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Sample records for acidic sandy brown

  1. Acidic sandy soil improvement with biochar - A microcosm study.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Mónika; Vaszita, Emese; Farkas, Éva; Ujaczki, Éva; Fekete-Kertész, Ildikó; Tolner, Mária; Klebercz, Orsolya; Kirchkeszner, Csaba; Gruiz, Katalin; Uzinger, Nikolett; Feigl, Viktória

    2016-09-01

    Biochar produced from a wide range of organic materials by pyrolysis has been reported as a means to improve soil physical properties, fertility and crop productivity. However, there is a lack of studies on the complex effects of biochar both on the degraded sandy soil physico-chemical properties and the soil biota as well as on toxicity, particularly in combined application with fertilizer and compost. A 7-week microcosm experiment was conducted to improve the quality of an acidic sandy soil combining variations in biochar types and amounts, compost and fertilizer application rates. The applied biochars were produced from different feedstocks such as grain husks, paper fibre sludge and wood screenings. The main purpose of the microcosm experiment was to assess the efficiency and applicability of different biochars as soil amendment prior to field trials and to choose the most efficient biochar to improve the fertility, biological activity and physical properties of acidic sandy soils. We complemented the methodology with ecotoxicity assessment to evaluate the possible risks to the soil as habitat for microbes, plants and animals. There was clear evidence of biochar-soil interactions positively affecting both the physico-chemical properties of the tested acidic sandy soil and the soil biota. Our results suggest that the grain husk and the paper fibre sludge biochars applied to the tested soil at 1% and 0.5 w/w% rate mixed with compost, respectively can supply a more liveable habitat for plants and soil living animals than the acidic sandy soil without treatment.

  2. Acidic sandy soil improvement with biochar - A microcosm study.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Mónika; Vaszita, Emese; Farkas, Éva; Ujaczki, Éva; Fekete-Kertész, Ildikó; Tolner, Mária; Klebercz, Orsolya; Kirchkeszner, Csaba; Gruiz, Katalin; Uzinger, Nikolett; Feigl, Viktória

    2016-09-01

    Biochar produced from a wide range of organic materials by pyrolysis has been reported as a means to improve soil physical properties, fertility and crop productivity. However, there is a lack of studies on the complex effects of biochar both on the degraded sandy soil physico-chemical properties and the soil biota as well as on toxicity, particularly in combined application with fertilizer and compost. A 7-week microcosm experiment was conducted to improve the quality of an acidic sandy soil combining variations in biochar types and amounts, compost and fertilizer application rates. The applied biochars were produced from different feedstocks such as grain husks, paper fibre sludge and wood screenings. The main purpose of the microcosm experiment was to assess the efficiency and applicability of different biochars as soil amendment prior to field trials and to choose the most efficient biochar to improve the fertility, biological activity and physical properties of acidic sandy soils. We complemented the methodology with ecotoxicity assessment to evaluate the possible risks to the soil as habitat for microbes, plants and animals. There was clear evidence of biochar-soil interactions positively affecting both the physico-chemical properties of the tested acidic sandy soil and the soil biota. Our results suggest that the grain husk and the paper fibre sludge biochars applied to the tested soil at 1% and 0.5 w/w% rate mixed with compost, respectively can supply a more liveable habitat for plants and soil living animals than the acidic sandy soil without treatment. PMID:26850860

  3. Production and degradation of oxalic acid by brown rot fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Espejo, E.; Agosin, E. )

    1991-07-01

    Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted {sup 14}C-labeled oxalic acid to CO{sub 2} during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized {sup 14}C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize {sup 14}C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi.

  4. Production and Degradation of Oxalic Acid by Brown Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Espejo, Eduardo; Agosin, Eduardo

    1991-01-01

    Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted 14C-labeled oxalic acid to CO2 during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized 14C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize 14C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi. PMID:16348522

  5. Reactive transport controls on sandy acid sulfate soils and impacts on shallow groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, S. Ursula; Rate, Andrew W.; Rengel, Zed; Appleyard, Steven; Prommer, Henning; Hinz, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Disturbance or drainage of potential acid sulfate soils (PASS) can result in the release of acidity and degradation of infrastructure, water resources, and the environment. Soil processes affecting shallow groundwater quality have been investigated using a numerical code that integrates (bio)geochemical processes with water, solute, and gas transport. The patterns of severe and persistent acidification (pH < 4) in the sandy, carbonate-depleted podzols of a coastal plain could be reproduced without calibration, based on oxidation of microcrystalline pyrite after groundwater level decrease and/or residual groundwater acidity, due to slow vertical solute transport rates. The rate of acidification was limited by gas phase diffusion of oxygen and hence was sensitive to soil water retention properties and in some cases also to oxygen consumption by organic matter mineralization. Despite diffusion limitation, the rate of oxidation in sandy soils was rapid once pyrite-bearing horizons were exposed, even to a depth of 7.5 m. Groundwater level movement was thus identified as an important control on acidification, as well as the initial pyrite content. Increase in the rate of Fe(II) oxidation lead to slightly lower pH and greater accumulation of Fe(III) phases, but had little effect on the overall amount of pyrite oxidized. Aluminosilicate (kaolinite) dissolution had a small pH-buffering effect but lead to the release of Al and associated acidity. Simulated dewatering scenarios highlighted the potential of the model for risk assessment of (bio)geochemical impacts on soil and groundwater over a range of temporal and spatial scales.

  6. Transfer of cadmium from a sandy acidic soil to man: A population study

    SciTech Connect

    Staessen, J.A.; Celis, H.G.; Fagard, R.H.; Lijnen, P.J.; Thijs, L.B.; Amery, A.K. ); Vyncke, G. ); Lauwerys, R.R.; Roels, H.A. ); Claeys, F. ); Dondeyne, F. ); Ide, G. ); Rondia, D.; Sartor, F. )

    1992-06-01

    This population study included 230 subjects (age range 20-83 years) who consumed vegetables grown in kitchen gardens on a sandy acidic soil (mean pH {approximately}6.3). The study investigated the association between the Cd (cadmium) levels in blood and urine and the Cd concentration in the soil (range 0.2-44 ppm). Seventy-six subjects were current smokers and 122 participants lived in a district with known Cd pollution. Urinary Cd in the 230 subjects averaged 8.7 nmole/24 hr, (range 1.3 to 47 nmole/24 hr) after age adjustment positively correlated with the Cd level in the soil; a twofold increase of the Cd concentration in the soil was accompanied by a 7% rise in urinary Cd in men and by a 4% rise in women. Blood Cd averaged 11.5 nmole/liter (range 1.8-41 nmole/liter) and was negatively associated with the Cd level in the soil. After adjustment for significant covariates (smoking and serum {gamma}-glutamyl transpeptidase in both sexes, and age and serum ferritin in women), a twofold increase in the Cd concentration in the soil was accompanied by a 6% decrease in blood Cd in men and by a 10% decrease in women. In conclusion, in a rural population, consuming vegetables grown on a sandy acidic soil, 2 to 4% of the variance of urinary Cd was directly related to the Cd level in the soil. The negative correlation with blood Cd, a measure of more recent exposure, was biased by the implementation of preventive measures in the polluted district.

  7. The role of various amino acids in enzymatic browning process in potato tubers, and identifying the browning products.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hussein M; El-Gizawy, Ahmed M; El-Bassiouny, Rawia E I; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-02-01

    The effects of five structurally variant amino acids, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine and cysteine were examined as inhibitors and/or stimulators of fresh-cut potato browning. The first four amino acids showed conflict effects; high concentrations (⩾ 100mM for glycine and ⩾ 1.0M for the other three amino acids) induced potato browning while lower concentrations reduced the browning process. Alternatively, increasing cysteine concentration consistently reduced the browning process due to reaction with quinone to give colorless adduct. In PPO assay, high concentrations (⩾ 1.11 mM) of the four amino acids developed more color than that of control samples. Visible spectra indicated a continuous condensation of quinone and glycine to give colored adducts absorbed at 610-630 nm which were separated and identified by LC-ESI-MS as catechol-diglycine adduct that undergoes polymerization with other glycine molecules to form peptide side chains. In lower concentrations, the less concentration the less developed color was observed.

  8. The role of various amino acids in enzymatic browning process in potato tubers, and identifying the browning products.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hussein M; El-Gizawy, Ahmed M; El-Bassiouny, Rawia E I; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-02-01

    The effects of five structurally variant amino acids, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine and cysteine were examined as inhibitors and/or stimulators of fresh-cut potato browning. The first four amino acids showed conflict effects; high concentrations (⩾ 100mM for glycine and ⩾ 1.0M for the other three amino acids) induced potato browning while lower concentrations reduced the browning process. Alternatively, increasing cysteine concentration consistently reduced the browning process due to reaction with quinone to give colorless adduct. In PPO assay, high concentrations (⩾ 1.11 mM) of the four amino acids developed more color than that of control samples. Visible spectra indicated a continuous condensation of quinone and glycine to give colored adducts absorbed at 610-630 nm which were separated and identified by LC-ESI-MS as catechol-diglycine adduct that undergoes polymerization with other glycine molecules to form peptide side chains. In lower concentrations, the less concentration the less developed color was observed. PMID:26304424

  9. Phytanic acid, a novel activator of uncoupling protein-1 gene transcription and brown adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Agatha; Barberá, Maria José; Iglesias, Roser; Giralt, Marta; Villarroya, Francesc

    2002-01-01

    Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) is a phytol-derived branched-chain fatty acid present in dietary products. Phytanic acid increased uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) mRNA expression in brown adipocytes differentiated in culture. Phytanic acid induced the expression of the UCP1 gene promoter, which was enhanced by co-transfection with a retinoid X receptor (RXR) expression vector but not with other expression vectors driving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, PPARgamma or a form of RXR devoid of ligand-dependent sensitivity. The effect of phytanic acid on the UCP1 gene required the 5' enhancer region of the gene and the effects of phytanic acid were mediated in an additive manner by three binding sites for RXR. Moreover, phytanic acid activates brown adipocyte differentiation: long-term exposure of brown preadipocytes to phytanic acid promoted the acquisition of the brown adipocyte morphology and caused a co-ordinate induction of the mRNAs for gene markers of brown adipocyte differentiation, such as UCP1, adipocyte lipid-binding protein aP2, lipoprotein lipase, the glucose transporter GLUT4 or subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase. In conclusion, phytanic acid is a natural product of phytol metabolism that activates brown adipocyte thermogenic function. It constitutes a potential nutritional signal linking dietary status to adaptive thermogenesis. PMID:11829740

  10. Pericarp browning and quality management of litchi fruit by antioxidants and salicylic acid during ambient storage.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Mishra, Daya Shankar; Chakraborty, Binayak; Kumar, Prabhat

    2013-08-01

    Different antioxidants and salicylic acid were tested to overcome pericarp browning and to maintain the postharvest quality of the litchi fruits at ambient storage. It was found that 0.5% salicylic acid, 1% isoascorbic acid and 1% N-acetyl cysteine performed better over sulphur dioxide (SO2) fumigation for most of the parameters under study. Application of 0.5% salicylic acid found superior to reduce the pericarp browning, relative leakage rate, and decay percentage. It was effective in reduction of polyphenol oxidase activity and improvement of anthocyanin pigments of the fruit pericarp over other treatments. Total soluble solid, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid of the litchi fruits were recorded highest with the application of 1% isoascorbic acid followed by 0.5% salicylic acid treatment. Therefore, 0.5% salicylic acid and 1% isoascorbic could be used as an alternative of SO2 fumigation for quality retention of litchi fruits.

  11. Inhibition of enzymatic browning of chlorogenic acid by sulfur-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Tomas F M; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Verloop, Annewieke J W; van Berkel, Willem J H; Gruppen, Harry

    2012-04-01

    The antibrowning activity of sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO(3)) was compared to that of other sulfur-containing compounds. Inhibition of enzymatic browning was investigated using a model browning system consisting of mushroom tyrosinase and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA). Development of brown color (spectral analysis), oxygen consumption, and reaction product formation (RP-UHPLC-PDA-MS) were monitored in time. It was found that the compounds showing antibrowning activity either prevented browning by forming colorless addition products with o-quinones of 5-CQA (NaHSO(3), cysteine, and glutathione) or inhibiting the enzymatic activity of tyrosinase (NaHSO(3) and dithiothreitol). NaHSO(3) was different from the other sulfur-containing compounds investigated, because it showed a dual inhibitory effect on browning. Initial browning was prevented by trapping the o-quinones formed in colorless addition products (sulfochlorogenic acid), while at the same time, tyrosinase activity was inhibited in a time-dependent way, as shown by pre-incubation experiments of tyrosinase with NaHSO(3). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that sulfochlorogenic and cysteinylchlorogenic acids were not inhibitors of mushroom tyrosinase.

  12. Role of chlorogenic acid quinone and interaction of chlorogenic acid quinone and catechins in the enzymatic browning of apple.

    PubMed

    Amaki, Kanako; Saito, Eri; Taniguchi, Kumiko; Joshita, Keiko; Murata, Masatsune

    2011-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CQA) is one of the major polyphenols in apple and a good substrate for the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in apple. Apple contains catechins as well as CQA, and the role of CQA quinone and its interaction with catechins in the enzymatic browning of apple were examined. Browning was repressed and 2-cysteinyl-CQA was formed when cysteine was added to apple juice. CQA quinone was essential for browning to occur. Although catechins and CQA were oxidized by PPO, some catechins seemed to be non-enzymatically oxidized by CQA quinone.

  13. Control of enzymatic browning in apple slices by using ascorbic acid under different conditions.

    PubMed

    el-Shimi, N M

    1993-01-01

    Control of phenol oxidase activity in apple slices by the use of ascorbic acid at different pH values, temperature and time of incubation was investigated. The enzyme was almost inactivated at 1% and 1.5% ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid solution (1%) caused a remarkable inhibition with the increasing acidity up to pH = 1. Heating treatments for apple slices dipped in 1% ascorbic acid caused a reduction of enzymatic browning, optimum temperature for inactivation of the enzyme was between 60-70 degrees C for 15 minutes. Increasing the time of dipping apple slices in 1% ascorbic acid solutions and at different pH values reduce phenolase activity.

  14. Ozonization of humic acids in brown coal oxidized in situ

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Semenova; Yu.F. Patrakov; M.V. Batina

    2008-10-15

    The effect of the ozonization of humic acids in chloroform and glacial acetic acid media on the yield and component composition of the resulting products was studied. The high efficiency of ozonization in acetic acid was found. Water-soluble low-molecular-weight substances were predominant among the ozonization products.

  15. Kinetic study of oxalic acid inhibition on enzymatic browning.

    PubMed

    Son, S M; Moon, K D; Lee, C Y

    2000-06-01

    Oxalic acid has a strong antibrowning activity. The inhibitory pattern on catechol-PPO model system appeared to be competitive, with a K(i) value of 2.0 mM. When the PPO was incubated with oxalic acid, the activity was not recovered via dialysis, but the inactivated enzyme partially recovered its activity when cupric ion was added. Comparing the relative antibrowning effectiveness of oxalic acid with other common antibrowning agents, oxalic acid with I(50) value of 1.1 mM is as effective as kojic acid and more potent than cysteine and glutathione.

  16. Eicosapentaenoic acid regulates brown adipose tissue gene expression and metabolism in high fat fed mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic tissue, a key regulator of energy balance and a potential therapeutic target for obesity. We previously reported that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduced high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice, independent of energy intake. We hy...

  17. Preparation of waxes and humic acids from brown coal from the Sergeevskoe deposit

    SciTech Connect

    L.P. Noskova; A.V. Rokhin; A.P. Sorokin

    2007-06-15

    The comparative extraction of coal with organic solvents was performed. Humic acids were separated from solid residues. The yields, particle-size distributions, and chemical compositions of the resulting products were analyzed. It was demonstrated that brown-coal wax and humic fertilizers can potentially be obtained using coal from the Sergeevskoe deposit.

  18. Heavy metal extraction from an artificially contaminated sandy soil under EDDS deficiency: significance of humic acid and chelant mixture.

    PubMed

    Yip, Theo C M; Yan, Dickson Y S; Yui, Matthew M T; Tsang, Daniel C W; Lo, Irene M C

    2010-06-01

    Biodegradable EDDS ([S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid) has been suggested for enhancing heavy metal extraction from contaminated soils. Recent studies showed that Zn and Pb are less effectively extracted due to metal exchange and re-adsorption onto the soil surfaces, especially for EDDS-deficiency conditions. This study therefore investigated the influence of dissolved organic matter and the co-presence of EDTA (ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid) on metal extraction from an artificially contaminated sandy soil under deficient amount of chelants in batch kinetics experiments. The addition of 10 and 20mgL(-1) of humic acid as dissolved organic matter (DOC) suppressed metal extraction by EDDS, probably resulting from the competition of adsorbed humic acid for heavy metals and adsorption of metal-humate complexes onto the soil surfaces. The effects were most significant for Pb because of greater extent of metal exchange of PbEDDS and high affinity towards organic matter. Thus, one should be cautious when there is a high content of organic matter in soils or groundwater. On the other hand, compared to individual additions of EDDS or EDTA, the equimolar EDDS and EDTA mixture exhibited significantly higher Pb extraction without notable Pb re-adsorption. The synergistic performance of the EDDS and EDTA mixture probably resulted from the change of chemical speciation and thus less competition among Cu, Zn and Pb for each chelant. These findings suggest further investigation into an optimum chemistry of the chelant mixture taking into account the effectiveness and associated environmental impact.

  19. Effect of antibrowning agents on browning and intermediate formation in the glucose-glutamic acid model.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Il; Kwak, Eun-Jung; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2010-10-01

    In this study, the inhibitory effects of antibrowning agents on browning and the formation of intermediates such as 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were evaluated with a glucose-glutamic acid model for soybean paste. The initial antibrowning capacity was measured in the following order: pentasodium tripolyphosphate < citric acid and oxalic acid < cysteine and glutathione < sodium sulfite. Our data showed that antibrowning agents, such as pentasodium tripolyphosphate, citric acid, and oxalic acid, were maintained antibrowning capacities during storage at both 4 and 30 °C, respectively. However, both cysteine and glutathione was reduced with storage time, especially in the air. A marked effect of nitrogen treatment was noted for 3 of the antibrowning agents after storage in air at 30 °C in the following order: sodium sulfite < cysteine < glutathione. The formation ratio of 3-DG and HMF was higher after storage at 30 °C than at 4 °C. These compounds were produced most abundantly in the presence of sodium sulfite, and the yields were not related significantly to the degree of browning. Citric acid and oxalic acid were identified as the most effective in inhibitors of browning and intermediates, even during storage in air at 30 °C.

  20. Efficacy of phytic acid as an inhibitor of enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Du, Yunjian; Dou, Siqi; Wu, Shengjun

    2012-11-15

    Browning decreases the commercial value of apple juice, and therefore colour preservation during processing and storage is the main objective of manufacturers. In this study, the efficacy of phytic acid as a browning inhibitor for use on apple juice was investigated. Browning of apple juice treated with phytic acid was monitored during processing and storage. 0.1 mM Phytic acid inhibited the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from the apple juice by 99.2%. Consequently, the apple juice treated with phytic acid had significantly lower browning formation during processing and after 6 months of storage at room temperature compared with the control (p<0.05). Results indicate that this is a promising way to inhibit browning in apple juice.

  1. Fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue in genetically heat-tolerant FOK rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Furuyama, F.; Kuroshima, A.

    The phospholipid fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was examined in inbred heat-tolerant FOK rats and compared with that in conventional Wistar rats not previously exposed to heat. The FOK rats showed higher unsaturation states, as indicated by higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a higher unsaturation index and polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio. This higher level of unsaturation was characterized by the higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It may be concluded that the increased docosahexaenoic acid level in BAT phospholipids brings about the hyperplasia of BAT, causing an enhancement of its in vivo thermogernic activity as well as the systemic non-shivering thermogenesis observed in heat-tolerant FOK rats.

  2. Microbial diversity and metabolite composition of Belgian red-brown acidic ales.

    PubMed

    Snauwaert, Isabel; Roels, Sanne P; Van Nieuwerburg, Filip; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-03-16

    Belgian red-brown acidic ales are sour and alcoholic fermented beers, which are produced by mixed-culture fermentation and blending. The brews are aged in oak barrels for about two years, after which mature beer is blended with young, non-aged beer to obtain the end-products. The present study evaluated the microbial community diversity of Belgian red-brown acidic ales at the end of the maturation phase of three subsequent brews of three different breweries. The microbial diversity was compared with the metabolite composition of the brews at the end of the maturation phase. Therefore, mature brew samples were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (bacteria) and the internal transcribed spacer region (yeasts) and a broad range of metabolites was quantified. The most important microbial species present in the Belgian red-brown acidic ales investigated were Pediococcus damnosus, Dekkera bruxellensis, and Acetobacter pasteurianus. In addition, this culture-independent analysis revealed operational taxonomic units that were assigned to an unclassified fungal community member, Candida, and Lactobacillus. The main metabolites present in the brew samples were L-lactic acid, D-lactic acid, and ethanol, whereas acetic acid was produced in lower quantities. The most prevailing aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate, which might be of impact on the aroma of the end-products. PMID:26802571

  3. Nutrient Regulation: Conjugated Linoleic Acid's Inflammatory and Browning Properties in Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wan; McIntosh, Michael K

    2016-07-17

    Obesity is the most widespread nutritional disease in the United States. Developing effective and safe strategies to manage excess body weight is therefore of paramount importance. One potential strategy to reduce obesity is to consume conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements containing isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12, or trans-10, cis-12 alone. Proposed antiobesity mechanisms of CLA include regulation of (a) adipogenesis, (b) lipid metabolism, (c) inflammation, (d) adipocyte apoptosis, (e) browning or beiging of adipose tissue, and (f) energy metabolism. However, causality of CLA-mediated responses to body fat loss, particularly the linkage between inflammation, thermogenesis, and energy metabolism, is unclear. This review examines whether CLA's antiobesity properties are due to inflammatory signaling and considers CLA's linkage with lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, and browning of white and brown adipose tissue. We propose a series of questions and studies to interrogate the role of the sympathetic nervous system in mediating CLA's antiobesity properties. PMID:27431366

  4. Regional scale assessment of soil predictors of groundwater phosphate (P) levels in acidic sandy agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabilde, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Possible factors affecting the leaching of P to the groundwater in the Belgian sandy area are examined via regression analysis. The main objective is to investigate the dependency of phreatic groundwater phosphate concentrations (Flemish VMM monitoring net, monitoring period 2010-2013) on soil phosphate saturation degree (PSD) (1994-1997 mapping for Flemish Land Agency) (n = 1032). Additionally explored parameters include: depth distributions of Fe- and Al-oxides, sorbed P and phosphate sorption capacity (PSC) and soil pH. Interpolated data of these soil parameters in 3 depth layers (0-30, 30-60, 60-90 cm) were generated by ordinary kriging. Secondly, we assessed the significance of other edaphic factors potentially controlling the groundwater P: topsoil organic carbon content (OC %), soil clay content and fluctuation of the groundwater table. Overall, the mean PSD halved with each 30 cm depth layer (56 > 24 > 13 %) and was correlated to groundwater PO43‑ level. The statistical significance of the correlation with groundwater PO43‑ concentrations increased with depth layer. The poor correlation (R2 = 0.01) between PSD and groundwater phosphate concentration indicates that many factors, other than soil P status, control the transport of P from soil solution to the groundwater in Belgian sandy soils. A significant (P<0.01) positive non-linear relationship was found between groundwater PO43‑concentration and pHKCl in all three studied depth layers, again increasingly with depth. Within the pH range of the 30-60 cm layer (pHKCl 4.0-5.7) PO4‑ solubility should increase with pH. Elevated soil OC levels surprisingly co-occurred with low groundwater PO43‑ concentrations (r = -0.18, P<0.01, n = 191). Groundwater PO43‑ was furthermore significantly and positively correlated to clay % in both the 0-15 cm (r = 0.15, τ = 0.25, P<0.01, n = 1032) and 60-90 cm (r = 0.13, τ = 0.20, P<0.01, n = 1032) depth increments. These positive correlations were unexpected and

  5. Regional scale assessment of soil predictors of groundwater phosphate (P) levels in acidic sandy agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabilde, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Possible factors affecting the leaching of P to the groundwater in the Belgian sandy area are examined via regression analysis. The main objective is to investigate the dependency of phreatic groundwater phosphate concentrations (Flemish VMM monitoring net, monitoring period 2010-2013) on soil phosphate saturation degree (PSD) (1994-1997 mapping for Flemish Land Agency) (n = 1032). Additionally explored parameters include: depth distributions of Fe- and Al-oxides, sorbed P and phosphate sorption capacity (PSC) and soil pH. Interpolated data of these soil parameters in 3 depth layers (0-30, 30-60, 60-90 cm) were generated by ordinary kriging. Secondly, we assessed the significance of other edaphic factors potentially controlling the groundwater P: topsoil organic carbon content (OC %), soil clay content and fluctuation of the groundwater table. Overall, the mean PSD halved with each 30 cm depth layer (56 > 24 > 13 %) and was correlated to groundwater PO43- level. The statistical significance of the correlation with groundwater PO43- concentrations increased with depth layer. The poor correlation (R2 = 0.01) between PSD and groundwater phosphate concentration indicates that many factors, other than soil P status, control the transport of P from soil solution to the groundwater in Belgian sandy soils. A significant (P<0.01) positive non-linear relationship was found between groundwater PO43-concentration and pHKCl in all three studied depth layers, again increasingly with depth. Within the pH range of the 30-60 cm layer (pHKCl 4.0-5.7) PO4- solubility should increase with pH. Elevated soil OC levels surprisingly co-occurred with low groundwater PO43- concentrations (r = -0.18, P<0.01, n = 191). Groundwater PO43- was furthermore significantly and positively correlated to clay % in both the 0-15 cm (r = 0.15, τ = 0.25, P<0.01, n = 1032) and 60-90 cm (r = 0.13, τ = 0.20, P<0.01, n = 1032) depth increments. These positive correlations were unexpected and could be

  6. Effect of Maillard browning reaction on protein utilization and plasma amino acid response by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).

    PubMed

    Plakas, S M; Lee, T C; Wolke, R E; Meade, T L

    1985-12-01

    The effect of the Maillard browning reaction in the diet of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) on growth and amino acid availability was investigated. Chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis methods were applied for the detection of the losses of amino acids in a model protein browning system. Arginine and lysine exhibited the greatest losses in the mixture of fish protein isolate and glucose stored for 40 d at 37 degrees C. The apparent digestibility and absorption of individual amino acids, particularly lysine, was lower in trout fed browned protein than in those fed the control protein. Plasma lysine levels were significantly depressed, while the plasma levels of glucose and most other amino acids were elevated in relation to the loss in nutritive value of dietary protein after browning. The early Maillard reaction derivative of lysine, epsilon-deoxy-fructosyl-lysine, was recovered from browned protein (by using the in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis procedure) and from the plasma of trout fed browned protein. Analysis of plasma free amino acids provided an indication of lysine bioavailability and identified lysine as the first-limiting amino acid in the diets containing browned protein. PMID:3934350

  7. Brown but not white adipose cells synthesize omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid in culture.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xia; Park, Hui Gyu; Zhang, Ji Yao; Lawrence, Peter; Liu, Guowen; Subramanian, Nivetha; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a complex endocrine organ which coordinates several crucial biological functions including fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, and immune function. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is most abundant in young infants during the brain growth spurt when demands for omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is greatest for brain structure. Our aim was to characterize relative biosynthesis of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from precursors in cultured white (WAT) and brown (BAT) cells and study relevant gene expression. Mouse WAT and BAT cells were grown in regular DMEM media to confluence, and differentiation was induced. At days 0 and 8 cells were treated with albumin bound d5-18:3n-3 (d5-ALA) and analyzed 24h later. d5-ALA increased cellular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3) in undifferentiated BAT cells, whereas differentiated BAT cells accumulated 20:4n-3, EPA and DPA. DHA as a fraction of total omega-3 LCPUFA was greatest in differentiated BAT cells compared to undifferentiated cells. Undifferentiated WAT cells accumulated EPA, whereas differentiated cells accumulated DPA. WAT accumulated trace newly synthesized DHA. Zic1 a classical brown marker and Prdm16 a key driver of brown fat cell fate are expressed only in BAT cells. Ppargc1a is 15 fold higher in differentiated BAT cells. We conclude that in differentiated adipose cells accumulating fat, BAT cells but not WAT cells synthesize DHA, supporting the hypothesis that BAT is a net producer of DHA.

  8. Comparison of sodium acid sulfate to citric acid to inhibit browning of fresh-cut potatoes.

    PubMed

    Calder, Beth L; Kash, Emily A; Davis-Dentici, Katherine; Bushway, Alfred A

    2011-04-01

    Sodium acid sulfate (SAS) dip treatments were evaluated against a distilled water control and citric acid (CA) to compare its effectiveness in reducing enzymatic browning of raw, French-fry cut potatoes. Two separate studies were conducted with dip concentrations ranging from 0%, 1%, and 3% in experiment 1 to 0%, 2%, and 2.5% in experiment 2 to determine optimal dip concentrations. Russet Burbank potatoes were peeled, sliced, and dipped for 1 min and stored at 3 °C. Color, texture, fry surface pH, and microbiological analyses were conducted on days 0, 7, and 14. The 3% SAS- and CA-treated samples had significantly (p<0.0001) lower pH levels on fry surfaces than all other treatments. Both acidulants had significantly (p≤0.05) lower aerobic plate counts compared to controls in both studies by day 7. However, SAS appeared to be the most effective at the 3% level in maintaining a light fry color up to day 14 and had the highest L-values than all other treatments. The 3% SAS-treated fry slices appeared to have the least change in textural properties over storage time, having a significantly (p=0.0002) higher force value (kg force [kgf]) than the other treatments during experiment 1, without any signs of case-hardening that appeared in the control and CA-treated samples. SAS was just as comparable to CA in reducing surface fry pH and also lowering microbial counts over storage time. According to the results, SAS may be another viable acidulant to be utilized in the fresh-cut fruit and vegetable industry.

  9. Fatty acid metabolism and the basis of brown adipose tissue function

    PubMed Central

    Calderon-Dominguez, María; Mir, Joan F.; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Serra, Dolors; Herrero, Laura

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, leading to severe associated pathologies such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, cancer and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue has become crucial due to its involvement in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced insulin resistance, and traditionally white adipose tissue has captured the most attention. However in the last decade the presence and activity of heat-generating brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans has been rediscovered. BAT decreases with age and in obese and diabetic patients. It has thus attracted strong scientific interest, and any strategy to increase its mass or activity might lead to new therapeutic approaches to obesity and associated metabolic diseases. In this review we highlight the mechanisms of fatty acid uptake, trafficking and oxidation in brown fat thermogenesis. We focus on BAT's morphological and functional characteristics and fatty acid synthesis, storage, oxidation and use as a source of energy. PMID:27386151

  10. Fatty acid metabolism and the basis of brown adipose tissue function.

    PubMed

    Calderon-Dominguez, María; Mir, Joan F; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Serra, Dolors; Herrero, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, leading to severe associated pathologies such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, cancer and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue has become crucial due to its involvement in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced insulin resistance, and traditionally white adipose tissue has captured the most attention. However in the last decade the presence and activity of heat-generating brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans has been rediscovered. BAT decreases with age and in obese and diabetic patients. It has thus attracted strong scientific interest, and any strategy to increase its mass or activity might lead to new therapeutic approaches to obesity and associated metabolic diseases. In this review we highlight the mechanisms of fatty acid uptake, trafficking and oxidation in brown fat thermogenesis. We focus on BAT's morphological and functional characteristics and fatty acid synthesis, storage, oxidation and use as a source of energy. PMID:27386151

  11. Antioxidant effect of non-enzymatic browning reaction products on linoleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, N.S.K.

    1987-01-01

    In aqueous lysine-sucrose model systems, the effects of reaction time, pH and molar ratio were studied on the formation of non-enzymatic browning reaction (NBR) products. The extent of sucrose hydrolysis was measured and the antioxidant effect of NBR products on linoleic acid emulsions was examined. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were obtained at various stages of browning. Sucrose produced NMR produces with lysine in an aqueous system at 100/sup 0/C. The C-13 NMR spectra indicated that the NBR started when sucrose and lysine were dissolved in water. The C-13 NMR spectra also showed that heating did not have an effect on the gross composition of polymeric species. The absorbance at 480 nm of 0.75 M lysine-sucrose solution heated up to 6 hours increased with reaction times. The pH values of heated lysine-sucrose solution gradually decreased with reaction time. When 0.75 M sucrose or lysine solution was heated separately up to 6 hours, there were no changes in absorbance in pH. In the pH range of 3.52-6.35, higher absorbance was obtained from heated lysine-sucrose solution at acidic pH levels than at neutral pH levels. As the concentration of lysine and sucrose solution was increased, the absorbance increased. At longer reaction times or acidic pH levels, enhanced hydrolysis of sucrose to reducing sugars resulted in more NBR products. NBR products obtained at a longer reaction time, an acidic pH, and higher concentration of reactants showed a darker brown color and were effective in preventing the formation of peroxides. The oxygen uptake of linoleic acid emulsion having NBR products was smaller than that of linoleic acid emulsion without NBR products. Based on these results, it was concluded that sucrose may act as an antioxidant in processed foods containing both amino acids and lipids.

  12. Foraging at wastewater treatment works affects brown adipose tissue fatty acid profiles in banana bats

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kate; van Aswegen, Sunet; Schoeman, M. Corrie; Claassens, Sarina; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet; Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study we tested the hypothesis that the decrease in habitat quality at wastewater treatment works (WWTW), such as limited prey diversity and exposure to the toxic cocktail of pollutants, affect fatty acid profiles of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBrAT) in bats. Further, the antioxidant capacity of oxidative tissues such as pectoral and cardiac muscle may not be adequate to protect those tissues against reactive molecules resulting from polyunsaturated fatty acid auto-oxidation in the WWTW bats. Bats were sampled at two urban WWTW, and two unpolluted reference sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Brown adipose tissue (BrAT) mass was lower in WWTW bats than in reference site bats. We found lower levels of saturated phospholipid fatty acids and higher levels of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in WWTW bats than in reference site bats, while C18 desaturation and n-6 to n-3 ratios were higher in the WWTW bats. This was not associated with high lipid peroxidation levels in pectoral and cardiac muscle. Combined, these results indicate that WWTW bats rely on iBrAT as an energy source, and opportunistic foraging on abundant, pollutant-tolerant prey may change fatty acid profiles in their tissue, with possible effects on mitochondrial functioning, torpor and energy usage. PMID:26740572

  13. Autotaxin and Its Product Lysophosphatidic Acid Suppress Brown Adipose Differentiation and Promote Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Federico, Lorenzo; Ren, Hongmei; Mueller, Paul A.; Wu, Tao; Liu, Shuying; Popovic, Jelena; Blalock, Eric M.; Sunkara, Manjula; Ovaa, Huib; Albers, Harald M.; Mills, Gordon B.; Morris, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is a thermogenic organ that dissipates stored energy as heat to maintain body temperature. This process may also provide protection from development of diet-induced obesity. We report that the bioactive lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) markedly decreases differentiation of cultured primary brown adipocyte precursors, whereas potent selective inhibitors of the LPA-generating enzyme autotaxin (ATX) promote differentiation. Transgenic mice overexpressing ATX exhibit reduced expression of brown adipose tissue-related genes in peripheral white adipose tissue and accumulate significantly more fat than wild-type controls when fed a high-fat diet. Our results indicate that ATX and its product LPA are physiologically relevant negative regulators of brown fat adipogenesis and are consistent with a model in which a decrease in mature peripheral brown adipose tissue results in increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in mice. PMID:22474126

  14. Browning inhibition mechanisms by cysteine, ascorbic acid and citric acid, and identifying PPO-catechol-cysteine reaction products.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hussein M; El-Gizawy, Ahmed M; El-Bassiouny, Rawia E I; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2015-06-01

    The titled compounds were examined as PPO inhibitors and antibrowning agents; their various mechanisms were investigated and discussed. All compounds reduced significantly both the browning process and PPO activity. Browning index gave strong correlation with PPO activity (r(2) = 0.96, n = 19) indicating that the browning process is mainly enzymatic. Ascorbic acid could reduce the formed quinone instantly to the original substrate (catechol) at high concentration (>1.5 %) while at lower concentrations acted as competitive inhibitor (KI = 0.256 ± 0.067 mM). Cysteine, at higher concentrations (≥1.0 %), reacted with the resulted quinone to give a colorless products while at the low concentrations, cysteine worked as competitive inhibitor (KI = 1.113 ± 0.176 mM). Citric acid acted only as PPO non-competitive inhibitor with KI = 2.074 ± 0.363 mM. The products of PPO-catechole-cysteine reaction could be separation and identification by LC-ESI-MS. Results indicated that the product of the enzymatic oxidation of catechol, quinone, undergoes two successive nucleophilic attacks by cysteine thiol group. Cysteine was condensed with the resulted mono and dithiocatechols to form peptide side chains.

  15. Browning inhibition mechanisms by cysteine, ascorbic acid and citric acid, and identifying PPO-catechol-cysteine reaction products.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hussein M; El-Gizawy, Ahmed M; El-Bassiouny, Rawia E I; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2015-06-01

    The titled compounds were examined as PPO inhibitors and antibrowning agents; their various mechanisms were investigated and discussed. All compounds reduced significantly both the browning process and PPO activity. Browning index gave strong correlation with PPO activity (r(2) = 0.96, n = 19) indicating that the browning process is mainly enzymatic. Ascorbic acid could reduce the formed quinone instantly to the original substrate (catechol) at high concentration (>1.5 %) while at lower concentrations acted as competitive inhibitor (KI = 0.256 ± 0.067 mM). Cysteine, at higher concentrations (≥1.0 %), reacted with the resulted quinone to give a colorless products while at the low concentrations, cysteine worked as competitive inhibitor (KI = 1.113 ± 0.176 mM). Citric acid acted only as PPO non-competitive inhibitor with KI = 2.074 ± 0.363 mM. The products of PPO-catechole-cysteine reaction could be separation and identification by LC-ESI-MS. Results indicated that the product of the enzymatic oxidation of catechol, quinone, undergoes two successive nucleophilic attacks by cysteine thiol group. Cysteine was condensed with the resulted mono and dithiocatechols to form peptide side chains. PMID:26028748

  16. D-Galacturonic Acid: A Highly Reactive Compound in Nonenzymatic Browning. 2. Formation of Amino-Specific Degradation Products.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Steffen; Bornik, Maria-Anna; Kroh, Lothar W

    2015-07-22

    Thermal treatment of aqueous solutions of D-galacturonic acid and L-alanine at pH 3, 5, and 8 led to rapid and more intensive nonenzymatic browning reactions compared to similar solutions of other uronic acids and to Maillard reactions of reducing sugars. The hemiacetal ring structures of uronic acids had a high impact on browning behavior and reaction pathways. Besides reductic acid (1,2-dihydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one), 4,5-dihydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one (DHCP), furan-2-carboxaldehyde, and norfuraneol (4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-(2H)-furanone) could be detected as typical products of nonenzymatic uronic acid browning reactions. 2-(2-Formyl-1H-pyrrole-1-yl)propanoic acid (FPA) and 1-(1-carboxyethyl)-3-hydroxypyridin-1-ium (HPA) were identified as specific reaction products of uronic acids with amine participation like l-alanine. In contrast, the structurally related D-galacturonic acid methyl ester showed less browning activity and degradation under equal reaction conditions. Pectin-specific degradation products such as 5-formyl-2-furanoic acid and 2-furanoic acid were found but could not be verified for d-galacturonic acid monomers alone. PMID:26111613

  17. D-Galacturonic Acid: A Highly Reactive Compound in Nonenzymatic Browning. 2. Formation of Amino-Specific Degradation Products.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Steffen; Bornik, Maria-Anna; Kroh, Lothar W

    2015-07-22

    Thermal treatment of aqueous solutions of D-galacturonic acid and L-alanine at pH 3, 5, and 8 led to rapid and more intensive nonenzymatic browning reactions compared to similar solutions of other uronic acids and to Maillard reactions of reducing sugars. The hemiacetal ring structures of uronic acids had a high impact on browning behavior and reaction pathways. Besides reductic acid (1,2-dihydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one), 4,5-dihydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one (DHCP), furan-2-carboxaldehyde, and norfuraneol (4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-(2H)-furanone) could be detected as typical products of nonenzymatic uronic acid browning reactions. 2-(2-Formyl-1H-pyrrole-1-yl)propanoic acid (FPA) and 1-(1-carboxyethyl)-3-hydroxypyridin-1-ium (HPA) were identified as specific reaction products of uronic acids with amine participation like l-alanine. In contrast, the structurally related D-galacturonic acid methyl ester showed less browning activity and degradation under equal reaction conditions. Pectin-specific degradation products such as 5-formyl-2-furanoic acid and 2-furanoic acid were found but could not be verified for d-galacturonic acid monomers alone.

  18. Effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid in germinated brown millet.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingfeng; Hao, Jianxiong; Liu, Xianggui; Liu, Haijie; Ning, Yawei; Cheng, Ruhong; Tan, Bin; Jia, Yingmin

    2015-11-01

    The accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and the microbial decontamination are concerned increasingly in the production of sprouts. In this work, the effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid in the germinated brown millet was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography during germination. The results showed that slightly acidic electrolyzed water with appropriate available chlorine (15 or 30 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid by up to 21% (P < 0.05). However, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water could not enhance the sprouts growth of the germinated brown millet. The catalase and peroxidase activities of the germinated brown millet during germination were in agreement with the sprouts growth. Our results suggested that the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid was independent of the length of sprouts in germinated grains. Moreover, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water significantly reduced the microbial counts in the germinated millet (P < 0.05) and the treatment with high available chlorine concentration (15 and 30 mg/L) showed stronger anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet than that of lower available chlorine concentration (5 mg/L). In conclusion, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water is an available approach to improve the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet, and it can avoid too long millet sprouts.

  19. Assessment on proximate composition, dietary fiber, phytic acid and protein hydrolysis of germinated Ecuatorian brown rice.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Patricio J; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Amigo, Lourdes; Frias, Juana

    2014-09-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered healthier than brown rice (BR) but its nutritive value has been hardly studied. Since nutritive quality of GBR depends on genetic diversity and germination conditions, six Ecuadorian BR varieties were germinated at 28 and 34 ºC for 48 and 96 h in darkness and proximate composition, dietary fiber fractions, phytic acid content as well as degree of protein hydrolysis and peptide content were studied. Protein, lipids, ash and available carbohydrate ranged 7.3-10.4%, 2.0-4.0%, 0.8-1.5% and 71.6 to 84.0%, respectively, in GBR seedlings. Total dietary fiber increased during germination (6.1-13.6%), with a large proportion of insoluble fraction, while phytic acid was reduced noticeably. In general, protein hydrolysis occurred during germination was more accused at 28 ºC for 48 h. These results suggest that GBR can be consumed directly as nutritive staple food for a large population worldwide contributing to their nutritional requirements.

  20. Ursolic Acid Increases Skeletal Muscle and Brown Fat and Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity, Glucose Intolerance and Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kunkel, Steven D.; Elmore, Christopher J.; Bongers, Kale S.; Ebert, Scott M.; Fox, Daniel K.; Dyle, Michael C.; Bullard, Steven A.; Adams, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II), blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa) and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1). As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness. PMID:22745735

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of isoketocharbroic acid from brown alga, Sargassum micracanthum

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Young Min; Yoon, Weon-Jong; Lee, Wook Jae; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Baik, Jong Seok; Kim, Jin Hwa; Lee, Geun Soo; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2015-01-01

    During our on-going screening program designed to isolate natural compounds from marine environments, we isolated isoketochabrolic acid (IKCA) from Sargassum micracanthum, an important brown algae distributed in Jeju Island, Korea. Furthermore, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of IKCA on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered macrophages. IKCA strongly inhibited NO production, with an IC50 value of 58.31 μM. Subsequent studies demonstrated that IKCA potently and concentration-dependently reduced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 cytokine production. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that IKCA isolated from S. micracanthum has a potent anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, IKCA might be useful as an anti-inflammatory health supplement or functional cosmetics. PMID:26600756

  2. Postharvest Exogenous Application of Abscisic Acid Reduces Internal Browning in Pineapple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yulong; He, Congcong; Zhu, Shijiang

    2015-06-10

    Internal browning (IB) is a postharvest physiological disorder causing economic losses in pineapple, but there is no effective control measure. In this study, postharvest application of 380 μM abscisic acid (ABA) reduced IB incidence by 23.4-86.3% and maintained quality in pineapple fruit. ABA reduced phenolic contents and polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities; increased catalase and peroxidase activities; and decreased O2(·-), H2O2, and malondialdehyde levels. This suggests ABA could control IB through inhibiting phenolics biosynthesis and oxidation and enhancing antioxidant capability. Furthermore, the efficacy of IB control by ABA was not obviously affected by tungstate, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, nor by diphenylene iodonium, NADPH oxidase inhibitor, nor by lanthanum chloride, calcium channel blocker, suggesting that ABA is sufficient for controlling IB. This process might not involve H2O2 generation, but could involve the Ca(2+) channels activation. These results provide potential for developing effective measures for controlling IB in pineapple.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of isoketocharbroic acid from brown alga, Sargassum micracanthum.

    PubMed

    Ham, Young Min; Yoon, Weon-Jong; Lee, Wook Jae; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Baik, Jong Seok; Kim, Jin Hwa; Lee, Geun Soo; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2015-01-01

    During our on-going screening program designed to isolate natural compounds from marine environments, we isolated isoketochabrolic acid (IKCA) from Sargassum micracanthum, an important brown algae distributed in Jeju Island, Korea. Furthermore, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of IKCA on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered macrophages. IKCA strongly inhibited NO production, with an IC50 value of 58.31 μM. Subsequent studies demonstrated that IKCA potently and concentration-dependently reduced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 cytokine production. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that IKCA isolated from S. micracanthum has a potent anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, IKCA might be useful as an anti-inflammatory health supplement or functional cosmetics. PMID:26600756

  4. Brown adipose tissue mitochondria: modulation by GDP and fatty acids depends on the respiratory substrates

    PubMed Central

    De Meis, Leopoldo; Ketzer, Luisa A.; Camacho-Pereira, Juliana; Galina, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The UCP1 [first UCP (uncoupling protein)] that is found in the mitochondria of brown adipocytes [BAT (brown adipose tissue)] regulates the heat production, a process linked to non-shivering thermogenesis. The activity of UCP1 is modulated by GDP and fatty acids. In this report, we demonstrate that respiration and heat released by BAT mitochondria vary depending on the respiratory substrate utilized and the coupling state of the mitochondria. It has already been established that, in the presence of pyruvate/malate, BAT mitochondria are coupled by faf-BSA (fatty-acid-free BSA) and GDP, leading to an increase in ATP synthesis and mitochondrial membrane potential along with simultaneous decreases in both the rates of respiration and heat production. Oleate restores the uncoupled state, inhibiting ATP synthesis and increasing the rates of both respiration and heat production. We now show that in the presence of succinate: (i) the rates of uncoupled mitochondria respiration and heat production are five times slower than in the presence of pyruvate/malate; (ii) faf-BSA and GDP accelerate heat and respiration as a result and, in coupled mitochondria, these two rates are accelerated compared with pyruvate/malate; (iii) in spite of the differences in respiration and heat production noted with the two substrates, the membrane potential and the ATP synthesized were the same; and (iv) oleate promoted a decrease in heat production and respiration in coupled mitochondria, an effect different from that observed using pyruvate/malate. These effects are not related to the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species). We suggest that succinate could stimulate a new route to heat production in BAT mitochondria. PMID:21561434

  5. Short-Chain Fatty Acid Acetate Stimulates Adipogenesis and Mitochondrial Biogenesis via GPR43 in Brown Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiamiao; Kyrou, Ioannis; Tan, Bee K; Dimitriadis, Georgios K; Ramanjaneya, Manjunath; Tripathi, Gyanendra; Patel, Vanlata; James, Sean; Kawan, Mohamed; Chen, Jing; Randeva, Harpal S

    2016-05-01

    Short-chain fatty acids play crucial roles in a range of physiological functions. However, the effects of short-chain fatty acids on brown adipose tissue have not been fully investigated. We examined the role of acetate, a short-chain fatty acid formed by fermentation in the gut, in the regulation of brown adipocyte metabolism. Our results show that acetate up-regulates adipocyte protein 2, peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, and uncoupling protein-1 expression and affects the morphological changes of brown adipocytes during adipogenesis. Moreover, an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis was observed after acetate treatment. Acetate also elicited the activation of ERK and cAMP response element-binding protein, and these responses were sensitive to G(i/o)-type G protein inactivator, Gβγ-subunit inhibitor, phospholipase C inhibitor, and MAPK kinase inhibitor, indicating a role for the G(i/o)βγ/phospholipase C/protein kinase C/MAPK kinase signaling pathway in these responses. These effects of acetate were mimicked by treatment with 4-chloro-α-(1-methylethyl)-N-2-thiazolylbenzeneacetamide, a synthetic G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) agonist and were impaired in GPR43 knockdown cells. Taken together, our results indicate that acetate may have important physiological roles in brown adipocytes through the activation of GPR43. PMID:26990063

  6. Salicylic acid inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) by competitively inhibiting polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Li, Lin; Wu, Yanwen; Fan, Junfeng; Ouyang, Jie

    2015-03-15

    The inhibitory effect and associated mechanisms of salicylic acid (SA) on the browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut were investigated. Shelled and sliced chestnuts were immersed in different concentrations of an SA solution, and the browning of the chestnut surface and interior were inhibited. The activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) extracted from chestnuts were measured in the presence and absence of SA. SA at concentrations higher than 0.3g/L delayed chestnut browning by significantly inhibiting the PPO activity (P<0.01), and the POD activity was not significantly affected (P>0.05). The binding and inhibition modes of SA with PPO and POD, determined by AUTODOCK 4.2 and Lineweaver-Burk plots, respectively, established SA as a competitive inhibitor of PPO. PMID:25308637

  7. Salicylic acid inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) by competitively inhibiting polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Li, Lin; Wu, Yanwen; Fan, Junfeng; Ouyang, Jie

    2015-03-15

    The inhibitory effect and associated mechanisms of salicylic acid (SA) on the browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut were investigated. Shelled and sliced chestnuts were immersed in different concentrations of an SA solution, and the browning of the chestnut surface and interior were inhibited. The activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) extracted from chestnuts were measured in the presence and absence of SA. SA at concentrations higher than 0.3g/L delayed chestnut browning by significantly inhibiting the PPO activity (P<0.01), and the POD activity was not significantly affected (P>0.05). The binding and inhibition modes of SA with PPO and POD, determined by AUTODOCK 4.2 and Lineweaver-Burk plots, respectively, established SA as a competitive inhibitor of PPO.

  8. Dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) application in acidic sandy soil in reducing leaching of phosphorus and heavy metals-a column leaching study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuangen; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Stoffella, Peter J

    2013-06-01

    A column leaching study was designed to investigate the leaching potential of phosphorus (P) and heavy metals from acidic sandy soils applied with dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) fertilizers containing varying amounts of DPR material and N-Viro soils. DPR fertilizers were made from DPR materials mixing with N-Viro soils at the ratios of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 %, and applied in acidic sandy soils at the level of 100 mg available P per kilogram soil. A control and a soluble P chemical fertilizer were also included. The amended soils were incubated at room temperature with 70 % field water holding capacity for 21 days before packed into a soil column and subjected to leaching. Seven leaching events were conducted at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 70, respectively, and 258.9 mL of deionized water was applied at each leaching events. The leachate was collected for the analyses of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), major elements, and heavy metals. DPR fertilizer application resulted in elevations up to 1 unit in pH, 7-10 times in EC, and 20-40 times in K and Ca concentrations, but 3-10 times reduction in P concentration in the leachate as compared with the chemical fertilizer or the control. After seven leaching events, DPR fertilizers with adequate DPR materials significantly reduced cumulative leaching losses of Fe, P, Mn, Cu, and Zn by 20, 55, 3.7, 2.7, and 2.5 times than chemical fertilizer or control. Even though higher cumulative losses of Pb, Co, and Ni were observed after DPR fertilizer application, the loss of Pb, Co, and Ni in leachate was <0.10 mg (in total 1,812 mL leachate). Significant correlations of pH (negative) and DOC (positive) with Cu, Pb, and Zn (P<0.01) in leachate were observed. The results indicated that DPR fertilizers had a great advantage over the soluble chemical fertilizer in reducing P loss from the acidic sandy soil with minimal likelihood of heavy metal risk to the water environment. pH elevation and high

  9. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on distribution dynamics of free amino acids in water soaked brown rice grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigematsu, T.; Hayashi, M.; Nakajima, K.; Uno, Y.; Sakano, A.; Murakami, M.; Narahara, Y.; Ueno, S.; Fujii, T.

    2010-03-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HP) with approximately below 400 MPa can induce a transformation of food materials to an alternative form, where membrane systems are damaged but certain enzymes are still active. HP treatment of water soaked brown rice grain could modify the mass transfer inside and apparent activities of enzymes, resulting in HP-dependent change of distribution of free amino acids. Thus, the distribution of free amino acids in brown rice grain during preservation after HP treatment was analyzed. Just after HP treatment at 200 MPa for 10 min, the distribution of free amino acids was not apparently different from that of untreated control. In contrast, after 1 to 4 days preservation at 25°C, amino acids, such as Ala, Glu, Gly, Asp and Val, showed higher concentrations than those in control. This result suggested that HP treatment induced proteolysis to produce free amino acids. However, Gln, Thr and Cys, showed no apparent difference, suggesting that conversion of certain amino acids produced by proteolysis occurred. Moreover, the concentration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in HP-treated sample was higher than that in untreated control. These results suggested that HP treatment induced alteration of distribution of free amino acids of rice grains via proteolysis and certain amino acids metabolism pathways.

  10. Postharvest Exogenous Application of Abscisic Acid Reduces Internal Browning in Pineapple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yulong; He, Congcong; Zhu, Shijiang

    2015-06-10

    Internal browning (IB) is a postharvest physiological disorder causing economic losses in pineapple, but there is no effective control measure. In this study, postharvest application of 380 μM abscisic acid (ABA) reduced IB incidence by 23.4-86.3% and maintained quality in pineapple fruit. ABA reduced phenolic contents and polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities; increased catalase and peroxidase activities; and decreased O2(·-), H2O2, and malondialdehyde levels. This suggests ABA could control IB through inhibiting phenolics biosynthesis and oxidation and enhancing antioxidant capability. Furthermore, the efficacy of IB control by ABA was not obviously affected by tungstate, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, nor by diphenylene iodonium, NADPH oxidase inhibitor, nor by lanthanum chloride, calcium channel blocker, suggesting that ABA is sufficient for controlling IB. This process might not involve H2O2 generation, but could involve the Ca(2+) channels activation. These results provide potential for developing effective measures for controlling IB in pineapple. PMID:26007196

  11. Potential interference by free fatty acids in determination of tricyclazole in brown rice by gas chromatography with flame thermionic detection.

    PubMed

    Tsumura, Y; Nakamura, Y; Tonogai, Y; Shibata, T

    1996-01-01

    A convenient method is described for the determination of tricyclazole in brown rice, and the interference of free fatty acids with flame thermionic detection (FTD) is reported for the first time. Brown rice is extracted with acetone, the extract is filtered, and the filtrate is evaporated. To the residue is added 10% (w/v) NaCl solution, and the mixture is extracted with ethyl acetate. The extract is charged on a Sep-Pak Plus silica cartridge. Free fatty acids are removed from the rice by washing with diethyl ether, and tricyclazole is eluted with acetone-n-hexane (1 + 1). Tricyclazole is determined on a DB-1 capillary column by gas chromatography with FTD (GC-FTD). Linoleic acid and oleic acid, which have essentially the same retention time as tricyclazole, cannot be detected by FTD. Thus, without the Sep-Pak Plus silica cleanup, the peak height of tricyclazole in the chromatogram decreased, the extent depending on the concentration of linoleic acid. n-Hexane-acetonitrile partitioning was not used for cleanup because it could not remove 50% of the free fatty acids. Recoveries (mean +/- standard deviation, n = 5) of tricyclazole from rice fortified at 2 and 0.1 ppm were 90.5 +/- 9.4% and 81.3 +/- 10.6%, respectively. The limit of quantitation was 0.05 ppm.

  12. No evidence for the induction of brown algal chemical defense by the phytohormones jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Wiesemeier, Theresa; Jahn, Karsten; Pohnert, Georg

    2008-12-01

    Induced chemical defense reactions are widespread in marine brown algae. Despite the evidence that the biosynthesis of defense metabolites can be up-regulated upon herbivory, we do not know how this regulation of biosynthetic pathways to secondary metabolites is achieved in brown algae. In higher plants, the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is crucial for the mediation of induced chemical defenses, and several findings of this metabolite from marine sources have been reported. We tested the hypothesis that JA or related metabolites play a role in induced brown algal defense. Quantification of oxylipins with a detection limit around 20 ng g(-1) algal tissue did not reveal the presence of JA in the seven examined brown algal species Dictyota dichotoma, Colpomenia peregrina, Ectocarpus fasciculatus, Fucus vesiculosus, Himanthalia elongata, Saccharina latissima (formerly Laminaria saccharina), and Sargassum muticum. Moreover, treatment with ecologically relevant concentrations of JA and methyl jasmonate did not lead to a significant change in the profile of medium- and non-polar metabolites of the tested algae. Only when high concentrations of > or =500 microg ml(-1) medium of the phytohormones were applied that a metabolic response which could be attributed to unspecific stress was observed. Bioassays with D. dichotoma that focused on medium- and non-polar compounds confirmed the lack of a biological role of JA and methyl jasmonate in the induction of algal induced chemical defenses. The phytohormone-treated samples did not exhibit any increased defense potential towards the amphipod Ampithoe longimana and the isopod Paracerceis caudata. JA and related phytohormones, known to be active in higher plants, thus appear to play no role in brown algae for induction of the defense chemicals studied here. PMID:19020937

  13. No evidence for the induction of brown algal chemical defense by the phytohormones jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Wiesemeier, Theresa; Jahn, Karsten; Pohnert, Georg

    2008-12-01

    Induced chemical defense reactions are widespread in marine brown algae. Despite the evidence that the biosynthesis of defense metabolites can be up-regulated upon herbivory, we do not know how this regulation of biosynthetic pathways to secondary metabolites is achieved in brown algae. In higher plants, the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is crucial for the mediation of induced chemical defenses, and several findings of this metabolite from marine sources have been reported. We tested the hypothesis that JA or related metabolites play a role in induced brown algal defense. Quantification of oxylipins with a detection limit around 20 ng g(-1) algal tissue did not reveal the presence of JA in the seven examined brown algal species Dictyota dichotoma, Colpomenia peregrina, Ectocarpus fasciculatus, Fucus vesiculosus, Himanthalia elongata, Saccharina latissima (formerly Laminaria saccharina), and Sargassum muticum. Moreover, treatment with ecologically relevant concentrations of JA and methyl jasmonate did not lead to a significant change in the profile of medium- and non-polar metabolites of the tested algae. Only when high concentrations of > or =500 microg ml(-1) medium of the phytohormones were applied that a metabolic response which could be attributed to unspecific stress was observed. Bioassays with D. dichotoma that focused on medium- and non-polar compounds confirmed the lack of a biological role of JA and methyl jasmonate in the induction of algal induced chemical defenses. The phytohormone-treated samples did not exhibit any increased defense potential towards the amphipod Ampithoe longimana and the isopod Paracerceis caudata. JA and related phytohormones, known to be active in higher plants, thus appear to play no role in brown algae for induction of the defense chemicals studied here.

