also incorporates the advantages of the current European Pharmacopoeia approach. It is simple, reproducible, and can be used to determine the total contents of ginkgolic acid derivatives in G. biloba leaf extracts. PMID:25519835

  10. Identification of Bioactivity, Volatile and Fatty Acid Profile in Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Mexican arnica.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, J Saúl; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P; Arévalo-Gallegos, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a sustainable technique used for the extraction of lipophilic metabolites such as pigments and fatty acids. Arnica plant is considered a potential candidate material with high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, in this study, a locally available Heterotheca inuloides, also known as Mexican arnica, was analyzed for the extraction of high-value compounds. Based on different pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (CoS), four treatments (T) were prepared. A maximum 7.13% yield was recovered from T2 (T = 60 °C, P = 10 MPa, CoS = 8 g/min), followed by 6.69% from T4 (T = 60 °C, P = 30 MPa, CoS = 4 g/min). Some bioactive sesquiterpenoids such as 7-hydroxycadalene, caryophyllene and δ-cadinene were identified in the extracts by GC/MS. The fatty acid profile revealed that the main components were palmitic acid (C16:0), followed by linoleic acid (C18:2ω6c), α-linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) and stearic acid (C18:0) differing in percent yield per treatment. Antibacterial activities were determined by the agar diffusion method, indicating that all the treatments exerted strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, C. albicans, and E. coli strains. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was also measured by three in vitro assays, DPPH, TEAC and FRAP, using Trolox as a standard. Results showed high antioxidant capacity enabling pharmaceutical applications of Mexican arnica. PMID:27626416

  11. Validated Method for the Characterization and Quantification of Extractable and Nonextractable Ellagitannins after Acid Hydrolysis in Pomegranate Fruits, Juices, and Extracts.

    PubMed

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan Carlos; Aaby, Kjersti; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Heinonen, Marina; Jacobs, Griet; Voorspoels, Stefan; Koivumäki, Tuuli; Kroon, Paul A; Pelvan, Ebru; Saha, Shikha; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2015-07-29

    Pomegranates are one of the main highly valuable sources of ellagitannins. Despite the potential health benefits of these compounds, reliable data on their content in pomegranates and derived extracts and food products is lacking, as it is usually underestimated due to their complexity, diversity, and lack of commercially available standards. This study describes a new method for the analysis of the extractable and nonextractable ellagitannins based on the quantification of the acid hydrolysis products that include ellagic acid, gallic acid, sanguisorbic acid dilactone, valoneic acid dilactone, and gallagic acid dilactone in pomegranate samples. The study also shows the occurrence of ellagitannin C-glycosides in pomegranates. The method was optimized using a pomegranate peel extract. To quantify nonextractable ellagitannins, freeze-dried pomegranate fruit samples were directly hydrolyzed with 4 M HCl in water at 90 °C for 24 h followed by extraction of the pellet with dimethyl sulfoxide/methanol (50:50, v/v). The method was validated and reproducibility was assessed by means of an interlaboratory trial, showing high reproducibility across six laboratories with relative standard deviations below 15%. Their applicability was demonstrated in several pomegranate extracts, different parts of pomegranate fruit (husk, peels, and mesocarp), and commercial juices. A large variability has been found in the ellagitannin content (150-750 mg of hydrolysis products/g) and type (gallagic acid/ellagic acid ratios between 4 and 0.15) of the 11 pomegranate extracts studied. PMID:26158321

  12. Phytochemicals from Tradescantia albiflora Kunth Extracts Reduce Serum Uric Acid Levels in Oxonate-induced Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Dar; Chuang, Ya-Ling; Tseng, Han-Chun; Hwang, Tzann-Shun; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tradescantia albiflora (TA) Kunth (Commelinaceae) has been used for treating gout and hyperuricemia as folklore remedies in Taiwan. Therefore, it is worthwhile to study the effect of TA extracts on lowering uric acid activity. The hypouricemic effects of TA extracts on potassium oxonate (PO)-induced acute hyperuricemia were investigated for the first time. Materials and Methods: All treatments at the same volume (1 ml) were orally administered to the abdominal cavity of PO-induced hyperuricemic rats. One milliliter of TA extract in n-hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (BuOH), and water fractions has 0.28, 0.21, 0.28, and 1.03 mg TA, respectively; and the plasma uric acid (PUA) level was measured for a consecutive 4 h after administration. Results: All four fractions' extracts derived from TA were observed to significantly reduce PUA compared with the PO group. The EA-soluble fraction (TA-EA) exhibited the best xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity. Following column chromatography, 12 phytochemicals were isolated and identified from the EA fraction. The IC50 values of isolated phytochemicals indicated that bracteanolide A (AR11) showed the remarkable XO inhibitory effect (IC50 value of 76.4 μg/ml). These findings showed that the in vivo hypouricemic effect in hyperuricemic rats was consistent with in vitro XO inhibitory activity, indicating that TA extracts and derived phytochemicals could be potential candidates as hypouricemic agents. SUMMARY Tradescantia albiflora extracts possess in vivo hypouricemic action in hyperuricemic ratsT. albiflora extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase (XO)Butenolide may play an important role in XO inhibitionThe extract bracteanolide A was demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. Abbreviations used: TA: Tradescantia albiflora, PO: potassium oxonate, HE: n-hexane, EA: ethyl acetate, BuOH: n-butanol, PUA: plasma uric acid, XO: xanthine oxidase, MeOH: methanol, IP

  13. Elemental and spectroscopic characterization of fractions of an acidic extract of oil sands process water.

    PubMed

    Jones, D; Scarlett, A G; West, C E; Frank, R A; Gieleciak, R; Hager, D; Pureveen, J; Tegelaar, E; Rowland, S J

    2013-11-01

    'Naphthenic acids' (NAs) in petroleum produced water and oil sands process water (OSPW), have been implicated in toxicological effects. However, many are not well characterized. A method for fractionation of NAs of an OSPW was used herein and a multi-method characterization of the fractions conducted. The unfractionated OSPW acidic extract was characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and an esterified extract by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV) absorption spectroscopy and by comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography-MS (GCxGC-MS). Methyl esters were fractionated by argentation solid phase extraction (Ag(+) SPE) and fractions eluting with: hexane; diethyl ether: hexane and diethyl ether, examined. Each was weighed, examined by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV, GC-MS and GCxGC-MS (both nominal and high resolution MS). The ether fraction, containing sulfur, was also examined by GCxGC-sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GCxGC-SCD). The major ions detected by ESI-MS in the OSPW extract were assigned to alicyclic and aromatic 'O2' acids; sulfur was also present. Components recovered by Ag(+) SPE were also methyl esters of alicyclic and aromatic acids; these contained little sulfur or nitrogen. FTIR spectra showed that hydroxy acids and sulfoxides were absent or minor. UV spectra, along with the C/H ratio, further confirmed the aromaticity of the hexane:ether eluate. The more minor ether eluate contained further aromatics and 1.5% sulfur. FTIR spectra indicated free carboxylic acids, in addition to esters. Four major sulfur compounds were detected by GCxGC-SCD. GCxGC-high resolution MS indicated these were methyl esters of C18 S-containing, diaromatics with ≥C3 carboxylic acid side chains. PMID:23856466

  14. Solvent extraction study of the thorium nitrate, nitric acid, and tributyl phosphate-dodecane system: density and acidity relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, A.J.; Marley, J.L.; Costanzo, D.A.

    1980-05-01

    A solvent extraction study to determine equilibrium conditions of thorium nitrate-nitric acid with 30% tributyl phosphate in normal dodecane has been completed. Experimental conditions studied were 30 to 60{sup 0}C, 0.05 to 1.5 M Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, and 0.0 to 3.0 M HNO{sub 3}. The extractant concentration was constant at 30% tributyl phosphate. The equilibrium experiments have produced data which demonstrate that thorium nitrate concentration, free acid, and density are related in equilibrium behavior between the aqueous and organic phases from 30 to 60{sup 0}C in the 30% tributyl phosphate-dodecane solvent extraction system. The concentration interactions apply to both the two- and three-phase regions. A linear correlation was observed for the density (D) of the aqueous or organic phase and the concentration of thorium and free acid. The general form of the equation is D = a(C/sub Th/ + bC/sub H/) + c, where a is the slope, b is the constant, c is the intercept, and C/sub Th/ and C/sub H/ are the molar concentrations of thorium and free acid respectively. The relationship of temperature, thorium nitrate, and free acid makes possible the definitions of the boundaries between the two- and three-phase regions. This dependence, in turn, permits operational control or simulation studies of the system within the two-phase region. The data demonstrate the interactions of the components of the Thorex system and can be used to improve the mathematical description of equilibrium in the SEPHIS-Thorex computer program.

  15. Direct determination of carnosic acid in a new active packaging based on natural extract of rosemary.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, K; Rubio, C; Batlle, R; Nerín, C

    2007-11-01

    A new antioxidant film is being developed that incorporates a natural extract of rosemary and is intended for contact with food. The rosemary extract has been screened and carnosic acid and carnosol have been determined as the major antioxidant components (6.96% and 0.88%, respectively) that are responsible for the antioxidant properties of the whole extract. Thus, a fast method for the direct determination of carnosic acid in the packaging material, in order to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the new active plastic, has been developed and optimized. The method consists of extraction from the plastic with methanol, followed by anion exchange solid-phase extraction and final analysis by UPLC-MS. Using this process, the recovery of carnosic acid is about 99%. The complete analytical performance of the method developed here is also assessed. The analytical features of the method, such as the relative standard deviation, reproducibility, repeatability, linear range, and detection and quantification limits, are shown. This method can be subsequently modified to monitor other active components in different packages, and it constitutes a crucial step forward in research into new and improved commercial antioxidant packages. PMID:17938896

  16. Comparison of fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential of extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds.

    PubMed

    Plastina, Pierluigi; Fazio, Alessia; Gabriele, Bartolo

    2012-01-01

    The extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds have been compared regarding fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential. Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) was found to contain the highest oil amount (34%), while the Poncirus trifoliata cultivars contained the highest percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (84-87%). In addition, the antioxidant properties of the extracts from defatted seeds have been evaluated by measuring their radical scavenging activity against 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The highest antioxidant activities were observed in the case of the acetone extract of sour orange and Citrumelo Swingle (76% and 75%, respectively), at a concentration of 0.17 mg mL(-1). Moreover, the total phenolic content of the extracts, determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, was found to be correlated with the radical scavenging activity results. The acetone extracts of sour orange and Citrumelo Swingle exhibited the highest phenolic content [112.3 and 103.4 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry sample weight, respectively]. PMID:22236049

  17. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  18. Phenolic acids composition of fruit extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo lemai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber) are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound) from Golo lemai ber fruit extracts by applying a...

  19. Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange of Meteoritic Dicarboxylic Acids During Aqueous Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, M.; Huang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the extent of hydrogen-deuterium exchange on dicarboxylic acids during aqueous extraction. Deuterium enrichment was observed to be a function of diacid structure as well as delta-D. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Emerging Technology Summary. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) is intended to reduce the concentrations and/or teachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. The objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and com...

  1. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand

    2016-03-01

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913μg/g) was significantly higher than the whole (664-715μg/g) and refined wheat (109-112μg/g) flour samples by both extraction methods as analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The recovery of phenolic acids from the spiked wheat bran sample was higher than from either the whole or refined wheat flour samples by both extraction procedures. The recovery of TPA (74-89%) from whole and refined wheat flours by MAE was significantly lower than that of UAE (90-98%). This difference was attributed to the gelatinization of starch present in the wheat flours caused by MAE. Gelatinization reduces the extractability of phenolic acids from wheat flour samples. Furthermore, both spectrometric assays (total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacities) showed similar trend as compared to LC-MS analyses. PMID:26471664

  2. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573.500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  3. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

  4. Absorption spectral analysis of proteins and free amino acids in Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting body extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyshyn, S.; Gorshynska, I.; Guminetsky, S. G.

    2002-02-01

    The paper deals with the results of spectrophotometric studies of the extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies, grown in natural conditions in different habitats of Chernivtsy region, in the spectral interval of 215 - 340 nm. It is shown that the samples reveal considerable difference both in free amino acid content and reserved protein content of albumins, globulins, prolamins, glutelins.

  5. Umami taste amino acids produced by hydrolyzing extracted protein from tomato seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed for extracting protein to prepare umami taste amino acids from defatted tomato seed meal (DTSM) which is a by-product of tomato processing. Papain was used as an enzyme for the hydrolysis of DTSM. The particle size distribution of DTSM, protein concentration and fr...

  6. Determination of phenolic acids in plant extracts using CZE with on-line transient isotachophoretic preconcentration.

    PubMed

    Honegr, Jan; Pospíšilová, Marie

    2013-02-01

    A novel transient ITP-CZE for preconcentration and determination of seven phenolic acids (caffeic acid, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, and vanilic acid) was developed and validated. Effects of several factors such as control of EOF, pH and buffer concentration, addition of organic solvents and CDs, and conditions for sample injection were investigated. Sample self-stacking was applied by means of induction of transient ITP, which was realized by adding sodium chloride into the sample. The CZE was realized in 200 mM borate buffer ((w)(s)pH 9.2) containing 37.5% methanol, 0.001% hexadimethrine bromide, and 15 mM 2-hydroxypropyl-β-CD. Under the optimal conditions for analysis, analytes were separated within 20 min. Linearity was tested for each compound in the concentration range of 0.1-10 μg/mL (R = 0.9906-0.9968) and the detection limits (S/N = 3) ranged from 11 ng/mL (protocatechuic acid) to 31 μg/mL (syringic acid). The validated method was applied to the ethanolic extract of Epilobium parviflorum, Onagraceae. The method of SPE was used for the precleaning of the sample. PMID:23401390

  7. Investigation of metal ion extraction and aggregate formation combining acidic and neutral organophosphorous reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Braatz, A.D.; Nilsson, M.; Ellis, R.; Antonio, M.

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, we investigate how varying mixtures of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl phosphate (HDBP) results in enhanced extraction of lanthanum(III), La{sup 3+}, and dysprosium(III), Dy{sup 3+}. Water and metal ion extraction were carefully monitored as a function of TBP:HDBP mole ratio.In addition to these techniques, EXAFS was used to determine the coordination environment of the metal ion in this system. To produce the necessary signal, a concentration of 1.25*10{sup -3} M La{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} was used. Although previous studies of synergistic extraction of metal cations using combinations of neutral and acidic reagents explain the enhanced extraction by increased dehydration of the metal ion and the formation of mixed extractant complexes, our evidence for the increased water extraction coupled with the aggregate formation suggests a reverse micellar aspect to synergism in the system containing TBP and HDBP. It is quite possible that both of these phenomena contribute to our system behavior. The EXAFS data shows that, based on coordination numbers alone, several possible structures may exist. From this study, we cannot provide a definitive answer as to the nature of extraction in this system or the exact complex formed during extraction.

  8. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties. PMID:27258290

  9. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies.

    PubMed

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax's nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties. PMID:27258290

  10. Method for the extraction of the volatile compound salicylic acid from tobacco leaf material.

    PubMed

    Verberne, Marianne C; Brouwer, Nynke; Delbianco, Federica; Linthorst, Huub J M; Bol, John F; Verpoorte, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a signalling compound in plants which is able to induce systemic acquired resistance. In the analysis of SA in plant tissues, the extraction recovery is often very low and variable. This is mainly caused by sublimation of SA, especially during evaporation of organic solvents. Techniques have been designed in order to overcome this problem. In the first part of the extraction procedure, sublimation of SA was prevented by addition of 0.2 M sodium hydroxide. At a later stage of the extraction procedure, sublimation of SA during solvent evaporation was controlled by the addition of a small amount of HPLC eluent. In this way, recoveries in the range of 71-91% for free SA and 65-79% for acid-hydrolysed SA were obtained. Recoveries could be further optimised by the use of an internal standard to correct for volume changes after the addition of the HPLC eluent. PMID:11899606

  11. An Advanced TALSPEAK Concept Using 2-Ethylhexylphosphonic Acid Mono-2-Ethylhexyl Ester as the Extractant

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Casella, Amanda J.; Rapko, Brian M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Pence, Natasha K.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Smoot, Margaret R.

    2014-12-21

    A method for separating the trivalent actinides and lanthanides is being developed using 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) as the extractant. The method is based on the preferential binding of the actinides in the aqueous phase by N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (HEDTA), which serves to keep the actinides in the aqueous phase while the lanthanides are extracted into an organic phase containing HEH[EHP]. The process is very robust, showing little dependence upon the pH or the HEH[EHP], HEDTA, and citrate concentrations over the ranges that might be expected in a nuclear fuel recycling plant. Single-stage runs with a 2-cm centrifugal contactor indicate that modifications to the process chemistry may be needed to increase the extraction rate for Sm, Eu, and Gd. The hydraulic properties of the system are favorable to application in centrifugal contactors.

  12. Modeling of fermentation with continuous lactic acid removal by extraction utilizing reversible chemical complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y.; King, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce end-product inhibition by removing fermentation products in situ or in an external recycle loop. A model is presented for fermentation with continuous lactic acid removal by extraction utilizing chemical complexation. The model is formulated considering the kinetics of cell growth and the equilibrium distribution of lactic acid between aqueous and organic phases. Simulations have been carried out for different sets of operating conditions. The choice of pH balances faster kinetics at higher pH against lower product concentrations in the solvent and more difficult regeneration. A key need is for liquid extractants or solid sorbents combining stronger uptake ability with economical regeneration and satisfactory biocompatibility.

  13. Selective extraction of cesium from acidic nitrate solutions with didodecylnaphthalenesulfonic acid synergized with bis(tert-butylbenzo)-21-crown-7

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N. ); McDonough, J.A.; Bartsch, R.A. )

    1992-12-01

    The behavior of other crown ether-synergized sulfonic acid extraction systems suggested that the title system would be selective for cesium. Synthesis of the new lipophilic crown ether, bis[4(5)-tert-butylbenzo]-21-crown-7 (D(tBB)21C7), allowed testing of this hypothesis. Under nonloading conditions, the distribution coefficient for cesium between a toluene solution 0.025 M in didodecylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDDNS) and D(tBB)21C7 and an aqueous phase 0.1 M in nitric acid is 100 with separation factors of 1.2 from rubidium, 5.6 from potassium, and 294 from sodium. Under loading and competitive extraction conditions, the distribution coefficients were lower (5 for cesium), but the separation factors remained in the same order and of useful magnitude, 1.5 from rubidium, 6.4 from potassium, and 192 from sodium. Increasing the concentrations of D(tBB)21C7 and HDDNS in the organic phase gives higher distribution coefficients for cesium as did lower aqueous acid concentrations. 23 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Sorption of Cu(2+) on humic acids sequentially extracted from a sediment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Miao, Gangfen; Wu, Wenhao; Lin, Daohui; Pan, Bo; Wu, Fengchang; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the diverse properties of humic acids (HAs) extracted from different soils or sediments, chemical compositions, functional groups and structures of HAs extracted from a single soil or sediment could also be diverse and thus significantly affect sorption of heavy metals, which is a key process controlling the transfer, transformation and fate of heavy metals in the environment. In this study, we sequentially extracted four HA fractions from a single sediment and conducted the sorption experiments of Cu(2+) on these HA fractions. Our results showed that aromaticity and acidic group content of HA fraction decreased with increasing extraction. Earlier extracted HA fraction had higher sorption capacity and affinity for Cu(2+). There were two fractions of adsorbed Cu(2+) on HAs, i.e., ion exchanged fraction and surface bonded fraction, which can be captured mechanically by the bi-Langmuir model with good isotherm fitting. The ion exchanged fraction had larger sorption capacity but lower sorption affinity, compared with the surface bonded fraction. The dissociated carboxyl groups of HAs were responsible for both fractions of Cu(2+) sorption, due to the more Cu(2+) sorption on the earlier extracted HA fraction with more carboxyl groups and at higher pH. The intensive competition between H(+) and the exchangeable Cu(2+) could result in the decrease of ion exchanged capacity and affinity for Cu(2+) on HAs. PMID:26246274

  15. Extraction of manganese by alkyl monocarboxylic acid in a mixed extractant from a leaching solution of spent lithium-ion battery ternary cathodic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Sung-Ho; Shin, Dongju; Oh, ChangHyun; Wang, Jei-Pil; Shin, Shun Myung

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the separation of manganese by an antagonistic effect from a leaching solution of ternary cathodic material of spent lithium-ion batteries that contain 11,400 mg L-1 Co, 11,700 mg L-1 Mn, 12,200 mg L-1 Ni, and 5300 mg L-1 Li using a mixture of alkyl monocarboxylic acid and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid extractants. pH isotherm, distribution coefficient, separation factor, McCabe-Thiele diagram, selective scrubbing, and countercurrent extraction tests are carried out to prove an antagonistic effect and to recover manganese using alkyl monocarboxylic in the mixed extractant. Slope analysis is used to determine the extraction mechanism between a mixture of extractants and valuable metals. An increasing concentration of alkyl monocarboxylic acid in the mixture of extractants results in a decrease in distribution coefficient of cobalt and manganese, however, the separation factor value (β(Mn/Co)) increases at pH 4.5. This is caused by slope analysis where alkyl monocarboxylic acid disrupts the extraction mechanism between di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid and cobalt. Finally, continuous countercurrent extraction in a mini-plant test demonstrate the feasibility of manganese recovery from cobalt, nickel, and lithium.

  16. Identification of ellagic acid derivatives in methanolic extracts from Qualea species.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Ana L M; Carli, Camila B A; Rodrigues, Clenilson M; Maia, Danielle C G; Carlos, Iracilda Z; Eberlin, Marcos N; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia A; Vilegas, Wagner

    2008-01-01

    The methanolic extract from the barks of the medicinal plant Qualea parviflora (Vochysiaceae) was fractionated by column chromatography over silica gel followed by gel permeation over Sephadex LH-20 to give 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), 3-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2), 3,3',4-tri-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), and 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid (4), together with triterpenes and saponins. We also performed comparative analyses among this species and Q. grandiflora and Q. multiflora using high-pressure liquid chromatography. The biological assays showed that, when compared to the standard ellagic acid, compounds 1-4 are less cytotoxic but have a lower capacity of stimulating murine peritoneal macrophages to release nitric oxide and tumoural-alpha necrose factor. PMID:19227825

  17. Highly efficient extraction of cellular nucleic acid associated proteins in vitro with magnetic oxidized carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Hu, Zhengyan; Qin, Hongqiang; Wei, Xiaoluan; Cheng, Kai; Liu, Fangjie; Wu, Ren'an; Zou, Hanfa

    2012-12-01

    Nucleic acid associated proteins (NAaP) play the essential roles in gene regulation and protein expression. The global analysis of cellular NAaP would give a broad insight to understand the interaction between nucleic acids and the associated proteins, such as the important proteinous regulation factors on nucleic acids. Proteomic analysis presents a novel strategy to investigate a group of proteins. However, the large scale analysis of NAaP is yet impossible due to the lack of approaches to harvest target protein groups with a high efficiency. Herein, a simple and efficient method was developed to collect cellular NAaP using magnetic oxidized carbon nanotubes based on the strong interaction between carbon nanotubes and nucleic acids along with corresponding associated proteins. We found that the magnetic oxidized carbon nanotubes demonstrated a nearly 100% extraction efficiency for intracellular nucleic acids from cells in vitro. Importantly, the proteins associated on nucleic acids could be highly efficiently harvested using magnetic oxidized carbon nanotubes due to the binding of NAaP on nucleic acids. 1594 groups of nuclear NAaP and 2595 groups of cellular NAaP were extracted and identified from about 1,000,000 cells, and 803 groups of NAaP were analyzed with only about 10,000 cells, showing a promising performance for the proteomic analysis of NAaP from minute cellular samples. This highly efficient extraction strategy for NAaP is a simple approach to identify cellular nucleic acid associated proteome, and we believed this strategy could be further applied in systems biology to understand the gene expression and regulation. PMID:23121485

  18. Degradation study of carnosic acid, carnosol, rosmarinic acid, and rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) assessed using HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Smuts, Jonathan P; Dodbiba, Edra; Rangarajan, Rekha; Lang, John C; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2012-09-12

    Rosemary, whose major caffeoyl-derived and diterpenoid ingredients are rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid, is an important source of natural antioxidants and is being recognized increasingly as a useful preservative, protectant, and even as a potential medicinal agent. Understanding the stability of these components and their mode of interaction in mixtures is important if they are to be utilized to greatest effect. A study of the degradation of rosmarinic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, and a mixture of the three was conducted in ethanolic solutions at different temperatures and light exposure. As expected, degradation increased with temperature. Some unique degradation products were formed with exposure to light. Several degradation products were reported for the first time. The degradation products were identified by HPLC/MS/MS, UV, and NMR. The degradation of rosemary extract in fish oil also was investigated, and much slower rates of degradation were observed for carnosic acid. In the mixture of the three antioxidants, carnosic acid serves to maintain levels of carnosol, though it does so at least in part at the cost of its own degradation. PMID:22881034

  19. Selective extraction and determination of chlorogenic acid in fruit juices using hydrophilic magnetic imprinted nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yi; Gao, Ruixia; Liu, Dechun; He, Gaiyan; Tang, Yuhai; Guo, Zengjun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the novel hydrophilic magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles were developed for selective separation and determination of chlorogenic acid in aqueous fruit juices. The polymers were prepared by using amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as carriers, branched polyethyleneimine as functional monomer, and chlorogenic acid as template molecule. Branched polyethyleneimine with abundant active amino groups could react with template sufficiently, and its unique dendritic structure may amplify the number of the imprinted cavities. Meanwhile, it would improve the hydrophilicity of imprinted materials for attaining high extraction efficiency. The resulted polymers exhibit fast kinetics, high adsorption capacity, and favorable selectivity. In addition, the obtained nanoparticles were used as solid-phase extraction sorbents for selective isolation and determination of chlorogenic acid in peach, apple, and grape juices (0.92, 4.21, and 0.75 μg mL(-1), respectively). PMID:26830581

  20. Solid supported in situ derivatization extraction of acidic degradation products of nerve agents from aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak

    2014-09-12

    This study deals with the solid supported in situ derivatization extraction of acidic degradation products of nerve agents present in aqueous samples. Target analytes were alkyl alkylphosphonic acids and alkylphosphonic acids, which are important environmental signatures of nerve agents. The method involved tert-butyldimethylchlorosilane mediated in situ silylation of analytes on commercially available diatomaceous solid phase extraction cartridges. Various parameters such as derivatizing reagent, its concentration, reaction time, temperature and eluting solvent were optimized. Recoveries of the analytes were determined by GC-MS which ranged from 60% to 86%. The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) with selected analytes were achieved down to 78 and 213ngmL(-1) respectively, in selected ion monitoring mode. The successful applicability of method was also demonstrated on samples of biological origin such as plasma and to the samples received in 34th official proficiency test conducted by the Organization for Prohibition the of Chemical Weapons. PMID:25103280

  1. Extractive and oxidative removal of copper bound to humic acid in soil.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bo-Ram; Kim, Eun-Jung; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2015-04-01

