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Sample records for acidic sandy soil

  1. Organic amendment effects on the transformation and fractionation of aluminum in acidic sandy soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was attempted to evaluate the transformation of aluminum (Al) in an acidic sandy soil amended with composts (yard waste, yard + municipal waste, GreenEdge®, and synthetic humic acid), based on soil Al fractionation by single and sequential extraction. The compost amendment significantly i...

  2. Uranium partitioning under acidic conditions in a sandy soil aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.H. |; Serkiz, S.M.; Johnson, L.M.

    1995-07-01

    The partitioning of uranium in an aquifer down gradient of two large mixed waste sites was examined with respect to the solution and soil chemistry (e.g., pH redox potential and contaminant concentration) and aqueous-phase chemical speciation. This involved generation of field-derived, batch sorption, and reactive mineral surface sorption data. Field-derived distribution coefficients for uranium at these waste sites were found to vary between 0.40 and 15,000. Based on thermodynamic speciation modeling and a comparison of field and laboratory data, gibbsite is a potential reactive mineral surface present in modified soils at the sites. Uranium partitioning data are presented from field samples and laboratory studies of background soil and the mineral surface gibbsite. Mechanistic and empirical sorption models fit to the field-derived uranium partitioning data show an improvement of over two orders of magnitude, as measured by the normalized sum of errors squared, when compared with the single K{sub d} model used in previous risk work. Models fit to batch sorption data provided a better fit of sorbed uranium than do models fit to the field-derived data.

  3. Use of Fly Ash as a Liming Material for Corn and Soybean Production on an Acidic Sandy Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fly ash (FA) produced from subbituminous coal combustion can potentially serve as a lime material for crop production in acidic soils in areas. A five-year study was conducted to determine if FA can be used as a liming material in an acid sandy soil under corn and soybean grain production. Fly ash...

  4. Transfer of cadmium from a sandy acidic soil to man: A population study

    SciTech Connect

    Staessen, J.A.; Celis, H.G.; Fagard, R.H.; Lijnen, P.J.; Thijs, L.B.; Amery, A.K. ); Vyncke, G. ); Lauwerys, R.R.; Roels, H.A. ); Claeys, F. ); Dondeyne, F. ); Ide, G. ); Rondia, D.; Sartor, F. )

    1992-06-01

    This population study included 230 subjects (age range 20-83 years) who consumed vegetables grown in kitchen gardens on a sandy acidic soil (mean pH {approximately}6.3). The study investigated the association between the Cd (cadmium) levels in blood and urine and the Cd concentration in the soil (range 0.2-44 ppm). Seventy-six subjects were current smokers and 122 participants lived in a district with known Cd pollution. Urinary Cd in the 230 subjects averaged 8.7 nmole/24 hr, (range 1.3 to 47 nmole/24 hr) after age adjustment positively correlated with the Cd level in the soil; a twofold increase of the Cd concentration in the soil was accompanied by a 7% rise in urinary Cd in men and by a 4% rise in women. Blood Cd averaged 11.5 nmole/liter (range 1.8-41 nmole/liter) and was negatively associated with the Cd level in the soil. After adjustment for significant covariates (smoking and serum {gamma}-glutamyl transpeptidase in both sexes, and age and serum ferritin in women), a twofold increase in the Cd concentration in the soil was accompanied by a 6% decrease in blood Cd in men and by a 10% decrease in women. In conclusion, in a rural population, consuming vegetables grown on a sandy acidic soil, 2 to 4% of the variance of urinary Cd was directly related to the Cd level in the soil. The negative correlation with blood Cd, a measure of more recent exposure, was biased by the implementation of preventive measures in the polluted district.

  5. Reactive transport controls on sandy acid sulfate soils and impacts on shallow groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, S. Ursula; Rate, Andrew W.; Rengel, Zed; Appleyard, Steven; Prommer, Henning; Hinz, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Disturbance or drainage of potential acid sulfate soils (PASS) can result in the release of acidity and degradation of infrastructure, water resources, and the environment. Soil processes affecting shallow groundwater quality have been investigated using a numerical code that integrates (bio)geochemical processes with water, solute, and gas transport. The patterns of severe and persistent acidification (pH < 4) in the sandy, carbonate-depleted podzols of a coastal plain could be reproduced without calibration, based on oxidation of microcrystalline pyrite after groundwater level decrease and/or residual groundwater acidity, due to slow vertical solute transport rates. The rate of acidification was limited by gas phase diffusion of oxygen and hence was sensitive to soil water retention properties and in some cases also to oxygen consumption by organic matter mineralization. Despite diffusion limitation, the rate of oxidation in sandy soils was rapid once pyrite-bearing horizons were exposed, even to a depth of 7.5 m. Groundwater level movement was thus identified as an important control on acidification, as well as the initial pyrite content. Increase in the rate of Fe(II) oxidation lead to slightly lower pH and greater accumulation of Fe(III) phases, but had little effect on the overall amount of pyrite oxidized. Aluminosilicate (kaolinite) dissolution had a small pH-buffering effect but lead to the release of Al and associated acidity. Simulated dewatering scenarios highlighted the potential of the model for risk assessment of (bio)geochemical impacts on soil and groundwater over a range of temporal and spatial scales.