  14. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  15. Decrease of Population Divergence in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Browning Waters: Role of Fatty Acids and Foraging Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Scharnweber, Kristin; Strandberg, Ursula; Karlsson, Konrad; Eklöv, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Due to altered biogeochemical processes related to climate change, highly colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from terrestrial sources will lead to a water “brownification” in many freshwater systems of the Northern Hemisphere. This will create deteriorated visual conditions that have been found to affect habitat-specific morphological variations in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a previous study. So far, potential drivers and ultimate causes of these findings have not been identified. We conducted a field study to investigate the connection between morphological divergence and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of perch from six lakes across a gradient of DOC concentration. We expected a decrease in the prevalence of PUFAs, which are important for perch growth and divergence with increasing DOC concentrations, due to the restructuring effects of DOC on aquatic food webs. In general, rate of morphological divergence in perch decreased with increasing DOC concentrations. Proportions of specific PUFAs (22:6n-3, 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, and 20:4n-6) identified to primarily contribute to overall differences between perch caught in clear and brown-water lakes tended to be connected to overall decline of morphological divergence. However, no overall significant relationship was found, indicating no severe limitation of essential fatty acids for perch inhabiting brown water lakes. We further broaden our approach by conducting a laboratory experiment on foraging efficiency of perch. Therefore, we induced pelagic and littoral phenotypes by differences in habitat-structure and feeding mode and recorded attack rate in a feeding experiment. Generally, fish were less efficient in foraging on littoral prey (Ephemeroptera) when visual conditions were degraded by brown water color. We concluded that browning water may have a strong effect on the forager’s ability to find particular food resources, resulting in the reduced development of evolutionary traits

  16. Decrease of Population Divergence in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Browning Waters: Role of Fatty Acids and Foraging Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Scharnweber, Kristin; Strandberg, Ursula; Karlsson, Konrad; Eklöv, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Due to altered biogeochemical processes related to climate change, highly colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from terrestrial sources will lead to a water "brownification" in many freshwater systems of the Northern Hemisphere. This will create deteriorated visual conditions that have been found to affect habitat-specific morphological variations in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a previous study. So far, potential drivers and ultimate causes of these findings have not been identified. We conducted a field study to investigate the connection between morphological divergence and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of perch from six lakes across a gradient of DOC concentration. We expected a decrease in the prevalence of PUFAs, which are important for perch growth and divergence with increasing DOC concentrations, due to the restructuring effects of DOC on aquatic food webs. In general, rate of morphological divergence in perch decreased with increasing DOC concentrations. Proportions of specific PUFAs (22:6n-3, 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, and 20:4n-6) identified to primarily contribute to overall differences between perch caught in clear and brown-water lakes tended to be connected to overall decline of morphological divergence. However, no overall significant relationship was found, indicating no severe limitation of essential fatty acids for perch inhabiting brown water lakes. We further broaden our approach by conducting a laboratory experiment on foraging efficiency of perch. Therefore, we induced pelagic and littoral phenotypes by differences in habitat-structure and feeding mode and recorded attack rate in a feeding experiment. Generally, fish were less efficient in foraging on littoral prey (Ephemeroptera) when visual conditions were degraded by brown water color. We concluded that browning water may have a strong effect on the forager's ability to find particular food resources, resulting in the reduced development of evolutionary traits, such as

  17. Decrease of Population Divergence in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Browning Waters: Role of Fatty Acids and Foraging Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Scharnweber, Kristin; Strandberg, Ursula; Karlsson, Konrad; Eklöv, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Due to altered biogeochemical processes related to climate change, highly colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from terrestrial sources will lead to a water "brownification" in many freshwater systems of the Northern Hemisphere. This will create deteriorated visual conditions that have been found to affect habitat-specific morphological variations in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a previous study. So far, potential drivers and ultimate causes of these findings have not been identified. We conducted a field study to investigate the connection between morphological divergence and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of perch from six lakes across a gradient of DOC concentration. We expected a decrease in the prevalence of PUFAs, which are important for perch growth and divergence with increasing DOC concentrations, due to the restructuring effects of DOC on aquatic food webs. In general, rate of morphological divergence in perch decreased with increasing DOC concentrations. Proportions of specific PUFAs (22:6n-3, 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, and 20:4n-6) identified to primarily contribute to overall differences between perch caught in clear and brown-water lakes tended to be connected to overall decline of morphological divergence. However, no overall significant relationship was found, indicating no severe limitation of essential fatty acids for perch inhabiting brown water lakes. We further broaden our approach by conducting a laboratory experiment on foraging efficiency of perch. Therefore, we induced pelagic and littoral phenotypes by differences in habitat-structure and feeding mode and recorded attack rate in a feeding experiment. Generally, fish were less efficient in foraging on littoral prey (Ephemeroptera) when visual conditions were degraded by brown water color. We concluded that browning water may have a strong effect on the forager's ability to find particular food resources, resulting in the reduced development of evolutionary traits, such as

  18. Degradation of dissolved organic monomers and short-chain fatty acids in sandy marine sediment by fermentation and sulfate reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdemarsen, Thomas; Kristensen, Erik

    2010-03-01

    The decay of a wide range of organic monomers (short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA's), amino acids, glucose and a pyrimidine) was studied in marine sediments using experimental plug flow-through reactors. The reactions were followed in the presence and absence of 10 mM SO 42-. Degradation stoichiometry of individual monomers (inflow concentration of 6 mM organic C) was traced by measuring organic (VFA's, amino acids) and inorganic (CO 2, NH 4+, SO 42-) compounds in the outflow. Fermentation of amino acids was efficient and complete during passage through anoxic sediment reactors. Aliphatic amino acids (alanine, serine and glutamate) were primarily recovered as CO 2 (24-34%), formate (3-22%) and acetate (41-83%), whereas only ˜1/3 of the aromatic amino acid (tyrosine) was recovered as CO 2 (13%) and acetate (20%). Fermentation of glucose and cytosine was also efficient (78-86%) with CO 2 (30-35%), formate (3%) and acetate (28-33%) as the primary products. Fermentation of VFA's (acetate, propionate and butyrate), on the other hand, appeared to be product inhibited. The presence of SO 42- markedly stimulated VFA degradation (29-45% efficiency), and these compounds were recovered as CO 2 (17% for butyrate to 100% for acetate) and acetate (51% and 82% for propionate and butyrate, respectively). When reaction stoichiometry during fermentation is compared with compound depletion during sulfate reduction, the higher proportion CO 2 recovery is consistent with lower acetate and formate accumulation. Our results therefore suggest that fermentation reactions mediate the initial degradation of added organic compounds, even during active sulfate reduction. Fermentative degradation stoichiometry also suggested significant H 2 production, and >50% of sulfate reduction appeared to be fuelled by H 2. Furthermore, our results suggest that fermentation was the primary deamination step during degradation of the amino acids and cytosine.

  19. [High aluminum concentrations in well water of southern Lower Saxony sandy soil areas caused by acid precipitation--evaluation from the public health and ecologic viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Mühlenberg, W

    1990-01-01

    Decades of acid precipitation have caused soil acidification in regions with low neutralizing capacity of industrial countries, thus mobilizing aluminium from clay minerals into soil solution and ground water. In the southern sandy heath-land of Lower Saxony all the wells with pH values lower than 4.5 showed aluminium contents higher than 2.0 mg/l. 66.7% of the specimens within the pH-range 4.5 to 5.0 and 20% of the specimens within the pH-range 5.0 to 5.5 had aluminium levels of more than 0.2 mg/l, that is the maximum permissible limit value of the drinking water regulation. High contents of aluminium in drinking water are objectionable from the hygienic point of view, as they may cause intoxications in infants and patients with impaired renal function. In addition to this, the involvement of aluminium in the pathogenesis of severe degenerative disorders of the central nervous system cannot be excluded, such as Alzheimers disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsons dementia.

  20. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Potentiates Brown Thermogenesis through FFAR4-dependent Up-regulation of miR-30b and miR-378.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Okla, Meshail; Erickson, Anjeza; Carr, Timothy; Natarajan, Sathish Kumar; Chung, Soonkyu

    2016-09-23

    Emerging evidence suggests that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) promote brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we hypothesize that n-3 PUFA promotes brown adipogenesis by modulating miRNAs. To test this hypothesis, murine brown preadipocytes were induced to differentiate the fatty acids of palmitic, oleate, or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The increases of brown-specific signature genes and oxygen consumption rate by EPA were concurrent with up-regulation of miR-30b and 378 but not by oleate or palmitic acid. Next, we hypothesize that free fatty acid receptor 4 (Ffar4), a functional receptor for n-3 PUFA, modulates miR-30b and 378. Treatment of Ffar4 agonist (GW9508) recapitulated the thermogenic activation of EPA by increasing oxygen consumption rate, brown-specific marker genes, and miR-30b and 378, which were abrogated in Ffar4-silenced cells. Intriguingly, addition of the miR-30b mimic was unable to restore EPA-induced Ucp1 expression in Ffar4-depleted cells, implicating that Ffar4 signaling activity is required for up-regulating the brown adipogenic program. Moreover, blockage of miR-30b or 378 by locked nucleic acid inhibitors significantly attenuated Ffar4 as well as brown-specific signature gene expression, suggesting the signaling interplay between Ffar4 and miR-30b/378. The association between miR-30b/378 and brown thermogenesis was also confirmed in fish oil-fed C57/BL6 mice. Interestingly, the Ffar4 agonism-mediated signaling axis of Ffar4-miR-30b/378-Ucp1 was linked with an elevation of cAMP in brown adipocytes, similar to cold-exposed or fish oil-fed brown fat. Taken together, our work identifies a novel function of Ffar4 in modulating brown adipogenesis partly through a mechanism involving cAMP activation and up-regulation of miR-30b and miR-378. PMID:27489163

  1. Adaptive modification of membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition and metabolic thermosuppression of brown adipose tissue in heat-acclimated rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, S. K.; Ohno, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Kuroshima, A.

    Thermogenesis, especially facultative thermogenesis by brown adipose tissue (BAT), is less important in high ambient temperature and the heat-acclimated animals show a lower metabolic rate. Adaptive changes in the metabolic activity of BAT are generally found to be associated with a modification of membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition. However, the effect of heat acclimation on membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition is as yet unknown. In this study, we examined the thermogenic activity and phospholipid fatty acid composition of interscapular BAT from heat-acclimated rats (control: 25+/-1°C, 50% relative humidity and heat acclimation: 32+/-0.5°C, 50% relative humidity). Basal thermogenesis and the total thermogenic capacity after noradrenaline stimulation, as estimated by in vitro oxygen consumption of BAT (measured polarographically using about 1-mm3 tissue blocks), were smaller in the heat-acclimated group than in the control group. There was no difference in the tissue content of phospholipids between the groups when expressed per microgram of DNA. The phospholipid fatty acid composition was analyzed by a capillary gas chromatograph. The state of phospholipid unsaturation, as estimated by the number of double bonds per fatty acid molecule, was similar between the groups. The saturated fatty acid level was higher in the heat-acclimated group. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, heat acclimation decreased docosahexaenoic acid and oleic acid levels, and increased the arachidonic acid level. The tissue level of docosahexaenoic acid correlated with the basal oxygen consumption of BAT (r=0.6, P<0.01) and noradrenaline-stimulated maximum values of oxygen consumption (r=0.5, P<0.05). Our results show that heat acclimation modifies the BAT phospholipid fatty acids, especially the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid, which is possibly involved in the metabolic thermosuppression.

  2. Glutathione and cinnamic acid: natural dietary components used in preventing the process of browning by inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Gacche, R N; Warangkar, S C; Ghole, V S

    2004-04-01

    Consumer demands for 'freshness' in processed foods has been given increasing attention by food processing industries by searching for minimally processed products. Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) mediated browning is a major cause of undesirable flavors and nutritional losses in fruit juices. Here the anti-browning efficiency of glutathione (GSH, reduced form) and cinnamic acid (CA) in apple juice is evaluated. It was observed that the rate of the browning reaction could be efficiently delayed using GSH and CA, which act as inhibitors of PPO. Kinetic studies confirm that GSH and CA are non-competitive and competitive inhibitors of PPO respectively.

  3. Circadian changes in endogenous concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid, melatonin, serotonin, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid in Characeae (Chara australis Brown).

    PubMed

    Beilby, Mary J; Turi, Christina E; Baker, Teesha C; Tymm, Fiona Jm; Murch, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Giant-celled Characeae (Chara australis Brown), grown for 4 months on 12/12 hr day/night cycle and summer/autumn temperatures, exhibited distinct concentration maxima in auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA), melatonin and serotonin about 4 hr after subjective daybreak. These concentration peaks persisted after 3 day pretreatment in continuous darkness: confirming a circadian rhythm, rather than a response to "light on." The plants pretreated for 3 d in continuous light exhibited several large IAA concentration maxima throughout the 24 hr. The melatonin and serotonin concentrations decreased and were less synchronized with IAA. Chara plants grown on 9/15 hr day/night cycle for 4 months and winter/spring temperatures contained much smaller concentrations of IAA, melatonin and serotonin. The IAA concentration maxima were observed in subjective dark phase. Serotonin concentration peaks were weakly correlated with those of IAA. Melatonin concentration was low and mostly independent of circadian cycle. The "dark" IAA concentration peaks persisted in plants treated for 3 d in the dark. The plants pretreated for 3 d in the light again developed more IAA concentration peaks. In this case the concentration maxima in melatonin and serotonin became more synchronous with those in IAA. The abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) concentrations were also measured in plants on winter regime. The ABA concentration did not exhibit circadian pattern, while JA concentration peaks were out of phase with those of IAA. The data are discussed in terms of crosstalk between metabolic pathways. PMID:26382914

  4. Circadian changes in endogenous concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid, melatonin, serotonin, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid in Characeae (Chara australis Brown).

    PubMed

    Beilby, Mary J; Turi, Christina E; Baker, Teesha C; Tymm, Fiona Jm; Murch, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Giant-celled Characeae (Chara australis Brown), grown for 4 months on 12/12 hr day/night cycle and summer/autumn temperatures, exhibited distinct concentration maxima in auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA), melatonin and serotonin about 4 hr after subjective daybreak. These concentration peaks persisted after 3 day pretreatment in continuous darkness: confirming a circadian rhythm, rather than a response to "light on." The plants pretreated for 3 d in continuous light exhibited several large IAA concentration maxima throughout the 24 hr. The melatonin and serotonin concentrations decreased and were less synchronized with IAA. Chara plants grown on 9/15 hr day/night cycle for 4 months and winter/spring temperatures contained much smaller concentrations of IAA, melatonin and serotonin. The IAA concentration maxima were observed in subjective dark phase. Serotonin concentration peaks were weakly correlated with those of IAA. Melatonin concentration was low and mostly independent of circadian cycle. The "dark" IAA concentration peaks persisted in plants treated for 3 d in the dark. The plants pretreated for 3 d in the light again developed more IAA concentration peaks. In this case the concentration maxima in melatonin and serotonin became more synchronous with those in IAA. The abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) concentrations were also measured in plants on winter regime. The ABA concentration did not exhibit circadian pattern, while JA concentration peaks were out of phase with those of IAA. The data are discussed in terms of crosstalk between metabolic pathways.

  5. Metabolic inflexibility of white and brown adipose tissues in abnormal fatty acid partitioning of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Grenier-Larouche, T; Labbé, S M; Noll, C; Richard, D; Carpentier, A C

    2012-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by a general dysregulation of postprandial energy substrate partitioning. Although classically described in regard to glucose metabolism, it is now evident that metabolic inflexibility of plasma lipid fluxes is also present in T2D. The organ that is most importantly involved in the latter metabolic defect is the white adipose tissue (WAT). Both catecholamine-induced nonesterified fatty acid mobilization and insulin-stimulated storage of meal fatty acids are impaired in many WAT depots of insulin-resistant individuals. Novel molecular imaging techniques now demonstrate that these defects are linked to increased dietary fatty acid fluxes toward lean organs and myocardial dysfunction in humans. Recent findings also demonstrate functional abnormalities of brown adipose tissues in T2D, thus suggesting that a generalized adipose tissue dysregulation of energy storage and dissipation may be at play in the development of lean tissue energy overload and lipotoxicity. PMID:27152152

  6. Value-added lipid production from brown seaweed biomass by two-stage fermentation using acetic acid bacterium and thraustochytrid.

    PubMed

    Arafiles, Kim Hazel V; Iwasaka, Hiroaki; Eramoto, Yuri; Okamura, Yoshiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Aki, Tsunehiro

    2014-11-01

    Thraustochytrid production of polyunsaturated fatty acids and xanthophylls have been generally sourced from crop-derived substrates, making the exploration of alternative feedstocks attractive since they promise increased sustainability and lower production costs. In this study, a distinct two-stage fermentation system was conceptualized for the first time, using the brown seaweed sugar mannitol as substrate for the intermediary biocatalyst Gluconobacter oxydans, an acetic acid bacterium, along with the marine thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. to produce the value-added lipids and xanthophylls. Jar fermenter culture resulted in seaweed mannitol conversion to fructose with an efficiency of 83 % by G. oxydans and, after bacteriostasis with sea salts, production of astaxanthin and docosahexaenoic acid by Aurantiochytrium sp. KH105. Astaxanthin productivity was high at 3.60 mg/L/day. This new system, therefore, widens possibilities of obtaining more varieties of industrially valuable products including foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and biofuel precursor lipids from seaweed fermentation upon the use of suitable thraustochytrid strains.

  7. Jinggangmycin increases fecundity of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), via fatty acid synthase gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antibiotic jinggangmycin (JGM) is mainly used in controlling the rice sheath blight, Rhizoctonia solani, in China. JGM also enhances reproduction of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). To date, however, molecular mechanisms of the enhancement are unclear. Our related report d...

  8. Analyzing Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convertino, Angelyn; Meyer, Stephan; Edwards, Becca

    2015-03-01

    Post-tropical Storm Sandy underwent extratropical transition shortly before making landfall in southern New Jersey October 29 2012. Data from this system was compared with data from Hurricane Ike (2008) which represents a classic hurricane with a clear eye wall and symmetry after landfall. Storm Sandy collided with a low pressure system coming in from the north as the hurricane made landfall on the US East coast. This contributed to Storm Sandy acting as a non-typical hurricane when it made landfall. Time histories of wind speed and wind direction were generated from data provided by Texas Tech's StickNet probes for both storms. The NOAA Weather and Climate program were used to generate radar loops of reflectivity during the landfall for both storms; these loops were compared with time histories for both Ike and Sandy to identify a relationship between time series data and storm-scale features identified on radar.

  9. Seasonal variations of the composition of microbial biofilms in sandy tidal flats: Focus of fatty acids, pigments and exopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passarelli, Claire; Meziane, Tarik; Thiney, Najet; Boeuf, Dominique; Jesus, Bruno; Ruivo, Mickael; Jeanthon, Christian; Hubas, Cédric

    2015-02-01

    Biofilms, or microbial mats, are common associations of microorganisms in tidal flats; they generally consist of a large diversity of organisms embedded in a matrix of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS). These molecules are mainly composed of carbohydrates and proteins, but their detailed monomer compositions and seasonal variations are currently unknown. Yet this composition determines the numerous roles of biofilms in these systems. This study investigated the changes in composition of carbohydrates in intertidal microbial mats over a year to decipher seasonal variations in biofilms and in varying hydrodynamic conditions. This work also aimed to assess how these compositions are related to microbial assemblages. In this context, natural biofilms whose development was influenced or not by artificial structures mimicking polychaete tubes were sampled monthly for over a year in intertidal flats of the Chausey archipelago. Biofilms were compared through the analysis of their fatty acid and pigment contents, and the monosaccharide composition of their EPS carbohydrates. Carbohydrates from both colloidal and bound EPS contained mainly glucose and, to a lower extent, galactose and mannose but they showed significant differences in their detailed monosaccharide compositions. These two fractions displayed different seasonal evolution, even if glucose accumulated in both fractions in summer; bound EPS only were affected by artificial biogenic structures. Sediment composition in fatty acids and pigments showed that microbial communities were dominated by diatoms and heterotrophic bacteria. Their relative proportions, as well as those of other groups like cryptophytes, changed between times and treatments. The changes in EPS composition were not fully explained by modifications of microbial assemblages but also depended on the processes taking place in sediments and on environmental conditions. These variations of EPS compositions are likely to alter different

  10. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Elvan

    Increase in the petroleum prices, projected increases in the world's energy demand and environmental awareness have shifted the research interest to the alternative fuel technologies. In particular, green diesel, vegetable oil/animal fat/waste oil and grease derived hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, has become an attractive alternative to biodiesel---a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, particularly due to its superior fuel properties that are similar to petroleum diesel. Hence, green diesel can be used as a drop-in fuel in the current diesel engines. The current technology for production of green diesel-hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides and fatty acids over conventional hydrotreating catalysts suffers from fast catalyst deactivation in the absence of hydrogen combined with high temperatures and high fatty acid content in the feedstock. Additionally, excess hydrogen requirement for hydrodeoxygenation technique leads to high production costs. This thesis proposes a new technology-selective decarboxylation of brown grease, which is a mixture of fats and oils collected from waste water trap and rich in fatty acids, over a supported noble metal catalyst that overcomes the green diesel production challenges. In contrast to other feedstocks used for liquid biofuel production, brown grease is inexpensive and non-food competing feedstock, therefore the process finds solution to waste management issues, reduces the renewable fuel production cost and does not add to the global food shortage problems. Special catalyst formulations were developed to have a high activity and stability in the absence of hydrogen in the fatty acid decarboxylation process. The study shows how catalyst innovations can lead to a new technology that overcomes the process challenges. First, the effect of reaction parameters on the activity and the selectivity of brown grease decarboxylation with minimum hydrogen consumption over an activated carbon supported palladium catalyst were

  11. Brown Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does Brown syndrome cause eye problems besides abnormal eye movements? Some children with Brown syndrome have poor binocular ... In the congenital form of Brown syndrome, the eye movement problem is usually constant and unlikely to resolve ...

  12. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Elvan

    Increase in the petroleum prices, projected increases in the world's energy demand and environmental awareness have shifted the research interest to the alternative fuel technologies. In particular, green diesel, vegetable oil/animal fat/waste oil and grease derived hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, has become an attractive alternative to biodiesel---a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, particularly due to its superior fuel properties that are similar to petroleum diesel. Hence, green diesel can be used as a drop-in fuel in the current diesel engines. The current technology for production of green diesel-hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides and fatty acids over conventional hydrotreating catalysts suffers from fast catalyst deactivation in the absence of hydrogen combined with high temperatures and high fatty acid content in the feedstock. Additionally, excess hydrogen requirement for hydrodeoxygenation technique leads to high production costs. This thesis proposes a new technology-selective decarboxylation of brown grease, which is a mixture of fats and oils collected from waste water trap and rich in fatty acids, over a supported noble metal catalyst that overcomes the green diesel production challenges. In contrast to other feedstocks used for liquid biofuel production, brown grease is inexpensive and non-food competing feedstock, therefore the process finds solution to waste management issues, reduces the renewable fuel production cost and does not add to the global food shortage problems. Special catalyst formulations were developed to have a high activity and stability in the absence of hydrogen in the fatty acid decarboxylation process. The study shows how catalyst innovations can lead to a new technology that overcomes the process challenges. First, the effect of reaction parameters on the activity and the selectivity of brown grease decarboxylation with minimum hydrogen consumption over an activated carbon supported palladium catalyst were

  13. Burdock fructooligosaccharide induces fungal resistance in postharvest Kyoho grapes by activating the salicylic acid-dependent pathway and inhibiting browning.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Zhang, Pengying; Guo, Moran; Yu, Wenqian; Chen, Kaoshan

    2013-05-01

    Burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) is a natural elicitor from Arcitum lappa. The effects of BFO in controlling postharvest disease in grape, apple, banana, kiwi, citrus, strawberry, and pear were investigated. The disease index, decay percentage, and area under the disease progress curve indicated that BFO has general control effects on postharvest disease of fruits. Kyoho grapes were studied to elucidate the mechanism of BFO in boosting the resistance of grapes to Botrytis cinerea infection. BFO treatment induced upregulation of the npr1, pr1, pal, and sts genes, and inhibited the total phenol content decrease, which activated chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. These results indicated that the salicylic acid-dependent signalling pathway was induced. The delayed colour change and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activity suggested that BFO delayed grape browning. The reduced respiration rate, weight loss, and titratable acidity prolonged the shelf life of postharvest grapes. BFO is a promising elicitor in postharvest disease control. PMID:23265522

  14. Burdock fructooligosaccharide induces fungal resistance in postharvest Kyoho grapes by activating the salicylic acid-dependent pathway and inhibiting browning.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Zhang, Pengying; Guo, Moran; Yu, Wenqian; Chen, Kaoshan

    2013-05-01

    Burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) is a natural elicitor from Arcitum lappa. The effects of BFO in controlling postharvest disease in grape, apple, banana, kiwi, citrus, strawberry, and pear were investigated. The disease index, decay percentage, and area under the disease progress curve indicated that BFO has general control effects on postharvest disease of fruits. Kyoho grapes were studied to elucidate the mechanism of BFO in boosting the resistance of grapes to Botrytis cinerea infection. BFO treatment induced upregulation of the npr1, pr1, pal, and sts genes, and inhibited the total phenol content decrease, which activated chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. These results indicated that the salicylic acid-dependent signalling pathway was induced. The delayed colour change and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activity suggested that BFO delayed grape browning. The reduced respiration rate, weight loss, and titratable acidity prolonged the shelf life of postharvest grapes. BFO is a promising elicitor in postharvest disease control.

  15. Glycerol-3-phosphate Acyltransferase Isoform-4 (GPAT4) Limits Oxidation of Exogenous Fatty Acids in Brown Adipocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Daniel E.; Grevengoed, Trisha J.; Klett, Eric L.; Coleman, Rosalind A.

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-4 (GPAT4) null pups grew poorly during the suckling period and, as adults, were protected from high fat diet-induced obesity. To determine why Gpat4−/− mice failed to gain weight during these two periods of high fat feeding, we examined energy metabolism. Compared with controls, the metabolic rate of Gpat4−/− mice fed a 45% fat diet was 12% higher. Core body temperature was 1 ºC higher after high fat feeding. Food intake, fat absorption, and activity were similar in both genotypes. Impaired weight gain in Gpat4−/− mice did not result from increased heat loss, because both cold tolerance and response to a β3-adrenergic agonist were similar in both genotypes. Because GPAT4 comprises 65% of the total GPAT activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), we characterized BAT function. A 45% fat diet increased the Gpat4−/− BAT expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR) target genes, Cpt1α, Pgc1α, and Ucp1, and BAT mitochondria oxidized oleate and pyruvate at higher rates than controls, suggesting that fatty acid signaling and flux through the TCA cycle were enhanced. To assess the role of GPAT4 directly, neonatal BAT preadipocytes were differentiated to adipocytes. Compared with controls, Gpat4−/− brown adipocytes incorporated 33% less fatty acid into triacylglycerol and 46% more into the pathway of β-oxidation. The increased oxidation rate was due solely to an increase in the oxidation of exogenous fatty acids. These data suggest that in the absence of cold exposure, GPAT4 limits excessive fatty acid oxidation and the detrimental induction of a hypermetabolic state. PMID:25918168

  16. Circadian changes in endogenous concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid, melatonin, serotonin, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid in Characeae (Chara australis Brown)

    PubMed Central

    Beilby, Mary J; Turi, Christina E; Baker, Teesha C; Tymm, Fiona JM; Murch, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Giant-celled Characeae (Chara australis Brown), grown for 4 months on 12/12 hr day/night cycle and summer/autumn temperatures, exhibited distinct concentration maxima in auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA), melatonin and serotonin about 4 hr after subjective daybreak. These concentration peaks persisted after 3 day pretreatment in continuous darkness: confirming a circadian rhythm, rather than a response to “light on.” The plants pretreated for 3 d in continuous light exhibited several large IAA concentration maxima throughout the 24 hr. The melatonin and serotonin concentrations decreased and were less synchronized with IAA. Chara plants grown on 9/15 hr day/night cycle for 4 months and winter/spring temperatures contained much smaller concentrations of IAA, melatonin and serotonin. The IAA concentration maxima were observed in subjective dark phase. Serotonin concentration peaks were weakly correlated with those of IAA. Melatonin concentration was low and mostly independent of circadian cycle. The “dark” IAA concentration peaks persisted in plants treated for 3 d in the dark. The plants pretreated for 3 d in the light again developed more IAA concentration peaks. In this case the concentration maxima in melatonin and serotonin became more synchronous with those in IAA. The abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) concentrations were also measured in plants on winter regime. The ABA concentration did not exhibit circadian pattern, while JA concentration peaks were out of phase with those of IAA. The data are discussed in terms of crosstalk between metabolic pathways. PMID:26382914

  17. Mucous cell responses in gill and skin of brown trout Salmo trutta fario in acidic, aluminium-containing stream water.

    PubMed

    Ledy, K; Giambérini, L; Pihan, J C

    2003-10-24

    Morphometric examination was carried out on the gills and skin of wild and caged hatchery brown trout Salmo trutta fario in an acidic (pH 4.9 to 5.4; Al 203 to 250 microg l(-1)) and in a non-acidic (pH 6.7 to 7.0; Al 27 to 67 microg l(-1)) stream in the Vosges Mountains (NE France) to assess the sublethal effects of acidic water on the mucous cell response. The caged fish were randomly collected after 2, 4, 7 and 11 d and the wild fish were obtained by electrofishing. After 2 d, a reduction of both mucous cell (MC) number and size was observed in the gills of fish held in the acidic stream, suggesting a massive mucus discharge. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of cells immediately followed this mucus secretion. In the same fish population, skin examination showed a slight and delayed decrease of MC number but a significant increase of cell size. The number of mucous cells of gills and skin was similar in both wild trout populations, whereas a significant MC hypertrophy was observed in the wild fish of the acidic stream. The present field experiment indicates that caged fish could be useful as early indicators of acidification. In addition, the examination of wild populations suggested the occurrence of adaptive mechanisms, information that might be of importance in the context of river recovery programs.

  18. Microseisms from Superstorm Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sufri, Oner; Koper, Keith D.; Burlacu, Relu; de Foy, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    We analyzed and visualized the microseisms generated by Superstorm Sandy as recorded by the Earthscope Transportable Array (TA) during late October through early November of 2012. We applied continuous, frequency-dependent polarization analysis to the data and were able to track the course of Sandy as it approached the Florida coastline and, later, the northeastern coast of the U.S. The energy level of Sandy was roughly comparable to the background microseism level generated by wave-wave interactions in the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans. The maximum microseismic power and degree of polarization were observed across the TA when Sandy sharply changed its direction to the west-northwest (specifically, towards Long Island, New York) on October 29. The westward turn also briefly changed the dominant microseism period from 5 s to 8 s. We identified three other microseismic source regions during the 18 day observation period. In particular, peak-splitting in the double frequency band and the orientation of the 5 s and 8 s polarization vectors revealed two contemporaneous microseism sources, one in the North Atlantic and one in the Northeast Pacific, for the dates of November 3-4. Predictions of microseismic excitation based on ocean wave models showed consistency with the observed microseismic energy generated by Sandy and other storms.

  19. The brown adipocyte protein CIDEA promotes lipid droplet fusion via a phosphatidic acid-binding amphipathic helix

    PubMed Central

    Barneda, David; Planas-Iglesias, Joan; Gaspar, Maria L; Mohammadyani, Dariush; Prasannan, Sunil; Dormann, Dirk; Han, Gil-Soo; Jesch, Stephen A; Carman, George M; Kagan, Valerian; Parker, Malcolm G; Ktistakis, Nicholas T; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Dixon, Ann M; Henry, Susan A; Christian, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of energy homeostasis depends on the highly regulated storage and release of triacylglycerol primarily in adipose tissue, and excessive storage is a feature of common metabolic disorders. CIDEA is a lipid droplet (LD)-protein enriched in brown adipocytes promoting the enlargement of LDs, which are dynamic, ubiquitous organelles specialized for storing neutral lipids. We demonstrate an essential role in this process for an amphipathic helix in CIDEA, which facilitates embedding in the LD phospholipid monolayer and binds phosphatidic acid (PA). LD pairs are docked by CIDEA trans-complexes through contributions of the N-terminal domain and a C-terminal dimerization region. These complexes, enriched at the LD–LD contact site, interact with the cone-shaped phospholipid PA and likely increase phospholipid barrier permeability, promoting LD fusion by transference of lipids. This physiological process is essential in adipocyte differentiation as well as serving to facilitate the tight coupling of lipolysis and lipogenesis in activated brown fat. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07485.001 PMID:26609809

  20. Dynamics of ascorbic acid in ‘Braeburn’ and ‘Gala’ apples during on-tree development and storage in atmospheres conducive to internal browning development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The underlying causes as well as chemical and biochemical alleviation for CO2-induced browning in apple fruit are poorly understood. Ascorbic acid (AsA) dynamics in ‘Braeburn,’ a susceptible cultivar, and ‘Gala,’ a resistant cultivar, were evaluated during on-tree development and storage at 0.5' C ...

  1. Reflections on Sandy Hook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his thoughts for district administrators regarding the Sandy Hook Elementary school tragedy. Administrators heard a lot of potential solutions or attempts at solutions. However, these proposals raise lengthy lists of implementation questions and issues that illustrate a lack of understanding of school operations,…

  2. The effects of riparian forestry on invertebrate drift and brown trout in upland streams of contrasting acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, S. J.; Jones, M. E.; Jones, M. C.; Phillips, D. R.

    Variations in macroinvertebrate drift and benthic invertebrate abundance were assessed in 30 upland Welsh streams of varying acidity (pH < 5.7 or pH.> 6.0) and riparian land-use (conifer, moorland or native broadleaf). The consequences for the diet and condition of wild brown trout Salmo trutta were also assessed. As expected from previous studies, there were significant reductions in benthic invertebrate abundance, aquatic drift density (by >60%), aquatic drift biomass (by >35%), total drift density (by >35%) and total drift biomass (by >20%) at acid sites by comparison with circumneutral sites due largely to the scarcity of mayflies. Absolute drift from terrestrial sources was unrelated to stream pH but formed a significantly greater proportion of total drift at acid sites (30-65% of density) than at circumneutral sites (20-40%) as aquatic contributions declined. Most of this apparent land use effect reflected significantly increased terrestrial drift under broadleaves. There was no significant reduction in terrestrial or aquatic drift at conifer forest sites per se after accounting for low pH. Trout diet varied substantially between locations partly reflecting variations in drift: significantly fewer mayflies and stoneflies were eaten at acid sites, and significantly more terrestrial prey were eaten under broadleaves. However, acidity did not reduce trout condition or gut-fullness. Unexpectedly, trout condition was significantly enhanced at conifer sites, irrespective of their pH. Hence, acidity has greater effects on the benthic abundance and drift density of invertebrates in upland streams than does riparian land use. However, trout forage flexibly enough to offset any possible food deficit, for example by switching to chironomids and terrestrial invertebrates. Enhanced terrestrial contributions to invertebrate drift from riparian broadleaf trees may be important in supplementing foraging opportunities for trout where aquatic prey are scarce. These data

  3. Acid detergent lignin, lodging resistance index, and expression of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase gene in brown midrib-12 sudangrass

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Liu, Guibo; Li, Jun; You, Yongliang; Zhao, Haiming; Liang, Huan; Mao, Peisheng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between acid detergent lignin (ADL) and lodging resistance index (LRI) is essential for breeding new varieties of brown midrib (bmr) sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.). In this study, bmr-12 near isogenic lines and their wild-types obtained by back cross breeding were used to compare relevant forage yield and quality traits, and to analyze expression of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene using quantitative real time-PCR. The research showed that the mean ADL content of bmr-12 mutants (20.94 g kg−1) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than measured in N-12 lines (43.45 g kg−1), whereas the LRI of bmr-12 mutants (0.29) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in N-12 lines (0.22). There was no significant correlation between the two indexes in bmr-12 materials (r = −0.44, P > 0.05). Sequence comparison of the COMT gene revealed two point mutations present in bmr-12 but not in the wild-type, the second mutation changed amino acid 129 of the protein from Gln (CAG) to a stop codon (UAG). The relative expression level of COMT gene was significantly reduced, which likely led to the decreased ADL content observed in the bmr-12 mutant. PMID:26366111

  4. Brown Pine Leaf Extract and Its Active Component Trans-Communic Acid Inhibit UVB-Induced MMP-1 Expression by Targeting PI3K.

    PubMed

    Huh, Won Bum; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kang, Young-Gyu; Park, Gaeun; Lim, Tae-gyu; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Song, Da Som; Jeong, Eun Hee; Lee, Charles C; Son, Joe Eun; Seo, Sang Gwon; Lee, Eunjung; Kim, Jong Rhan; Lee, Chang Yong; Park, Jun Seong; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-01-01

    Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) is widely present in China, Japan, and Korea. Its green pine leaves have traditionally been used as a food as well as a coloring agent. After being shed, pine leaves change their color from green to brown within two years, and although the brown pine leaves are abundantly available, their value has not been closely assessed. In this study, we investigated the potential anti-photoaging properties of brown pine leaves for skin. Brown pine leaf extract (BPLE) inhibited UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression to a greater extent than pine leaf extract (PLE) in human keratinocytes and a human skin equivalent model. HPLC analysis revealed that the quantity of trans-communic acid (TCA) and dehydroabietic acid (DAA) significantly increases when the pine leaf color changes from green to brown. BPLE and TCA elicited reductions in UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA expression and activator protein-1 (AP-1) transactivation by reducing DNA binding activity of phospho-c-Jun, c-fos and Fra-1. BPLE and TCA also inhibited UVB-induced Akt phosphorylation, but not mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), known regulators of AP-1 transactivation. We additionally found that BPLE and TCA inhibited phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), the upstream kinase of Akt, in vitro. In summary, both BPLE and its active component TCA exhibit protective effects against UVB-induced skin aging. Taken together, these findings underline the potential for BPLE and TCA to be utilized as anti-wrinkling agents and cosmetic ingredients, as they suppress UVB-induced MMP-1 expression.

  5. Brown Pine Leaf Extract and Its Active Component Trans-Communic Acid Inhibit UVB-Induced MMP-1 Expression by Targeting PI3K

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gaeun; Lim, Tae-gyu; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Song, Da Som; Jeong, Eun Hee; Lee, Charles C.; Son, Joe Eun; Seo, Sang Gwon; Lee, Eunjung; Kim, Jong Rhan; Lee, Chang Yong; Park, Jun Seong; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-01-01

    Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) is widely present in China, Japan, and Korea. Its green pine leaves have traditionally been used as a food as well as a coloring agent. After being shed, pine leaves change their color from green to brown within two years, and although the brown pine leaves are abundantly available, their value has not been closely assessed. In this study, we investigated the potential anti-photoaging properties of brown pine leaves for skin. Brown pine leaf extract (BPLE) inhibited UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression to a greater extent than pine leaf extract (PLE) in human keratinocytes and a human skin equivalent model. HPLC analysis revealed that the quantity of trans-communic acid (TCA) and dehydroabietic acid (DAA) significantly increases when the pine leaf color changes from green to brown. BPLE and TCA elicited reductions in UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA expression and activator protein-1 (AP-1) transactivation by reducing DNA binding activity of phospho-c-Jun, c-fos and Fra-1. BPLE and TCA also inhibited UVB-induced Akt phosphorylation, but not mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), known regulators of AP-1 transactivation. We additionally found that BPLE and TCA inhibited phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), the upstream kinase of Akt, in vitro. In summary, both BPLE and its active component TCA exhibit protective effects against UVB-induced skin aging. Taken together, these findings underline the potential for BPLE and TCA to be utilized as anti-wrinkling agents and cosmetic ingredients, as they suppress UVB-induced MMP-1 expression. PMID:26066652

  6. Changes in the Amino Acid Composition of Dehydrated Orange Juice during Accelerated Nonenzymatic Browning.

    PubMed

    del Castillo MD; Corzo; Polo; Pueyo; Olano

    1998-01-19

    Maillard reaction in dehydrated orange juice stored at 30 or 50 degrees C and a(w) = 0.44 was studied. The decreases of the total amino acids were 30 and 65% of initial concentration after 14 days of storage at 30 and 50 degrees C, respectively. Storage at 50 degrees C for 14 days caused a decrease of 11.8 g/L of carbohydrates, and glucose was more reactive than fructose. Loss of sucrose due to hydrolysis was also observed. Presence of 1-(N-substituted)amino-1-deoxy-D-fructose compounds in stored dehydrated orange juice was detected by thin-layer chromatography. PMID:10554232

  7. Thioesterase superfamily member 1 suppresses cold thermogenesis by limiting the oxidation of lipid droplet-derived fatty acids in brown adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Kosuke; LeClair, Katherine B.; Zhang, Yongzhao; Li, Yingxia; Ozdemir, Cafer; Krisko, Tibor I.; Hagen, Susan J.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Banks, Alexander S.; Cohen, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a central role in energy homeostasis. Thioesterase superfamily member 1 (Them1), a BAT-enriched long chain fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase, is upregulated by cold and downregulated by warm ambient temperatures. Them1−/− mice exhibit increased energy expenditure and resistance to diet-induced obesity and diabetes, but the mechanistic contribution of Them1 to the regulation of cold thermogenesis remains unknown. Methods Them1−/− and Them1+/+ mice were subjected to continuous metabolic monitoring to quantify the effects of ambient temperatures ranging from thermoneutrality (30 °C) to cold (4 °C) on energy expenditure, core body temperature, physical activity and food intake. The effects of Them1 expression on O2 consumption rates, thermogenic gene expression and lipolytic protein activation were determined ex vivo in BAT and in primary brown adipocytes. Results Them1 suppressed thermogenesis in mice even in the setting of ongoing cold exposure. Without affecting thermogenic gene transcription, Them1 reduced O2 consumption rates in both isolated BAT and primary brown adipocytes. This was attributable to decreased mitochondrial oxidation of endogenous but not exogenous fatty acids. Conclusions These results show that Them1 may act as a break on uncontrolled heat production and limit the extent of energy expenditure. Pharmacologic inhibition of Them1 could provide a targeted strategy for the management of metabolic disorders via activation of brown fat. PMID:27110486

  8. Inhibition of browning in foodstuffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, N. A.

    1969-01-01

    Addition of water-soluble sulfur-containing compounds, thio compounds or potential thio compounds, to a mixture of carbohydrates, and either proteins, peptides, or amino acids can retard or completely eliminate the browning process. Determining factor is dependent upon the concentration of the anti-browning agent in the aqueous media.

  9. Fatty acid binding protein 4 expression marks a population of adipocyte progenitors in white and brown adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tizhong; Liu, Weiyi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissues regulate metabolism, reproduction, and life span. The development and growth of adipose tissue are due to increases of both adipocyte cell size and cell number; the latter is mediated by adipocyte progenitors. Various markers have been used to identify either adipocyte progenitors or mature adipocytes. The fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), commonly known as adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), has been extensively used as a marker for differentiated adipocytes. However, whether aP2 is expressed in adipogenic progenitors is controversial. Using Cre/LoxP-based cell lineage tracing in mice, we have identified a population of aP2-expressing progenitors in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of both white and brown adipose tissues. The aP2-lineage progenitors reside in the adipose stem cell niche and express adipocyte progenitor markers, including CD34, Sca1, Dlk1, and PDGFRα. When isolated and grown in culture, the aP2-expressing SVF cells proliferate and differentiate into adipocytes upon induction. Conversely, ablation of the aP2 lineage greatly reduces the adipogenic potential of SVF cells. When grafted into wild-type mice, the aP2-lineage progenitors give rise to adipose depots in recipient mice. Therefore, the expression of aP2 is not limited to mature adipocytes, but also marks a pool of undifferentiated progenitors associated with the vasculature of adipose tissues. Our finding adds to the repertoire of adipose progenitor markers and points to a new regulator of adipose plasticity.

  10. Plasma lipids and large bowel volatile fatty acids in pigs fed on white rice, brown rice and rice bran.

    PubMed

    Marsono, Y; Illman, R J; Clarke, J M; Trimble, R P; Topping, D L

    1993-09-01

    Adult male pigs were fed on a diet containing (% of energy) fat 25 starch 55 from white rice and providing 20 g fibre/pig d (diet WR). In two other groups rice bran was added to the diet to provide 43 g fibre/d. One group received the diet unmodified (diet RB), but in another (diet RO) heat-stabilized unrefined rice oil replaced the palm oil. In a further group brown rice replaced white rice and provided 37 g fibre/pig per d (diet BR). Plasma cholesterol concentrations were similar with diets WR, RB and BR. With diet RO the concentration was significantly lower than with diets WR and BR but was not different from diet RB. Plasma high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol and plasma triacylglycerols were unaffected by diet. In all groups, digesta mass rose from the caecum to the proximal colon but fell in the distal colon. Diet WR gave the lowest digesta mass while diet BR gave a significantly higher mass along the large bowel length. RB- and RO-fed pigs had equal masses of digesta which were intermediate between BR- and WR-fed pigs at all sampling sites. Pools of individual and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the proximal large bowel were unaffected by diet. Pools of total and individual VFA in the median and distal colon were lowest with diets WR and RB and significantly higher with diet BR. In these regions of the colon pools of acetate in RO-fed pigs did not differ from those in the BR-fed group but were higher than in other groups. However, pools of propionate and butyrate with the RO diet were significantly lower than with diet BR and the same as with diets WR and RB. Portal venous VFA concentrations were unaffected by diet. The higher large bowel digesta masses and VFA with diet BR may reflect the escape of starch from the small intestine. PMID:8260477

  11. Toxicity of the azo dyes Acid Red 97 and Bismarck Brown Y to Western clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis).

    PubMed

    Soriano, Jeriel J; Mathieu-Denoncourt, Justine; Norman, Grant; de Solla, Shane R; Langlois, Valérie S

    2014-03-01

    Azo compounds are used in a variety of industrial applications, such as textile colorant. Azo dyes have been found to contaminate aquatic environments and it has been shown that these compounds could potentially be toxic or induce endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. However, there are few data available on the toxicity of these dyes, specifically Acid Red 97 (AR97) and Bismarck Brown Y (BBY). The aim of this study was to determine the toxicity and the endocrine-disrupting properties of AR97 and BBY in frogs. As fugacity modeling predicted that both compounds would sorb to sediment, sediment exposures were performed using a geometric range of concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm). Both AR97 and BBY dyes were not lethal to Silurana tropicalis embryos; however, BBY significantly induced malformations. Gene expression analysis of oxidative stress and mutagen-related genes was performed in BBY-treated larvae. There were significant two-fold increases of the tumor-suppressing protein p53 and heat shock protein 70 mRNA at 1,000 ppm suggesting that BBY induces cellular stress in early S. tropicalis development. Transcripts of the heat shock protein 90 did not change. Furthermore, reproductive-related genes were assessed and a 2.1-fold change was observed in the mRNA of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein while steroid 5 alpha-reductase type 2 and androgen receptor transcript levels did not vary among treatments. In conclusion, high concentrations of BBY lead to increased developmental defects in frog embryogenesis and early larval development.

  12. Impact of primary amine group from aminophospholipids and amino acids on marine phospholipids stability: non-enzymatic browning and lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lu, F S H; Nielsen, N S; Baron, C P; Diehl, B W K; Jacobsen, C

    2013-11-15

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the oxidative stability and non-enzymatic browning reactions of marine PL in the presence or in the absence of primary amine group from aminophospholipids and amino acids. Marine phospholipids liposomal dispersions were prepared from two authentic standards (phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) and two purified PL from marine sources with and without addition of amino acids (leucine, methionine and lysine). Samples were incubated at 60°C for 0, 2, 4 and 6days. Non-enzymatic browning reactions were investigated through measurement of (i) Strecker derived volatiles, (ii) yellowness index (YI), (iii) hydrophobic and (iv) hydrophilic pyrroles content. The oxidative stability of the samples was assessed through measurement of secondary lipid derived volatile oxidation products. The result showed that the presence of PE and amino acids caused the formation of pyrroles, generated Strecker derived volatiles, decreased the YI development and lowered lipid oxidation. The lower degree of lipid oxidation in liposomal dispersions containing amino acids might be attributed to antioxidative properties of pyrroles or amino acids. PMID:23790862

  13. The impact of dietary fats, photoperiod, temperature and season on morphological variables, torpor patterns, and brown adipose tissue fatty acid composition of hamsters, Phodopus sungorus.

    PubMed

    Geiser, F; Heldmaier, G

    1995-01-01

    We investigated how dietary fats and oils of different fatty acid composition influence the seasonal change of body mass, fur colour, testes size and torpor in Djungarian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus, maintained from autumn to winter under different photoperiods and temperature regimes. Dietary fatty acids influenced the occurrence of spontaneous torpor (food and water ad libitum) in P. sungorus maintained at 18 degrees C under natural and artificial short photoperiods. Torpor was most pronounced in individuals on a diet containing 10% safflower oil (rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids), intermediate in individuals on a diet containing 10% olive oil (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids) and least pronounced in individuals on a diet containing 10% coconut fat (rich in saturated fatty acids). Torpor in P. sungorus on chow containing no added fat or oil was intermediate between those on coconut fat and olive oil. Dietary fatty acids had little effect on torpor in animals maintained at 23 degrees C. Body mass, fur colour and testes size were also little affected by dietary fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of brown fat from hamsters maintained at 18 degrees C and under natural photoperiod strongly reflected that of the dietary fatty acids. Our study suggests that the seasonal change of body mass, fur colour and testes size are not significantly affected by dietary fatty acids. However, dietary fats influence the occurrence of torpor in individuals maintained at low temperatures and that have been photoperiodically primed for the display of torpor.

  14. The brown midrib3 (bm3) mutation in maize occurs in the gene encoding caffeic acid O-methyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Vignols, F; Rigau, J; Torres, M A; Capellades, M; Puigdomènech, P

    1995-01-01

    The brown midrib mutations are among the earliest described in maize. Plants containing a brown midrib mutation exhibit a reddish brown pigmentation of the leaf midrib starting when there are four to six leaves. These mutations are known to alter lignin composition and digestibility of plants and therefore constitute prime candidates in the breeding of silage maize. Here, we show that two independent brown midrib3 (bm3) mutations have resulted from structural changes in the COMT gene, which encodes the enzyme O-methyltransferase (COMT; EC 2.1.1.6), involved in lignin biosynthesis. Our results indicate that the bm3-1 allele (the reference mutant allele) has arisen from an insertional event producing a COMT mRNA altered in both size and amount. By sequencing a COMT cDNA clone obtained from bm3-1 maize, a retrotransposon with homology to the B5 element has been found to be inserted near the junction of the 3' coding region of the COMT gene intron. The second bm3 allele, bm3-2, has resulted from a deletion of part of the COMT gene. These alterations of the COMT gene were confirmed by DNA gel blot and polymerase chain reaction amplification analyses. These results clearly demonstrate that mutations at the COMT gene give a brown midrib3 phenotype. Thus, the gene genetically recognized as bm3 is the same as the one coding for COMT. PMID:7773015

  15. Comparison of fatty acid, cholesterol, vitamin A and E composition, and trans fats in eggs from brown and white egg strains that were molted or nonmolted.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kenneth E

    2013-12-01

    The impact of egg color, hen strain, and molting on the nutritional composition of eggs is limited. Therefore, this study compared nutritional composition and component percentages of cage-produced shell eggs with respect to egg color, hen strain, and molt. Four strains were selected from the North Carolina Layer Performance and Management Test: Hy-Line Brown (HB) and Bovans Brown (BB), and Hy-Line W-36 (HW) and Bovans White (BovW) were selected. Two groups from each strain were selected and 2 groups of molted HW and BovW were selected and compared with their nonmolted counterparts to examine the molt's impact. Two sets of eggs from each replicate were collected simultaneously at 101 wk of age. One sample of eggs was broken into a 12-egg pool stomached for 3 min (n = 12 samples), then divided into six 50-mL tubes, sealed, and frozen to be sent for cholesterol, n-3 fatty acids, saturated fat, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, β-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E analyses. The other set of 12 eggs was then assessed for component percentages. The HW eggs had a greater (P < 0.05) percentage of yolk than the BovW eggs of 28.12 versus 27.00%, respectively; however, the BovW eggs had 1.0% more albumen. The HB and BB egg components were not different. Brown eggs were heavier (P < 0.01) than white eggs. White eggs had greater (P < 0.0001) percent yolk and the brown eggs had greater (P < 0.0001) percent albumen. The eggs from molted hens had a greater (P < 0.001) percent shell. Total fat content in the samples was (P < 0.05) higher in white eggs by 0.70% than brown eggs due to increased saturated and polyunsaturated fats. The molting of hens reduced (P < 0.01) saturated fats by 0.21% in the egg. Vitamin A levels were higher (P < 0.0001) in white eggs, and vitamin E was higher (P < 0.0001) in brown eggs. Strain and molt appear to influence nutrient composition and component percentages in eggs produced from laying hens. PMID:24235237

  16. Comparison of fatty acid, cholesterol, vitamin A and E composition, and trans fats in eggs from brown and white egg strains that were molted or nonmolted.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kenneth E

    2013-12-01

    The impact of egg color, hen strain, and molting on the nutritional composition of eggs is limited. Therefore, this study compared nutritional composition and component percentages of cage-produced shell eggs with respect to egg color, hen strain, and molt. Four strains were selected from the North Carolina Layer Performance and Management Test: Hy-Line Brown (HB) and Bovans Brown (BB), and Hy-Line W-36 (HW) and Bovans White (BovW) were selected. Two groups from each strain were selected and 2 groups of molted HW and BovW were selected and compared with their nonmolted counterparts to examine the molt's impact. Two sets of eggs from each replicate were collected simultaneously at 101 wk of age. One sample of eggs was broken into a 12-egg pool stomached for 3 min (n = 12 samples), then divided into six 50-mL tubes, sealed, and frozen to be sent for cholesterol, n-3 fatty acids, saturated fat, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, β-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E analyses. The other set of 12 eggs was then assessed for component percentages. The HW eggs had a greater (P < 0.05) percentage of yolk than the BovW eggs of 28.12 versus 27.00%, respectively; however, the BovW eggs had 1.0% more albumen. The HB and BB egg components were not different. Brown eggs were heavier (P < 0.01) than white eggs. White eggs had greater (P < 0.0001) percent yolk and the brown eggs had greater (P < 0.0001) percent albumen. The eggs from molted hens had a greater (P < 0.001) percent shell. Total fat content in the samples was (P < 0.05) higher in white eggs by 0.70% than brown eggs due to increased saturated and polyunsaturated fats. The molting of hens reduced (P < 0.01) saturated fats by 0.21% in the egg. Vitamin A levels were higher (P < 0.0001) in white eggs, and vitamin E was higher (P < 0.0001) in brown eggs. Strain and molt appear to influence nutrient composition and component percentages in eggs produced from laying hens.

  17. Brown's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M E; Eustis, H S; Parks, M M

    1989-01-01

    Brown's syndrome is a well-recognized clinical disorder of ocular motility manifesting most notably a restriction of active and passive elevation in adduction. The original name, "superior oblique tendon sheath syndrome," is no longer appropriate, since it has been shown that the tissue surrounding the anterior superior oblique tendon is blameless as a restrictive force. "True" and "simulated" as descriptive modifiers should also be discarded, as they relate to the disproven sheath concept. Brown's syndrome occurs as a congenital or acquired, constant or intermittent condition; the common link is restriction of free movement through the trochlea pulley mechanism. The various etiologic theories are reviewed and the spectrum of medical and surgical treatments are described and evaluated. Evidence suggests that subtypes of Brown's syndrome lie on a single continuum and that spontaneous resolution occurs in each group, probably more often than previously recognized. A simplified classification scheme is encouraged and possible future directions in Brown's syndrome research are introduced.

  18. The Environmental Pollutants Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid Upregulate Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1) in Brown-Fat Mitochondria Through a UCP1-Dependent Reduction in Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Shabalina, Irina G; Kramarova, Tatiana V; Mattsson, Charlotte L; Petrovic, Natasa; Rahman Qazi, Mousumi; Csikasz, Robert I; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John; DePierre, Joseph W; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2015-08-01

    The environmental pollutants perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) cause a dramatic reduction in the size of the major adipose tissue depots and a general body weight decrease when they are added to the food of mice. We demonstrate here that this is mainly due to a reduction in food intake; this reduction was not due to food aversion. Remarkably and unexpectedly, a large part of the effect of PFOA/PFOS on food intake was dependent on the presence of the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the mice. Correspondingly, PFOA/PFOS treatment induced recruitment of brown adipose tissue mitochondria: increased oxidative capacity and increased UCP1-mediated oxygen consumption (thermogenesis). In mice pair-fed to the food intake during PFOA/PFOS treatment in wildtype mice, brown-fat mitochondrial recruitment was also induced. We conclude that we have uncovered the existence of a regulatory component of food intake that is dependent upon brown adipose tissue thermogenic activity. The possible environmental consequences of this novel PFOA/PFOS effect (a possible decreased fitness) are noted, as well as the perspectives of this finding on the general understanding of control of food intake control and its possible extension to combatting obesity.

  19. Activity of Selected Antioxidant Enzymes, Selenium Content and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of the Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus L.) in Relation to the Season of the Year.