    Copper (Cu) is often found strongly bound to natural organic matter (NOM) in soil through the formation of strong Cu-NOM complexes. Therefore, in order to successfully remediate Cu-contaminated soils, effective removal of Cu bound to soil organic matter should be considered. In this study, we investigated soil washing methods for Cu removal from a synthetic Cu-contaminated model silica soil coated with humic acid (HA) and from field contaminated soil. Various reagents were studied to extract Cu bound to NOM, which included oxidant (H2O2), base (NaOH), and chelating agents (citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)). Among the wash reagents, EDTA extracted Cu most effectively since EDTA formed very strong complexes with Cu, and Cu-HA complexes were transformed into Cu-EDTA complexes. NaOH extracted slightly less Cu compared to EDTA. HA was effectively extracted from the model soil under strongly alkaline conditions with NaOH, which seemed to concurrently release Cu bound to HA. However, chemical oxidation with H2O2 was not effective at destroying Cu-HA complexes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis revealed that chelating agents such as citrate and EDTA were adsorbed onto the model soil via possible complexation between HA and extraction agents. The extraction of Cu from a field contaminated soil sample was effective with chelating agents, while oxidative removal with H2O2 and extractive removal with NaOH separated negligible amounts of Cu from the soil. Based on these results, Cu bound to organic matter in soil could be effectively removed by chelating agents, although remnant agents may remain in the soil. PMID:25388560

  2. Interactions between variable-charge soils and acidic solutions containing fluoride: an investigation using repetitive extractions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Jiang, Xin; Ji, Guo-Liang

    2004-08-01

    The reaction between two variable-charge soils and acidic solutions containing F was investigated with a repetitive extraction method. When added F concentration was 10(-4) mol/L, F did not markedly enhance solution pH in the whole prolonged extractions, in comparison with F-free acidic solution extractions. Most of the added F was adsorbed on soil surfaces and Al-F complexes were the dominant F species in solution. With increasing extractions, the fraction of Al-F slightly increased, arising from dissolution and/or desorption of Al. In comparison with F-free acidic solution extractions, F-induced Al dissolution did not significantly increase Al release, probably because of the modest reactivity of metal-F surface complexes at terminal sites at low F loading. The gradual decrease in Al release in the following extractions was due to the gradual depletion of readily reactive Al-containing mineral phases. In contrast to the low F loading, at an F concentration of 10(-3) mol/L, the pH was enhanced dramatically in the initial extraction and a high pH was maintained in the following extractions. In the initial extraction, the increase in negative surface charges and solution pH seemingly depressed proton-induced Al dissolution and enhanced readsorption of some positively charged Al-F complexes, resulting in low amounts of Al and F in solution. In the following several extractions, F-induced Al dissolution and desorption of Al-F complexes substantially enhanced the amounts of Al and F, and the fraction of Al-F complexes in solution. Several interconnected mechanisms such as ligand exchange, the release of OH(-) ions from soluble hydroxylated Al groups, desorption of Al as Al-F complexes, and F-induced breakdown of soil minerals were responsible for the alteration in pH, Al release, and the fraction of Al-F complexes in the later extractions. A molecular-level interpretation is needed in order to address the different impacts of varying F concentration levels on soil

  3. Chloramination of organophosphorus pesticides found in drinking water sources.

    PubMed

    Duirk, Stephen E; Desetto, Lisa M; Davis, Gary M; Lindell, Cristal; Cornelison, Christopher T

    2010-02-01

    The degradation of commonly detected organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, in drinking water sources, was investigated under simulated chloramination conditions. Due to monochloramine autodecomposition, it is difficult to observe the direct reaction of monochloramine with each OP pesticide. Therefore, a model was developed to examine the reaction of monochloramine (NH(2)Cl) and dichloramine (NHCl(2)) with chlorpyrifos (CP), diazinon (DZ), and malathion (MA). Monochloramine was found not to be very reactive with each OP pesticides, (k)NH(2)Cl,OP = 11-21 M(-1)h(-1). While, dichloramine (NHCl(2)) was found to be 2 orders of magnitude more reactive with each of the OP pesticides than monochloramine, (k)NHCl(2),OP = 2000-2900 M(-1)h(-1), which is still three orders of magnitude less than the hypochlorous acid reaction rate coefficient with each OP pesticide. For each pesticide, the reactivity of the three chlorinated oxidants was then found to correlate with half-wave potentials (E(1/2)) of each oxidant. With reaction rate coefficients for the three chlorinated oxidations as well as neutral and alkaline hydrolysis rate coefficients for the pesticides, the model was used to determine the dominant reaction pathways as a function of pH. At pH 6.5, OP pesticide transformation was mostly due to the reaction of hypochlorous acid and dichloramine. Above pH 8, alkaline hydrolysis or the direct reaction with monochloramine was the primary degradation pathway responsible for the transformation of OP pesticides. This demonstrates the ability of models to be used as tools to elucidate degradation pathways and parameterize critical reaction parameters when used with select yet comprehensive data sets. PMID:19900689

  4. Efficiency and selectivity of triterpene acid extraction from decoctions and tinctures prepared from apple peels

    PubMed Central

    Siani, Antonio C.; Nakamura, Marcos J.; dos Santos, Daniel S.; Mazzei, José L.; do Nascimento, Adriana C.; Valente, Ligia M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the extraction efficiency of ursolic (UA) and oleanolic acids (OA), as well as the total phenols in aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of dry apple peels at room temperature. Materials and Methods: After running preliminary assays on decoctions and tinctures (ethanol: water 7:3 v/v), the extracts from dried apple (cv. Fuji) peels were obtained by static maceration over varied intervals (2 to 180 days). The UA and OA content in the extracts was quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) with a reversed phase column and isocratic elution (CH3CN/H2O/H3PO4) against calibration curves (R2 > 0.9995). The total phenol content in the extracts was evaluated spectrophotometrically at 760 nm using the Folin-Ciocalteau method referencing gallic acid. Results: UA and OA in the hydroethanolic extracts ranged from 3.63-6.12 mg/g and 2.12-3.30 mg/g, corresponding to 1.72-3.07 and 1.00-1.66 mg/g in the raw material, respectively. Higher values of triterpene acid content corresponded to maceration periods of 10 or 30 days. The residual phenol and polyphenol content ranged from 6.97 to 11.6 mg/g. The UA and OA yields, as well as the total phenol content, versus the maceration time were plotted in Control Charts within confidence intervals (95%) and were unaffected during the assayed period. Conclusion: Apple peel tinctures from 10% solids obtained at room temperature exhibited the highest content of triterpene acids when employing a maceration period of 10 to 30 days. Extracts prepared using this procedure contained an average of 7.33 mg/g of total triterpene acids and 10.6 mg/g phenolic compounds. These results establish supporting data for apple peel tinctures and their derived phytopharmaceuticals that are standardized on the ursolic-oleanolic acid content. PMID:24991096

  5. PROCESS FOR EXTRACTING NEPTUNIUM AND PLUTONIUM FROM NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS OF SAME CONTAINING URANYL NITRATE WITH A TERTIARY AMINE

    DOEpatents

    Sheppard, J.C.

    1962-07-31

    A process of selectively extracting plutonium nitrate and neptunium nitrate with an organic solution of a tertiary amine, away from uranyl nitrate present in an aqueous solution in a maximum concentration of 1M is described. The nitric acid concentration is adjusted to about 4M and nitrous acid is added prior to extraction. (AEC)

  6. Inhibition of lysophospholipase D activity by unsaturated lysophosphatidic acids or seed extracts containing 1-linoleoyl and 1-oleoyl lysophosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi-Wen; Sok, Dai-Eun; Yook, Hong-Sun; Sohn, Cheon-Bae; Chung, Young-Jin; Kim, Mee Ree

    2007-10-17

    Lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD), generating lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) from lysophosphatidyclcholine (LPC), is known to be inhibited by lysophosphatidic acids. Meanwhile, some plant lipids are known to contain lysophospholipids as minor components. Therefore, it is interesting to test whether edible seed samples, rich in phospholipids, may contain lysophospholipids, which express a strong inhibition of lysoPLD activity. First, the structural importance of fatty acyl group in LPAs was examined by determining the inhibitory effect of various LPAs on bovine lysoPLD activity. The most potent in the inhibition of lysoPLD activity was linoleoyl-LPA ( K i, 0.21 microM), followed by arachidonoyl-LPA ( K i, 0.55 microM), oleoyl-LPA ( K i, 1.2 microM), and palmitoyl-LPA ( K i, 1.4 microM), based on the fluoresecent assay. The same order of inhibitory potency among LPA analogs with different acyl chains was also found in the spectrophotometric assay. Subsequently, the extracts of 12 edible seeds were screened for the inhibition of lysoPLD activity using both spectrophotometric and fluorescent assays. Among seed extracts tested, the extract from soybean seed, sesame seed, or sunflower seed (30 mg seed weight/mL) was found to exhibit a potent inhibition (>80%) of lysoPLD activity. In further study employing ESI-MS/MS analysis, major LPA components in seed extracts were identified to be 1-linoleoyl LPA, 1-oleoyl LPA, and 1-palmitoyl LPA with 1-linoleoyl LPA being more predominant. Thus, the potent inhibition of lysoPLD activity by seed extracts might be ascribed to the presence of LPA with linoleoyl group rather than other acyl chains. PMID:17887800

  7. RAPESEED PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE HYDROLYSIS TO PHOSPHATIDIC ACID USING PLANT EXTRACTS WITH PHOPSPHOLIPASE D.

    PubMed

    Pasker, Beata; Sosada, Marian; Fraś, Paweł; Boryczka, Monika; Górecki, Michał; Zych, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) has a crucial role in cell membrane structure and function. For that reason it has a possible application in the treatment of some health disorders in humans, can be used as a natural and non toxic emulsifier and the component of drug carriers in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics as well as a component for synthesis of some new phospholipids. PA is short-lived in the cell and is difficult to extract directly from the biological material. PA may be easily prepared by hydrolysis of phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine (PC), using cabbage phospholipase D (PLD). Hydrolytic activity of purified by us PLD extracts from cabbage towards rapeseed phosphatidylcholine (RPC) was investigated. Hydrolysis was carried out in the biphasic system (water/diethyl ether) at pH 6,5 and temp 30°C. Influence of enzymatic extracts from three cabbage varieties, reaction time, Ca2+ concentration and enzyme extracts/PC ratio, on activity towards RPC resulting in rapeseed phosphatidic acid (RPA) formation were examined. Our study shows that the PLD extracts from savoy cabbage (PLDsc), white cabbage (PLDwc) and brussels sprouts (PLDbs) used in experiments exhibit hydrolytic activity towards RPC resulting in rapeseed RPA with different yield. The highest activity towards RPC shows PLD extract from PLDsc with the RPC conversion degree to RPA (90%) was observed at 120 mM Ca2+ concentration, reaction time 60 min and ratio of PLD extract to RPC 6 : 1 (w/w). Our study shows that purified by us PLDsc extracts exhibit hydrolytic activity towards RPC giving new RPA with satisfying conversion degree for use in pharmacy, cosmetics and as a standard in analytical chemistry. PMID:26642684

  8. Optimizing ultrasonic ellagic acid extraction conditions from infructescence of Platycarya strobilacea using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang-Liang; Xu, Man; Wang, Yong-Mei; Wu, Dong-Mei; Chen, Jia-Hong

    2010-11-01

    The infructescence of Platycarya strobilacea is a rich source of ellagic acid (EA) which has shown antioxidant, anticancer and antimutagen properties. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the conditions for ultrasonic extraction of EA from infructescence of P. strobilacea. A central composite design (CCD) was used for experimental design and analysis of the results to obtain the optimal processing parameters. The content of EA in the extracts was determined by HPLC with UV detection. Three independent variables such as ultrasonic extraction temperature (°C), liquid:solid ratio (mL/g), and ultrasonic extraction time (min) were investigated. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a quadratic equation using multiple regression analysis and also analyzed by appropriate statistical methods. The 3-D response surface and the contour plots derived from the mathematical models were applied to determine the optimal conditions. The optimum ultrasonic extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic extraction temperature 70 °C, liquid:solid ratio 22.5, and ultrasonic extraction time 40 min. Under these conditions, the experimental percentage value was 1.961%, which is in close agreement with the value predicted by the model. PMID:21060299

  9. Temperature Shifts for Extraction and Purification of Zygomycetes Chitosan with Dilute Sulfuric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Akram; Edebo, Lars; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature-dependent hydrolysis and solubility of chitosan in sulfuric acid solutions offer the possibility for chitosan extraction from zygomycetes mycelia and separation from other cellular ingredients with high purity and high recovery. In this study, Rhizomucor pusillus biomass was initially extracted with 0.5 M NaOH at 120 °C for 20 min, leaving an alkali insoluble material (AIM) rich in chitosan. Then, the AIM was subjected to two steps treatment with 72 mM sulfuric acid at (i) room temperature for 10 min followed by (ii) 120 °C for 45 min. During the first step, phosphate of the AIM was released into the acid solution and separated from the chitosan-rich residue by centrifugation. In the second step, the residual AIM was re-suspended in fresh 72 mM sulfuric acid, heated at 120 °C and hot filtered, whereby chitosan was extracted and separated from the hot alkali and acid insoluble material (HAAIM). The chitosan was recovered from the acid solution by precipitation at lowered temperature and raised pH to 8–10. The treatment resulted in 0.34 g chitosan and 0.16 g HAAIM from each gram AIM. At the start, the AIM contained at least 17% phosphate, whereas after the purification, the corresponding phosphate content of the obtained chitosan was just 1%. The purity of this chitosan was higher than 83%. The AIM subjected directly to the treatment with hot sulfuric acid (at 120 °C for 45 min) resulted in a chitosan with a phosphate impurity of 18.5%. PMID:21152285

  10. Extraction of pyridines into fluorous solvents based on hydrogen bond complex formation with carboxylic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Kristi L; Geib, Steven; Weber, Stephen G

    2007-04-15

    A molecular receptor embedded in a 'poor-solvent' receiving phase, such as a fluorous phase, should offer the ideal medium for selective extraction and sensing. The limited solubility of most solutes in fluorous phases enhances selectivity by reducing the extraction of unwanted matrix components. Thus, receptor-doped fluorous phases may be ideal extraction media. Unfortunately, sufficient data do not exist to judge the capability of this approach. The solubilities of very few nonfluorous solutes are known. As far as we are aware, such important quantities as the strength of a hydrogen bond in a fluorous environment are not known. Thus, it is currently impossible to predict whether a particular receptor/solute complex based on a particular set of noncovalent interactions will provide enough thermodynamic stabilization to extract the solute into the fluorous phase. In this work, fluorous carboxylic acids (a carboxylic acid-terminated perfluoropolypropylene oxide called Krytox and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA)) were used as receptors and substituted pyridines as solutes to show that the fluorous receptor dramatically enhances the liquid-liquid extraction of the polar substrates from chloroform into perfluorohexanes. The method of continuous variations was used to determine the receptor-pyridine complex stoichiometry of 3:1. The free energies of formation of the 3:1 complexes from one pyridine and 3/2 H-bonded cyclic dimers of the fluorous carboxylic acid are -30.4 (Krytox) and -37.3 kJ mol-1 (PFDA). The free energy required to dissociate the dimer in perfluorohexanes is +16.5 kJ mol-1 (Krytox). The crystal structure of the complex showed a 1:1 stoichiometry with a mixed strong-weak hydrogen-bonded motif. Based on the stoichiometry, crystal structure, and UV and IR spectroscopic shifts, we propose that the 3:1 complex has four hydrogen bonds and the carboxylic acid transfers a proton to pyridine. The resulting pyridinium carboxylate N+H-O- hydrogen bond is accompanied

  11. Extraction, purification, methylation and GC-MS analysis of short-chain carboxylic acids for metabolic flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Tivendale, Nathan D; Jewett, Erin M; Hegeman, Adrian D; Cohen, Jerry D

    2016-08-15

    Dynamic metabolic flux analysis requires efficient and effective methods for extraction, purification and analysis of a plethora of naturally-occurring compounds. One area of metabolism that would be highly informative to study using metabolic flux analysis is the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which consists of short-chain carboxylic acids. Here, we describe a newly-developed method for extraction, purification, derivatization and analysis of short-chain carboxylic acids involved in the TCA cycle. The method consists of snap-freezing the plant material, followed by maceration and a 12-15h extraction at -80 °C. The extracts are then subject to reduction (to stabilize β-keto acids), purified by strong anion exchange solid phase extraction and methylated with methanolic HCl. This method could also be readily adapted to quantify many other short-chain carboxylic acids. PMID:27348709

  12. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qun; Wang, Jinli; Lin, Qiyang; Liu, Mingxin; Lee, Won Young; Song, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE) resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. PMID:27120053

  13. Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Tiperciuc, Brindusa; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Raita, Oana; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, six indigenous species of Lamiaceae family (Origanum vulgare L., Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.), have been analyzed to assess the rosmarinic acid, phenyl propane derivatives and polyphenolic contents and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. HPLC-MS method has been used for the analysis ofrosmarinicacid. The phenyl propane derivatives and total phenolic contents were determined using spectrophotometric method. The ethanolic extracts were screened for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging, HAPX (hemoglobin ascorbate per oxidase activity inhibition), and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) methods. The ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid in the largest amount in O. vulgare (12.40mg/g) and in the lowest in R. officinalis (1.33 mg/g). O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, in line with the rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. The antimicrobial testing showed a significant activity against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans for all six extracts. PMID:26687747

  14. Aqueous extracts of Mozambican plants as alternative and environmentally safe acid-base indicators.

    PubMed

    Macuvele, Domingos Lusitaneo Pier; Sithole, Gerre Zebedias Samo; Cesca, Karina; Macuvele, Suzana Lília Pinare; Matsinhe, Jonas Valente

    2016-06-01

    Indicators are substances that change color as the pH of the medium. Many of these substances are dyes of synthetic origin. The mulala plant (Euclea natalensis), which roots are commonly used by rural communities for their oral hygiene, and roseira (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), an ornamental plant, are abundant in Mozambique. Currently, synthetic acid-base indicators are most commonly used but have environmental implications and, on the other hand, are expensive products, so the demand for natural indicators started. This study investigated the applicability of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis as acid-base indicators. Ground on this work, the extracts can be used as acid-base indicators. On the basis of the absorption spectroscopy in both the UV-Vis region and previous studies, it was possible to preliminarily pinpoint anthocyanins and naphthoquinones as responsible for the shifting of colors depending on the pH range of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis. These natural indicators are easily accessible, inexpensive, easy to extract, environmentally safe, and locally available. PMID:26936478

  15. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.

    2002-05-23

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65 C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% {+-} 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% {+-} 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95 C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil.

  16. Development and demonstration of solvent extraction processes for the separation of radionuclides from acidic radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.D.; Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Todd, T.A.; Wood, D.J.

    1999-06-01

    The presence of long-lived radionuclides presents a challenge to the management of radioactive wastes. Immobilization of these radionuclides must be accomplished prior to long-term, permanent disposal. Separation of the radionuclides from the waste solutions has the potential of significantly decreasing the costs associated with the immobilization and disposal of the radioactive waste by minimizing waste volumes. Several solvent extraction processes have been developed and demonstrated at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for the separation of transuranic element (TRUs), {sup 90}Sr, and/or {sup 137}Cs from acidic radioactive waste solutions. The Transuranic Extraction (TRUEX) and phosphine oxide (POR) processes for the separation of TRUs, the Strontium Extraction (SREX) process for the separation of {sup 90}Sr, the chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (ChCoDiC) process for the separation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, and a universal solvent extraction process for the simultaneous separation of TRUs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs have all been demonstrated in centrifugal contactors using actual radioactive waste solutions. This article summarizes the most recent results of each of the flowsheet demonstrations and allows for comparison of the technologies. The successful demonstration of these solvent extraction processes indicates that they are all viable for the treatment of acidic radioactive waste solutions.

  17. Lipid nutritional value of legumes: Evaluation of different extraction methods and determination of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Giusti, Federica; Ballini, Roberto; Sagratini, Gianni; Vila-Donat, Pilar; Vittori, Sauro; Fiorini, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to contribute to the assessment of the nutritional properties of legumes by determining the fatty acid (FA) composition of 29 legume samples after the evaluation of nine extraction methods. The Folch method and liquid-solid extraction with hexane/isopropanol or with hexane/acetone were investigated, as was the effect of previous hydration of samples. Soxhlet extractions were also evaluated with different solvent mixtures. Results on FA composition using the hexane/isopropanol extraction method were the same in terms of FA composition of the Folch method, but the extraction yield was only around 20-40% of that of the Folch method preceded by hydration. Some types of legumes showed particularly interesting values for the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) n-6/n-3, such as lentils, with the value of 4.0, and Azuki beans, at 3.2. In lentils, the PUFAs% ranged from 42.0% to 57.4%, while in Azuki beans it was 57.5%. PMID:26304436

  18. Spectroscopic studies of the progress of humification processes in humic acid extracted from sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, J.; Sułkowski, W. W.; Bartoszek, M.; Papież, W.

    2005-06-01

    The humic acids extracted from sludge collected from the digestion chamber and the sludge drying beds were studied. The sludge samples were collected, dried and humic acids were extracted. The progress of the humification processes was studied with EPR, IR and NMR spectroscopic methods. For extracted humic acids, concentration of free radicals and g factor was determined with EPR. The presence of characteristic functional groups was confirmed with IR and NMR spectroscopy. To study the changes in content of the elements, the elemental analysis was performed to determine the percentage of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen. Taking all the obtained results into account it was found that on the sewage drying beds, humification processes take place in the sludge. In the first two weeks when the sludge on the drying beds an intensive enrichment of humic acids in free radicals takes place. This is the result of the intensive humification process course after the stage in the fermentation chamber where the mesophilic fermentation takes place. Moreover, the humidity of sludge influences the intensive development of free radical concentration at the beginning of the storing period, whereas the humification processes still continue.

  19. Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction of fatty acids from quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) seed using response surface methodology and central composite design.

    PubMed

    Daneshvand, Behnaz; Ara, Katayoun Mahdavi; Raofie, Farhad

    2012-08-24

    Fatty acids of Cydonia oblonga Miller cultivated in Iran were obtained by supercritical (carbon dioxide) extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods. The oils were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography using mass spectrometric detections. The compounds were identified according to their retention indices and mass spectra (EI, 70eV). The experimental parameters of SFE such as pressure, temperature, modifier volume, static and dynamic extraction time were optimized using a Central Composite Design (CCD) after a 2(5) factorial design. Pressure and dynamic extraction time had significant effect on the extraction yield, while the other factors (temperature, static extraction time and modifier volume) were not identified as significant factors under the selected conditions. The results of chemometrics analysis showed the highest yield for SFE (24.32%), which was obtained at a pressure of 353bar, temperature of 35°C, modifier (methanol) volume of 150μL, and static and dynamic extraction times of 10 and 60min, respectively. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of Fatty acids from C. oblonga Miller was optimized, using a rotatable central composite design. The optimum conditions were as follows: solvent (n-hexane) volume, 22mL; extraction time, 30min; and extraction temperature, 55°C. This resulted in a maximum oil recovery of 19.5%. The extracts with higher yield from both methods were subjected to transesterification and GC-MS analysis. The results show that the oil obtained by SFE with the optimal operating conditions allowed a fatty acid composition similar to the oil obtained by UAE in optimum condition and no significant differences were found. The major components of oil extract were Linoleic, Palmitic, Oleic, Stearic and Eicosanoic acids. PMID:22824221

  20. Comparison of Neuroprotective Effects of Melissa officinalis Total Extract and Its Acidic and Non-Acidic Fractions against A β-Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Soodi, Maliheh; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Soleimani, Masoud; Sahraei, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that was characterized with deposit of beta amyloid (Aβ) aggregate in senile plaque. Oxidative damage to neurons and loss of cholinergic neurons in forebrain region are observed in this disease. Melissa officinalis is a medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive disorders. It has cholinomimetic and potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of total ethanolic extract, acidic and nonacidic fraction of Melissa officinalis on Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in PC12 cells and also measured their in-vitro anticholinesterase activity. PC12 cells were incubated with the extract and fractions prior to the incubation with Aβ and cell toxicity was assessed by MTT assay. In addition, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured. Pretreatment of cells with total extract and acidic fraction (not non-acidic fraction) had protective effect against Aβ-induced oxidative changes and cell death. In concentrations in which both total extracts of an acidic fraction showed neuroprotective effects, inhibition of cholinesterase activity was not significant. Then, the protective effects of Melissa officinalis total extract and acidic fraction were not attributed to their anticholinesterase activity. Acidic fraction showed more potent protective effect compared to the total extract, leading to the fact that polyphenolic compounds and terpenoic acids are the most effective components in the total extract concentrated in this fraction. PMID:24250617

  1. Chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract are highly bioavailable in humans.

    PubMed

    Farah, Adriana; Monteiro, Mariana; Donangelo, Carmen M; Lafay, Sophie

    2008-12-01

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are cinnamic acid derivatives with biological effects mostly related to their antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. Caffeoylquinic acids (CQA) and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQA) are the main CGA found in nature. Because green coffee is a major source of CGA, it has been used for production of nutraceuticals. However, data on the bioavailability of CGA from green coffee in humans are inexistent. The present study evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile and apparent bioavailability of CGA in plasma and urine of 10 healthy adults for 8 h after the consumption of a decaffeinated green coffee extract containing 170 mg of CGA. Three CQA, 3 diCQA, and caffeic, ferulic, isoferulic, and p-coumaric acids were identified in plasma by HPLC-Diode Array Detector-MS after treatment. Over 30% (33.1 +/- 23.1%) of the ingested cinnamic acid moieties were recovered in plasma, including metabolites, with peak levels from 0.5 to 8 h after treatment. CGA and metabolites identified in urine after treatment were 4-CQA, 5-CQA, and sinapic, p-hydroxybenzoic, gallic, vanillic, dihydrocaffeic, caffeic, ferulic, isoferulic, and p-coumaric acids, totaling 5.5 +/- 10.6% urinary recovery of the ingested cinnamic and quinic acid moiteties. This study shows that the major CGA compounds present in green coffee are highly absorbed and metabolized in humans. PMID:19022950

  2. Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids extracted from crushed magnesium oxide single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, F.; Gupta, A. D.; Kumar, D.

    1999-01-01

    Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids (glycolic, oxalic, malonic and succinic) have been extracted with tetrahydrofuran (THF) and H2O from large synthetic MgO crystals, crushed to a medium fine powder. The extracts were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and 1H-NMR. The THF extracts were derivatized with tert-butyldimethylsilyl (t-BDMS) for GC-MS analysis. A single crystal separated from the extract was used for an x-ray structure analysis, giving the monoclinic unit cell, space group P21/c with ao = 5.543 A, bo = 8.845 A, co = 5.086 A, and beta = 91.9 degrees, consistent with beta-succinic acid, HOOC(CH2)COOH. The amount of extracted acids is estimated to be of the order of 0.1 to 0.5 mg g-1 MgO. The MgO crystals from which these organic acids were extracted grew from the 2860 degrees C hot melt, saturated with CO/CO2 and H2O, thereby incorporating small amounts of the gaseous components to form a solid solution (ss) with MgO. Upon cooling, the ss becomes supersaturated, causing solute carbon and other solute species to segregate not only to the surface but also internally, to dislocations and subgrain boundaries. The organic acids extracted from the MgO crystals after crushing appear to derive from these segregated solutes that formed C-C, C-H and C-O bonds along dislocations and other defects in the MgO structure, leading to entities that can generically be described as (HxCyOz)n-. The processes underlying the formation of these precursors are fundamental in nature and expected to be operational in any minerals, preferentially those with dense structures, that crystallized in H2O-CO2-laden environments. This opens the possibility that common magmatic and metamorphic rocks when weathering at the surface of a tectonically active planet like Earth may be an important source of abiogenically formed complex organic compounds.

  3. Carboxylic and Dicarboxylic Acids Extracted from Crushed Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; Gupta, Alka D.; Kumar, Devendra; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids (glycolic, oxalic, malonic and succinic) have been extracted with tetrahydrofuran (THE) and H2O from large synthetic MgO crystals, crushed to a medium fine powder. The extracts were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and (sup 1)H-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). The THF extracts were derivatized with tert-butyldimethylsilyl (t-BDMS) for GC-MS (Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectroscopy) analysis. A single crystal separated from the extract was used for an x-ray structure analysis, giving the monoclinic unit cell, space group P2(sub 1)/c with a(sub o) = 5.543 A, b(sub o) = 8.845 A, c(sub o) = 5.086 A, and beta = 91.9 degrees, consistent with beta-succinic acid, HOOC(CH2)COOH. The amount of extracted acids is estimated to be of the order of 0.1 to 0.5 mg/g MgO. The MgO crystals from which these organic acids were extracted grew from the 2360 C hot melt, saturated with CO/CO2 and H2O, thereby incorporating small amounts of the gaseous components to form a solid solution (ss) with MgO. Upon cooling, the ss becomes supersaturated, causing solute carbon and other solute species to segregate not only to the surface but also internally, to dislocations and subgrain boundaries. The organic acids extracted from the MgO crystals after crushing appear to derive from these segregated solutes that formed C-C, C-H, and C-O bonds along dislocations and other defects in the MgO structure, leading to entities that can generically be described as (HxCyOz)(sup n-). The processes underlying the formation of these precursors are fundamental in nature and expected to be operational in any minerals, preferentially those with dense structures, that crystallized in H2O-CO2-laden environments. This opens the possibility that common magmatic and metamorphic rocks when weathering at the surface of a tectonically active planet like Earth may be an important source of abiogenically formed complex organic compounds.

  4. Extraction and quantification of gymnemic acids through gymnemagenin from callus cultures of Gymnema sylvestre.

    PubMed

    Kanetkar, P V; Singhal, R S; Laddha, K S; Kamat, M Y

    2006-01-01

    The phyto-constituents of Gymnema sylvestre are used in the treatment of diabetes and obesity. The present work reports on the extraction of gymnemic acid through gymnemagenin from callus cultures of G. sylvestre. Components were separated on pre-coated silica gel 60 GF254 plates with chloroform:methanol (8:2) and scanned using a densitometric scanner at 205 nm in the near-UV region. Linearity of determination of gymnemagenin was observed in the range 2-10 microg. The average percentage recovery of gymnemagenin from leaf callus extracts was 98.9+/-0.3. PMID:17144249

  5. Selective separation of hydroxide from alkaline nuclear tank waste by liquid-liquid extraction with weak hydroxy acids.

    PubMed

    Chambliss, C Kevin; Haverlock, Tamara I; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Moyer, Bruce A

    2002-04-15

    Recovery and recycle of caustic reagents in industrial processes offer potential means of pollution prevention, as investigated herein for particular needs related to the cleanup of alkaline nuclear waste. Specifically, the recovery of hydroxide from alkaline media by liquid-liquid extraction can be effected utilizing weak hydroxy acids, as demonstrated for NaOH utilizing a series of lipophilic fluorinated alcohols and alkylated phenols dissolved in 1-octanol. Extraction efficiency follows the expected order of acidity of the hydroxy acids, the phenols being the most efficient extractants among the compounds tested. After extraction, NaOH is effectively recoverable from the organic phase upon contact with water. The weakest hydroxy acids are the most efficiently stripped, NaOH recovery being nearly quantitative in a single contact. In competitive extraction experiments, good selectivity for hydroxide recovery over other anions such as nitrate and chloride was demonstrated. Since the order of extraction favors larger anions, the exceptional preference for hydroxide implies that the extraction occurs by deprotonation of the hydroxy acids in a cation-exchange process. Stripping therefore occurs by hydrolysis to regenerate the neutral hydroxy acid, liberating NaOH to the aqueous phase. Since hydroxide equivalents rather than actual hydroxide ions are transferred to the solvent, the process is termed "pseudohydroxide extraction." Hydroxide recovery from a simulant of alkaline nuclear tank waste (Hanford DSSF simulant) was also demonstrated in repeated extraction and stripping cycles. PMID:11993889

  6. Profile of acute mixed organophosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Thunga, Girish; Sam, Kishore Gnana; Khera, Kanav; Xavier, Vidya; Verma, Murlidhar

    2009-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem across much of rural Asia and responsible for two thirds of suicidal deaths. However, clinical reports or evidence for the management of mixed poisoning are lacking. Patients are often treated based on the type of symptoms they exhibit, and there are no specific guidelines available to treat mixed poisoning. In this case series, we report 3 acute OP poisoning cases with mixed poisons such as organochlorine, fungicide, copper sulfate, and kerosene. All 3 patients were treated successfully, with a greater focus on OP poisoning with pralidoxime and atropine infusion along with standard decontamination procedures. Because patients developed complications due to the concomitant poisons ingested, they were later treated symptomatically, and in one case, D-penicillamine was administered as antidote for copper poisoning. Mixed poisoning especially with OP compounds makes the diagnosis difficult because the clinical symptoms of OP predominate, whereas damage produced by other pesticides is late to develop and often neglected. Common treatment procedures are focused mainly on the OP poisoning ignoring the complications of other concomitant pesticides ingested. Treating physicians should be prepared and consider the possibility of mixed poisoning prevalent in that region before initiating therapy. PMID:19497478

  7. Pressurized water extraction of β-glucan enriched fractions with bile acids-binding capacities obtained from edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Marimuthu; Aldars-García, Laila; Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Marín, Francisco R; Reglero, Guillermo; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A pressurized water extraction (PWE) method was developed in order to extract β-glucans with bile acids-binding capacities from cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus) to be used as supplements to design novel foods with hypocholesterolemic properties. Extraction yields were higher in individual than sequential extractions being the optimal extraction parameters: 200°C, 5 cycles of 5 min each at 10.3 MPa. The crude polysaccharide (PSC) fractions, isolated from the PWE extracts contained mainly β-glucans (including chitooligosaccharides deriving from chitin hydrolysis), α-glucans, and other PSCs (hetero-/proteo-glucans) depending on the extraction temperature and mushroom strain considered. The observed bile acids-binding capacities of some extracts were similar to a β-glucan enriched fraction obtained from cereals. PMID:24399760

  8. Determination of multi-residue insecticides of organochlorine, organophosphorus, and pyrethroids in wheat.

    PubMed

    Riazuddin; Khan, Muhammad Farhanullah; Iqbal, Sajid; Abbas, Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    The undesirable effects of green revolution include residues of extensively used pesticides in various food commodities. Several studies showed that pesticides could cause health problems. Keeping in view the problem of pesticide residues in various food commodities, the present study was conducted on domestic stored wheat as well as on imported wheat for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroids. Among the imported wheat, 22.5% samples were found contaminated by organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos 0.073-0.230 μg/g, malathion 0.0419-0.1003 μg/g) and pyrethroids (cypermethrin 0.1404-0.2005 μg/g, permethrin 0.0140-0.0480 μg/g) while in domestic wheat 6.7% samples were found contaminated by pyrethroids (deltamethrin 0.0650-1.2903 μg/g) only. Method used for extraction and analysis of insecticides was validated both by recovery studies and inter laboratory comparison proficiency test. The method recovery results show that the average recovery of the fortified wheat samples was in the range of 73.77%-100.17% with the RSD in the range of 2.21-9.27 whereas, the Z-scores of the inter laboratory comparison proficiency test's result was less than 2. PMID:21656043

  9. Biotransformation of caffeoyl quinic acids from green coffee extracts by Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The potential of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 to metabolize chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract was investigated. Two enzymes, an esterase and a hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase (HCD), were involved in this biotransformation. The complete hydrolysis of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) into caffeic acid (CA) by L. johnsonii esterase occurred during the first 16 h of reaction time. No dihydrocaffeic acid was identified in the reaction mixture. The decarboxylation of CA into 4-vinylcatechol (4-VC) started only when the maximum concentration of CA was reached (10 μmol/ml). CA was completely transformed into 4-VC after 48 h of incubation. No 4-vinylphenol or other derivatives could be identified in the reaction media. In this study we demonstrate the capability of L. johnsonii to transform chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract into 4-VC in two steps one pot reaction. Thus, the enzymatic potential of certain lactobacilli might be explored to generate flavor compounds from plant polyphenols. PMID:23692950

  10. Biotransformation of caffeoyl quinic acids from green coffee extracts by Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533.

    PubMed

    Bel-Rhlid, Rachid; Thapa, Dinesh; Kraehenbuehl, Karin; Hansen, Carl Erik; Fischer, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    The potential of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 to metabolize chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract was investigated. Two enzymes, an esterase and a hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase (HCD), were involved in this biotransformation. The complete hydrolysis of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) into caffeic acid (CA) by L. johnsonii esterase occurred during the first 16 h of reaction time. No dihydrocaffeic acid was identified in the reaction mixture. The decarboxylation of CA into 4-vinylcatechol (4-VC) started only when the maximum concentration of CA was reached (10 μmol/ml). CA was completely transformed into 4-VC after 48 h of incubation. No 4-vinylphenol or other derivatives could be identified in the reaction media. In this study we demonstrate the capability of L. johnsonii to transform chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract into 4-VC in two steps one pot reaction. Thus, the enzymatic potential of certain lactobacilli might be explored to generate flavor compounds from plant polyphenols. PMID:23692950

  11. Extraction of Alumina from high-silica bauxite by hydrochloric acid leaching using preliminary roasting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeev, D. V.; Mansurova, E. R.; Bychinskii, V. A.; Chudnenko, K. V.

    2016-02-01

    A process of dissolution Severoonezhsk deposit boehmite-kaolinite bauxite by hydrochloric acid, as well as the processes that occur during open-air calcination, were investigated. A dehydration process has been studied, and the basic phase transformation temperatures were identified. Temperature and time of calcination influence on bauxite dehydration speed were determined. It is shown that the preliminary calcination increases the extraction ratio of alumina into solution up to 89%. Thermodynamic modelling of physical and chemical processes of bauxite decomposition by hydrochloric acid and the basic forms of aluminium speciation in solution were obtained.

  12. Optimization of extraction procedure and chromatographic separation of glyphosate, glufosinate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in soil.

    PubMed

    Druart, Coline; Delhomme, Olivier; de Vaufleury, Annette; Ntcho, Evodie; Millet, Maurice

    2011-02-01

    Analysing herbicides in soil is a complex issue that needs validation and optimization of existing methods. An extraction and analysis method was developed to assess concentrations of glyphosate, glufosinate and aminomethylphophonic acid (AMPA) in field soil samples. After testing extractions by accelerated solvent extraction and ultrasonic extraction, agitation was selected with the best recoveries. Water was preferred as solvent extraction because it resulted in a cleaner chromatogram with fewer impurities than was the case with alkaline solvents. Analysis was performed by FMOC pre-column derivatization followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a 300 mm C(18) column which permitted enhanced separation and sensitivity than a 250 mm C(18) column and increased resistance than the NH(2) column for soil samples. This extraction and analysis method allowing a minimum of steps before the injection in the HPLC with fluorescence detection is efficient and sensitive for a clay-loamy soil with detection limits of 103 μg kg(-1) for glyphosate, 15 μg kg(-1) for glufosinate and 16 μg kg(-1) for AMPA in soil samples. PMID:21153586

  13. Recovery of Uranium from Wet Phosphoric Acid by Solvent Extraction Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Beltrami, Denis; Cote, Gérard; Mokhtari, Hamid; Courtaud, Bruno; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chagnes, Alexandre

    2014-11-17

    Between 1951 and 1991, we developed about 17 processes to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA), but the viability of these processes was subject to the variation of the uranium price market. Nowadays, uranium from WPA appears to be attractive due to the increase of the global uranium demand resulting from the emergence of developing countries. Moreover, the increasing demand provides impetus for a new look at the applicable technology with a view to improvements as well as altogether new approaches. This paper gives an overview on extraction processes developed in the past to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA) as well as the physicochemistry involved in these processes. Recent advances concerning the development of new extraction systems are also reported and discussed.

  14. Recovery of Uranium from Wet Phosphoric Acid by Solvent Extraction Processes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Beltrami, Denis; Cote, Gérard; Mokhtari, Hamid; Courtaud, Bruno; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chagnes, Alexandre

    2014-11-17

    Between 1951 and 1991, we developed about 17 processes to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA), but the viability of these processes was subject to the variation of the uranium price market. Nowadays, uranium from WPA appears to be attractive due to the increase of the global uranium demand resulting from the emergence of developing countries. Moreover, the increasing demand provides impetus for a new look at the applicable technology with a view to improvements as well as altogether new approaches. This paper gives an overview on extraction processes developed in the past to recover uranium from wet phosphoricmore » acid (WPA) as well as the physicochemistry involved in these processes. Recent advances concerning the development of new extraction systems are also reported and discussed.« less

  15. An active ingredient of Cat's Claw water extracts identification and efficacy of quinic acid.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yezhou; Akesson, Christina; Holmgren, Kristin; Bryngelsson, Carl; Giamapa, Vincent; Pero, Ronald W

    2005-01-15

    Historic medicinal practice has defined Cat's Claw, also known as Una de Gato or Uncaria tomentosa, as an effective treatment for several health disorders including chronic inflammation, gastrointestinal dysfunction such as ulcers, tumors and infections. The efficacy of Cat's Claw was originally believed, as early as the 1960s, to be due to the presence of oxindole alkaloids. However, more recently water-soluble Cat's Claw extracts were shown not to contain significant amounts of alkaloids (<0.05%), and yet still were shown to be very efficacious. Here we characterize the active ingredients of a water-soluble Cat's Claw extract called C-Med-100 as inhibiting cell growth without cell death thus providing enhanced opportunities for DNA repair, and the consequences thereof, such as immune stimulation, anti-inflammation and cancer prevention. The active ingredients were chemically defined as quinic acid esters and could also be shown to be bioactive in vivo as quinic acid. PMID:15619581

  16. Recent approaches to improving selectivity and sensitivity of enzyme-based biosensors for organophosphorus pesticides: A review.

    PubMed

    Songa, Everlyne A; Okonkwo, Jonathan O

    2016-08-01

    Pesticide determination has attracted great attention due to the fact that they exhibit high acute toxicity and can cause long-term damage to the environment and human lives even at trace levels. Although classical analytical methods (including gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) have been effectively used for analysis of pesticides in contaminated samples, they present certain limitations such as time-consuming sample preparation, complexity, and the requirement of expensive instrumentation and highly skilled personnel. For these reasons, there is an expanding need for analytical methods able to provide simple, rapid, sensitive, selective, low cost and reliable detection of pesticides at trace levels. Over the past decades, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensors have emerged as simple, rapid and ultra-sensitive tools for toxicity detection of pesticides in the environment and food. These biosensors have the potential to complement or replace the classical analytical methods by simplifying or eliminating sample preparation and making field-testing easier and faster with significant decrease in cost per analysis. With the recent engineering of more sensitive AChE enzymes, the development of more reliable immobilization matrices and the progress in the area of microelectronics, AChE biosensors could become competitive for multi-analyte screening and soon be used for the development of portable instrumentation for rapid toxicity testing of samples. The enzymes organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) and organophosphorus acid anhydrolase (OPAA) have also shown considerable potential in OP biosensor applications and they have been used for direct detection of OPs. This review presents the recent advances in the fabrication of enzyme biosensors for organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and their possible applications for toxicity monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide residues in real samples. The focus will

  17. Quantitation of volatiles and nonvolatile acids in an extract from coffee beverages: correlation with antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Kazutoshi; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2006-08-01

    The antioxidant activities of a commercial brewed coffee were investigated by measuring malonaldehyde (MA) formation from oxidized cod liver oil using a gas chromatographic method (MA-GC assay) and a thiobarbituric acid method (TBA assay). The highest antioxidant activity obtained by the MA-GC assay was from regular whole brewed coffee (97.8%) at a level of 20%, and the highest antioxidant activity obtained by the TBA assay was from decaffeinated whole brewed coffee (96.6%) at a level of 5%. Among 31 chemicals identified in a dichloromethane extract, guaiacol, ethylguaiacol, and vinylguaiacol exhibited antioxidant activities, which were comparable to that of alpha-tocopherol. Among nine chlorogenic acids (three caffeoylquinic acids, three feruloylquinic acids, and three dicaffeoylquinic acids) identified, 5-caffeoylquinic acid contained the greatest amount both in regular (883.5 microg/mL) and in decaffeinated (1032.6 microg/mL) coffees; it exhibited 24.5% activity by the MA-GC assay and 45.3% activity by the TBA assay at a level of 10 microg/mL. Caffeic and ferulic acids showed moderate antioxidant activities in both assays. PMID:16881716

  18. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) and its antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) was investigated. The effects of process variables namely pressure (150-300 bar), temperature (40-50 °C) and dynamic extraction time (60-120 min) on crude extraction yield (CEY) were studied through response surface methodology (RSM). The SC-CO(2) extraction process was modified using ethanol (99.9%) as co-solvent. Perturbation plot revealed the significant effect of all process variables on the CEY. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the process conditions to achieve maximum CEY. The optimum conditions were 244 bar pressure, 46 °C temperature and 97 min dynamic extraction time. Under these optimal conditions, the CEY was predicted to be 176.30 mg-extract/g-dried sample. The validation experiment results agreed with the predicted value. The antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of crude oil obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with published results using Soxhlet extraction (SE) and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). It was found that the antioxidant activity of the extract obtained by SC-CO(2) extraction was strongly higher than those obtained by SE and UAE. Identification of fatty acid composition using gas chromatography (GC) showed that all the extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids with the most being linoleic acid. In contrast, the amount of saturated fatty acids extracted by SE was higher than that extracted under optimized SC-CO(2) extraction conditions. PMID:23322066

  19. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel. PMID:19748936

  20. Interlaboratory comparison of measurements of acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted nickel in spiked sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Zanella, Luciana; Rogevich, Emily; Salata, Gregory; Bolek, Radoslaw

    2011-01-01

    An interlaboratory comparison of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted nickel (SEM_Ni) measurements of sediments was conducted among five independent laboratories. Relative standard deviations for the seven test samples ranged from 5.6 to 71% (mean?=?25%) for AVS and from 5.5 to 15% (mean?=?10%) for SEM_Ni. These results are in stark contrast to a recently published study that indicated AVS and SEM analyses were highly variable among laboratories.

  1. Interlaboratory comparison of measurements of acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted nickel in spiked sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, W.G.; Hammerschmidt, C.R.; Zanella, L.; Rogevich, E.; Salata, G.; Bolek, R.

    2011-01-01

    An interlaboratory comparison of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted nickel (SEM-Ni) measurements of sediments was conducted among five independent laboratories. Relative standard deviations for the seven test samples ranged from 5.6 to 71% (mean=25%) for AVS and from 5.5 to 15% (mean=10%) for SEM-Ni. These results are in stark contrast to a recently published study that indicated AVS and SEM analyses were highly variable among laboratories. ?? 2011 SETAC.

  2. Selective extraction of derivates of p-hydroxy-benzoic acid from plant material by using a molecularly imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Karasová, Gabriela; Lehotay, Jozef; Sádecká, Jana; Skacáni, Ivan; Lachová, Miroslava

    2005-12-01

    Selective SPE of derivates of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA) from plant extract of Melissa officinalis is presented using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) made with protocatechuic acid (PA) as template molecule. MIP was prepared with acrylamide as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinking monomer and ACN as porogen. MIP was evaluated towards six phenolic acids: PA, gallic acid, pHBA, vanillic acid (VA), gentisic acid (GeA) and syringic acid (SyrA), and then steps of molecularly imprinted SPE (MISPE) procedure were optimized. The best specific binding capacity of MIP was obtained for PA in ACN (34.7 microg/g of MIP). Other tested acids were also bound on MIP if they were dissolved in this solvent. ACN was chosen as solvent for sample application. M. officinalis was extracted into methanol/water (4:1, v/v), the extract was then evaporated to dryness and dissolved in ACN before application on MIP. Water and ACN were used as washing solvents and elution of benzoic acids was performed by means of a mixture methanol/acetic acid (9:1, v/v). pHBA, GA, PA and VA were extracted with recoveries of 56.3-82.1% using this MISPE method. GeA was not determined in plant extract. PMID:16405176

  3. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Lin, Yuehe

    1998-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  4. Hypoglycaemic effects of tea extracts and ent-kaurenoic acid from Smallanthus sonchifolius.

    PubMed

    Raga, Dennis D; Alimboyoguen, Agnes B; del Fierro, Ramon S; Ragasa, Consolacion Y

    2010-11-01

    Hypoglycaemic activity was observed in normoglycaemic mice orally administered with the aqueous Smallanthus sonchifolius leaf tea extract, alloxan-induced diabetic mice orally administered with ent-kaurenoic acid (1), and normoglycaemic mice intraperitoneally administered with 1 from S. sonchifolius leaves. A single dose administration of 50 mg kg(-1) BW yacon leaf tea extract demonstrated immediate but relatively short hypoglycaemic activity, with significant effects observed during 1-2 h. Similarly, administration with 100 mg kg(-1) BW yacon leaf tea extract obtained by heavy stirring in hot water demonstrated a more potent activity compared to the positive control at 1.5-2.0 h. Oral administration of 1 did not affect the blood glucose level of the alloxan-induced diabetic mice, but a single intraperitonial injection of 10 mg kg(-1) BW in normoglycaemic mice had consistent percent blood glucose reduction persisting from 1 to 2 h observation periods. PMID:20981618

  5. Reactive extraction of lactic acid with trioctylamine/methylene chloride/n-hexane

    SciTech Connect

    Han, D.H.; Hong, W.H.

    1996-04-01

    The trioctylamine (TOA)/methylene chloride (MC)/n-hexane system was used as the extraction agent for the extraction of lactic acid. Curves of equilibrium and hydration were obtained at various temperatures and concentrations of TOA. A modified mass action model was proposed to interpret the equilibrium and the hydration curves. The reaction mechanism and the corresponding parameters which best represent the equilibrium data were estimated, and the concentration of water in the organic phase was predicted by inserting the parameters into the simple mathematical equation of the modified model. The concentration of MC and the change of temperature were important factors for the extraction and the stripping process. The stripping was performed by a simple distillation which was a combination of temperature-swing regeneration and diluent-swing regeneration. The type of inactive diluent has no influence on the stripping. The stripping efficiencies were about 70%.

  6. Extraction of copper and zinc-humic acid with an ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.-L.; Tseng, Ru-Ling

    2009-04-01

    Extraction of copper and zinc in the contaminated soil with a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) has been studied by X-ray absorption near edge structural (XANES) and X-ray absorption fine structural (EXAFS) spectroscopies in the present work. By the least-square fitted XANES spectra, the major copper and zinc species in the contaminated soil are adsorbed copper- and adsorbed zinc-humic acid (HA). In a short contact, 80% of copper and zinc in the contaminated soil was extracted into the RTIL. The fitted EXAFS spectra show that Cu-HA and Zn-HA in the RTIL possessed the Cu-O and ZnO (1st shell) bond distances of 1.96 and 1.82 Å, respectively. The possible reaction path involved in extraction of copper and zinc in the contaminated soil into the RTIL has also been pointed out. Keywords: RTIL; XANES; EXAFS

  7. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Lin, Y.

    1998-06-23

    A method is described for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 7 figs.

  8. Analysis of perfluorinated carboxylic acids in soils II: optimization of chromatography and extraction.

    PubMed

    Washington, John W; Henderson, W Matthew; Ellington, J Jackson; Jenkins, Thomas M; Evans, John J

    2008-02-15

    With the objective of detecting and quantitating low concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in soils, we compared the analytical suitability of liquid chromatography columns containing three different stationary phases, two different liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) systems, and eight combinations of sample-extract pretreatments, extractions and cleanups on three test soils. For the columns and systems we tested, we achieved the greatest analytical sensitivity for PFCAs using a column with a C(18) stationary phase in a Waters LC/MS/MS. In this system we achieved an instrument detection limit for PFOA of 270 ag/microL, equating to about 14 fg of PFOA on-column. While an elementary acetonitrile/water extraction of soils recovers PFCAs effectively, natural soil organic matter also dissolved in the extracts commonly imparts significant noise that appears as broad, multi-nodal, asymmetric peaks that coelute with several PFCAs. The intensity and elution profile of this noise is highly variable among soils and it challenges detection of low concentrations of PFCAs by decreasing the signal-to-noise contrast. In an effort to decrease this background noise, we investigated several methods of pretreatment, extraction and cleanup, in a variety of combinations, that used alkaline and unbuffered water, acetonitrile, tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, dispersed activated carbon and solid-phase extraction. For the combined objectives of complete recovery and minimization of background noise, we have chosen: (1) alkaline pretreatment; (2) extraction with acetonitrile/water; (3) evaporation to dryness; (4) reconstitution with tetrabutylammonium-hydrogen-sulfate ion-pairing solution; (5) ion-pair extraction to methyl-tert-butyl ether; (6) evaporation to dryness; (7) reconstitution with 60/40 acetonitrile/water (v/v); and (8) analysis by LC/MS/MS. Using this method, we

  9. Stabilization of Cu in acid-extracted industrial sludge using a microwave process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Lung; Lo, Shang-Lien; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Hsieh, Ching-Hong

    2005-08-31

    The leaching concentration of copper ions from the industrial sludge that has been extracted using sulfuric acid may still exceed 15 mg/L, which is the leaching standard of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) for hazardous waste in Taiwan. Therefore, the acid-extracted industrial sludge is still an important source of hazardous waste. Usually, hazardous waste in Taiwan must be solidified and passed through the TCLP test before it is disposed in a landfill. The aim of this study is to develop a microwave process to stabilize copper ions in the sludge to replace the use of traditional solidification. In this study, two parameters--the reaction time of the microwave process and the additive reagents--were considered. The efficiency of stabilization of the microwave process was evaluated from the result of the TCLP test. The results showed that the stabilization efficiency of copper ions obtained using a microwave process without any added reagent depends highly on the property of the original acid-extracted sludge. Under some conditions, the leaching concentrations were much lower than those of the raw sludge. In additive reagent systems, the results showed that iron powder promoted the stabilization of copper ions more than the other additives such as sodium carbonate and sodium silicate. The leaching concentration of copper ions decreased dramatically from 179.4 to 6.5mg/L below in the iron additive system. PMID:15936873

  10. Extraction and determination of ellagic acid contentin chestnut bark and fruit.

    PubMed

    Vekiari, S A; Gordon, M H; García-Macías, P; Labrinea, H

    2008-10-15

    Chestnuts are an important economic resource in the chestnut growing regions, not only for the fruit, but also for the wood. The content of ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring inhibitor of carcinogenesis, was determined in chestnut fruits and bark. EA was extracted with methanol and free ellagic acid was determined by HPLC with UV detection, both in the crude extract and after hydrolysis. The concentration of EA was generally increased after hydrolysis due to the presence of ellagitannins in the crude extract. The concentration varied between 0.71 and 21.6mgg(-1) (d.w.) in un-hydrolyzed samples, and between 2.83 and 18.4mgg(-1) (d.w.) in hydrolyzed samples. In chestnut fruits, traces of EA were present in the seed, with higher concentrations in the pellicle and pericarp. However, all fruit tissues had lower concentrations of EA than had the bark. The concentration of EA in the hydrolyzed samples showed a non-linear correlation with the concentration in the unhydrolyzed extracts. PMID:26047294

  11. [Determination of trace extractable lead in artificial acid sweat from ecological textiles by GFAAS].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chong-Hua; Fang, Han; Lin, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Deng, Zhi-Guang; Li, Yun-Song

    2009-11-01

    Extractable trace level lead in artificial sweat solution from ecological textiles is a key item limited by eco-textile standard. But the content of this extractable Pb is not so easy to determine for the strict limit of eco-textile standard, the complicatedness of extractable solution matrix and the strong background interference of NaCl. In the present paper a method for the determination of trace extractable lead in artificial acid sweat from ecological textiles by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) is described. Based on a number of experiments by using different single and mixed matrix modifiers including (NH4)2 H2PO4, NH4 NO3, Pd(NO3)2, Ni(NO3)2 and ascorbic acid, an effective modifier and its quantity were selected and the graphite furnace operating parameters were optimized. Experimental test results revealed that adding 5 mL (1 : 1) mixed solution of 50 g x L(-1) ammonium nitrate and 100 mg x L(-1) palladium regent was an effective way to inhibit volatile lead and reduce background signals. The detection limit could reach a low level of 0.7 microg x L(-1). The relative standard deviation was 3.2%. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the recoveries ranged between 95.5% and 105%. PMID:20102007

  12. Diethylaminoethyl-cellulose clean-up of a large volume naphthenic acid extract.

    PubMed

    Frank, Richard A; Kavanagh, Richard; Burnison, B Kent; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Der Kraak, Glen Van; Solomon, Keith R

    2006-08-01

    The Athabasca oil sands of Alberta, Canada contain an estimated 174 billion barrels of bitumen. During oil sands refining processes, an extraction tailings mixture is produced that has been reported as toxic to aquatic organisms and is therefore collected in settling ponds on site. Investigation into the toxicity of these tailings pond waters has identified naphthenic acids (NAs) and their sodium salts as the major toxic components, and a multi-year study has been initiated to identify the principal toxic components within NA mixtures. Future toxicity studies require a large volume of a NA mixture, however, a well-defined bulk extraction technique is not available. This study investigated the use of a weak anion exchanger, diethylaminoethyl-cellulose (DEAE-cellulose), to remove humic-like material present after collecting the organic acid fraction of oil sands tailings pond water. The NA extraction and clean-up procedure proved to be a fast and efficient method to process large volumes of tailings pond water, providing an extraction efficiency of 41.2%. The resulting concentrated NA solution had a composition that differed somewhat from oil sands fresh tailings, with a reduction in the abundance of lower molecular weight NAs being the most significant difference. This reduction was mainly due to the initial acidification of tailings pond water. The DEAE-cellulose treatment had only a minor effect on the NA concentration, no noticeable effect on the NA fingerprint, and no significant effect on the mixture toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri. PMID:16469358

  13. Selective extraction of zinc(II) over iron(II) from spent hydrochloric acid pickling effluents by liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Marcelo Borges; Rocha, Sônia Denise Ferreira; Magalhães, Fernando Silva; Benedetto, Jeaneth dos Santos

    2008-02-11

    The selective removal of zinc(II) over iron(II) by liquid-liquid extraction from spent hydrochloric acid pickling effluents produced by the zinc hot-dip galvanizing industry was studied at room temperature. Two distinct effluents were investigated: effluent 1 containing 70.2g/L of Zn, 92.2g/L of Fe and pH 0.6, and effluent 2 containing 33.9 g/L of Zn, 203.9g/L of Fe and 2M HCl. The following extractants were compared: TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate), Cyanex 272 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid], Cyanex 301 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid] and Cyanex 302 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) monothiophosphinic acid]. The best separation results were obtained for extractants TBP and Cyanex 301. Around 92.5% of zinc and 11.2% of iron were extracted from effluent 1 in one single contact using 100% (v/v) of TBP. With Cyanex 301, around 80-95% of zinc and less than 10% of iron were extracted from effluent 2 at pH 0.3-1.0. For Cyanex 272, the highest extraction yield for zinc (70% of zinc with 20% of iron extraction) was found at pH 2.4. Cyanex 302 presented low metal extraction levels (below 10%) and slow phase disengagement characteristics. Reactions for the extraction of zinc with TBP and Cyanex 301 from hydrochloric acid solution were proposed. PMID:17570579

  14. Solid extractant on the base of bifunctional extractants and solvating diluents for recovery of rare-earth and actinide elements from strongly acidic media

    SciTech Connect

    Romanovskii, V.N.; Smirnov, I.V.