    PubMed

    Drozd, Radosław; Pilarczyk, Renata; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Drozd, Arleta; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Bombik, Teresa; Bąkowska, Małgorzata; Bombik, Elżbieta; Jankowiak, Dorota; Wasak, Agata

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of low concentrations of selenium in the environment on the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes: Se-GSHPx, total GSHPx, SOD, CAT, and GST as well as fatty acid profile in the livers of brown hares during winter and spring. Liver tissues obtained from 20 brown hares collected in the north-eastern Poland in the winter and spring season were analyzed. In the tissue analyzed, a significantly lower level of selenium was noticeable in the spring compared to winter; however, values measured in both seasons indicated a deficiency of this element in the analyzed population of brown hares. There were no differences found that could indicate the influence of Se deficiency on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The determined activity of antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition suggest a negligible impact of the low concentration of Se on the analyzed biochemical parameters of brown hare livers.

  20. Genome-wide association of coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling, protein percentage, and acidity in milk from Brown Swiss cows.

    PubMed

    Dadousis, C; Biffani, S; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Nicolazzi, E L; Rossoni, A; Santus, E; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2016-05-01

    Cheese production is increasing in many countries, and a desire toward genetic selection for milk coagulation properties in dairy cattle breeding exists. However, measurements of individual cheesemaking properties are hampered by high costs and labor, whereas traditional single-point milk coagulation properties (MCP) are sometimes criticized. Nevertheless, new modeling of the entire curd firmness and syneresis process (CFt equation) offers new insight into the cheesemaking process. Moreover, identification of genomic regions regulating milk cheesemaking properties might enhance direct selection of individuals in breeding programs based on cheese ability rather than related milk components. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform genome-wide association studies to identify genomic regions linked to traditional MCP and new CFt parameters, milk acidity (pH), and milk protein percentage. Milk and DNA samples from 1,043 Italian Brown Swiss cows were used. Milk pH and 3 MCP traits were grouped together to represent the MCP set. Four CFt equation parameters, 2 derived traits, and protein percentage were considered as the second group of traits (CFt set). Animals were genotyped with the Illumina SNP50 BeadChip v.2 (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Multitrait animal models were used to estimate variance components. For genome-wide association studies, the genome-wide association using mixed model and regression-genomic control approach was used. In total, 106 significant marker traits associations and 66 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified on 12 chromosomes (1, 6, 9, 11, 13, 15, 16, 19, 20, 23, 26, and 28). Sharp peaks were detected at 84 to 88 Mbp on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, with a peak at 87.4 Mbp in the region harboring the casein genes. Evidence of quantitative trait loci at 82.6 and 88.4 Mbp on the same chromosome was found. All chromosomes but BTA6, BTA11, and BTA28 were associated with only one trait. Only BTA6 was in common between MCP

  1. Genome-wide association of coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling, protein percentage, and acidity in milk from Brown Swiss cows.

    PubMed

    Dadousis, C; Biffani, S; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Nicolazzi, E L; Rossoni, A; Santus, E; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2016-05-01

    Cheese production is increasing in many countries, and a desire toward genetic selection for milk coagulation properties in dairy cattle breeding exists. However, measurements of individual cheesemaking properties are hampered by high costs and labor, whereas traditional single-point milk coagulation properties (MCP) are sometimes criticized. Nevertheless, new modeling of the entire curd firmness and syneresis process (CFt equation) offers new insight into the cheesemaking process. Moreover, identification of genomic regions regulating milk cheesemaking properties might enhance direct selection of individuals in breeding programs based on cheese ability rather than related milk components. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform genome-wide association studies to identify genomic regions linked to traditional MCP and new CFt parameters, milk acidity (pH), and milk protein percentage. Milk and DNA samples from 1,043 Italian Brown Swiss cows were used. Milk pH and 3 MCP traits were grouped together to represent the MCP set. Four CFt equation parameters, 2 derived traits, and protein percentage were considered as the second group of traits (CFt set). Animals were genotyped with the Illumina SNP50 BeadChip v.2 (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Multitrait animal models were used to estimate variance components. For genome-wide association studies, the genome-wide association using mixed model and regression-genomic control approach was used. In total, 106 significant marker traits associations and 66 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified on 12 chromosomes (1, 6, 9, 11, 13, 15, 16, 19, 20, 23, 26, and 28). Sharp peaks were detected at 84 to 88 Mbp on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, with a peak at 87.4 Mbp in the region harboring the casein genes. Evidence of quantitative trait loci at 82.6 and 88.4 Mbp on the same chromosome was found. All chromosomes but BTA6, BTA11, and BTA28 were associated with only one trait. Only BTA6 was in common between MCP

  2. Unmaking Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockette, Tim

    2010-01-01

    America's schools are more segregated now than they were in the late 1960s. More than 50 years after "Brown v. Board of Education," educators need to radically rethink the meaning of "school choice." For decades at Wake County, buses would pick up public school students in largely minority communities along the Raleigh Beltline. This system won…

  3. Browning prevention by ascorbic acid and 4-hexylresorcinol: different mechanisms of action on polyphenol oxidase in the presence and in the absence of substrates.

    PubMed

    Arias, E; González, J; Peiró, J M; Oria, R; Lopez-Buesa, P

    2007-11-01

    We have investigated the mechanism of action of 4-hexylresorcinol (4-HR) and ascorbic acid (AA) on the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) catalyzed oxidation of phenolic substrates. Incubation of PPO with 4-HR diminishes strongly PPO activity. This effect can be erroneously interpreted, due to the high affinity of 4-HR for PPO, as irreversible inactivation of PPO. However, PPO activity can be recovered by dialysis after incubation with 4-HR. 4-hexylresorcinol is a canonical enzyme inhibitor that binds preferentially to the oxy form of PPO. It is a mixed-type inhibitor, because it influences both apparent V(max) (1.26 compared with 0.4 units in the absence and presence of 4-HR, respectively) and K(m) values (0.28 mM compared with 0.97 mM in the absence and in the presence of 4-HR, respectively) of PPO. AA can prevent browning by 2 different mechanisms: In the absence of PPO substrates it inactivates PPO irreversibly, probably through binding to its active site, preferentially in its oxy form. In the presence of PPO substrates, AA reduces PPO oxidized reaction products, which results in a lag phase when measuring PPO activity by monitoring dark product formation but not when monitoring O(2) consumption. The simultaneous use of both 4-HR and AA on PPO results in additive prevention of browning.

  4. Hurricane Sandy Prowls the Eastern Seaboard

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations from Oct. 26-29, 2012, shows Hurricane Sandy move along the U.S. East coast and into the Mid-Atlantic and northeastern U.S. Sandy had still not made landfall ...

  5. Hurricane Sandy -- Pass 1, Oct. 29, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    Hurricane Sandy was viewed Monday morning from the International Space Station as it orbited 260 miles above the Atlantic Ocean. Sandy had sustained winds of 90 miles an hour as the station passed ...

  6. Hurricane Sandy -- Pass 2, Oct. 29, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    Hurricane Sandy was viewed Monday morning from the International Space Station as it orbited 260 miles above the Atlantic Ocean. Sandy had sustained winds of 90 miles an hour as the station passed ...

  7. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric investigations of [alpha]-dicarbonyl compounds--Probing intermediates formed in the course of the nonenzymatic browning reaction of l-ascorbic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Anke; Trage, Claudia; Schwarz, Helmut; Kroh, Lothar W.

    2007-05-01

    A new method is presented which allows the simultaneous detection of various [alpha]-dicarbonyl compounds generated in the course of the nonenzymatic browning reaction initiated by thermal treatment of l-ascorbic acid, namely: glyoxal, methylglyoxal, diacetyl, 3-deoxy-l-pentosone, and l-threosoneE 3-Deoxy-l-threosone was successfully identified as a new C4-[alpha]-dicarbonyl structure for the first time in the degradation of Vitamin C by application of this non-chromatographic mass spectrometric approach. Moreover, a more detailed elucidation of the mechanistic scenario with respect to the oxidative and nonoxidative pathways is presented by using dehydro-l-ascorbic acid and 2,3-diketo-l-gulonic acid instead of l-ascorbic acid as a starting material. Furthermore, the postulated pathways are corroborated with the aid of 13C-isotopic labeling studies. The investigations were extended to baby food, and the successful detection of [alpha]-dicarbonyl compounds characteristic for Vitamin C degradation proved the matrix tolerance of the introduced method.

  8. A dark brown roast coffee blend is less effective at stimulating gastric acid secretion in healthy volunteers compared to a medium roast market blend.

    PubMed

    Rubach, Malte; Lang, Roman; Bytof, Gerhard; Stiebitz, Herbert; Lantz, Ingo; Hofmann, Thomas; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-06-01

    Coffee consumption sometimes is associated with symptoms of stomach discomfort. This work aimed to elucidate whether two coffee beverages, containing similar amounts of caffeine, but differing in their concentrations of (β) N-alkanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamides (C5HTs), chlorogenic acids (CGAs), trigonelline, and N-methylpyridinium (N-MP) have different effects on gastric acid secretion in healthy volunteers. The intragastric pH after administration of bicarbonate with/without 200 mL of a coffee beverage prepared from a market blend or dark roast blend was analyzed in nine healthy volunteers. Coffee beverages were analyzed for their contents of C5HT, N-MP, trigonelline, CGAs, and caffeine using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS. Chemical analysis revealed higher concentrations of N-MP for the dark brown blend (87 mg/L) compared to the market blend coffee (29 mg/L), whereas concentrations of C5HT (0.012 versus 0.343 mg/L), CGAs (323 versus 1126 mg/L), and trigonelline (119 versus 343 mg/L) were lower, and caffeine concentrations were similar (607 versus 674 mg/mL). Gastric acid secretion was less effectively stimulated after administration of the dark roast blend coffee compared to the market blend. Future studies are warranted to verify whether a high ratio of N-MP to C5HT and CGAs is beneficial for reducing coffee-associated gastric acid secretion. PMID:24510512

  9. On Sandy Shores. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Craig; And Others

    The activities in this guide (for grades 2-4) transport students to the sandy shore, one of the most fascinating ecosystems on the planet. At this ecological juncture a multiplicity of life forms find ways to survive, thrive, and interact with each other. Using a wide variety of learning formats, students explore and deepen their understanding of…

  10. Brown recluse spider (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The brown recluse is a venomous spider most commonly found in midwestern and southern states of the United States. ... inch overall and has long skinny legs. The brown recluse is brown with a characteristic dark violin- ...

  11. Science and Sandy: Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, K.

    2013-12-01

    Following Hurricane Sandy's impact on the mid-Atlantic region, President Obama established a Task Force to '...ensure that the Federal Government continues to provide appropriate resources to support affected State, local, and tribal communities to improve the region's resilience, health, and prosperity by building for the future.' The author was detailed from NOAA to the Task Force between January and June 2013. As the Task Force and others began to take stock of the region's needs and develop plans to address them, many diverse approaches emerged from different areas of expertise including: infrastructure, management and construction, housing, public health, and others. Decision making in this environment was complex with many interests and variables to consider and balance. Although often relevant, science and technical expertise was not always at the forefront of this process. This talk describes the author's experience with the Sandy Task Force focusing on organizing scientific expertise to support the work of the Task Force. This includes a description of federal activity supporting Sandy recovery efforts, the role of the Task Force, and lessons learned from developing a science support function within the Task Force.

  12. Determination of the Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of Sorghum bicolor Caffeic Acid O-Methyltransferase and the Structural Impact of Three brown midrib12 Mutations1[W

    PubMed Central

    Green, Abigail R.; Lewis, Kevin M.; Barr, John T.; Jones, Jeffrey P.; Lu, Fachuang; Ralph, John; Vermerris, Wilfred; Sattler, Scott E.; Kang, ChulHee

    2014-01-01

    Using S-adenosyl-methionine as the methyl donor, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; SbCOMT) methylates the 5-hydroxyl group of its preferred substrate, 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde. In order to determine the mechanism of SbCOMT and understand the observed reduction in the lignin syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio of three brown midrib12 mutants that carry COMT gene missense mutations, we determined the apo-form and S-adenosyl-methionine binary complex SbCOMT crystal structures and established the ternary complex structure with 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde by molecular modeling. These structures revealed many features shared with monocot ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and dicot alfalfa (Medicago sativa) COMTs. SbCOMT steady-state kinetic and calorimetric data suggest a random bi-bi mechanism. Based on our structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic results, we propose that the observed reactivity hierarchy among 4,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxycinnamyl (and 3,4-dihydroxycinnamyl) aldehyde, alcohol, and acid substrates arises from the ability of the aldehyde to stabilize the anionic intermediate that results from deprotonation of the 5-hydroxyl group by histidine-267. Additionally, despite the presence of other phenylpropanoid substrates in vivo, sinapaldehyde is the preferential product, as demonstrated by its low Km for 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde. Unlike its acid and alcohol substrates, the aldehydes exhibit product inhibition, and we propose that this is due to nonproductive binding of the S-cis-form of the aldehydes inhibiting productive binding of the S-trans-form. The S-cis-aldehydes most likely act only as inhibitors, because the high rotational energy barrier around the 2-propenyl bond prevents S-trans-conversion, unlike alcohol substrates, whose low 2-propenyl bond rotational energy barrier enables rapid S-cis/S-trans-interconversion. PMID:24948836

  13. SANDY CREEK ROADLESS AREA, MISSISSIPPI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Boyd R.; Bitar, Richard F.

    1984-01-01

    The Sandy Creek Roadless Area includes about 3. 7 sq mi in the southeastern part of Adams County, Mississippi. On the basis of a mineral survey, the area offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources but has a probable resource potential for oil and natural gas. It is possible that wells drilled deep enough to penetrate the older reservoirs will encounter significant quantities of oil and natural gas in the roadless area. The deposits of gravel, sand, and clay present in the area could be utilized in the construction industry, but similar deposits elsewhere are much closer to available markets.

  14. Free fatty acids and IL-6 induce adipocyte galectin-3 which is increased in white and brown adipose tissues of obese mice.

    PubMed

    Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina; Hader, Yvonne; Buechler, Christa

    2014-10-01

    Galectin-3 regulates immune cell function and clearance of advanced glycation end products. Galectin-3 is increased in serum of obese humans and mice and most studies suggest that this protein protects from inflammation in metabolic diseases. Current data show that galectin-3 is markedly elevated in the liver, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat depots of mice fed a high fat diet and ob/ob mice. Galectin-3 is also increased in brown adipose tissues of these animals and immunohistochemistry confirms higher levels in adipocytes. Raised galectin-3 in obese white adipocytes has been described in the literature and regulation of adipocyte galectin-3 by metabolites with a role in obesity has been analyzed. Galectin-3 is expressed in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and human preadipocytes and is modestly induced in mature adipocytes. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes galectin-3 is localized in the cytoplasm and is also detected in cell supernatants. Glucose does not alter soluble galectin-3. Lipopolysaccharide has no effect while TNF reduces and IL-6 raises this lectin in cell supernatants. Palmitate and oleate modestly elevate soluble galectin-3. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in the presence of 100 μM and 200 μM linoleate induces soluble galectin-3 and cellular levels are upregulated by the higher concentration. Current data suggest that free fatty acids and IL-6 increase galectin-3 in adipocytes and thereby may contribute to higher levels in obesity.

  15. Food availability and reproduction affects lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown mussel, Perna perna, raised in suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Narváez, Mirle; Freites, L; Guevara, M; Mendoza, J; Guderley, H; Lodeiros, C J; Salazar, G

    2008-02-01

    We examined the influence of the reproductive cycle and environmental factors on variations of the condition index (CI), tissue dry mass, shell size, total lipid content, and relative percent of fatty acids in the mussel, Perna perna. Spat or juveniles were reared to commercial size (70 mm) in suspension culture in the Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela between May and October 2004. The dry mass of soft tissues and shell, a visual assessment of gonadal status and the organism lipid profile were established every fortnight. In parallel, we measured the environmental conditions, following chlorophyll a, salinity, temperature and seston levels. After an initial decrease, the CI rose and remained high until August after which it decreased continuously until October. Total lipid values also decreased initially, after which they showed two periods of rapid recuperation and depletion, the first between May and August and the second between August and October. Similar tendencies were noted in the fatty acids, C18:3n-3, C18:4n-3 and C22:6n-3. Correlation analysis found no significant relationships between environmental parameters and the variations in total lipids. However, significant correlations were noted between fatty acids and specific environmental parameters. In particular, temperature was inversely correlated with C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:0, C18:1n-9 and 20:5n-3. Chlorophyll a was positively correlated with C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:1n-7, C18:4n-3 and 20:4n-6. On the other hand, gametogenesis had an effect on C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:1n-9 and C18:1n-7, while spawned and gonadal regression states had an effect on fatty acid 20:4n-6. Temperature and chlorophyll a levels strongly influenced the proportion of mussels spawning, suggesting that their influence upon lipid composition may be secondary to their impact upon reproduction. Despite the thermal stability of this tropical system, the lipid composition of mussels changed markedly during the study, reflecting the central role of diet

  16. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Lactobacillus Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Y. Z.; Cheng, J. L.; Ren, M.; Yin, L.; Piao, X. S.

    2015-01-01

    Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164) at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i) 0 mg/kg, ii) 25 mg/kg, iii) 50 mg/kg, and iv) 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (p<0.05) by the increasing supplementation of the dietary GABA-producer. Shape index, eggshell thickness, strength and weight were increased linearly with increasing GABA-producer supplementation. The level of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, total protein and albumin in serum of the hens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the hens fed the basal diet, whereas cholesterol level was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009) and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to improve laying

  17. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Lactobacillus Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y Z; Cheng, J L; Ren, M; Yin, L; Piao, X S

    2015-07-01

    Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164) at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i) 0 mg/kg, ii) 25 mg/kg, iii) 50 mg/kg, and iv) 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (p<0.05) by the increasing supplementation of the dietary GABA-producer. Shape index, eggshell thickness, strength and weight were increased linearly with increasing GABA-producer supplementation. The level of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, total protein and albumin in serum of the hens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the hens fed the basal diet, whereas cholesterol level was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009) and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to improve laying

  18. Dietary gamma-linolenic acid in the form of borage oil causes less body fat accumulation accompanying an increase in uncoupling protein 1 mRNA level in brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Ide, T; Fujita, H

    2000-10-01

    Rats were fed a low-fat diet containing 2% safflower oil or 20% fat diets containing either safflower oil rich in linoleic acid, borage oil containing 25% gamma (gamma)-linolenic acid or enzymatically prepared gamma-linolenic acid enriched borage oil containing 47% gamma-linolenic acid for 14 days. Energy intake and growth of animals were the same among groups. A high safflower oil diet compared with a low-fat diet caused significant increases in both epididymal and perirenal white adipose tissue weights. However, high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid failed to do so. Compared with a low-fat diet, all the high-fat diets increased mRNA levels of uncoupling protein 1 and lipoprotein lipase in brown adipose tissue. The extents of the increase were greater with high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid. Various high-fat diets, compared with a low-fat diet, decreased glucose transporter 4 mRNA in white adipose tissue to the same levels. The amount and types of dietary fat did not affect the leptin mRNA level in epididymal white adipose tissue. However, a high safflower oil diet, but not high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid relative to a low-fat diet, increased perirenal white adipose tissue leptin mRNA levels. All high-fat diets, relative to a low-fat diet, increased the hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate and fatty acid oxidation enzyme mRNA abundances to the same levels. High-fat diets also increased these parameters in the peroxisomal pathway, and the increases were greater with high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid. The physiological activity in increasing brown adipose tissue gene expression and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation was similar between the two types of borage oil differing in gamma-linolenic acid content. It was suggested that dietary gamma-linolenic acid attenuates body fat accumulation through the increase in gene expressions of uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue. An increase in hepatic peroxisomal fatty acid

  19. Dietary gamma-linolenic acid in the form of borage oil causes less body fat accumulation accompanying an increase in uncoupling protein 1 mRNA level in brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Ide, T; Fujita, H

    2000-10-01

    Rats were fed a low-fat diet containing 2% safflower oil or 20% fat diets containing either safflower oil rich in linoleic acid, borage oil containing 25% gamma (gamma)-linolenic acid or enzymatically prepared gamma-linolenic acid enriched borage oil containing 47% gamma-linolenic acid for 14 days. Energy intake and growth of animals were the same among groups. A high safflower oil diet compared with a low-fat diet caused significant increases in both epididymal and perirenal white adipose tissue weights. However, high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid failed to do so. Compared with a low-fat diet, all the high-fat diets increased mRNA levels of uncoupling protein 1 and lipoprotein lipase in brown adipose tissue. The extents of the increase were greater with high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid. Various high-fat diets, compared with a low-fat diet, decreased glucose transporter 4 mRNA in white adipose tissue to the same levels. The amount and types of dietary fat did not affect the leptin mRNA level in epididymal white adipose tissue. However, a high safflower oil diet, but not high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid relative to a low-fat diet, increased perirenal white adipose tissue leptin mRNA levels. All high-fat diets, relative to a low-fat diet, increased the hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate and fatty acid oxidation enzyme mRNA abundances to the same levels. High-fat diets also increased these parameters in the peroxisomal pathway, and the increases were greater with high-fat diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid. The physiological activity in increasing brown adipose tissue gene expression and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation was similar between the two types of borage oil differing in gamma-linolenic acid content. It was suggested that dietary gamma-linolenic acid attenuates body fat accumulation through the increase in gene expressions of uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue. An increase in hepatic peroxisomal fatty acid

  20. 1. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, SOUTH END, LOOKING 18 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, SOUTH END, LOOKING 18 DEGREES NORTH. SAME PHOTO AS OR-36-1. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Sandy River Bridge at Troutdale, Historic Columbia River Highway spanning Sandy River, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  1. 5. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, EAST ELEVATION DETAIL, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, EAST ELEVATION DETAIL, LOOKING 6 DEGREES NORTH. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Sandy River Bridge at Troutdale, Historic Columbia River Highway spanning Sandy River, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  2. 3. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, NORTH END, LOOKING 184 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, NORTH END, LOOKING 184 DEGREES SOUTH. SAME PHOTO AS OR-36-2. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Sandy River Bridge at Troutdale, Historic Columbia River Highway spanning Sandy River, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  3. 4. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, NORTH END, LOOKING 224 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, NORTH END, LOOKING 224 DEGREES SOUTHWEST. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Sandy River Bridge at Troutdale, Historic Columbia River Highway spanning Sandy River, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  4. 7. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, PERSPECTIVE LOOKING EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, PERSPECTIVE LOOKING EAST. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Sandy River Bridge at Troutdale, Historic Columbia River Highway spanning Sandy River, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  5. 6. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, EAST ELEVATION, LOOKING 306 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, EAST ELEVATION, LOOKING 306 DEGREES NORTHWEST. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Sandy River Bridge at Troutdale, Historic Columbia River Highway spanning Sandy River, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  6. 2. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, SOUTH END, LOOKING 20 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, SOUTH END, LOOKING 20 DEGREES NORTH. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Sandy River Bridge at Troutdale, Historic Columbia River Highway spanning Sandy River, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  7. Effects of temperature and pH on adsorption of basic brown 1 by the bacterial biopolymer poly(gamma-glutamic acid).

    PubMed

    Inbaraj, B Stephen; Chiu, C P; Ho, G H; Yang, J; Chen, B H

    2008-03-01

    Poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA), an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) synthesized by Bacillus species, was explored to study its interaction with the basic brown 1 dye by conducting a systematic batch adsorption study as affected by two critical parameters, temperature and pH. Adsorption isotherms were closely predicted by Temkin equation among the eight isotherm models tested. The rate of adsorption was very rapid attaining equilibrium within 60 min and the kinetics were well described by both modified second-order and pseudo second-order models. Boyd's ion exchange model, which assumes exchanges of ions to be a chemical phenomenon, also fitted the kinetic data precisely. The adsorption rate increased with increasing solution temperature, however, a reversed trend was observed for the adsorption capacity. Changes in enthalpy, entropy and free energy values revealed dye adsorption by gamma-PGA to be an exothermic and spontaneous process involving no structural modification in gamma-PGA, whereas the activation energy of 37.21 kJ/mol indicated dye adsorption to be reaction-controlled. Following a rise in solution pH, the dye adsorption increased and reached a plateau at pH 5, while the maximum release of dye from spent gamma-PGA occurred at pH 1.5, suggesting a possible ion exchange mechanism. Ion exchange adsorption of basic dyes by gamma-PGA was further proved by the presence of two new IR bands at approximately 1600 and 1405.72 cm(-1), representing asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibration of carboxylate anion, for dye-treated gamma-PGA.

  8. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  9. Hurricane Sandy From the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The International Space Station flew high above Hurricane Sandy just before 12 p.m. CDT Thursday. The storm was located about 85 miles south-southeast of Great Exuma Island. The storm’s maximum s...

  10. The Topic Is Sandy Hook: A Program for Gifted and Talented Students at Sandy Hook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, David

    "The Topic Is Sandy Hook" is an experiential 10-week program designed to provide special opportunities and educational experiences for 6th to 10th grade gifted and talented students. Sandy Hook, a natural resource in Monmouth County, New Jersey, is unique in its physical and historical features and provides an exceptionally rich environment in…

  11. Dynamic changes of sandy land in northwest of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; He, Ting; Guo, Xudong; Liu, Aixia; Zhou, Qing

    2006-10-01

    The area northwest of Beijing is one of the most important regions where many organizations invest and pay most attention. The environmental problems in this region affect not only Beijing but also the surrounding area. Based on observation of the characteristics of the change in sandy land, this study classified four types of dynamic change of sandy land, including extended sandy land, the reversely changed sandy land, the potential sandy land and no change in sandy land. Then the process and the trend of changes in sandy land and their environmental impact on the area northwest of Beijing were analyzed. The results show that the area of sandy land has increased in this region in the period of 1991 to 2002. Change between sandy land and grassland was the dominant change. It is found that the monitoring zones of Hunshandake sandy land and north of Yin Shan are regions with high ratio of extended sandy land, and are connected with widespread potential change of sandy land. This implies that these two regions have a high probability of increase in sandy land in the future. On the other hand, in the monitoring zone of Horqin sandy land and Ba Shang Plateau and its surrounding area, desertification had been controlled and the area of sandy land is expected to decrease. This indicates that the direction of the sandstorm to Beijing is expected to gradually move to the northwest. Furthermore, the decreases in sandy land and the reversing change from arable land to grassland and forests in the study region will affect the land quality and atmosphere. And the logistic multiple regression (LMR) model was employed to better understand the complexity and processes of increases in sandy land. This model predicts that there is a high probability of increases in sandy land in north of Siziwang Banner, Zhengxiangbai Banner and Zhenglan Banner. Finally, suggestions to the ecological construction of the study area have been proposed. PMID:16758285

  12. Short communication: Effects of β-lactoglobulin, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1, and sterol regulatory element binding protein gene allelic variants on milk production, composition, acidity, and coagulation properties of Brown Swiss cows.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Ribeca, C; Maurmayr, A; Penasa, M; De Marchi, M; Macciotta, N P P; Mele, M; Secchiari, P; Pagnacco, G; Bittante, G

    2012-01-01

    Associations of allelic variants of the β-lactoglobulin (LGB), stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD), and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1) genes with milk production, composition (fat, protein, and casein content), acidity (pH and titratable acidity), and coagulation properties (rennet coagulation time and curd firmness) were investigated in Brown Swiss cows. In total, 294 animals (progeny of 15 sires) reared in 16 herds were milk-sampled once. The additive effects of LGB (rs109625649:C>T), SCD (ss469414220:C>T), and SREBP-1 (AB355704: g.101_185ins) polymorphisms on the aforementioned traits were analyzed through Bayesian linear models. The LGB genotype affected rennet coagulation time, with TT (or BB) alleles showing longer rennet coagulation time compared with CC (or AA) cows. The SCD gene allelic variants were found to be associated with protein and casein contents and curd firmness: CC animals had the lowest values for the aforementioned traits. An association was found between SREBP-1 alleles and fat content, with the highest values for cows carrying the 84-bp insertion (or L) allele. Results suggest a possible use of these loci in gene-assisted selection programs for the improvement of milk quality traits and coagulation properties in Brown Swiss cattle.

  13. Transformation of corn plant residues in loamy and sandy substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal'tseva, A. N.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Pinskii, D. L.

    2014-05-01

    The mineralization and humification dynamics of corn plant residues in loamy and sandy substrates have been studied under laboratory conditions. It has been shown that the dynamics are determined by the undulating development laws of the microbial community under constant temperature and moisture conditions. At the same time, the intensity and final results of the processes significantly differ depending on the composition and properties of the mineral substrate. The loss of Corg during the mineralization and the content of newly formed humic substances reached the maximum values a month after the beginning of the experiment. The mineralization is more intensive in sand at the early stages, and the humification is more active in loam throughout the incubation period. The loamy substrate has better protective properties compared to the sand; therefore, it favors the accumulation of significant amounts of fulvic acids (FAs), along with humic acids (HAs), and causes the relative fulvatization of the humic substances. It has been found using densimetric fractionation and Fourier IR spectroscopy that the different mineralogy of the fractions results in differences in the chemical composition of the formed mineral-organic compounds of newly formed humic substances, mainly due to carboxyl and nitrogen-containing groups. The similarity of the humification products in the heavy fractions of the loamy and sandy substrates has been revealed.

  14. Brown as Personal Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Walter

    2004-01-01

    The Brown v. Board of Education decision was not specifically focused on postsecondary education; however, it helped facilitate minority admissions into predominantly White colleges and universities from the late 1950s onward. The Brown decision made many colleges and universities question whether diversity is a legitimate educational goal in…

  15. Astrophysics: Illuminating brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showman, Adam P.

    2016-05-01

    Objects known as brown dwarfs are midway between stars and planets in mass. Observations of a hot brown dwarf irradiated by a nearby star will help to fill a gap in our knowledge of the atmospheres of fluid planetary objects. See Letter p.366

  16. WISE and Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; WISE Team

    2009-05-01

    The search for the nearest and coolest brown dwarfs will use WISE's two short-wavelength channels (W1 and W2), which are optimized for brown dwarf detection. W1 samples the methane fundamental absorption band at 3.3 microns, and W2 measures the relatively opacity-free portion of the brown dwarf atmosphere near 4.7 microns. Cool brown dwarfs will thus have very red [W1]-[W2] colors, maximizing our chances of identifying them. Extrapolating preferred mass functions to very low masses and assuming that the star formation rate has been constant over the last 10 Gyr, we can predict the number of brown dwarfs WISE is expected to image. At spectral types later than T7 (Teff > 850K), WISE is expected to find 500 brown dwarfs, which makes WISE uniquely suited among future surveys to measure the low-mass limit of star formation for the first time. This sample will also show whether a new spectral class beyond T, dubbed "Y", is needed at the lowest temperatures. Although the primary six-month WISE mission will cover the entire sky once, WISE should have sufficient cryogen to perform a second, complete pass of the sky. In this case, the identification of nearby brown dwarfs need not rely solely on color selection. Kinematics (proper motion) and geometry (parallax) can also be used to distinguish our closest brown dwarf neighbors, one of which may lie less distant than Proxima Centauri or even fall within our own Oort Cloud.

  17. [Studies on enzymic browning of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). II. The quantitative relationship between browning and its causative factors (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Matheis, G; Belitz, H D

    1977-03-21

    Ten potato varieties, with different rates of browning, were analyzed quantitatively for phenoloxidase, tyrosine, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and for reducing substances (ascorbic acid). The rate of tyrosine turnover was calculated from the data. The fact that the further reactions of the primary oxidation products leading to browning only take place after complete oxidation of the reducing substances, was taken into account. This leads to the same classification of the varieties as does visual observation of the rate of discolouration. Thus a clear relationship between browning and potato constituents is demonstrated. PMID:404776

  18. Operational Group Sandy technical progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    This report documents results from the March 2013 deployment of the OGS. It includes background information on Hurricane Sandy and the federal response; the OGS methodology; scenarios for Hurricane Sandy’s impact on coastal communities and urban ecosystems; potential interventions to improve regional resilience to future major storms; a discussion of scenario results; and lessons learned about the OGS process.

  19. A Bad Day for Sandy Dayton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duch, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Presents a rear-end car accident scenario to teach about forces and kinetic energy in a problem-based learning format. Includes four parts: (1) "A Bad Day for Sandy Dayton"; (2) "The Emergency Room"; (3) "The Facts of the Case"; and (4) "Judgement Day". Discusses the major issues of the questions, introduces scientific concepts, and initiates…

  20. Post-Sandy, Schools Claw Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2012-01-01

    David Weiss, the superintendent in Long Beach, N.Y., wrestled with a slew of considerations last week as he weighed when to restart school, nine days after Hurricane Sandy wrecked his community. Just one of seven buildings had most of the essentials: electricity, heat, working fire alarms, sewage, and food. And, with many students and staff…

  1. A Study of Sandy Beach Zonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the study of sandy beach zonations as a seashore activity for either high school or lower-level college courses in biology, ecology, or marine biology. Students first draw a profile of a beach scene and then collect specimens from the zones of the shore. In a laboratory, students identify their specimens and relate them to the beach…

  2. Effect of organic matter application on CP-MAS-13C-NMR spectra of humic acids from a brown soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, S.

    2009-04-01

    The humified SOM or humic substances (HS) composed of humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA) and humin (HM) represent the most microbially recalcitrant and stable reservoir of organic carbon in soil (Piccolo et al., 2004). OM applications can influence the amount and structural characteristics of HS(Dou et al., 2008). During the past few decades, there has been much research on HS, but their chemical structure is still not fully understood (Dong, 2006).CP-MAS-13C-NMR spectroscopy was considered as an effective method to study structures of HS without dissolving problem compared with liquid 13C-NMR (Conte et al., 1997; Dou et al., 2008). It can directly measure the carbon framework and reflect the nature of HS transformation after OM application (Spaccini et al., 2000). For that reason, this method was applied in this study. The objective of this paper was to clarify the effect of long term OM application on the changes of structural characteristics in HAs, which provided new information for improving soil fertility by OM application. The experiment was carried out on a brown soil (Paleudalf in USDA Soil Taxonomy) at Shenyang Agricultural University, Liaoning province, China (N41°48'-E123°25'). The experiment included 3 treatments: zero-treatment (CKbr), and two pig manure (PM) treatments (O1 and O2) at the rates of 0.9 t ha-1 and 1.8 t ha-1 of organic carbon, respectively. The samples of the HA fraction were extracted, separated and purified according to the method described by Dou et al. (1991). Elemental composition, Differential thermal analysis (DTA), -lgK value, FT-IR and CP-MAS- 13C-NMR of HAs were performed. Effects on the contents of orgaic carbon and its composition. The contents of TOC were from 8.77 g kg-1 to 12.25 g kg-1. The relative contents in TOC for WSS, HA, and FA were 6.87%, 14.2% and 19.8%. Comparing the CKbr, the contents of WSS, HA and FA for O1 and O2 increased, but relative contents of WSS and FA decreased. The content of the HA increased after

  3. Effect of organic matter application on CP-MAS-13C-NMR spectra of humic acids from a brown soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, S.

    2009-04-01

    The humified SOM or humic substances (HS) composed of humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA) and humin (HM) represent the most microbially recalcitrant and stable reservoir of organic carbon in soil (Piccolo et al., 2004). OM applications can influence the amount and structural characteristics of HS(Dou et al., 2008). During the past few decades, there has been much research on HS, but their chemical structure is still not fully understood (Dong, 2006).CP-MAS-13C-NMR spectroscopy was considered as an effective method to study structures of HS without dissolving problem compared with liquid 13C-NMR (Conte et al., 1997; Dou et al., 2008). It can directly measure the carbon framework and reflect the nature of HS transformation after OM application (Spaccini et al., 2000). For that reason, this method was applied in this study. The objective of this paper was to clarify the effect of long term OM application on the changes of structural characteristics in HAs, which provided new information for improving soil fertility by OM application. The experiment was carried out on a brown soil (Paleudalf in USDA Soil Taxonomy) at Shenyang Agricultural University, Liaoning province, China (N41°48'-E123°25'). The experiment included 3 treatments: zero-treatment (CKbr), and two pig manure (PM) treatments (O1 and O2) at the rates of 0.9 t ha-1 and 1.8 t ha-1 of organic carbon, respectively. The samples of the HA fraction were extracted, separated and purified according to the method described by Dou et al. (1991). Elemental composition, Differential thermal analysis (DTA), -lgK value, FT-IR and CP-MAS- 13C-NMR of HAs were performed. Effects on the contents of orgaic carbon and its composition. The contents of TOC were from 8.77 g kg-1 to 12.25 g kg-1. The relative contents in TOC for WSS, HA, and FA were 6.87%, 14.2% and 19.8%. Comparing the CKbr, the contents of WSS, HA and FA for O1 and O2 increased, but relative contents of WSS and FA decreased. The content of the HA increased after

  4. Sorption-desorption of indaziflam and its three metabolites in sandy soils.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Carmen; Koskinen, William C; Kookana, Rai S

    2014-01-01

    Indaziflam is a relatively new herbicide for which sorption-desorption information is lacking, and nothing is available on its metabolites. Information is needed on the multiple soil and pesticide characteristics known to influence these processes. For four soils, the order of sorption was indaziflam (N-[1R,2S)-2,3-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-1H-inden-1-yl]-6-[(1R)-1-fluoroethyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) (sandy clay loam: Kf = 5.9, 1/nf = 0.7, Kfoc = 447; sandy loam: Kf = 3.9, 1/nf = 0.9, Kfoc = 276) > triazine indanone metabolite (N-[(1R,2S)-2,3-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxo-1H-inden-1-yl]-6-[(1R)-1-fluoroethyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) (sandy clay loam: Kf = 2.1, 1/nf = 0.8, Kfoc = 177; sandy loam: Kf = 1.7, 1/nf = 0.9, Kfoc = 118) > fluoroethyldiaminotriazine metabolite (6-[(1R-1-Fluoroethyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) (sandy clay loam: Kf = 0.3, 1/nf = 0.9, Kfoc = 28; sandy loam: Kf = 0.3, 1/nf = 0.9, Kfoc = 22) = indaziflam carboxylic acid metabolite (2S,3R)-3-[[4-amino-6-[(1R)-1-fluoroethyl]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-1H-indene-5-carboxylic acid) (sandy clay loam: Kf = 0.3, 1/nf = 0.9, Kfoc = 22; sandy loam: Kf = 0.5, 1/nf = 0.8, Kfoc = 32). The metabolites being more polar than the parent compound showed lower sorption. Desorption was hysteretic for indaziflam and triazine indanone metabolite, but not for the other two metabolites. Unsaturated transient flow Kd's were lower than batch Kd's for indaziflam, but similar for fluoroethyldiaminotriazine metabolite. Batch Kd's would overpredict potential offsite transport if desorption hysteresis is not taken into account.

  5. Brown Recluse Spider

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a group of spiders commonly known as violin spiders or fiddlebacks. The characteristic fiddle-shaped pattern ... 4-19.1mm) • Color: Golden brown • A dark violin/fiddle shape (see top photo) is located on ...

  6. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  7. Component composition of deresined brown coal wax

    SciTech Connect

    L.P. Noskova

    2008-10-15

    The products of the alkaline hydrolysis of wax isolated from brown coal from the Sergeevskoe deposit were studied using chromatography and IR and NMR spectroscopy. It was found that hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, and a representative fraction of unsaponifiable esters were the constituents of wax. High-molecular-weight fatty alcohols and acids were identified as the constituents of wax with the use of thin-layer chromatography.

  8. Responses of soil fungal community to the sandy grassland restoration in Horqin Sandy Land, northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Kun; Zuo, Xiao-An; Zhao, Xue-Yong; Li, Yu-Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Lv, Peng; Luo, Yong-Qing; Yun, Jian-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Sandy grassland restoration is a vital process including re-structure of soils, restoration of vegetation, and soil functioning in arid and semi-arid regions. Soil fungal community is a complex and critical component of soil functioning and ecological balance due to its roles in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling following sandy grassland restoration. In this study, soil fungal community and its relationship with environmental factors were examined along a habitat gradient of sandy grassland restoration: mobile dunes (MD), semi-fixed dunes (SFD), fixed dunes (FD), and grassland (G). It was found that species abundance, richness, and diversity of fungal community increased along with the sandy grassland restoration. The sequences analysis suggested that most of the fungal species (68.4 %) belonged to the phylum of Ascomycota. The three predominant fungal species were Pleospora herbarum, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Deconica Montana, accounting for more than one fourth of all the 38 species. Geranomyces variabilis was the subdominant species in MD, Pseudogymnoascus destructans and Mortierella alpine were the subdominant species in SFD, and P. destructans and Fungi incertae sedis were the dominant species in FD and G. The result from redundancy analysis (RDA) and stepwise regression analysis indicated that the vegetation characteristics and soil properties explain a significant proportion of the variation in the fungal community, and aboveground biomass and C:N ratio are the key factors to determine soil fungal community composition during sandy grassland restoration. It was suggested that the restoration of sandy grassland combined with vegetation and soil properties improved the soil fungal diversity. Also, the dominant species was found to be alternative following the restoration of sandy grassland ecosystems.

  9. Rebuilding Emergency Care After Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Lee, David C; Smith, Silas W; McStay, Christopher M; Portelli, Ian; Goldfrank, Lewis R; Husk, Gregg; Shah, Nirav R

    2014-04-01

    A freestanding, 911-receiving emergency department was implemented at Bellevue Hospital Center during the recovery efforts after Hurricane Sandy to compensate for the increased volume experienced at nearby hospitals. Because inpatient services at several hospitals remained closed for months, emergency volume increased significantly. Thus, in collaboration with the New York State Department of Health and other partners, the Health and Hospitals Corporation and Bellevue Hospital Center opened a freestanding emergency department without on-site inpatient care. The successful operation of this facility hinged on key partnerships with emergency medical services and nearby hospitals. Also essential was the establishment of an emergency critical care ward and a system to monitor emergency department utilization at affected hospitals. The results of this experience, we believe, can provide a model for future efforts to rebuild emergency care capacity after a natural disaster such as Hurricane Sandy. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-4). PMID:24713152

  10. Acid-base properties of brown seaweed biomass considered as a Donnan gel. A model reflecting electrostatic effects and chemical heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Rey-Castro, Carlos; Lodeiro, Pablo; Herrero, Roberto; Sastre de Vicente, Manuel E

    2003-11-15

    Brown seaweeds are interesting materials to be used as biosorbents for heavy metals due to their high binding ability and low cost. The study of the passive biosorption of protons on this kind of materials and its dependency on pH, ionic strength, and medium composition is essential for the practical application of brown algae in wastewater treatment. This work reports the results of the study of the proton binding equilibria of dead biomass from the seaweeds Sargassum muticum, Cystoseira baccata, and Saccorhiza polyschides by potentiometric titration with a glass electrode in the pH range between 2 and 8. Two different salts, NaCl and KNO3, in concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 2 mol x L(-1), were used as background electrolytes. The influence of the ionic strength was accounted for by means of the Donnan model in combination with the master curve approach. Different empirical expressions to describe the swelling behavior of the biosorbent were tested. On the basis of the intrinsic affinity distribution analysis a unimodal Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm was selected to describe the proton binding properties. The results show very little influence of the type of salt. The ionic strength dependency of the proton binding is very similar for the three species, and average empirical expressions of the Donnan volume are proposed. The maximum proton binding capacities obtained ranged between 2.4 and 2.9 mol x kg(-1), with average intrinsic proton affinity constants between 3.1 and 3.3, and heterogeneity parameters of ca. 0.5 for S. muticum and C. baccata, and slightly higher (ca. 0.7) for S. polyschides. The combined Langmuir-Freundlich equation and Donnan model allowed a good description of the experimental charge vs pH curves obtained. PMID:14655702

  11. Characterization of biomass residues and their amendment effects on water sorption and nutrient leaching in sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Letian; Tong, Zhaohui; Liu, Guodong; Li, Yuncong

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of two types of biomass residues (fermentation residues from a bioethanol process, FB; brown mill residues from a papermaking process, BM) as amendments for a sandy soil. The characteristics of these residues including specific surface areas, morphologies and nutrient sorption capacity were measured. The effects of biorefinery residues on water and nutrient retention were investigated in terms of different particle sizes and loadings. The results indicated that bio-based wastes FB and BM were able to significantly improve water and nutrient retention of sandy soil. The residues with larger surface areas had better water and nutrient retention capability. Specifically, in the addition of 10% loading, FB and BM was able to improve water retention by approximately 150% and 300%, while reduce 99% of ammonium and phosphate concentration in the leachate compare to the soil control, respectively. PMID:24529394

  12. Characterization of biomass residues and their amendment effects on water sorption and nutrient leaching in sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Letian; Tong, Zhaohui; Liu, Guodong; Li, Yuncong

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of two types of biomass residues (fermentation residues from a bioethanol process, FB; brown mill residues from a papermaking process, BM) as amendments for a sandy soil. The characteristics of these residues including specific surface areas, morphologies and nutrient sorption capacity were measured. The effects of biorefinery residues on water and nutrient retention were investigated in terms of different particle sizes and loadings. The results indicated that bio-based wastes FB and BM were able to significantly improve water and nutrient retention of sandy soil. The residues with larger surface areas had better water and nutrient retention capability. Specifically, in the addition of 10% loading, FB and BM was able to improve water retention by approximately 150% and 300%, while reduce 99% of ammonium and phosphate concentration in the leachate compare to the soil control, respectively.

  13. How, Now, Brown Dwarfs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with colorful names for stars, from red giants to blue stragglers. Objects with masses between roughly .01 and .1 solar masses are called "brown dwarfs". Do they - could they - ever actually appear brown? Color is not a one-dimensional physical parameter like wavelength. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving not only three degrees of freedom - hue (often incorrectly equated with "color"), saturation and brightness - but also observational context. The perceptual nature of color has been known since Newton wrote in his "Opticks” in 1704: "For the Rays to speak properly are not coloured. In them there is nothing else than a certain Power and disposition to stir up a Sensation of this or that Colour.” To most observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the half dozen exceptions which look reddish/orange like Betelgeuse, Arcturus and Antares. But what color would Betelgeuse (effective temperature 3600 K) appear at a distance of, say, 100 times the Earth-Sun separation? Not red. In fact, it has a temperature about 40% higher than that of an ordinary incandescent light bulb. It would appear white (or yellowish)! Can a very cool radiating (emissive) object ever appear brown? What is brown anyway? It is not a primary or even secondary color. In this presentation, we will explore the nature and meaning of "brown” by the use of several physical and computer demonstrations developed as part of "Project LITE- Light Inquiry Through Experiments", an educational materials development project. These demonstrations show that an isolated thermally radiating object will never appear brown. Hence the term "Brown Dwarf” is as nonsensical as the phrase "How, Now, Brown Cow?". Project LITE is supported by the NSF through DUE Grant # 0715975.

  14. Of mice and men: novel insights regarding constitutive and recruitable brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Townsend, K L; Tseng, Y-H

    2015-08-01

    Recently, there has been great attention given to the possibility of combating obesity by targeting brown fat activity or increasing differentiation of brown adipocytes in white fat depots through a process termed 'browning'. Sympathetic innervation of brown and white adipose tissues provides adrenergic input that drives thermogenesis and regulates fatty acid metabolism, as well as stimulating adipogenesis of recruitable brown adipocyte tissue (rBAT, also known as beige or brite) in white fat. Other factors acting in an endocrine or autocrine/paracrine manner in adipose tissue may also stimulate browning. There have been significant recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of increasing adipose tissue energy expenditure, as well as how brown adipocytes appear in white fat depots, including via de novo adipogenesis from tissue precursor cells. In this article, we integrate this new knowledge with a historical perspective on the discovery of 'browning'. We also provide an overview of constitutive BAT vs rBAT in mouse and human. PMID:27152169

  15. Sodium iron EDTA and ascorbic acid, but not polyphenol oxidase treatment, counteract the strong inhibitory effect of polyphenols from brown sorghum on the absorption of fortification iron in young women.

    PubMed

    Cercamondi, Colin I; Egli, Ines M; Zeder, Christophe; Hurrell, Richard F

    2014-02-01

    In addition to phytate, polyphenols (PP) might contribute to low Fe bioavailability from sorghum-based foods. To investigate the inhibitory effects of sorghum PP on Fe absorption and the potential enhancing effects of ascorbic acid (AA), NaFeEDTA and the PP oxidase enzyme laccase, we carried out three Fe absorption studies in fifty young women consuming dephytinised Fe-fortified test meals based on white and brown sorghum varieties with different PP concentrations. Fe absorption was measured as the incorporation of stable Fe isotopes into erythrocytes. In study 1, Fe absorption from meals with 17 mg PP (8·5%) was higher than that from meals with 73 mg PP (3·2%) and 167 mg PP (2·7%; P< 0·001). Fe absorption from meals containing 73 and 167 mg PP did not differ (P= 0·9). In study 2, Fe absorption from NaFeEDTA-fortified meals (167 mg PP) was higher than that from the same meals fortified with FeSO₄ (4·6 v. 2·7%; P< 0·001), but still it was lower than that from FeSO₄-fortified meals with 17 mg PP (10·7%; P< 0·001). In study 3, laccase treatment decreased the levels of PP from 167 to 42 mg, but it did not improve absorption compared with that from meals with 167 mg PP (4·8 v. 4·6%; P= 0·4), whereas adding AA increased absorption to 13·6% (P< 0·001). These findings suggest that PP from brown sorghum contribute to low Fe bioavailability from sorghum foods and that AA and, to a lesser extent, NaFeEDTA, but not laccase, have the potential to overcome the inhibitory effect of PP and improve Fe absorption from sorghum foods.

  16. Mechanisms and effective control of physiological browning phenomena in plant cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan-Shan; Fu, Chun-Hua; Su, Peng; Xu, Xiang-Ping; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Fang; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Browning phenomena are ubiquitous in plant cell cultures that severely hamper scientific research and widespread application of plant cell cultures. Up to now, this problem still has not been well controlled due to the unclear browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures. In this paper, the mechanisms were investigated using two typical materials with severe browning phenomena, Taxus chinensis and Glycyrrhiza inflata cells. Our results illustrated that the browning is attributed to a physiological enzymatic reaction, and phenolic biosynthesis regulated by sugar plays a decisive role in the browning. Furthermore, to confirm the specific compounds which participate in the enzymatic browning reaction, transcriptional profile and metabolites of T. chinensis cells, and UV scanning and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) profile of the browning compounds extracted from the brown-turned medium were analyzed, flavonoids derived from phenylpropanoid pathway were found to be the main compounds, and myricetin and quercetin were deduced to be the main substrates of the browning reaction. Inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis can prevent the browning occurrence, and the browning is effectively controlled via blocking flavonoid biosynthesis by gibberellic acid (GA3 ) as an inhibitor, which further confirms that flavonoids mainly contribute to the browning. On the basis above, a model elucidating enzymatic browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures was put forward, and effective control approaches were presented.

  17. Mechanisms and effective control of physiological browning phenomena in plant cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan-Shan; Fu, Chun-Hua; Su, Peng; Xu, Xiang-Ping; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Fang; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Browning phenomena are ubiquitous in plant cell cultures that severely hamper scientific research and widespread application of plant cell cultures. Up to now, this problem still has not been well controlled due to the unclear browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures. In this paper, the mechanisms were investigated using two typical materials with severe browning phenomena, Taxus chinensis and Glycyrrhiza inflata cells. Our results illustrated that the browning is attributed to a physiological enzymatic reaction, and phenolic biosynthesis regulated by sugar plays a decisive role in the browning. Furthermore, to confirm the specific compounds which participate in the enzymatic browning reaction, transcriptional profile and metabolites of T. chinensis cells, and UV scanning and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) profile of the browning compounds extracted from the brown-turned medium were analyzed, flavonoids derived from phenylpropanoid pathway were found to be the main compounds, and myricetin and quercetin were deduced to be the main substrates of the browning reaction. Inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis can prevent the browning occurrence, and the browning is effectively controlled via blocking flavonoid biosynthesis by gibberellic acid (GA3 ) as an inhibitor, which further confirms that flavonoids mainly contribute to the browning. On the basis above, a model elucidating enzymatic browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures was put forward, and effective control approaches were presented. PMID:26333689

  18. Effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure processing on mineral elements, amino acids and antioxidants in vitro bioaccessibility, as well as starch digestibility in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Xia, Qiang; Wang, Liping; Xu, Congcong; Mei, Jun; Li, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    The effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the in vitro bioaccessibility of mineral elements, amino acids (AAs), antioxidants and starch in brown rice (BR) were investigated. Germinated BR (GBR) was obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h and then subjected to HHP treatments at 0.1, 100, 300 and 500MPa for 10min. The in vitro bioaccessibility of calcium and copper was increased by 12.59-52.17% and 2.87-23.06% after HHP, respectively, but bioaccessible iron was decreased. In addition, HHP significantly improved individual AAs, particularly indispensable AAs and gama-aminobutyric acid, as well as bioaccessible total antioxidant activities and starch resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, germination greatly increased starch digestibility. Atomic force microscopy characterization suggested an obvious structural change in bran fraction at pressures above 300MPa. These results can help to understand the effects of germination and HHP technologies on nutrients bioaccessibility and develop appropriate processing conditions. PMID:27507507

  19. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not

  20. CMs work overtime in Sandy's wake.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    When Hurricane Sandy devastated parts of Manhattan, Lutheran Medical Center in Brooklyn prepared in advance to handle an influx of patients evacuated from nursing homes and hospitals. Case management staff worked overtime in advance to discharge appropriate patients and free up beds. When evacuated patients came into the emergency department, the staff transferred stable patients to the hospital's own nursing homes and others with available beds, and admitted patients who met inpatient criteria. After the storm passed, case managers worked to discharge more patients to free up beds for injured patients and find placement for patients who presented to the emergency department but didn't meet admission criteria.

  1. The search for brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of brown dwarfs is summarized and observational findings regarding brown dwarfs are reviewed. The equation of state, the thermal properties, the interior transport properties, the boundary conditions, and the initial conditions are examined. Indirect observations, IR speckle interferometry, IR photometry, and field observations of brown dwarfs are discussed.

  2. "Brown's" Far Reaching Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" U.S. Supreme Court decision changed the face of American education forever, few individuals at that time could have fully realized its far-reaching implications. Certainly, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Legal Director Thurgood Marshall in his arguments was focusing on…

  3. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

  4. Determination of the structure and catalytic mechanism of Sorghum bicolor caffeic acid O-methyltransferase and the structural impact of three brown midrib12 mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) acting as the methyl donor, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase from Sorghum bicolor (SbCOMT) methylates the 5-hydroxyl group of its preferred substrate, 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde, to form sinapaldehyde. In order to determine the mechanism of SbCOMT and understand the red...

  5. BACTERIOPHAGE TRANSPORT IN SANDY SOIL AND FRACTURED TUFF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacteriophage transport was investigated in laboratory column experiments using sandy soil, a controlled field study in a sandy wash, and laboratory experiments using fractured rock. In the soil columns, the phage MS-2 exhibited significant dispersion and was excluded from 35 to ...

  6. 77 FR 74341 - Establishing the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... person. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, December 7, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-30310 Filed 12... the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force By the authority vested in me as President by the.... Hurricane Sandy made landfall on October 29, 2012, resulting in major flooding, extensive structural...

  7. Correlation between landscape fragmentation and sandy desertification: a case study in Horqin Sandy Land, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiaodong; Dong, Kaikai; Luloff, A E; Wang, Luyao; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Shiying; Wang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    The exact roles of landscape fragmentation on sandy desertification are still not fully understood, especially with the impact of different land use types in spatial dimension. Taking patch size and shape into consideration, this paper selected the Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index to establish a model that reveals the association between the area of bare sand land and the fragmentation of different land use types adjacent to bare sand land. Results indicated that (1) grass land and arable land contributed the most to landscape fragmentation processes in the regions adjacent to bare sand land during the period 1980 to 2010. Grass land occupied 54 % of the region adjacent to bare sand land in 1980. The Ratio of Patch Size of grass land decreased from 1980 to 2000 and increased after 2000. The Fractal Dimension Index of grass increased during the period 1980 to 1990 and decreased after 1990. Arable land expanded significantly during this period. The Ratio of Patch Size of arable land increased from 1980 to 1990 and decreased since 1990. The Fractal Dimension Index of arable land increased from 1990 to 2000 and decreased after 2000. (2) The Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index were significantly related to the area of bare sand land. The role of landscape fragmentation was not linear to sandy desertification. There were both positive and negative effects of landscape fragmentation on sandy desertification. In 1980, the Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index were negatively related to the area of bare sand land, showing that the landscape fragmentation and regularity of patches contributed to the expansion of sandy desertification. In 1990, 2000, and 2010, the Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index were mostly positively related to the area of bare sand land, showing the landscape fragmentation and regularity of patches contributed to the reversion of sandy desertification in this phase. The absolute values of

  8. Correlation between landscape fragmentation and sandy desertification: a case study in Horqin Sandy Land, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiaodong; Dong, Kaikai; Luloff, A E; Wang, Luyao; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Shiying; Wang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    The exact roles of landscape fragmentation on sandy desertification are still not fully understood, especially with the impact of different land use types in spatial dimension. Taking patch size and shape into consideration, this paper selected the Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index to establish a model that reveals the association between the area of bare sand land and the fragmentation of different land use types adjacent to bare sand land. Results indicated that (1) grass land and arable land contributed the most to landscape fragmentation processes in the regions adjacent to bare sand land during the period 1980 to 2010. Grass land occupied 54 % of the region adjacent to bare sand land in 1980. The Ratio of Patch Size of grass land decreased from 1980 to 2000 and increased after 2000. The Fractal Dimension Index of grass increased during the period 1980 to 1990 and decreased after 1990. Arable land expanded significantly during this period. The Ratio of Patch Size of arable land increased from 1980 to 1990 and decreased since 1990. The Fractal Dimension Index of arable land increased from 1990 to 2000 and decreased after 2000. (2) The Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index were significantly related to the area of bare sand land. The role of landscape fragmentation was not linear to sandy desertification. There were both positive and negative effects of landscape fragmentation on sandy desertification. In 1980, the Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index were negatively related to the area of bare sand land, showing that the landscape fragmentation and regularity of patches contributed to the expansion of sandy desertification. In 1990, 2000, and 2010, the Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index were mostly positively related to the area of bare sand land, showing the landscape fragmentation and regularity of patches contributed to the reversion of sandy desertification in this phase. The absolute values of

  9. Setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Holness, Stephen; Sink, Kerry; Schoeman, David

    2014-10-01

    Representative and adequate reserve networks are key to conserving biodiversity. This begs the question, how much of which features need to be placed in protected areas? Setting specifically-derived conservation targets for most ecosystems is common practice; however, this has never been done for sandy beaches. The aims of this paper, therefore, are to propose a methodology for setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems; and to pilot the proposed method using data describing biodiversity patterns and processes from microtidal beaches in South Africa. First, a classification scheme of valued features of beaches is constructed, including: biodiversity features; unique features; and important processes. Second, methodologies for setting targets for each feature under different data-availability scenarios are described. From this framework, targets are set for features characteristic of microtidal beaches in South Africa, as follows. 1) Targets for dune vegetation types were adopted from a previous assessment, and ranged 19-100%. 2) Targets for beach morphodynamic types (habitats) were set using species-area relationships (SARs). These SARs were derived from species richness data from 142 sampling events around the South African coast (extrapolated to total theoretical species richness estimates using previously-established species-accumulation curve relationships), plotted against the area of the beach (calculated from Google Earth imagery). The species-accumulation factor (z) was 0.22, suggesting a baseline habitat target of 27% is required to protect 75% of the species. This baseline target was modified by heuristic principles, based on habitat rarity and threat status, with final values ranging 27-40%. 3) Species targets were fixed at 20%, modified using heuristic principles based on endemism, threat status, and whether or not beaches play an important role in the species' life history, with targets ranging 20-100%. 4) Targets for processes and 5

  10. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Adamu, Hadiza Altine; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der-Jiun; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Rosli, Rozita; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR) and GBR-derived gamma (γ) aminobutyric acid (GABA) extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD), HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis. PMID:26842399

  11. Rediscovering community--reflections after Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    See, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Hoboken, New Jersey, is a town of 50,000 residents located across the Hudson River from New York City. Most of Hoboken's infrastructure was compromised during Hurricane Sandy as a result of flooding and power outages that rendered many businesses inoperable, including all of the pharmacies in town. Despite a focus on emergency preparedness since Hurricane Katrina and 9/11, there were no contingencies in place to facilitate and assess the medication needs of the community in the event of a natural disaster. This essay describes how the author rediscovered the meaning of community, and through working with colleagues in other health care disciplines and non-health care volunteers, provided care to patients in suboptimal circumstances.