    1996-12-31

    Diphosphine dioxides of different structure were synthesized and studied with the goal of using as a base for preparation of solid extractants. Of all the studied compounds, DPDO-11 was chosen. The solid extractant on its base was prepared by impregnation of divinylbenzene - styrol matrix with the solution of 0.8 M DPDO in fluoropol-1083. The investigation of extraction and physico-chemical properties of this solid extractant shows that it can be used for selective recovery of actinide and rare-earth elements from aqueous solutions in the wide range of acidity.

  15. Clouding in fatty acid dispersions for charge-dependent dye extraction.

    PubMed

    Garenne, David; Navailles, Laurence; Nallet, Frédéric; Grélard, Axelle; Dufourc, Erick J; Douliez, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-15

    The clouding phenomenon in non-ionic surfactant systems is a common feature that remains rare for ionic detergents. Here, we show that fatty acid (negatively charged) systems cloud upon cooling hot dispersions depending on the concentration or when adding excess guanidine hydrochloride. The clouding of these solutions yields the formation of enriched fatty acid droplets in which they exhibit a polymorphism that depends on the temperature: upon cooling, elongated wormlike micelles transit to rigid stacked bilayers inside droplets. Above this transition temperature, droplets coalesce yielding a phase separation between a fatty acid-rich phase and water, allowing extraction of dyes depending on their charge and lipophilicity. Positively charged and zwitterionic dyes were sequestered within the droplets (and then in the fatty acid-rich upper phase) whereas the negatively charged ones were found in both phases. Our results show an additional case of negatively charged surfactant which exhibit clouding phenomenon and suggest that these systems could be used for extracting solutes depending on their charge and lipophilicity. PMID:26828279

  16. Methyl jasmonate, yeast extract and sucrose stimulate phenolic acids accumulation in Eryngium planum L. shoot cultures.

    PubMed

    Kikowska, Małgorzata; Kędziora, Izabela; Krawczyk, Aldona; Thiem, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Eryngium planum L. has been reported as a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine in Europe. The tissue cultures may be an alternative source of the biomass rich in desired bioactive compounds. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the biotechnological techniques on the selected phenolic acids accumulation in the agitated shoot cultures of E. planum. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of those compounds in 50% aqueous - methanolic extracts from the biomass were conducted by applying the HPLC method. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), yeast extract (YE) and sucrose (Suc) stimulated accumulation of the phenolic acids: rosmarinic (RA), chlorogenic (CGA) and caffeic (CA) in in vitro shoot cultures. Cultivation of shoots in liquid MS media supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzyladenine and 0.1 mg L(-1) indole-3-acetic acid in the presence of 100 µM MeJA for 48h was an optimum condition of elicitation and resulted in approximately 4.5-fold increased content of RA + CGA + CA in plant material compared to the control (19.795 mg g(-1) DW, 4.36 mg g(-1) DW, respectively). The results provide the first evidence that the selected phenolic acids can be synthesized in elicited shoot cultures of flat sea holly in higher amount than in untreated shoots. PMID:25856557

  17. Solid phase extraction of petroleum carboxylic acids using a functionalized alumina as stationary phase.

    PubMed

    de Conto, Juliana Faccin; Nascimento, Juciara dos Santos; de Souza, Driele Maiara Borges; da Costa, Luiz Pereira; Egues, Silvia Maria da Silva; Freitas, Lisiane Dos Santos; Benvenutti, Edilson Valmir

    2012-04-01

    Petroleum essentially consists of a mixture of organic compounds, mainly containing carbon and hydrogen, and, in minor quantities, compounds with nitrogen, sulphur, and oxygen. Some of these compounds, such as naphthenic acids, can cause corrosion in pipes and equipment used in processing plants. Considering that the methods of separation or clean up the target compounds in low concentrations and in complex matrix use large amounts of solvents or stationary phases, is necessary to study new methodologies that consume smaller amounts of solvent and stationary phases to identify the acid components present in complex matrix, such as crude oil samples. The proposed study aimed to recover acid compounds using the solid phase extraction method, employing different types of commercial stationary ion exchange phases (SAX and NH(2)) and new phase alumina functionalized with 1,4-bis(n-propyl)diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride silsesquioxane (Dab-Al(2)O(3)), synthesized in this work. Carboxylic acids were used as standard mixture in the solid phase extraction for further calculation of recovery yield. Then, the real sample (petroleum) was fractionated into saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes, and the resin fraction of petroleum (B1) was eluted through stationary ion exchange phases. The stationary phase synthesized in this work showed an efficiency of ion exchange comparable to that of the commercial stationary phases. PMID:22589166

  18. Biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by soil bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pasquale, C.; Fodale, R.; Lo Piccolo, L.; Palazzolo, E.; Alonzo, G.; Quatrini, P.

    2009-04-01

    A number of studies in the 1980s and 1990s showed that crop-protection products, applied to drained fields, could move downwards through the soil profile and to the groundwater. Organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) are used all over the world for crop protection, for other agricultural practices such as sheep dipping and, in aquaculture, for the control of sea lice. Ops besides showing a specific neurotoxicity and have also been related to various modern diseases, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD) and the Gulf War syndrome. Although OPs are less persistent than Organoclorine pesticides (OCs), they still constitute an environmental risks thus increasing the social concern about their levels in soils, surface waters, and ground waters. Degradation of OPs by microorganisms has been assessed for a few bacterial strains. In the present study the OPs degrading potential of indigenous soil microorganisms was investigated. Using enrichment cultures in which parathion was the only C and energy sources many bacterial strains were isolated from OPs contaminated and pristine agricultural soils characterized by different physico-chemical properties. More than 40 potential OPs degraders were isolated and grouped in operational taxonomic units (OTU) using analysis of polymorphism showed by the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates of each OTU revealed that most of them belong to Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. All the analyzed soils showed the presence of putative OPs degraders: the highest diversity was found in organic cultivated soils, the lowest in chemically cultivated soils. Degradation of different OPs, characterized by different physical and chemical properties, was obtained by different selected representative strains using SPME GC-MS analysis on water and soil microcosms. The results showed that, after the incubation period, the amount of pesticide residues were in the range 20-80%. Some of the

  19. Extraction of humic acid by coacervate: investigation of direct and back processes.

    PubMed

    Ghouas, H; Haddou, B; Kameche, M; Derriche, Z; Gourdon, C

    2012-02-29

    The two aqueous phases extraction process is widely used in environmental clean up of industrial effluents and fine chemical products for their reuse. This process can be made by cloud point of polyethoxylated alcohols and micellar solubilization phenomenon. It is commonly called "coacervate extraction" and is used, in our case, for humic acid extraction from aqueous solution at 100mg/L. The surfactants used are alcohol polyethoxylate and alkylphenol polyethoxylate. Phase diagrams of binary water/surfactant and pseudo-binary are plotted. The extraction results are expressed by the following responses: percentage of solute extracted, E (%), residual concentrations of solute and surfactant in dilute phase (X(s,w), and X(t,w) respectively) and volume fraction of coacervate at equilibrium (ϕ). For each parameter, the experimental results are fitted to empirical equations in three dimensions. The aim of this study is to find out the best compromise between E and ϕC. The comparison between experimental and calculated values allows models validation. Sodium sulfate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) addition and pH effect are also studied. Finally, the possibility of recycling the surfactant has been proved. PMID:22260753

  20. Improved Proteomic Analysis Following Trichloroacetic Acid Extraction of Bacillus anthracis Spore Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, Brooke LD; Wunschel, David S.; Sydor, Michael A.; Warner, Marvin G.; Wahl, Karen L.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2015-08-07

    Proteomic analysis of bacterial samples provides valuable information about cellular responses and functions under different environmental pressures. Proteomic analysis is dependent upon efficient extraction of proteins from bacterial samples without introducing bias toward extraction of particular protein classes. While no single method can recover 100% of the bacterial proteins, selected protocols can improve overall protein isolation, peptide recovery, or enrich for certain classes of proteins. The method presented here is technically simple and does not require specialized equipment such as a mechanical disrupter. Our data reveal that for particularly challenging samples, such as B. anthracis Sterne spores, trichloroacetic acid extraction improved the number of proteins identified within a sample compared to bead beating (714 vs 660, respectively). Further, TCA extraction enriched for 103 known spore specific proteins whereas bead beating resulted in 49 unique proteins. Analysis of C. botulinum samples grown to 5 days, composed of vegetative biomass and spores, showed a similar trend with improved protein yields and identification using our method compared to bead beating. Interestingly, easily lysed samples, such as B. anthracis vegetative cells, were equally as effectively processed via TCA and bead beating, but TCA extraction remains the easiest and most cost effective option. As with all assays, supplemental methods such as implementation of an alternative preparation method may provide additional insight to the protein biology of the bacteria being studied.

  1. Impact of Ellagic Acid in Bone Formation after Tooth Extraction: An Experimental Study on Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Obaidi, Mazen M. Jamil; Al-Bayaty, Fouad Hussain; Hussaini, Jamal; Khor, Goot Heah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA) towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction. Methods. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 250–300 g were selected for this study. All animals were intraperitoneally injected with 45 mg/kg (b.w.) of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ), to induce diabetic mellitus. Then, the animals were anesthetized, and the upper left central incisor was extracted and the whole extracted sockets were filled with Rosuvastatin (RSV). The rats were separated into three groups, comprising 8 rats each. The first group was considered as normal control group and orally treated with normal saline. The second group was regarded as diabetic control group and orally treated with normal saline, whereas the third group comprised diabetic rats, administrated with EA (50 mg/kg) orally. The maxilla tissue stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E) was used for histological examinations and immunohistochemical technique. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were used to evaluate the healing process in the extracted tooth socket by immunohistochemistry test. Results. The reactions of immunohistochemistry for FGF-2 and ALP presented stronger expression, predominantly in EA treated diabetic rat, than the untreated diabetic rat. Conclusion. These findings suggest that the administration of EA combined with RSV may have accelerated the healing process of the tooth socket of diabetic rats, after tooth extraction. PMID:25485304

  2. Phytochemistry of Cimicifugic Acids and Associated Bases in Cimicifuga racemosa Root Extracts

    PubMed Central

    GÖdecke, Tanja; Nikolic, Dejan; Lankin, David C.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Powell, Sharla L.; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L.; Van Breemen, Richard B.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Earlier studies reported serotonergic activity for cimicifugic acids (CA) isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa. The discovery of strongly basic alkaloids, cimipronidines, from the active extract partition and evaluation of previously employed work-up procedures has led to the hypothesis of strong acid/base association in the extract. Objective Re-isolation of the CAs was desired to permit further detailed studies. Based on the acid/base association hypothesis, a new separation scheme of the active partition was required, which separates acids from associated bases. Methodology A new 5-HT7 bioassay guided work-up procedure was developed that concentrates activity into one partition. The latter was subjected to a new 2-step centrifugal partitioning chromatography (CPC) method, which applies pH zone refinement gradient (pHZR CPC) to dissociate the acid/base complexes. The resulting CA fraction was subjected to a second CPC step. Fractions and compounds were monitored by 1H NMR using a structure based spin-pattern analysis facilitating dereplication of the known acids. Bioassay results were obtained for the pHZR CPC fractions and for purified CAs. Results A new CA was characterized. While none of the pure CAs was active, the serotonergic activity was concentrated in a single pHZR CPC fraction, which was subsequently shown to contain low levels of the potent 5-HT7 ligand, Nω–methylserotonin. Conclusion This study shows that CAs are not responsible for serotonergic activity in black cohosh. New phytochemical methodology (pHZR CPC) and a sensitive dereplication method (LC-MS) led to the identification of Nω–methylserotonin as serotonergic active principle. PMID:19140115

  3. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms for Incineration of Organophosphorus and Fluoro-Organophosphorus Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Glaude, P A; Melius, C; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2001-12-13

    A detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism is developed to describe incineration of the chemical warfare nerve agent sarin (GB), based on commonly used principles of bond additivity and hierarchical reaction mechanisms. The mechanism is based on previous kinetic models of organophosphorus compounds such as TMP, DMMP and DIMP that are often used as surrogates to predict incineration of GB. Kinetic models of the three surrogates and GB are then used to predict their consumption in a perfectly stirred reactor fueled by natural gas to simulate incineration of these chemicals. Computed results indicate that DIMP is the only one of these surrogates that adequately describes combustion of GB under comparable conditions. The kinetic pathways responsible for these differences in reactivity are identified and discussed. The most important reaction in GB and DIMP that makes them more reactive than TMP or DMMP is found to be a six-center molecular elimination reaction producing propene.

  4. Speciation of copper-humic acid in zeolite Y during extraction with a RTIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hsin-Liang; Jyun Chen, Yan

    2010-07-01

    Chemical structure of copper chelated with humic acid (Cu-HA) in the micro-pores of zeolite Y (to simulate micropores in copper contaminated soils) and extracted with a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) ([C 4mim][PF 6], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) has been studied by X-ray absorption (near edge structure (XANES) and Fourier transformed extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)) spectroscopy. At the temperature of 298 K, within 30 min, about 84% of Cu-HA in Y can be extracted by the RTIL. The XANES spectra reveal that a small amount of Cu(II)-HA (7%), adsorbed Cu(II) ( Cu(ads)2+) (5%) and Cu[mim]42+ (4%), which are not extracted, are found in Y. In the copper extracted RTIL, 75% of Cu(II)-HA in Y are converted to Cu[mim]42+ during extraction. About 17% of Cu(II)-HA is also found in the RTIL. Therefore, at least three reaction paths may be involved in the extraction process: (1) extraction of Cu(II)-HA in the RTIL, (2) Cu 2+ (formed from dissociation of Cu(II)-HA in the RTIL) adsorbed on Y, and (3) inter-conversion of Cu(II)-HA to Cu[mim]42+ in the RTIL. The refined EXAFS data indicate that the Cu-O bond distance in the Y and RTIL phases is 1.94 Å with an average coordination number (CN) of 3.4. Note that Cu[mim]42+ in the RTIL processes a Cu-N bond distance of 1.96 Å and a CN of 4.1.

  5. Sorption of triazine and organophosphorus pesticides on soil and biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although a large number of reports are available on sorption and degradation of triazine and organophosphorus pesticides in soils, systematic studies are lacking to directly compare and predict the fate of agrochemicals having different susceptibilities for hydrolysis and other degradation pathways....

  6. DETERMINATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS BY GC-ICPMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accidental or intentional release of neurotoxic organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and OP chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are potential threats to public health and the environment. Such a release could involve any number of a large suite of OP chemicals. These compounds, as well a...

  7. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE-BASED ASSAY FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report a rapid and versatile Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH)-based method for measurement of organophosphates. This assay is based on a substrate-dependent change in pH at the local vicinity of the enzyme. The pH change is monitored using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), ...

  8. Equilibrium analysis of aggregation behavior in the solvent extraction of Cu(II) from sulfuric acid by didodecylnaphthalene sulfonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Case, G.N.; Lumetta, G.J.; Wilson, N.M.

    1993-01-01

    By use of the principles of equilibrium analysis, the liquid-liquid cation exchange of Cu(II) from aqueous sulfuric acid at 25{degrees}C by didodecylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDDNS) in toluene may be understood in terms of small hydrated aggregated species in the organic phase. Extraction data were measured as a function of organic-phase HDDNS molarity (1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}1}), aqueous copper(II) sulfate molarity (1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} to 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}2}), and aqueous sulfuric acid molarity (0.03 to 6.0). Graphical analysis of linear regions of the data support a model in which organic-phase aggregates of HDDNS function by cation exchange to incorporate Cu(II) ions with no apparent change in aggregation number at low loading. Supporting FTIR spectra and water-content measurements of HDDNS solutions in toluene show that the HDDNS aggregates are highly hydrated. By use of the computer program SXLSQA, a comprehensive equilibrium model was developed with inclusion of activity effects. Aqueous-phase activity coefficients and degree of aqueous bisulfate formation were estimated by use of the Pitzer treatment. Organic-phase nonideality was estimated by the Hildebrand-Scott treatment and was shown to be a negligible effect under the conditions tested. Excluding aqueous sulfuric acid molarities greater than 1, it was possible to model the data to within experimental error by assuming only the equilibrium extraction of Cu{sup 2+} ion by the aggregate (HDDNS){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 22} and the equilibrium dissociation of (HDDNS){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 22} to the monomer. The dependence of Cu(II) distribution on aqueous sulfuric acid molarity was shown to be quantitatively consistent with a cation-exchange process. In comparison with the graphical approach, the computer analysis allows comprehensive model testing over large, nonlinear data sets and eliminates the need to make limiting assumptions.

  9. Metal ion complexation properties of fulvic acids extracted from composted sewage sludge as compared to a soil fulvic acid.

    PubMed

    Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G; Oliveira, César J S

    2002-07-01

    Complexation properties of an anthropogenic fulvic acid (FA) extracted from a composted sewage sludge (csFA) for Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) were studied at pH=6 and at a concentration of 25 mg L(-1). For the case of Cu(II), a particular analysis of the complexation phenomena was done at pH values of 3, 4, 5 and 6 and at aqueous FA concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg L(-1) by synchronous excitation molecular fluorescence spectroscopy (SyF). Potentiometric titrimetry with Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and H+ ion-selective electrodes and acid-base conductimetric titrations were used to obtain experimental information about the acid properties and complexation phenomena. A comparison of the results obtained for csFA with a natural soil FA (sFA) was made. Differences have been detected in the structural composition of the two samples and in the structure of the binding sites. In the csFA, binding site structures containing nitrogen probably play an important role in the complexation, besides oxygen containing structures. Complexation by sFA is mainly due to carboxylic and phenolic structures. Nevertheless, this work shows that csFA have macroscopic complexation properties (magnitude of the conditional stability constant and binding sites concentration) somewhat similar to the natural sFA samples. PMID:12188141

  10. Micro-solid phase extraction of perfluorinated carboxylic acids from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Lashgari, Maryam; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-02-01

    Micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE), with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of trace levels of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in human plasma. The μ-SPE sorbent was surfactant-templated mesoporous silica. Extraction time, desorption time and salt concentration were chosen as the most effective parameters and were optimized simultaneously by use of central composite design. Under the optimized extraction conditions, good linearity in the range of 100 and 5000ngL(-1) was obtained with coefficients of determination of between 0.986 and 0.995. The limits of detection (at a signal to noise ratio of 3) were measured to be in the range of between 21.23 and 65.07ngL(-1), and limits of quantification (at a signal to noise ratio of 10) were in the range of between 70.77 and 216.92ngL(-1). The relative recoveries of spiked PFCAs in different samples were in the range of between 87.58 and 102.45%. As expected from the global distribution of PFCs, contaminations at low levels (less than 200ngL(-1)) were detected (with the highest concentration recorded for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)). Considering the complex nature of biological samples and the issue of matrix effects in the analysis of PFCAs, μ-SPE as an extraction method was shown to be advantageous; it combined extraction and concentration in one single step with no additional sample clean-up, and was able to remove significant matrix interferences. PMID:26795278

  11. Optimizing dilute-acid pretreatment of rapeseed straw for extraction of hemicellulose.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae-Su; Um, Byung-Hwan; Kim, Jun-Seok; Oh, Kyeong-Keun

    2010-05-01

    Biological conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals requires hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction into monomeric sugars prior to fermentation. Hydrolysis can be performed enzymatically or with mineral acids. In this study, dilute sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst for the pretreatment of rapeseed straw. The purpose of this study is to optimize the pretreatment process in a 15-mL bomb tube reactor and investigate the effects of the acid concentration, temperature, and reaction time. These parameters influence hemicellulose removal and production of sugars (xylose, glucose, and arabinose) in the hydrolyzate as well as the formation of by-products (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and acetic acid). Statistical analysis was based on a model composition corresponding to a 3(3) orthogonal factorial design and employed the response surface methodology to optimize the pretreatment conditions, aiming to attain maximum xylan, mannan, and galactan (XMG) extraction from hemicellulose of rapeseed straw. The obtained optimum conditions were: H2SO4 concentration of 1.76% and temperature of 152.6 degrees C with a reaction time of 21 min. Under these optimal conditions, 85.5% of the total sugar was recovered after acid hydrolysis (78.9% XMG and 6.6% glucan). The hydrolyzate contained 1.60 g/L glucose, 0.61 g/L arabinose, 10.49 g/L xylose, mannose, and galactose, 0.39 g/L cellobiose, 0.94 g/L fructose, 0.02 g/L 1,6-anhydro-glucose, 1.17 g/L formic acid, 2.94 g/L acetic acid, 0.04 g/L levulinic acid, 0.04 g/L 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and 0.98 g/L furfural. PMID:20087686

  12. Analysis of amino acids without derivatization in barley extracts by LC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Björn; Füllner, Kerstin; Stein, Nadine; Oldiges, Marco; Kuhn, Arnd J; Hofmann, Diana

    2008-08-01

    A method has been developed for quantification of 20 amino acids as well as 13 (15)N-labeled amino acids in barley plants. The amino acids were extracted from plant tissues using aqueous HCl-ethanol and directly analyzed without further purification. Analysis of the underivatized amino acids was performed by liquid chromatography (LC)-electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) in the positive ESI mode. Separation was achieved on a strong cation exchange column (Luna 5micro SCX 100A) with 30 mM ammonium acetate in water (solvent A) and 5% acetic acid in water (solvent B). Quantification was accomplished using d (2)-Phe as an internal standard. Calibration curves were linear over the range 0.5-50 microM, and limits of detection were estimated to be 0.1-3.0 microM. The mass-spectrometric technique was employed to study the regulation of amino acid levels in barley plants grown at 15 degrees C uniform root temperature (RT) and 20-10 degrees C vertical RT gradient (RTG). The LC-MS-MS results demonstrated enhanced concentration of free amino acids in shoots at 20-10 degrees C RTG, while total free amino acid concentration in roots was similarly low for both RT treatments. (15)NO(3) (-) labeling experiments showed lower (15)N/(14)N ratios for Glu, Ser, Ala and Val in plants grown at 20-10 degrees C RTG compared with those grown at 15 degrees C RT. PMID:18506428

  13. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2002-01-01

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  14. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2006-07-11

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  15. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles. PMID:26616933

  16. Extraction of uranium: comparison of stripping with ammonia vs. strong acid

    SciTech Connect

    Moldovan, B.; Grinbaum, B.; Efraim, A.

    2008-07-01

    Following extraction of uranium in the first stage of solvent extraction using a tertiary amine, typically Alamine 336, the stripping of the extracted uranium is accomplished either by use of an aqueous solution of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} /NH{sub 4}OH or by strong-acid stripping using 400-500 g/L H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Both processes have their merits and determine the downstream processing. The classical stripping with ammonia is followed by addition of strong base, to precipitate ammonium uranyl sulfate (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}UO{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}, which yields finally the yellow cake. Conversely, stripping with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, followed by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide yields uranyl oxide as product. At the Cameco Key Lake operation, both processes were tested on a pilot scale, using a Bateman Pulsed Column (BPC). The BPC proved to be applicable to both processes. It met the process criteria both for extraction and stripping, leaving less than 1 mg/L of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in the raffinate, and product solution had the required concentration of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} at high flux and reasonable height of transfer unit. In the Key Lake mill, each operation can be carried out in a single column. The main advantages of the strong-acid stripping over ammonia stripping are: (1) 60% higher flux in the extraction, (2) tenfold higher concentration of the uranium in the product solution, and (3) far more robust process, with no need of pH control in the stripping and no need to add acid to the extraction in order to keep the pH above the point of precipitation of iron compounds. The advantages of the ammoniacal process are easier stripping, that is, less stages needed to reach equilibrium and lower concentration of modifier needed to prevent the creation of a third phase. (authors)

  17. Controllable Phase Separation by Boc-Modified Lipophilic Acid as a Multifunctional Extractant.

    PubMed

    Tao, Kai; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    While phase separation of immiscible liquid-liquid systems has become increasingly significant in diverse areas, the irreversible nature limits their further application in controllable extraction-concentration or capture-release fields. There is a need for the development of simple, efficient and reversible methods for numerous research and industrial extraction and separation applications. We envisioned Boc-modified lipophilic acids as a simple model for such use based on the studies of the multi-phase transitions of Boc-modified supramolecular polymeric systems. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of Boc-7-aminoheptanoic acid (Boc-7), phase separation occurs in mixtures of miscible organic solvent and water. The separation behavior was confirmed by differential colorimetric development in aqueous and organic phases using methyl orange staining assays. Component substitution experiments verified that the phase separation results from the subtle balance between the aggregation and the solvation forces of Boc-7, and is reversible by adjusting the solution pH. Owing to the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the organic phase and the hydrogen bonding-forming ability of the carboxyl group of Boc-7, the phase separation system captures and releases Sudan Red, fluorescein, and streptavidin in a controllable manner. Consequently, a reversible and simple phase separation system can be designed as a multifunctional extractant. PMID:26627307

  18. Controllable Phase Separation by Boc-Modified Lipophilic Acid as a Multifunctional Extractant

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Kai; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    While phase separation of immiscible liquid-liquid systems has become increasingly significant in diverse areas, the irreversible nature limits their further application in controllable extraction-concentration or capture-release fields. There is a need for the development of simple, efficient and reversible methods for numerous research and industrial extraction and separation applications. We envisioned Boc-modified lipophilic acids as a simple model for such use based on the studies of the multi-phase transitions of Boc-modified supramolecular polymeric systems. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of Boc-7-aminoheptanoic acid (Boc-7), phase separation occurs in mixtures of miscible organic solvent and water. The separation behavior was confirmed by differential colorimetric development in aqueous and organic phases using methyl orange staining assays. Component substitution experiments verified that the phase separation results from the subtle balance between the aggregation and the solvation forces of Boc-7, and is reversible by adjusting the solution pH. Owing to the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the organic phase and the hydrogen bonding-forming ability of the carboxyl group of Boc-7, the phase separation system captures and releases Sudan Red, fluorescein, and streptavidin in a controllable manner. Consequently, a reversible and simple phase separation system can be designed as a multifunctional extractant. PMID:26627307

  19. Controllable Phase Separation by Boc-Modified Lipophilic Acid as a Multifunctional Extractant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Kai; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-12-01

    While phase separation of immiscible liquid-liquid systems has become increasingly significant in diverse areas, the irreversible nature limits their further application in controllable extraction-concentration or capture-release fields. There is a need for the development of simple, efficient and reversible methods for numerous research and industrial extraction and separation applications. We envisioned Boc-modified lipophilic acids as a simple model for such use based on the studies of the multi-phase transitions of Boc-modified supramolecular polymeric systems. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of Boc-7-aminoheptanoic acid (Boc-7), phase separation occurs in mixtures of miscible organic solvent and water. The separation behavior was confirmed by differential colorimetric development in aqueous and organic phases using methyl orange staining assays. Component substitution experiments verified that the phase separation results from the subtle balance between the aggregation and the solvation forces of Boc-7, and is reversible by adjusting the solution pH. Owing to the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the organic phase and the hydrogen bonding-forming ability of the carboxyl group of Boc-7, the phase separation system captures and releases Sudan Red, fluorescein, and streptavidin in a controllable manner. Consequently, a reversible and simple phase separation system can be designed as a multifunctional extractant.

  20. Citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 and purification of citric acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2013-11-01

    In this study, citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 was investigated. After the compositions of the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for citric acid production were optimized, the results showed that natural components of extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers without addition of any other components were suitable for citric acid production by the yeast strain. During 10 L fermentation using the extract containing 84.3 g L(-1) total sugars, 68.3 g L(-1) citric acid was produced and the yield of citric acid was 0.91 g g(-1) within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 9.2 g L(-1) of residual total sugar and 2.1 g L(-1) of reducing sugar were left in the fermented medium. At the same time, citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was purified. It was found that 67.2 % of the citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was recovered and purity of citric acid in the crystal was 96 %. PMID:23584740

  1. SIMULTANEOUS QUANTIFICATION OF JASMONIC ACID AND SALICYLIC ACID IN PLANTS BY VAPOR PHASE EXTRACTION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-CHEMICAL IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid represent important signaling compounds in plant defensive responses against other organisms. Here, we present a new method for the easy, sensitive and reproducible quantification of both compounds by vapor phase extraction and gas chromatography-positive ion chemic...

  2. Cytotoxic activity of an octadecenoic acid extract from Euphorbia kansui (Euphorbiaceae) on human tumour cell strains.

    PubMed

    Yu, Farong; Lu, Shunqing; Yu, Fahong; Shi, Junnian; McGuire, Peter M; Wang, Rui

    2008-02-01

    We have investigated the cytotoxic and antitumour activity of an octadecenoic acid extract, mainly containing oleic and linoleic acids, from Euphorbia kansui on human gastric (SGC-7901), hepatocellular carcinoma (BEL-7402), and leukaemia (HL-60) tumour cell strains. Significant and dose-dependent antiproliferation effects were observed on tumour cells from the dose of 3.2 microg mL(-1), which were comparable with or better than those of the common antitumour agent 5-fluorouracil. Results from the clone formation assay and flow cytometry indicated that the mixture of octadecenoic acids resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the number of tumour cells and significantly inhibited cell proliferation, with induced apoptosis and G(0)/G(1) phase cell cycle arrest. Also, the octadecenoic acids could not only cause cell apoptosis/necrosis but also functionally and structurally damage the tumour cell membrane and cell ultra-structures. These observations encourage further clinical evaluation of the inhibitory effects of octadecenoic acids on various forms of cancer. PMID:18237474

  3. Nephroprotective effect of date fruit extract against dichloroacetic acid exposure in adult rats.

    PubMed

    El Arem, Amira; Thouri, Amira; Zekri, Mouna; Saafi, Emna Behija; Ghrairi, Fatma; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Achour, Lotfi

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous date extract (ADE) on dichloroacetic acid (DCA)-induced nephrotoxicity. In vitro, total phenolic content estimated in the ADE were 417.71mg gallic acid equivalents/100g fresh weights (FW), while total flavonoid and tannins contents were 285.23 and 73.65mg catechin equivalents/100g FW, respectively. The ADE has strong scavenging activity. Ferulic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids are the major's compounds. Nephrotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by the administration of 0.5 and 2g/L DCA as drinking water. Some of these rats received also by gavage ADE (4mL/kg) before the administration of DCA. After two months of experiment, DCA administration caused elevated levels of renal MDA, significant depletion of GSH levels, altered the antioxidant enzyme activities and deteriorated the renal functions as assessed by the increased plasma urea, uric acid and creatinine levels compared to control rats. The treatment with the ADE significantly normalized the increased plasma levels of creatinine, urea and uric acid, reduced the elevated MDA levels, significantly normalized the antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH level and restored the altered kidney histology in rats treated with DCA. Therefore, it was speculated that ADE protects rats from kidney damage through its antioxidant capacity. PMID:24394489

  4. Exhaustive and stable electromembrane extraction of acidic drugs from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-12-18

    The first part of the current work systematically described the screening of different types of organic solvents as the supported liquid membrane (SLM) for electromembrane extraction (EME) of acidic drugs, including different alcohols, ketones, and ethers. Seven acidic drugs with a wide logP range (1.01-4.39) were selected as model substances. For the first time, the EME recovery of acidic drugs and system-current across the SLM with each organic solvent as SLM were investigated and correlated to relevant solvent properties such as viscosity and Kamlet and Taft solvatochromic parameters. Solvents with high hydrogen bonding acidity (α) and dipolarity-polarizability (π*) were found to be successful SLMs, and 1-heptanol was the most efficient candidate, which provided EME recovery in the range of 94-110%. Both hydrogen bonding interactions, dipole-dipole interactions, and hydrophobic interactions were involved in stabilizing the deprotonated acidic analytes (with high hydrogen bonding basicity and high dipole moment) during mass transfer across the SLM. The efficiency of the extraction normally decreased with increasing hydrocarbon chain length of the SLM, which was mainly due to increasing viscosity and decreasing α and π* values. The system-current during EME was found to be dependent on the type and the volume of the SLM. In contact with human plasma, an SLM of pure 1-heptanol was unstable, and to improve stability, 1-heptanol was mixed with 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE). With this SLM, exhaustive EME was performed from diluted human plasma, and the recoveries of five out of seven analytes were over 91% after 10min EME. This approach was evaluated using HPLC-UV, and the evaluation data were found to be satisfactory. PMID:26632516

  5. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water. PMID:25898079

  6. Molecularly imprinted polymer for caffeic acid by precipitation polymerization and its application to extraction of caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmodies leaves.

    PubMed

    Miura, Chitose; Matsunaga, Hisami; Haginaka, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for caffeic acid (CA) were prepared using 4-vinylpyridine and methacrylamide (MAM) as functional monomers, divinylbenzene as a crosslinker and acetonitrile-toluene (3:1, v/v) as a porogen by precipitation polymerization. The use of MAM as the co-monomer resulted in the formation of microsphere MIPs and non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) with ca. 3- and 5-μm particle diameters, respectively. Binding experiments and Scatchard analyses revealed that the binding capacity and affinity of the MIP to CA are higher than those of the NIP. The retention and molecular-recognition properties of the prepared MIPs were evaluated using water-acetonitrile and sodium phosphate buffer-acetonitrile as mobile phases in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase chromatography, respectively. In HILIC mode, the MIP showed higher molecular-recognition ability for CA than in reversed-phase mode. In addition to shape recognition, hydrophilic interactions seem to work for the recognition of CA on the MIP in HILIC mode, while hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions seem to work for the recognition of CA in reversed-phase mode. The MIP had a specific molecular-recognition ability for CA in HILIC mode, while other structurally related compounds, such as chlorogenic acid (CGA), gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid, could not be recognized by the MIP. Furthermore, the MIP was successfully applied for extraction of CA and CGA in the leaves of Eucommia ulmodies in HILIC mode. PMID:26776340

  7. Extraction and carrier-facilitated transport of amino acids using synthetic non-cyclic receptors through bulk liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Pratibha; Joshi, Nidhi; Sharma, Uma

    2006-10-01

    The extraction and carrier-facilitated transport of amino acids (leucine, valine and glycine) was studied through chloroform bulk liquid membrane system using a series of non-cyclic receptors such as diethylene glycol (1), diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (2), diethylene glycol dibutyl ether (3), diethylene glycol dibenzoate (4), triethylene glycol (5) and tetraethylene glycol (6). The amount of amino acid extracted and transported depends mainly upon the structure and the concentration of the receptors and also on the concentration of amino acid. The receptors 1 to 4, having small chain length and flexible end groups, formed stable complexes with amino acids, and the flexibility of receptors in different conformational forms was responsible for their carrier ability, while the receptors 5 and 6, having larger chain length showed poor carrier ability. Hydrophobicity of amino acids also play an important role in the extraction as well as transport process. PMID:17133741

  8. OH initiated heterogeneous degradation of organophosphorus compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Liu, Y.; Harner, T.; Jantunen, L.; Shoeib, M.; Li, S.

    2013-12-01

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) have been extensively used worldwide as flame retardants, plasticizers, antifoaming agents, and additives because of their favorable physicochemical characteristics. The global consumption of OPs is likely to greatly increase due to the phasing out of bromine-containing flame retardants (BFRs) with OPs identified as possible substitutes. In most applications, OPs easily leach out of the material into the environment via volatilization, abrasion, and dissolution and have been observed widely in atmospheric particles even in polar regions. However, little is known about their atmospheric fate. The Canadian Chemicals Management Plan (CMP) has targeted OP FRs for risk assessment, including assessing stability and atmospheric transport potential of OP FRs and other priority chemicals that are associated primarily with particles. In the current study, OH initiated heterogeneous reaction kinetics of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), tris-2-ethylhexyl-phosphate (TEHP), tris-2-butoxyethyl-phosphate (TBEP), and tri-phenyl phosphate (TPhP) coated on (NH4)2SO4 were investigated using a photo-chemical flow tube which was coupled to an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS). second-order rate constants (k2) for the heterogeneous loss of TPhP, TEHP and TDCPP were (2.07×0.19)×10-12, (2.69×0.63)×10-12 and (9.22×0.92)×10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively, from which approximate atmospheric lifetimes were estimated to be 5.6 (5.2-6.0), 4.3 (3.5-5.6), and 12.6 (11.4-14.0) days. These results represent the first reported estimates of heterogeneous rate constants for these species, and suggest that particle bound OPEs will be highly persistent in the atmosphere, supporting the assumption that OPEs can undergo medium or long-range transport, as proposed on the basis of field measurements.

  9. Extraction of phenol using sulfuric acid salts of trioctylamine in a supported liquid membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.L.; Hu, K.H. )

    1994-04-01

    The extraction of phenol by trioctylamine sulfate salts in a supported-liquid membrane (SLM) process was investigated. In the extraction process, a transport model, which included the film diffusion of phenol in the aqueous phase, the membrane diffusion within the SLM, and the interfacial chemical reaction, was built. The experimental parameters, such as the cell constant ([beta]), the diffusivity of (TOA)[sub 2]H[sub 2]SO[sub 4][center dot]PhOH in the SLM (D[sub c,b]), and the mass-transfer coefficient of phenol in the aqueous solution (K[sub L]), were determined from experiments. On the basis of the experimental data and the results obtained from the transport model, the rate-controlling step of the extraction of phenol by an SLM during permeation is discussed. The effects of the operating variables and parameters, such as the initial concentration of phenol in the aqueous phase, sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, and trioctylamine sulfate salts, on the extraction of phenol were examined.

  10. Solvent extraction of holmium and yttrium with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshizuka, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Baba, Y.; Inoue, K. ); Nakashio, F. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper discusses a kinetic study on the solvent extraction of holmium(III) and yttrium(III) with bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) from nitrate media conducted at 303 K using a hollow fiber membrane extractor. Also studied were the distribution equilibria of these metals and interfacial adsorption equilibria of D2EHPA and its metal complexes between the organic and aqueous phases. It was found that the metals (M{sup 3+}) were extracted with D2EHPA (HR) ad MR{sub 3} {center dot} 3HR into the organic phase, and the extraction equilibrium constants were evaluated. Furthermore, it was established that dimeric D2EHPA can be adsorbed at the interface between the organic and aqueous phases, while the interfacial activities of D2EHPA-metal complexes were negligibly small. The apparent orders 2, 1, and 2 of the permeabilities for the extraction of both metals were found with respect to the pH of the aqueous solution and the concentrations of the metal ion and dimeric D2EHPA, while the orders 1, 1, and {minus}1 of the permeabilities for the stripping of both metals were found with respect to the hydrogen ion activity and the concentrations of the metal complex and dimeric D2EHPA, respectively. The diffusional effects were reasonably explained by the diffusion model accompanied by an interfacial reaction, taking into account the velocity distributions of the aqueous and organic phases through the inner and outer sides of a hollow fiber.

  11. Carob pod water extracts as feedstock for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Margarida; Roca, Christophe; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-10-01

    Carob pods are a by-product of locust bean gum industry containing more than 50% (w/w) sucrose, glucose and fructose. In this work, carob pod water extracts were used, for the first time, for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. Kinetic studies of glucose, fructose and sucrose consumption as individual carbon sources till 30g/L showed no inhibition on cell growth, sugar consumption and SA production rates. Sugar extraction from carob pods was optimized varying solid/liquid ratio and extraction time, maximizing sugar recovery while minimizing the extraction of polyphenols. Batch fermentations containing 10-15g/L total sugars resulted in a maximum specific SA production rate of 0.61Cmol/Cmol X.h, with a yield of 0.55Cmol SA/Cmol sugar and a volumetric productivity of 1.61g SA/L.h. Results demonstrate that carob pods can be a promising low cost feedstock for bio-based SA production. PMID:25164341

  12. Fluorometric quantification of polyphosphate in environmental plankton samples: extraction protocols, matrix effects, and nucleic acid interference.

    PubMed

    Martin, Patrick; Van Mooy, Benjamin A S

    2013-01-01

    Polyphosphate (polyP) is a ubiquitous biochemical with many cellular functions and comprises an important environmental phosphorus pool. However, methodological challenges have hampered routine quantification of polyP in environmental samples. We tested 15 protocols to extract inorganic polyphosphate from natural marine samples and cultured cyanobacteria for fluorometric quantification with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) without prior purification. A combination of brief boiling and digestion with proteinase K was superior to all other protocols, including other enzymatic digestions and neutral or alkaline leaches. However, three successive extractions were required to extract all polyP. Standard addition revealed matrix effects that differed between sample types, causing polyP to be over- or underestimated by up to 50% in the samples tested here. Although previous studies judged that the presence of DNA would not complicate fluorometric quantification of polyP with DAPI, we show that RNA can cause significant interference at the wavelengths used to measure polyP. Importantly, treating samples with DNase and RNase before proteinase K digestion reduced fluorescence by up to 57%. We measured particulate polyP along a North Pacific coastal-to-open ocean transect and show that particulate polyP concentrations increased toward the open ocean. While our final method is optimized for marine particulate matter, different environmental sample types may need to be assessed for matrix effects, extraction efficiency, and nucleic acid interference. PMID:23104409

  13. Simultaneous extraction and HPLC determination of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plant by using ionic liquid-modified silica as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Sheikhian, Leila; Bina, Sedigheh

    2016-01-15

    In this study, ionic liquid-modified silica was used as sorbent for simultaneous extraction and preconcentration of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plants. The effect of some parameters such as pH and ionic strength of sample solution, amount of sorbent, flow rate of aqueous sample solution and eluent solution, concentration of eluent solution, and temperature were studied for each hormone solution. Percent extraction of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid was strongly affected by pH of aqueous sample solution. Ionic strength of aqueous phase and temperature showed no serious effects on extraction efficiency of studied plant hormones. Obtained breakthrough volume was 200mL for each of studied hormones. Preconcentration factor for spectroscopic and chromatographic determination of studied hormones was 100 and 4.0×10(3) respectively. Each solid sorbent phase was reusable for almost 10 times of extraction/stripping procedure. Relative standard deviations of extraction/stripping processes of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid were 2.79% and 3.66% respectively. The calculated limit of detections for IBA and IAA were 9.1×10(-2)mgL(-1) and 1.6×10(-1)mgL(-1) respectively. PMID:26701202

  14. A Reliable and Inexpensive Method of Nucleic Acid Extraction for the PCR-Based Detection of Diverse Plant Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A reliable extraction method is described for the preparation of total nucleic acids from several plant genera for subsequent detection of plant pathogens by PCR-based techniques. By the combined use of a modified CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) extraction protocol and a semi-automatic homogen...

  15. Selective extraction of trivalent actinides from lanthanides with dithiophosphinic acids and tributylphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.; Barrans, R.; Schroeder, N.; Wade, K.; Jones, M.; Smith, B.F.; Mills, J.; Howard, G.; Freiser, H.; Muralidharan, S.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of chemical systems have been developed to separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides based on the slightly stronger complexation of the trivalent actinides with ligands that contain soft donor atoms. The greater stability of the actinide complexes in these systems has often been attributed to a slightly greater covalent bonding component for the actinide ions relative to the lanthanide ions. The authors have investigated several synergistic extraction systems that use ligands with a combination of oxygen and sulfur donor atoms that achieve a good group separation of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides. For example, the combination of dicyclohexyldithiophosphinic acid and tributylphosphate has shown separation factors of up to 800 for americium over europium in a single extraction stage. Such systems could find application in advanced partitioning schemes for nuclear waste.

  16. Evaluation of different solvent extraction methods for removing actinides from high acid waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbro, S.L.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L. ); Rogers, J. )

    1991-01-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility, anion exchange is used to recover plutonium from nitric acid solutions. Although this approach recovers >99%, trace amounts of plutonium and other actinides remain the effluent and require additional processing. Currently, a ferric hydroxide carrier precipitation is used to remove the trace actinides and the resulting sludge is cemented. Because it costs approximately $10,000 per drum for disposal, we are developing an additional polishing step so that the effluent actinide levels are reduced to below 100 nCi/g. This would allow the resulting waste sludge to disposed as low-level waste at approximately $200 per drum. We are investigating various solvent extraction techniques for removing actinides. The most promising are chelating resins and membrane-based liquid-liquid solvent extraction. This report details some of our preliminary results. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF TOXIC HEAVY METALS FROM SOLID AND AQUEOUS MATRICES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S; Lin, Yuehe; Wai, C M.

    2003-04-09

    The feasibility of using dithiocarbamate chelating agents or sulfur-containing organophosphorus reagents for the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of toxic heavy metals from solid and aqueous matrices is investigated. Effective extraction of heavy metal ions from both sand matrix and water samples was demonstrated by using supercritical CO2 containing dithiocarbamatechelating agents. A commercially available sulfur-containing organophosphorus reagent, Cyanex 302, was used for the extraction of toxic heavy metals from wood samples. The extraction profiles were initially rapid followed by a very low level of metal extraction, indicating that the process is limited to extraction of leachable toxic metals.

  18. Method for the determination of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides in food via gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Ronald E; Riederer, Anne M; Ryan, P Barry

    2010-02-10

    We have developed a rapid, high-throughput, accurate, multiresidue method for the analysis of selected organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides in a variety of food samples suitable for use in public health and epidemiologic investigations of high-use pesticides using modifications of existing methods. The procedure involves a pesticide extraction from the food sample with acetonitrile followed by a salting-out with NaCl and cleanup of the extract with a multilayer solid-phase extraction cartridge composed of a Supelclean ENVI-CARB-II top layer and a primary-secondary amine bottom layer separated by a polyethylene frit. To evaluate the method, we performed fortification studies at 50, 100, and 200 ng/g for 3 organophosphorus and 4 pyrethroid pesticides in 16 different foods. Instrumental analysis was carried out by capillary gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Confirmatory analysis was performed by GC coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) in the selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Average recoveries for each fortification level ranged from 49 to 146% with 80% of recoveries between 80 and 120%. PMID:20073464

  19. Production of citric acid using its extraction wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion and ion exchange in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of extraction wastewater pollution in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process is proposed in this study. Extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then used to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was done for seven batches. Citric acid production (82.4 g/L on average) decreased by 34.1 % in the recycling batches (2nd-7th) compared with the first batch. And the residual reducing sugar exceeded 40 g/L on average in the recycling batches. Pigment substances, acetic acid, ammonium, and metal ions in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) were considered to be the inhibitors, and their effects on the fermentation were studied. Results indicated that ammonium, Na(+) and K(+) in the ADE significantly inhibited citric acid fermentation. Therefore, the ADE was treated by acidic cation exchange resin prior to reuse to make mash for citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was performed for ten batches, and citric acid productions in the recycling batches were 126.6 g/L on average, increasing by 1.7 % compared with the first batch. This process could eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. PMID:24522611

  20. Role of fumaric acid in anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of a Fumaria indica extracts

    PubMed Central

    Shakya, Anshul; Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to test whether the ethanolic extract of Fumaria indica (FI) possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, and fumaric acid (FA) could be one of its bioactive constituent involved in such activities of the extract. Materials and Methods: For anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma tests in rats and for analgesic activity rat tail flick test and hot plate and acetic acid writhing tests in mice were used. All tests were performed after seven daily oral doses of the FI extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day) and pure FA (1.25, 2.50, and 5.00 mg/kg/day). Results: Anti-inflammatory activities of FI and FA were observed in carrageenan-induced edema and cotton pallet granuloma even after their lowest tested doses. No analgesic activity of lowest tested dose of FA was observed in the acetic acid writhing test, but likewise, all tested dose levels of FI, higher tested dose levels of FA were also possess significant analgesic activity in this test. Further, significant analgesic activities of both FI and FA in hot plate and tale flick tests were observed after all their tested doses. Conclusions: These observations are in agreement with our working hypothesis on the connection of FA in mode(s) of action(s) of FI, and reaffirm the conviction that FI could be an herbal alternative against fibromyalgia and other pathologies often associate with, or caused by, inflammatory processes. PMID:26401369

  1. Extraction and Analysis of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids in Marine Algae.

    PubMed

    Rosic, Nedeljka N; Braun, Christoph; Kvaskoff, David

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms use mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) as biological sunscreens for the protection from damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the prevention of oxidative stress. MAAs have been discovered in many different marine and freshwater species including cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, but also in animals like cnidarian and fishes. Here, we describe a general method for the isolation and characterization of MAA compounds from red algae and symbiotic dinoflagellates isolated from coral hosts. This method is also suitable for the extraction and analyses of MAAs from a range of other algal and marine biota. PMID:26108501

  2. Endothelium-dependent vasodilator effects of the extract from Salviae Miltiorrhizae radix. A study on the identification of lithospermic acid B in the extracts.