  12. Hurricane Sandy science plan: New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Clarice N.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. More than one-half of the U.S. population lives within 50 miles of a coast, and this number is increasing. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is one of the largest providers of geologic and hydrologic information in the world. Federal, State, and local partners depend on the USGS science to know how to prepare for hurricane hazards and reduce losses from future hurricanes. The USGS works closely with other bureaus within the Department of the Interior, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Environmental Protection Agency, and many State and local agencies to identify their information needs before, during, and after hurricanes.

  13. Rediscovering community--reflections after Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    See, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Hoboken, New Jersey, is a town of 50,000 residents located across the Hudson River from New York City. Most of Hoboken's infrastructure was compromised during Hurricane Sandy as a result of flooding and power outages that rendered many businesses inoperable, including all of the pharmacies in town. Despite a focus on emergency preparedness since Hurricane Katrina and 9/11, there were no contingencies in place to facilitate and assess the medication needs of the community in the event of a natural disaster. This essay describes how the author rediscovered the meaning of community, and through working with colleagues in other health care disciplines and non-health care volunteers, provided care to patients in suboptimal circumstances. PMID:24218382

  14. Expression of cell wall related genes in basal and ear internodes of silking brown-midrib-3, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) down-regulated, and normal maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Guillaumie, Sabine; Goffner, Deborah; Barbier, Odile; Martinant, Jean-Pierre; Pichon, Magalie; Barrière, Yves

    2008-01-01

    Background Silage maize is a major forage and energy resource for cattle feeding, and several studies have shown that lignin content and structure are the determining factors in forage maize feeding value. In maize, four natural brown-midrib mutants have modified lignin content, lignin structure and cell wall digestibility. The greatest lignin reduction and the highest cell wall digestibility were observed in the brown-midrib-3 (bm3) mutant, which is disrupted in the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. Results Expression of cell wall related genes was investigated in basal and ear internodes of normal, COMT antisens (AS225), and bm3 maize plants of the INRA F2 line. A cell wall macro-array was developed with 651 gene specific tags of genes specifically involved in cell wall biogenesis. When comparing basal (older lignifying) and ear (younger lignifying) internodes of the normal line, all genes known to be involved in constitutive monolignol biosynthesis had a higher expression in younger ear internodes. The expression of the COMT gene was heavily reduced, especially in the younger lignifying tissues of the ear internode. Despite the fact that AS225 transgene expression was driven only in sclerenchyma tissues, COMT expression was also heavily reduced in AS225 ear and basal internodes. COMT disruption or down-regulation led to differential expressions of a few lignin pathway genes, which were all over-expressed, except for a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene. More unexpectedly, several transcription factor genes, cell signaling genes, transport and detoxification genes, genes involved in cell wall carbohydrate metabolism and genes encoding cell wall proteins, were differentially expressed, and mostly over-expressed, in COMT-deficient plants. Conclusion Differential gene expressions in COMT-deficient plants highlighted a probable disturbance in cell wall assembly. In addition, the gene expressions suggested modified chronology of the different events leading

  15. Relationship between the enzymatic browning and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity of cut lettuce, and the prevention of browning by inhibitors of polyphenol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hisaminato, H; Murata, M; Homma, S

    2001-05-01

    Cut lettuce stored at 4 degrees C gradually turned brown on the cut section after several days of storage. Three factors for enzymatic browning, the polyphenol content, polyphenol oxidase activity, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, were examined during the cold storage of cut lettuce. A relationship between the browning and PAL activity was apparent. We tried to prevent this browning by using the two enzyme inhibitors, 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), an inhibitor of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and glyphosate, an inhibitor of the shikimate pathway. AIP and glyphosate significantly inhibited the browning of cut lettuce. The polyphenol content and PAL activity were both reduced by the treatment with AIP. These results show that regulating the biosynthesis of polyphenols is essential to prevent the browning of cut lettuce.

  16. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches.

    PubMed

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  17. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  18. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches.

    PubMed

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development. PMID:27376939

  19. Effect of the pyrrole polymerization mechanism on the antioxidative activity of nonenzymatic browning reactions.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; Nogales, Fátima; Zamora, Rosario

    2003-09-10

    The present investigation was undertaken to study how the antioxidative activity (AA) of nonenzymatic browning reactions is changing at the same time that the browning (by the pyrrole polymerization mechanism) is being produced. The antioxidative activities of eight model pyrroles (pyrrole, 1-methylpyrrole, 2,5-dimethylpyrrole, 1,2,5-trimethylpyrrole, 2-acetylpyrrole, 2-acetyl-1-methylpyrrole, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolecarboxaldehyde) as well as the browning reaction of 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)-1-methylpyrrole (HMP) and the dimer (DIM) produced during HMP browning were determined. The results obtained suggest that the AAs observed in nonenzymatic browning reactions are the result of the AAs of the different oxidized lipid/amino acid reaction products formed. Thus, the different pyrrole derivatives produced in these reactions had different AAs, and the highest AAs were observed for alkyl-substituted pyrroles without free alpha-positions. Because some of these pyrrole derivatives are implicated in nonenzymatic browning production and this browning production implies the loss of hydroxyl groups and the transformation of some pyrroles with one type of substitution into others, changes in AA during browning production were observed, and the resulting DIM derivative was more antioxidant than HMP or higher polymers. These results explain the AA observed in fatty acid/protein mixtures after slight oxidation and suggest that, when the pyrrole polymerization mechanism is predominant, slightly browned samples may be more antioxidant than samples in which nonenzymatic browning has been highly developed. PMID:12952422

  20. Diffusive gradients in thin films sampler predicts stress in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) exposed to aluminum in acid fresh waters.

    PubMed

    Røyset, Oddvar; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Kristensen, Torstein; Kroglund, Frode; Garmo, Oyvind Aaberg; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2005-02-15

    Increased levels of aluminum ions released from nutrient-poor soils affected by acid rain have been the primary cause of fish deaths in the acidified watersheds of southern Norway. The complex aluminum chemistry in water requires speciation methods to measure the gill-reactive species imposing toxic effects toward fish. Previously, aluminum speciation has mainly followed the fractionation principles outlined by Barnes/Driscoll, and several analogues of these fractionation principles have been used both in situ and in the laboratory. Due to rapid transformation processes, aluminum speciation in water samples may change even during short storage times. Thus, results obtained by laboratory fractionation methods might be misleading for the assessment of potentially toxic aluminum species in the water. Until now, all in situ field fractionation methods have been time and labor consuming. The DGT technique (diffusive gradients in thin films) is a new in situ sampler collecting a fraction of dissolved metal weighted according to the rate of diffusion and dissociation kinetics. In a field experiment with acid surface water we studied the DGT sampler as a new prediction tool for the gill accumulation of aluminum in trout (Salmo trutta L.) and the induced physiological stress responses measured as changes in blood glucose and plasma chloride. Aluminum determined with DGT (DGT-AI) was higher than labile monomeric aluminum (Ali) determined with a laboratory aluminum fractionation procedure (PCV--a pyrocatechol violet analogue of Barnes/Driscoll), a difference due to collection of a fraction of organically complexed aluminum by DGT and a reduction of the Ali fraction during sample storage. DGT-AI predicted the gill uptake and the aluminum-induced physiological stress responses (increased blood glucose and decreased plasma chloride, r2 from 0.6 to 0.9). The results indicate that DGT-AI is a better predictor for the stress response than laboratory-determined Ali, because the DGT

  1. Uranium partitioning under acidic conditions in a sandy soil aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.H. |; Serkiz, S.M.; Johnson, L.M.

    1995-07-01

    The partitioning of uranium in an aquifer down gradient of two large mixed waste sites was examined with respect to the solution and soil chemistry (e.g., pH redox potential and contaminant concentration) and aqueous-phase chemical speciation. This involved generation of field-derived, batch sorption, and reactive mineral surface sorption data. Field-derived distribution coefficients for uranium at these waste sites were found to vary between 0.40 and 15,000. Based on thermodynamic speciation modeling and a comparison of field and laboratory data, gibbsite is a potential reactive mineral surface present in modified soils at the sites. Uranium partitioning data are presented from field samples and laboratory studies of background soil and the mineral surface gibbsite. Mechanistic and empirical sorption models fit to the field-derived uranium partitioning data show an improvement of over two orders of magnitude, as measured by the normalized sum of errors squared, when compared with the single K{sub d} model used in previous risk work. Models fit to batch sorption data provided a better fit of sorbed uranium than do models fit to the field-derived data.

  2. Use of dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) fertilizers to reduce phosphorus leaching from sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, G C; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Yang, X E; Yu, S; Calvert, D

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing concern over P leaching from sandy soils applied with water-soluble P fertilizers. Laboratory column leaching experiments were conducted to evaluate P leaching from a typical acidic sandy soil in Florida amended with DPR fertilizers developed from dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) and N-Viro soil. Ten leaching events were carried out at an interval of 7 days, with a total leaching volume of 1,183 mm equivalent to the mean annual rainfall of this region during the period of 2001-2003. Leachates were collected and analyzed for total P and inorganic P. Phosphorus in the leachate was dominantly reactive, accounting for 67.7-99.9% of total P leached. Phosphorus leaching loss mainly occurred in the first three leaching events, accounting for 62.0-98.8% of the total P leached over the whole period. The percentage of P leached (in the total P added) from the soil amended with water-soluble P fertilizer was higher than those receiving the DPR fertilizers. The former was up to 96.6%, whereas the latter ranged from 0.3% to 3.8%. These results indicate that the use of N-Viro-based DPR fertilizers can reduce P leaching from sandy soils.

  3. Genetic variation and effects of candidate-gene polymorphisms on coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling and acidity in milk from Brown Swiss cows.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Chessa, S; Ribeca, C; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bobbo, T; Casellas, J; Bittante, G

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the genetic variation of traditional milk coagulation properties (MCPs), milk acidity, curd firmness (CF) modeled on time t (CF(t) ; comprising: RCT(eq), rennet coagulation time estimated from the equation; CF(P), the asymptotic potential curd firmness; k(CF), the curd firming instant rate constant; and k(SR), the syneresis instant rate constant) and maximum CF traits (MCF; comprising CF(max), the maximum CF value; and tmax, the time of attainment). Furthermore, we investigated 96 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 54 candidate genes, testing their associations with the above-listed traits. Milk and blood samples were collected from 1271 cows (each sampled once) from 85 herds. Genotyping was performed using a custom Illumina VeraCode GoldenGate approach. A Bayesian linear animal model (including the effects of herd, days in milk, parity and additive polygenic effects) was used to estimate the genetic parameters of the studied traits. The same model with the addition of the SNP genotype effect was used for our association analysis. The heritability estimates of CF t and the MCF traits (RCT(eq)=0.258; k(CF)=0.230; CF(max)=0.191; t(max)=0.278) were similar to those obtained using traditional MCPs (0.187 to 0.267), except for the lower estimates for CF(P) (0.064) and k(SR) (0.077). A total of 13 of the 51 tested SNPs had relevant additive effects on at least one trait. We observed associations between MCPs and SNPs in the genes encoding ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2), chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), growth hormone 1 (GH1), prolactin (PRL) and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Whereas, CF(t) and the MCF traits were associated with polymorphisms in the α-s1-casein (CSN1S1), β-casein (CSN2), GH1, oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (OLR1), phospholipase C β1 (PLCB1), PRL and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5A) genes.

  4. Genetic variation and effects of candidate-gene polymorphisms on coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling and acidity in milk from Brown Swiss cows.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Chessa, S; Ribeca, C; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bobbo, T; Casellas, J; Bittante, G

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the genetic variation of traditional milk coagulation properties (MCPs), milk acidity, curd firmness (CF) modeled on time t (CF(t) ; comprising: RCT(eq), rennet coagulation time estimated from the equation; CF(P), the asymptotic potential curd firmness; k(CF), the curd firming instant rate constant; and k(SR), the syneresis instant rate constant) and maximum CF traits (MCF; comprising CF(max), the maximum CF value; and tmax, the time of attainment). Furthermore, we investigated 96 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 54 candidate genes, testing their associations with the above-listed traits. Milk and blood samples were collected from 1271 cows (each sampled once) from 85 herds. Genotyping was performed using a custom Illumina VeraCode GoldenGate approach. A Bayesian linear animal model (including the effects of herd, days in milk, parity and additive polygenic effects) was used to estimate the genetic parameters of the studied traits. The same model with the addition of the SNP genotype effect was used for our association analysis. The heritability estimates of CF t and the MCF traits (RCT(eq)=0.258; k(CF)=0.230; CF(max)=0.191; t(max)=0.278) were similar to those obtained using traditional MCPs (0.187 to 0.267), except for the lower estimates for CF(P) (0.064) and k(SR) (0.077). A total of 13 of the 51 tested SNPs had relevant additive effects on at least one trait. We observed associations between MCPs and SNPs in the genes encoding ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2), chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), growth hormone 1 (GH1), prolactin (PRL) and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Whereas, CF(t) and the MCF traits were associated with polymorphisms in the α-s1-casein (CSN1S1), β-casein (CSN2), GH1, oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (OLR1), phospholipase C β1 (PLCB1), PRL and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5A) genes. PMID:25823422

  5. Relationship in between Chemical Oxidation and Browning of Flavanols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X.; Zhang, Y. L.; Wang, F.; Pang, M. X.; Qi, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    Catechin, epicatechin and chlorogenic acid are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. At present, influencing factors of phenol chemical oxidation is little research. In order to study non-enzymatic browning factors, this research utilized catechin, epicatechin and chlorogenic acid to establish simulation systems. The browning degree and products of flavanols were investigated by transmittance and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The main results and conclusions were follows. The brown generation is increased after phenols of chemical oxidation at 50°C and at pH 3.7 phosphate buffered saline, the sequence of influencing factor of browning is pH > kind of phenol > temperature. Oxidation of compounds of catechin and epicatechin results in formation of their Methylene quinone or o -Quinones. In addition, oxidation products of catechin, epicatechin and chlorogenic acid were mixture of different molecular sizes. The research has showed that brown generation correlated well with chemical oxidation of phenols and chemical oxidation reaction generated larger molecular weight polymers.

  6. GOES-13 Sees Life and Death of Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of satellite imagery shows the life of Hurricane Sandy from its development in the Caribbean Sea on Oct. 21, through its track up the U.S. East coast and landfall. The animation cont...

  7. On the Impact Angle of Hurricane Sandy's New Jersey Landfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Sobel, Adam H.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy's track crossed the New Jersey coastline at an angle closer to perpendicular than any previous hurricane in the historic record, one of the factors contributing to recordsetting peak-water levels in parts of New Jersey and New York. To estimate the occurrence rate of Sandy-like tracks, we use a stochastic model built on historical hurricane data from the entire North Atlantic to generate a large sample of synthetic hurricanes. From this synthetic set we calculate that under long-term average climate conditions, a hurricane of Sandy's intensity or greater (category 1+) makes NJ landfall at an angle at least as close to perpendicular as Sandy's at an average annual rate of 0.0014 yr-1 (95% confidence range 0.0007 to 0.0023); i.e., a return period of 714 years (95% confidence range 435 to 1429).

  8. Model projections of atmospheric steering of Sandy-like superstorms.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Elizabeth A; Polvani, Lorenzo M; Sobel, Adam H

    2013-09-17

    Superstorm Sandy ravaged the eastern seaboard of the United States, costing a great number of lives and billions of dollars in damage. Whether events like Sandy will become more frequent as anthropogenic greenhouse gases continue to increase remains an open and complex question. Here we consider whether the persistent large-scale atmospheric patterns that steered Sandy onto the coast will become more frequent in the coming decades. Using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 multimodel ensemble, we demonstrate that climate models consistently project a decrease in the frequency and persistence of the westward flow that led to Sandy's unprecedented track, implying that future atmospheric conditions are less likely than at present to propel storms westward into the coast.

  9. Origins, Evolution, and Fate of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Research related to the origins, evolution and fate of brown dwarfs is presented. The topics include: 1) Imaging surveys for brown dwarfs; 2) Companion detection techniques; 3) Measurements of fundamental properties of brown dwarfs; 4) Classification schemes for ultracool dwarfs; 5) Origins and evolution of brown dwarfs; 6) Ultracool atmospheres and interiors; 7) Time variable phenomena in brown dwarfs; 8) Comparisons between brown dwarfs and planets; 9) Substellar mass functions; and 10) Future facilities.

  10. ANAEROBIC SOIL DISINFESTATION IN MICROCOSMS OF TWO SANDY SOILS.

    PubMed

    Stremińska, M A; Runia, W T; Termorshuizen, A J; Feil, H; Van Der Wurff, A W G

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) has been proposed as an alternative control method of soil-borne plant pathogens. It involves adding a labile carbon source, irrigating the soil to stimulate decomposition of organic material and then covering the soil with air-tight plastic to limit gas exchange. During the ASD process, soil microorganisms switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. As a result, by-products of anaerobic metabolism are released into the soil environment such as various organic acids and gases. These by-products are reported to have a negative effect on survival of soil-borne plant pathogens. However, the efficacy of ASD to reduce soil-borne pathogens in practice may vary significantly. Therefore, we studied the efficacy of the ASD process in two different soils. In addition, it was investigated whether a pre-treatment with an anaerobic bacterial inoculum prior to ASD affected the efficacy of the process. Two sandy soils (dune sand and glacial sand) were inoculated in 2 L soil microcosms. We tested the efficacy of ASD treatment against the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. For each soil, three treatments were used: control treatment (no Herbie addition, aerobic incubation), ASD 1 (organic substrate addition, anaerobic incubation) and ASD 2 (organic substrate and anaerobic bacterial inoculum addition, anaerobic incubation). Soil microcosms were incubated in the dark at 20°C for two weeks. We observed that anaerobic soil disinfestation treatments were highly effective against Potato Cyst Nematode (PCN), with pathogen being eradicated totally in all but one ASD treatment (glacial sand ASD2) within two weeks. The relative abundance of Firmicutes (spore-forming bacteria, often fermentative) in total bacteria increased significantly in ASD treated soils. Numbers of these bacteria correlated positively with increased concentrations of acetic and butyric acids in soil water phase in ASD treatments. PMID:26084078

  11. Elucidation of the mechanism of enzymatic browning inhibition by sodium chlorite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium chlorite (SC) is a well known anti-microbial agent and its strong inhibitory effect on enzymatic browning of fresh-cut produce has recently been identified. We investigated the mechanisms of browning inhibition by SC using chlorogenic acid (CA) and PPO extracted from mushroom to emulate the b...

  12. Curcumin analogues as selective fluorescence imaging probes for brown adipose tissue and monitoring browning

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xueli; Tian, Yanli; Zhang, Hongbin; Kavishwar, Amol; Lynes, Matthew; Brownell, Anna-Liisa; Sun, Hongbin; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Moore, Anna; Ran, Chongzhao

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) can be promising new approaches to counter metabolic disorder diseases in humans. Imaging probes that could consistently monitor BAT mass and browning of WAT are highly desirable. In the course of our imaging probe screening, we found that BAT could be imaged with curcumin analogues in mice. However, the poor BAT selectivity over WAT and short emissions of the lead probes promoted further lead optimization. Limited uptake mechanism studies suggested that CD36/FAT (fatty acid transporter) probably contributed to the facilitated uptake of the probes. By increasing the stereo-hindrance of the lead compound, we designed CRANAD-29 to extend the emission and increase the facilitated uptake, thus increasing its BAT selectivity. Our data demonstrated that CRANAD-29 had significantly improved selectivity for BAT over WAT, and could be used for imaging BAT mass change in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model, as well as for monitoring BAT activation under cold exposure. In addition, CRANAD-29 could be used for monitoring the browning of subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) induced by β3-adrenoceptor agonist CL-316, 243. PMID:26269357

  13. Biosorption of heavy metal ions to brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    1998-10-01

    A fundamental study of the application of brown algae to the aqueous-phase separation of toxic heavy metals was carried out. The biosorption characteristics of cadmium and lead ions were determined with brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida. A metal binding model proposed by the authors was used for the description of metal binding data. The results showed that the biosorption of bivalent metal ions to brown algae was due to bivalent binding to carboxylic groups on alginic acid in brown algae.

  14. Platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos) compared to man

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Information on hemostasis and platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos) is of importance for understanding the physiological, protective changes during hibernation. Objective The study objective was to document platelet activity values in brown bears shortly after leaving the den and compare them to platelet function in healthy humans. Methods Blood was drawn from immobilized wild brown bears 7-10 days after leaving the den in mid April. Blood samples from healthy human adults before and after clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid administration served as control. We analyzed blood samples by standard blood testing and platelet aggregation was quantified after stimulation with various agonists using multiple electrode aggregometry within 3 hours of sampling. Results Blood samples were collected from 6 bears (3 females) between 1 and 16 years old and from 10 healthy humans. Results of adenosine diphosphate, aspirin, and thrombin receptor activating peptide tests in bears were all half or less of those in humans. Platelet and white blood cell counts did not differ between species but brown bears had more and smaller red blood cells compared with humans. Conclusion Using three different tests, we conclude that platelet function is lower in brown bears compared to humans. Our findings represent the first descriptive study on platelet function in brown bears and may contribute to explain how bears can endure denning without obvious thrombus building. However, the possibility that our findings reflect test-dependent and not true biological variations in platelet reactivity needs further studies. PMID:20525167

  15. Metabolic interplay between white, beige, brown adipocytes and the liver.

    PubMed

    Scheja, Ludger; Heeren, Joerg

    2016-05-01

    In mammalian evolution, three types of adipocytes have developed, white, brown and beige adipocytes. White adipocytes are the major constituents of white adipose tissue (WAT), the predominant store for energy-dense triglycerides in the body that are released as fatty acids during catabolic conditions. The less abundant brown adipocytes, the defining parenchymal cells of brown adipose tissue (BAT), internalize triglycerides that are stored intracellularly in multilocular lipid droplets. Beige adipocytes (also known as brite or inducible brown adipocytes) are functionally very similar to brown adipocytes and emerge in specific WAT depots in response to various stimuli including sustained cold exposure. The activation of brown and beige adipocytes (together referred to as thermogenic adipocytes) causes both the hydrolysis of stored triglycerides as well as the uptake of lipids and glucose from the circulation. Together, these fuels are combusted for heat production to maintain body temperature in mammals including adult humans. Given that heating by brown and beige adipocytes is a very-well controlled and energy-demanding process which entails pronounced shifts in energy fluxes, it is not surprising that an intensive interplay exists between the various adipocyte types and parenchymal liver cells, and that this influences systemic metabolic fluxes and endocrine networks. In this review we will emphasize the role of hepatic factors that regulate the metabolic activity of white and thermogenic adipocytes. In addition, we will discuss the relevance of lipids and hormones that are secreted by white, brown and beige adipocytes regulating liver metabolism in order to maintain systemic energy metabolism in health and disease. PMID:26829204

  16. Brown spider envenomation.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Michael E

    2006-11-01

    The venom from spiders of the genus Loxosceles, the most famous being Loxosceles recluse (the most brown recluse spider) can cause serious poisoning. These spiders inhabit the south and south central states from Georgia through Texas and north to southern Wisconsin. They are commonly called violin spiders because of the violin-shaped marking on the dorsum of the cephalothorax. Many dermonecrotic lesions are incorrectly diagnosed as Brown recluse bites, as up to 50% of the diagnoses are in geographic regions of the country which do not have Loxosceles spiders. Sphingomyelinase D is the primary venom dermonecrotic factor. The toxin depletes serum hemolytic complement, prolongs the activated partial thromboplastin time and depletes clotting factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII. The venom induces rapid coagulation and occlusion of small capillaries, causing subsequent tissue necrosis. A classic "bulls eye" lesion develops, an erythematous area inside of which is a pale ischemic region that develops a dark necrotic center as the lesion matures. Healing is slow, and these ulcers may persist for months leaving a deep scar. Systemic signs occur less commonly but can be life threatening. The most prevalent sign is a hemolytic anemia with significant hemoglobinuria. There is no specific antidote. Dapsone a leukocyte inhibitor has been shown to be effective in treating dermal lesions in animal models. Conservative therapy includes several cleanings daily with Burrow's solution and hydrogen peroxide. Systemic signs of Loxosceles envenomation are potentially fatal and should be aggressively addressed. Hospitalization and intravenous fluid therapy may be needed to maintain adequate hydration and to protect renal function.

  17. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  4. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  7. Phosphorus leaching from biosolids-amended sandy soils.

    PubMed

    Elliott, H A; O'Connor, G A; Brinton, S

    2002-01-01

    Increasing emphasis on phosphorus (P)-based nutrient management underscores the need to understand P behavior in soils amended with biosolids and manures. Laboratory and greenhouse column studies characterized P forms and leachability of eight biosolids products, chicken manure (CM), and commercial fertilizer (triple superphosphate, TSP). Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) was grown for 4 mo on two acid, P-deficient Florida sands, representing both moderate (Candler series: hyperthermic, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments) and very low (Immokalee series: sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Alaquods) P-sorbing capacities. Amendments were applied at 56 and 224 kg P(T) ha(-1), simulating P-based and N-based nutrient loadings, respectively. Column leachate P was dominantly inorganic and lower for biosolids P sources than TSP. For Candler soil, only TSP at the high P rate exhibited P leaching statistically greater (alpha = 0.05) than control (soil-only) columns. For the high P rate and low P-sorbing Immokalee soil, TSP and CM leached 21 and 3.0% of applied P, respectively. Leachate P for six biosolids was <1.0% of applied P and not statistically different from controls. Largo biosolids, generated from a biological P removal process, exhibited significantly greater leachate P in both cake and pelletized forms (11 and 2.5% of applied P, respectively) than other biosolids. Biosolids P leaching was correlated to the phosphorus saturation index (PSI = [Pox]/[Al(ox) + Fe(ox)]) based on oxalate extraction of the pre-applied biosolids. For hiosolids with PSI < or = approximately 1.1, no appreciable leaching occurred. Only Largo cake (PSI = 1.4) and pellets (PSI = 1.3) exhibited P leaching losses statistically greater than controls. The biosolids PSI appears useful for identifying biosolids with potential to enrich drainage P when applied to low P-sorbing soils. PMID:11931462

  8. Sandy River Delta Habitat Restoration Project, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Virginia; Dobson, Robin L.

    2002-11-01

    The Sandy River Delta is located at the confluence of the Sandy and Columbia Rivers, just east of Troutdale, Oregon. It comprises about 1,400 land acres north of Interstate 84, managed by the USDA Forest Service, and associated river banks managed by the Oregon Division of State Lands. Three islands, Gary, Flag and Catham, managed by Metro Greenspaces and the State of Oregon lie to the east, the Columbia River lies to the north and east, and the urbanized Portland metropolitan area lies to the west across the Sandy River. Sandy River Delta was historically a wooded, riparian wetland with components of ponds, sloughs, bottomland woodland, oak woodland, prairie, and low and high elevation floodplain. It has been greatly altered by past agricultural practices and the Columbia River hydropower system. Restoration of historic landscape components is a primary goal for this land. The Forest Service is currently focusing on restoration of riparian forest and wetlands. Restoration of open upland areas (meadow/prairie) would follow substantial completion of the riparian and wetland restoration. The Sandy River Delta is a former pasture infested with reed canary grass, blackberry and thistle. The limited over story is native riparian species such as cottonwood and ash. The shrub and herbaceous layers are almost entirely non-native, invasive species. Native species have a difficult time naturally regenerating in the thick, competing reed canary grass, Himalayan blackberry and thistle. A system of drainage ditches installed by past owners drains water from historic wetlands. The original channel of the Sandy River was diked in the 1930's, and the river diverted into the ''Little Sandy River''. The original Sandy River channel has subsequently filled in and largely become a slough. The FS acquired approximately 1,400 acres Sandy River Delta (SRD) in 1991 from Reynolds Aluminum (via the Trust for Public Lands). The Delta had been grazed for many years but shortly after FS

  9. Pineapple juice and its fractions in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana [Musa (AAA group) Gros Michel].

    PubMed

    Chaisakdanugull, Chitsuda; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Wrolstad, Ronald E

    2007-05-16

    The effectiveness of pineapple juice in enzymatic browning inhibition was evaluated on the cut surface of banana slices. After storage of banana slices at 15 degrees C for 3 days, pineapple juice showed browning inhibition to a similar extent as 8 mM ascorbic acid but less than 4 mM sodium metabisulfite. Fractionation of pineapple juice by a solid-phase C18 cartridge revealed that the directly eluted fraction (DE fraction) inhibited banana polyphenol oxidase (PPO) about 100% when compared to the control. The DE fraction also showed more inhibitory effect than 8 mM ascorbic acid in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana puree during storage at 5 degrees C for 24 h. Further identification of the DE fraction by fractionation with ion exchange chromatography and confirmation using model systems indicated that malic acid and citric acid play an important role in the enzymatic browning inhibition of banana PPO.

  10. EAARL Coastal Topography - Sandy Hook 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2008-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey, acquired on May 16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  11. Hurricane Sandy Washover Deposits on Southern Long Beach Island, NJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. M.; Richmond, B. M.; Kane, H. H.; Lunghino, B.

    2015-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy washover deposits were investigated at Forsyth National Wildlife Refuge (FNWR) on Southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey in order to map deposit thickness and characterize the sedimentary deposits. FNWR was chosen as a field area because there has been relatively little anthropogenic shoreline modification since washover deposition from Hurricane Sandy. Sediment, elevation, and geophysical data were collected during the April 2015 field campaign, approximately two and a half years after the storm. Sediment deposit data included trenches, stratigraphic descriptions, bulk sediment samples, push cores, Russian cores, and photos. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was conducted on push cores in order to acquire high resolution imaging of density, grain size, and sedimentary structure. Profiles of washover elevation were measured using Differential GPS with Real Time Kinematic processing. Ground Penetrating Radar data was collected to image the depth of the deposit and identify sedimentary structures. These data sets are compared to pre- and post -Sandy lidar surveys in order to determine post-Sandy modification in the two and a half years following the hurricane. We compare sediment thickness and sedimentary characteristics to hurricane Sandy deposits elsewhere along the U.S. eastern seaboard and to tsunami deposits.

  12. Faces of Marshall: Arthur Brown

    NASA Video Gallery

    Several Marshall employees were interviewed as part of Marshall's 50th Anniversary activities. Metallurgist Arthur Brown shares how his high school drafting and welding success led him to a NASA ca...

  13. Brown dwarfs detections through microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranc, C.; Cassan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Gravitational microlensing is known to be a powerful method to hunt for extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. Recently, several brown dwarfs companions to stars have been detected through microlensing, as well as brown dwarfs binaries. We present the discovery of a new ˜ 40 M_{J} brown dwarf orbiting a K-dwarf at ˜ 4 AU, located at ˜ 4 kpc from the Earth. Besides using the standard photometric light curves gathered from different round-the-world observatories, its characterization involved high-resolution adaptative optics measurements from NaCo at VLT which allowed to break the degeneracies between the physical parameters and provide the exact mass and projected separation of the system.

  14. Diversity and relationships in key traits for functional and apparent quality in a collection of eggplant: fruit phenolics content, antioxidant activity, polyphenol oxidase activity, and browning.

    PubMed

    Plazas, Mariola; López-Gresa, María P; Vilanova, Santiago; Torres, Cristina; Hurtado, Maria; Gramazio, Pietro; Andújar, Isabel; Herráiz, Francisco J; Bellés, José M; Prohens, Jaime

    2013-09-18

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) varieties with increased levels of phenolics in the fruit present enhanced functional quality, but may display greater fruit flesh browning. We evaluated 18 eggplant accessions for fruit total phenolics content, chlorogenic acid content, DPPH scavenging activity, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, liquid extract browning, and fruit flesh browning. For all the traits we found a high diversity, with differences among accessions of up to 3.36-fold for fruit flesh browning. Variation in total content in phenolics and in chlorogenic acid content accounted only for 18.9% and 6.0% in the variation in fruit flesh browning, and PPO activity was not significantly correlated with fruit flesh browning. Liquid extract browning was highly correlated with chlorogenic acid content (r = 0.852). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified four groups of accessions with different profiles for the traits studied. Results suggest that it is possible to develop new eggplant varieties with improved functional and apparent quality.

  15. Legal Considerations for Health Care Practitioners After Superstorm Sandy.

    PubMed

    Hershey, Tina Batra; Van Nostrand, Elizabeth; Sood, Rishi K; Potter, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    During disaster response and recovery, legal issues often arise related to the provision of health care services to affected residents. Superstorm Sandy led to the evacuation of many hospitals and other health care facilities and compromised the ability of health care practitioners to provide necessary primary care. This article highlights the challenges and legal concerns faced by health care practitioners in the aftermath of Sandy, which included limitations in scope of practice, difficulties with credentialing, lack of portability of practitioner licenses, and concerns regarding volunteer immunity and liability. Governmental and nongovernmental entities employed various strategies to address these concerns; however, legal barriers remained that posed challenges throughout the Superstorm Sandy response and recovery period. We suggest future approaches to address these legal considerations, including policies and legislation, additional waivers of law, and planning and coordination among multiple levels of governmental and nongovernmental organizations. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:518-524).

  16. Did Hurricane Sandy influence the 2012 US presidential election?

    PubMed

    Hart, Joshua

    2014-07-01

    Despite drawing on a common pool of data, observers of the 2012 presidential campaign came to different conclusions about whether, how, and to what extent "October surprise" Hurricane Sandy influenced the election. The present study used a mixed correlational and experimental design to assess the relation between, and effect of, the salience of Hurricane Sandy on attitudes and voting intentions regarding President Barack Obama and Mitt Romney in a large sample of voting-aged adults. Results suggest that immediately following positive news coverage of Obama's handling of the storm's aftermath, Sandy's salience positively influenced attitudes toward Obama, but that by election day, reminders of the hurricane became a drag instead of a boon for the President. In addition to theoretical implications, this study provides an example of how to combine methodological approaches to help answer questions about the impact of unpredictable, large-scale events as they unfold. PMID:24767585

  17. Did Hurricane Sandy influence the 2012 US presidential election?

    PubMed

    Hart, Joshua

    2014-07-01

    Despite drawing on a common pool of data, observers of the 2012 presidential campaign came to different conclusions about whether, how, and to what extent "October surprise" Hurricane Sandy influenced the election. The present study used a mixed correlational and experimental design to assess the relation between, and effect of, the salience of Hurricane Sandy on attitudes and voting intentions regarding President Barack Obama and Mitt Romney in a large sample of voting-aged adults. Results suggest that immediately following positive news coverage of Obama's handling of the storm's aftermath, Sandy's salience positively influenced attitudes toward Obama, but that by election day, reminders of the hurricane became a drag instead of a boon for the President. In addition to theoretical implications, this study provides an example of how to combine methodological approaches to help answer questions about the impact of unpredictable, large-scale events as they unfold.

  18. Insights in the Fruit Flesh Browning Mechanisms in Solanum melongena Genetic Lines with Opposite Postcut Behavior.

    PubMed

    Docimo, T; Francese, G; De Palma, M; Mennella, D; Toppino, L; Lo Scalzo, R; Mennella, G; Tucci, M

    2016-06-01

    Color, taste, flavor, nutritional value, and shelf life are important factors determining quality and healthiness of food and vegetables. These factors are strongly affected by browning processes, occurring after fruit or vegetable cutting. Characterization of ten eggplant genotypes for chlorogenic acid (CGA) content, total phenols (TP), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity, and browning tendency corroborated a lack of significant correlations between biochemical factors and fruit flesh browning. Further in-depth molecular and biochemical analyses of two divergent eggplant genetic lines, AM199 (high browning) and AM086 (low browning), within 30 min from cutting, highlighted differences in the physiological mechanisms underlying the browning process. qRT-PCR analysis revealed distinct activation mechanisms of CGA biosynthetic and PPO genes in the two genetic lines. Metabolic data on CGA, sugars, and ascorbic acid contents confirmed that their different browning tendency matched with different metabolic responses to cutting. Our findings suggest that the complex mechanism of flesh browning in the two eggplant genetic lines might be mediated by multiple specific factors. PMID:27198496

  19. Insights in the Fruit Flesh Browning Mechanisms in Solanum melongena Genetic Lines with Opposite Postcut Behavior.

    PubMed

    Docimo, T; Francese, G; De Palma, M; Mennella, D; Toppino, L; Lo Scalzo, R; Mennella, G; Tucci, M

    2016-06-01

    Color, taste, flavor, nutritional value, and shelf life are important factors determining quality and healthiness of food and vegetables. These factors are strongly affected by browning processes, occurring after fruit or vegetable cutting. Characterization of ten eggplant genotypes for chlorogenic acid (CGA) content, total phenols (TP), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity, and browning tendency corroborated a lack of significant correlations between biochemical factors and fruit flesh browning. Further in-depth molecular and biochemical analyses of two divergent eggplant genetic lines, AM199 (high browning) and AM086 (low browning), within 30 min from cutting, highlighted differences in the physiological mechanisms underlying the browning process. qRT-PCR analysis revealed distinct activation mechanisms of CGA biosynthetic and PPO genes in the two genetic lines. Metabolic data on CGA, sugars, and ascorbic acid contents confirmed that their different browning tendency matched with different metabolic responses to cutting. Our findings suggest that the complex mechanism of flesh browning in the two eggplant genetic lines might be mediated by multiple specific factors.

  20. Weathering the Storm: Nurses' Stories about Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Steven L

    2014-06-19

    Proposed is a hermeneutic humanbecoming study on the reflections of 16 nurses' stories about Hurricane Sandy. The phenomenon of interest is weathering the storm. The research question is "what are the emerging meanings of the living experience of weathering the storm?" The perspective to be used is the humanbecoming school of thought. The participants were nurses who were living and working in New York City (NYC) during and after Hurricane Sandy. The emergent meanings are to enhance knowledge and understanding of the experience of weathering the storm for global health nursing.

  1. 21 CFR 74.2151 - D&C Brown No. 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Brown No. 1 is a mixture of the sodium salts of 4 -2,4-dihydroxyphenyl]azo]-benzene sulfonic acid. The... more than 0.2 percent. Sulfanilic acid, sodium salt, not more than 0.2 percent. Resorcinol, not more...] benzenesulfonic acid, not more than 3 percent. Monosodium salt of 4 -2,4-dihydroxyphenyl]azo] benzenesulfonic...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2151 - D&C Brown No. 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Brown No. 1 is a mixture of the sodium salts of 4 -2,4-dihydroxyphenyl]azo]-benzene sulfonic acid. The... more than 0.2 percent. Sulfanilic acid, sodium salt, not more than 0.2 percent. Resorcinol, not more...] benzenesulfonic acid, not more than 3 percent. Monosodium salt of 4 -2,4-dihydroxyphenyl]azo] benzenesulfonic...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2151 - D&C Brown No. 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Brown No. 1 is a mixture of the sodium salts of 4 -2,4-dihydroxyphenyl]azo]-benzene sulfonic acid. The... more than 0.2 percent. Sulfanilic acid, sodium salt, not more than 0.2 percent. Resorcinol, not more...] benzenesulfonic acid, not more than 3 percent. Monosodium salt of 4 -2,4-dihydroxyphenyl]azo] benzenesulfonic...

  4. [Soil microbes functional diversity in sand-fixing Caragana microphylla communities in Horqin Sandy Land].

    PubMed

    Cao, Cheng-you; Yag, Jin-dong; Han, Xiao-shu; Zhang, Ying

    2011-09-01

    Aimed to understand the soil microbes functional diversity in sand-fixing Caragana microphylla communities in Horqin Sandy Land, the soil microbial carbon sources metabolism diversity in 9-, 16-, and 26-yr-old C. microphylla plantations, natural C. microphylla community, and mov-ture, the average well color development (AWCD) and the capabilities of soil microbes in metabo-lizing carboxylic acids, carbohydrates, polymers, amino acids, amines, and aromatics were obvi-ously higher in moving sand dune than in the plantations. The carbon source types metabolized by soil microbes increased with the increasing age of the plantations, and the carbon source metabolic pattern of the soil microbes in 26-yr-old C. microphylla plantation was similar to that in natural C. microphylla community. The functional diversity and evenness index of soil microbes decreased after the establishment of C. microphylla on moving sand dune, whereas the functional diversity of soil microbes increased with increasing age of C. microphylla plantation.

  5. Effects of soil amendment on soil characteristics and maize yield in Horqin Sandy Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Liu, J. H.; Zhao, B. P.; Xue, A.; Hao, G. C.

    2016-08-01

    A 4-year experiment was conducted to investigate the inter-annual effects of sandy soil amendment on maize yield, soil water storage and soil enzymatic activities in sandy soil in Northeast China in 2010 to 2014. We applied the sandy soil amendment in different year, and investigated the different effects of sandy soil amendment in 2014. There were six treatments including: (1) no sandy soil amendment application (CK); (2) one year after applying sandy soil amendment (T1); (3) two years after applying sandy soil amendment(T2); (4) three years after applying sandy soil amendment(T3); (5)four years after applying sandy soil amendment(T4); (6) five years after applying sandy soil amendment (T5). T refers to treatment, and the number refers to the year after application of the sandy soil amendment. Comparing with CK, sandy soil amendments improved the soil water storage, soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in different growth stages and soil layers, the order of soil water storage in all treatments roughly performed: T3 > T5 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. the order of soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in all treatments roughly performed: T5 > T3 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. Soil application of sandy soil amendment significantly (p≤⃒0.05) increased the grain yield and biomass yield by 22.75%-41.42% and 29.92%-45.45% respectively, and maize yield gradually increased with the years go by in the following five years. Sandy soil amendment used in poor sandy soil had a positive effect on soil water storage, soil enzymatic activities and maize yield, after five years applied sandy soil amendment (T5) showed the best effects among all the treatments, and deserves further research.

  6. School Safety in a Post-Sandy Hook World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    In this report the author, who is a school safety expert, provides information about school safety in a post-Sandy Hook world. He presents the following: (1) Continuum of Threats and Responses; (2) The role social media plays; (3) Reliable Best Practices; (4) Policy and Funding--Climate and Context; (5) Policy and Funding--Things to Avoid; and (6)…

  7. Microfungi diversity isolation from sandy soil of Acapulco touristic beaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microscopic fungi diversity in marine sandy soil habitats is associated with key functions of beach ecosystems. There are few reports on their presence in Mexican beaches. Although standard methods to obtain the fungi from soil samples are established, the aim of this pilot study was to test the pla...

  8. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rafael Barboza, Francisco; Defeo, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world’s ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems. PMID:26411697

  9. Hurricane Sandy: An Educational Bibliography of Key Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    There, undoubtedly, will be a flurry of research activity in the "Superstorm" Sandy impact area on a myriad of disaster-related topics, across academic disciplines. The purpose of this study was to review the disaster research related specifically to hurricanes in the educational and social sciences that would best serve as a compendium…

  10. Deaths associated with Hurricane Sandy - October-November 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-05-24

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy hit the northeastern U.S. coastline. Sandy's tropical storm winds stretched over 900 miles (1,440 km), causing storm surges and destruction over a larger area than that affected by hurricanes with more intensity but narrower paths. Based on storm surge predictions, mandatory evacuations were ordered on October 28, including for New York City's Evacuation Zone A, the coastal zone at risk for flooding from any hurricane. By October 31, the region had 6-12 inches (15-30 cm) of precipitation, 7-8 million customers without power, approximately 20,000 persons in shelters, and news reports of numerous fatalities (Robert Neurath, CDC, personal communication, 2013). To characterize deaths related to Sandy, CDC analyzed data on 117 hurricane-related deaths captured by American Red Cross (Red Cross) mortality tracking during October 28-November 30, 2012. This report describes the results of that analysis, which found drowning was the most common cause of death related to Sandy, and 45% of drowning deaths occurred in flooded homes in Evacuation Zone A. Drowning is a leading cause of hurricane death but is preventable with advance warning systems and evacuation plans. Emergency plans should ensure that persons receive and comprehend evacuation messages and have the necessary resources to comply with them.

  11. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Francisco Rafael; Defeo, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world's ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems. PMID:26411697

  12. FIELD SAMPLING OF RESIDUAL AVIATION GASOLINE IN SANDY SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two complimentary field sampling methods for the determination of residual aviation gasoline content in the contaminated capillary fringe of a fine, uniform, sandy soil were investigated. The first method featured filed extrusion of core barrels into pint size Mason jars, while ...

  13. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Francisco Rafael; Defeo, Omar

    2015-09-28

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world's ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems.

  14. Switchgrass and pecan biochar amendments to a sandy coastal soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sandy soils of the wet, warm SE Coastal Plain have poor physical characteristics and low carbon contents. To improve soil properties, we added switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and non-activated pecan (Carya illinoinensis) biochar. Switchgrass was ground to a fine powder and added to soil at rates of 0...

  15. Honeys from different floral sources as inhibitors of enzymatic browning in fruit and vegetable homogenates.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Mehta, A; Berenbaum, M; Zangerl, A R; Engeseth, N J

    2000-10-01

    Honeys from different floral sources were evaluated for their antioxidant content and for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in fruits and vegetables. Antioxidant contents of honeys vary widely from different floral sources, as do their abilities to protect against enzymatic browning. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was reduced over a range of approximately 2-45% in fruit and vegetable homogenates, corresponding to a reduction in browning index by 2.5-12 units. Soy honey was particularly effective when compared to clover honey, which had a similar antioxidant content. When compared to commercial inhibitors of browning, honeys were less effective; however, in combination they added to the effectiveness of metabisulfite and ascorbic acid. Honey has great potential to be used as a natural source of antioxidants to reduce the negative effects of PPO browning in fruit and vegetable processing.

  16. Brown's syndrome: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, K W

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To better understand the various etiologies of Brown's syndrome, define specific clinical characteristics of Brown's syndrome, describe the natural history of Brown's syndrome, and evaluate the longterm outcome of a novel surgical procedure: the silicone tendon expander. Also, to utilize a computer model to simulate the pattern of strabismus seen clinically with Brown's syndrome and manipulate the model to show potential surgical outcomes of the silicone tendon expander. METHODS: Charts were reviewed on patients with the diagnosis of Brown's syndrome seen at a children's hospital ophthalmology clinic from 1982 to 1997, or seen in the author's private practice. Objective fundus torsion was assessed in up gaze, down gaze, and primary position in 7 Brown's syndrome patients and in 4 patients with primary superior oblique overaction. A fax survey was taken of members of the American Association of Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) listed in the 1997-1998 directory regarding their results using the silicone tendon expander procedure for the treatment of Brown's syndrome. A computer model of Brown's syndrome was created using the Orbit 1.8 program by simulating a shortened superior oblique tendon or by changing stretch sensitivity to create an inelastic muscle. RESULTS: A total of 96 patients were studied: 85 with Brown's syndrome (38 with congenital and 47 with acquired disease), 6 with masquerade syndromes, 1 with Brown's syndrome operated on elsewhere, and 4 with primary superior oblique overaction in the torsion study. Three original clinical observations were made: 1. Significant limitation of elevation in abduction occurs in 70% of Brown's syndrome cases surgically verified as caused by a tight superior oblique tendon. Contralateral pseudo-inferior oblique overaction is associated with limited elevation in abduction. 2. Traumatic Brown's syndrome cases have larger hypotropias than nontraumatic cases (P < .001). There was no significant hypotropia in

  17. Effects of Germinated Brown Rice Addition on the Flavor and Functionality of Yogurt

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional and physicochemical properties of yogurt, supplemented with germinated brown rice (GBR) containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), during storage. GBR was produced by soaking brown rice at 30℃, and saccharified germinated brown rice (SGBR) was produced by treating brown rice with α- and β-amylase for 1 h, at 80℃ and 60℃, respectively. Yogurt was manufactured using a commercial starter (YC-X11, CHR. Hansen, Denmark) at 37℃ for 12 h. The fatty acids and GABA contents were analyzed using GC and HPLC, respectively. The fatty acids in the cereal samples consisted of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. The portion of oleic acid was the highest, at 35.65% in GBR, and 32.16% in SGBR. During germination, the oleic acid content increased, whereas linolenic and palmitic acid contents from GBR tended to decrease. Although the portion of saturated fatty acids, such as stearic and myristic acid, decreased significantly (p<0.05), that of unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic and linoleic acid, increased with an increase in supplementation of BR, GBR, or SGBR in the yogurt. The yogurt, supplemented with cereal samples, showed a tendency of an increase in the concentration of GABA with an increase in the supplementation of the cereal samples. However, yogurt supplemented with GBR showed the highest concentration of GABA, regardless of the supplementation of the cereal samples. These results indicated that yogurt supplemented with BR, GBR, or SGBR could be a promising dairy product.

  18. Characterization of a primary brown adipocyte culture system derived from human fetal interscapular fat

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Sarah E; Xu, Dan; Ho, Jia-Pei; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Buehrer, Benjamin M; Ludlow, Y John W; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Sun, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Brown fat has gained widespread attention as a potential therapeutic target to treat obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Indeed, the anti-obesity potential of multiple targets to stimulate both brown adipocyte differentiation and recruitment have been verified in rodent models. However, their therapeutic potential in humans is unknown due to the lack of a human primary brown adipocyte cell culture system. Likewise, the lack of a well-characterized human model has limited the discovery of novel targets for the activation of human brown fat. To address this current need, we aimed to identify and describe the first primary brown adipocyte cell culture system from human fetal interscapular brown adipose tissue. Pre-adipocytes isolated from non-viable human fetal interscapular tissue were expanded and cryopreserved. Cells were then thawed and plated alongside adult human subcutaneous and omental pre-adipocytes for subsequent differentiation and phenotypic characterization. Interscapular pre-adipocytes in cell culture differentiated into mature adipocytes that were morphologically indistinguishable from the adult white depots. Throughout differentiation, cultured human fetal interscapular adipocytes demonstrated increased expression of classical brown fat markers compared to subcutaneous and omental cells. Further, functional analysis revealed an elevation in fatty acid oxidation as well as maximal and uncoupled oxygen consumption in interscapular brown adipocytes compared to white control cells. These data collectively identify the brown phenotype of these cells. Thus, our primary cell culture system derived from non-viable human fetal interscapular brown adipose tissue provides a valuable tool for the study of human brown adipocyte biology and for the development of anti-obesity therapeutics. PMID:26451287

  19. Changes in physical properties of sandy soil after long-term compost treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranyos, József Tibor; Tomócsik, Attila; Makádi, Marianna; Mészáros, József; Blaskó, Lajos

    2016-07-01

    Studying the long-term effect of composted sewage sludge application on chemical, physical and biological properties of soil, an experiment was established in 2003 at the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza in Hungary. The applied compost was prepared from sewage sludge (40%), straw (25%), bentonite (5%) and rhyolite (30%). The compost was ploughed into the 0-25 cm soil layer every 3rd year in the following amounts: 0, 9, 18 and 27 Mg ha-1 of dry matter. As expected, the compost application improved the structure of sandy soil, which is related with an increase in the organic matter content of soil. The infiltration into soil was improved significantly, reducing the water erosion under simulated high intensity rainfall. The soil compaction level was reduced in the first year after compost re-treatment. In accordance with the decrease in bulk density, the air permeability of soil increased tendentially. However, in the second year the positive effects of compost application were observed only in the plots treated with the highest compost dose because of quick degradation of the organic matter. According to the results, the sewage sludge compost seems to be an effective soil improving material for acidic sandy soils, but the beneficial effect of application lasts only for two years.

  20. African-American Heritage profile - Maikeyza Brown

    NASA Video Gallery

    Maikeyza Brown is a contract management specialist at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. A native of Washington, D.C., Brown overcame obstacles to receive honors in high school a...

  1. Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.

    PubMed

    Ilowefah, Muna; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Mediani, Ahmed; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, effects of fermentation on physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice flour (BRF) were investigated. Fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology to achieve moderate acidity (pH 5-6), specifically pH 5.5 of brown rice batter with time, temperature and yeast concentration as the independent variables. The results indicated that brown rice batter was well fermented to maintain pH 5.5 at optimum conditions of 32 °C for 6.26 h using 1 % yeast concentration. Fermentation at moderate acidity significantly increased the levels of protein, total ash, insoluble fiber, soluble fibre, minerals, phenolics, antioxidants, resistant starch, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, γ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. However, it reduced the contents of γ-oryzanol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, phytic acid, amylose and total starch. Foaming capacity, foaming stability, oil holding capacity, gelatinization temperatures, enthalpy and whiteness of BRF were increased after fermentation. In contrast, its swelling power, water solubility index, hot paste viscosity, breakdown, and setback significantly decreased. Microstructure of BRF was also influenced, where its starch granules released from its enclosed structure after fermentation. This investigation shows evidence that yeast fermentation modified the functionality of BRF and can be used as a functional food ingredient.

  2. Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.

    PubMed

    Ilowefah, Muna; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Mediani, Ahmed; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, effects of fermentation on physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice flour (BRF) were investigated. Fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology to achieve moderate acidity (pH 5-6), specifically pH 5.5 of brown rice batter with time, temperature and yeast concentration as the independent variables. The results indicated that brown rice batter was well fermented to maintain pH 5.5 at optimum conditions of 32 °C for 6.26 h using 1 % yeast concentration. Fermentation at moderate acidity significantly increased the levels of protein, total ash, insoluble fiber, soluble fibre, minerals, phenolics, antioxidants, resistant starch, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, γ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. However, it reduced the contents of γ-oryzanol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, phytic acid, amylose and total starch. Foaming capacity, foaming stability, oil holding capacity, gelatinization temperatures, enthalpy and whiteness of BRF were increased after fermentation. In contrast, its swelling power, water solubility index, hot paste viscosity, breakdown, and setback significantly decreased. Microstructure of BRF was also influenced, where its starch granules released from its enclosed structure after fermentation. This investigation shows evidence that yeast fermentation modified the functionality of BRF and can be used as a functional food ingredient. PMID:26344967

  3. Of mice and men: novel insights regarding constitutive and recruitable brown adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, K L; Tseng, Y-H

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been great attention given to the possibility of combating obesity by targeting brown fat activity or increasing differentiation of brown adipocytes in white fat depots through a process termed ‘browning'. Sympathetic innervation of brown and white adipose tissues provides adrenergic input that drives thermogenesis and regulates fatty acid metabolism, as well as stimulating adipogenesis of recruitable brown adipocyte tissue (rBAT, also known as beige or brite) in white fat. Other factors acting in an endocrine or autocrine/paracrine manner in adipose tissue may also stimulate browning. There have been significant recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of increasing adipose tissue energy expenditure, as well as how brown adipocytes appear in white fat depots, including via de novo adipogenesis from tissue precursor cells. In this article, we integrate this new knowledge with a historical perspective on the discovery of ‘browning'. We also provide an overview of constitutive BAT vs rBAT in mouse and human. PMID:27152169

  4. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus japonicus, Eisenia...

  14. The biogenic emission potential of nitric oxide from sandy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J. B.; Meixner, F. X.; Sun, Z. G.; Chen, X. B.; Mamtimin, B.

    2009-04-01

    There are about 160.9 Mha of sandy land in China, about 17.6% of total Chinese area, which mainly distributed in 35°-50° N. The western Songnen Plain, which located in the semi-arid region of Northeastern China, is one of the main sandy soil distribution regions. The changes of land use in sandy soil are accompanied by changes in biogeochemical cycles of nutrients, particularly of the air-surface exchange of trace gases like nitric oxide. Our study, based on results obtained by a laboratory incubation technique, focuses on (a) NO production and consumption in sandy soils from two types of land use as function of soil temperature and soil moisture, and (b) The biogenic emission potential of nitric oxide from sandy soils in semi-arid region. At 25˚C, average NO production (in terms of mass of N) was 0.016,and 0.013 ng kg-1s-1 in sandy soils from soybean land (SL) and man-made forest (MF), re¬spectively. NO consumption rate constant ranged from 0.26×10-6 to 7.28×10-6 m3 kg-1s-1. At 25˚C and under optimum soil moisture conditions for NO production, the NO compensation point mixing ratio was about 266 and 161 ug m-3 (465,and 281 ppb) for soils of SL and MF, respectively. Statistically sound relationships have been observed between NO fluxes and soil moisture (optimum curves). NO fluxes also increased exponentially with soil temperature at any given soil moisture. The optimum soil moisture for which maximum NO flux was observed was independent of soil temperature. The maximum of NO flux potentials for SL and MF soils (at 25°C) were 59.6 and 36.5 ng m-2s-1 at water-filled pore space (%WFPS) of 26 and 24, respectively. The NO flux potential was about 2 times larger for cropland soil than for man-made forest soils, most likely due to fertilizer application to the cropland soils.