    PubMed

    Kamata, K; Iizuka, T; Nagai, M; Kasuya, Y

    1993-07-01

    1. The aqueous extract of Salviae Miltiorrhizae radix (Chinese crude drug named "dan-shen") relaxed the noradrenaline-precontracted aorta with endothelium. 2. Vasodilation by the extract disappeared in aorta without endothelium, and was inhibited by pretreatment with 10(-4) M NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) or 10(-5) M methylene blue. 3. The inhibition of the extract-induced vasodilation by L-NMMA was reversed by L-arginine (3 x 10(-4) M). 4. The component of the extract was analyzed by chromatography, fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy (FAB-MS) and 1H-NMR. 5. An active component of the extract, which showed endothelium-dependent vasodilation, was found to be identical with lithospermic acid B. PMID:8224751

  3. Extraction and quantification of phenolic acids and flavonols from Eugenia pyriformis using different solvents.

    PubMed

    Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro; Plata-Oviedo, Manuel Salvador Vicente; de Mattos, Gisely; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Branco, Ivanise Guilherme

    2014-10-01

    The recovery of phenolic compounds of Eugenia pyriformis using different solvents was investigated in this study. The compounds were identified and quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet-visible diode-array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD/UV-vis). Absolute methanol was the most effective extraction agent of phenolic acids and flavonols (588.31 mg/Kg) from Eugenia pyriformis, although similar results (p ≤ 0.05) were observed using methanol/water (1:1 ratio). Our results clearly showed that higher contents of phenolic compounds were not obtained either with the most or the least polar solvents used. Several phenolic compounds were identified in the samples whereas gallic acid and quercetin were the major compounds recovered. PMID:25328239

  4. Isolation and extraction of ruberythric acid from Rubia tinctorum L. and crystal structure elucidation.

    PubMed

    Ford, Lauren; Rayner, Christopher M; Blackburn, Richard S

    2015-09-01

    Madder (Rubia tinctorum L.) has been exploited as a dye throughout history. The roots of the plant are very rich in the highly coloured glycosidic compounds ruberythric acid and lucidin primeveroside, alongside the corresponding aglycons which can be readily formed by deglycosylation, particularly during extraction. Supported by (1)H and (13)C NMR data, the conclusive X-ray crystal structure of the natural dye ruberythric acid is presented for the first time. The solid state structure revealed extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between the sugar moieties in the unit cell, but only intramolecular hydrogen bonding through the hydroxyquinone groups. There is also some additional π-π stacking from the anthraquinone moiety. PMID:26091962

  5. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids attenuate cigarette smoke extract-induced interleukin-8 production in bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wen-Jiang; Sun, Yan-Hong; Jiang, Jun-Xia; Dong, Xin-Wei; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Xie, Qiang-Min

    2015-03-01

    In response to endothelial cell activation, arachidonic acid can be converted by cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which have potent vasodilator and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous EETs on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced inflammation in human bronchial epithelial cells (NCI-H292). We found that CSE inhibited the expression of CYP2C8 and mildly stimulated the expression of epoxide hydrolase 2 (EPHX2) but did not change the expression of CYP2J2. Treatment with 11,12-EET or 14,15-EET attenuated the CSE-induced release of interleukin (IL)-8 by inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Our results demonstrated that CSE may reduce the anti-inflammatory ability of epithelial cells themselves by lowering the EET level. EETs from pulmonary epithelial cells may play a critical protective role on epithelial cell injury. PMID:25467970

  6. Effects of Ethanol Addition on the Efficiency of Subcritical Water Extraction of Proteins and Amino Acids from Porcine Placenta

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, hydrolysates of porcine placenta were obtained and the extraction efficiency for proteins and amino acids was compared between sub- and super-critical water extraction systems; optimum efficiency was found to be achieved using subcritical water (170℃, 10 bar). In this study, the effects of adding ethanol to the subcritical water system were investigated. The lowest-molecular-weight extraction product detected weighed 434 Da, and the efficiency of extraction for low-molecular-weight products was increased when either the concentration of ethanol was decreased, or the extraction time was lengthened from 10 min to 30 min. The highest concentration of free amino acids (approximately 8 mM) was observed following 30 min extraction using pure distilled water. The concentration of free amino acids was significantly lower when ethanol was added or a shorter extraction time was used (p<0.05). Color change of the solution following extraction was measured. There were no significant differences in color between lysates produced with different extraction times when using distilled water (p>0.05); however, using different extraction times produced significant differences in color when using 20% or 50% ethanol solution for subcritical extraction (p<0.05). The range of pH for the hydrolysate solutions was 6.4-7.5. In conclusion, the investigated extraction system was successful in the extraction of ≤ 500 Da hydrolysates from porcine placenta, but addition of ethanol did not yield higher production of low-molecular-weight hydrolysates than that achieved by DW alone. PMID:26761837

  7. New method for the rapid extraction of natural products: efficient isolation of shikimic acid from star anise.

    PubMed

    Just, Jeremy; Deans, Bianca J; Olivier, Wesley J; Paull, Brett; Bissember, Alex C; Smith, Jason A

    2015-05-15

    A new, practical, rapid, and high-yielding process for the pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of multigram quantities of shikimic acid from star anise (Illicium verum) using an unmodified household espresso machine has been developed. This operationally simple and inexpensive method enables the efficient and straightforward isolation of shikimic acid and the facile preparation of a range of its synthetic derivatives. PMID:25938329

  8. Effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye extracted from Curcuma longa L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustia, Yuda Virgantara; Suyitno, Arifin, Zainal; Sutanto, Bayu

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye. The natural dye, curcumin, was synthesized from Curcuma longa L. using a simple extraction technique. The purification of curcumin dye was conducted in a column of chromatography and its characteristics were studied. Next, the purified curcumin dye was added by benzoic acids until various acidities of 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. The absorbance spectra and the functionality groups found in the dyes were detected by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy level of the dyes, EHOMO and ELUMO was measured by cyclic voltammetry. The best energy level of curcumin dye was achieved at pH 3.5 where Ered = -0.37V, ELUMO = -4.28 eV, Eox = 1.15V, EHOMO = -5.83 eV, and Eband gap = 1.55 eV. Therefore, the purified curcumin dye added by benzoic acid was promising for sensitizing the dye-sensitized solar cells.

  9. Production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid by Burkholderia cepacia from wood extract hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    (R)-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R-HAs) are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and biopolymers because of the chiral center and the two active functional groups. Hydroxyalkanoic acids fermentation can revolutionize the polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) production by increasing efficiency and enhancing product utility. Modifying the fermentation conditions that promotes the in vivo depolymerization and secretion to fermentation broth in wild type bacteria is a novel and promising approach to produce R-HAs. Wood extract hydrolysate (WEH) was found to be a suitable substrate for R-3-hydroxybutyric acid (R-3-HB) production by Burkholderia cepacia. Using Paulownia elongate WEH as a feedstock, the R-3-HB concentration in fermentation broth reached as high as 14.2 g/L after 3 days of batch fermentation and the highest concentration of 16.8 g/L was obtained at day 9. Further investigation indicated that the composition of culture medium contributed to the enhanced R-3-HB production. PMID:24949263

  10. Effect of Ginger Extract and Citric Acid on the Tenderness of Duck Breast Muscles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of ginger extract (GE) combined with citric acid on the tenderness of duck breast muscles. Total six marinades were prepared with the combination of citric acid (0 and 0.3 M citric acid) and GE (0, 15, and 30%). Each marinade was sprayed on the surface of duck breasts (15 mL/100 g), and the samples were marinated for 72 h at 4℃. The pH and proteolytic activity of marinades were determined. After 72 h of marination, Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF), myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), pH, cooking loss, moisture content, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and protein solubility were evaluated. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in moisture content or cooking loss among all samples. However, GE marination resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in WBSF but a significant (p<0.05) increase in pH and MFI. In addition, total protein and myofibrillar protein solubility of GE-marinated duck breast muscles in both WOC (without citric acid) and WC (with citric acid) conditions were significantly (p<0.05) increased compared to non-GE-marinated duck breast muscles. SDS-PAGE showed an increase of protein degradation (MHC and actin) in WC condition compared to WOC condition. There was a marked actin reduction in GE-treated samples in WC. The tenderization effect of GE combined with citric acid may be attributed to various mechanisms such as increased MFI and myofibrillar protein solubility. PMID:26877631

  11. Effect of Ginger Extract and Citric Acid on the Tenderness of Duck Breast Muscles.

    PubMed

    He, Fu-Yi; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Si-Young; Yeo, In-Jun; Jung, Tae-Jun; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of ginger extract (GE) combined with citric acid on the tenderness of duck breast muscles. Total six marinades were prepared with the combination of citric acid (0 and 0.3 M citric acid) and GE (0, 15, and 30%). Each marinade was sprayed on the surface of duck breasts (15 mL/100 g), and the samples were marinated for 72 h at 4℃. The pH and proteolytic activity of marinades were determined. After 72 h of marination, Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF), myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), pH, cooking loss, moisture content, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and protein solubility were evaluated. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in moisture content or cooking loss among all samples. However, GE marination resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in WBSF but a significant (p<0.05) increase in pH and MFI. In addition, total protein and myofibrillar protein solubility of GE-marinated duck breast muscles in both WOC (without citric acid) and WC (with citric acid) conditions were significantly (p<0.05) increased compared to non-GE-marinated duck breast muscles. SDS-PAGE showed an increase of protein degradation (MHC and actin) in WC condition compared to WOC condition. There was a marked actin reduction in GE-treated samples in WC. The tenderization effect of GE combined with citric acid may be attributed to various mechanisms such as increased MFI and myofibrillar protein solubility. PMID:26877631

  12. EFFECT OF PERILLA FRUTESCENS EXTRACTS AND ROSMARINIC ACID ON RAT HEART MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTIONS.

    PubMed

    Raudone, Lina; Burdulis, Deividas; Raudonis, Raimondas; Janulis, Valdimaras; Jankauskiene, Laima; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2016-01-01

    Perilla frutescens L. due to its aromatic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant traits has been traditionally used as medicinal plant in Eastern Asia. Alterations of mitochondria are interconnected with many chronic diseases. Bioactives of herbal extracts can modulate mitochondrial effects and be beneficial in prevention of mitochondrial related chronic diseases. Direct effects of the red-leaf form P. frutescens extract (PFE) and the green-leaf form P. frutescens var. crispa f. viridis extract (PCE) were evaluated investigating activities on the oxidative phosphorylation and antioxidant activity in the rat heart mitochondria in vitro. HPLC-MS analysis was applied for the identification of phenolic compounds. Cell with a Clark-type oxygen electrode was used for mitochondrial respiration measurement. The generation of reactive oxygen species was estimated in isolated rat heart mitochondria and determined fluorimetrically. State 3 respiration rate was not affected by lower concentrations, however, it was inhibited at higher concentrations by 22-70% for PFE and by 45-55% for PCE. PFE containing anthocyanins induced the concentration-dependent stimulation (by 23-76%) of the State 4 respiration rate after addition of cytochrome c due to reducing properties. Significant reduction of H₂O₂ pro- duction was observed with investigated concentrations of rosmarinic acid and both perilla extracts. Our results demonstrate that the effect of PFE and PCE extracts on rat heart mitochondria depend on the qualitative characteristics of complex of biologically active compounds. Selective effects on mitochondrial function could enable the regulation of apoptosis or another mechanisms occurring in cells. PMID:27008808

  13. Detection of Chlorogenic Acid in Honeysuckle Using Infrared-Assisted Extraction Followed by Capillary Electrophoresis with UV Detector

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhuxing; Zang, Shuliang; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a novel infrared-assisted extraction method coupled capillary electrophoresis (CE) is employed to determine chlorogenic acid from a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), honeysuckle. The effects of pH and the concentration of the running buffer, separation voltage, injection time, IR irradiation time, and anhydrous ethanol in the extraction concentration were investigated. The optimal conditions were as follows: extraction time, 30 min; extraction solvent, 80% (v/v) ethanol in water solution; and 50 mmol/L borate buffer (pH 8.7) was used as the running buffer at a separation voltage of 16 kV. The samples were injected electrokinetically at 16 kV for 8 s. Good linearity (r2 > 0.9996) was observed over the concentration ranges investigated, and the stability of the solutions was high. Recoveries of the chlorogenic acid were from 95.53% to 106.62%, and the relative standard deviation was below 4.1%. By using this novel IR-assisted extraction method, a higher extraction efficiency than those extracted with conventional heat-reflux extraction was found. The developed IR-assisted extraction method is simple, low-cost, and efficient, offering a great promise for the quick determination of active compounds in TCM. The results indicated that IR-assisted extraction followed by CE is a reliable method for quantitative analysis of active ingredient in TCM. PMID:22291060

  14. Fatty acid profile and elemental content of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil--effect of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mageshni; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in vegetable oil extracted from idioblast cells of avocado fruit is growing. In this study, five extraction methods to produce avocado oil have been compared: traditional solvent extraction using a Soxhlet or ultrasound, Soxhlet extraction combined with microwave or ultra-turrax treatment and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Traditional Soxhlet extraction produced the most reproducible results, 64.76 ± 0.24 g oil/100 g dry weight (DW) and 63.67 ± 0.20 g oil/100 g DW for Hass and Fuerte varieties, respectively. Microwave extraction gave the highest yield of oil (69.94%) from the Hass variety. Oils from microwave extraction had the highest fatty acid content; oils from SFE had wider range of fatty acids. Oils from Fuerte variety had a higher monounsaturated: saturated FA ratio (3.45-3.70). SFE and microwave extraction produced the best quality oil, better than traditional Soxhlet extraction, with the least amount of oxidizing metals present. PMID:22494376

  15. Praseodymium Nitrate and Neodymium Complexation with Organophosphorus Reagents in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Robert V. Fox; R. Duane Ball; Peter de B. Harrington; Harry W. Rollins; John G. Jolley; Chien M. Wai

    2004-11-01

    Complex formation reactions of praseodymium nitrate hexahydrate, and neodymium nitrate hexahydrate salts with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and several other neutral organophosphorus reagents were investigated in supercritical carbon dioxide. The concentration of the metal complexes in the supercritical fluid (SCF) phase was determined using UV-Vis and luminescence spectroscopies. The stoichiometry of the complexes was determined using the mole-ratio method. Extraction equilibrium constants were calculated from the spectral data using least-squares regression and hard-equilibria models. UV-Vis absorbance data indicate that praseodymium nitrate and neodymium nitrate both form 1:4 lanthanide–tributyl phosphate complexes in supercritical carbon dioxide at 308 K. The conditional extraction coefficients for those two systems were calculated to be log Kex=7.45±0.06 for the praseodymium system and log Kex=7.52±0.03 for the neodymium system. For comparison, neodymium nitrate complexation reactions with tri-n-butyl phosphate and tributyl phosphite (TBPO3) were studied in hexane under ambient conditions. UV-Vis data indicate that a 1:4 neodymium–tributyl phosphate complex is formed in hexane with a conditional extraction coefficient of log Kex=3.4±0.2. Tributyl phosphite forms a 1:8 complex with neodymium in hexane with a conditional extraction coefficient of log Kex=11.0±0.1. Neodymium nitrate was titrated with other organophosphorus reagents, tributyl phosphite and tributyl phosphine oxide (TBPO), in supercritical carbon dioxide to investigate differences between neutral oxygen donor ligands and neutral phosphorus donor ligands. UV-Vis and luminescence data indicate that neodymium nitrate forms a 1:8 complex with tributyl phosphite and a 1:5 complex with tributyl phosphine oxide, compared to a 1:4 complex with tri-n-butyl phosphate. The conditional extraction coefficient for the 1:8 neodymium–tributyl phosphite system was calculated as log Kex=21.4±0.2 from UV

  16. Soybean extract showed modulation of retinoic acid-related gene expression of skin and photo-protective effects in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, N-H; Park, J-S; Kang, Y-G; Bae, J-H; Lee, H-K; Yeom, M-H; Cho, J-C; Na, Y J

    2013-04-01

    Soy extracts are well known as medicinal and nutritional ingredients, and exhibit benefits towards human skin including depigmenting or anti-ageing effects. Despite the wrinkle decreasing effects of retinoids on skin as an anti-ageing ingredient, retinoid application can causes photo-sensitive responses such as skin irritation. Thus, their daytime usage is not recommended. The aim of this study is the investigation into the activities of soybean extract as an anti-ageing ingredient and their comparison to retinoids in this respect. Soybean extract decreased the relative ratio of MMP-1/TIMP-1 mRNA to the same degree as retinoic acid in normal human fibroblasts. It also affected mRNA levels of HAS2 and CRABP2 in normal human keratinocytes. Furthermore, we investigated its effect on mRNA expression of histidase, an enzyme that converts histidine into urocanic acid, the main UV light absorption factor of the stratum corneum. Unlike the complete inhibition of histidase exhibited by the mRNA expression of retinoic acid, the effect of soybean extract on histidase gene expression was weaker in normal human keratinocytes. Also, soybean extract pretreatment inhibited UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation dose-dependently in normal human keratinocytes. In this study, we found that soybean extract modulated retinoic acid-related genes and showed photo-protective effects. Our findings suggest that soybean extract could be an anti-ageing ingredient that can be safely used under the sunlight. PMID:23075113

  17. DIAMIDE DERIVATIVES OF DIPICOLINIC ACID AS ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE EXTRACTANTS IN A VARIATION OF THE UNEX PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Peterman; R. S. Herbst; J. D. Law; R. D. Tillotson; T. G. Garn; T. A. Todd; V. N. Romanovskiy; V. A. Babain; M. Yu. Alyapyshev; I. V. Smirnov

    2007-09-01

    The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of cesium, strontium, and actinides from acidic solutions. This process utilizes an extractant consisting of 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (HCCD), 0.007-0.02 M polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl-N,N-di-n-butylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (Ph2CMPO) in the diluent trifluoromethylphenyl sulfone (CF3C6H5SO2, designated FS-13) and provides simultaneous extraction of Cs, Sr, actinides, and lanthanides from HNO3 solutions. The UNEX process is of limited utility for processing acidic solutions containing large quantities of lanthanides and/or actinides, such as dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions. These constraints are primarily attributed to the limited concentrations of CMPO (a maximum of ~0.02 M) in the organic phase and limited solubility of the CMPO-metal complexes. As a result, alternative actinide and lanthanide extractants are being investigated for use with HCCD as an improvement for waste processing and for applications where higher concentrations of the metals are present. Our preliminary results indicate that diamide derivatives of dipicolinic acid may function as efficient actinide and lanthanide extractants. The results to be presented indicate that, of the numerous diamides studied to date, the tetrabutyldiamide of dipicolinic acid, TBDPA, shows the most promise as an alternative actinide/lanthanide extractant in the UNEX process.

  18. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of pectins from grape pomace using citric acid: a response surface methodology approach.

    PubMed

    Minjares-Fuentes, R; Femenia, A; Garau, M C; Meza-Velázquez, J A; Simal, S; Rosselló, C

    2014-06-15

    An ultrasound-assisted procedure for the extraction of pectins from grape pomace with citric acid as the extracting agent was established. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to optimize the extraction temperature (X1: 35-75°C), extraction time (X2: 20-60 min) and pH (X3: 1.0-2.0) to obtain a high yield of pectins with high average molecular weight (MW) and degree of esterification (DE) from grape pomace. Analysis of variance showed that the contribution of a quadratic model was significant for the pectin extraction yield and for pectin MW whereas the DE of pectins was more influenced by a linear model. An optimization study using response surface methodology was performed and 3D response surfaces were plotted from the mathematical model. According to the RSM model, the highest pectin yield (∼32.3%) can be achieved when the UAE process is carried out at 75°C for 60 min using a citric acid solution of pH 2.0. These pectic polysaccharides, composed mainly by galacturonic acid units (<97% of total sugars), have an average MW of 163.9 kDa and a DE of 55.2%. Close agreement between experimental and predicted values was found. These results suggest that ultrasound-assisted extraction could be a good option for the extraction of functional pectins with citric acid from grape pomace at industrial level. PMID:24721067

  19. Study on solvent extraction of propionic acid from simulated discharged water in vitamin B12 production by anaerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang; Chang, Zhidong; Ma, Yinchen; Lei, Chao; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Tingyu; Liu, Huizhou; Zuo, Yanjun; Li, Xin

    2009-06-01

    The potential of recovering propionic acid from discharged water in vitamin B(12) production by anaerobic fermentation was investigated in this paper. A primary amine, N(1923), was used as the extractant, kerosene as diluter and n-octanol as modifier. The influences of the content of N(1923) in the organic phase, the phase ratio and the pH of aqueous phase on the extraction yield of propionic acid were studied. The organic phase composition with the volume ratio was proposed of N(1923):kerosene:n-octanol as 45:35:20. Under conditions of the phase ratio (o/w) as 1:4, the pH of aqueous phase of 3.0 and after 5 min extraction, the extraction yield of propionic acid can be over 97%. PMID:19201188

  20. Stimulation of delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Formation in Algal Extracts by Heterologous RNA.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, J D; Mayer, S M; Beale, S I

    1986-12-01

    Formation of the chlorophyll and heme precursor delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) from glutamate in soluble extracts of Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena gracilis, and Cyanidium caldarium was stimulated by addition of low molecular weight RNA derived from greening algae or plant tissue. Enzyme extracts were prepared for the ALA formation assay by high-speed centrifugation, partial RNA depletion, and gel filtration through Sephadex G-25. RNA was extracted from greening barley epicotyls, greening cucumber cotyledon chloroplasts, and growing cells of Chlorella, Euglena, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Anacystis nidulans, freed of protein, and fractionated on DEAE-cellulose to yield an active component corresponding to the tRNA-containing fraction. RNA from homologous and heterologous species stimulated ALA formation when added to enzyme extracts, and the degree of stimulation was proportional to the amount of RNA added. Algal enzyme extracts were stimulated by algal RNAs interchangeably, with the exception of RNA prepared from aplastidic Euglena, which did not stimulate ALA production. RNA from greening cucumber cotyledon chloroplasts and greening barley epicotyls stimulated ALA formation in algal enzyme incubations. In contrast, tRNA from Escherichia coli, both nonspecific and glutamate-specific, as well as wheat germ, bovine liver, and yeast tRNA, failed to reconstitute ALA formation. Moreover, E. coli tRNA inhibited ALA formation by algal extracts, both in the presence and absence of added algal RNA. Chlorella extracts were capable of catalyzing aminoacyl bond formation between glutamate and both the activity reconstituting and nonreconstituting RNAs, indicating that the inability of some RNAs to stimulate ALA formation was not due to their inability to serve as glutamyl acceptors. The first step in the ALA-forming reaction sequence has been proposed to be activation of glutamate via aminoacyl bond formation with a specific tRNA, analogous to the first step in peptide bond

  1. Fatty acids composition of Tunisian Ziziphus lotus L. (Desf.) fruits and variation in biological activities between leaf and fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Ghazghazi, Hanene; Aouadhi, Chedia; Riahi, Leila; Maaroufi, Abderrazak; Hasnaoui, Brahim

    2014-01-01

    This study was conceived to evaluate the essential fatty acids, secondary metabolites, antiradical and antimicrobial activities of unexploited Tunisian Ziziphus lotus L. The obtained results indicated that the major components of fatty acids were oleic acid (88.12%) and elaidic acid (7.88%). Leaves contained higher amount of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins than fruits, although both methanolic extracts had significant antioxidant activities. Significant correlations were observed between the total phenol or flavonoid contents in methanolic extracts and antioxidant activity estimated by using both 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic radical-scavenging methods. In addition, both methanolic extracts exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal activities. The inhibition zone diameters and the minimal inhibition concentration values were in the range of 10-17 mm and 3.1-50 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:24805194

  2. Optimization of polyphenol extraction from red grape pomace using aqueous glycerol/tartaric acid mixtures and response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Makris, Dimitris P; Passalidi, Vassiliki; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Mourtzinos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Grape pomace is a food industry waste containing a high burden of antioxidant polyphenols and several methodologies have been developed for their efficient extraction. However, a sustainable and environmentally friendly process should involve recovery means composed of benign, non-toxic solvents, such as tartaric acid and glycerol, which are natural food constituents. In this line, this study examined the extraction of polyphenols using aqueous tartaric acid/glycerol solutions. The aim was to assess the role of acid and glycerol concentration in the extraction yield, employing a Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology. The results showed that solutions containing only glycerol (20%, w/v) are more suitable for retrieving polyphenols, flavonoids, and pigments from grape pomace, while tartaric acid exerted a negative effect in this regard, when tested at concentrations up to 2% (w/v). PMID:25806718

  3. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Ono, Kenjiro; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Iwasa, Kazuo; Nagai, Toshitada; Kobayashi, Shoko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state) and Study 2 (fed state)]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals. Trial Registration Trial Registration: UMIN-CTR UMIN000004997 PMID:25978046

  4. Studies on the Inhibitive Effect of Datura Stramonium Extract on the Acid Corrosion of Mild Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan

    The extract of Datura stramonium has been studied as a possible source of green inhibitor for corrosion of mild steel (MS) in HCl and H2SO4 media at different temperatures. The anticorrosion effect was evaluated by conventional weight loss studies, electrochemical studies viz., Tafel polarization, ac impedance, and SEM studies. The studies reveal that the plant extract acts as a good inhibitor in both the acid media and better in H2SO4 medium. Tafel polarization method indicate that the plant extract behaves as a mixed mode inhibitor. Double layer capacitance and charge transfer resistance values derived from Nyquist plots obtained from ac impedance studies give supporting evidence for the anticorrosive effect. The inhibitive effect may be attributed to the adsorption of the inhibitor on the surface of MS, following Temkin adsorption isotherm. Increase of inhibition efficiency with increase of temperature along with Ea values serve as a proof for chemisorption. SEM studies provide the confirmatory evidence for the protection of MS by the green inhibitor. The study reveals the potential of D. stramonium for combating corrosion which may be due to the adsorption of alkaloids and other phytoconstituents.

  5. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Sairazi, Nur Shafika; Sirajudeen, K. N. S.; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Mummedy, Swamy; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah

    2015-01-01

    Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS). In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA). KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration. PMID:26793262

  6. Simultaneous separation and detection of actinides in acidic solutions using an extractive scintillating resin.

    PubMed

    Roane, J E; DeVol, T A

    2002-11-01

    An extractive scintillating resin was evaluated for the simultaneous separation and detection of actinides in acidic solutions. The transuranic extractive scintillating (TRU-ES) resin is composed of an inert macroporous polystyrene core impregnated with organic fluors (diphenyloxazole and 1,4-bis-(4-methyl-5-phenyl-2-oxazolyl)benzene) and an extractant (octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide in tributyl phosphate). The TRU-ES resin was packed into FEP Teflon tubing to produce a flow cell (0.2-mL free column volume), which is placed into a scintillation detection system to obtain pulse height spectra and time series data during loading and elution of actinides onto/from the resin. The alpha-particle absolute detection efficiencies ranged from 77% to 96.5%, depending on the alpha energy and quench. In addition to the on-line analyses, off-line analyses of the effluent can be conducted using conventional detection methods. The TRU-ES resin was applied to the quantification of a mixed radionuclide solution and two actual waste samples. The on-line characterization of the mixed radionuclide solution was within 10% of the reported activities whereas the agreement with the waste samples was not as good due to sorption onto the sample container walls and the oxidation state of plutonium. Agreement between the on-line and off-line analyses was within 35% of one another for both waste samples. PMID:12433098

  7. Production of biodiesel from vegetable oil and microalgae by fatty acid extraction and enzymatic esterification.

    PubMed

    Castillo López, Beatriz; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Robles Medina, Alfonso; Navarro López, Elvira; Martín Valverde, Lorena; Hita Peña, Estrella; González Moreno, Pedro A; Molina Grima, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain biodiesel (methyl esters) from the saponifiable lipids (SLs) fraction of the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana, whose biomass dry weight contains 12.1 wt% of these lipids. SLs were extracted from the microalga as free fatty acids (FFAs) for subsequent transformation to methyl esters (biodiesel) by enzymatic esterification. Extraction as FFAs rather than as SLs allows them to be obtained with higher purity. Microalgal FFAs were obtained by direct saponification of lipids in the biomass and subsequent extraction-purification with hexane. Esterification of FFAs with methanol was catalysed by lipase Novozym 435 from Candida antarctica. Stability studies of this lipase in the operational conditions showed that the esterification degree (ED) attained with the same batch of lipase remained constant over six reaction cycles (36 h total reaction time). The optimal conditions attained for 4 g of FFAs were 25°C, 200 rpm, methanol/FFA molar ratio of 1.5:1, Novozym 435/FFA ratio of 0.025:1 w/w and 4 h reaction time. In these conditions the ED attained was 92.6%, producing a biodiesel with 83 wt% purity from microalgal FFAs. Several experimental scales were tested (from 4 to 40 g FFAs), and in all cases similar EDs were obtained. PMID:25575971

  8. Filtration Isolation of Nucleic Acids: A Simple and Rapid DNA Extraction Method.

    PubMed

    McFall, Sally M; Neto, Mário F; Reed, Jennifer L; Wagner, Robin L

    2016-01-01

    FINA, filtration isolation of nucleic acids, is a novel extraction method which utilizes vertical filtration via a separation membrane and absorbent pad to extract cellular DNA from whole blood in less than 2 min. The blood specimen is treated with detergent, mixed briefly and applied by pipet to the separation membrane. The lysate wicks into the blotting pad due to capillary action, capturing the genomic DNA on the surface of the separation membrane. The extracted DNA is retained on the membrane during a simple wash step wherein PCR inhibitors are wicked into the absorbent blotting pad. The membrane containing the entrapped DNA is then added to the PCR reaction without further purification. This simple method does not require laboratory equipment and can be easily implemented with inexpensive laboratory supplies. Here we describe a protocol for highly sensitive detection and quantitation of HIV-1 proviral DNA from 100 µl whole blood as a model for early infant diagnosis of HIV that could readily be adapted to other genetic targets. PMID:27583575

  9. The carbon distribution among the functional groups of humic acids isolated by sequential alkaline extraction from gray forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodov, V. A.; Konstantinov, A. I.; Perminova, I. V.

    2009-11-01

    Preparations of humic acids (HAs) were isolated from a gray forest soil by sequential alkaline extraction. From a sample of 500 g, HA preparations of 2.24, 0.23, and 0.20 g were obtained from the first, second, and third alkaline extracts, respectively. The structure of the preparations was determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy. At each next extraction step, the portion of aliphatic fragments in the HA preparations increased and the content of aromatic structures decreased. The conclusion was drawn that a single extraction is sufficient for obtaining a representative HA sample.

  10. Adsorption and corrosion-inhibiting effect of Dacryodis edulis extract on low-carbon-steel corrosion in acidic media.

    PubMed

    Oguzie, E E; Enenebeaku, C K; Akalezi, C O; Okoro, S C; Ayuk, A A; Ejike, E N

    2010-09-01

    The inhibition of low-carbon-steel corrosion in 1M HCl and 0.5M H(2)SO(4) by extracts of Dacryodis edulis (DE) was investigated using gravimetric and electrochemical techniques. DE extract was found to inhibit the uniform and localized corrosion of carbon steel in the acidic media, affecting both the cathodic and anodic partial reactions. The corrosion process was inhibited by adsorption of the extracted organic matter onto the steel surface in a concentration-dependent manner and involved both protonated and molecular species. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to illustrate the process of adsorption of some specific components of the extract. PMID:20609846

  11. Effects of Fruit Ellagitannin Extracts, Ellagic Acid, and Their Colonic Metabolite, Urolithin A, on Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Meenakshi; Li, Liya; Celver, Jeremy; Killian, Caroline; Kovoor, Abraham; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent data suggest that ellagitannins (ETs), a class of hydrolyzable tannins found in some fruits and nuts, may have beneficial effects against colon cancer. In the stomach and gut, ETs hydrolyze to release ellagic acid (EA) and are converted by gut microbiota to urolithin-A (UA; 3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one) type metabolites which may persist in the colon through enterohepatic circulation. However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of either the native compounds or their metabolites on colon carcinogenesis. Components of Wnt signaling pathways are known to play a pivotal role in human colon carcinogenesis and inappropriate activation of the signaling cascade is observed in 90% of colorectal cancers. Here we investigated the effects of UA, EA, and ET rich fruit extracts on Wnt signaling in a human 293T cell line using a luciferase reporter of canonical Wnt pathway-mediated transcriptional activation. The ET extracts were obtained from strawberry (Fragaria annassa), Jamun berry (Eugenia jambolana), and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and were all standardized to phenolic content (as gallic acid equivalents, GAEs, by the Folin Ciocalteau method) and to EA content (by high performance liquid chromatography methods): strawberry=20.5% GAE, 5.0% EA; Jamun berry= 20.5% GAE, 4.2% EA; pomegranate= 55% GAE, 3.5% EA. The ET-extracts (IC50=28.0-30.0 μg/mL), EA (IC50=19.0 μg/mL; 63 μM) and UA (IC50=9.0 μg/mL; 39 μM) inhibited Wnt signaling suggesting that ET-rich foods have potential against colon carcinogenesis and that urolithins are relevant bioactive constituents in the colon. PMID:20014760

  12. Particulate matter formation from photochemical degradation of organophosphorus pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás, E.; Ródenas, M.; Vera, T.; Muñoz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Several experiments were performed in the European Photo-reactor - EUPHORE - for studying aerosol formation from organophosphorus pesticides such as diazinon, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl and pirimiphos-methyl. The mass concentration yields obtained (Y) were in the range 5 - 44% for the photo-oxidation reactions in the presence and the absence of NOx. These results confirm the importance of studying pesticides as significant precursors of atmospheric particulate matter due to the serious risks associated to them. The studies based on the use of EUPHORE photoreactor provide useful data about atmospheric degradation processes of organophosphorus pesticides to the atmosphere. Knowledge of the specific degradation products, including the formation of secondary particulate matter, could complete the assessment of their potential impact, since the formation of those degradation products plays a significant role in the atmospheric chemistry, global climate change, radiative force, and are related to health effects.

  13. Biodegradation and Utilization of Organophosphorus Pesticide Malathion by Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Wael M.; Karam, Mohamed A.; El-Shahat, Reda M.; Adway, Asmaa A.

    2014-01-01

    Three strains of filamentous Cyanobacteria were used to study their growth and utilization of organophosphorus pesticide malathion. A sharp decrease in the growth of the algal strains was observed by increasing the concentration of malathion. Amongst them Nostoc muscorum tolerated different concentrations and was recorded as the highest efficient strain for biodegradation (91%) of this compound. Moreover, carbohydrate and protein content of their cells overtopped the other strains especially at higher concentrations. The algal strains were further subjected to grow under P-limitation in absence and presence of malathion. Although, the algal growth under P-limitation recorded a very poor level, a massive enhanced growth and phosphorous content of cells were obtained when the P-limited medium was amended with malathion. This study clarified that N. muscorum with its capability to utilize malathion as a sole phosphorous source is considered as an inexpensive and efficient biotechnology for remediation of organophosphorus pesticide from contaminated wastewater. PMID:24864237

  14. Stability Test and Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of the Amino Acids in Pharmacopuncture Extracted from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans

    PubMed Central

    Cho, GyeYoon; Han, KyuChul; Yoon, JinYoung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (S. subspinipes mutilans) is known as a traditional medicine and includes various amino acids, peptides and proteins. The amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans by using derivatization methods were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) over a 12 month period to confirm its stability. Methods: Amino acids of pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans were derived by using O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) & 9-fluorenyl methoxy carbonyl chloride (FMOC) reagent and were analyzed using HPLC. The amino acids were detected by using a diode array detector (DAD) and a fluorescence detector (FLD) to compare a mixed amino acid standard (STD) to the pharmacopuncture from centipedes. The stability tests on the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were done using HPLC for three conditions: a room temperature test chamber, an acceleration test chamber, and a cold test chamber. Results: The pharmacopuncture from centipedes was prepared by using the method of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI) and through quantitative analyses was shown to contain 9 amino acids of the 16 amino acids in the mixed amino acid STD. The amounts of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were 34.37 ppm of aspartate, 123.72 ppm of arginine, 170.63 ppm of alanine, 59.55 ppm of leucine and 57 ppm of lysine. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) results for the pharmacopuncture from centipedes had a maximum value of 14.95% and minimum value of 1.795% on the room temperature test chamber, the acceleration test chamber and the cold test chamber stability tests. Conclusion: Stability tests on and quantitative and qualitative analyses of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes by using derivatization methods were performed by using HPLC. Through research, we hope to determine the relationship between time and the

  15. Effect of lime on the availability of residual phosphorus and its extractability by dilute acid

    SciTech Connect

    Rhue, R.D.; Hensel, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of liming an acid, P-deficient Placid sand (sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Humaquept) on the availability of residual fertilizer P to potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). Dolomitic limestone was applied in November 1977, at rates of 0, 2240, 4480, and 8960 kg/ha in a split-plot design with lime as main plots and P treatments as subplots. Phosphorus was applied at rates of 0, 56, 112, and 168 kg/ha in 1978. In 1979 and 1980, P plots were split with one-half fertilized with 56 kg P/ha and the other one-half not fertilized with P (residual). In 1978, maximum tuber yields and top dry weights occurred at the 2240 kg/ha lime rate which resulted in a soil pH of 5.8. Plant P concentrations were unaffected by lime at any sampling rate. In 1979, availability of residual soil P decreased with lime rates > 2240 kg/ha but not enough to significantly affect yields. However, in 1980, overliming injury was observed for tuber yields at the higher lime rates which was the result of P deficiency. Application of P at planting eliminated the overliming injury with maximum yields occurring in the pH range of 6.0 to 6.5. It appears that liming to pH 6.5 in this study resulted in fertilizer reaction products that were more soluble in dilute acid but less plant available than those formed under more acid conditions. However, the Mehlich I extractant appeared to be a suitable extractant for P on this soil if pH was taken into account when interpreting soil-test P. 23 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Determination of 49 organophosphorus pesticide residues and their metabolites in fish, egg, and milk by dual gas chromatography-dual pulse flame photometric detection with gel permeation chromatography cleanup.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lixin; Li, Heli; Zeng, Fangang; Liu, Yinping; Li, Ruifeng; Chen, Huijing; Zhao, Yunfeng; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

    2012-02-29

    A new method for the quantitative determination of 49 kinds of organophosphorus pesticide residues and their metabolites in fish, egg, and milk by dual gas chromatography-dual pulse flame photometric detection was developed. Homogenized samples were extracted with acetone and methylene chloride (1 + 1, v/v), and then the extracts were cleaned up by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The response of each organophosphorus pesticide showed a good linearity with its concentration; the linearity correlation was not less than 0.99. The detection limits (S/N = 3) of pesticides were in the range of 0.001-0.025 mg kg⁻¹. The recovery experiments were performed by blank sample spiked at low, medium, and high fortification levels. The recoveries for fish, egg, and milk were 50.9-142.2, 53.3-137.2, and 50.3-139.4% with relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 6) of 2.3-24.9, 4.3-26.7, and 2.8-32.2%, respectively. The method was applied to detect organophosphorus pesticides in samples collected from the market, and satisfactory results were obtained. This quantitative method was highly sensitive and exact and could be applied to the accurate determination of organophosphorus contaminants in fish, egg, and milk. PMID:22300587

  17. The application of green chemistry methods in organophosphorus synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odinets, Irina L.; Matveeva, E. V.

    2012-03-01

    Data concerning the synthesis of organophosphorus compounds in ionic liquids, in water and under solvent-free conditions are considered and summarized. It is shown that this strategy, which complies with the definition of green chemistry, has advantages in terms of the rate of the process and the yields of target products as compared with syntheses in common organic solvents. The Wittig, Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons, Kabachnik-Fields, Arbuzov and Michaelis reactions are considered as examples. The bibliography includes 178 references.

  18. [Multiresidue analysis of organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables and fruits using dual-column GC-FPD, -NPD].

    PubMed

    Ueno, E; Oshima, H; Saito, I; Matsumoto, H

    2001-12-01

    We investigated simultaneous and consecutive analytical methods for pesticide residues in large numbers of vegetable and fruit samples. Extraction of the sample with acetonitrile was followed by a salting-out step using a graduated cylinder. Co-extractives were removed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and the pesticide eluate was separated to 2 fractions. Firstly, the second fraction (85-125 mL) was passed through a silica-gel mini-column. After putting a Florisil mini-column before the silica-gel mini-column, the first fraction (55-85 mL) was passed through the tandem mini-columns, which were then eluted with 15 mL of 50% acetone/petroleum ether. The eluate was subjected to dual-column GC with dual FPD (P mode, column Rtx-OPPesticides) and NPD (column Rtx-200) detectors. Recoveries of 63 organophosphorus pesticides from fortified spinach, tomato, apple and strawberry, ranged from 71 to 126% with RSD values of 1-18%, except for the RSDs of omethoate, isoxathion, and pyraclofos (20% <). Detection limits of pesticides were 0.5-2 ng/g. Surveillance of pesticides in vegetables and fruits was carried out by using the present method. From 20 out of 30 samples, 15 pesticides (39 in total) were detected. The results indicated that the present method can be applied as an efficient and reliable tool for monitoring organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits. PMID:11875824

  19. Effect of nucleic acid binding dyes on DNA extraction, amplification, and STR typing.

    PubMed

    Haines, Alicia M; Tobe, Shanan S; Kobus, Hilton J; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-10-01

    We report on the effects of six dyes used in the detection of DNA on the process of DNA extraction, amplification, and detection of STR loci. While dyes can be used to detect the presence of DNA, their use is restricted if they adversely affect subsequent DNA typing processes. Diamond™ Nucleic Acid Dye, GelGreen™, GelRed™, RedSafe™, SYBR(®) Green I, and EvaGreen™ were evaluated in this study. The percentage of dye removed during the extraction process was determined to be: 70.3% for SYBR(®) Green I; 99.6% for RedSafe™; 99.4% for EvaGreen™; 52.7% for Diamond™ Dye; 50.6% for GelRed™, and; could not be determined for GelGreen™. It was then assumed that the amount of dye in the fluorescent quantification assay had no effect on the DNA signal. The presence of all six dyes was then reviewed for their effect on DNA extraction. The t-test showed no significant difference between the dyes and the control. These extracts were then STR profiled and all dyes and control produced full DNA profiles. STR loci in the presence of GelGreen(TM) at 1X concentration showed increased amplification products in comparison to the control samples. Full STR profiles were detected in the presence of EvaGreen™ (1X), although with reduced amplification products. RedSafe™ (1X), Diamond™ Dye (1X), and SYBR(®) Green I (1X) all exhibited varying degrees of locus drop-out with GelRed™ generating no loci at all. We provide recommendations for the best dye to visualize the presence of DNA profile as a biological stain and its subsequent amplification and detection. PMID:26202628

  20. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100-6000mgcarbonL(-1). (13)C CPMAS-NMR and GC-MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS (13)CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R(2)=-0.85; p<0.01, n=6). PMID:27100009

  1. Wildlife mortality attributed to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glaser, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides are used widely in agricultural and residential applications as insecticides, herbicides, fungicities. and rodenticides. This family of chemicals replaced the organochlorine pesticides banned for use in the United States in the 1970's. Unlike organochlorine pesticides, which are long-lived in the environment and cause biological damage when they accumulate in an organism's system over time. OP and carbamate pesticides are short-lived in the environment and fast-acting on their 'target pest.' Direct mortality of wildlife from organochlorine pesticides was uncommon (Hayes and Wayland 1975): however, mortality is the primary documented effect on wildlife from OP and carbamate pesticides (Grue et al. 1983). Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide toxicity is not specific to a target 'pest,' and lethal effects are seen in nontarget organisms: birds appear to be the most sensitive class of animals affected by these pesticides. Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides primainly affect the nervous system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity. This enzyme's main function in the nervous system is to break down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. When AChE is altered by OP and carbamate pesticides, it cannot perform this breakdown function and acetylcholine accumulates. Acetylcholine accumulation increases nerve impulse transmission and leads to nerve exhaustion and. ultimately, failure of the nervous system. When the nervous system fails, muscles do not receive the electrical input they require to move. The respiratory muscles are the most critical muscle group affected, and respiratory paralysis is often the immediate cause of death.

  2. Determination of free phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts obtained from fruits and leaves of Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Laghari, Abdul Hafeez; Memon, Shahabuddin; Nelofar, Aisha; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Yasmin, Arfa

    2011-06-15

    In this study, determination of phenolic acids as well as investigation of antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from the fruits and leaves of Chenopodium album is described. Extracts were subjected to acidic hydrolysis in order to obtain total free phenolic acids. However, some of phenolic acids were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD. The results were confirmed by LC-MS equipped with MS-ESI. In addition, Folin-Ciocalteu method was applied to determine the total phenolic contents. The antioxidant activity of C. album extracts was examined by using DPPH and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity assays. Results revealed that the leaves extract exhibits better performance in antioxidant assays and in the higher total phenolic contents (3066mg of GAE/100g) when compared to fruits extract (1385mg of GAE/100g). From these results it has been revealed that the methanolic extracts of C. album from fruits and leaves have great potential as a source for natural health products. PMID:25213967

  3. Chromolithic method development, validation and system suitability analysis of ultra-sound assisted extraction of glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Suphla; Sharma, Rajni; Pandotra, Pankaj; Jaglan, Sundeep; Gupta, Ajai Prakash

    2012-08-01

    An ultrasound-assisted extraction and chromolithic LC method was developed for simultaneous determination of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GL) from the root extract of Glycyrrhizza glabra using RPLC-PDA. The developed method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonisation. The method exhibited good linearity (r2 > 0.9989) with high precision and achieved good accuracies between 97.5 to 101.3% of quantitative results. The method is more sensitive and faster (resolved within ten minutes) than the earlier developed methods using normal LC columns. PMID:22978213

  4. Evaluation of commercial kits for the extraction and purification of viral nucleic acids from environmental and fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Iker, Brandon C; Bright, Kelly R; Pepper, Ian L; Gerba, Charles P; Kitajima, Masaaki

    2013-07-01

    The extraction and purification of nucleic acids is a critical step in the molecular detection of enteric viruses from environmental or fecal samples. In the present study, the performance of three commercially available kits was assessed: the MO BIO PowerViral Environmental DNA/RNA Isolation kit, the Qiagen QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit, and the Zymo ZR Virus DNA/RNA Extraction kit. Viral particles of adenovirus 2 (AdV), murine norovirus (MNV), and poliovirus type 1 (PV1) were spiked in molecular grade water and three different types of sample matrices (i.e., biosolids, feces, and surface water concentrates), extracted with the kits, and the yields of the nucleic acids were determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR). The MO BIO kit performed the best with the biosolids, which were considered to contain the highest level of inhibitors and provided the most consistent detection of spiked virus from all of the samples. A qPCR inhibition test using an internal control plasmid DNA and a nucleic acid purity test using an absorbance at 230 nm for the nucleic acid extracts demonstrated that the MO BIO kit was able to remove qPCR inhibitors more effectively than the Qiagen and Zymo kits. These results suggest that the MO BIO kit is appropriate for the extraction and purification of viral nucleic acids from environmental and clinical samples that contain high levels of inhibitors. PMID:23578704

  5. Detection of organophosphorus compound based on a sol-gel silica planar waveguide doped with a green fluorescent protein and an organophosphorus hydrolase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enami, Y.; Tsuchiya, K.; Suye, S.

    2011-06-01

    In this letter, the authors report the real-time detection of an organophosphorus compound using a sol-gel silica planar waveguide doped with a green fluorescent protein and an organophosphorus hydrolase on a yeast-cell surface display. The waveguide was pumped at 488 nm, and it emitted green fluorescence at the far field. The green fluorescent light at 550 nm changed by 50% from the original power 1 min after application of the organophosphorus compound. The results enable the real-time detection of sarin and other biochemicals by using an in-line fiber sensor network.

  6. Mechanisms of cholesterol and saturated fatty acid lowering by Quillaja saponaria extract, studied by in vitro digestion model.

    PubMed

    Vinarova, Liliya; Vinarov, Zahari; Damyanova, Borislava; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai; Stoyanov, Simeon

    2015-04-01

    Quillaja saponin extracts are known to reduce plasma cholesterol levels in humans. Here we study the mechanism of this effect with Quillaja Dry saponin extract (QD). In vitro model of triglyceride lipolysis is used to quantify the effect of QD on the solubilization of cholesterol and of the lipolysis products (fatty acids and monoglycerides) in the dietary mixed micelles (DMM). We found that QD extract decreases significantly both the cholesterol (from 80% to 20%) and saturated fatty acids (SFA, from 70% to 10%) solubilised in DMM. Series of dedicated experiments prove that QD may act by two mechanisms: (1) direct precipitation of cholesterol and (2) displacement of cholesterol from the DMM. Both mechanisms lead to increased cholesterol precipitation and, thus, render cholesterol bio-inaccessible. We prove also that the saponin molecules are not the active component of QD, because highly purified Quillaja extract with very similar saponin composition does not exhibit cholesterol-lowering or SFA-lowering effect. The effect of QD extract on cholesterol solubilisation is most probably caused by the high-molecular weight polyphenol molecules, present in this extract. The reduced SFA solubilisation is caused by Ca(2+) ions of relatively high concentration (1.25 wt%), also present in QD extract, which precipitate the fatty acids into calcium soaps. PMID:25773645

  7. Application of the NucliSENS easyMAG system for nucleic acid extraction: optimization of DNA extraction for molecular diagnosis of parasitic and fungal diseases.

    PubMed

    Jeddi, Fakhri; Piarroux, Renaud; Mary, Charles

    2013-01-01

    During the last 20 years, molecular biology techniques have propelled the diagnosis of parasitic diseases into a new era, as regards assay speed, sensitivity, and parasite characterization. However, DNA extraction remains a critical step and should be adapted for diagnostic and epidemiological studies. The aim of this report was to document the constraints associated with DNA extraction for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases and illustrate the adaptation of an automated extraction system, NucliSENS easyMAG, to these constraints, with a critical analysis of system performance. Proteinase K digestion of samples is unnecessary with the exception of solid tissue preparation. Mechanically grinding samples prior to cell lysis enhances the DNA extraction rate of fungal cells. The effect of host-derived nucleic acids on the extraction efficiency of parasite DNA varies with sample host cell density. The optimal cell number for precise parasite quantification ranges from 10 to 100,000 cells. Using the NucliSENS easyMAG technique, the co-extraction of inhibitors is reduced, with an exception for whole blood, which requires supplementary extraction steps to eliminate inhibitors. PMID:24331004

  8. A novel automated device for rapid nucleic acid extraction utilizing a zigzag motion of magnetic silica beads.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Akemi; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Uehara, Masayuki; Honda, Takayuki; Saito, Yasunori

    2016-02-01

    We report a novel automated device for nucleic acid extraction, which consists of a mechanical control system and a disposable cassette. The cassette is composed of a bottle, a capillary tube, and a chamber. After sample injection in the bottle, the sample is lysed, and nucleic acids are adsorbed on the surface of magnetic silica beads. These magnetic beads are transported and are vibrated through the washing reagents in the capillary tube under the control of the mechanical control system, and thus, the nucleic acid is purified without centrifugation. The purified nucleic acid is automatically extracted in 3 min for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The nucleic acid extraction is dependent on the transport speed and the vibration frequency of the magnetic beads, and optimizing these two parameters provided better PCR efficiency than the conventional manual procedure. There was no difference between the detection limits of our novel device and that of the conventional manual procedure. We have already developed the droplet-PCR machine, which can amplify and detect specific nucleic acids rapidly and automatically. Connecting the droplet-PCR machine to our novel automated extraction device enables PCR analysis within 15 min, and this system can be made available as a point-of-care testing in clinics as well as general hospitals. PMID:26772121

  9. Deproteinization of water-soluble ß-glucan during acid extraction from fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Szwengiel, Artur; Stachowiak, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Some ß-glucans can be easily extracted from Basidiomycete mushrooms but commonly used extraction procedures are not satisfactory. A simultaneous method for acid extraction and deproteinization in the case of Pleurotus ostreatus was developed using response surface methodology. The optimized extraction conditions proposed here (30°C, 3.8% HCl, 300min, stirring) allow for the simultaneous extraction and deproteinization of polysaccharides. Additionally, the acid extraction yield was 7 times greater than that of hot water extraction. The combined enzymatic digestion with lyticase, ß-glucanase, exo-1,3-ß-d-glucanase, and ß-glucosidase results elucidated that an extract containing ß-1,3-ß-1,6-ß-1,4-glucan. The gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results showed that the two glucan fractions obtained do not contain linked proteins. The weight average molecular weight of the first fraction (Mw=1137kDa) was 60 times higher than that of the second fraction (Mw=19kDa). PMID:27112879

  10. Influence of N-P base fiber reactive organophosphorus flame retardant on cotton thermal behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An efficient synergistic effect between a nitrogen-containing organophosphorus compound in the presence of a catalytic amount of chlorine is proposed based on the cyanuric chloride-linked organophosphorus flame retardant, tetraethyl-2,2'-(6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diyl)bis(azanediyl)bis(ethane-2,1...

  11. The extraction of water, nitric acid, and uranyl nitrate by di-2-ethylhexyl sulfoxide in dodecane

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; McDowell, W.J.; Caley, C.E.; Case, G.N. )

    1989-01-01

    The extraction of water, nitric acid, and uranyl nitrate by di-2-ethylhexyl sulfoxide (DEHSO) in dodecane has been measured. Using the program SXLSQA, the data were modeled with correction for nonideality effects (treatments of Hildebrand and Scott and of Pitzer) in terms of the organic-phase species (DEHSO)(H{sub 2}O), (DEHSO){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O), (DEHSO)(HNO{sub 3}), (DEHSO){sub 2}(HNO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O), (DEHSO)(HNO{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O), and UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(DEHSO){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub w}. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Fluorescence, spectroscopic and NLO properties of green tea extract in deoxyribonucleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, Ana-Maria; Rau, Ileana; Kajzar, Francois; Meghea, Aurelia

    2013-11-01

    Natural, purely biological deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-green tea extract (GTE) complexes at different concentrations were prepared and characterized for their spectroscopic, fluorescent, linear and nonlinear optical properties. The complexes can be processed into good optical quality thin films by solution casting. They fluoresce when excited in UV absorption band, with a significantly larger quantum yield for the DNA-GTE complex than for a pure GTE solution. The thin film refractive indices were determined by Fabry-Perot (FP) interference patterns. The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of thin films were determined by the optical third-harmonic generation technique at 1064.2 nm fundamental wavelength. The phase of THG susceptibility was determined from the concentration variation of THG susceptibility. It reveals presence of a two-photon resonance with a band lying in the optical gap.

  13. Polymeric Cryogel-Based Boronate Affinity Chromatography for Separation of Ribonucleic Acid from Bacterial Extracts.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Akhilesh Kumar; Srivastava, Akshay; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional monolithic columns are preferred stationary phase in column chromatography. Conventional columns based on silica or particles are efficient in bioseparation though associated with limitations of nonspecific interaction and uneven porosity that causes high mass transfer resistance for the movement of big molecules. Cryogels as a monolith column have shown promising application in bioseparation. Cryogels column can be synthesized in the form of a monolith at sub-zero temperature through gelation of pre-synthesized polymers or polymerization of monomers. Cryogels are macroporous and mechanically stable materials. They have open interconnected micron-sized pores with a wide range of porosity (10-200 μm). Current protocol demonstrated the ability of poly(hydroxymethyl methacrylate)-co-vinylphenyl boronic acid p(HEMA-co-VPBA) cryogel matrix for selective separation of RNA from the bacterial crude extract. PMID:26623972

  14. Extraction fatty acid as a source to produce biofuel in microalgae Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. using supercritical carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Do Chiem; Hai, Dam Thi Thanh; Vinh, Nguyen Hanh; Phung, Le Thi Kim

    2016-06-01

    In this research, the fatty acids of isolated microalgae were extracted by some technologies such as maceration, Soxhlet, ultrasonic-assisted extraction and supercritical fluid extraction; and analyzed for biodiesel production using GC-MS. This work deals with the extraction of microalgae oil from dry biomass by using supercritical fluid extraction method. A complete study at laboratory of the influence of some parameters on the extraction kinetics and yields and on the composition of the oil in terms of lipid classes and profiles is proposed. Two types of microalgae were studied: Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. For the extraction of oil from microalgae, supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) is regarded with interest, being safer than n-hexane and offering a negligible environmental impact, a short extraction time and a high-quality final product. Whilst some experimental papers are available on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of oil from microalgae, only limited information exists on the kinetics of the process. These results demonstrate that supercritical CO2 extraction is an efficient method for the complete recovery of the neutral lipid phase.