  15. Fulfilling the Promise of Brown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the U.S. Department of Education's efforts to implement the mandate of "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, examining traditional tools used in enforcing civil rights laws and reviewing new strategies to promote high quality education, equal educational opportunity, and diversity. (SM)

  16. Microlensing, brown dwarfs and Gaia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, N. W.

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telesecopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion (>300 mas yr-1) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of tens. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Einstein radius can be recovered from astrometric data, then the mass of the lens can be found. Microlensing provides the only way of measuring the masses of individual objects irrespective of their luminosity. So, microlensing with GAIA is the best way to carry out an inventory of masses in the solar neighbourhood in the brown dwarf regime.

  17. Brown at 50: Keeping Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Frank H.

    2004-01-01

    The story of Brown is compelling. Blacks and Whites alike understood that the Jim Crow system of "separate but equal" was a convenient fiction. There was no actual effort to ensure that Whites and Blacks were provided the same services. Invariably, the White schools had higher funding, better buildings, newer supplies and so on. Indeed, in many…

  18. Beth Starts Like Brown Bear!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Gay

    1994-01-01

    Recounts a reading teacher's illuminating experience with a first grader who enjoyed reading Bill Martin's "Brown Bear" books, despite being labeled as dyslexic. Dyslexia is an elusive condition that is biological in origin and distinct from other reading problems. New research shows that reading difficulties, including dyslexia, occur as part of…

  19. In situ ingestion of microfibres by meiofauna from sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Felipe; Domenico, Maikon Di; Amaral, A Cecilia Z; Martínez, Alejandro; Gonzalez, Brett C; Worsaae, Katrine; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Cunha Lana, Paulo da

    2016-09-01

    Microfibres are widespread contaminants in marine environments across the globe. Detecting in situ ingestion of microfibres by small marine organisms is necessary to understand their potential accumulation in marine food webs and their role in marine pollution. We have examined the gut contents of meiofauna from six sandy beaches in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean. Out of twenty taxonomic groups, three species of the common sandy beach annelid Saccocirrus displayed in situ ingestion of microfibres in all sites. Laboratory observations showed that species of Saccocirrus are able to egest microfibres with no obvious physical injury. We suggest that their non-selective microphagous suspension-feeding behaviour makes Saccocirrus more prone to ingest microfibres. Although microfibres are rapidly egested with no apparent harm, there is still the potential for trophic transfer into marine food webs through predation of Saccocirrus.

  20. Superstorm Sandy and the Verdant Power RITE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corren, D.; Colby, J.; Adonizio, M.

    2013-12-01

    On October 29, 2012 Superstorm Sandy (formerly Hurricane Sandy) made landfall in New Jersey. One of the deadliest, and second-costliest hurricane in US history, Sandy was the largest Atlantic hurricane on record, with a diameter of 1,800 km. It was this unprecedented size, extreme central low pressure, and full-moon timing that created a storm surge which inundated New York City with record-breaking water levels, resulting in tremendous destruction of buildings and infrastructure. At its RITE (Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy) Project in New York City's East River, Verdant Power has been installing demonstration and commercial turbine systems since 2005, along with performing related environmental monitoring and measurements. The RITE site is located in the East Channel of the East River, on the east side of Roosevelt Island. All along the East River, large areas of the adjacent boroughs were impacted by Sandy, including flooding of the subway tunnels under the river. When Sandy struck, Verdant had recently concluded a two-week in-water test at RITE of a new rotor for its Gen5 KHPS (Kinetic Hydropower System) turbine, with funding assistance by partners NYSERDA and the US Department of Energy. While the turbine had already been removed from its mounting in the river bottom in September, Verdant continued to operate two water measurement instruments in the river. These acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) measure the 3-D water velocity at various heights in the water column, and are also equipped to provide water level data. Verdant is interested in the effects such an extreme storm could have on turbines and other equipment installed in this river reach, as is planned by Verdant under a 10-year commercial pilot project licensed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for up to 30 turbines. Associated equipment includes navigational aids (buoys and signage), which Verdant is required to maintain to exclude vessels from the project boundaries. The East

  1. Quantifying the digital traces of Hurricane Sandy on Flickr.

    PubMed

    Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah; Bishop, Steven R; Treleaven, Philip; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Society's increasing interactions with technology are creating extensive "digital traces" of our collective human behavior. These new data sources are fuelling the rapid development of the new field of computational social science. To investigate user attention to the Hurricane Sandy disaster in 2012, we analyze data from Flickr, a popular website for sharing personal photographs. In this case study, we find that the number of photos taken and subsequently uploaded to Flickr with titles, descriptions or tags related to Hurricane Sandy bears a striking correlation to the atmospheric pressure in the US state New Jersey during this period. Appropriate leverage of such information could be useful to policy makers and others charged with emergency crisis management. PMID:24189490

  2. Quantifying the Digital Traces of Hurricane Sandy on Flickr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah; Bishop, Steven R.; Treleaven, Philip; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-11-01

    Society's increasing interactions with technology are creating extensive ``digital traces'' of our collective human behavior. These new data sources are fuelling the rapid development of the new field of computational social science. To investigate user attention to the Hurricane Sandy disaster in 2012, we analyze data from Flickr, a popular website for sharing personal photographs. In this case study, we find that the number of photos taken and subsequently uploaded to Flickr with titles, descriptions or tags related to Hurricane Sandy bears a striking correlation to the atmospheric pressure in the US state New Jersey during this period. Appropriate leverage of such information could be useful to policy makers and others charged with emergency crisis management.

  3. Quantifying the digital traces of Hurricane Sandy on Flickr.

    PubMed

    Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah; Bishop, Steven R; Treleaven, Philip; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Society's increasing interactions with technology are creating extensive "digital traces" of our collective human behavior. These new data sources are fuelling the rapid development of the new field of computational social science. To investigate user attention to the Hurricane Sandy disaster in 2012, we analyze data from Flickr, a popular website for sharing personal photographs. In this case study, we find that the number of photos taken and subsequently uploaded to Flickr with titles, descriptions or tags related to Hurricane Sandy bears a striking correlation to the atmospheric pressure in the US state New Jersey during this period. Appropriate leverage of such information could be useful to policy makers and others charged with emergency crisis management.

  4. In situ ingestion of microfibres by meiofauna from sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Felipe; Domenico, Maikon Di; Amaral, A Cecilia Z; Martínez, Alejandro; Gonzalez, Brett C; Worsaae, Katrine; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Cunha Lana, Paulo da

    2016-09-01

    Microfibres are widespread contaminants in marine environments across the globe. Detecting in situ ingestion of microfibres by small marine organisms is necessary to understand their potential accumulation in marine food webs and their role in marine pollution. We have examined the gut contents of meiofauna from six sandy beaches in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean. Out of twenty taxonomic groups, three species of the common sandy beach annelid Saccocirrus displayed in situ ingestion of microfibres in all sites. Laboratory observations showed that species of Saccocirrus are able to egest microfibres with no obvious physical injury. We suggest that their non-selective microphagous suspension-feeding behaviour makes Saccocirrus more prone to ingest microfibres. Although microfibres are rapidly egested with no apparent harm, there is still the potential for trophic transfer into marine food webs through predation of Saccocirrus. PMID:27321884

  5. 75 FR 80047 - Equitrans, L.P., Big Sandy Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Joint Application for Abandonment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Equitrans, L.P., Big Sandy Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Joint Application... that on December 3, 2010, Equitrans L.P. (Equitrans) and Big Sandy Pipeline, LLC (Big Sandy), 625... to section 7(b) of the NGA authorizing Equitrans to abandon by transfer the Big Sandy Pipeline,...

  6. Rapid Response Survey Gauges Sandy's Impact on Seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, John A.; Austin, James A.; Flood, Roger D.; Christensen, Beth; Browne, Cassandra M.; Saustrup, Steffen

    2013-09-01

    In January 2013, approximately 2 months after Hurricane Sandy made landfall in the Mid-Atlantic Bight, scientists from the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG), part of the Jackson School of Geosciences (JSG), partnered with local colleagues at Adelphi and Stony Brook universities and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct marine surveys both offshore and within inshore bays of Long Island, N. Y. (Figure 1a). The primary goal was to assess the storm's impact on the seabed.

  7. Role of Brown Fat in Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hoeke, Geerte; Kooijman, Sander; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N; Berbée, Jimmy F P

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, for which hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society, and new therapeutic strategies are highly warranted. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is metabolically active in human adults. Although positron emission tomography-computed tomography using a glucose tracer is the golden standard to visualize and quantify the volume and activity of BAT, it has become clear that activated BAT combusts fatty acids rather than glucose. Here, we review the role of brown and beige adipocytes in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis, with evidence derived from both animal and human studies. On the basis of mainly data from animal models, we propose a model in which activated brown adipocytes use their intracellular triglyceride stores to generate fatty acids for combustion. BAT rapidly replenishes these stores by internalizing primarily lipoprotein triglyceride-derived fatty acids, generated by lipoprotein lipase-mediated hydrolysis of triglycerides, rather than by holoparticle uptake. As a consequence, BAT activation leads to the generation of lipoprotein remnants that are subsequently cleared via the liver provided that an intact apoE-low-density lipoprotein receptor pathway is present. Through these mechanisms, BAT activation reduces plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels and attenuates diet-induced atherosclerosis development. Initial studies suggest that BAT activation in humans may also reduce triglyceride and cholesterol levels, but potential antiatherogenic effects should be assessed in future studies.

  8. Role of Brown Fat in Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hoeke, Geerte; Kooijman, Sander; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N; Berbée, Jimmy F P

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, for which hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society, and new therapeutic strategies are highly warranted. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is metabolically active in human adults. Although positron emission tomography-computed tomography using a glucose tracer is the golden standard to visualize and quantify the volume and activity of BAT, it has become clear that activated BAT combusts fatty acids rather than glucose. Here, we review the role of brown and beige adipocytes in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis, with evidence derived from both animal and human studies. On the basis of mainly data from animal models, we propose a model in which activated brown adipocytes use their intracellular triglyceride stores to generate fatty acids for combustion. BAT rapidly replenishes these stores by internalizing primarily lipoprotein triglyceride-derived fatty acids, generated by lipoprotein lipase-mediated hydrolysis of triglycerides, rather than by holoparticle uptake. As a consequence, BAT activation leads to the generation of lipoprotein remnants that are subsequently cleared via the liver provided that an intact apoE-low-density lipoprotein receptor pathway is present. Through these mechanisms, BAT activation reduces plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels and attenuates diet-induced atherosclerosis development. Initial studies suggest that BAT activation in humans may also reduce triglyceride and cholesterol levels, but potential antiatherogenic effects should be assessed in future studies. PMID:26837747

  9. Golden opportunities: A horizon scan to expand sandy beach ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Weston, Michael A.; Schoeman, David S.; Olds, Andrew D.; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Connolly, Rod M.

    2015-05-01

    Robust ecological paradigms and theories should, ideally, hold across several ecosystems. Yet, limited testing of generalities has occurred in some habitats despite these habitats offering unique features to make them good model systems for experiments. We contend this is the case for the ocean-exposed sandy beaches. Beaches have several distinctive traits, including extreme malleability of habitats, strong environmental control of biota, intense cross-boundary exchanges, and food webs highly reliant on imported subsidies. Here we sketch broad topical themes and theoretical concepts of general ecology that are particularly well-suited for ecological studies on sandy shores. These span a broad range: the historical legacies and species traits that determine community assemblages; food-web architectures; novel ecosystems; landscape and spatial ecology and animal movements; invasive species dynamics; ecology of disturbances; ecological thresholds and ecosystem resilience; and habitat restoration and recovery. Collectively, these concepts have the potential to shape the outlook for beach ecology and they should also encourage marine ecologists to embrace, via cross-disciplinary ecological research, exposed sandy beach systems that link the oceans with the land.

  10. Helicopter collision avoidance and brown-out recovery with HELLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Christian; Schwartz, Ingo; Kielhorn, Peter

    2008-10-01

    EADS Germany is the world market leader in commercial and military Helicopter Laser Radar (HELLAS) Obstacle Warning Systems. The HELLAS-Warning System has been introduced into the market in 2000, is in service at German Federal Police and Royal Thai Air Force. HELLAS was also successfully evaluated by the Foreign Comparative Test Program (FCT) of the U.S. Army and other governmental agencies. Currently the successor system for military applications, HELLAS-Awareness, is in qualification phase. It will have extended sensor performance, enhanced real-time data processing capabilities and advanced human machine interface (HMI) features. Flight tests on NH90 helicopter have been successfully performed. Helicopter series integration is scheduled to begin from 2009. We will give an outline of the new sensor unit concerning detection technology and helicopter integration aspects. The system provides a widespread field of view with additional dynamic line of sight steering and a large detection range in combination with a high frame rate. We will show the HMI representations. This HELLAS system is the basis for a 3 dimensional see-and-remember-system for brown-out recovery. When landing in sandy or dusty areas the downwash of the helicopter rotor causes clouds of visually-restrictive material that can completely obstruct the pilot's outside reference, resulting in a complete loss of situational awareness and spatial orientation of the pilot which can end up in total loss of aircraft control and dangerous accidents. The brown-out recovery system presented here creates an augmented enhanced synthetic vision of the landing area with the surrounding which is based on HELLAS range image data as well as altimeter and inertial reference information.

  11. Brown dwarfs as dark galactic halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Walker, Terry P.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that the dark matter in galactic halos can consist of brown dwarf stars is considered. The radiative signature for such halos consisting solely of brown dwarfs is calculated, and the allowed range of brown dwarf masses, the initial mass function (IMF), the stellar properties, and the density distribution of the galactic halo are discussed. The prediction emission from the halo is compared with existing observations. It is found that, for any IMF of brown dwarfs below the deuterium burning limit, brown dwarf halos are consistent with observations. Brown dwarf halos cannot, however, explain the recently observed near-IR background. It is shown that future satellite missions will either detect brown dwarf halos or place tight constraints on the allowed range of the IMF.

  12. Assessment of brown adipose tissue function

    PubMed Central

    Virtue, Sam; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this review we discuss practical considerations for the assessment of brown adipose tissue in rodent models, focusing on mice. The central aim of the review is to provide a critical appraisal of the utility of specialized techniques for assessing brown adipose tissue function in vivo. We cover several of the most common specialized methods for analysing brown adipose tissue function in vivo, including assessment of maximal thermogenic capacity by indirect calorimetry and the measurement of sympathetic tone to brown adipose tissue. While these techniques are powerful, they are not readily available to all laboratories; therefore we also cover several simple measurements that, particularly in combination, can be used to determine if a mouse model is likely to have alterations in brown adipose tissue function. Such techniques include: pair feeding, analysis of brown adipose tissue lipid content and mRNA and protein markers of brown adipose tissue activation. PMID:23760815

  13. Germination conditions affect physicochemical properties of germinated brown rice flour.

    PubMed

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Piyachomkwan, Kuakoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2009-01-01

    Germinated brown rice has been reported to be nutritious due to increased free gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The physicochemical properties of brown rice (BR) and glutinous brown rice (GNBR) after germination as affected by different steeping times (24, 36, 48, and 72 h depending on the rice variety) and pHs of steeping water (3, 5, 7, and as-is) were determined and compared to those of the nongerminated one (control). As the steeping time increased or pH of steeping water decreased, germinated brown rice flours (GBRF) from both BR and GNBR had greater reducing sugar, free GABA and alpha-amylase activity; while the total starch and viscosity were lower than their respective controls. GBRFs from both BR and GNBR prepared after 24-h steeping time at pH 3 contained a high content of free GABA at 32.70 and 30.69 mg/100 g flour, respectively. The peak viscosity of GBRF obtained from both BR and GNBR (7.42 to 228.22 and 4.42 to 58.67 RVU, respectively) was significantly lower than that of their controls (255.46 and 190.17 RVU, respectively). The principal component analysis indicated that the important variables for discriminating among GBRFs, explained by the first 2 components at 89.82% of total explained variance, were the pasting profiles, alpha-amylase activity, and free GABA. PMID:20492098

  14. Isolation of phenolic compounds from iceberg lettuce and impact on enzymatic browning.

    PubMed

    Mai, Franziska; Glomb, Marcus A

    2013-03-20

    Enzymatic browning is generally reported as the reaction between phenolic substances and enzymes. The quality of iceberg lettuce is directly linked to this discoloration. In particular, the color change of lettuce stems considerably reduces consumer acceptance and thus decreases sales revenue of iceberg lettuce. Ten phenolic compounds (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, phaseolic acid, chicoric acid, isochlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-(6″-malonyl)-glucoside) were isolated from Lactuca sativa var. capitata by multilayer countercurrent chromatography (MLCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, syringin was identified for the first time in iceberg lettuce. This polyphenolic ingredient was previously not mentioned for the family of Cichorieae in general. The purity and identity of isolated compounds were confirmed by different NMR experiments, HPLC-DAD-MS, and HR-MS techniques. Furthermore, the relationship between discoloration of iceberg lettuce and enzymatic browning was thoroughly investigated. Unexpectedly, the total concentration of phenolic compounds and the activity of polyphenol oxidase were not directly related to the browning processes. Results of model incubation experiments of plant extract solutions led to the conclusion that in addition to the typical enzymatic browning induced by polyphenol oxidases, further mechanisms must be involved to explain total browning of lettuce.

  15. Isolation of phenolic compounds from iceberg lettuce and impact on enzymatic browning.

    PubMed

    Mai, Franziska; Glomb, Marcus A

    2013-03-20

    Enzymatic browning is generally reported as the reaction between phenolic substances and enzymes. The quality of iceberg lettuce is directly linked to this discoloration. In particular, the color change of lettuce stems considerably reduces consumer acceptance and thus decreases sales revenue of iceberg lettuce. Ten phenolic compounds (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, phaseolic acid, chicoric acid, isochlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-(6″-malonyl)-glucoside) were isolated from Lactuca sativa var. capitata by multilayer countercurrent chromatography (MLCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, syringin was identified for the first time in iceberg lettuce. This polyphenolic ingredient was previously not mentioned for the family of Cichorieae in general. The purity and identity of isolated compounds were confirmed by different NMR experiments, HPLC-DAD-MS, and HR-MS techniques. Furthermore, the relationship between discoloration of iceberg lettuce and enzymatic browning was thoroughly investigated. Unexpectedly, the total concentration of phenolic compounds and the activity of polyphenol oxidase were not directly related to the browning processes. Results of model incubation experiments of plant extract solutions led to the conclusion that in addition to the typical enzymatic browning induced by polyphenol oxidases, further mechanisms must be involved to explain total browning of lettuce. PMID:23473017

  16. Putting Hurricane Sandy in Historical and Geological Context (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, J. P.; Lin, N.

    2013-12-01

    Damage from hurricanes has increased markedly over the last century, largely the result of increased coastal population and wealth. The recent impacts of Hurricane Sandy, a minimal category 1 storm on the Saffir-Simpson scale (sustained winds of ~80 mph), in New York and New Jersey highlight the vulnerability of the northeastern United States to tropical cyclone strikes. Despite the relatively low sustained wind speeds associated with Sandy, the large size, shore-perpendicular track, and slow movement of the storm resulted in a significant surge along the New Jersey and New York coastline (e.g., 2.75 m in New York City). Making matters worse, the peak in surge in New York City (NYC) and surrounds coincided with a high tide, resulting in total storm tide heights of more than 3 meters above mean sea level in NYC. Current estimates of the damage resulting from Hurricane Sandy exceed 71 billion USD and 285 lives were lost. While direct hurricane strikes to NYC and New Jersey coast were rare in the 20th century (a cat 1 hurricane made landfall in southern NJ in 1903), hurricanes tracked slightly east and impacted Long Island and southern New England in 1938, 1944, 1954, 1960, 1976, 1985, and 1991. Looking back to the 19th and 18th centuries reveals that NYC and the New Jersey coast were struck by hurricanes in 1788, 1821 and 1893. The combination of documentary evidence and hydrodynamic modeling of these historic events indicates that the intensity of these storms were much greater than that of Hurricane Sandy, with the 1788 and 1821 storms likely making landfall at category 3 intensity. Given the increase in coastal population and development over the last two centuries, if storms like these were to occur today they would likely result in significantly more damage and loss of life than Hurricane Sandy. Overwash-deposit based reconstructions of hurricane landfalls suggest that the northeastern US may have at times experienced intense hurricane strikes much more

  17. 21 CFR 74.2151 - D&C Brown No. 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Brown No. 1 is a mixture of the sodium salts of 4 -2,4-dihydroxyphenyl]azo]-benzene sulfonic acid. The... chlorides and sulfates (calculated as sodium salts), not more than 16 percent. Water-insoluble matter, not more than 0.2 percent. Sulfanilic acid, sodium salt, not more than 0.2 percent. Resorcinol, not...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2151 - D&C Brown No. 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Brown No. 1 is a mixture of the sodium salts of 4 -2,4-dihydroxyphenyl]azo]-benzene sulfonic acid. The... chlorides and sulfates (calculated as sodium salts), not more than 16 percent. Water-insoluble matter, not more than 0.2 percent. Sulfanilic acid, sodium salt, not more than 0.2 percent. Resorcinol, not...

  19. The trophic significance of the invasive seaweed Sargassum muticum in sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Olabarria, Celia; Incera, Mónica; Garrido, Josefina

    2010-01-01

    Native and exotic seaweeds frequently lie on the beach and sustain part of the benthic food web. However, the role of exotic seaweeds as food sources for beach consumers has been poorly studied. We studied the temporal and spatial variability in the trophic significance of the invasive brown seaweed Sargassum muticum on sandy beaches. We measured the stable isotopes ( δ13C and δ15N) in the tissues of S. muticum and of invertebrate consumers and estimated the dietary biomass proportion of S. muticum during four sampling dates at two beaches and heights on the shore. Samples were collected from eight pitfall traps placed at a distance of 2 m from each other. Detrital macroalgae and seagrasses were also collected by hand within an area of 30 cm around each pitfall trap. We measured the spatial and temporal variability in the isotope composition of the beach consumers and of S. muticum using different models of analyses of variance. We then calculated the biomass proportion of S. muticum to the animal diet with a two-isotopic mixing model. The invasive alga S. muticum seemed to be one of the main food sources for the amphipod Talitrus saltator and, to a less extent, for the isopod Tylos europaeus. The importance of S. muticum was however temporally variable and decreased during spring (in March and May), probably due to the availability of native macrophytes. The supply of invasive wrack to beach food webs thus deserves more attention if we want to understand their role in influencing food web dynamics.

  20. Water level response in back-barrier bays unchanged following Hurricane Sandy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Butman, Bradford; Ganju, Neil K.

    2014-01-01

    On 28–30 October 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused severe flooding along portions of the northeast coast of the United States and cut new inlets across barrier islands in New Jersey and New York. About 30% of the 20 highest daily maximum water levels observed between 2007 and 2013 in Barnegat and Great South Bay occurred in 5 months following Hurricane Sandy. Hurricane Sandy provided a rare opportunity to determine whether extreme events alter systems protected by barrier islands, leaving the mainland more vulnerable to flooding. Comparisons between water levels before and after Hurricane Sandy at bay stations and an offshore station show no significant differences in the transfer of sea level fluctuations from offshore to either bay following Sandy. The post-Hurricane Sandy bay high water levels reflected offshore sea levels caused by winter storms, not by barrier island breaching or geomorphic changes within the bays.

  1. Water level response in back-barrier bays unchanged following Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Butman, Bradford; Ganju, Neil K.

    2014-05-01

    On 28-30 October 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused severe flooding along portions of the northeast coast of the United States and cut new inlets across barrier islands in New Jersey and New York. About 30% of the 20 highest daily maximum water levels observed between 2007 and 2013 in Barnegat and Great South Bay occurred in 5 months following Hurricane Sandy. Hurricane Sandy provided a rare opportunity to determine whether extreme events alter systems protected by barrier islands, leaving the mainland more vulnerable to flooding. Comparisons between water levels before and after Hurricane Sandy at bay stations and an offshore station show no significant differences in the transfer of sea level fluctuations from offshore to either bay following Sandy. The post-Hurricane Sandy bay high water levels reflected offshore sea levels caused by winter storms, not by barrier island breaching or geomorphic changes within the bays.

  2. The Identification and Classification of Sandy Lands by Application of the Object Oriented Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changlong; Gao, Zhihai; Wang, Bengyu; Bai, Lina; Wu, Junjun; Sun, Bin; Ding, Xiangyuan

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, BJ-1 small satellite images as the data source, the optimal segmentation scales of various categories were determined by the Jefries-Matusita (J-M) method and the identification and classification of the Otindag sandy land was carried out based on the object-oriented method combined with Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers. The research shows that the overall accuracy of sandy land classification, in this paper, is 81.52%, and Kappa coefficient is 0.7845, which indicate that the identification and classification of sandy lands by application of the object-oriented method is great. Finally, based on the research results of the classification methods and processes in sandy land, the sandy land of the Beijing-Tianjin dust and sandstorm source region (BTDSSR) was identified and classified. By doing this, it was determined basically that the distribution of the sandy lands in BTDSSR.

  3. Elucidation of the mechanism of enzymatic browning inhibition by sodium chlorite.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Luo, Yaguang; Chen, Pei

    2008-10-15

    Sodium chlorite (SC) is a well known anti-microbial agent and its strong inhibitory effect on enzymatic browning of fresh-cut produce has recently been identified. We investigated the effect of SC on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and its substrate, chlorogenic acid (CA), as it relates to the mechanisms of browning inhibition by SC. Results indicate that the browning reaction of CA (1.0mM) catalyzed by PPO (33U/mL) was significantly inhibited by 1.0mM SC at pH 4.6. Two PPO isoforms were identified by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and both were inactivated by SC (3.0mM). This suggests that SC serves as a PPO inhibitor to prevent enzymatic browning. Furthermore, the effect of SC on the stability of CA in both acidic (pH 4.5) and basic conditions (pH 8.3) was studied by UV-Vis scan and LC-MS analysis. The results showed that at the presence of SC (3.0mM), CA (0.1mM) degraded to quinic acid and caffeic acid as well as other intermediates. Hence, the anti-browning property of SC can be attributed to the two modes of action: the inactivation of polyphenol oxidase directly and the oxidative degradation of phenolic substrates.

  4. Kinetics of browning, phenolics, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in commercial sparkling wines.

    PubMed

    Serra-Cayuela, A; Jourdes, M; Riu-Aumatell, M; Buxaderas, S; Teissedre, P-L; López-Tamames, E

    2014-02-01

    We analyzed the degree of browning (absorbance at 420 nm), the phenolics, and the 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) content in six sparkling wines series kept at three temperatures (4, 16, and 20 °C) for over 2 years. Caffeic acid, trans-coutaric acid, p-coumaric acid, and 5-HMF were the compounds with the greatest correlation with browning and time. 5-HMF was the only compound that evolved linearly at all temperatures. We propose that 5-HMF is a better time-temperature marker than the A₄₂₀ parameter or phenolics, because it shows higher linearity with time at all temperatures, is more sensitive to temperature changes, and has lower variability. The kinetics of 5-HMF was studied showing a zero-order behavior. We propose mathematical models that wineries can use to predict the browning shelf life of their sparkling wines as a function of the storage time and temperature.

  5. Shorebird use of an exposed sandy beach in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.

    2003-10-01

    Frequent morning surveys of birds were conducted on 1 km of beach in southern California to investigate shorebird use of an exposed sandy beach. The overall mean abundance (98.6 individuals km -1), estimated biomass (9.6 kg km -1), and species richness (5.5 species km -1) of shorebirds observed were very high for a sandy beach in the temperate zone. Eight species, sanderling ( Calidris alba), semipalmated plover ( Charadrius semipalmatus), marbled godwit ( Limosa fedoa), black-bellied plover ( Pluvialis squatarola), western sandpiper ( Calidris mauri), willet ( Catoptrophorus semipalmatus), surfbird ( Aphriza virgata), and whimbrel ( Numenius phaeopus), occurred in overall mean abundances >1 bird km -1 and accounted for 97% of the abundance and biomass of shorebirds. Sanderlings were the most abundant shorebird every year (64% of individuals and 35% of the biomass). Different species of abundant shorebirds exhibited distinct patterns of use of beach habitat, including fall, spring, and winter peaks in abundance. Temporal variation in shorebird use on seasonal and interannual scales was associated with migration patterns, and also with habitat availability and condition. Seasonal variation in monthly mean abundance and estimated biomass of shorebirds varied over more than an order of magnitude and followed a similar pattern in each year, reaching maxima in the fall or winter (161-280 individuals km -1 and 15.4-23.9 kg km -1) and minima in May or June (3-11 individuals km -1 and 0.8-2.2 kg km -1). A minor peak in shorebird abundance and biomass coinciding with spring migration was observed in April of most years. The number of species of shorebirds observed in individual surveys ranged from 0 to 11 species km -1 and was positively and significantly correlated with abundance. Monthly mean species richness and the total species observed monthly followed similar seasonal patterns, ranging from annual maxima of 7.4-9.1 and 12-17 species km -1 between August and October

  6. Constraining Depositional Slope From Sedimentary Structures in Sandy Braided Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynds, R. M.; Mohrig, D.; Heller, P. L.

    2003-12-01

    Determination of paleoslopes in ancient fluvial systems has potentially broad application to quantitatively constraining the history of tectonics and paleoclimate in continental sequences. Our method for calculating paleoslopes for sandy braided streams is based upon a simple physical model that establishes depositional skin-frictional shear stresses from assemblages of sedimentary structures and their associated grain size distributions. The addition of a skin-frictional shear stress, with a geometrically determined form-drag shear stress results in a total boundary shear stress which is directly related to water-surface slope averaged over an appropriate spatial scale. In order to apply this model to ancient fluvial systems, it is necessary to measure the following: coarsest suspended sediment size, finest grain size carried in bed load, flow depth, dune height, and dune length. In the rock record, suspended load and bed load can be accurately assessed by well-preserved suspended load deposits ("low-energy" ripples) and bed load deposits (dune foresets). This model predicts an average slope for the North Loup River near Taylor, Nebraska (modern case study) of 2.7 x 10-3. The measured reach-averaged water surface slope for the same reach of the river is 1.37 x 10-3. We suggest that it is possible to calculate the depositional slope of a sandy fluvial system by a factor of approximately two. Additionally, preliminary application of this model to the Lower Jurassic Kayenta Formation throughout the Colorado Plateau provides a promising and consistent evaluation of paleoslope in an ancient and well-preserved, sandy braided stream deposit.

  7. Disentangling diversity patterns in sandy beaches along environmental gradients.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Francisco R; Gómez, Julio; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Species richness in sandy beaches is strongly affected by concurrent variations in morphodynamics and salinity. However, as in other ecosystems, different groups of species may exhibit contrasting patterns in response to these environmental variables, which would be obscured if only aggregate richness is considered. Deconstructing biodiversity, i.e. considering richness patterns separately for different groups of species according to their taxonomic affiliation, dispersal mode or mobility, could provide a more complete understanding about factors that drive species richness patterns. This study analyzed macroscale variations in species richness at 16 Uruguayan sandy beaches with different morphodynamics, distributed along the estuarine gradient generated by the Rio de la Plata over a 2 year period. Species richness estimates were deconstructed to discriminate among taxonomic groups, supralittoral and intertidal forms, and groups with different feeding habits and development modes. Species richness was lowest at intermediate salinities, increasing towards oceanic and inner estuarine conditions, mainly following the patterns shown for intertidal forms. Moreover, there was a differential tolerance to salinity changes according to the habitat occupied and development mode, which determines the degree of sensitivity of faunal groups to osmotic stress. Generalized (additive and linear) mixed models showed a clear increase of species richness towards dissipative beaches. All taxonomic categories exhibited the same trend, even though responses to grain size and beach slope were less marked for crustaceans and insects than for molluscs or polychaetes. However, supralittoral crustaceans exhibited the opposite trend. Feeding groups decreased from dissipative to reflective systems, deposit feeders being virtually absent in the latter. This deconstructive approach highlights the relevance of life history strategies in structuring communities, highlighting the relative

  8. Disentangling Diversity Patterns in Sandy Beaches along Environmental Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Francisco R.; Gómez, Julio; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Species richness in sandy beaches is strongly affected by concurrent variations in morphodynamics and salinity. However, as in other ecosystems, different groups of species may exhibit contrasting patterns in response to these environmental variables, which would be obscured if only aggregate richness is considered. Deconstructing biodiversity, i.e. considering richness patterns separately for different groups of species according to their taxonomic affiliation, dispersal mode or mobility, could provide a more complete understanding about factors that drive species richness patterns. This study analyzed macroscale variations in species richness at 16 Uruguayan sandy beaches with different morphodynamics, distributed along the estuarine gradient generated by the Rio de la Plata over a 2 year period. Species richness estimates were deconstructed to discriminate among taxonomic groups, supralittoral and intertidal forms, and groups with different feeding habits and development modes. Species richness was lowest at intermediate salinities, increasing towards oceanic and inner estuarine conditions, mainly following the patterns shown for intertidal forms. Moreover, there was a differential tolerance to salinity changes according to the habitat occupied and development mode, which determines the degree of sensitivity of faunal groups to osmotic stress. Generalized (additive and linear) mixed models showed a clear increase of species richness towards dissipative beaches. All taxonomic categories exhibited the same trend, even though responses to grain size and beach slope were less marked for crustaceans and insects than for molluscs or polychaetes. However, supralittoral crustaceans exhibited the opposite trend. Feeding groups decreased from dissipative to reflective systems, deposit feeders being virtually absent in the latter. This deconstructive approach highlights the relevance of life history strategies in structuring communities, highlighting the relative

  9. Disentangling diversity patterns in sandy beaches along environmental gradients.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Francisco R; Gómez, Julio; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Species richness in sandy beaches is strongly affected by concurrent variations in morphodynamics and salinity. However, as in other ecosystems, different groups of species may exhibit contrasting patterns in response to these environmental variables, which would be obscured if only aggregate richness is considered. Deconstructing biodiversity, i.e. considering richness patterns separately for different groups of species according to their taxonomic affiliation, dispersal mode or mobility, could provide a more complete understanding about factors that drive species richness patterns. This study analyzed macroscale variations in species richness at 16 Uruguayan sandy beaches with different morphodynamics, distributed along the estuarine gradient generated by the Rio de la Plata over a 2 year period. Species richness estimates were deconstructed to discriminate among taxonomic groups, supralittoral and intertidal forms, and groups with different feeding habits and development modes. Species richness was lowest at intermediate salinities, increasing towards oceanic and inner estuarine conditions, mainly following the patterns shown for intertidal forms. Moreover, there was a differential tolerance to salinity changes according to the habitat occupied and development mode, which determines the degree of sensitivity of faunal groups to osmotic stress. Generalized (additive and linear) mixed models showed a clear increase of species richness towards dissipative beaches. All taxonomic categories exhibited the same trend, even though responses to grain size and beach slope were less marked for crustaceans and insects than for molluscs or polychaetes. However, supralittoral crustaceans exhibited the opposite trend. Feeding groups decreased from dissipative to reflective systems, deposit feeders being virtually absent in the latter. This deconstructive approach highlights the relevance of life history strategies in structuring communities, highlighting the relative

  10. Explosibility of Victorian brown coal dust

    SciTech Connect

    Woskoboenko, F.

    1987-04-01

    The explosibility of Victorian brown coal dusts has been investigated in a wide range of equipment, including the 1.2 dm/sup 3/ Hartmann bomb and the 20 litre spherical bomb. The Hartmann bomb seriously underestimates the severity of brown coal dust explosions and empirical relations between Hartmann bomb and Spherical bomb results cited in the literature are not valid for brown coal. Explosibility increases with decreasing moisture content and particle size and increases with increasing volatile matter content.

  11. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  12. Kinetics of the sulphite-inhibited browning of fructose.

    PubMed

    Swales, S; Wedzicha, B L

    1992-01-01

    Sulphite species, S(IV), inhibit the non-enzymic browning of fructose-amino acid mixtures. Inhibition of browning is accompanied by a loss of S(IV). The kinetics of the reaction of S(IV) in the system: fructose-glycine-S(IV) are described in detail; two distinct mechanisms have been identified. One involves only fructose in the rate determining step. The other requires fructose and both the glycine and S(IV). Some amines (e.g. taurine and ethanolamine) can markedly increase the rate of the S(IV)-independent step. Arginine and lysine are particularly effective for increasing the rate of reaction of S(IV) in the S(IV)-dependent reaction. PMID:1298652

  13. Sediment yield and connectivity in a gullied sandy catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucía, Ana; Francisco Martín-Duque, José; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Ángel Sanz-Santos, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    Badland areas are considered to have high connectivity of sediment at the catchment scale; however, little is known about processes occurring in gullies and badlands developed in sands. This type of gullies is quite common in the Central-Eastern Iberian Peninsula and is associated with historic mining. The sandy badlands also appear in both abandoned and traditionally reclaimed mines, generating on- and offsite environmental effects. Our aim is to quantify the rates of the different processes occurring in the sandy gullied catchments, as well as their coupling and connectivity at a catchment scale. This may allow application to improve reclamation practice in mines and quarries located in sandy materials. The study site is a small (1.32 ha) gullied catchment, the Barranca de los Pinos, which is located in the Northern Piedmont of the Guadarrama Mountains (Central Spain). The catchment area has been divided into Homogeneous Response Units (HRUs) attending to the dominant active process . The sediment produced in the different HRUs has been monitored by a variety of methods: repeat Terrestrial Laser Scanning of high gradient slopes, closed microplots in low gradient slopes and automatic (Reid type) slot bedload samplers and siphon samplers to monitor suspended sediment transport in the channel. During the 2010-11 monitoring period the sediment yield due to gravitational movements in high gradient slopes varied from 20 to 200 kg m-2y-1. In the low gradient slopes the splash and non-concentrated runoff generated 0.1 - 6 kg m-2y-1,while the channel yielded 7.44 ± 1.08 kg m-2y-1 with a very high proportion (>70%) of bedload. Despite the difficulties of extrapolating and comparing the results obtained at different spatial and temporal resolutions, annual patterns of erosion and transport of sediments within the sandy gullied catchments have been identified. These confirm that the transport of sediment in this catchment is limited by the capacity of flow events to

  14. Hospital emergency preparedness and response during Superstorm Sandy.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a report by the HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) on the performance of 172 Medicare-certified hospitals in the New York Metropolitan Area before, during, and after Sandy. It makes recommendations on how to close gaps that were found in emergency planning and execution for a disaster of this magnitude. To download the complete 40-page report and a Podcast based on it, go to http://oig.hhs.gov/oei/ reports/oei-06-13-00260. asp. PMID:26647499

  15. Emergency evacuation orders: considerations and lessons from Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Patrick D

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the problems surrounding the execution of emergency evacuation orders by evaluating Hurricane Sandy and the emergency actions taken by the State of New Jersey and the City of Atlantic City New Jersey. The analysis provides an overview of the legal authority granting emergency powers to governors and mayors to issue evacuation proclamations in addition to an evaluation of the New Jersey's emergency evacuation mandate and subsequent compliance. The article concludes with provision of planning and preparedness recommendations for public managers facing similar hazards, including a recommendation for provision of emergency shelter contingencies within the threat zone in anticipation of citizen noncompliance evacuation orders.

  16. Hospital emergency preparedness and response during Superstorm Sandy.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a report by the HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) on the performance of 172 Medicare-certified hospitals in the New York Metropolitan Area before, during, and after Sandy. It makes recommendations on how to close gaps that were found in emergency planning and execution for a disaster of this magnitude. To download the complete 40-page report and a Podcast based on it, go to http://oig.hhs.gov/oei/ reports/oei-06-13-00260. asp.

  17. Emergency evacuation orders: considerations and lessons from Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Patrick D

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the problems surrounding the execution of emergency evacuation orders by evaluating Hurricane Sandy and the emergency actions taken by the State of New Jersey and the City of Atlantic City New Jersey. The analysis provides an overview of the legal authority granting emergency powers to governors and mayors to issue evacuation proclamations in addition to an evaluation of the New Jersey's emergency evacuation mandate and subsequent compliance. The article concludes with provision of planning and preparedness recommendations for public managers facing similar hazards, including a recommendation for provision of emergency shelter contingencies within the threat zone in anticipation of citizen noncompliance evacuation orders. PMID:25062822

  18. Brown dwarfs in young stellar clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringfellow, Guy S.

    1991-01-01

    The present calculations of the early evolution of brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (LMSs) yield isochrones spanning 0.01-0.2 solar masses for ages in the 1 to 300 million year range. Since the brown dwarfs remain sharply segregated in T(eff) from LMSs for ages of less than 100 million years, it follows that for coeval populations of known age, a domain exists in the H-R diagram in which only brown dwarfs exist. These theoretical results are compared with recent observations of the Pleiades brown dwarf candidates, using two new sets of color-T(eff) transformations. Both sets yield consistent interpretations.

  19. Alum amendment effects on phosphorus release and distribution in poultry litter-amended sandy soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staats, K.E.; Arai, Y.; Sparks, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Increased poultry production has contributed to excess nutrient problems in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils due to land application of poultry litter (PL). Aluminum sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3?? 14H2O] amendment of PL effectively reduces soluble phosphorus (P) in the PL; however, the effects of these litters when added to acidic, sandy soils are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of alum-amended poultry litter in reducing P release from three Delaware Coastal Plain soils: Evesboro loamy sand (Ev; excessively drained, mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments), Rumford loamy sand (Ru; well drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults), and Pocomoke sandy loam (Pm; very poorly drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, active, thermic Typic Umbraquults). Long-term (25 d) and short-term (24 h) desorption studies were conducted, in addition to chemical extractions and kinetic modeling, to observe the changes that alum-amended versus unamended PL caused in the soils. The Ev, Ru, and Pm soils were incubated with 9 Mg ha-1 of alum-amended or unamended PL. Long-term desorption (25 d) of the incubated material resulted in approximately 13.5% (Ev), 12.7% (Ru), and 13.3% (Pm) reductions in cumulative P desorbed when comparing soil treated with unamended and alum-amended PL. In addition, the P release from the soil treated with alum-amended litter was not significantly different from the control (soil alone). Short-term desorption (24 h) showed 7.3% (Ev), 15.4% (Ru), and 20% (Pm) reductions. The overall implication from this study is that the use of alum as a PL amendment is useful in coarse-textured soils of the Coastal Plain. With increased application of alum-amended PL, more significant decreases may be possible with little or no effect on soil quality.

  20. Characteristics of groundwater and lead geochemistry along the Sandy Creek, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Jian Ping; Chyi, L.L. . Dept. of Geology); Khourey, C.J. )

    1992-01-01

    The Sandy Creek is about 65 km in length. It is a tributary of the Tuscarawas River, which flows into the Ohio River. The valley of Sandy Creek is filled with sediments as deep as 70 m and as wide as 2 km. The bedrock valley walls consist of the Allegheny Formation of the Pennsylvanian System. Groundwater samples were collected from active wells in the valley. Recharge to the buried valley aquifer comes from groundwater in the valley wall stream infiltration and precipitation. The total dissolved solids are generally less than 500 ppm but could be as high as 2,000 ppm. The Ca/Mg ratio stays between 2.6 and 7.5, which is similar to those of the limestones in the bedrock valley walls. Bicarbonate is the major anionic species which ranges from 98 to 580 ppm. Sulfate varies between 2.5 and 334 ppm and chloride from 1.9 to 753 ppm. Major cations are Ca and Na with significant amounts of Mg and K. The concentration of Pb varies within a small range from 1.2 to 5.1 ppb. The Pb concentration is related to bicarbonate anion concentrations when sulfate is low. Acid mine drainage appears to be the major sulfate carrier. It reduces the bicarbonate concentration and adds additional Pb and Fe as it joins the groundwater in the valley. High chloride concentrations can be traced to areas with salt storage or petroleum brine disposal. High chloride concentrations are always marked by high Na concentrations and high Na/K ratios, but not other anions and cations. High nitrate concentrations can be traced to areas with intensive agricultural activities. It is not marked by sympathetic changes in other ion concentrations.

  1. Browning of White Fat: Novel Insight Into Factors, Mechanisms, and Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Jeremic, Nevena; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2017-01-01

    What is more interesting about brown adipose tissue (BAT) is its ability to provide thermogenesis, protection against obesity by clearing triglycerides, releasing batokines, and mitigating insulin resistance. White adipose tissue (WAT) on the other hand stores excess energy and secretes some endocrine factors like leptin for regulating satiety. For the last decade there has been an increasing interest in the browning of fat keeping in view its beneficial effects on metabolic disorders and protection in the form of perivascular fat. Obesity is one such metabolic disorder that leads to significant morbidity and mortality from obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease risk. Browning of white fat paves the way to restrict obesity and obesity related disorders. Although exercise has been the most common factor for fat browning; however, there are other factors that involve: (1) beta aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA); (2) gamma amino butyric acid (GABA); (3) PPARɣ agonists; (4) JAK inhibition; and (5) IRISIN. In this review, we propose two novel factors musclin and TFAM for fat browning. Musclin a myokine released from muscles during exercise activates PPARɣ which induces browning of WAT that has beneficial metabolic and cardiac effects. TFAM is a transcription factor that induces mitochondrial biogenesis. Since BAT is rich in mitochondria, higher expression of TFAM in WAT or TFAM treatment in WAT cells can induce browning of WAT. We propose that fat browning can be used as a therapeutic tool for metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 61-68, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Direct action of capsaicin in brown adipogenesis and activation of brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kida, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hirofumi; Murakami, Masaru; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of capsaicin, the principle pungent component of red and chili peppers, induces thermogenesis, in part, through the activation of brown adipocytes expressing genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Capsaicin has been suggested to induce the activation of brown adipocytes, which is mediated by the stimulation of sympathetic nerves. However, capsaicin may directly affect the differentiation of brown preadipocytes, brown adipocyte function, or both, through its significant absorption. We herein demonstrated that Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, is expressed in brown adipose tissue, and that its expression level is increased during the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, capsaicin induced calcium influx in brown preadipocytes. A treatment with capsaicin in the early stage of brown adipogenesis did not affect lipid accumulation or the expression levels of Fabp4 (a gene expressed in mature adipocytes), Pparγ2 (a master regulator of adipogenesis) or brown adipocyte-selective genes. In contrast, a treatment with capsaicin in the late stage of brown adipogenesis slightly increased the expression levels of Fabp4, Pparγ2 and Pgc-1α. Although capsaicin did not affect the basal expression level of Ucp1, Ucp1 induction by forskolin was partially inhibited by capsaicin, irrespective of the dose of capsaicin. The results of the present study suggest the direct effects of capsaicin on brown adipocytes or in the late stage of brown adipogenesis. PMID:26781688

  3. 50 Years after Brown v. the Board of Education: An Interview with Cheryl Brown Henderson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carriuolo, Nancy E.

    2004-01-01

    This spring marks the 50th anniversary (May 17, 1954-2004) of the Supreme Courts' decision to outlaw segregation by ruling unanimously in favor of the plaintiffs in Brown v. the Board of Education. Of course, segregation never really ended, as will be explained in this interview with Cheryl Brown Henderson, daughter of Oliver Brown, the 10th of…

  4. Direct action of capsaicin in brown adipogenesis and activation of brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kida, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hirofumi; Murakami, Masaru; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of capsaicin, the principle pungent component of red and chili peppers, induces thermogenesis, in part, through the activation of brown adipocytes expressing genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Capsaicin has been suggested to induce the activation of brown adipocytes, which is mediated by the stimulation of sympathetic nerves. However, capsaicin may directly affect the differentiation of brown preadipocytes, brown adipocyte function, or both, through its significant absorption. We herein demonstrated that Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, is expressed in brown adipose tissue, and that its expression level is increased during the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, capsaicin induced calcium influx in brown preadipocytes. A treatment with capsaicin in the early stage of brown adipogenesis did not affect lipid accumulation or the expression levels of Fabp4 (a gene expressed in mature adipocytes), Pparγ2 (a master regulator of adipogenesis) or brown adipocyte-selective genes. In contrast, a treatment with capsaicin in the late stage of brown adipogenesis slightly increased the expression levels of Fabp4, Pparγ2 and Pgc-1α. Although capsaicin did not affect the basal expression level of Ucp1, Ucp1 induction by forskolin was partially inhibited by capsaicin, irrespective of the dose of capsaicin. The results of the present study suggest the direct effects of capsaicin on brown adipocytes or in the late stage of brown adipogenesis.

  5. Enzymatic browning and after-cooking darkening of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    PubMed

    Bach, Vibe; Jensen, Sidsel; Clausen, Morten R; Bertram, Hanne C; Edelenbos, Merete

    2013-11-15

    Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) undergo enzymatic browning when peeled or cut, and turn grey after boiling, due to after-cooking darkening reactions between iron and phenolic acids. In an attempt to reveal the components responsible for these discolouration reactions, sensory evaluation and instrumental colour measurements were related to contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids, organic acids and iron in three varieties of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers harvested in the autumn and the spring. No differences were found between varieties in sensory evaluated enzymatic browning, but Rema and Draga had higher scores than Mari in after-cooking darkening. Jerusalem artichoke tubers had higher contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids and citric acid in the autumn and low contents in the spring, while it was the opposite for malic acid. None of the chemical parameters investigated could explain the discolouration of the Jerusalem artichoke tubers.

  6. Enzymatic browning and after-cooking darkening of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    PubMed

    Bach, Vibe; Jensen, Sidsel; Clausen, Morten R; Bertram, Hanne C; Edelenbos, Merete

    2013-11-15

    Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) undergo enzymatic browning when peeled or cut, and turn grey after boiling, due to after-cooking darkening reactions between iron and phenolic acids. In an attempt to reveal the components responsible for these discolouration reactions, sensory evaluation and instrumental colour measurements were related to contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids, organic acids and iron in three varieties of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers harvested in the autumn and the spring. No differences were found between varieties in sensory evaluated enzymatic browning, but Rema and Draga had higher scores than Mari in after-cooking darkening. Jerusalem artichoke tubers had higher contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids and citric acid in the autumn and low contents in the spring, while it was the opposite for malic acid. None of the chemical parameters investigated could explain the discolouration of the Jerusalem artichoke tubers. PMID:23790937

  7. Free phenolics and polyphenol oxidase (PPO): the factors affecting post-cut browning in eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Bibhuti Bhusan; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2013-08-15

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) catalyses oxidation of phenolics, which results in instant but differential browning in many cut fruits and vegetables, including eggplant. Eight cultivars of eggplant were characterised by their PPO specific activity, phenolic content, browning index, and PPO polymorphism. In fresh eggplant, browning was found to be dependent on both the phenolic content and PPO specific activity, whereas, total phenolic content played a major role in browning of stored fruits. Interestingly, although browning index increased in stored eggplant fruits, PPO activity reduced in four out of eight cultivars studied. Phenolic level was found to increase in all these cultivars during storage. Although a significant level of homology was observed in PPO nucleotide and conceptually translated protein sequence, two cultivars, which displayed highest PPO specific activity, differed in the 38 amino acid stretch in the peptide region 301-338.

  8. Soil vapor extraction in sandy soils: influence of airflow rate.

    PubMed

    Albergaria, José Tomás; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceição M; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2008-11-01

    Airflow rate is one of the most important parameters for the soil vapor extraction of contaminated sites, due to its direct influence on the mass transfer occurring during the remediation process. This work reports the study of airflow rate influence on soil vapor extractions, performed in sandy soils contaminated with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene. The objectives were: (i) to analyze the influence of airflow rate on the process; (ii) to develop a methodology to predict the remediation time and the remediation efficiency; and (iii) to select the most efficient airflow rate. For dry sandy soils with negligible contents of clay and natural organic matter, containing the contaminants previously cited, it was concluded that: (i) if equilibrium between the pollutants and the different phases present in the soil matrix was reached and if slow diffusion effects did not occur, higher airflow rates exhibited the fastest remediations, (ii) it was possible to predict the remediation time and the efficiency of remediation with errors below 14%; and (iii) the most efficient remediation were reached with airflow rates below 1.2 cm(3)s(-1) standard temperature and pressure conditions.

  9. Hurricane Sandy: observations and analysis of coastal change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sopkin, Kristin L.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Doran, Kara S.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Morgan, Karen L.M.; Guy, Kristy K.; Smith, Kathryn E.L.

    2014-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy, the largest Atlantic hurricane on record, made landfall on October 29, 2012, and impacted a long swath of the U.S. Atlantic coastline. The barrier islands were breached in a number of places and beach and dune erosion occurred along most of the Mid-Atlantic coast. As a part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, the U.S. Geological Survey collected post-Hurricane Sandy oblique aerial photography and lidar topographic surveys to document the changes that occurred as a result of the storm. Comparisons of post-storm photographs to those collected prior to Sandy’s landfall were used to characterize the nature, magnitude, and spatial variability of hurricane-induced coastal changes. Analysis of pre- and post-storm lidar elevations was used to quantify magnitudes of change in shoreline position, dune elevation, and beach width. Erosion was observed along the coast from North Carolina to New York; however, as would be expected over such a large region, extensive spatial variability in storm response was observed.

  10. Reciprocal influences of microbial community and hydrogeomorphology in sandy streambeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Lera, C.; Federlein, L. L.; Frossard, A.; Gessner, M. O.; Knie, M.; Mutz, M.

    2015-12-01

    Stream hydrogeomorphology is a strong determinant of streambed microbial community activity, which in turn influences stream biogeochemistry. Whether this influence is unidirectional or whether microbial communities can also modulate biogeochemical processes by affecting hydrogeomorphology is an emerging question in research on sediment-water interfaces. Using experimental flumes simulating sandy streams, we tested whether such influences can occur through altered water exchange across the sediment-water interface. Results show that microbial communities in sandy streambeds can indeed affect hydrogeomorphology by producing gas bubbles. Specifically, gas bubbles accumulating in microbial biofilms can alter the water exchange by (i) reducing sediment pore space or (ii) provoking the detachment of the microbial biofilm detachment and thus altering streambed topography. Additionally, results indicate that water exchange is the major for the structure and activity of the microbial community. Our data also indicate that the potential of microbial communities to influence water exchange can be modulated by factors such as light intensity and discharge fluctuations. These biological-physical interactions and their effects on the influence of microbial communities on hydrogeomorphology is a source of spatiotemporal variability in water exchange across the sediment-water interface. Heterogeneity in water exchange is known to increase biogeochemical pathways and, thus, ecosystem functions. These results suggest that a holistic understanding of vertical connectivity in running waters requires consideration of biological-physical interactions at the water-sediment interface.

  11. Trophic niche shifts driven by phytoplankton in sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.

  12. Mental health outcomes at the Jersey Shore after Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Boscarino, Joseph A; Hoffman, Stuart N; Kirchner, H Lester; Erlich, Porat M; Adams, Richard E; Figley, Charles R; Solhkhah, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy made landfall in the most densely populated region in the US. In New Jersey, thousands of families were made homeless and entire communities were destroyed in the worst disaster in the history of the state. The economic impact of Sandy was huge, comparable to Hurricane Katrina. The areas that sustained the most damage were the small- to medium-sized beach communities along New Jersey's Atlantic coastline. Six months following the hurricane, we conducted a random telephone survey of 200 adults residing in 18 beach communities located in Monmouth County. We found that 14.5% (95% CI = 9.9-20.2) of these residents screened positive for PTSD and 6.0% (95% CI = 3.1-10.2) met criteria for major depression. Altogether 13.5% (95% CI = 9.1-19.0) received mental health counseling and 20.5% (95% CI = 15.1-26.8) sought some type of mental health support in person or online, rates similar to those reported in New York after the World Trade Center disaster In multivariate analyses, the best predictors of mental health status and service use were having high hurricane exposure levels, having physical health limitations, and having environmental health concerns. Research is needed to assess the mental health status and service use of Jersey Shore residents over time, to evaluate environmental health concerns, and to better understand the storm's impact among those with physical health limitations. PMID:24558743

  13. Mental health outcomes at the Jersey Shore after Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Boscarino, Joseph A; Hoffman, Stuart N; Kirchner, H Lester; Erlich, Porat M; Adams, Richard E; Figley, Charles R; Solhkhah, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy made landfall in the most densely populated region in the US. In New Jersey, thousands of families were made homeless and entire communities were destroyed in the worst disaster in the history of the state. The economic impact of Sandy was huge, comparable to Hurricane Katrina. The areas that sustained the most damage were the small- to medium-sized beach communities along New Jersey's Atlantic coastline. Six months following the hurricane, we conducted a random telephone survey of 200 adults residing in 18 beach communities located in Monmouth County. We found that 14.5% (95% CI = 9.9-20.2) of these residents screened positive for PTSD and 6.0% (95% CI = 3.1-10.2) met criteria for major depression. Altogether 13.5% (95% CI = 9.1-19.0) received mental health counseling and 20.5% (95% CI = 15.1-26.8) sought some type of mental health support in person or online, rates similar to those reported in New York after the World Trade Center disaster In multivariate analyses, the best predictors of mental health status and service use were having high hurricane exposure levels, having physical health limitations, and having environmental health concerns. Research is needed to assess the mental health status and service use of Jersey Shore residents over time, to evaluate environmental health concerns, and to better understand the storm's impact among those with physical health limitations.

  14. Effects of adipocyte lipoprotein lipase on de novo lipogenesis and white adipose tissue browning.

    PubMed

    Bartelt, Alexander; Weigelt, Clara; Cherradi, M Lisa; Niemeier, Andreas; Tödter, Klaus; Heeren, Joerg; Scheja, Ludger

    2013-05-01

    Efficient storage of dietary and endogenous fatty acids is a prerequisite for a healthy adipose tissue function. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the master regulator of fatty acid uptake from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. In addition to LPL-mediated fatty acid uptake, adipocytes are able to synthesize fatty acids from non-lipid precursor, a process called de novo lipogenesis (DNL). As the physiological relevance of fatty acid uptake versus DNL for brown and white adipocyte function remains unclear, we studied the role of adipocyte LPL using adipocyte-specific LPL knockout animals (aLKO). ALKO mice displayed a profound increase in DNL-fatty acids, especially palmitoleate and myristoleate in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) depots while essential dietary fatty acids were markedly decreased. Consequently, we found increased expression in adipose tissues of genes encoding DNL enzymes (Fasn, Scd1, and Elovl6) as well as the lipogenic transcription factor carbohydrate response element binding protein-β. In a high-fat diet (HFD) study aLKO mice were characterized by reduced adiposity and improved plasma insulin and adipokines. However, neither glucose tolerance nor inflammatory markers were ameliorated in aLKO mice compared to controls. No signs of increased BAT activation or WAT browning were detected in aLKO mice either on HFD or after 1 week of β3-adrenergic stimulation using CL316,243. We conclude that despite a profound increase in DNL-derived fatty acids, proposed to be metabolically favorable, aLKO mice are not protected from metabolic disease per se. In addition, induction of DNL alone is not sufficient to promote browning of WAT. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  15. A Coordinated USGS Science Response to Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S.; Buxton, H. T.; Andersen, M.; Dean, T.; Focazio, M. J.; Haines, J.; Hainly, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    In late October 2012, Hurricane Sandy came ashore during a spring high tide on the New Jersey coastline, delivering hurricane-force winds, storm tides exceeding 19 feet, driving rain, and plummeting temperatures. Hurricane Sandy resulted in 72 direct fatalities in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, and widespread and substantial physical, environmental, ecological, social, and economic impacts estimated at near $50 billion. Before the landfall of Hurricane Sandy, the USGS provided forecasts of potential coastal change; collected oblique aerial photography of pre-storm coastal morphology; deployed storm-surge sensors, rapid-deployment streamgages, wave sensors, and barometric pressure sensors; conducted Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) aerial topographic surveys of coastal areas; and issued a landslide alert for landslide prone areas. During the storm, Tidal Telemetry Networks provided real-time water-level information along the coast. Long-term networks and rapid-deployment real-time streamgages and water-quality monitors tracked river levels and changes in water quality. Immediately after the storm, the USGS serviced real-time instrumentation, retrieved data from over 140 storm-surge sensors, and collected other essential environmental data, including more than 830 high-water marks mapping the extent and elevation of the storm surge. Post-storm lidar surveys documented storm impacts to coastal barriers informing response and recovery and providing a new baseline to assess vulnerability of the reconfigured coast. The USGS Hazard Data Distribution System served storm-related information from many agencies on the Internet on a daily basis. Immediately following Hurricane Sandy the USGS developed a science plan, 'Meeting the Science Needs of the Nation in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy-A U.S. Geological Survey Science Plan for Support of Restoration and Recovery'. The plan will ensure continuing coordination of internal USGS activities as well as

  16. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A.; Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Natta, A.; Scholz, A.

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  17. Some Aspects of Enzymatic Browning in Apples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Cleeve, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes material modified from the Nuffield advanced chemistry course to make it meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. Discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning and summarizes the browning process and its control. (Author/GS)

  18. Remembering "Brown": Silence, Loss, Rage, and Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The author was in the seventh grade at the Newsome Training School in Aubrey, Arkansas when the Supreme Court handed down "Brown v. Board of Education" on May 17, 1954. His most powerful memory of the "Brown" decision is that he has no memory of it being rendered or mentioned by his parents, teachers, or preachers. In his rural southern Black…

  19. Speaking Personally--With John Seely Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John Seely Brown, a visiting scholar at the University of Southern California and a former chief scientist of Xerox Corporation and director of its Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)--a position he held for nearly two decades. While head of PARC, Brown expanded the role of corporate research to include such…

  20. Calcifying Sorting and Segregating: "Brown" at 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; Kozleski, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 "Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1". Supreme Court 5:4 decision suggests that the Court is divided in its interpretation of "Brown" and its intent in addressing racial segregation. Although "Brown" intended equal educational opportunities through desegregation practices,…

  1. Inhibitory effect of rice bran extracts and its phenolic compounds on polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato and apple puree.

    PubMed

    Sukhonthara, Sukhontha; Kaewka, Kunwadee; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2016-01-01

    Full-fatted and commercially defatted rice bran extracts (RBE and CDRBE) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in potato and apple. RBE showed more effective inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and browning in potato and apple as compared to CDRBE. Five phenolic compounds in RBE and CDRBE (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) were identified by HPLC. They were then evaluated for their important role in the inhibition using a model system which found that ferulic acid in RBE and p-coumaric acid in CDRBE were active in enzymatic browning inhibition of potato and apple. p-Coumaric acid exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO (p ⩽ 0.05). Almost all phenolic compounds showed higher inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO than 100 ppm citric acid.

  2. Inhibitory effect of rice bran extracts and its phenolic compounds on polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato and apple puree.

    PubMed

    Sukhonthara, Sukhontha; Kaewka, Kunwadee; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2016-01-01

    Full-fatted and commercially defatted rice bran extracts (RBE and CDRBE) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in potato and apple. RBE showed more effective inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and browning in potato and apple as compared to CDRBE. Five phenolic compounds in RBE and CDRBE (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) were identified by HPLC. They were then evaluated for their important role in the inhibition using a model system which found that ferulic acid in RBE and p-coumaric acid in CDRBE were active in enzymatic browning inhibition of potato and apple. p-Coumaric acid exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO (p ⩽ 0.05). Almost all phenolic compounds showed higher inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO than 100 ppm citric acid. PMID:26213057

  3. The relationship between sandy beach nematodes and environmental characteristics in two Brazilian sandy beaches (Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro).

    PubMed

    Maria, Tatiana F; Paiva, Paulo; Vanreusel, Ann; Esteves, André M

    2013-03-01

    We investigated if the differences in density and nematode communities of intertidal sediments from two Brazilian sheltered sandy beaches were related to environmental characteristics. The upper tide level (UTL) and the low tide level (LTL) of both beaches were surveyed in January (austral summer) and June 2001 (austral winter) during low-spring tides, by collecting samples of nematodes and sediments. Differences in density between beaches, tidal level and seasons, and nematode community structure were investigated. Sediments from both beaches were composed of medium to very coarse sand. The highest nematode densities were found at the UTL, and significant differences between beaches, tidal levels and months were found. A total of 54 genera were found and the genera composition on both sheltered beaches was similar to other exposed worldwide sandy beaches. The density and structure of the nematode community at both beaches clearly varied along the spatial and temporal scales. Gravel percentage was the most important variable explaining the spatial distribution of the nematodes, determining the four sub-communities; this suggests that the sediment characteristics influence the nematode community, rather than physical hydrodynamic forces. Temperature and salinity were suggested to be important variables affecting the temporal variation.

  4. Coastal topography–Northeast Atlantic coast, post-hurricane Sandy, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stockdon, Hilary F.; Doran, Kara S.; Sopkin, Kristin L.; Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Fredericks, Xan

    2013-01-01

    This Data Series contains lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) topography, dune elevations, and mean-high-water shoreline position datasets for most sandy beaches for Fire Island, New York, and from Cape Henlopen, Delaware to Cape Lookout, North Carolina. The data were acquired post-Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall as an extratropical cyclone on October 29, 2012.

  5. 78 FR 46999 - Additional Waivers and Alternative Requirements for Hurricane Sandy Grantees in Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... impacted and distressed areas declared a major disaster due to Hurricane Sandy (see 78 FR 14329, published... notice published March 5, 2013 (78 FR 14329), the Department allocated $5.4 billion after analyzing the impacts of Hurricane Sandy and identifying unmet needs. A subsequent notice, providing additional...

  6. 76 FR 64341 - Big Sandy Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Cost and Revenue Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Big Sandy Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Cost and Revenue Study Take notice that on April 8, 2011, Big Sandy Pipeline, LLC filed its cost and revenue study in compliance with...

  7. Effects of Germinated Brown Rice Addition on the Flavor and Functionality of Yogurt.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hye; Ahn, Sung-Il; Lim, Chan-Mook; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gur-Yoo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional and physicochemical properties of yogurt, supplemented with germinated brown rice (GBR) containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), during storage. GBR was produced by soaking brown rice at 30℃, and saccharified germinated brown rice (SGBR) was produced by treating brown rice with α- and β-amylase for 1 h, at 80℃ and 60℃, respectively. Yogurt was manufactured using a commercial starter (YC-X11, CHR. Hansen, Denmark) at 37℃ for 12 h. The fatty acids and GABA contents were analyzed using GC and HPLC, respectively. The fatty acids in the cereal samples consisted of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. The portion of oleic acid was the highest, at 35.65% in GBR, and 32.16% in SGBR. During germination, the oleic acid content increased, whereas linolenic and palmitic acid contents from GBR tended to decrease. Although the portion of saturated fatty acids, such as stearic and myristic acid, decreased significantly (p<0.05), that of unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic and linoleic acid, increased with an increase in supplementation of BR, GBR, or SGBR in the yogurt. The yogurt, supplemented with cereal samples, showed a tendency of an increase in the concentration of GABA with an increase in the supplementation of the cereal samples. However, yogurt supplemented with GBR showed the highest concentration of GABA, regardless of the supplementation of the cereal samples. These results indicated that yogurt supplemented with BR, GBR, or SGBR could be a promising dairy product. PMID:27621692

  8. Effects of Germinated Brown Rice Addition on the Flavor and Functionality of Yogurt

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional and physicochemical properties of yogurt, supplemented with germinated brown rice (GBR) containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), during storage. GBR was produced by soaking brown rice at 30℃, and saccharified germinated brown rice (SGBR) was produced by treating brown rice with α- and β-amylase for 1 h, at 80℃ and 60℃, respectively. Yogurt was manufactured using a commercial starter (YC-X11, CHR. Hansen, Denmark) at 37℃ for 12 h. The fatty acids and GABA contents were analyzed using GC and HPLC, respectively. The fatty acids in the cereal samples consisted of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. The portion of oleic acid was the highest, at 35.65% in GBR, and 32.16% in SGBR. During germination, the oleic acid content increased, whereas linolenic and palmitic acid contents from GBR tended to decrease. Although the portion of saturated fatty acids, such as stearic and myristic acid, decreased significantly (p<0.05), that of unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic and linoleic acid, increased with an increase in supplementation of BR, GBR, or SGBR in the yogurt. The yogurt, supplemented with cereal samples, showed a tendency of an increase in the concentration of GABA with an increase in the supplementation of the cereal samples. However, yogurt supplemented with GBR showed the highest concentration of GABA, regardless of the supplementation of the cereal samples. These results indicated that yogurt supplemented with BR, GBR, or SGBR could be a promising dairy product. PMID:27621692

  9. Seasonal variation of bivalve larvae on an exposed sandy beach on Kashima-nada: Tips for the sandy beach recruitment process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Hideki; Saito, Hajime; Adachi, Kumiko; Toyohara, Haruhiko

    2011-02-01

    Bivalves are often the dominant macrobenthos species in exposed sandy beach environments. However, our understanding of their recruitment processes before post-settlement stages on sandy beaches with highly energetic environments is incomplete. To clarify the characteristics of the free-swimming planktonic stage that affects recruitment efficiency in sandy shore ecosystems, we investigated the temporal (weekly-biweekly) variation of bivalve planktonic larval concentration coupled with oceanographic conditions on an exposed sandy shore on the sea of Kashima-nada, Japan, from summer 2003 to autumn 2005. Larvae were observed throughout the year, but the surge of larval concentration composed of sandy beach and sessile bivalves occurred most prominently in summer, from August to September. The peak concentration of larvae during this season was more than 1000 times higher than in other seasons. The larval concentration was positively correlated with water temperature and northward wind velocity and negatively correlated with each of the nutrient concentrations. On the other hand, chlorophyll a concentration and salinity seemed to have little effect on the larval concentration. Based on this fundamental knowledge, further investigations about planktonic larvae in sandy beaches are needed.

  10. Browning reaction systems as sources of mutagens and antimutagens.

    PubMed Central

    Powrie, W D; Wu, C H; Molund, V P

    1986-01-01

    Heated food systems contain hundreds of chemical compounds, some being mutagenic and others being antimutagenic. Studies have indicated that foods exposed to drying, frying, roasting, baking, and broiling conditions possess net mutagenic activity as assessed by the Ames/Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test and the chromosome aberration assay with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. With the above-mentioned heat treatment of food, nonenzymic browning reactions are generally proceeding at rapid rates and are involved in the development of mutagens. Caramelization and Maillard reactions are two important pathways in the nonenzymic browning of food and are responsible for the formation of volatile aromatic compounds, intermediate nonvolatile compounds, and brown pigments called melanoidins. Heated sugar-amino acid mixtures possessed mutagenic activities which have been assessed by short-term bioassays. Purified Maillard and caramelization reaction products such as reductones, dicarbonyls, pyrazines, and furan derivatives have exhibited mutagenicity and clastogenicity. The water-insoluble fraction (WIF) of instant coffee and a model-system melanoidin (MSM) have been shown to inhibit the mutagenicity of known carcinogens--aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), and benzo(a)pyrene (BP)--in aqueous dispersion. WIF and MSM were found to be effective binding agents for the carcinogens. PMID:3757959

  11. Speciation and Localization of Arsenic in White and Brown Rice Grains

    SciTech Connect

    Meharg, Andrew A.; Lombi, Enzo; Williams, Paul N.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea; Zhu, Yongguan; Islam, Rafiql

    2008-06-30

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) was utilized to locate arsenic (As) in polished (white) and unpolished (brown) rice grains from the United States, China, and Bangladesh. In white rice As was generally dispersed throughout the grain, the bulk of which constitutes the endosperm. In brown rice As was found to be preferentially localized at the surface, in the region corresponding to the pericarp and aleurone layer. Copper, iron, manganese, and zinc localization followed that of arsenic in brown rice, while the location for cadmium and nickel was distinctly different, showing relatively even distribution throughout the endosperm. The localization of As in the outer grain of brown rice was confirmed by laser ablation ICP?MS. Arsenic speciation of all grains using spatially resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure (?-XANES) and bulk extraction followed by anion exchange HPLC?ICP?MS revealed the presence of mainly inorganic As and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). However, the two techniques indicated different proportions of inorganic:organic As species. A wider survey of whole grain speciation of white (n = 39) and brown (n = 45) rice samples from numerous sources (field collected, supermarket survey, and pot trials) showed that brown rice had a higher proportion of inorganic arsenic present than white rice. Furthermore, the percentage of DMA present in the grain increased along with total grain arsenic.

  12. Production of the blood pressure lowing peptides from brown alga ( Undaria pinnatifida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minoru, Sato; Takashi, Oba; Takao, Hosokawa; Toshiyasu, Yamaguchi; Toshiki, Nakano; Tadao, Saito; Koji, Muramoto; Takashi, Kahara; Katsura, Funayama; Akio, Kobayashi; Takahisa, Nakano

    2005-07-01

    Brown alga ( Undaria pinnatifida) was treated with alginate lyase and hydrolyzed using 17 kinds of proteases and the inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates for the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) was measured. Four hydrolysates with potent ACE-inhibitory activity were administered singly and orally to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The systolic blood pressure of SHRs decreases significantly after single oral administration of the brown alga hydrolysates by protease S ‘Amano’ (from Bacillus stearothermophilus) at the concentration of 10 (mg protein) (kg body weight)-1. In the 17 weeks of feeding experiment, 7-week-old SHRs were fed standard diet supplemented with the brown alga hydrolysates for 10 weeks. In SHRs fed 1.0 and 0.1% brown alga hydrolysates, elevating of systolic bloodpressure was significantly suppressed for 7 weeks. To elucidate the active components, the brown alga hydrolysates were fractionated by 1-butanol extraction and HPLC on a reverse-phase column. Seven kinds of ACE-inhibitory peptides were isolated and identified by amino acid composition analysis, sequence analysis, and LC-MS with the results Val-Tyr, Ile-Tyr, Ala-Trp, Phe-Tyr, Val-Trp, Ile-Trp, and Leu-Trp. Each peptide was determined to have an antihypertensive effect after a single oral administration in SHRs. The brown alga hydrolysates were also confirmed to decrease the blood pressure in humans.

  13. Low faunal diversity on Maltese sandy beaches: fact or artefact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, Alan; Azzopardi, Marthese; Saliba, Stephen; Schembri, Patrick J.

    2003-10-01

    Eight sandy beaches on Malta and two on Gozo were sampled for macrofauna to test the hypothesis that Maltese beaches have an intrinsically low diversity. Stations distributed in the supralittoral (dry zone), mediolittoral (wet zone) and upper infralittoral (submerged zone to 1 m water depth) were sampled by sieving core samples and standardised searching during daytime, and pitfall trapping and standardised sweeping of the water column using a hand-net at night, as appropriate. Physical parameters of the sediment were measured and human occupancy of the beaches was estimated. From the supralittoral and mediolittoral, 39 species represented by 1584 individuals were collected by the combined techniques of pitfall trapping, sieving and standard searching. For Ramla beach, which had the highest diversity, 267 individuals representing 25 infaunal species were collected by sieving from a combined volume of 1.175 m 3 of sand, and 149 individuals representing 28 epifaunal species were collected by standardised searching from a combined area of 700 m 2 of sand during two winter and two summer sampling sessions between 1992 and 1993. For nine other beaches sampled during the summer of 2000, only six macrofaunal species were collected from core samples, with overall population densities ranging from 4.13 to 45.45 individuals m -2. Only 92 individuals belonging to 12 species were collected by hand-net from the uppermost infralittoral of five beaches sampled using this method during the summer of 2000. Taxa of gastropods, bivalves, decapods, mysids and staphylinid beetles generally abundant on Mediterranean sandy beaches, were entirely absent from the beaches sampled. Few correlations that could explain the impoverishment of Maltese sandy beaches were found between physical parameters and faunal abundances, and other factors such as inadequate sampling effort, human disturbance and marine pollution were also excluded; however, seasonally biased sampling may partly explain the

  14. Environmental implications of the use of sulfidic back-bay sediments for dune reconstruction - Lessons learned post Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S; Benzel, William M; Hoefen, Todd M; Hageman, Philip L; Morman, Suzette A; Reilly, Timothy J; Adams, Monique; Berry, Cyrus J; Fischer, Jeffrey M; Fisher, Irene

    2016-06-30

    Some barrier-island dunes damaged or destroyed by Hurricane Sandy's storm surges in October 2012 have been reconstructed using sediments dredged from back bays. These sand-, clay-, and iron sulfide-rich sediments were used to make berm-like cores for the reconstructed dunes, which were then covered by beach sand. In November 2013, we sampled and analyzed partially weathered materials collected from the cores of reconstructed dunes. There are generally low levels of metal toxicants in the reconstructed dune materials. However oxidation of reactive iron sulfides by percolating rainwater produces acid-sulfate pore waters, which evaporate during dry periods to produce efflorescent gypsum and sodium jarosite salts. The results suggest use of sulfidic sediments in dune reconstruction has both drawbacks (e.g., potential to generate acid runoff from dune cores following rainfall, enhanced corrosion of steel bulwarks) and possible benefits (e.g., efflorescent salts may enhance structural integrity). PMID:27210565

  15. Antimicrobials for reduction of Salmonella contamination in uncooked, surface-browned breaded chicken products.

    PubMed

    Moschonas, Galatios; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Stopforth, Jarret D; Wach, Damien; Woerner, Dale R; Belk, Keith E; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2012-06-01

    Surface-browned but uncooked frozen breaded chicken products have been associated with salmonellosis outbreaks due to inadequate or no cooking of the products before consumption. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three antimicrobials against Salmonella during manufacture of a surface-browned, uncooked frozen breaded chicken meat product. Fresh chicken breast meat portions (5 by 5 by 5 cm) were inoculated (4 to 5 log CFU/g) with Salmonella and mixed with caprylic acid (CAA; 0.5 and 1.0%), carvacrol (CAR; 0.3 and 0.5%), ε-polylysine (POL; 0.125 and 0.25%), or distilled water (control). Sodium chloride (1.2%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (0.3%) were added to all treatments, and the mixtures were ground (5% total moisture enhancement level) and formed into portions (9 by 5 by 3 cm). The products were breaded and surface browned by baking in an oven (208°C for 15 min) or deep frying in vegetable oil (190°C for 15 s), packaged in polyethylene bags, and stored at -20°C for 7 days. Total reductions of inoculated Salmonella in untreated control oven- or fryer-browned products after frozen storage were 1.2 and 0.8 log CFU/g, respectively. In comparison, treatment with CAA, CAR, or POL reduced initial pathogen counts by 3.3 to >4.5, 4.1 to >4.7, and 1.1 to 1.6 log CFU/g, respectively, regardless of the antimicrobial concentration and browning method. Treatment with 1.0% CAA (oven browned) or 0.5% CAR (oven or fryer browned) reduced Salmonella to nondetectable levels (<0.3 log CFU/g) in stored frozen products. These data may be useful for development of suitable antimicrobial treatments to reduce the risk of Salmonella contamination in surface-browned, uncooked frozen breaded chicken products.

  16. Sonication inhibited browning but decreased polyphenols contents and antioxidant activity of fresh apple (malus pumila mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujing; Zhong, Liezhou; Cao, Lianfei; Lin, Wenwen; Ye, Xingqian

    2015-12-01

    Enzyme browning is the main challenge in the preparation of fresh apple juice. The influence of sonication on browning, as well as polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fresh apple juice was investigated. It was found that ultrasound can inhibit the browning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice, but decreased the contents of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and chlorogenic acid and reduced the antioxidant activity. On the whole, ultrasound technology cannot be used to the antibrowning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

  17. Brown adipose tissue and bone

    PubMed Central

    Lidell, M E; Enerbäck, S

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is capable of transforming chemically stored energy, in the form of triglycerides, into heat. Recent studies have shown that metabolically active BAT is present in a large proportion of adult humans, where its activity correlates with a favorable metabolic status. Hence, the tissue is now regarded as an interesting target for therapies against obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes, the hypothesis being that an induction of BAT would be beneficial for these disease states. Apart from the association between BAT activity and a healthier metabolic status, later studies have also shown a positive correlation between BAT volume and both bone cross-sectional area and bone mineral density, suggesting that BAT might stimulate bone anabolism. The aim of this review is to give the reader a brief overview of the BAT research field and to summarize and discuss recent findings regarding BAT being a potential player in bone metabolism. PMID:27152171

  18. Hurricane Sandy: Shared Trauma and Therapist Self-Disclosure.

    PubMed

    Rao, Nyapati; Mehra, Ashwin

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most devastating storms to hit the United States in history. The impact of the hurricane included power outages, flooding in the New York City subway system and East River tunnels, disrupted communications, acute shortages of gasoline and food, and a death toll of 113 people. In addition, thousands of residences and businesses in New Jersey and New York were destroyed. This article chronicles the first author's personal and professional experiences as a survivor of the hurricane, more specifically in the dual roles of provider and trauma victim, involving informed self-disclosure with a patient who was also a victim of the hurricane. The general analytic framework of therapy is evaluated in the context of the shared trauma faced by patient and provider alike in the face of the hurricane, leading to important implications for future work on resilience and recovery for both the therapist and patient.

  19. Hurricane Sandy: Shared Trauma and Therapist Self-Disclosure.

    PubMed

    Rao, Nyapati; Mehra, Ashwin

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most devastating storms to hit the United States in history. The impact of the hurricane included power outages, flooding in the New York City subway system and East River tunnels, disrupted communications, acute shortages of gasoline and food, and a death toll of 113 people. In addition, thousands of residences and businesses in New Jersey and New York were destroyed. This article chronicles the first author's personal and professional experiences as a survivor of the hurricane, more specifically in the dual roles of provider and trauma victim, involving informed self-disclosure with a patient who was also a victim of the hurricane. The general analytic framework of therapy is evaluated in the context of the shared trauma faced by patient and provider alike in the face of the hurricane, leading to important implications for future work on resilience and recovery for both the therapist and patient. PMID:26168028

  20. Remediation of sandy soils using surfactant solutions and foams.

    PubMed

    Couto, Hudson J B; Massarani, Guilio; Biscaia, Evaristo C; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L

    2009-05-30

    Remediation of sandy soils contaminated with diesel oil was investigated in bench-scale experiments. Surfactant solution, regular foams and colloidal gas aphrons were used as remediation fluids. An experimental design technique was used to investigate the effect of relevant process variables on remediation efficiency. Soils prepared with different average particle sizes (0.04-0.12 cm) and contaminated with different diesel oil contents (40-80 g/kg) were used in experiments conducted with remediation fluids. A mathematical model was proposed allowing for the determination of oil removal rate-constant (k(v)) and oil content remaining in the soil after remediation (C(of)) as well as estimation of the percentage of oil removed. Oil removal efficiencies obtained under the central experimental design conditions were 96%, 88% and 35% for aphrons, regular foams and surfactant solutions, respectively. High removal efficiencies were obtained using regular foams and aphrons, demanding small amounts of surfactant.

  1. Performance of Social Network Sensors during Hurricane Sandy

    PubMed Central

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Cebrian, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Information flow during catastrophic events is a critical aspect of disaster management. Modern communication platforms, in particular online social networks, provide an opportunity to study such flow and derive early-warning sensors, thus improving emergency preparedness and response. Performance of the social networks sensor method, based on topological and behavioral properties derived from the “friendship paradox”, is studied here for over 50 million Twitter messages posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We find that differences in users’ network centrality effectively translate into moderate awareness advantage (up to 26 hours); and that geo-location of users within or outside of the hurricane-affected area plays a significant role in determining the scale of such an advantage. Emotional response appears to be universal regardless of the position in the network topology, and displays characteristic, easily detectable patterns, opening a possibility to implement a simple “sentiment sensing” technique that can detect and locate disasters. PMID:25692690

  2. Public support for policies to reduce risk after Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Michael R; Weiner, Marc D; Noland, Robert; Herb, Jeanne; Kaplan, Marjorie; Broccoli, Anthony J

    2014-06-01

    A phone survey was conducted in New Jersey in 2013 four months after the second of two major devastating tropical storms (Sandy in 2012 and Irene in 2011). The objective was to estimate public support for restricting land uses in flood zones, requiring housing to be built to resist storm waters, and otherwise increasing mitigation and resilience. Respondents who supported these mitigation and resilience policies disproportionately were concerned about global climate change, trusted climate scientists and the federal government, and were willing to contribute to a redevelopment program through taxes, bonds, and fees. They also tended to have collectivist and egalitarian worldviews. Half of the respondents supported at least four of the seven risk-reducing policies. How their support translates into public policy remains to be seen. Lack of willingness to personally fund these policies is an obstacle.

  3. Performance of social network sensors during Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Cebrian, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Information flow during catastrophic events is a critical aspect of disaster management. Modern communication platforms, in particular online social networks, provide an opportunity to study such flow and derive early-warning sensors, thus improving emergency preparedness and response. Performance of the social networks sensor method, based on topological and behavioral properties derived from the "friendship paradox", is studied here for over 50 million Twitter messages posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We find that differences in users' network centrality effectively translate into moderate awareness advantage (up to 26 hours); and that geo-location of users within or outside of the hurricane-affected area plays a significant role in determining the scale of such an advantage. Emotional response appears to be universal regardless of the position in the network topology, and displays characteristic, easily detectable patterns, opening a possibility to implement a simple "sentiment sensing" technique that can detect and locate disasters.

  4. Quantifying human mobility perturbation and resilience in Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Taylor, John E

    2014-01-01

    Human mobility is influenced by environmental change and natural disasters. Researchers have used trip distance distribution, radius of gyration of movements, and individuals' visited locations to understand and capture human mobility patterns and trajectories. However, our knowledge of human movements during natural disasters is limited owing to both a lack of empirical data and the low precision of available data. Here, we studied human mobility using high-resolution movement data from individuals in New York City during and for several days after Hurricane Sandy in 2012. We found the human movements followed truncated power-law distributions during and after Hurricane Sandy, although the β value was noticeably larger during the first 24 hours after the storm struck. Also, we examined two parameters: the center of mass and the radius of gyration of each individual's movements. We found that their values during perturbation states and steady states are highly correlated, suggesting human mobility data obtained in steady states can possibly predict the perturbation state. Our results demonstrate that human movement trajectories experienced significant perturbations during hurricanes, but also exhibited high resilience. We expect the study will stimulate future research on the perturbation and inherent resilience of human mobility under the influence of hurricanes. For example, mobility patterns in coastal urban areas could be examined as hurricanes approach, gain or dissipate in strength, and as the path of the storm changes. Understanding nuances of human mobility under the influence of such disasters will enable more effective evacuation, emergency response planning and development of strategies and policies to reduce fatality, injury, and economic loss.

  5. Mitigation of Liquefaction in Sandy Soils Using Stone Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selcuk, Levent; Kayabalı, Kamil

    2010-05-01

    Soil liquefaction is one of the leading causes of earthquake-induced damage to structures. Soil improvement methods provide effective solutions to reduce the risk of soil liquefaction. Thus, soil ground treatments are applied using various techniques. However, except for a few ground treatment methods, they generally require a high cost and a lot of time. Especially in order to prevent the risk of soil liquefaction, stone columns conctructed by vibro-systems (vibro-compaction, vibro-replacement) are one of the traditional geotechnical methods. The construction of stone columns not only enhances the ability of clean sand to drain excess pore water during an earthquake, but also increases the relative density of the soil. Thus, this application prevents the development of the excess pore water pressure in sand during earthquakes and keeps the pore pressure ratio below a certain value. This paper presents the stone column methods used against soil liquefaction in detail. At this stage, (a) the performances of the stone columns were investigated in different spacing and diameters of columns during past earthquakes, (b) recent studies about design and field applications of stone columns were presented, and (c) a new design method considering the relative density of soil and the capacity of drenage of columns were explained in sandy soil. Furthermore, with this new method, earthquake performances of the stone columns constructed at different areas were investigated before the 1989 Loma Prieta and the 1994 Northbridge earthquakes, as case histories of field applications, and design charts were compiled for suitable spacing and diameters of stone columns with consideration to the different sandy soil parameters and earhquake conditions. Key Words: Soil improvement, stone column, excess pore water pressure

  6. [Effect of grazing on sandy grassland ecosystem in Inner Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Halin; Zhang, Tonghui; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhou, Ruilian

    2004-03-01

    This experiment was carried out for 5 years in Horqin sandy land, lnner Mongolia, which had 4 treatments: Non-grazing (NG), light grazing (LG), moderate grazing (MG) and over grazing (OG). The results showed that different grazing intensities resulted in different development trend of the pasture ecosystem, of which, the injury of OG on pasture ecosystem was very great. The plant diversity, vegetation coverage, plant height and primary productivity under continuous overgrazing for 5 year were 87.9%, 82.1%, 94.0% and 57.0%, respectively, lower than those in NG. The biomass on the OG pasture was only 2.1% of NG, and the contents of soil clay, C and N as well as the quantities of soil microbes and small animals in OG were respectively 6.0%, 31.9%, 25.0%, 95.0% and 75.9% lower than those in NG, but the soil hardness was raised by 274.0%. Especially, the secondary productivity of the pasture became negative from the third year, and the productive foundation of the pasture ecosystem was completely destroyed. Non-grazing was beneficial to pasture, and enclosure caused an increase in vegetation coverage, plant height and primary productivity. The vegetation coverage, plant height and soil status in LG and MG were not as good as those in NG, but were stable and didn't show worsening trend. Based on the above results, it's considered that on the sandy pasture in the semi-arid area of Inner Mongolia, the rational grass utilization ratio is 45%-50%, and the suitable loading capacity is 3-4 sheep unit.hm-2. PMID:15227991

  7. High-density turbidity currents: Are they sandy debris flows?

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugam, G.

    1996-01-01

    Conventionally, turbidity currents are considered as fluidal flows in which sediment is supported by fluid turbulence, whereas debris flows are plastic flows in which sediment is supported by matrix strength, dispersive pressure, and buoyant lift. The concept of high-density turbidity current refers to high-concentration, commonly non-turbulent, flows of fluids in which sediment is supported mainly by matrix strength, dispersive pressure, and buoyant lift. The conventional wisdom that traction carpets with entrained turbulent clouds on top represent high-density turbidity currents is a misnomer because traction carpets are neither fluidal nor turbulent. Debris flows may also have entrained turbulent clouds on top. The traction carpet/debris flow and the overriding turbulent clouds are two separate entities in terms of flow rheology and sediment-support mechanism. In experimental and theoretical studies, which has linked massive sands and floating clasts to high-density turbidity currents, the term high-density turbidity current has actually been used for laminar flows. In alleviating this conceptual problem, sandy debris flow is suggested as a substitute for high-density turbidity current. Sandy debris flows represent a continuous spectrum of processes between cohesive and cohesionless debris flows. Commonly they are rheologically plastic. They may occur with or without entrained turbulent clouds on top. Their sediment-support mechanisms include matrix strength, dispersive pressure, and buoyant lift. They are characterized by laminar flow conditions, a moderate to high grain concentration, and a low to moderate mud content. Although flows evolve and transform during the course of transport in density-stratified flows, the preserved features in a deposit are useful to decipher only the final stages of deposition. At present, there are no established criteria to decipher transport mechanism from the depositional record.

  8. Glider observations and modeling of sediment transport in Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Travis; Seroka, Greg; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2015-03-01

    Regional sediment resuspension and transport are examined as Hurricane Sandy made landfall on the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) in October 2012. A Teledyne-Webb Slocum glider, equipped with a Nortek Aquadopp current profiler, was deployed on the continental shelf ahead of the storm, and is used to validate sediment transport routines coupled to the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The glider was deployed on 25 October, 5 days before Sandy made landfall in southern New Jersey (NJ) and flew along the 40 m isobath south of the Hudson Shelf Valley. We used optical and acoustic backscatter to compare with two modeled size classes along the glider track, 0.1 and 0.4 mm sand, respectively. Observations and modeling revealed full water column resuspension for both size classes for over 24 h during peak waves and currents, with transport oriented along-shelf toward the southwest. Regional model predictions showed over 3 cm of sediment eroded on the northern portion of the NJ shelf where waves and currents were the highest. As the storm passed and winds reversed from onshore to offshore on the southern portion of the domain waves and subsequently orbital velocities necessary for resuspension were reduced leading to over 3 cm of deposition across the entire shelf, just north of Delaware Bay. This study highlights the utility of gliders as a new asset in support of the development and verification of regional sediment resuspension and transport models, particularly during large tropical and extratropical cyclones when in situ data sets are not readily available.

  9. 3D brown adipogenesis to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands".

    PubMed

    Unser, Andrea M; Mooney, Bridget; Corr, David T; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Xie, Yubing

    2016-01-01

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. In addition, three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems are needed to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in energy balance and treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells, and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of the expression of the brown adipocyte-defining marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), as well as other general adipocyte markers. Cells within microstrands were responsive to a β-adrenergic agonist with an increase in gene expression of thermogenic UCP1, indicating that these "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" are functional. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  10. 3D brown adipogenesis to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands".

    PubMed

    Unser, Andrea M; Mooney, Bridget; Corr, David T; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Xie, Yubing

    2016-01-01

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. In addition, three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems are needed to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in energy balance and treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells, and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of the expression of the brown adipocyte-defining marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), as well as other general adipocyte markers. Cells within microstrands were responsive to a β-adrenergic agonist with an increase in gene expression of thermogenic UCP1, indicating that these "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" are functional. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders. PMID:26496384

  11. Behavioral avoidance of a metals mixture by rainbow trout and brown trout

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.A.; Bergman, H.L.; Woodward, D.F.; Little, E.E.; Deloney, A.J.

    1994-12-31

    Behavioral avoidance responses by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) were determined in the laboratory to predict the effect of mixtures of copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc on the spatial distribution of fishes in the Clark fork River (CFR), Montana. The typical ambient concentration of these metals (in {micro}g/l) in the CFR was 12 Cu, 1.1 Cd, 3.2 Pb, and 50 Zn. Laboratory tests were conducted in an opposing-flow avoidance chamber using metals concentrations ranging from 10% to 1,000% of this CFR ambient concentration. Rainbow trout avoided all metals concentrations tested from 10% to 1,000% of ambient. Brown trout failed to avoid the 10% metals concentration but did avoid all concentrations higher than 50%. In a further experiment, both species were acclimated to pH 8.0 water and avoided all changes in acidity. However, the avoidance of metals was not altered by acidity additions in brown trout and only slightly altered in rainbow trout. In all experiments, brown trout were less sensitive than rainbow trout, which was consistent with observed species distributions within the river. Behavior avoidance of this metals mixture by rainbow and brown trout in the laboratory indicates metals may have contributed to reduced abundance and altered distribution of salmonids in the CFR.

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Hurricane Sandy among Persons Exposed to the 9/11 Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Caramanica, Kimberly; Brackbill, Robert M.; Stellman, Steven D.; Farfel, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Traumatic exposure during a hurricane is associated with adverse mental health conditions post-event. The World Trade Center Health Registry provided a sampling pool for a rapid survey of persons directly affected by Hurricane Sandy in the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area in late October 2012. This study evaluated the relationship between Sandy experiences and Sandy-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among individuals previously exposed to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) disaster. Methods A total of 4,558 surveys were completed from April 10-November 7, 2013. After exclusions for missing data, the final sample included 2,214 (53.5%) respondents from FEMA-defined inundation zones and 1,923 (46.5%) from non-inundation zones. Sandy exposures included witnessing terrible events, Sandy-related injury, fearing for own life or safety of others, evacuation, living in a home that was flooded or damaged, property loss, and financial loss. Sandy-related PTSD was defined as a score of ≥44 on a Sandy-specific PTSD Checklist. Results PTSD prevalence was higher in the inundation zones (11.3%) and lower in the non-inundation zones (4.4%). The highest prevalence of Sandy-related PTSD was among individuals in the inundation zone who sustained an injury (31.2%), reported a history of 9/11-related PTSD (28.8%), or had low social support prior to the event (28.6%). In the inundation zones, significantly elevated adjusted odds of Sandy-related PTSD were observed among persons with a prior history of 9/11-related PTSD, low social support, and those who experienced a greater number of Sandy traumatic events. Conclusions Sandy-related stress symptoms indicative of PTSD affected a significant proportion of persons who lived in flooded areas of the NYC metropolitan area. Prior 9/11-related PTSD increased the likelihood of Sandy-related PTSD, while social support was protective. Public health preparation for events similar to Sandy should incorporate outreach and

  13. Nutritional and antioxidant properties of different brown and red Spanish edible seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Cofrades, S; López-López, I; Bravo, L; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Bastida, S; Larrea, M T; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2010-10-01

    This article reports a study of the nutritional composition, total dietary fiber (TDF), mineral contents, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, polyphenolic concentration and antioxidant activity of three Spanish seaweeds: two brown seaweeds (Himanthalia elongata and Undaria pinnatifida) and one red (Porphyra umbilicalis). TDF and ash were the most abundant components in the brown seaweeds, while TDF and protein were the main components in the red one. In all seaweeds, the lipid contents were very low but the polyunsaturated fatty acid contents were high. Although the red seaweed contained significantly (p < 0.05) more protein content than the brown ones, all three contained all the essential amino acids at levels comparable to FAO/WHO requirements. The brown seaweeds contained significantly more minerals than the red one; they are a rich source of K, Na, Ca and Mg and present a beneficial Na/K ratio. Himanthalia elongata displayed remarkably high polyphenolic content, endowing it with appreciable antioxidant activity. These seaweeds offer considerable potential as functional food ingredients due to components like dietary fiber, minerals and trace elements, protein and lipids, which produce many different kinds of biological activities, and also to their high antioxidant capacity. PMID:21339154

  14. Brown-Pigmented Mycobacterium mageritense as a Cause of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis and Bloodstream Infection.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Allison R; Mattar, Caline; Kirmani, Nigar; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

    2015-08-01

    Mycobacterium spp. are a rare cause of endocarditis. Herein, we describe a case of Mycobacterium mageritense prosthetic valve endocarditis. This organism produced an unusual brown pigment on solid media. Cultures of valve tissue for acid-fast bacilli might be considered in some cases of apparently culture-negative prosthetic valve endocarditis.

  15. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern brown pelican

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hingtgen, Terrence M.; Mulholland, Rosemarie; Zale, Alexander V.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for the eastern brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimal habitat) for coastal areas within the eastern brown pelican's breeding range. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for application of the eastern brown pelican habitat model and techniques for measuring model variables are described.

  16. [Soil condensation water in different habitats in Horqin sandy land: an experimental study].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Ping; He, Yu-Hui; Zhao, Xue-Yong; Li, Yu-Lin; Li, Yu-Qiang; Li, Yan-Qing; Li, Shi-min

    2009-08-01

    Weighing method was adopted to study the formation time and the amount of soil condensation water in four habitats (mobile sandy land, fixed sandy land, farmland, and Mongolian pine forest land) in Horqin Sandy Land in August 2007. The soil condensation water began to form at 20:00-22:00, increased gradually at 22:00-4:00, and began to evaporate after 4:00. In the four habitats, soil condensation water was mainly formed in 0-9 cm layer, and the amount was the greatest in 0-3 cm layer, accounting for 40% of the total. The soil condensation water also formed in 9-30 cm layer, but in very small amount. There was a greater difference in the mean daily amount of soil condensation water in 0-3 cm layer in the four habitats, with the sequence of fixed sandy land > mobile sandy land > farmland > Mongolian pine forest land, which indicated that the habitat with better vegetation condition was not benefit the formation of soil condensation water. The mean daily amount of soil condensation water in 0-30 cm layer was 0.172 mm in fixed sandy land, 0.128 mm in Mongolian pine forest land, 0.120 mm in mobile sandy land, and 0.110 mm in farmland. PMID:19947212

  17. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  18. Thomas Brown on the philosophy and psychology of perception.

    PubMed

    Mills, J A

    1987-01-01

    Thomas Brown's theory of perception is set in its philosophical context, and the influence of George Berkeley, David Hume, and Thomas Reid on Brown is discussed. Destutt de Tracy, who appears to have been an unacknowledged source for Brown's ideas, is also discussed. Brown's theory of perception is elaborated, and he is categorized both as a sense-datum theorist and as a phenomenalist.

  19. School Choice Discourse and the Legacy of "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stulberg, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    Fifty years after the "Brown" decision, and in the context of persistent racial and economic segregation and inequality in schooling, it is still important to examine "Brown"'s legacy. In this focus on school choice, the rhetoric and the ways in which the legacy of "Brown" has been emphatically invoked in charter school and voucher debates is…

  20. Effect of Product Dimensions and Surface Browning Method on Salmonella Contamination in Frozen, Surface-Browned, Breaded Chicken Products Treated with Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Moschonas, Galatios; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Stopforth, Jarret D; Woerner, Dale R; Belk, Keith E; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2015-12-01

    Not-ready-to-eat breaded chicken products formulated with antimicrobial ingredients were tested for the effect of sample dimensions, surface browning method and final internal sample temperature on inoculated Salmonella populations. Fresh chicken breast meat portions (5 × 5 × 5 cm), inoculated with Salmonella (7-strain mixture; 5 log CFU/g), were mixed with (5% v/w total moisture enhancement) (i) distilled water (control), (ii) caprylic acid (CAA; 0.0625%) and carvacrol (CAR; 0.075%), (iii) CAA (0.25%) and ε-polylysine (POL; 0.5%), (iv) CAR (0.15%) and POL (0.5%), or (v) CAA (0.0625%), CAR (0.075%) and POL (0.5%). Sodium chloride (1.2%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (0.3%) were added to all treatments. The mixtures were then ground and formed into 9 × 5 × 3 cm (150 g) or 9 × 2.5 × 2 cm (50 g) portions. The products were breaded, browned in (i) an oven (208 °C, 15 min) or (ii) deep fryer (190 °C, 15 s), packaged, and stored at -20 °C (8 d). Overall, maximum internal temperatures of 62.4 ± 4.0 °C (9 × 2.5 × 2 cm) and 46.0 ± 3.0 °C (9 × 5 × 3 cm) were reached in oven-browned samples, and 35.0 ± 1.1 °C (9 × 2.5 × 2 cm) and 31.7 ± 2.6 °C (9 × 5 × 3 cm) in fryer-browned samples. Irrespective of formulation treatment, total (after frozen storage) reductions of Salmonella were greater (P < 0.05) for 9 × 2.5 × 2 cm oven-browned samples (3.8 to at least 4.6 log CFU/g) than for 9 × 5 × 3 cm oven-browned samples (0.7 to 2.5 log CFU/g). Product dimensions did not (P ≥ 0.05) affect Salmonella reductions (0.6 to 2.8 log CFU/g) in fryer-browned samples. All antimicrobial treatments reduced Salmonella to undetectable levels (<0.3 log CFU/g) in oven-browned 9 × 2.5 × 2 cm samples. Overall, the data may be useful for the selection of antimicrobials, product dimensions, and surface browning methods for reducing Salmonella contamination. PMID:26495824

  1. Effect of Product Dimensions and Surface Browning Method on Salmonella Contamination in Frozen, Surface-Browned, Breaded Chicken Products Treated with Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Moschonas, Galatios; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Stopforth, Jarret D; Woerner, Dale R; Belk, Keith E; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2015-12-01

    Not-ready-to-eat breaded chicken products formulated with antimicrobial ingredients were tested for the effect of sample dimensions, surface browning method and final internal sample temperature on inoculated Salmonella populations. Fresh chicken breast meat portions (5 × 5 × 5 cm), inoculated with Salmonella (7-strain mixture; 5 log CFU/g), were mixed with (5% v/w total moisture enhancement) (i) distilled water (control), (ii) caprylic acid (CAA; 0.0625%) and carvacrol (CAR; 0.075%), (iii) CAA (0.25%) and ε-polylysine (POL; 0.5%), (iv) CAR (0.15%) and POL (0.5%), or (v) CAA (0.0625%), CAR (0.075%) and POL (0.5%). Sodium chloride (1.2%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (0.3%) were added to all treatments. The mixtures were then ground and formed into 9 × 5 × 3 cm (150 g) or 9 × 2.5 × 2 cm (50 g) portions. The products were breaded, browned in (i) an oven (208 °C, 15 min) or (ii) deep fryer (190 °C, 15 s), packaged, and stored at -20 °C (8 d). Overall, maximum internal temperatures of 62.4 ± 4.0 °C (9 × 2.5 × 2 cm) and 46.0 ± 3.0 °C (9 × 5 × 3 cm) were reached in oven-browned samples, and 35.0 ± 1.1 °C (9 × 2.5 × 2 cm) and 31.7 ± 2.6 °C (9 × 5 × 3 cm) in fryer-browned samples. Irrespective of formulation treatment, total (after frozen storage) reductions of Salmonella were greater (P < 0.05) for 9 × 2.5 × 2 cm oven-browned samples (3.8 to at least 4.6 log CFU/g) than for 9 × 5 × 3 cm oven-browned samples (0.7 to 2.5 log CFU/g). Product dimensions did not (P ≥ 0.05) affect Salmonella reductions (0.6 to 2.8 log CFU/g) in fryer-browned samples. All antimicrobial treatments reduced Salmonella to undetectable levels (<0.3 log CFU/g) in oven-browned 9 × 2.5 × 2 cm samples. Overall, the data may be useful for the selection of antimicrobials, product dimensions, and surface browning methods for reducing Salmonella contamination.

  2. Acquired Brown's syndrome: an unusual cause.

    PubMed

    Booth-Mason, S; Kyle, G M; Rossor, M; Bradbury, P

    1985-10-01

    A 62-year-old man with acquired Brown's syndrome is presented. This was due to an orbital metastatic deposit, a cause not previously reported. Other causes of this disorder and its treatment are discussed.

  3. [Fish community structure and its seasonal change in subtidal sandy beach habitat off southern Gouqi Island].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Shou-Yu

    2011-05-01

    To understand the characteristics of fish community structure in sandy beach habitats of island reef water areas, and to evaluate the potential capacity of these habitats in local fish stock maintenance, fishes were monthly collected with multi-mesh trammel nets in 2009 from the subtidal sandy beach habitat off southern Gouqi Island, taking the adjacent rocky reef habitat as the control. alpha and beta species diversity indices, index of relative importance (IRI), relative catch rate, and dominance curve for abundance and biomass (ABC curve) were adopted to compare the fish species composition, diversity, and community pattern between the two habitats, and multivariate statistical analyses such as non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) and cluster were conducted to discuss the fish assemblage patterns. A total of 63 fish species belonging to 11 orders, 38 families, and 56 genera were collected, of which, 46 fish species were appeared in the two habitats. Due to the appearance of more warm water species in sandy bottom, the fishes in subtidal sandy beach habitat showed much higher richness, and the abundance catch rate (ACR) from May to July was higher than that in rocky reef habitat. In most rest months, the ACR in subtidal sandy beach habitat also showed the similar trend. However, the species richness and diversity in spring and summer were significantly lower in subtidal sandy beach habitat than in rocky reef habitat, because of the high species dominance and low evenness in the sandy beach habitat. Japanese tonguefish (Paraplagusia japonica) was the indicator species in the sandy beach habitat, and dominated in early spring, later summer, autumn, and winter when the fishing pressure was not strong. In sandy bottom, a unique community structure was formed and kept in dynamic, due to the nursery use of sandy beach by Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) from May to July, the gathering of gray mullet (Mugil cephalus) in most months for feeding, and the large

  4. How Long? Cosby, Brown and Racial Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2004-01-01

    Bill Cosby ruffled feathers, raised eyebrows and said a mouthful when, at a Howard University black-tie celebration of the 50th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education, he launched into a rift about "the lower economic people" not holding up their end of the bargain in the wake of Brown. "We can't blame White people," Cosby said, for an array…

  5. Formation of Brown Dwarfs LTSA 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The goals of the work funded by this grant are: 1) The measurement of the mass function and minimum mass of free-floating brown dwarfs down to the mass of Jupiter. 2) The measurement of the frequency of wide brown dwarf and planetary companions down to the mass of Jupiter as function of primary mass (0.02-2 Msun), age (1-10 Myr), and environment (clusters vs. dispersed regions).

  6. What Brown saw and you can too

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearle, Philip; Collett, Brian; Bart, Kenneth; Bilderback, David; Newman, Dara; Samuels, Scott

    2010-12-01

    A discussion of Robert Brown's original observations of particles ejected by pollen of the plant Clarkia pulchella undergoing what is now called Brownian motion is given. We consider the nature of those particles and how he misinterpreted the Airy disk of the smallest particles to be universal organic building blocks. Relevant qualitative and quantitative investigations with a modern microscope and with a "homemade" single lens microscope similar to Brown's are presented.

  7. Brown carbon formation from ketoaldehydes of biogenic monoterpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Tran B.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2013-04-10

    Sources and chemical composition of the brown carbon are poorly understood, and even less is known about the mechanisms of its atmospheric transformations. This work presents molecular level investigation of the reactive compound ketolimononaldehyde (KLA, C9H14O3), a second generation ozonolysis product of limonene (C10H16), as a potent brown carbon precursor in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through its reactions with reduced nitrogen compounds such as ammonium ion (NH4+), ammonia, and amino acids. The reactions of synthesized and purified KLA with NH4+ and glycine resulted in the formation of chromophores nearly identical in spectral properties and formation rates to those found in similarly-aged limonene/O3 SOA. Similar chemical reaction processes of limononaldehyde (LA, C10H16O2) and pinonaldehyde (PA, C10H16O2), the first-generation ozonolysis products in the oxidation of limonene and α-pinene, respectively, were also studied, but the resulting products did not exhibit light absorption properties of brown carbon, suggesting that the unique molecular structure of KLA produces visible-light-absorbing compounds. The KLA/NH4+ and KLA/GLY reactions produce water-soluble, hydrolysis-resilient chromophores with high mass absorption coefficients (MAC = 2000-4000 cm2 g-1) at λ ~ 500 nm, precisely at the maximum of the solar emission spectrum. Liquid chromatography was used to isolate the light-absorbing fraction, and UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) techniques were used to investigate the structures and chemical properties of the light-absorbing compounds. The KLA browning reaction generates a diverse mixture of light-absorbing compounds, with the majority of the observable products containing 1-4 units of KLA and 0-2 nitrogen atoms. Based on the HR-MS product distribution, conjugated aldol condensates, secondary imines (Schiff bases), and N-heterocycles like pyrroles may contribute in varying degree to the light-absorbing properties

  8. Brown carbon formation from ketoaldehydes of biogenic monoterpenest.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tran B; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A

    2013-01-01

    Sources and chemical composition of brown carbon are poorly understood, and even less is known about the mechanisms of its atmospheric transformations. This work presents molecular-level investigations of the reactive compound ketolimononaldehyde (KLA, C9H14O3), a second-generation ozonolysis product of limonene (C10H16), as a potent brown carbon precursor in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through its reactions with reduced nitrogen compounds, such as ammonium ion (NH4+), ammonia, and amino acids. The reactions of synthesized and purified KLA with NH4+ and glycine resulted in the formation of chromophores nearly identical in spectral properties and formation rates to those found in similarly-aged limonene/O3 SOA. Similar chemical reaction processes of limononaldehyde (LA, C10H16O2) and pinonaldehyde (PA, C10H16O2), the first-generation ozonolysis products of limonene and alpha-pinene, respectively, were also studied, but the resulting products did not exhibit the light absorption properties of brown carbon, suggesting that the unique molecular structure of KLA produces visible-light-absorbing compounds. The KLA/NH4+ and KLA/GLY reactions produce water-soluble, hydrolysis-resilient chromophores with high mass absorption coefficients (MAC = 2000-4000 cm2 g(-1)) at lambda - 500 nm, precisely at the maximum of the solar emission spectrum. Liquid chromatography was used to isolate the light-absorbing fraction, and UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) techniques were used to investigate the structures and chemical properties of the light-absorbing compounds. The KLA browning reaction generates a diverse mixture of light-absorbing compounds, with the majority of the observable products containing 1-4 units of KLA and 0-2 nitrogen atoms. Based on the HR-MS product distribution, conjugated aldol condensates, secondary imines (Schiff bases), and N-heterocycles like pyrroles may contribute in varying degree to the light-absorbing properties of the

  9. Carbon mineralization and nutrient availability in calcareous sandy soils amended with woody waste biochar.

    PubMed

    El-Naggar, Ahmed H; Usman, Adel R A; Al-Omran, Abdulrasoul; Ok, Yong Sik; Ahmad, Mahtab; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I

    2015-11-01

    Many studies have reported the positive effect of biochar on soil carbon sequestration and soil fertility improvement in acidic soils. However, biochar may have different impacts on calcareous sandy soils. A 90-day incubation experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of woody waste biochar (10 g kg(-1)) on CO2-C emissions, K2SO4-extractable C and macro-(N, P and K) and micro-(Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) nutrient availability in the presence or absence of poultry manure (5 g kg(-1) soil). The following six treatments were applied: (1) conocarpus (Conocarpus erectus L.) waste (CW), (2) conocarpus biochar (BC), (3) poultry manure (PM), (4) PM+CW, (5) PM+BC and (6) untreated soil (CK). Poultry manure increased CO2-C emissions and K2SO4-extractable C, and the highest increases in CO2-C emission rate and cumulative CO2-C and K2SO4-extractable C were observed for the PM+CW treatment. On the contrary, treatments with BC halted the CO2-C emission rate, indicating that the contribution of BC to CO2-C emissions is negligible compared with the soils amended with CW and PM. Furthermore, the combined addition of PM+BC increased available N, P and K compared with the PM or BC treatments. Overall, the incorporation of biochar into calcareous soils might have benefits in carbon sequestration and soil fertility improvement. PMID:26037818

  10. Leaching losses of two nutrients and an herbicide from two sandy soils during transient drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Mansell, R.S.; Wheeler, W.B.; Calvert, D.W.

    1980-09-01

    Shallow-tilled (ST) and deep-tilled (DT) plots of an acid, sandy soil were used to measure changes in potassium, nitrogen nitrates, and Terbacil concentrations in subsurface drainage water from the plots. Fertilizer and Terbacil herbicide was applied to the soil. Transient water flow was applied to the plots for a 2-wk period after 7.6 cm of irrigation had been achieved. Drainage water contained higher concentrations of all solutes than did DT drainage water. In the DT soil, the discharges of potassium, nitrogen producing nitrates, and terbacil were only 29.6, 37.0, and 13.9% respectively as large as those in the ST soil. Total cumulative drainage from DT soil was only 51.1% that from ST soil. Thus, relatively small quantities of irrigation and rainfall produced relatively large nutrient discharges. As irrigation was begun soon after fertilizer application, the leaching loss of these solutes would be expected to be greater than if water application had occurred later. 13 references, 8 figures, 5 tables.

  11. Fate of CL-20 in sandy soils: degradation products as potential markers of natural attenuation.

    PubMed

    Monteil-Rivera, Fanny; Halasz, Annamaria; Manno, Dominic; Kuperman, Roman G; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Hawari, Jalal

    2009-01-01

    Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) is an emerging explosive that may replace the currently used explosives such as RDX and HMX, but little is known about its fate in soil. The present study was conducted to determine degradation products of CL-20 in two sandy soils under abiotic and biotic anaerobic conditions. Biotic degradation was prevalent in the slightly acidic VT soil, which contained a greater organic C content, while the slightly alkaline SAC soil favored hydrolysis. CL-20 degradation was accompanied by the formation of formate, glyoxal, nitrite, ammonium, and nitrous oxide. Biotic degradation of CL-20 occurred through the formation of its denitrohydrogenated derivative (m/z 393 Da) while hydrolysis occurred through the formation of a ring cleavage product (m/z 156 Da) that was tentatively identified as CH(2)=N-C(=N-NO(2))-CH=N-CHO or its isomer N(NO(2))=CH-CH=N-CO-CH=NH. Due to their chemical specificity, these two intermediates may be considered as markers of in situ attenuation of CL-20 in soil.

  12. Fate of CL-20 in sandy soils: degradation products as potential markers of natural attenuation.

    PubMed

    Monteil-Rivera, Fanny; Halasz, Annamaria; Manno, Dominic; Kuperman, Roman G; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Hawari, Jalal

    2009-01-01

    Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) is an emerging explosive that may replace the currently used explosives such as RDX and HMX, but little is known about its fate in soil. The present study was conducted to determine degradation products of CL-20 in two sandy soils under abiotic and biotic anaerobic conditions. Biotic degradation was prevalent in the slightly acidic VT soil, which contained a greater organic C content, while the slightly alkaline SAC soil favored hydrolysis. CL-20 degradation was accompanied by the formation of formate, glyoxal, nitrite, ammonium, and nitrous oxide. Biotic degradation of CL-20 occurred through the formation of its denitrohydrogenated derivative (m/z 393 Da) while hydrolysis occurred through the formation of a ring cleavage product (m/z 156 Da) that was tentatively identified as CH(2)=N-C(=N-NO(2))-CH=N-CHO or its isomer N(NO(2))=CH-CH=N-CO-CH=NH. Due to their chemical specificity, these two intermediates may be considered as markers of in situ attenuation of CL-20 in soil. PMID:18801604

  13. Continuum Statistics of the Bed Topography in a Sandy River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, B.; Jerolmack, D.; Mohrig, D.