  15. Evaluation and optimization of downstream process parameters for extraction of betulinic acid from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Kashyap Kumar; Goel, Nitika

    2013-01-01

    Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA) from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification. The results revealed that the percentage extraction of BA from Z. jujubae by MAE was more proficient. As recovery percentage of BA by MAE technique turned out to be maximum, by using response surface methodology (RSM), three process parameters (pH, temperature, and time) were optimized by MAE and it was observed that the optimum parameters (pH 6.5, temp. 70.23°C, and time 3.5 min) gave the maximum recovery of BA (0.44% w/w). To validate the RSM model, experiments were performed and the highest recovery of BA was found to be 0.4% w/w which is ±0.04% to the predicted value. Henceforth the extraction efficiency and the substantial saving of time by MAE was more capable than the other extraction techniques. PMID:24324374

  16. Evaluation and Optimization of Downstream Process Parameters for Extraction of Betulinic Acid from the Bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Kashyap Kumar; Goel, Nitika

    2013-01-01

    Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA) from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification. The results revealed that the percentage extraction of BA from Z. jujubae by MAE was more proficient. As recovery percentage of BA by MAE technique turned out to be maximum, by using response surface methodology (RSM), three process parameters (pH, temperature, and time) were optimized by MAE and it was observed that the optimum parameters (pH 6.5, temp. 70.23°C, and time 3.5 min) gave the maximum recovery of BA (0.44% w/w). To validate the RSM model, experiments were performed and the highest recovery of BA was found to be 0.4% w/w which is ±0.04% to the predicted value. Henceforth the extraction efficiency and the substantial saving of time by MAE was more capable than the other extraction techniques. PMID:24324374

  17. Effects of different biomass drying and lipid extraction methods on algal lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and biodiesel quality.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Liu, Yan; Lopes, Wilson A; Druzian, Janice I; Souza, Carolina O; Carvalho, Gilson C; Nascimento, Iracema A; Liao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Three lipid extraction methods of hexane Soxhlet (Sox-Hex), Halim (HIP), and Bligh and Dyer (BD) were applied on freeze-dried (FD) and oven-dried (OD) Chlorella vulgaris biomass to evaluate their effects on lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and algal biodiesel quality. Among these three methods, HIP was the preferred one for C. vulgaris lipid recovery considering both extraction efficiency and solvent toxicity. It had the highest lipid yields of 20.0 and 22.0% on FD and OD biomass, respectively, with corresponding neutral lipid yields of 14.8 and 12.7%. The lipid profiling analysis showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids were the major fatty acids in the algal lipids, and there were no significant differences on the amount of these acids between different drying and extraction methods. Correlative models applied to the fatty acid profiles concluded that high contents of palmitic and oleic acids in algal lipids contributed to balancing the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and led to a high-quality algal biodiesel. PMID:25588528

  18. Field turbidity method for the determination of lead in acid extracts of dried paint.

    PubMed

    Studabaker, William B; McCombs, Michelle; Sorrell, Kristen; Salmons, Cynthia; Brown, G Gordon; Binstock, David; Gutknecht, William F; Harper, Sharon L

    2010-07-01

    Lead, which can be found in old paint, soil, and dust, has been clearly shown to have adverse health effects on the neurological systems of both children and adults. As part of an ongoing effort to reduce childhood lead poisoning, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Lead Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program (RRP) rule requiring that paint in target housing built prior to 1978 be tested for lead before any renovation, repair, or painting activities are initiated. This rule has led to a need for a rapid, relatively easy, and an inexpensive method for measuring lead in paint. This paper presents a new method for measuring lead extracted from paint that is based on turbidimetry. This method is applicable to paint that has been collected from a surface and extracted into 25% (v/v) of nitric acid. An aliquot of the filtered extract is mixed with an aliquot of solid potassium molybdate in 1 M ammonium acetate to form a turbid suspension of lead molybdate. The lead concentration is determined using a portable turbidity meter. This turbidimetric method has a response of approximately 0.9 NTU per microg lead per mL extract, with a range of 1-1000 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTUs). Precision at a concentration corresponding to the EPA-mandated decision point of 1 mg of lead per cm(2) is <2%. This method is insensitive to the presence of other metals common to paint, including Ba(2+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+), at concentrations of 10 mg mL(-1) or to Zn(2+) at 50 mg mL(-1). Analysis of 14 samples from six reference materials with lead concentrations near 1 mg cm(-2) yielded a correlation to inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of 0.97, with an average bias of 2.8%. Twenty-four sets of either 6 or 10 paint samples each were collected from different locations in old houses, a hospital, tobacco factory, and power station. Half of each set was analyzed using rotor/stator-25% (v/v) nitric acid

  19. Standardization of DNA extraction from methanol acetic acid fixed cytogenetic cells of cattle and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Kotikalapudi, Rosaiah; Patel, Rajesh K; Katragadda, Sanghamitra

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study is to standardize the simple method for extracting DNA from cells fixed in fixative (3:1 ratio of methanol and acetic acid glacial) mostly used for chromosomal studies in cattle and buffaloes. These fixed cells were stored for more than 6 months at refrigerated temperature. The fixed cells were washed 2-3 times by the ice cold 1x Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) with pH 7.4, so that effect of fixative may be eliminated. The genomic DNA was extracted by adding cell lysis and nucleus lysis buffers. The quality and quantity of DNA were estimated. The readings of nano drop and agarose gel electrophoresis indicate good quality DNA isolated with a rapid and simple protocol routinely using in our laboratory. The method enables us to study the DNA of a cattle and buffaloes after completing cytogenetic investigation or in cases where DNA samples are otherwise not available. This protocol may be useful for molecular analysis of DNA from fixed cells palettes. PMID:24506057

  20. In Vitro Acylation of Okadaic Acid in the Presence of Various Bivalves’ Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Konoki, Keiichi; Onoda, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Cho, Yuko; Kaga, Shinnosuke; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The dinoflagellate Dinophysis spp. is responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). In the bivalves exposed to the toxic bloom of the dinoflagellate, dinophysistoxin 3 (DTX3), the 7-OH acylated form of either okadaic acid (OA) or DTX1, is produced. We demonstrated in vitro acylation of OA with palmitoyl CoA in the presence of protein extract from the digestive gland, but not other tissues of the bivalve Mizuhopecten yessoensis. The yield of 7-O-palmitoyl OA reached its maximum within 2 h, was the highest at 37 °C followed by 28 °C, 16 °C and 4 °C and was the highest at pH 8 in comparison with the yields at pH 6 and pH 4. The transformation also proceeded when the protein extract was prepared from the bivalves Corbicula japonica and Crassostrea gigas. The OA binding protein OABP2 identified in the sponge Halichondria okadai was not detected in the bivalve M. yessoensis, the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis and the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi, though they are known to accumulate diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins. Since DTX3 does not bind to protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, the physiological target for OA and DTXs in mammalian cells, the acylation of DSP toxins would be related to a detoxification mechanism for the bivalve species. PMID:23434830

  1. Removal of plutonium and Americium from hydrochloric acid waste streams using extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, L.D.; FitzPatrick, J.R.; Salazar, R.R.; Schake, B.S.; Martinez, B.T.

    1995-01-01

    Extraction chromatography is under development as a method to lower actinide activity levels in hydrochloric acid (HCl) effluent streams. Successful application of this technique for radioactive liquid waste treatment would provide a low activity feedstream for HCl recycle, reduce the loss of radioactivity to the environment in aqueous effluents, and lower the quantity and improve the form of solid waste generated. The extraction of plutonium and americium from HCl solutions was examined for several commercial and laboratory-produced sorbed resin materials. Polymer beads were coated with n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl- methylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and either tributyl phosphate (TBP), or diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP). Distribution coefficients for Pu and Am were measured by contact studies in 1-10 M HCl, while varying REDOX conditions, actinide loading levels, and resin formulations. Flow experiments were run to evaluate actinide loading and elution under varied conditions. Significant differences in the actinide distribution coefficients in contact experiments, and in actinide retention in flow experiments were observed as a function of resin formulation.

  2. Efficient Nucleic Acid Extraction and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing for Bacterial Community Characterization.

    PubMed

    Anahtar, Melis N; Bowman, Brittany A; Kwon, Douglas S

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation for the role of microbial communities as critical modulators of human health and disease. High throughput sequencing technologies have allowed for the rapid and efficient characterization of bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene sequencing from a variety of sources. Although readily available tools for 16S rRNA sequence analysis have standardized computational workflows, sample processing for DNA extraction remains a continued source of variability across studies. Here we describe an efficient, robust, and cost effective method for extracting nucleic acid from swabs. We also delineate downstream methods for 16S rRNA gene sequencing, including generation of sequencing libraries, data quality control, and sequence analysis. The workflow can accommodate multiple samples types, including stool and swabs collected from a variety of anatomical locations and host species. Additionally, recovered DNA and RNA can be separated and used for other applications, including whole genome sequencing or RNA-seq. The method described allows for a common processing approach for multiple sample types and accommodates downstream analysis of genomic, metagenomic and transcriptional information. PMID:27168460

  3. Efficient Nucleic Acid Extraction and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing for Bacterial Community Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Anahtar, Melis N.; Bowman, Brittany A.; Kwon, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation for the role of microbial communities as critical modulators of human health and disease. High throughput sequencing technologies have allowed for the rapid and efficient characterization of bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene sequencing from a variety of sources. Although readily available tools for 16S rRNA sequence analysis have standardized computational workflows, sample processing for DNA extraction remains a continued source of variability across studies. Here we describe an efficient, robust, and cost effective method for extracting nucleic acid from swabs. We also delineate downstream methods for 16S rRNA gene sequencing, including generation of sequencing libraries, data quality control, and sequence analysis. The workflow can accommodate multiple samples types, including stool and swabs collected from a variety of anatomical locations and host species. Additionally, recovered DNA and RNA can be separated and used for other applications, including whole genome sequencing or RNA-seq. The method described allows for a common processing approach for multiple sample types and accommodates downstream analysis of genomic, metagenomic and transcriptional information. PMID:27168460

  4. Residual cadmium forms in acid-extracted anaerobically digested sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Feltz, R.E.; Logan, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of phosphorus and lime additions after acid extraction on residual Cd solubility and chemical forms in an anaerobically digested sewage sludge were investigated. High Cd content anaerobically digested sewage sludge was aerated and then acidified to pH 2 to solubilize Cd. After 18 h of acidification, the sludge was dewatered and the supernatant and solids separated. Seventy or more percent of the Cd was removed from the solids. Similar amounts of Ni, Mn and Zn were also removed, but Cu removal was only 26% and that of Pb was < 5%. Before liming the sludge was amended with rock phosphate (RP) or monocalcium phosphate (MCP). The RP was insoluble while MCP dissolved, providing a high level of phosphate ligand for Cd precipitation or coprecipitation. Estimated sludge solution solubility products for major Fe, Al and Ca phosphates showed that several of these minerals could have precipitated with P addition, especially with MCP, and Cd may have coprecipitated with these solid phases. Cadmium phosphate may also have been formed in the MCP sludge. Chemical fractionation indicated that 50% of the Cd in the aerated unextracted sludge existed as inorganic precipitates with another 40% Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/ extractable. Acidification solubilized 98% of the inorganic Cd and 86% of the organically bound Cd. Seventy-nine percent of the Cd remaining in the dewatered acidified sludge was in the KNO/sub 3/ extractable (exchangeable) fraction. Liming redistributed the Cd with 13 to 19% as inorganic precipitates, 70 to 85% organically bound and < 3% in the exchangeable fraction. Phosphate addition had no significant effect on Cd fractionation.

  5. Variations of carnosic acid and carnosol concentrations in ethanol extracts of wild Lepechinia salviae in Spring (2008-2011).

    PubMed

    Labbé, Cecilia; Faini, Francesca; Calderón, Daniela; Molina, Juanita; Arredondo, Susana

    2014-10-01

    Ethanol extracts from dried leaves of wild Lepechinia salvia (Lindl) Epling, collected during the flowering period (September-November), contained 15% to 25% carnosic acid and 2 to 8% carnosol, depending on the month of collection. The highest concentration of carnosic acid in extracts was in October, while carnosol concentration had a peak in September, which suggests that it is not a product of carnosic acid oxidation. A comparison of extracts obtained in September 2008 to 2011 shows that the production of both abietanes increased in years with less winter rainfall and higher temperatures, which induced an early blooming. EC50 values in DPPH radical scavenging and antiproliferative (CCRF-CEM tumor cells) bioassays confirm that the high bioactivity of the extracts of rosemary, sage and L. salviae does not arise only from carnosol and carnosic acid. The cytotoxic activity was significantly higher in extracts of L. salviae, probably due to water stress differences between the cultivars and the wild species. These results correlate well with the close phylogenetic relationship between the three species, and their similar medicinal uses. PMID:25522527

  6. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

  7. Effect of aluminum, zinc, copper, and lead on the acid-base properties of water extracts from soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motuzova, G. V.; Makarychev, I. P.; Petrov, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    The potentiometric titration of water extracts from the upper horizons of taiga-zone soils by salt solutions of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, and Zn) showed that their addition is an additional source of the extract acidity because of the involvement of the metal ions in complexation with water-soluble organic substances (WSOSs). At the addition of 0.01 M water solutions of Al(NO3)3 to water extracts from soils, Al3+ ions are also involved in complexes with WSOSs, which is accompanied by stronger acidification of the extracts from the upper horizon of soddy soils (with a near-neutral reaction) than from the litter of bog-podzolic soil (with a strongly acid reaction). The effect of the Al3+ hydrolysis on the acidity of the extracts is insignificantly low in both cases. A quantitative relationship was revealed between the release of protons and the ratio of free Cu2+ ions to those complexed with WSOSs at the titration of water extracts from soils by a solution of copper salt.

  8. Estimates of Soil Bacterial Ribosome Content and Diversity Are Significantly Affected by the Nucleic Acid Extraction Method Employed.

    PubMed

    Wüst, Pia K; Nacke, Heiko; Kaiser, Kristin; Marhan, Sven; Sikorski, Johannes; Kandeler, Ellen; Daniel, Rolf; Overmann, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    Modern sequencing technologies allow high-resolution analyses of total and potentially active soil microbial communities based on their DNA and RNA, respectively. In the present study, quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to evaluate the effects of different extraction methods on the abundance and diversity of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts recovered from three different types of soils (leptosol, stagnosol, and gleysol). The quality and yield of nucleic acids varied considerably with respect to both the applied extraction method and the analyzed type of soil. The bacterial ribosome content (calculated as the ratio of 16S rRNA transcripts to 16S rRNA genes) can serve as an indicator of the potential activity of bacterial cells and differed by 2 orders of magnitude between nucleic acid extracts obtained by the various extraction methods. Depending on the extraction method, the relative abundances of dominant soil taxa, in particularActinobacteriaandProteobacteria, varied by a factor of up to 10. Through this systematic approach, the present study allows guidelines to be deduced for the selection of the appropriate extraction protocol according to the specific soil properties, the nucleic acid of interest, and the target organisms. PMID:26896137

  9. Rosmarinic Acid-Rich Extracts of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.) Protect Jurkat T Cells against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chkhikvishvili, Irakli; Sanikidze, Tamar; Gogia, Nunu; Mchedlishvili, Tamar; Enukidze, Maia; Machavariani, Marine; Vinokur, Yakov

    2013-01-01

    Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L., Lamiaceae) is used in several regions of the world as a spice and folk medicine. Anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of S. hortensis and of its rosmarinic acid-rich phenolic fraction have been demonstrated in animal trials. However, previous studies of rosmarinic acid in cell models have yielded controversial results. In this study, we investigated the effects of summer savory extracts on H2O2-challenged human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T cells. LC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of rosmarinic acid and flavonoids such as hesperidin and naringin in the phenolic fraction. Adding 25 or 50 µM of H2O2 to the cell culture caused oxidative stress, manifested as generation of superoxide and peroxyl radicals, reduced cell viability, G0/G1 arrest, and enhanced apoptosis. This stress was significantly alleviated by the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of S. hortensis and by the partially purified rosmarinic acid fraction. The application of an aqueous S. hortensis extract doubled the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the cells. The production of IL-2 and IL-10 interleukins was stimulated by H2O2 and was further enhanced by the addition of the S. hortensis extract or rosmarinic acid fraction. The H2O2-challenged Jurkat cells may serve as a model for investigating cellular mechanisms of cytoprotective phytonutrient effects. PMID:24349613

  10. Separation of Technetium in Nitric Acid Solution With an Extractant Impregnated Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Jei Kwon Moon; Eil Hee Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Byung Chul Lee

    2006-07-01

    An extractant impregnated resin (EIR) was prepared by impregnation of Aliquat 336 into Amberlite XAD-4 for separation of technetium from rhodium in nitric acid solution. The prepared EIR showed high preference for rhenium (chemical analogue of technetium) over rhodium. The adsorption isotherms for rhenium were described well by Langmuir equation in both the single and multi-component systems. Maximum adsorption capacities obtained by modelling the isotherms of rhenium were 2.01 meq g{sup -1} and 1.97 meq g{sup -1} for the single and the multi-component systems, respectively. Column tests were also performed to confirm the separation efficiency of rhenium using a jacketed glass column (diam. 11 x L 150). The EIR column showed successful separation of rhenium with the breakthrough volume of about 122 BV for the breakthrough concentration of 0.08. Also the breakthrough data were modelled successfully by assuming a homogeneous diffusion model in the particle phase. The diffusivities obtained from the modelling were in the order of 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} min{sup -1} for a rhenium. The rhenium adsorbed on the bed could be eluted with a high purity by using a nitric acid solution. (authors)

  11. Dietary supplementation of an ellagic acid-enriched pomegranate extract attenuates chronic colonic inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Rosillo, Maria Angeles; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Cárdeno, Ana; Aparicio-Soto, Marina; Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Villegas, Isabel; de la Lastra, Catalina Alarcón

    2012-09-01

    Dietary polyphenols present in Punica granatum (pomegranate), such as ellagitannins and ellagic acid (EA) have shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a dietary EA-enriched pomegranate extract (PE) in a murine chronic model of Cronh's disease (CD). Colonic injury was induced by intracolonic instillation of trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (TNBS). Rats were fed with different diets during 30 days before TNBS instillation and 2 weeks before killing: (i) standard, (ii) PE 250 mg/kg/day, (iii) PE 500 mg/kg/day, (iv) EA 10 mg/kg/day and (v) EA 10 mg/kg/day enriched-PE 250 mg/kg/day. Inflammation response was assessed by histology and MPO activity and TNF-α production. Besides, colonic expressions of iNOS, COX-2, p38, JNK, pERK1/2 MAPKs, IKBα and nuclear p65 NF-κB were studied by western blotting. MPO activity and the TNF-α levels were significantly reduced in dietary fed rats when compared with TNBS group. Similarly, PE and an EA-enriched PE diets drastically decreased COX-2 and iNOS overexpression, reduced MAPKs phosporylation and prevented the nuclear NF-κB translocation. Dietary supplementation of EA contributes in the beneficial effect of PE in this experimental colitis model and may be a novel therapeutic strategy to manage inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). PMID:22677088

  12. Fourier transform infrared characterization of the acidic phosphoric extractant system containing lanthanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.-H.; Yao, S.-K.; Wang, D.-J.; Zhou, Weijin; Li, Ying Xue; Peng, Q.; Wu, JinGuang; Xu, Guang-Xian

    1994-01-01

    The aggregation states and FTIR spectra of the extractive organic phases of saponified HDEHP [di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid] (1). DMHPA [di(1-methylheptyl) phosphoric acid] (2) and (HDEHP + DMHPA) (3) containing lanthanides were studied, respectively. Transparent solution formed in system (1) while transparent gel formed in system (2) when the loading of lanthanides was more than 50%. The aggregation state of system (3) depends on the molar ratio of HDEHP:DMHPA and the loading percentage of lanthanide. From their FTIR spectra, it can be seen that the P equals O band of gel split into 1164, 1199, and 1232 cm-1, and the P-O-C band split into 1015, 1076, and 1083 cm-1 as well. The results suggested that the aggregation state of lanthanide complex changes considerably in the three systems, and multiple coordination states of p equals o with lanthanide result in the band split. Multiple interactions between P equals O, P-O-C and lanthanide ions form 3-D network in the gel.

  13. Nanoencapsulation of Red Ginseng Extracts Using Chitosan with Polyglutamic Acid or Fucoidan for Improving Antithrombotic Activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Suh; Lee, Ji-Soo; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2016-06-15

    The potential of nanoencapsulation using bioactive coating materials for improving antithrombotic activities of red ginseng extract (RG) was examined. RG-loaded chitosan (CS) nanoparticles were prepared using antithrombotic materials, polyglutamic acid (PGA) or fucoidan (Fu). Both CS-PGA (P-NPs, 360 ± 67 nm) and CS-Fu nanoparticles (F-NPs, 440 ± 44 nm) showed sustained ginsenoside release in an acidic environment and improved ginsenoside solubility by approximately 122.8%. Both in vitro rabbit and ex vivo rat platelet aggregation of RG (22.3 and 41.5%) were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased within P-NPs (14.4 and 30.0%) and F-NPs (12.3 and 30.3%), respectively. Although RG exhibited no effect on in vivo carrageenan-induced mouse tail thrombosis, P-NPs and F-NPs demonstrated significant effects, likely the anticoagulation activity of PGA and Fu. Moreover, in the in vivo rat arteriovenous shunt model, P-NPs (156 ± 6.8 mg) and F-NPs (160 ± 3.2 mg) groups showed significantly lower thrombus formation than that of RG (190 ± 5.5 mg). Therefore, nanoencapsulation using CS, PGA, and Fu is a potential for improving the antithrombotic activity of RG. PMID:27181678

  14. Solvent-extraction and purification of uranium(VI) and molybdenum(VI) by tertiary amines from acid leach solutions

    SciTech Connect

    La Gamma, Ana M.G.; Becquart, Elena T.; Chocron, Mauricio

    2008-07-01

    Considering international interest in the yellow-cake price, Argentina is seeking to exploit new uranium ore bodies and processing plants. A study of similar plants would suggest that solvent- extraction with Alamine 336 is considered the best method for the purification and concentration of uranium present in leaching solutions. In order to study the purification of these leach liquors, solvent-extraction tests under different conditions were performed with simulated solutions which containing molybdenum and molybdenum-uranium mixtures. Preliminary extraction tests carried out on mill acid-leaching liquors are also presented. (authors)

  15. Extraction of actinides and fission products by octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide from nitric acid media.

    PubMed

    Mathur, J N; Murali, M S; Natarajan, P R; Badheka, L P; Banerji, A

    1992-05-01

    Extraction of promethium(III), uranium(VI), plutonium(IV), americium(III), zirconium(IV), ruthenium(III), iron(III) and palladium(II) has been carried out with a mixture of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) in dodecane. The effects of nitric acid, TBP and CMPO concentrations on the extraction of these metal ions have been studied. The nature of the species of the above metal ions extracted into the organic phase has been suggested. PMID:18965406

  16. Derivatization of organophosphorus nerve agent degradation products for gas chromatography with ICPMS and TOF-MS detection.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Douglas D; Caruso, Joseph A

    2007-06-01

    Separation and detection of seven V-type (venomous) and G-type (German) organophosphorus nerve agent degradation products by gas chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICPMS) is described. The nonvolatile alkyl phosphonic acid degradation products of interest included ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA, VX acid), isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA, GB acid), ethyl hydrogen dimethylamidophosphate sodium salt (EDPA, GA acid), isobutyl hydrogen methylphosphonate (IBMPA, RVX acid), as well as pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA), methylphosphonic acid (MPA), and cyclohexyl methylphosphonic acid (CMPA, GF acid). N-(tert-Butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluroacetamide with 1% TBDMSCl was utilized to form the volatile TBDMS derivatives of the nerve agent degradation products for separation by GC. Exact mass confirmation of the formation of six of the TBDMS derivatives was obtained by GC-time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The method developed here allowed for the separation and detection of all seven TBDMS derivatives as well as phosphate in less than ten minutes. Detection limits for the developed method were less than 5 pg with retention times and peak area precisions of less than 0.01 and 6%, respectively. This method was successfully applied to river water and soil matrices. To date this is the first work describing the analysis of chemical warfare agent (CWA) degradation products by GC-ICPMS. PMID:17356819

  17. Use of graphitic carbon black and primary secondary amine for determination of 17 organophosphorus pesticide residues in spinach.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Li, Wei; Ge, Jing; Wu, Yijun; Jiang, Shuren; Liu, Fengmao

    2008-10-01

    Graphitized carbon black (GCB) and primary secondary amine (PSA) as dispersive-SPE sorbents were applied to optimize the method for the determination of 17 organophosphorus pesticides in spinach which contained so many pigments using GC with flame photometric detector (FPD). The sample was extracted with ACN, and an aliquot of the extract was concentrated to near dryness. Ethyl acetate or acetone was chosen as the dissolving solvent. Subsequently, dispersive-SPE was used for cleanup, and the type and quantity of sorbents (GCB, PSA and activated carbon) were tested in the experiments. The best results were when acetone was used to dissolve and 30 mg each of GCB and PSA for cleanup. In this condition, recoveries of pesticides analyzed were between 52-117% with RSD below 10%, and LOQ ranged from 10 to 20 microg/kg. This method was simple, effective and efficient, and can protect the GC system to some extent. PMID:18972520

  18. Tuna extract reduces serum uric acid in gout-free subjects with insignificantly high serum uric acid: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kubomura, Daiki; Yamada, Masanori; Masui, Ayano

    2016-01-01

    Long-term reduction of serum urate levels is vital in the treatment of gout. However, it is difficult to convince gout-free individuals of the necessity of treatment as few appropriate over-the-counter remedies and dietary supplements are available. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the antihyperuricemic efficacy and safety of a tuna extract containing the imidazole compounds to evaluate its potential as a functional food ingredient. A randomized, 4-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted. A total of 48 male gout-free subjects with insignificantly high serum uric acid were randomly assigned to low- and high-dose tuna extract groups or a placebo group. The efficacy of the extract was assessed by measuring serum uric acid levels. Furthermore, a safety assessment was performed by physical parameters, hematology, blood biochemistry and urinalysis. The results indicated that the uric acid level was decreased at week 4 during the intervention in the tuna extract groups (low and high dose, −0.23 and −0.34 mg/dl, respectively) compared to the placebo group (−0.07 mg/dl). At week 4 after the intervention, a significant reduction in uric acid levels (−0.41 mg/dl; P<0.05) was observed in the high-dose tuna extract group compared with the placebo group (+0.11 mg/dl). No dose-related adverse events were observed during and following the intervention. Therefore, the present results suggest that oral administration of tuna extract containing the imidazole compounds has hypouricemic activity with no undesirable side effects. PMID:27446553

  19. Extraction and solubilization of crude oil and volatile petroleum hydrocarbons by purified humic and fulvic acids and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Eljack, Mahmoud D; Hussam, Abul

    2014-01-01

    Solubilization of crude oil (Fula, Sudan) in water demonstrates humic acid (HA), completely dissolves oil with a solubilization efficiency of 1600 g oil /g HA. The order of solubilization increases: HA > HA+ FA (fulvic acid) > FA > SDBS (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate). Synthetic surfactant like, SDBS, exhibits the lowest efficiency even with 23 times the concentration of FA or HA. Extraction of diesel contaminated sand and GC-MS analysis show that HA and FA exhibit 50-90% extraction efficiency for C10-C22 at pH 11.9 with just one extraction. SDBS exhibits the least removal efficiency (<1%) for normal hydrocarbons. The effect of pH on extraction with HA by its micelles such as the surface active property was found to be greater than that for FA. On the basis of critical concentration, the extraction efficiencies with FA and HA are 1287 and 11453 times compared to SDBS, respectively, for the least extracted hydrocarbon at pH 10.8. The HSGC experiments showed that the solubilization efficiency of alkylbenzenes in gasoline (Shell 87) increases almost linearly with FA concentration with a slight deviation at 5-6 μM FA. About 35-60% of alkylbenzenes in gasoline were solubilized and partitioned at the highest FA concentration (15 μM) studied. Both studies with gasoline and diesel show similar extraction efficiencies even at 227-fold increased FA with diesel. PMID:25320849

  20. Determination of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids in Hedyotis diffusa Using Hyphenated Ultrasound-Assisted Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ming-Chi; Yang, Yu-Chiao; Hong, Show-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) were extracted from Hedyotis diffusa using a hyphenated procedure of ultrasound-assisted and supercritical carbon dioxide (HSC-CO2) extraction at different temperatures, pressures, cosolvent percentages, and SC-CO2 flow rates. The results indicated that these parameters significantly affected the extraction yield. The maximal yields of OA (0.917 mg/g of dry plant) and UA (3.540 mg/g of dry plant) were obtained at a dynamic extraction time of 110 min, a static extraction time of 15 min, 28.2 MPa, and 56°C with a 12.5% (v/v) cosolvent (ethanol/water = 82/18, v/v) and SC-CO2 flowing at 2.3 mL/min (STP). The extracted yields were then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the OA and UA. The present findings revealed that H. diffusa is a potential source of OA and UA. In addition, using the hyphenated procedure for extraction is a promising and alternative process for recovering OA and UA from H. diffusa at high concentrations. PMID:26089939