    2005-12-01

    Temporal and spatial variabilities in the bed geometry of sandy rivers contain information about processes of sediment transport that has not been fully appreciated. This is primarily due to a disparity between the dynamic nature of the sediment-fluid interface and the relatively static methods of surveying bed elevation, e.g. single profiles or point measurements. High resolution topographic data is paramount to understanding the dynamic behavior of sandy beds. We present and analyze a data set collected on a 2cm x 2cm grid at 1 minute intervals and with a vertical precision of ~1mm. This was accomplished by using Lambert-Beer's Law for attenuation of light to transform low-altitude aerial photographs into digital elevation models. Forty successive models were generated for a 20 m by 30 m section of channel bottom of the N. Loup River, Nebraska. To calculate the average, whole bed translation rate, or celerity, cross-correlations between a reference bed topography and its proceeding configurations were determined. Time differences between models were related to the shift lengths that produced correlation maxima for each model pair. The result is a celerity of ~3.8cm/s with a correlation coefficient of 0.992. Bed topography also deforms while it translates, and this can be seen as a secular decrease of correlation maxima. The form of this decrease in correlation is exponential, and from it an interface half-life is defined. In this case, the bed had become extensively reorganized within ~40 minutes, the time necessary to translate the bed one wavelength of the dominant roughness element. Although the bed is continuously deforming, its roughness is statistically stationary. Essentially, a mean roughness is maintained as the bed creates new realizations of itself. The dynamic nature of the whole bed and similarly transient behavior of individual elements suggests the utility of a holistic approach to studying the feedback between bed topography, fluid flow, and

  14. Electrochemically enhanced oxidation reactions in sandy soil polluted with mercury

    PubMed

    Thoming; Kliem; Ottosen

    2000-10-16

    For remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals, the electrodialytic remediation (EDR) method is a highly relevant method, see e.g. Hansen et al. (Hansen HK, Ottosen LM, Kliem BK, Villumsen A. Electrodialytic remediation of soils polluted with Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Zn. J Chem Tech Biotechnol 1997;70:67-73). During the process the heavy metals are transferred to the pore water in dissolved form or attached to colloids and move within the applied electric field. The method is found to be useful in many soil types, but has its strength in fine-grained soils. It is exactly in such soils that other remediation methods fail. Four cell experiments were made in order to investigate how relevant the method is for a more sandy soil and if it is suitable for non-ionic heavy metals such as elemental mercury. The duration was 27 days for two of the experiments and two experiments lasted 54 days, and the mercury within the soil was initially 1200-1900 mg kg(-1), of which 84% was elemental Hg. To monitor the process the pseudo-total mercury concentration was distinguished between elemental mercury and non-metallic mercury species by thermodesorption. During the electrodialytic treatment an increase of the content of non-metallic mercury occurred and a corresponding decrease of the content of elemental mercury which indicates a transformation of the latter species into any other non-metallic species. Generally, oxidation of Hg by dissolved oxygen in a solution is kinetically inhibited and thus quite slow. The redistribution of Hg was closely connected to a decrease of soil pH during the experiments. This corresponds very well to the thermodynamic calculations from which it was found that a decrease in the pH of the soil will result in an increase in the oxidation rate of elemental Hg. Results from this investigation show that the electrodialytic remediation method alone is not efficient in situations with sandy soils containing elemental mercury. As a solution for this

  15. Detached macroalgae: Its importance to inshore sandy beach fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Kyla K.; Wilding, Thomas A.; Horstmeyer, Lena; Weigl, Simon; Heymans, Johanna J.

    2014-10-01

    Kelp forests shed a large proportion of their biomass through storm-mediated defoliation, senescence of kelp blades, and constant erosion of particulate organic matter from the kelp fronds. Much of this detached macroalgae drifts in the water column and is deposited on intertidal zones of beaches. Detached macroalgae may provide inshore sandy beach fauna with refuge and food subsidies in an exposed and bare environment, with limited in situ primary production. We evaluated the relationship between detached macroalgae and the density of inshore fauna, where 'inshore' was the body of water extending from low water seawards for approximately 50 m. Inshore fauna were sampled using a push-net (1 mm mesh) on 11 beaches, and using a beam-trawl (4 mm mesh) on a subset of 8 beaches. On each beach, the density of detached macroalgae in the water column was quantified, together with a suite of physico-chemical beach characteristics. Push-net samples principally comprised omnivorous and detritivorous crustaceans such as gammarid amphipods, mysids and valviferan isopods, which have limited swimming abilities and reside inshore year-round. Beam-trawl fauna were mainly carnivorous decapods and fish, which undergo seasonal inshore-offshore migrations to utilize sandy beaches as nursery habitats. Linear models predicted increases of 11% (95% CI: 3.5-19%) and 2.4% (95% CI: 0.7-4.2%) in the density of push-net and beam-trawl fauna, respectively, with a 1 ℓ.100 m-3 increase in detached macroalgae. This suggests that detached macroalgae is more important in the provision of food and shelter to small, weak-swimming detritivores/omnivores than to larger and more mobile predators. The densities of large predators were mostly explained by physical beach characteristics, which overshadowed the role of macroalgae. Maximum abundances of decapods and fish were found on wide, flat beaches with low wave heights. Large accumulations of macroalgae may inhibit the foraging efficiencies of

  16. Tuberous sclerosis complex 1-mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling determines brown-to-white adipocyte phenotypic switch.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xinxin; Lan, He; Tang, Hong; Yuan, Fang; Xu, Yanhui; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yin; Zhang, Weizhen

    2015-02-01

    Interconversion of white and brown adipocytes occurs between anabolic and catabolic states. The molecular mechanism regulating this phenotypic switch remains largely unknown. This study explores the role of tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1)-mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the conversion of brown to white adipose tissue (WAT). A colony of Fabp4-Tsc1(-/-) mice, in which the Tsc1 gene was specifically deleted by the fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4)-Cre, was established. Western blotting and immunostaining demonstrated the absence of TSC1 and activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, the downstream target of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, in the brown adipose tissues (BATs) of Fabp4-Tsc1(-/-) mice. Accumulation of lipid droplets in BAT was significantly increased. Levels of brown adipocyte markers were markedly downregulated, while white adipocyte markers were upregulated. Rapamycin reversed the conversion from BAT to WAT in Fabp4-Tsc1(-/-) mice. Deletion of the Tsc1 gene in cultured brown preadipocytes significantly increased the conversion to white adipocytes. FoxC2 mRNA, the transcriptional factor for brown adipocyte determination, was significantly decreased, while mRNAs for retinoblastoma protein, p107 and RIP140, the transcriptional factors for white adipocyte determination, increased in the BAT of Fabp4-Tsc1(-/-) mice. Our study demonstrates that TSC1-mTORC1 signaling contributes to the brown-to-white adipocyte phenotypic switch. PMID:25213336

  17. α/β-Hydrolase Domain 6 Deletion Induces Adipose Browning and Prevents Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shangang; Mugabo, Yves; Ballentine, Gwynne; Attane, Camille; Iglesias, Jose; Poursharifi, Pegah; Zhang, Dongwei; Nguyen, Thuy Anne; Erb, Heidi; Prentki, Raphael; Peyot, Marie-Line; Joly, Erik; Tobin, Stephanie; Fulton, Stephanie; Brown, J Mark; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2016-03-29

    Suppression of α/β-domain hydrolase-6 (ABHD6), a monoacylglycerol (MAG) hydrolase, promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells. We report here that high-fat-diet-fed ABHD6-KO mice show modestly reduced food intake, decreased body weight gain and glycemia, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and enhanced locomotor activity. ABHD6-KO mice also show increased energy expenditure, cold-induced thermogenesis, brown adipose UCP1 expression, fatty acid oxidation, and white adipose browning. Adipose browning and cold-induced thermogenesis are replicated by the ABHD6 inhibitor WWL70 and by antisense oligonucleotides targeting ABHD6. Our evidence suggests that one mechanism by which the lipolysis derived 1-MAG signals intrinsic and cell-autonomous adipose browning is via PPARα and PPARγ activation, and that ABHD6 regulates adipose browning by controlling signal competent 1-MAG levels. Thus, ABHD6 regulates energy homeostasis, brown adipose function, and white adipose browning and is a potential therapeutic target for obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  18. Differentiation of rat brown adipocytes during late foetal development: role of insulin-like growth factor I.

    PubMed Central

    Teruel, T; Valverde, A M; Alvarez, A; Benito, M; Lorenzo, M

    1995-01-01

    Rat brown adipocytes at day 22 of foetal development showed greater size, higher mitochondria content and larger amounts of lipids, as determined by flow cytometry, than 20-day foetal cells. Simultaneously, an inhibition on the percentage of brown adipocytes into S+G2/M phases of the cell cycle was observed between days 20 and 22 of foetal development. The expression of several adipogenesis-related genes, such as fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and insulin-regulated glucose transporter, increased at the end of foetal life in brown adipose tissue. In addition, the lipogenic enzyme activities and the lipogenic flux increased during late foetal development, resulting in mature brown adipocytes showing a multilocular fat droplet phenotype. Concurrently, brown adipocytes induced the expression of the uncoupling protein (UP) mRNA and UP protein, as visualized by immunofluorescence. The three isoforms of CCAAT enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) were expressed at the mRNA level in brown adipose tissue at day 20. C/EBP alpha decreased and C/EBP beta and delta increased their expression between days 20 and 22 of foetal development, respectively. Brown adipose tissue constitutively expressed insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) mRNAs. Moreover, IGF-IR mRNA content increased between days 20 and 22 in parallel with the occurrence of tissue differentiation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7575409

  19. Content Analysis of Select YouTube Postings: Comparisons of Reactions to the Sandy Hook and Aurora Shootings and Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric D

    2015-11-01

    This study details an innovative and methodical content analysis of 2,207 YouTube comments from four different YouTube videos (e.g., breaking news or memorials) related to the 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School and Aurora theater mass shootings and the catastrophic Hurricane Sandy. As expected, YouTube comments associated with the Sandy Hook shootings (particularly those from a memorial video) were especially likely to feature compassion and grief with lessened hostility. This study highlights differing online contexts by which individuals show grief and related emotions following man-made and natural calamities and how-even in an online environment-powerful situational contexts greatly guide behavior.

  20. Content Analysis of Select YouTube Postings: Comparisons of Reactions to the Sandy Hook and Aurora Shootings and Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric D

    2015-11-01

    This study details an innovative and methodical content analysis of 2,207 YouTube comments from four different YouTube videos (e.g., breaking news or memorials) related to the 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School and Aurora theater mass shootings and the catastrophic Hurricane Sandy. As expected, YouTube comments associated with the Sandy Hook shootings (particularly those from a memorial video) were especially likely to feature compassion and grief with lessened hostility. This study highlights differing online contexts by which individuals show grief and related emotions following man-made and natural calamities and how-even in an online environment-powerful situational contexts greatly guide behavior. PMID:26379103

  1. Regulatory networks of non-coding RNAs in brown/beige adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shaohai; Chen, Peng; Sun, Lei

    2015-01-01

    BAT (brown adipose tissue) is specialized to burn fatty acids for heat generation and energy expenditure to defend against cold and obesity. Accumulating studies have demonstrated that manipulation of BAT activity through various strategies can regulate metabolic homoeostasis and lead to a healthy phenotype. Two classes of ncRNA (non-coding RNA), miRNA and lncRNA (long non-coding RNA), play crucial roles in gene regulation during tissue development and remodelling. In the present review, we summarize recent findings on regulatory role of distinct ncRNAs in brown/beige adipocytes, and discuss how these ncRNA regulatory networks contribute to brown/beige fat development, differentiation and function. We suggest that targeting ncRNAs could be an attractive approach to enhance BAT activity for protecting the body against obesity and its pathological consequences. PMID:26283634

  2. A transgenic apple callus showing reduced polyphenol oxidase activity and lower browning potential.

    PubMed

    Murata, M; Nishimura, M; Murai, N; Haruta, M; Homma, S; Itoh, Y

    2001-02-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is responsible for enzymatic browning of apples. Apples lacking PPO activity might be useful not only for the food industry but also for studies of the metabolism of polyphenols and the function of PPO. Transgenic apple calli were prepared by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the kanamycin (KM) resistant gene and antisense PPO gene. Four KM-resistant callus lines were obtained from 356 leaf explants. Among these transgenic calli, three calli grew on the medium containing KM at the same rate as non-transgenic callus on the medium without KM. One callus line had an antisense PPO gene, in which the amount and activity of PPO were reduced to half the amount and activity in non-transgenic callus. The browning potential of this line, which was estimated by adding chlorogenic acid, was also half the browning potential of non-transgenic callus.

  3. The Gut Microbiota Modulates Energy Metabolism in the Hibernating Brown Bear Ursus arctos.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Felix; Ståhlman, Marcus; Ilkayeva, Olga; Arnemo, Jon M; Kindberg, Jonas; Josefsson, Johan; Newgard, Christopher B; Fröbert, Ole; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2016-02-23

    Hibernation is an adaptation that helps many animals to conserve energy during food shortage in winter. Brown bears double their fat depots during summer and use these stored lipids during hibernation. Although bears seasonally become obese, they remain metabolically healthy. We analyzed the microbiota of free-ranging brown bears during their active phase and hibernation. Compared to the active phase, hibernation microbiota had reduced diversity, reduced levels of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and increased levels of Bacteroidetes. Several metabolites involved in lipid metabolism, including triglycerides, cholesterol, and bile acids, were also affected by hibernation. Transplantation of the bear microbiota from summer and winter to germ-free mice transferred some of the seasonal metabolic features and demonstrated that the summer microbiota promoted adiposity without impairing glucose tolerance, suggesting that seasonal variation in the microbiota may contribute to host energy metabolism in the hibernating brown bear. PMID:26854221

  4. Modification of sandy soil hydrophysical environment through bagasse additive under laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Halim, A. A.; Kumlung, Arunsiri

    2015-01-01

    Until now sandy soils can be considered as one roup having common hydrophysical problems. Therefore, a laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of bagasse as an amendment to improve hydrophysical properties of sandy soil, through the determination of bulk density, aggregatesize distribution, total porosity, hydraulic conductivity, pore-space structure and water retention. To fulfil this objective, sandy soils were amended with bagasse at the rate of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4% on the dry weight basis. The study results demonstrated that the addition of bagasse to sandy soils in between 3 to 4% on the dry weight basis led to a significant decrease in bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, and rapid-drainable pores, and increase in the total porosity, water-holding pores, fine capillary pores, water retained at field capacity, wilting point, and soil available water as compared with the control treatment

  5. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: potential use in environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Neves, Natália Rust; Oliva, Marco Antonio; da Cruz Centeno, Danilo; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ribas, Rogério Ferreira; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmão

    2009-06-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM(Fe)) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM(Fe) application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  6. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: potential use in environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Neves, Natália Rust; Oliva, Marco Antonio; da Cruz Centeno, Danilo; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ribas, Rogério Ferreira; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmão

    2009-06-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM(Fe)) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM(Fe) application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers. PMID:19321190

  7. Effects of leachate on geotechnical characteristics of sandy clay soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harun, N. S.; Ali, Z. Rahman; Rahim, A. S.; Lihan, T.; Idris, R. M. W.

    2013-11-01

    Leachate is a hazardous liquid that poses negative impacts if leaks out into environments such as soil and ground water systems. The impact of leachate on the downgraded quality in terms of chemical characteristic is more concern rather than the physical or mechanical aspect. The effect of leachate on mechanical behaviour of contaminated soil is not well established and should be investigated. This paper presents the preliminary results of the effects of leachate on the Atterberg limit, compaction and shear strength of leachate-contaminated soil. The contaminated soil samples were prepared by mixing the leachate at ratiosbetween 0% and 20% leachate contents with soil samples. Base soil used was residual soil originated from granitic rock and classified as sandy clay soil (CS). Its specific gravity ranged between 2.5 and 2.64 with clay minerals of kaolinite, muscovite and quartz. The field strength of the studied soil ranged between 156 and 207 kN/m2. The effects of leachate on the Atterberg limit clearly indicated by the decrease in liquid and plastic limit values with the increase in the leachate content. Compaction tests on leachate-contaminated soil caused the dropped in maximum dry density, ρdry and increased in optimum moisture content, wopt when the amount of leachate was increased between 0% and 20%. The results suggested that leachate contamination capable to modify some geotechnical properties of the studied residual soils.

  8. Travel of pollution, and purification en route, in sandy soils

    PubMed Central

    Baars, J. K.

    1957-01-01

    The travel of pollution in sandy soils, and the extent to which purification takes place en route, are discussed, with special reference to the possible contamination of ground water—a problem which is of particular importance in the Netherlands, where the water-supply for many of the large towns is drawn from the water underneath the dunes. Specifically, two types of soil pollution are considered: (a) severe pollution of the surface layers with matter concentrated in a small volume of water (e.g., faecal matter from pit privies at camping-sites); and (b) moderate pollution of the surface layers with matter contained in large quantities of water (e.g., organic matter and bacteria in river water used for the artificial recharge of ground water). It is shown that in both these types of pollution the self-purification is sufficient to prevent contamination of the ground water, provided that the soil is very fine and—in the case of the first type—dry and well aerated, and provided that the ground-water level is not too high or the rate of infiltration too great. PMID:13472428

  9. Heat transport dynamics at a sandy intertidal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, Kevin M.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Erler, Dirk V.; Santos, Isaac R.; Eyre, Bradley D.

    2013-06-01

    Intertidal zones are spatially complex and temporally dynamic environments. Coastal groundwater discharge, including submarine groundwater discharge, may provide stabilizing conditions for intertidal zone permeable sediments. In this study, we integrated detailed time series temperature observations, porewater pressure measurements, and two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography profiles to understand the coupled hydraulic-thermal regime of a tropical sandy intertidal zone in a fringing coral reef lagoon (Rarotonga, Cook Islands). We found three heating patterns across the 15 m study transect over tidal and diel periods: (1) a highly variable thermal regime dominated by swash infiltration and changes in saturation state in the upper foreshore with net heat import into the sediment, (2) a groundwater-supported underground stable, cool region just seaward of the intertidal slope break also importing heat into the subsurface, and (3) a zone of seawater recirculation that sustained consistently warm subsurface temperatures that exported heat across the sediment-water interface. Simple calculations suggested thermal conduction as the main heat transport mechanism for the shallow intertidal sediment, but deeper and/or multidimensional groundwater flow was required to explain temperature patterns beyond 20 cm depth. Temperature differences between the distinct hydrodynamic zones of the foreshore site resulted in significant thermal gradients that persisted beyond tidal and diel periods. The thermal buffering of intertidal zones by coastal groundwater systems, both at surface seeps and in the shallow subsurface, can be responsible for thermal refugia for some coastal organisms and hotspots for biogeochemical reactions.

  10. Colonization dynamics of ciliate morphotypes modified by shifting sandy sediments.

    PubMed

    Risse-Buhl, Ute; Felsmann, Katja; Mutz, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Sandy stream-bed sediments colonized by a diverse ciliate community are subject to various disturbance regimes. In microcosms, we investigated the effect of sediment shifting on the colonization dynamics of 3 ciliate morphotypes differing in morphology, behavior and feeding strategy. The dynamics of the ciliate morphotypes inhabiting sediment pore water and overlying water were observed at 3 sediment shifting frequencies: (1) stable sediments, (2) periodically shifting sediments such as migrating ripples, and (3) continuously shifting sediments as occurring during scour events of the uppermost sediment. Sediment shifting significantly affected the abundance and growth rate of the ciliate morphotypes. The free-swimming filter feeder Dexiostoma campylum was vulnerable to washout by sediment shifting since significantly higher numbers occurred in the overlying water than in pore water. Abundance of D. campylum only increased in pore water of stable sediments. On the contrary, the vagile grasper feeder Chilodonella uncinata and the sessile filter feeder Vorticella convallaria had positive growth rates and successfully colonized sediments that shifted periodically and continuously. Thus, the spatio-temporal pattern of sediment dynamics acts as an essential factor of impact on the structure, distribution and function of ciliate communities in sand-bed streams.

  11. [Structural characteristics of Hemiptelea davidii community on Kerqin sandy land].

    PubMed

    Bai, Yun-Peng; Han, Da-Yong; Dong, Yan-Hong; Zhao, Yu-Jing; Li, Jian-Dong

    2008-02-01

    An investigation was made on the species composition and eco-type of Hemiptelea davidii community on Kerqin sandy land. The results showed that in study area, no shrub layer existed in H. davidii forest, while arbor layer could be divided into two sub-layers, with a height of 4.05-7.86 m for the upper layer, and of 2.05-3.20 m for the lower layer. In the community, there were 32 herbal species belonging to 27 genera of 13 families and dominant by Poaceae, Fabaceae and Compositae, and 11 areal types, among which, the species number in Mongolian-Northeastern China-Dahuricia-North China areal type was the highest (34.38%), followed by that in Northeastern China-North China areal type (12.5%). Among three water ecological types, mesophytes occupied 59.37% of the total, and mesoxerophytes and xerophytes occupied 25% and 15.63%, respectively. Hemicryptophytes had a larger amount in six life forms, accounting for 31.25% of the total. H. davidii community had the typical life form characteristics of temperate steppe. PMID:18464628

  12. Extraction of sandy bedforms features through geodesic morphometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debese, Nathalie; Jacq, Jean-José; Garlan, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    State-of-art echosounders reveal fine-scale details of mobile sandy bedforms, which are commonly found on continental shelfs. At present, their dynamics are still far from being completely understood. These bedforms are a serious threat to navigation security, anthropic structures and activities, placing emphasis on research breakthroughs. Bedform geometries and their dynamics are closely linked; therefore, one approach is to develop semi-automatic tools aiming at extracting their structural features from bathymetric datasets. Current approaches mimic manual processes or rely on morphological simplification of bedforms. The 1D and 2D approaches cannot address the wide ranges of both types and complexities of bedforms. In contrast, this work attempts to follow a 3D global semi-automatic approach based on a bathymetric TIN. The currently extracted primitives are the salient ridge and valley lines of the sand structures, i.e., waves and mega-ripples. The main difficulty is eliminating the ripples that are found to heavily overprint any observations. To this end, an anisotropic filter that is able to discard these structures while still enhancing the wave ridges is proposed. The second part of the work addresses the semi-automatic interactive extraction and 3D augmented display of the main lines structures. The proposed protocol also allows geoscientists to interactively insert topological constraints.

  13. Intraspecific diet shift in Talitrus saltator inhabiting exposed sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabarria, Celia; Incera, Mónica; Garrido, Josefina; Rodil, Iván F.; Rossi, Francesca

    2009-09-01

    Talitrid amphipods are the most abundant herbivores on exposed sandy beaches. Despite their important role as trophic intermediates between macrophytes and higher levels (i.e. insect and bird) of beach food webs, very little information is available on their feeding patterns. The main aim of this study was to investigate intraspecific differences in the feeding behaviour of Talitrus saltator. We tested the hypotheses that: (1) adult females and males showed different isotope signatures and therefore relied on different sources of food; and (2) patterns of variation of isotope signatures of juveniles differed from those of adult specimens, evidencing a diet shift during the development. We used stable isotope signatures and tested for differences upon the level on the shore, times of the year and beaches experiencing similar morpho-dynamic and environmental conditions. Finally, we investigated the trophic significance of macrophyte detritus in the diet of males, females and juveniles. Results showed that adult males had a more variable diet than females and juveniles (inferred from δ 13C and δ 15N values). Dual-isotope graphs suggested that Sargassum muticum and Cystoseira baccata wrack could be among the main food sources for both juvenile and adult stage.

  14. Reversing storm hotspots on sandy beaches: Spatial and temporal characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    List, J.H.; Farris, A.S.; Sullivan, C.

    2006-01-01

    Coastal erosion hotspots are defined as sections of coast that exhibit significantly higher rates of erosion than adjacent areas. This paper describes the spatial and temporal characteristics of a recently identified type of coastal erosion hotspot, which forms in response to storms on uninterrupted sandy coasts largely free from human intervention. These are referred to here as reversing storm hotspots because the erosion is reversed by accretion of a similar magnitude to the storm-induced erosion. The accretion occurs within a few days or weeks of fair weather after the storm. Reversing storm hotspots observed here, on two US east coast beaches, have a longshore length averaging 3.86 km, a cross-shore excursion (magnitude of erosion or accretion) averaging 15.4 m, and a time scale of days to weeks associated with individual storm events. These spatial and temporal scales clearly distinguish reversing storm hotspots from previously described forms of longshore variability in erosion, including those attributed to several types of shoreline undulations and hotspots associated with long-term shoreline change. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sustained morphologic changes to the shoreface related to Hurricane Sandy: Fire Island, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapke, C. J.; Nelson, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    A variety of topographic and photographic data have revealed widespread impacts to the subaerial portion of the beach system during Hurricane Sandy in 2012 - from beach erosion to barrier island breaching. However, less is known about impacts to the offshore environment. In order to examine a more comprehensive response of the active beach system to Hurricane Sandy, we quantify morphologic changes to the shoreface using bathymetric data along the length of Fire Island, NY. Airborne bathymetric lidar data, collected two days before Sandy made landfall, are used as a pre-storm baseline. Morphologic changes are measured using field surveyed GPS profiles collected along a limited portion of western Fire Island two months following Sandy and along the length of the island one year after Sandy. The offshore extent of the data is variable and analyses are constrained by the resolving ability of the lidar sensor, which typically achieved penetration to depths of 6-8m. The surfzone morphology was extensively impacted by Hurricane Sandy and continued to evolve during subsequent winter storms. As is typical during large storm events, the outer bar moved offshore during Sandy. A year after the storm, however, the bar remains further offshore than it was prior to Sandy, resulting in a widened surfzone. Both the subaerial and submarine portions of the beach system lost considerable volumes of sand. The majority of the loss below mean high water (MHW) is in the surfzone, concentrated in the trough immediately landward of the outer bar and generally in the pre-storm location of the outer bar. The trough not only deepened in response to Sandy, but in many locations continued to deepen over the course of the following year, with an average change of more than a meter. The average volume of the shoreface seaward of the bar increased, which is attributed to the seaward translation of the outer bar and additional offshore transport and deposition of material from the inner surfzone

  16. ASC-1, PAT2, and P2RX5 are cell surface markers for white, beige, and brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ussar, Siegfried; Lee, Kevin Y; Dankel, Simon N; Boucher, Jeremie; Haering, Max-Felix; Kleinridders, Andre; Thomou, Thomas; Xue, Ruidan; Macotela, Yazmin; Cypess, Aaron M; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Mellgren, Gunnar; Kahn, C Ronald

    2014-07-30

    White, beige, and brown adipocytes are developmentally and functionally distinct but often occur mixed together within individual depots. To target white, beige, and brown adipocytes for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, a better understanding of the cell surface properties of these cell types is essential. Using a combination of in silico, in vitro, and in vivo methods, we have identified three new cell surface markers of adipose cell types. The amino acid transporter ASC-1 is a white adipocyte-specific cell surface protein, with little or no expression in brown adipocytes, whereas the amino acid transporter PAT2 and the purinergic receptor P2RX5 are cell surface markers expressed in classical brown and beige adipocytes in mice. These markers also selectively mark brown/beige and white adipocytes in human tissue. Thus, ASC-1, PAT2, and P2RX5 are membrane surface proteins that may serve as tools to identify and target white and brown/beige adipocytes for therapeutic purposes.

  17. Asc-1, PAT2 and P2RX5 are novel cell surface markers for white, beige and brown adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ussar, Siegfried; Lee, Kevin Y.; Dankel, Simon N.; Boucher, Jeremie; Haering, Max-Felix; Kleinridders, Andre; Thomou, Thomas; Xue, Ruidan; Macotela, Yazmin; Cypess, Aaron M.; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Mellgren, Gunnar; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2015-01-01

    White, beige and brown adipocytes are developmentally and functionally distinct but often occur mixed together within individual depots. To target white, beige and brown adipocytes for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, a better understanding of the cell surface properties of these cell types is essential. Using a combination of in silico, in vitro and in vivo methods, we have identified three new cell surface markers of adipose cell types. The amino acid transporter Asc-1 is a white adipocyte-specific cell surface protein, with little or no expression in brown adipocytes, whereas the amino acid transporter PAT2 and the purinergic receptor P2RX5 are cell surface markers expressed in classical brown and beige adipocytes in mice. These markers also selectively mark brown/beige and white adipocytes in human tissue. Thus, Asc-1, PAT2 and P2RX5 are membrane surface proteins that may serve as tools to identify and target white and brown/beige adipocytes for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25080478

  18. Simulations and Visualizations of Hurricane Sandy (2012) as Revealed by the NASA CAMVis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bo-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Storm Sandy first appeared as a tropical storm in the southern Caribbean Sea on Oct. 22, 2012, moved northeastward, turned northwestward, and made landfall near Brigantine, New Jersey in late October. Sandy devastated surrounding areas, caused an estimated damage of $50 billion, and became the second costliest tropical cyclone (TC) in U.S. History surpassed only by Hurricane Katrina (2005). To save lives and mitigate economic damage, a central question to be addressed is to what extent the lead time of severe storm prediction such as Sandy can be extended (e.g., Emanuel 2012; Kerr 2012). In this study, we present 10 numerical experiments initialized at 00 and 1200 UTC Oct. 22-26, 2012, with the NASA coupled advanced global modeling and visualization systems (CAMVis). All of the predictions realistically capture Sandy's movement with the northwestward turn prior to its landfall. However, three experiments (initialized at 0000 UTC Oct. 22 and 24 and 1200 UTC Oct. 22) produce larger errors. Among the 10 experiments, the control run initialized at 0000 UTC Oct. 23 produces a remarkable 7-day forecast. To illustrate the impact of environmental flows on the predictability of Sandy, we produce and discuss four-dimensional (4-D) visualizations with the control run. 4-D visualizations clearly demonstrate the following multiscale processes that led to the sinuous track of Sandy: the initial steering impact of an upper-level trough (appearing over the northwestern Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico), the blocking impact of systems to the northeast of Sandy, and the binary interaction with a mid-latitude, upper-level trough that appeared at 130degrees west longitude on Oct. 23, moved to the East Coast and intensified during the period of Oct. 29-30 prior to Sandy's landfall.

  19. BIG SANDY, WEST ELLIOTTS CREEK, AND REED BRAKE ROADLESS AREAS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, Sam H.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys done in the Big Sandy, West Elliotts Creek, and Reed Brake Roadless Areas, Alabama, indicate that the areas have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. The three areas, however, have a probable potential for oil or gas. Probable coal resource potential exists in the Big Sandy and the West Elliotts Creek Roadless Areas. Clay and abundant sand resources occur in the roadless areas. Clayey sand has been used to stabilize roads and in road grade construction.

  20. Effects of 24-epibrassinolide on enzymatic browning and antioxidant activity of fresh-cut lotus root slices.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Chai, HongKang; Cheng, Ni; Cao, Wei

    2017-02-15

    Fresh-cut lotus root slices were treated with 80nM 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) and then stored at 4°C for 8days to investigate the effects on cut surface browning. The results showed that EBR treatment reduced cut surface browning in lotus root slices and alleviated membrane lipid peroxidation as reflected by low malondialdehyde content and lipoxygenase activity. EBR treatment inhibited the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and polyphenol oxidase, and subsequently decreased phenolics accumulation and soluble quniones formation. The treatment also stimulated the activity of peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase and delayed the loss of ascorbic acid, which would help prevent membrane lipid peroxidation, as a consequence, reducing decompartmentation of enzymes and substrates causing enzymatic browning. These results indicate that EBR treatment is a promising attempt to control browning at cut surface of fresh-cut lotus root slices.

  1. Effects of 24-epibrassinolide on enzymatic browning and antioxidant activity of fresh-cut lotus root slices.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Chai, HongKang; Cheng, Ni; Cao, Wei

    2017-02-15

    Fresh-cut lotus root slices were treated with 80nM 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) and then stored at 4°C for 8days to investigate the effects on cut surface browning. The results showed that EBR treatment reduced cut surface browning in lotus root slices and alleviated membrane lipid peroxidation as reflected by low malondialdehyde content and lipoxygenase activity. EBR treatment inhibited the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and polyphenol oxidase, and subsequently decreased phenolics accumulation and soluble quniones formation. The treatment also stimulated the activity of peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase and delayed the loss of ascorbic acid, which would help prevent membrane lipid peroxidation, as a consequence, reducing decompartmentation of enzymes and substrates causing enzymatic browning. These results indicate that EBR treatment is a promising attempt to control browning at cut surface of fresh-cut lotus root slices. PMID:27664606

  2. Groundwater acidification and the mobilization of trace metals in a sandy aquifer.

    PubMed

    Kjøller, Claus; Postma, Dieke; Larsen, Flemming

    2004-05-15

    The acidification of groundwater due to acid rain impact and the mobilization of the trace metals Ni, Be, Cd and Co was studied in a noncalcareous sandy aquifer. The groundwater is acidified down to pH 4.4 in the upper 3-4 m of the saturated zone. There is a sharp acidification front and below that the pH increases to 5.2-6.5. The acid zone groundwater contains an Al concentration of approximately 0.2 mM. These observations could be explained by a reactive transport model for downward groundwater movement based on ion exchange and equilibrium with Al(OH)3. At the acidification front, the Al3+ in groundwater exchanges for sorbed Ca2+ and Mg2+ and the coupled dissolution of Al(OH)3 causes the pH to increase. The downward migration rate of the acidification front is 3.5-5.0 cm/yr. Trace metals (Ni, Be, Cd and Co) are found to accumulate near the acidification front. Downward moving, low pH, and trace metal containing groundwater passes the acidification front, and the trace metals adsorb as the pH increases. The acidification front moves downward at a slower rate, and in this process the heavy metals are desorbed. Accordingly, the acidification front functions as a geochemical trap where trace metals accumulate, and their amount will increase with time. Different surface complexation models were explored to explain the behavior of Ni. Neither a simple iron oxide surface complexation model nor ion exchange could explain the field observations of the Ni distribution. The sediment appeared, even at low pH, to have a much stronger affinity toward Ni than predicted by the iron oxide model. The discrepancy can be accounted for in the model by increasing the Ni binding strength constant in combination with an increased number of reactive sites.

  3. Evaluation of power outages in Connecticut during hypothetical future Hurricane Sandy scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanik, D. W.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Astitha, M.; Frediani, M. E.; Yang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reliable electric power is a staple of our modern society.The purpose of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of power outages under more intense, future Hurricane Sandy simulations in Connecticut. In addition, we also evaluated how many crews would be necessary to restore power in 7 days, and how different vegetation scenarios might contribute to a decrease in outages. We trained five pairwise models on each current Sandy runs (2012) as training using the random forest model (each validated using 10-fold cross-validation), and used each future Sandy run as an independent test. We predict that a future Sandy would have 2.5x as many outages as current Sandy, which would require 3.23x as many crews as current Sandy to restore power in 7 days. We also found that increased vegetation management might decrease outages, which has implications for both fair-weather and storm days of all types (i.e. blizzards, thunderstorms, ice storms). Although we have only evaluated outages for electric distribution networks, there are many other types (water supply, wastewater, telecommunications) that would likely benefit from an analysis of this type. In addition, given that we have the weather simulations already processed within our 2-km weather simulation domain, we would like to expand our vulnerability analyses to surrounding utilities in New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Massachusetts and New Hampshire to facilitate regional coordination among electric distribution networks.

  4. Nonfatal injuries 1 week after hurricane sandy--New York city metropolitan area, October 2012.

    PubMed

    Brackbill, Robert M; Caramanica, Kimberly; Maliniak, Maret; Stellman, Steven D; Fairclough, Monique A; Farfel, Mark R; Turner, Lennon; Maslow, Carey B; Moy, Amanda J; Wu, David; Yu, Shengchao; Welch, Alice E; Cone, James E; Walker, Deborah J

    2014-10-24

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy (Sandy) made landfall in densely populated areas of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Flooding affected 51 square miles (132 square kilometers) of New York City (NYC) and resulted in 43 deaths, many caused by drowning in the home, along with numerous storm-related injuries. Thousands of those affected were survivors of the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of September 11, 2001 (9/11) who had previously enrolled in the WTC Health Registry (Registry) cohort study. To assess Sandy-related injuries and associated risk factors among those who lived in Hurricane Sandy-flooded areas and elsewhere, the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene surveyed 8,870 WTC survivors, who had provided physical and mental health updates 8 to 16 months before Sandy. Approximately 10% of the respondents in flooded areas reported injuries in the first week after Sandy; nearly 75% of those had more than one injury. Injuries occurred during evacuation and clean-up/repair of damaged or destroyed homes. Hurricane preparation and precautionary messages emphasizing potential for injury hazards during both evacuation and clean-up or repair of damaged residences might help mitigate the occurrence and severity of injury after a hurricane. PMID:25340912

  5. Effects of Pisha sandstone content on solute transport in a sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Qing; Zheng, Jiyong; He, Honghua; Han, Fengpeng; Zhang, Xingchang

    2016-02-01

    In sandy soil, water, nutrients and even pollutants are easily leaching to deeper layers. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of Pisha sandstone on soil solute transport in a sandy soil. The miscible displacement technique was used to obtain breakthrough curves (BTCs) of Br(-) as an inert non-adsorbed tracer and Na(+) as an adsorbed tracer. The incorporation of Pisha sandstone into sandy soil was able to prevent the early breakthrough of both tracers by decreasing the saturated hydraulic conductivity compared to the controlled sandy soil column, and the impeding effects increased with Pisha sandstone content. The BTCs of Br(-) were accurately described by both the convection-dispersion equation (CDE) and the two-region model (T-R), and the T-R model fitted the experimental data slightly better than the CDE. The two-site nonequilibrium model (T-S) accurately fit the Na(+) transport data. Pisha sandstone impeded the breakthrough of Na(+) not only by decreasing the saturated hydraulic conductivity but also by increasing the adsorption capacity of the soil. The measured CEC values of Pisha sandstone were up to 11 times larger than those of the sandy soil. The retardation factors (R) determined by the T-S model increased with increasing Pisha sandstone content, and the partition coefficient (K(d)) showed a similar trend to R. According to the results of this study, Pisha sandstone can successfully impede solute transport in a sandy soil column.

  6. Investigation of superstorm Sandy 2012 in a multi-disciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, M.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Vannieuwenhuyse, M.; Comes, T.; Elmer, F.; Schröter, K.; Fohringer, J.; Münzberg, T.; Lucas, C.; Zschau, J.

    2013-03-01

    At the end of October 2012, Hurricane Sandy moved from the Caribbean Sea into the Atlantic Ocean and entered the United States not far from New York. Along its track, Sandy caused more than 200 fatalities and severe losses in Jamaica, Bahamas, Haiti, Cuba, and the US. This paper demonstrates the capability and potential for near-real time analysis of catastrophes. It is shown that the impact of Sandy was driven by the superposition of different extremes (high wind speeds, storm surge, heavy precipitation) and by cascading effects. In particular the interaction between Sandy and an extra-tropical weather system created a huge storm that affected large areas in the US. It is examined how Sandy compares to historic hurricane events, both from a hydro-meteorological and impact perspective. The distribution of losses to different sectors of the economy is calculated with simple input-output models as well as government estimates. Direct economic losses are estimated about 4.2 billion US in the Caribbean and between 78 and 97 billion US for the US. Indirect economic losses from power outages is estimated in the order of 16.3 billion US. Modelling sector-specific dependencies, quantifies total business interruption losses between 10.8 and 15.5 billion US. Thus, seven years after the record impact of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Hurricane Sandy is the second costliest hurricane in the history of the United States.

  7. Investigation of superstorm Sandy 2012 in a multi-disciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, M.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Vannieuwenhuyse, M.; Comes, T.; Elmer, F.; Schröter, K.; Fohringer, J.; Münzberg, T.; Lucas, C.; Zschau, J.

    2013-10-01

    At the end of October 2012, Hurricane Sandy moved from the Caribbean Sea into the Atlantic Ocean and entered the United States not far from New York. Along its track, Sandy caused more than 200 fatalities and severe losses in Jamaica, The Bahamas, Haiti, Cuba, and the US. This paper demonstrates the capability and potential for near-real-time analysis of catastrophes. It is shown that the impact of Sandy was driven by the superposition of different extremes (high wind speeds, storm surge, heavy precipitation) and by cascading effects. In particular the interaction between Sandy and an extra-tropical weather system created a huge storm that affected large areas in the US. It is examined how Sandy compares to historic hurricane events, both from a hydro-meteorological and impact perspective. The distribution of losses to different sectors of the economy is calculated with simple input-output models as well as government estimates. Direct economic losses are estimated about USD 4.2 billion in the Caribbean and between USD 78 and 97 billion in the US. Indirect economic losses from power outages is estimated in the order of USD 16.3 billion. Modelling sector-specific dependencies quantifies total business interruption losses between USD 10.8 and 15.5 billion. Thus, seven years after the record impact of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Hurricane Sandy is the second costliest hurricane in the history of the United States.

  8. Nonfatal injuries 1 week after hurricane sandy--New York city metropolitan area, October 2012.

    PubMed

    Brackbill, Robert M; Caramanica, Kimberly; Maliniak, Maret; Stellman, Steven D; Fairclough, Monique A; Farfel, Mark R; Turner, Lennon; Maslow, Carey B; Moy, Amanda J; Wu, David; Yu, Shengchao; Welch, Alice E; Cone, James E; Walker, Deborah J

    2014-10-24

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy (Sandy) made landfall in densely populated areas of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Flooding affected 51 square miles (132 square kilometers) of New York City (NYC) and resulted in 43 deaths, many caused by drowning in the home, along with numerous storm-related injuries. Thousands of those affected were survivors of the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of September 11, 2001 (9/11) who had previously enrolled in the WTC Health Registry (Registry) cohort study. To assess Sandy-related injuries and associated risk factors among those who lived in Hurricane Sandy-flooded areas and elsewhere, the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene surveyed 8,870 WTC survivors, who had provided physical and mental health updates 8 to 16 months before Sandy. Approximately 10% of the respondents in flooded areas reported injuries in the first week after Sandy; nearly 75% of those had more than one injury. Injuries occurred during evacuation and clean-up/repair of damaged or destroyed homes. Hurricane preparation and precautionary messages emphasizing potential for injury hazards during both evacuation and clean-up or repair of damaged residences might help mitigate the occurrence and severity of injury after a hurricane.

  9. Perspective: Does brown fat protect against diseases of aging?

    PubMed

    Mattson, Mark P

    2010-01-01

    The most commonly studied laboratory rodents possess a specialized form of fat called brown adipose tissue (BAT) that generates heat to help maintain body temperature in cold environments. In humans, BAT is abundant during embryonic and early postnatal development, but is absent or present in relatively small amounts in adults where it is located in paracervical and supraclavicular regions. BAT cells can 'burn' fatty acid energy substrates to generate heat because they possess large numbers of mitochondria in which oxidative phosphorylation is uncoupled from ATP production as a result of a transmembrane proton leak mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Studies of rodents in which BAT levels are either increased or decreased have revealed a role for BAT in protection against diet-induced obesity. Data suggest that individuals with low levels of BAT are prone to obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease, whereas those with higher levels of BAT maintain lower body weights and exhibit superior health as they age. BAT levels decrease during aging, and dietary energy restriction increases BAT activity and protects multiple organ systems including the nervous system against age-related dysfunction and degeneration. Future studies in which the effects of specific manipulations of BAT levels and thermogenic activity on disease processes in animal models (diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases) are determined will establish if and how BAT affects the development and progression of age-related diseases. Data from animal studies suggest that BAT and mitochondrial uncoupling can be targeted for interventions to prevent and treat obesity and age-related diseases. Examples include: diet and lifestyle changes; specific regimens of mild intermittent stress; drugs that stimulate BAT formation and activity; induction of brown adipose cell progenitors in muscle and other tissues; and transplantation of brown adipose cells.

  10. RADIAL VELOCITY VARIABILITY OF FIELD BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Prato, L.; Mace, G. N.; Rice, E. L.; McLean, I. S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Burgasser, A. J.; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2015-07-20

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R ∼ 20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity (RV) precision of ∼2 km s{sup −1}, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1σ upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included seven known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant RV variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant fraction of the orbital period. Specialized techniques are required to reach the high precisions sensitive to motion in orbits of very low-mass systems. For eight objects, including six T dwarfs, we present the first published high-resolution spectra, many with high signal to noise, that will provide valuable comparison data for models of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  11. Discovery of a cool brown dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, T.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Golimowski, D. A.; Matthews, K.; Durrance, S. T.

    1995-11-01

    BROWN dwarfs are starlike objects with masses less than 0.08 times that of the Sun, which are unable to sustain hydrogen fusion in their interiors1-4. They are very hard to detect, as most of the energy of gravitational contraction is radiated away within ~108 yr, leaving only a very low residual luminosity. Accordingly, almost all searches for brown dwarfs have been directed towards clusters of young stars-a strategy that has recently proved successful5,6. But there are only modest observable differences between young brown dwarfs and very lowmass stars, making it difficult to identify the former without appealing to sophisticated models7. Older brown dwarfs should have a more distinctive appearance, and if they are companions to nearby stars, their luminosity can be determined unambiguously. Here we report the discovery of a probable companion to the nearby star G1229, with no more than onetenth the luminosity of the least luminous hydro-gen-burning star. We conclude that the companion, G1229B, is a brown dwarf with a temperature of less than 1,200 K, and a mass ~20-50 times that of Jupiter.

  12. MICROLENSING BINARIES WITH CANDIDATE BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, I.-G.; Han, C.; Gould, A.; Skowron, J.; Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Soszynski, I.; Pietrzynski, G.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozlowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Sumi, T.; Dominik, M.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Tsapras, Y.; Bozza, V.; Abe, F.; Collaboration: OGLE Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; muFUN Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing events discovered during the 2004-2011 observation seasons. Based on the low mass ratio criterion of q < 0.2, we found seven candidate events: OGLE-2004-BLG-035, OGLE-2004-BLG-039, OGLE-2007-BLG-006, OGLE-2007-BLG-399/MOA-2007-BLG-334, MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172, MOA-2011-BLG-149, and MOA-201-BLG-278/OGLE-2011-BLG-012N. Among them, we are able to confirm that the companions of the lenses of MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149 are brown dwarfs by determining the mass of the lens based on the simultaneous measurement of the Einstein radius and the lens parallax. The measured masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 {+-} 0.01 M {sub Sun} and 0.019 {+-} 0.002 M {sub Sun} for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events with well-covered light curves increases with new-generation searches.

  13. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  14. Brown adipose tissue growth and development.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  15. Appearance and reappearance of mutagens in urine from rats after oral administration of direct brown 95, due to coprophagy.

    PubMed

    Bos, R P; Koopman, J P; Theuws, J L; Kennis, H M; Henderson, P T

    1986-04-01

    Rats treated orally with direct brown 95, a benzidine-based dye, widely used in dyeing of textiles, plastics, paper and other materials, showed 2 peaks of excretion of mutagenic products in urine, one between 6 h and 18 h after administration and one about 30 h later. Prevention of coprophagy by fitting neck collars resulted in the disappearance of the second peak. Oral administration of carminic acid resulted in a biphasic excretion of this dye in the feces, due to coprophagy. The excretion pattern of mutagens in urine after administration of direct brown 95 corresponds with the excretion pattern in the feces of orally administered carminic acid. PMID:3515634

  16. [Studies on enzymic browning of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). I. Phenoloxidases and phenolic compounds from different varieties (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Matheis, G; Belitz, H D

    1977-02-25

    31 samples of potato varieties with slow, medium and fast rates of browning were studies. Characteristic enzyme patterns were obtained from polyacrylamide gel electrophoresic of the phenoloxidases of varieties with different discolouration rates. The differences lie mainly in the intensities of the enzyme bands. The qualitative determinaiton of the phenols showed no significant differences. Tyrosine, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid produce coloured oxidation products; the characteristic colour gradations of in vivo browning were only observed in the presence of tyrosine. It is concluded that the same reactions take place during the discolouration of all the varieties. PMID:404775

  17. Tsunami characteristics and formation potential of sandy tsunami deposit in Sanriku Coast: implications from numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, D.; Haraguchi, T.; Takahashi, T.

    2013-12-01

    Geological investigation of paleotsunami deposit is crucial for knowing the history and magnitude of tsunami events in the past. Among various kinds of grain sizes, sandy tsunami deposit has been best investigated by previous studies, because of its potential for identification in the sedimentary column. Many sandy tsunami deposits have been found from coastal plains, which have sandy beach and low-lying wetlands. However, sandy tsunami deposits in narrow valleys at rocky ria coast have rarely been found. It may be presumed that formation potential of sandy tsunami layer in the rocky coasts is generally lower than coastal plains, because of the absence of sandy beach, tsunami run-up on steeper slope and stronger return flow. In this presentation, characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake tsunami in Sanriku Coast, a continuous rocky ria coast located in the northeast Japan, is investigated based on numerical modeling. In addition, the formation potential of sandy tsunami deposit is also investigated based on numerical modeling of sediment transport. Preliminary result of tsunami hydrodynamics showed that the waveform and amplification of the tsunami are clearly affected by the local bathymetry, which is associated with submerged topography formed during the last glacial stage. Although the tsunami height in the offshore of each bay is around 8.0 m, the tsunami height at the bay head was increased in different way. The amplification factor at the bay head was typically 2.0 among most of V-shaped narrow embayments; meanwhile the amplification factor is much lower than 1.0 at some cases. The preliminary result of the modeling of sediment transport predicted huge amount of sediments may be suspended into the water column, given that sandy deposit is available there. Massive erosion and deposition of sea bottom sediments may commonly take place in the bays. However, formation of onshore tsunami deposit differs from each other. Whether the suspended sediments

  18. Geographic variation in sandy beach macrofauna community and functional traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodil, I. F.; Compton, T. J.; Lastra, M.

    2014-10-01

    Sandy beaches are a common ocean-dominated ecosystem along the north coast of Spain. We conducted field surveys at 39 beaches distributed between 1° and 9°W, ca. 2000 km along this geographic region to document broad patterns of macrobenthic communities, and to describe their association with variables characterising both the beach environment and the characteristics of the adjacent ocean waters. Macrofaunal functional traits are considered to be an informative measure that can be useful for many ecosystem-level questions, as they are based on what organisms do (i.e., their ecological function) rather than on their identification alone. Boosted regression-trees analysis showed that the occurrence of the main taxonomic groups and feeding guilds were differentially associated with the prevailing beach features along this coastline. The occurrence (presence/absence) of molluscs was best explained by the concentration of chlorophyll-a and wave exposure whereas those of crustaceans and polychaetes were best explained by an ensemble of variables including beach slope, sea surface temperature and grain size. A comparison of the feeding guilds demonstrated that the occurrence of suspension feeders was best explained by chlorophyll-a and wave exposure, whereas the occurrence of deposit feeders was best explained by beach slope, sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a. The occurrence of predators and scavengers was best explained by sea surface temperature and beach slope. Based on the patterns presented here, we confirm that the upwelling events that occur regularly on this coastline are a structuring agent for beach communities. Future work needs to examine the role of the oceanographic conditions of the region for they might represent the driving forces behind large-scale shifts in macrofauna communities.

  19. Diesel and silica monitoring at two sites following hurricane sandy.

    PubMed

    Freund, Alice; Zuckerman, Norman; Luo, Honghong; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Lucchini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Following Hurricane Sandy, which hit New York City and New Jersey in October 2012, industrial hygienists from the Mount Sinai and Belleview/New York University occupational medicine clinics conducted monitoring for diesel exhaust and silica in lower Manhattan and Rockaway Peninsula. Average daytime elemental carbon levels at three stations in lower Manhattan on December 4, 2012, ranged from 9 to18 μg/m(3). Sub-micron particle counts at various times on the same day were over 200,000 particles per cubic centimeter on many streets in lower Manhattan. In Rockaway Peninsula on December 12, 2012, all average daytime elemental carbon levels were below a detection limit of approximately 7 μg/m(3). The average daytime crystalline silica dust concentration was below detection at two sites on Rockaway Peninsula, and was 0.015 mg/m(3) quartz where sand was being replaced on the beach. The daily average levels of elemental carbon and airborne particulates that we measured are in the range of levels that have been found to cause respiratory effects in sensitive subpopulations like asthmatic patients after 2 hr of exposure. Control of exposure to diesel exhaust must be considered following natural disasters where diesel-powered equipment is used in cleanup and recovery. Although peak silica exposures were not likely captured in this study, but were reported by a government agency to have exceeded recommended guidelines for at least one cleanup worker, we recommend further study of silica exposures when debris removal operations or traffic create visible levels of suspended dust from soil or sand.

  20. Substrate- and nutrient-limited toluene biotransformation in sandy soil

    SciTech Connect

    Allen-King, R.M. . Dept. of Geology); Barker, J.F.; Gillham, R.W. . Waterloo Centre for Groundwater Research); Jensen, B.K. . Environmental Biotechnology Section)

    1994-05-01

    Lab microcosm tests of the rate of toluene biodegradation were performed using soil from the A, B, and C horizons of the unsaturated zone of a sandy field site. Toluene biodegradation was rapid, occurring at a time scale comparable to the rate of sorption in many of the microcosms and demonstrating the potential for bioremediation of these contaminants in unsaturated soil. In the A horizon, with an initial toluene concentration in the solution phase of 4.5 mg/L, degradation was controlled by substrate-limited growth on toluene as the primary substrate. Soil from the B and C horizons initially showed similar behavior with a lower toluene concentrations of about 2.5 mg/L. The maximum utilization rate ([mu][sub max]) for soil from all three depths was 2.0 d[sup [minus]1]. With repeated exposure to moderate to high concentrations of toluene, transformation in the B- and C-horizon soil appeared to be zero order, at a rate of 1.0 to 2.0 [mu]g toluene/g soil/d. In C-horizon soil that had been taken directly from the field, the transformation rate was almost immeasurably slow. Addition of nitrogens as either ammonium or nitrate accelerated the degradation, showing that nitrogen was the most limiting nutrient. The apparent adaptation period observed before rapid toluene removal was fit by a substrate-limited growth model. Greater numbers of toluene-degrading microorganisms were found in soil exposed to toluene than in unexposed soil, supporting biomass growth as the explanation for the adaptation period. The results of enumeration of heterotrophs compared to the numbers of toluene degraders suggested that a small proportion to the total viable microorganisms were responsible for degradation of toluene.

  1. Effect of controlled atmosphere storage on pericarp browning, bioactive compounds and antioxidant enzymes of litchi fruits.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sajid; Khan, Ahmad Sattar; Malik, Aman Ullah; Shahid, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    'Gola' litchi fruits were stored under ten different CA-combinations at 5±1°C to investigate its effects on pericarp browning, biochemical quality and antioxidative activities. Control fruit turned completely brown after 28days of storage and were excluded from the study. Fruit-stored under CA7-combination (1% O2+5% CO2) showed reduced weight loss, pericarp browning, membrane leakage and malondialdehyde contents. Soluble solid contents, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid contents were higher in CA7-stored fruit. Activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes, levels of total anthocyanins, DPPH radical-scavenging-activity and phenolic contents were significantly higher in CA7-stored litchi fruit. In contrast, activities of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes were substantially lower in fruit kept under CA7-combination. Fruit subjected to CA7-conditions also maintained higher organoleptic quality. In conclusion, 1% O2+5% CO2 CA-conditions delayed pericarp browning, maintained antioxidative activities and biochemical characteristics along with better organoleptic quality of litchi fruit for 35days.

  2. Evaluation of engineering properties for the use of leached brown coal ash in soil covers.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Gavin M; Chakrabarti, Srijib; Kodikara, Jayantha

    2007-01-31

    The need to engineer cover systems for the successful rehabilitation or remediation of a wide variety of solid wastes is increasing. Some common applications include landfills, hazardous waste repositories, or mine tailings dams and waste rock/overburden dumps. The brown coal industry of the Latrobe Valley region of Victoria, Australia, produces significant quantities of coal ash and overburden annually. There are some site-specific acid mine drainage (AMD) issues associated with overburden material. This needs to be addressed both during the operational phase of a project and during rehabilitation. An innovative approach was taken to investigate the potential to use leached brown coal ash in engineered soil covers on this overburden dump. The basis for this is two-fold: first, the ash has favourable physical characteristics for use in cover systems (such as high storage capacity/porosity, moderately low permeability, and an ability to act as a capillary break layer generating minimal leachate or seepage); and second, the leachate from the ash is mildly alkaline (which can help to mitigate and reduce the risk of AMD). This paper will review the engineering issues involved in using leached brown coal ash in designing soil covers for potentially acid-forming overburden dumps. It presents the results of laboratory work investigating the technical feasibility of using leached brown coal ash in engineered solid waste cover systems.

  3. Physiologic evaluation of capture and anesthesia with medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine in brown bears (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Asa; Arnemo, Jon M; Swenson, Jon E; Pringle, John; Brunberg, Sven; Nyman, Görel

    2011-03-01

    Physiologic variables during anesthesia with medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine were evaluated in 52 free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) darted from a helicopter and in six captive brown bears darted at a zoo. During anesthesia, rectal temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, and pulse oximetry derived hemoglobin oxygen saturation were recorded. Arterial blood samples were collected and immediately analyzed for evaluation of pulmonary gas exchange, acid-base status, and selected hematologic and plasma variables. At the end of anesthesia, atipamezole was administered intramuscularly at five times the medetomidine dose. Capture-induced hyperthermia and lactic acidemia were documented in free-ranging bears. Hypoxemia during anesthesia was documented in both free-ranging and captive bears. In free-ranging bears, rectal temperature, heart rate, lactate, hematocrit, and hemoglobin decreased significantly during anesthesia, whereas partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, pH, potassium, and glucose increased. Yearlings had a significantly higher heart rate, pH, base excess, bicarbonate, and glucose, and had a significantly lower rectal temperature, sodium, hematocrit, and hemoglobin when compared with subadult and adult brown bears. In conclusion, alterations in pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base status in brown bears during anesthesia with medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine with the doses and capture methods used in this study were identified. Oxygen supplementation is recommended to counteract hypoxemia during anesthesia.

  4. GROWTH OF GRAINS IN BROWN DWARF DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Meru, Farzana; Galvagni, Marina; Olczak, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    We perform coagulation and fragmentation simulations using the new physically motivated model by Garaud et al. to determine growth locally in brown dwarf disks. We show that large grains can grow and that if brown dwarf disks are scaled-down versions of T Tauri disks (in terms of stellar mass, disk mass, and disk radius) growth at an equivalent location with respect to the disk truncation radius can occur to the same size in both disks. We show that similar growth occurs because the collisional timescales in the two disks are comparable. Our model may therefore potentially explain the recent observations of grain growth to millimeter sizes in brown dwarf disks, as seen in T Tauri disks.

  5. Mitochondria in White, Brown, and Beige Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Cedikova, Miroslava; Kripnerová, Michaela; Dvorakova, Jana; Pitule, Pavel; Grundmanova, Martina; Babuska, Vaclav; Mullerova, Dana; Kuncova, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Three types of adipose depots can be identified in mammals, commonly classified according to their colour appearance: the white (WAT), the brown (BAT), and the beige/brite/brown-like (bAT) adipose tissues. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy and BAT is predominantly responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis. Recent data suggest that adipocyte mitochondria might play an important role in the development of obesity through defects in mitochondrial lipogenesis and lipolysis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, apoptosis, production of oxygen radicals, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of conversion of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes. This review summarizes the main characteristics of each adipose tissue subtype and describes morphological and functional modifications focusing on mitochondria and their activity in healthy and unhealthy adipocytes. PMID:27073398

  6. Mitochondria in White, Brown, and Beige Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cedikova, Miroslava; Kripnerová, Michaela; Dvorakova, Jana; Pitule, Pavel; Grundmanova, Martina; Babuska, Vaclav; Mullerova, Dana; Kuncova, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Three types of adipose depots can be identified in mammals, commonly classified according to their colour appearance: the white (WAT), the brown (BAT), and the beige/brite/brown-like (bAT) adipose tissues. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy and BAT is predominantly responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis. Recent data suggest that adipocyte mitochondria might play an important role in the development of obesity through defects in mitochondrial lipogenesis and lipolysis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, apoptosis, production of oxygen radicals, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of conversion of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes. This review summarizes the main characteristics of each adipose tissue subtype and describes morphological and functional modifications focusing on mitochondria and their activity in healthy and unhealthy adipocytes. PMID:27073398

  7. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  8. Evidence from Serpula lacrymans that 2,5-Dimethoxyhydroquinone Is a Lignocellulolytic Agent of Divergent Brown Rot Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Korripally, Premsagar; Timokhin, Vitaliy I.; Houtman, Carl J.; Mozuch, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Basidiomycetes that cause brown rot of wood are essential biomass recyclers in coniferous forest ecosystems and a major cause of failure in wooden structures. Recent work indicates that distinct lineages of brown rot fungi have arisen independently from ligninolytic white rot ancestors via loss of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Brown rot thus proceeds without significant lignin removal, apparently beginning instead with oxidative attack on wood polymers by Fenton reagent produced when fungal hydroquinones or catechols reduce Fe3+ in colonized wood. Since there is little evidence that white rot fungi produce these metabolites, one question is the extent to which independent lineages of brown rot fungi may have evolved different Fe3+ reductants. Recently, the catechol variegatic acid was proposed to drive Fenton chemistry in Serpula lacrymans, a brown rot member of the Boletales (D. C. Eastwood et al., Science 333:762-765, 2011). We found no variegatic acid in wood undergoing decay by S. lacrymans. We found also that variegatic acid failed to reduce in vitro the Fe3+ oxalate chelates that predominate in brown-rotting wood and that it did not drive Fenton chemistry in vitro under physiological conditions. Instead, the decaying wood contained physiologically significant levels of 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone, a reductant with a demonstrated biodegradative role when wood is attacked by certain brown rot fungi in two other divergent lineages, the Gloeophyllales and Polyporales. Our results suggest that the pathway for 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone biosynthesis may have been present in ancestral white rot basidiomycetes but do not rule out the possibility that it appeared multiple times via convergent evolution. PMID:23377930

  9. Brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, angiogenesis: pathophysiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Honek, Jennifer; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Iwamoto, Hideki; Seki, Takahiro; Cao, Yihai

    2014-07-01

    The number of obese and overweight individuals is globally rising, and obesity-associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are among the most common causes of death. While white adipose tissue is the key player in the storage of energy, active brown adipose tissue expends energy due to its thermogenic capacity. Expanding and activating brown adipose tissue using pharmacological approaches therefore might offer an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention to counteract obesity and its consequences for metabolic health.

  10. DDE in brown and white fat of hibernating bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of brown and white fat from hibernating bats (big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus; little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus; and eastern pipistrelle, Pipistrellus subflavus) collected in western Maryland, USA, were analysed to determine lipid and DDE content. Amounts of brown fat, expressed as percentages of total bat weight, were the same for all three species. Lipid content of brown fat was significantly less than that of white fat. Lipids of brown fat contained significantly higher (28%) concentrations of DDE than did lipids of white fat. In our mixed-species sample of 14 bats, concentrations of DDE increased exponentially in both brown and white fat as white fat reserves declined. Brown fat facilitates arousal from hibernation by producing heat through rapid metabolism of triglycerides. The question is raised whether organochlorine residues, such as DDE, may be concentrated and then liberated in lethal amounts by the processes of hibernation and arousal.

  11. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Brown Duck Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.4 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  12. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Brown Duck Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.4 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  13. Use of Brown Algae to Demonstrate Natural Products Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lee A.

    1985-01-01

    Background information is provided on the natural products found in marine organisms in general and the brown algae in particular. Also provided are the procedures needed to isolate D-mannitol (a primary metabolite) and cholesterol from brown algae. (JN)

  14. Secondary Organic Aerosol and Brown Carbon Formation in the Sunlit Aqueous Phase: Aldehyde Photooxidation in the Presence of Ammonium Salts and Amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Haan, D. O.; Galloway, M. M.; Sharp, K. D.; Jiménez, N. G.

    2014-12-01

    The chemistry of water-soluble carbonyl compounds in clouds is now acknowledged as an important source of secondary organic aerosol. These reactive carbonyl compounds are oxidized to carboxylic acids and form oligomers by radical-radical reactions and by "dark reactions" with ammonium salts (AS) and/or amines. The latter class of reactions also produces light-absorbing brown carbon compounds, especially reactions involving methylglyoxal or glyoxal and amines. However, recent work has found that UV light fades the color of glyoxal + AS and methylgyloxal + AS reaction mixtures. We recently studied aldehyde-AS-amine reactions in sunlight and in control vessels at the same temperature to determine the effects of solar radiation on the aqueous-phase production of brown carbon. In sunlight, methylglyoxal reaction mixtures lost their initial color and failed to brown, indicating the photolytic loss of reactants and/or pre-brown intermediates. In many other reactions, brown products are lost to photolysis, reducing the overall browning of solutions exposed to sunlight. In other experiments, hydrogen peroxide was added to generate OH radicals by photolysis. In the presence of OH radicals, some carbonyl compound mixtures (e.g. those containing hydroxyacetone or glycolaldehyde) browned more rapidly when exposed to sunlight. This indicates the existence of uncharacterized photooxidative browning pathways involving aqueous-phase OH radicals, carbonyls, ammonium salts, and/or amine compounds.

  15. Does thermal carbonization (Biochar) of organic material increase more merits for their amendments of sandy soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Xu, G.; Sun, J. N.; Shao, H. B.

    2014-02-01

    Organic materials (e.g. furfural residue) are generally believed to improve the physical and chemical properties of the soils with low fertility. Recently, biochar have been received more attention as a possible measure to improve the carbon balance and improve soil quality in some degraded soils. However, little is known about their different amelioration of a sandy saline soil. In this study, 56d incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of furfural and its biochar on the properties of saline soil. The results showed that both furfural and biochar greatly reduced pH, increased soil organic carbon (SOC) content and cation exchange capacity (CEC), and enhanced the available phosphorus (P) in the soil. Furfural is more efficient than biochar in reducing pH: 5% furfural lowered the soil pH by 0.5-0.8 (soil pH: 8.3-8.6), while 5% biochar decreased by 0.25-0.4 due to the loss of acidity in pyrolysis process. With respect to available P, 5% of the furfural addition increased available P content by 4-6 times in comparison to 2-5 times with biochar application. In reducing soil exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), biochar is slightly superior to furfural because soil ESP reduced by 51% and 43% with 5% furfural and 5% biochar addition at the end of incubation. In addition, no significant differences were observed between furfural and biochar about their capacity to retain N, P in leaching solution and to increase CEC in soil. These facts may be caused by the relatively short incubation time. In general, furfural and biochar have different amendments depending on soil properties: furfural was more effectively to decrease pH and to increase available P, whereas biochar played a more important role in increasing SOC and reducing ESP of saline soil.

  16. Effect of increasing biochar application rate on soil hydraulic properties of an artificial sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, V.; Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Biochar, a product of the pyrolysis of biomass, has become an increasingly studied subject of interest as an agricultural soil amendment to address issues of carbon emission, population density, and food scarcity. Biochar has been reported to increase content and retention of nutrients, pH, cation-exchange capacity, vegetative growth, microbial community, and carbon sequestration. A number of studies addressing the usefulness of biochar as a soil amendment have focused on chemical and biological properties, disregarding the effects on soil physical properties of amended soil. Aside from biochar, lime (calcium carbonate) addition to soils has also been utilized in agricultural practices, typically to raise the pH value of acidic soils, increase microbial activity, and enhance soil stability and productivity as a result. Both biochar and lime amendments may be beneficial in increasing the soil physical properties, particularly through the formation of aggregates. In previous studies an increase in soil particle aggregates resulted in higher rates of biological activity, infiltration rates, pore space, and aeration, all of which are a measure of soil quality. While the effectiveness of biochar and lime as soil amendments has been independently documented, their combined effectiveness on soil physical properties is less understood. This study aims to provide a further understanding on the effect of increasing biochar application rate on soil particle aggregation and hydraulic properties of a low reactive pre-limed artificial sandy soil with and without microbial communities. Microbial communities are known to increase soil aggregates by acting as cementing agents. Understanding the impact of biochar addition on soil physical properties will have implications in the development of sustainable agricultural practices, especially in systems undergoing climate stress and intensive agriculture.

  17. Multiscale Processes of Hurricane Sandy (2012) as Revealed by the CAMVis-MAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, B.; Li, J. F.; Cheung, S.

    2013-12-01

    In late October 2012, Storm Sandy made landfall near Brigantine, New Jersey, devastating surrounding areas and causing tremendous economic loss and hundreds of fatalities (Blake et al., 2013). An estimated damage of $50 billion made Sandy become the second costliest tropical cyclone (TC) in US history, surpassed only by Hurricane Katrina (2005). Central questions to be addressed include (1) to what extent the lead time of severe storm prediction such as Sandy can be extended (e.g., Emanuel 2012); and (2) whether and how advanced global model, supercomputing technology and numerical algorithm can help effectively illustrate the complicated physical processes that are associated with the evolution of the storms. In this study, the predictability of Sandy is addressed with a focus on short-term (or extended-range) genesis prediction as the first step toward the goal of understanding the relationship between extreme events, such as Sandy, and the current climate. The newly deployed Coupled Advanced global mesoscale Modeling (GMM) and concurrent Visualization (CAMVis) system is used for this study. We will show remarkable simulations of Hurricane Sandy with the GMM, including realistic 7-day track and intensity forecast and genesis predictions with a lead time of up to 6 days (e.g., Shen et al., 2013, GRL, submitted). We then discuss the enabling role of the high-resolution 4-D (time-X-Y-Z) visualizations in illustrating TC's transient dynamics and its interaction with tropical waves. In addition, we have finished the parallel implementation of the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (PEEMD, Cheung et al., 2013, AGU13, submitted) method that will be soon integrated into the multiscale analysis package (MAP) for the analysis of tropical weather systems such as TCs and tropical waves. While the original EEMD has previously shown superior performance in decomposition of nonlinear (local) and non-stationary data into different intrinsic modes which stay within the natural

  18. Effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage.

    PubMed

    Lu, F S H; Bruheim, I; Haugsgjerd, B O; Jacobsen, C

    2014-08-15

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage. Krill oil was incubated at two different temperatures (20 and 40 °C) for 28 or 42 days. The oxidative stability of krill oil was assessed by peroxide value and anisidine value, measurement of lipid derived volatiles, lipid classes and antioxidants. The non-enzymatic browning reactions were assessed through the measurement of pyrroles, free amino acids content and Strecker-derived volatiles. The increase of incubation temperature firstly increased the lipid oxidation in krill oil and subsequently the non-enzymatic browning reactions. The occurrence of these reactions was most likely due to the reaction between α-dicarbonyl or carbonyl compounds with amino acids or ammonia. In addition to tocopherol and astaxanthin esters, the formation of pyrroles might help to protect the krill oil against lipid oxidation. PMID:24679797

  19. Effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage.

    PubMed

    Lu, F S H; Bruheim, I; Haugsgjerd, B O; Jacobsen, C

    2014-08-15

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage. Krill oil was incubated at two different temperatures (20 and 40 °C) for 28 or 42 days. The oxidative stability of krill oil was assessed by peroxide value and anisidine value, measurement of lipid derived volatiles, lipid classes and antioxidants. The non-enzymatic browning reactions were assessed through the measurement of pyrroles, free amino acids content and Strecker-derived volatiles. The increase of incubation temperature firstly increased the lipid oxidation in krill oil and subsequently the non-enzymatic browning reactions. The occurrence of these reactions was most likely due to the reaction between α-dicarbonyl or carbonyl compounds with amino acids or ammonia. In addition to tocopherol and astaxanthin esters, the formation of pyrroles might help to protect the krill oil against lipid oxidation.

  20. Acidification, Buffering, and Salt Effects in the Unsaturated Zone of a Sandy Aquifer, Klosterhede, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Bent KjæR.; Postma, Dieke

    1995-01-01

    Acidification of groundwater in a noncalcareous sandy aquifer at Klosterhede, Denmark, is the result of acid rain deposition. In the 4- to 5-m-thick unsaturated zone the pH ranges from 4.2 to 4.9 with Al concentrations of up to 0.8 mmol L-1. The groundwater at the top of the saturated zone still has a pH below 5. Deposition of sea salt affects the solute profiles, and its importance varies both spatially from the forest margin to the inner part of the forest and temporally through seasonal variations in infiltration and dry deposition. As a result, pulses of high solute concentrations travel downward through the unsaturated zone. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the sediments ranges between 0.2 and 1 meq 100 g-1, and in the acidified zone, base saturation is around 17%. The pore waters are close to equilibrium with gibbsite, supersaturated for kaolinite, and strongly undersaturated for other silicateminerals. Mass balance calculations on increases in dissolved silica over depth suggest that the buffering effect of silicate weathering is small. Buffering processes and solute transport were modeled with the code PHREEQM. Simulation of pre-acid rain weathering indicates that this process operates on a timescale of thousands of years, yielding minimum pH values near 5.2 and a base saturation of greater than 70%. The present leaching of Al3+ rich acid water from the soil yields acidification rates of 7 and 10 cm yr-1 for weathering of a naturally weathered and a pristine profile, respectively. Simulation of infiltration of sea-salt pulses indicates that the cation distribution quickly becomes attenuated by the exchanger composition. However, due to coupling of gibbsite equilibrium with ion exchange processes, downward traveling pulses with high solute concentrations will cause pH variations throughout the unsaturated zone by precipitation and dissolution of gibbsite. Accordingly, the general acidification pattern at Klosterhede is overprinted by salts effects in a

  1. Inorganic nitrate promotes the browning of white adipose tissue through the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lee D; Ashmore, Tom; Kotwica, Aleksandra O; Murfitt, Steven A; Fernandez, Bernadette O; Feelisch, Martin; Murray, Andrew J; Griffin, Julian L

    2015-02-01

    Inorganic nitrate was once considered an oxidation end product of nitric oxide metabolism with little biological activity. However, recent studies have demonstrated that dietary nitrate can modulate mitochondrial function in man and is effective in reversing features of the metabolic syndrome in mice. Using a combined histological, metabolomics, and transcriptional and protein analysis approach, we mechanistically defined that nitrate not only increases the expression of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue but also induces the expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes and proteins in white adipose tissue, substantially increasing oxygen consumption and fatty acid β-oxidation in adipocytes. Nitrate induces these phenotypic changes through a mechanism distinct from known physiological small molecule activators of browning, the recently identified nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. The nitrate-induced browning effect was enhanced in hypoxia, a serious comorbidity affecting white adipose tissue in obese individuals, and corrected impaired brown adipocyte-specific gene expression in white adipose tissue in a murine model of obesity. Because resulting beige/brite cells exhibit antiobesity and antidiabetic effects, nitrate may be an effective means of inducing the browning response in adipose tissue to treat the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Result of storage term measurements at a sandy grassland site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintér, Krisztina; Barcza, Zoltán; Balogh, János; Nagy, Zoltán

    2015-04-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) technique is common technique to investigate fluxes over ecosystems. In the past 20 years the focus was on the carbon dioxide (CO2) budget of ecosystems measured as net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Night underestimation of fluxes is a frequent problem, addressed by several EC studies. When the turbulence is low the accumulation of CO2 close to the ground can be significant, so the storage term (rate of change of storage, RCS) has to be taken into account. In the case of tall vegetation storage measurements are routinely done, but in the case of short vegetation it is often neglected based on the assumption that its positive values after sunset and negative values at dawn extinguish each other when calculating daily and yearly sums. The EC system at the sandy grassland (Bugacpuszta, Hungary) was complemented by a 5-level (0.2, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4m) concentration profile measuring system and the storage term was calculated from the profile at half-hourly intervals. RCS was also calculated using only the concentration measurements of the EC system assuming linear concentration profile between the surface and the level of the measurement (linear approach). When comparing the uncorrected and the corrected (profile method) half-hourly fluxes storage correction did not affect the daytime NEE values (slope=1.0084, const=-0.0053, R2=0.9922) and had only a minor effect on the measured Reco values (slope=0.9577, const=0.0066, R2=0.9173). Yearly sums were calculated for the first whole year (August, 2013 - July, 2014) of the concentration profile measurement. Application of the linear approach storage correction enhanced the sink (more negative NEE) by 12 gC m-2 year-1 as compared to the uncorrected yearly sum. On the other hand, the use of storage terms calculated from the concentration profile measurements increased the sink activity by 54 gC m-2 year-1. Considering this more than 4 fold difference, concentration profiling should also be considered in case of

  3. Morphology of Rain Water Channeling in Systematically Varied Model Sandy Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuli; Cejas, Cesare M.; Barrois, Rémi; Dreyfus, Rémi; Durian, Douglas J.

    2014-10-01

    We visualize the formation of fingered flow in dry model sandy soils under different rain conditions using a quasi-2D experimental setup and systematically determine the impact of the soil grain diameter and surface wetting properties on the water channeling phenomenon. The model sandy soils we use are random closely packed glass beads with varied diameters and surface treatments. For hydrophilic sandy soils, our experiments show that rain water infiltrates a shallow top layer of soil and creates a horizontal water wetting front that grows downward homogeneously until instabilities occur to form fingered flows. For hydrophobic sandy soils, in contrast, we observe that rain water ponds on the top of the soil surface until the hydraulic pressure is strong enough to overcome the capillary repellency of soil and create narrow water channels that penetrate the soil packing. Varying the raindrop impinging speed has little influence on water channel formation. However, varying the rain rate causes significant changes in the water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. At a fixed rain condition, we combine the effects of the grain diameter and surface hydrophobicity into a single parameter and determine its influence on the water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. We also demonstrate the efficiency of several soil water improvement methods that relate to the rain water channeling phenomenon, including prewetting sandy soils at different levels before rainfall, modifying soil surface flatness, and applying superabsorbent hydrogel particles as soil modifiers.

  4. Genesis of Hurricane Sandy (2012) Simulated with a Global Mesoscale Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; DeMaria, Mark; Li, J.-L. F.; Cheung, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the formation predictability of Hurricane Sandy (2012) with a global mesoscale model. We first present five track and intensity forecasts of Sandy initialized at 00Z 22-26 October 2012, realistically producing its movement with a northwestward turn prior to its landfall. We then show that three experiments initialized at 00Z 16-18 October captured the genesis of Sandy with a lead time of up to 6 days and simulated reasonable evolution of Sandy's track and intensity in the next 2 day period of 18Z 21-23 October. Results suggest that the extended lead time of formation prediction is achieved by realistic simulations of multiscale processes, including (1) the interaction between an easterly wave and a low-level westerly wind belt (WWB) and (2) the appearance of the upper-level trough at 200 hPa to Sandy's northwest. The low-level WWB and upper-level trough are likely associated with a Madden-Julian Oscillation.

  5. Distribution and fractionation of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in a calcareous sandy soil receiving municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mohsen; Arfania, Hamed

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the degree of mobility and fractionation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) after the addition of municipal solid sewage sludge (MSS) in a sandy calcareous soil. Treatments were (1) soil application of MSS, (2) soil application of enriched municipal solid waste compost (EMSS), and (3) control soil. The MSS application represented a dose of 200 Mg dry weight per hectare. Soil columns were incubated at room temperature for 15 days and irrigated daily with deionized water to make a total of 505 mm. At the end of leaching experiments, soil samples from each column were divided into 14 layers, each being 1 cm down to 10 and 2.5 cm below that and analyzed for diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The fractionation of the heavy metals in the top five layers of the surface soil samples was investigated by the sequential extraction method. All soil layers of the columns receiving MSS and EMSS had significantly higher concentrations of DTPA-extractable heavy metals than control soil. The maximum concentration of heavy metals in treated soil was in the surface layer and declined significantly with depth. Sequential extraction results showed that in the treated soil, a major proportion of Cd, Pb, and Ni was associated with organic matter (OM) and exchangeable (EXCH) fractions, and a major proportion of Cu and Zn was associated with residual (RES) and OM fractions. Based on relative percent, Pb, Cd, and Ni in the EXCH fraction was higher than Cu and Zn in soil leached with MSS and EMSS, suggesting that application of this MSS to a sandy calcareous soil, at the loading rate used here, may pose a risk in terms of groundwater contamination with Pb, Cd, and Ni.

  6. Inhibition of enzymatic browning in foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    McEvily, A J; Iyengar, R; Otwell, W S

    1992-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is a major factor contributing to quality loss in foods and beverages. Sulfiting agents are used commonly to control browning; however, several negative attributes associated with sulfites have created the need for functional alternatives. Recent advances in the development of nonsulfite inhibitors of enzymatic browning are reviewed. The review focuses on compositions that are of practical relevance to food use.

  7. Brown's Legacy: The Promises and Pitfalls of Judicial Relief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Deborah Jones

    2005-01-01

    "Brown v. Board of Education" (1954) is one of the greatest achievements of the American judicial system. It decisively declared racial segregation in the schools unconstitutional, inaugurating the modern civil rights era. In addition to advancing equality, "Brown" initiated a new type of judicial decision making. After "Brown," courts…

  8. 40 CFR 721.10532 - Tar, brown coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tar, brown coal. 721.10532 Section 721... Tar, brown coal. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as tar, brown coal (PMN P-12-167, CAS No. 101316-83-0) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10532 - Tar, brown coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tar, brown coal. 721.10532 Section 721... Tar, brown coal. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as tar, brown coal (PMN P-12-167, CAS No. 101316-83-0) is subject...

  10. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  11. Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.

    PubMed

    Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2014-04-15

    Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate.

  12. Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.

    PubMed

    Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2014-04-15

    Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate. PMID:24295691

  13. Marilyn Levine: "Brown Boots, Leather Laces."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ray

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses Marilyn Levine's "Brown Boots, Leather Laces" to introduce students in grades 10-12 to naturalistic representation and the "trompe l'oeil" artistic tradition. Discusses Levine's background. Includes instructional strategies and student objectives, as well as a photograph of the artwork. (GEA)

  14. "Brown v. Board": With All Deliberate Speed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Monica

    2006-01-01

    This chapter argues that a detailed, grounded understanding of classroom literacy practices as well as of learners' writing is crucial to begin to change the ongoing and patently unequal educational outcomes that schools often produce. It is impossible to intervene realistically and effectively in an evidential vacuum. The 1955 "Brown v. Board of…

  15. Black-Brown Relations and Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindiola, Tatcho Jr.; Niemann, Yolanda Flores; Rodriguez, Nestor

    This book analyzes how African and Hispanic Americans perceive and interact with one another, highlighting black-brown relations in Houston, Texas, one of the largest cities with a majority ethnic population and one in which Hispanic Americans outnumber African Americans. Using results from several sociological studies, the book examines: how each…

  16. Molecular Selectivity of Brown Carbon Chromophores

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Roach, Patrick J.; Eckert, Peter A.; Gilles, Mary K.; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and micro-spectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene (LSOA) and a-pinene (PSOA). Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas were detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl- imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the a-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  17. Browns in Anger: The Overlooked Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara-Braud, Jorge

    This speech advocates that Mexican-Americans must undergo a process of radicalization to attempt to transfer anger from deeds to words. This minority is losing faith in speech as a means of redress, but corrective measures should come through dialogue and not collision. Few Mixican Americans designated themselves "browns" a year ago--but it is now…

  18. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  19. Reading Second. Brown Letters on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover

    2009-01-01

    Former President George W. Bush finished his tenure without having won congressional renewal of his No Child Left Behind (NCLB) policy. With President Barack Obama now at the helm, NCLB is up for debate. Brown Center Director Grover "Russ" Whitehurst examines Reading First, a key component of NCLB, that aims to ensure that all children learn to…

  20. Do You Mean Us, Mr Brown?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    This summer Chris Wardley, Chair of Access to Community Education (ACE), a small charity run by and for disabled people in Torbay, wrote to Gordon Brown. She asked him whether his mission to "fulfil the potential and realise the talents of all people" was based solely on economic goals or whether everyone, including disabled people, would be…

  1. Nixon's "Southern Strategy" and Forces against Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Richard M. Nixon, the United States President in 1968 gave birth to the modern reform movement through public vouchers and other educational reform measures under his "Southern Strategy" that was designed to gain the votes of individuals who oppose school desegregation. The political activities in school desegregation after Brown by the two major…

  2. "Brown" and the Failure of Civic Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennimore, Beatrice S.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I use perspective gained from 18 years of experience as an urban public school parent between 1978 and 1996 to provide insights into "Brown" at 50. Through description of two public conflicts over special choice programs in the school districts where my family and I lived during those years, I analyze the emergent issues of…

  3. Doppler Imaging of Exoplanets and Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossfield, I.; Biller, B.; Schlieder, J.; Deacon, N.; Bonnefoy, M.; Homeier, D.; Allard, F.; Buenzli, E.; Henning, T.; Brandner, W.; Goldman, Bertr; Kopytova, T.

    2014-03-01

    Doppler Imaging produces 2D global maps. When applied to cool planets or more massive brown dwarfs, it can map atmospheric features and track global weather patterns. The first substellar map, of the 2pc-distant brown dwarf Luhman 16B (Crossfeld et al. 2014), revealed patchy regions of thin & thick clouds. Here, I investigate the feasibility of future Doppler Imaging of additional objects. Searching the literature, I find that all 3 of P, v sin i, and variability are published for 22 brown dwarfs. At least one datum exists for 333 targets. The sample is very incomplete below ~L5; we need more surveys to find the best targets for Doppler Imaging! I estimate limiting magnitudes for Doppler Imaging with various hi-resolution near-infrared spectrographs. Only a handful of objects - at the M/L and L/T transitions - can be mapped with current tools. Large telescopes such as TMT and GMT will allow Doppler Imaging of many dozens of brown dwarfs and the brightest exoplanets. More targets beyond type L5 likely remain to be found. Future observations will let us probe the global atmospheric dynamics of many diverse objects.

  4. Brown Dwarfs: Discovery and Detailed Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    2001-01-01

    We obtained the optical and IR spectra of Gliese 229B and identified Cs, I, and CO features - as expected in theoretical models. Our optical IR spectrum showed that most of the refractory metals have condensed out of the atmosphere and the presence of Cs, I and CO shows evidence for disequilibrium chemistry. We reported orbital evidence for Gliese 229B. The HST measured optical magnitudes provide additional evidence for the absence of dust in the atmosphere of this cool object. The luminosity of brown dwarfs depend on their masses and ages and in order to interpret the results of the survey we have carried out an extensive Monte Carlo analysis. Our conclusion is that warm brown dwarfs are rare, as companions in the orbital period range beyond approximately 30 - 50 AU. The Palomer survey poses no constraint for brown dwarfs in planetary orbits similar to those of the outer planets. We have just started a program of imaging nearby stars with the newly commissioned AO system at Palomar and Keck and have already found a brown dwarf candidate.

  5. Brown Bodies, Racialisation and physical education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how school physical education (PE) can both reinforce stereotyped notions of the brown body as inherently physical while also allowing young people to gain educational success. Drawing on a critical ethnographic study of Maori and Pasifika (Pacific Island) youth in PE in New Zealand, the article explores how the academic…

  6. How Glassy States Affect Brown Carbon Production?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Bateman, A. P.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Z.; Gilles, M. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic material (SOM) can become light-absorbing (i.e. brown carbon) via multiphase reactions with nitrogen-containing species such as ammonia and amines. The physical states of SOM, however, potentially slow the diffusion of reactant molecules in organic matrix under conditions that semisolids or solids prevail, thus inhibiting the browning reaction pathways. In this study, the physical states and the in-particle diffusivity were investigated by measuring the evaporation kinetics of both water and organics from aromatic-derived SOMs using a quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM). The results indicate that the SOMs derived from aromatic precursors toluene and m-xylene became solid (glassy) and the in particle diffusion was significantly impeded for sufficiently low relative humidity ( < 20% RH) at 293 K. Optical properties and the AMS spectra were measured for toluene-derived SOM after ammonia exposure at varied RHs. The results suggest that the production of light-absorbing nitrogen-containing compounds from multiphase reactions with ammonia was kinetically limited in the glassy organic matrix, which otherwise produce brown carbon. The results of this study have significant implications for production and optical properties of brown carbon in urban atmospheres that ultimately influence the climate and tropospheric photochemistry.

  7. Possibility of the nonenzymatic browning (Maillard) reaction in the ISM.

    PubMed

    Jalbout, Abraham F; Shipar, M Abul Haider

    2008-04-01

    The possibility of the occurrence of the nonenzymatic browning reaction in the gaseous phase in the interstellar medium has been investigated by using Density Functional Theory computations. Mechanisms for the reactions between formaldehyde (Fald) + glycine (Gly), Fald + NH(3) and Fald + methylamine (MeAm) have been proposed, and the possibility of the formation of different compounds in the proposed mechanisms has been evaluated through calculating the Gibb's free energy changes for different steps of the reaction, by following the total mass balance. The Fald + Gly reaction under basic conditions is found as the most favorable for producing 1-methyl-amino methene or 1-methyl-amino methelene (MAM). The reaction under acidic conditions is found to be the least favorable for producing MAM. The Fald + NH(3) reaction is found to be plausible for the production of MeAm, which can participate by reaction with Fald, resulting in the formation of MAM. PMID:18188676

  8. Possibility of the Nonenzymatic Browning (Maillard) Reaction in the ISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalbout, Abraham F.; Shipar, M. Abul Haider

    2008-04-01

    The possibility of the occurrence of the nonenzymatic browning reaction in the gaseous phase in the interstellar medium has been investigated by using Density Functional Theory computations. Mechanisms for the reactions between formaldehyde ( Fald) + glycine ( Gly), Fald + NH 3 and Fald + methylamine ( MeAm) have been proposed, and the possibility of the formation of different compounds in the proposed mechanisms has been evaluated through calculating the Gibb's free energy changes for different steps of the reaction, by following the total mass balance. The Fald + Gly reaction under basic conditions is found as the most favorable for producing 1-methyl-amino methene or 1-methyl-amino methelene ( MAM). The reaction under acidic conditions is found to be the least favorable for producing MAM. The Fald + NH 3 reaction is found to be plausible for the production of MeAm, which can participate by reaction with Fald, resulting in the formation of MAM.

  9. Formation of Brown Dwarfs LTSA 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The goals of the work funded by this grant are: 1) The measurement of the mass function and minimum mass of free-floating brown dwarfs down to the mass of Jupiter; 2) The measurement of the frequency of wide brown dwarf and planetary companions down to the mass of Jupiter as function of primary mass (0.02-2 Msun), age (1-10 Myr), and environment (clusters vs. dispersed regions). For the first objective, we have completed the design of guaranteed SIRTF observations of nearby star-forming regions. With the successful launch of the SIRTF mission in August of 2003, we now await the execution of these observations, which should begin in early 2004. In support of these upcoming observations, in the fall of 2002 and spring of 2003 we obtained optical spectroscopy at the MMT, the 1.5 meter telescope at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, and Magellan Observatory for several hundred candidate young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the IC348, Taurus, and Chamaeleon star-forming regions. All of these data have been published in three papers in The Astrophysical Journal. We also recently used the MMT to obtain deep near-IR images of IC348 to accompany the SIRTF images and have time in the next month at the IRTF and Keck for spectroscopy of candidate brown dwarfs in IC348 and Taurus. We have submitted proposals for deep optical and near-IR imaging of the SIRTF fields in Chamaeleon and Ophiuchus for spring 2004 with Magellan and the AAT. Results from this research have been presented in invited talks at UU Symposium 221 (July 2003) and at the SIRTF Galactic Science Workshop (August 2003). For the second objective, we have used deep HST WFPC2 images to search for young giant planets and brown dwarfs around approx. 100 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the nearby cluster IC348. We have completed all data reduction and have checked these data for candidate companions. We expect to submit the paper describing these observations to The Astrophysical Journal by the end of the year

  10. Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengsha; Feng, Lifang; Jiang, Tianjia

    2014-04-15

    The effect of essential oil fumigation treatment on browning and postharvest quality of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was evaluated upon 16 days cold storage. Button mushrooms were fumigated with essential oils, including clove, cinnamaldehyde, and thyme. Changes in the browning index (BI), weight loss, firmness, percentage of open caps, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial activity and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) were measured. The results indicated that all essential oils could inhibit the senescence of mushrooms, and the most effective compound was cinnamaldehyde. Fumigation treatment with 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde decreased BI, delayed cap opening, reduced microorganism counts, promoted the accumulation of phenolics and ascorbic acid. In addition, 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde fumigation treatment inhibited the activities of PPO and POD, and increased PAL activity during the storage period. Thus, postharvest essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of button mushrooms.

  11. Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengsha; Feng, Lifang; Jiang, Tianjia

    2014-04-15

    The effect of essential oil fumigation treatment on browning and postharvest quality of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was evaluated upon 16 days cold storage. Button mushrooms were fumigated with essential oils, including clove, cinnamaldehyde, and thyme. Changes in the browning index (BI), weight loss, firmness, percentage of open caps, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial activity and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) were measured. The results indicated that all essential oils could inhibit the senescence of mushrooms, and the most effective compound was cinnamaldehyde. Fumigation treatment with 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde decreased BI, delayed cap opening, reduced microorganism counts, promoted the accumulation of phenolics and ascorbic acid. In addition, 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde fumigation treatment inhibited the activities of PPO and POD, and increased PAL activity during the storage period. Thus, postharvest essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of button mushrooms. PMID:24295683

  12. Characterization of a moderately halo-acidophilic bacterium isolated from Lake Brown, western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mormile, Melanie R.; Hong, Bo-young; Adams, Nicholas T.; Benison, Kathleen C.; Oboh-Ikuenobe, Francisca

    2007-09-01

    Compared to prevalent alkaline to neutral hypersaline environments, acidic hypersaline environments have been scarcely studied. However, they hold interest to many researchers in that these environments have similar geological and geochemical characteristics as those found in lithified strata on Mars. Fieldwork indicated that Lake Brown, located in Western Australia, possessed pH values of 3.1-4.5 and salinity between 13.0-23.0%. Water column, groundwater, and sediment samples were collected from the lake during the austral winter of 2005. These samples were analyzed with both traditional culture and molecular methods. Modified growth media and minimal media were designed to match the composition (Cl, Na, Mg, SO4, K, Ca, and Br) of Lake Brown surface and ground waters for the enrichment of microorganisms. One of the isolates obtained, Brown 1, can grow in media that possesses pH values of 3-7 with optimal growth at pH 4, salinity that ranged from 5% to saturation with optimal growth at 5% and could grow under temperatures that ranged from 20°C to 65°C with optimal grow occurring at 37°C. The isolate's optimum growth conditions are similar to those found in Lake Brown. The isolate is a Gram-negative rod that forms yellow colonies on 17% Phytogel. Its 16S rRNA gene can be amplified with bacterial primers but not with archaeal primers. Its 16S rRNA gene sequence suggests that the isolate is a gamma proteobacterium. Studies on organisms isolated from environments such as Lake Brown, an acid hypersaline lake, can provide an opportunity to both expand our knowledge of terrestrial extremophiles and gain insight on the possible forms of life that might have existed on Mars.

  13. Treatment of contaminated groundwater in sandy layer under river bank by electrokinetic and ultrasonic technology.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ha I

    2007-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments involving simple, ultrasonic, electrokinetic, electrokinetic/ ultrasonic flushing test were carried out for treatment and removal of heavy metal and hydrocarbon from contaminated groundwater in sandy layers under a river bank. The test results show that the electrokinetic/ultrasonic flushing technique is most effective for the removal of heavy metal and hydrocarbon from contaminated sandy layers by the coupling action of their own phenomena. It is shown that the electrokinetic technique is most effective to enhance the removal efficiency of heavy metal contaminants such as cadmium from contaminated sandy soil under the river bank; on the other hand the ultrasonic technique is most effective to enhance the removal efficiency of hydrocarbon contaminant, such as diesel fuel from contaminated soil. PMID:17305157

  14. How Unique was Hurricane Sandy? Sedimentary Reconstructions of Extreme Flooding from New York Harbor

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Christine M.; Woodruff, Jonathan D.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Sullivan, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude of flooding in New York City by Hurricane Sandy is commonly believed to be extremely rare, with estimated return periods near or greater than 1000 years. However, the brevity of tide gauge records result in significant uncertainties when estimating the uniqueness of such an event. Here we compare resultant deposition by Hurricane Sandy to earlier storm-induced flood layers in order to extend records of flooding to the city beyond the instrumental dataset. Inversely modeled storm conditions from grain size trends show that a more compact yet more intense hurricane in 1821 CE probably resulted in a similar storm tide and a significantly larger storm surge. Our results indicate the occurrence of additional flood events like Hurricane Sandy in recent centuries, and highlight the inadequacies of the instrumental record in estimating current flood risk by such extreme events. PMID:25482298

  15. Responses of ghost crabs to habitat modification of urban sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Stelling-Wood, Talia P; Clark, Graeme F; Poore, Alistair G B

    2016-05-01

    Sandy beaches in highly urbanised areas are subject to a wide range of human impacts. Ghost crabs are a commonly used ecological indicator on sandy beaches, as they are key consumers in these systems and counting burrow openings allows for rapid assessment of population size. This study assessed the pressures of urbanisation on sandy beaches in the highly urbanised estuary of Sydney Harbour. Across 38 beaches, we examined which physical beach properties, management practices and human induced habitat modification best predicted ghost crab distributions. Of all variables measured, the frequency of mechanical beach cleaning was the most important predictor of crab abundance, with low burrow densities at the highest cleaning frequency and the highest densities at beaches cleaned at the intermediate frequency (≤3 times per week). These results indicate that ghost crab populations in Sydney Harbour are more robust to the impacts of urbanisation than previously thought.

  16. How unique was Hurricane Sandy? Sedimentary reconstructions of extreme flooding from New York Harbor.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Christine M; Woodruff, Jonathan D; Donnelly, Jeffrey P; Sullivan, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude of flooding in New York City by Hurricane Sandy is commonly believed to be extremely rare, with estimated return periods near or greater than 1000 years. However, the brevity of tide gauge records result in significant uncertainties when estimating the uniqueness of such an event. Here we compare resultant deposition by Hurricane Sandy to earlier storm-induced flood layers in order to extend records of flooding to the city beyond the instrumental dataset. Inversely modeled storm conditions from grain size trends show that a more compact yet more intense hurricane in 1821 CE probably resulted in a similar storm tide and a significantly larger storm surge. Our results indicate the occurrence of additional flood events like Hurricane Sandy in recent centuries, and highlight the inadequacies of the instrumental record in estimating current flood risk by such extreme events. PMID:25482298

  17. Responses of ghost crabs to habitat modification of urban sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Stelling-Wood, Talia P; Clark, Graeme F; Poore, Alistair G B

    2016-05-01

    Sandy beaches in highly urbanised areas are subject to a wide range of human impacts. Ghost crabs are a commonly used ecological indicator on sandy beaches, as they are key consumers in these systems and counting burrow openings allows for rapid assessment of population size. This study assessed the pressures of urbanisation on sandy beaches in the highly urbanised estuary of Sydney Harbour. Across 38 beaches, we examined which physical beach properties, management practices and human induced habitat modification best predicted ghost crab distributions. Of all variables measured, the frequency of mechanical beach cleaning was the most important predictor of crab abundance, with low burrow densities at the highest cleaning frequency and the highest densities at beaches cleaned at the intermediate frequency (≤3 times per week). These results indicate that ghost crab populations in Sydney Harbour are more robust to the impacts of urbanisation than previously thought. PMID:26970686

  18. Treatment of contaminated groundwater in sandy layer under river bank by electrokinetic and ultrasonic technology.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ha I

    2007-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments involving simple, ultrasonic, electrokinetic, electrokinetic/ ultrasonic flushing test were carried out for treatment and removal of heavy metal and hydrocarbon from contaminated groundwater in sandy layers under a river bank. The test results show that the electrokinetic/ultrasonic flushing technique is most effective for the removal of heavy metal and hydrocarbon from contaminated sandy layers by the coupling action of their own phenomena. It is shown that the electrokinetic technique is most effective to enhance the removal efficiency of heavy metal contaminants such as cadmium from contaminated sandy soil under the river bank; on the other hand the ultrasonic technique is most effective to enhance the removal efficiency of hydrocarbon contaminant, such as diesel fuel from contaminated soil.

  19. In vitro kinetics of hepatic glutathione s-transferase conjugation in largemouth bass and brown bullheads

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, E.P.; Sheehy, K.M.; Lame, M.W.; Segall, H.J.

    2000-02-01

    The kinetics of glutathione 5-transferase (GST) catalysis were investigated in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and brown bullheads (Amerius nebulosus), two freshwater fish species found in a variety of polluted waterways in the eastern US. The initial rates of hepatic GST activity toward four GST substrates, including 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, ethacrynic acid, {Delta}5-androstene-17-dione, and nitrobutyl chloride, were significantly higher in brown bullheads than in largemouth bass. Hepatic GST activity toward 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene, a {mu}-class GST substrate in rodents, was not detectable in either species. Liver cytosolic GSTs were more efficient in bullheads than in bass at catalyzing 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene-reduced glutathione (CDNB-GSH) conjugation over a broad range of electrophile (CDNB) concentrations, including those representative of environmental exposure. In contrast, largemouth bass maintained higher ambient concentrations of GSH, the nucleophilic cofactor for GST-mediated conjugation, than brown bullheads. Biphasic kinetics for GST-CDNB conjugation under conditions of variable GSH concentration were apparent in Eadie-Hofstee plots of the kinetic data, suggesting the presence of at least two hepatic GST isozymes with markedly different K{sub m} values for GSH in both species. The GST-CDNB reaction rate data obtained under conditions of variable GSH were well fitted (R{sup 2} = 0.999) by the two-enzyme Michaelis-Menten equation. In addition, Western blotting experiments confirmed the presence of two different hepatic GST-like proteins in both largemouth bass and brown bullhead liver. Collectively, these findings indicate that largemouth bass and brown bullhead GSTs catalyze the conjugation of structurally diverse, class-specific GST substrates, and that brown bullheads exhibit higher initial rates of GST activity than largemouth bass. The relatively higher rates of in vitro liver GST activity at the low substrate concentrations

  20. Morphogenetics in brown, beige and white fat development.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jean Z; Farmer, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Brown and beige (or brite) fat cells are capable of evoking non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold and β-adrenergic stimulation. By metabolizing lipids and carbohydrate via uncoupled respiration these cells directly convert energy to heat. The discovery of brown and brown-like adipocytes in adult humans has reinvigorated interest in stimulating brown and beige fat development to combat the obesity epidemic. This review focuses on the role that cytoskeleton dynamics play in the regulation of adipocyte biology, specifically beige and brown fat development and how newly discovered adipogenic morphogens affect these processes. PMID:27386157

  1. Seasonal use of coastal resources by otters: Comparing sandy and rocky stretches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavero, Miguel; Prenda, José; Delibes, Miguel

    2006-02-01

    Seasonal patterns of use of coastal resources by otters have been studied, simultaneously performing diet analyses and spraint counts (expressed as marking intensity, MI). In spite of the small size of the study area, two different sectors could be clearly identified, a sandy and a rocky one. The origin ( freshwater or coastal) of most prey types could also be determined. Surveys were performed bimonthly and classified as autumn-winter (A-W) or spring-summer (S-S). In the sandy sector, eels, flatfish and grey mullets were more frequently consumed in A-W, while crayfish was more frequently consumed in S-S. None of the identified prey types in the rocky sectors showed different frequency of occurrence values between the two periods. In this sector otter fed mainly on coastal prey throughout the year, while in the sandy one there was a clear shift from coastal prey to freshwater ones in S-S. The decrease of coastal prey consumption in S-S in the sandy sector coincided with the lowest MI values, showing that in this period otters use coastal areas less intensely. Though shifts in otter diet and use of space in the sandy sector are probably influenced by the population dynamics of estuarine fish species and crayfish, the increased tourist disturbance during spring and summer in the sandy sector could be an important determinant of the observed patterns. Finally, the results show that MI can be used as a reliable measure of habitat use by otters, at least in small areas.

  2. Spatial Patterns and Natural Recruitment of Native Shrubs in a Semi-arid Sandy Land

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bo; Yang, Hongxiao

    2013-01-01

    Passive restoration depending on native shrubs is an attractive approach for restoring desertified landscapes in semi-arid sandy regions. We sought to understand the relationships between spatial patterns of native shrubs and their survival ability in sandy environments. Furthermore, we applied our results to better understand whether passive restoration is feasible for desertified landscapes in semi-arid sandy regions. The study was conducted in the semi-arid Mu Us sandy land of northern China with the native shrub Artemisia ordosica. We analyzed population structures and patterns of A. ordosica at the edges and centers of land patches where sand was stabilized by A. ordosica-dominated vegetation. Saplings were more aggregated than adults, and both were more aggregated at the patch edges than at the patch centers. At the patch edges, spatial association of the saplings with the adults was mostly positive at distances 0.3–6.6 m, and turned from positive to neutral, and even negative, at other distances. At the patch centers, the saplings were spaced almost randomly around the adults, and their distances from the adults did not seem to affect their locations. A greater number of A. ordosica individuals emerged at the patch edges than at the patch centers. Such patterns may have resulted from their integrative adjustment to specific conditions of soil water supply and sand drift intensity. These findings suggest that in semi-arid sandy regions, native shrubs that are well-adapted to local environments may serve as low-cost and competent ecological engineers that can promote the passive restoration of surrounding patches of mobile sandy land. PMID:23505489

  3. Geoacoustic inversion in shallow tropical waters for a silty and sandy seabed.

    PubMed

    M C, Sanjana; G, Latha; Potty, G R

    2016-02-01

    Seabed parameters are inverted from ambient noise measurements at two shallow tropical environments with dissimilar seabed characteristics, a silty and a sandy seabed, using an approach that matches the measured and modeled complex vertical coherence. Coherence is modeled using the Green's function output from the model oases, along with theoretical formulation, for a range independent environment. Genetic algorithm is used to search the model parameter space consisting of sound speed, density, and attenuation in the sediment layers and half-space. Reasonable estimates have been obtained for the silty site, whereas the sandy site gave relatively poor parameter estimates due to reflective seabed and shipping interference. PMID:26936582

  4. Roles of Upper-Level Processes in the Multi-Intensity Changes of Hurricane Sandy (2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, J. H.; Zhang, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    The multi-intensity changes of Hurricane Sandy (2012) are examined by using a cloud resolving WRF model. An analysis of Sandy's life cycle shows four distinct stages: (1) rapid deepening, (2) weakening, (3) deepening with little intensification of rotational wind, and (4) re-intensification of vortex winds. Results from the model simulations indicate that Sandy's multi-intensity changes are closely related to (i) changes in the magnitude and direction of environmental vertical wind shear (VWS), (ii) upper-tropospheric warming associated with deep convection in the core region, (iii) lower-stratospheric warmth as the storm moves poleward into lower-tropopause regions, and (iv) the possible roles of inertial instability in the upper outflow regions as approaching a upper-level trough/jet stream. Specifically, Sandy intensifies steadily since October 24 as it moves over warm SST surface from Caribbean Sea to Cuba Island. After the storm passes Cuba Island, its warm core begins to tilt under the influence of increasing VWS as it approaches to an upper-level subtropical jet stream, leading to the weakening of the storm. After October 27, Sandy deepens as it moves far away from the upper-level jet core VWS, though over a colder SST surface. By hydrostatic reasoning, we find that during the 3rd stage Sandy's deepening results partly from the stacked upper-level warming in the core region but more from low stratospheric warmth as it moves to higher latitudes with lower tropopause height. Unlike the former scenario, this stratospheric warmth occurs over a meso-alpha-scale region encompassing the storm, thus causing widespread surface pressure falls. This explains why the rotational wind of Sandy shows little intensity changes while its central pressure keeps falling. During the final stage, organized deep convection in the core region increases upper-level tropospheric warming, leading to both the deepening of central pressure and re-intensification of rotational winds. It

  5. Mediterranean undercurrent sandy contourites, Gulf of Cadiz, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hans, Nelson C.; Baraza, J.; Maldonado, A.

    1993-01-01

    and contourite deposits exhibit reverse graded bedding and sharp upper bed contacts in coarse-grained layers, low deposition rates, and a regional pattern of bedform zones, textural variation, and compositional gradation. The surface sandy contourite layer of 0.2-1.2 m thickness that covers the Gulf of Cadiz slope has formed during the present Holocene high sea level because high sea level results in maximum water depth over the Gibraltar sill and full development of the Mediterranean undercurrent. The late Pleistocene age of the mud underlying the surface sand sheet correlates with the age of the last sea-level lowstand and apparent weak Mediterranean undercurrent development. Thus, the cyclic deposition of sand or mud layers and contourite or drape sequences appear to be related to late Pliocene and Quaternary sea-level changes and Mediterranean water circulation patterns. Since its Pliocene origin, the contourite sequence has had low deposition rates of < 5 cm/1000y on the upper slope and < 13 cm/1000y in the middle slope sediment drift. ?? 1993.

  6. Detection of internal browning in apples by light transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upchurch, Bruce L.; Throop, James A.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Light transmittance in the 450 to 1050 nanometer (nm) region was evaluated as a nondestructive technique for identifying apples with internal browning. Shorter wavelengths of light (< 800 nm) were attenuated more than longer wavelengths (> 800 nm). A transmission difference between 720 and 810 nm was used to segregate apples with internal browning from good apples. Only 7.4% of the apples were misclassified in a training set. When applied to a larger validation set, 8.0% of the apples with internal browning were misclassified. For both sets, the only apples misclassified were those with very slight browning that was very difficult to detect visually were misclassified, but none of the apples with slight to severe browning was misclassified. For nondefective apples, 6.1% were identified as having internal browning, because bruises and internal browning had the same effect on the spectral composition.

  7. Manothermosonication of foods and food-resembling systems: effect on nutrient content and nonenzymatic browning.

    PubMed

    Vercet, A; Burgos, J; López-Buesa, P

    2001-01-01

    The effect of manothermosonication (MTS), an emergent technology for food preservation, on thiamin, riboflavin, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid was evaluated in milk and orange juice. The effect of both heat treatment and MTS on several compounds produced in nonenzymatic browning in model systems was also studied. MTS does not affect significantly the nutrient content studied. However, it changes the behavior of nonenzymatic browning. No formation of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfuraldehyde (HMF) was detected in fruit juice model systems after heat and MTS treatments at the experimental conditions used. In a milk-resembling system, free HMF formation by MTS is higher compared to that by heat treatment. As the MTS temperature increases, free HMF production by both treatments equaled on another. For bound HMF the production rate is lower by MTS than by heat treatment under the experimental conditions used. Formation kinetics of brown pigments and that of fluorescent compounds are different for both treatments. Fluorescence and brown pigment production are faster in MTS. PMID:11170615

  8. Formation of Brown Dwarfs LTSA 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goals of the work funded by this grant are: (1) The measurement of the mass function and minimum mass of free-floating brown dwarfs down to the mass of Jupiter; (2) The measurement of the frequency of wide brown dwarf and planetary companions down to the mass of Jupiter as function of primary mass (0.02-2 Msun), age (1-10 Myr), and environment (clusters vs. dispersed regions). For the first objective, we have completed the design of guaranteed SIRTF observations of nearby star-forming regions and now await the launch of the mission in April 2003. In support of these upcoming observations, in the fall of 2002 we obtained optical spectroscopy at the MMT and the 1.5-meter telescope at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory for candidate young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the IC348 and Taurus star-forming regions. Two papers that include these data in new measurements of the mass functions in these regions are near completion and will be submitted for publication to the Astrophysical Journal in January. We have also proposed deep optical and near-IR imaging of the SIRTF fields in the IC348, Chamaeleon, and Ophiuchus star-forming regions with the MMT, Magellan, and Gemini North telescopes in early 2003. For the second objective, we have used deep HST WFPC2 images to search for young giant planets and brown dwarfs around approximately 100 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the nearby cluster IC 348. We have completed all data reduction and have checked these data for candidate companions. We are in the process of writing a paper that describes these candidate companions and presents the companion detection limits that were achieved with HST. We will attempt followup spectroscopy of the most promising candidate companions to confirm their nature as cool companions rather than background field stars during the commissioning of the facility adaptive optics system for the Gemini North telescope early in 2003. In addition, in SIRTF guaranteed time observations we plan to

  9. 78 FR 52560 - Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force-Rebuild-by-Design; Announcement of Selection of Design Teams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... problems that are larger or more complex than individual towns have the capacity to solve themselves. The... Design Teams AGENCY: Hurricane Sandy Task Force, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In June 2013, the... resilience for the Sandy-affected region. This notice announces the design teams selected under...

  10. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers..., shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other persons...

  11. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers..., shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other persons...

  12. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers..., shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other persons...

  13. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers..., shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other persons...

  14. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers..., shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other persons...

  15. 78 FR 56650 - Boundary Description and Final Map for Sandy Wild and Scenic River, Upper Portion, Mount Hood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Hood National Forest, Oregon AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: In..., VA 22209, and at the Supervisor's Office of the Mount Hood National Forest, 16400 Champion Way, Sandy... office: Mount Hood National Forest, 16400 Champion Way Sandy, Oregon 97055, 503-668-1700,...

  16. Efficacy of biosolids in assisted phytostabilization of metalliferous acidic sandy soils with five grass species.

    PubMed

    Kacprzak, Malgorzata; Grobelak, Anna; Grosser, Anna; Prasad, M N V

    2014-01-01

    The role of sewage sludge as an immobilising agent in the phytostabilization of metal-contaminated soil was evaluated using five grass species viz., Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., F. rubra L., Lolium perenne L., L. westerwoldicum L. The function of metal immobilization was investigated by monitoring pH, Eh and Cd, Pb, and Zn levels in column experiment over a period of 5-months. Grasses grown on sewage sludge-amendments produced high biomass in comparison to controls. A significant reduction in metal uptake by plants was also observed as a result of sewage sludge application, which was attributed to decreased bioavailability through soil stabilisation. We have observed that the sludge amendment decreased metal bioavailability and concentrations in soil at a depth of 25 cm, in contrast to untreated columns, where metal concentrations in the soil solution were very high. PMID:24912245

  17. Efficacy of Biosolids in Assisted Phytostabilization of Metalliferous Acidic Sandy Soils with Five Grass Species

    PubMed Central

    Kacprzak, Malgorzata; Grobelak, Anna; Grosser, Anna; Prasad, M. N. V.

    2013-01-01

    The role of sewage sludge as an immobilising agent in the phytostabilization of metal-contaminated soil was evaluated using five grass species viz., Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., F. rubra L., Lolium perenne L., L. westerwoldicum L. The function of metal immobilization was investigated by monitoring pH, Eh and Cd, Pb, and Zn levels in column experiment over a period of 5-months. Grasses grown on sewage sludge-amendments produced high biomass in comparison to controls. A significant reduction in metal uptake by plants was also observed as a result of sewage sludge application, which was attributed to decreased bioavailability through soil stabilisation. We have observed that the sludge amendment decreased metal bioavailability and concentrations in soil at a depth of 25 cm, in contrast to untreated columns, where metal concentrations in the soil solution were very high. PMID:24912245

  18. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  19. Histological findings after brown recluse spider envenomation.

    PubMed

    Elston, D M; Eggers, J S; Schmidt, W E; Storrow, A B; Doe, R H; McGlasson, D; Fischer, J R

    2000-06-01

    Histologic specimens from 41 rabbits were studied for changes resulting from the manual injection of brown recluse spider venom. Major findings included a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, coagulative tissue necrosis, and vasculitis. All specimens demonstrated a well-delineated zone of eosinophilic staining recognizable as "mummified" coagulative necrosis of the epidermis and dermis. A dense band of neutrophils bordered the zone of necrosis. Immediately adjacent to the neutrophilic band, small vessel vasculitis was a universal finding. Degranulated eosinophils and neutrophils and macrophages filled with eosinophilic granules were common. Inflammatory foci were often centered on groups of lipocytes within the dermis. Large vessel vasculitis resembling that seen in polyarteritis nodosa was present deep to 7 of the 40 eschars. Large vessel vasculitis may contribute to the large zones of necrosis seen after some brown recluse spider bites. Eosinophils may play a role in tissue damage after envenomation.

  20. Evolution and infrared spectra of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.; Hubbard, William B.; Marley, Mark S.

    1986-01-01

    Self-consistent models are constructed for the structure, evolution, and observable properties of degenerately cooling objects, or 'brown dwarfs'. Model atmospheres composed of a range of likely gaseous and particulate opacity sources are calculated in order to provide a boundary condition for interior temperature-pressure profiles and to determine the emergent spectra for such objects. The radius derived from the interior models is combined with the emergent fluxes calculated from the atmosphere model to fit the data of McCarthy, Probst, and Low (1985) and to derive the luminosity and mass of VB 8B. The latter is found to be most probably an 0.05 solar mass object with effective temperature in the 1200-1500 K range and an atmosphere which very likely contains particulate absorbers. Key changes in chemical oxidation state and condensation of major constituents during the evolution of brown dwarfs are presented.