  6. Regional scale assessment of soil predictors of groundwater phosphate (P) levels in acidic sandy agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabilde, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Possible factors affecting the leaching of P to the groundwater in the Belgian sandy area are examined via regression analysis. The main objective is to investigate the dependency of phreatic groundwater phosphate concentrations (Flemish VMM monitoring net, monitoring period 2010-2013) on soil phosphate saturation degree (PSD) (1994-1997 mapping for Flemish Land Agency) (n = 1032). Additionally explored parameters include: depth distributions of Fe- and Al-oxides, sorbed P and phosphate sorption capacity (PSC) and soil pH. Interpolated data of these soil parameters in 3 depth layers (0-30, 30-60, 60-90 cm) were generated by ordinary kriging. Secondly, we assessed the significance of other edaphic factors potentially controlling the groundwater P: topsoil organic carbon content (OC %), soil clay content and fluctuation of the groundwater table. Overall, the mean PSD halved with each 30 cm depth layer (56 > 24 > 13 %) and was correlated to groundwater PO43- level. The statistical significance of the correlation with groundwater PO43- concentrations increased with depth layer. The poor correlation (R2 = 0.01) between PSD and groundwater phosphate concentration indicates that many factors, other than soil P status, control the transport of P from soil solution to the groundwater in Belgian sandy soils. A significant (P<0.01) positive non-linear relationship was found between groundwater PO43-concentration and pHKCl in all three studied depth layers, again increasingly with depth. Within the pH range of the 30-60 cm layer (pHKCl 4.0-5.7) PO4- solubility should increase with pH. Elevated soil OC levels surprisingly co-occurred with low groundwater PO43- concentrations (r = -0.18, P<0.01, n = 191). Groundwater PO43- was furthermore significantly and positively correlated to clay % in both the 0-15 cm (r = 0.15, τ = 0.25, P<0.01, n = 1032) and 60-90 cm (r = 0.13, τ = 0.20, P<0.01, n = 1032) depth increments. These positive correlations were unexpected and could be

  7. Spatial variation in 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid mineralization and sorption in a sandy soil at field level.

    PubMed

    Fredslund, L; Vinther, F P; Brinch, U C; Elsgaard, L; Rosenberg, P; Jacobsen, C S

    2008-01-01

    The phenoxyacetic acid herbicide MCPA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) is frequently detected in groundwater beneath Danish agricultural fields. We investigated spatial variation in microbial MCPA mineralization potential in a flat agricultural field of fine sandy soil (USDA classification: Humic Dystrudept) located on the Yoldia plains of Northern Jutland, Denmark. Samples for determination of MCPA mineralization and sorption were collected from the Ap and Bs horizons at 51 sampling sites located in a 200 x 220 m grid. Spatial variation in sorption was low in both horizons (distribution coefficient, 0.36-4.16 L kg(-1)). Sorption correlated strongly with soil organic carbon content in both horizons (CV, 93 and 83%, respectively) and negatively with soil pH. [Ring-(14)C]-MCPA mineralized readily in the Ap horizon, with 49 to 62% of the (14)C-MCPA being converted to (14)CO(2) during the 67-d incubation period. With the subsoil, mineralization of (14)C-MCPA varied considerably between samples (0.5-72.8%). At neither depth was there correlation between (14)C-MCPA mineralization and sorption, soil pH, organic carbon content, clay content, number of colony-forming units (CFU), pseudomonad CFU, or any of the four microbial activity parameters measured. The presence of microbial genes encoding for the TfdA enzyme was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. No correlation was found between MCPA mineralization potential and the natural background number of tfdA genes present in the soil samples. The degradation kinetics suggests that the high (14)C-MCPA mineralization rate detected in soil samples was linked to growth of the MCPA-degrading soil microbial community.

  8. Effects of municipal waste compost and sewage sludge on proton binding behavior of humic acids from Portuguese sandy and clay loam soils.

    PubMed

    Pedra, Filipe; Plaza, César; García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Polo, Alfredo

    2008-05-01

    The effects of amendment with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and sewage sludge (SS) on acid-base properties of soil humic acids (HAs) were investigated. For this purpose, HAs were isolated from MSWC and SS and two different Portuguese soils, one sandy and the other clay loam, either unamended or amended with MSWC or SS at a rate of 60 t ha(-1), and analysed by potentiometric titrations at various ionic strengths (0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3M) over the pH range from 3.5 to 10.5. All titration data were fitted with the NICA-Donnan model and the variations of model parameters between the various HA samples were discussed. The HAs from MSWC and SS had lower acidic functional group contents and higher proton binding affinities than the control soil HAs. Amending soils with MSWC and SS determined a decrease of acidic functional group contents and an increase on proton binding affinities of soil HAs. These effects were more evident in SS-amended soil HAs than in MSWC-amended soil HAs, and in clay loam soil HA than in sandy soil HA.

  9. Efficacy of biosolids in assisted phytostabilization of metalliferous acidic sandy soils with five grass species.

    PubMed

    Kacprzak, Malgorzata; Grobelak, Anna; Grosser, Anna; Prasad, M N V

    2014-01-01

    The role of sewage sludge as an immobilising agent in the phytostabilization of metal-contaminated soil was evaluated using five grass species viz., Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., F. rubra L., Lolium perenne L., L. westerwoldicum L. The function of metal immobilization was investigated by monitoring pH, Eh and Cd, Pb, and Zn levels in column experiment over a period of 5-months. Grasses grown on sewage sludge-amendments produced high biomass in comparison to controls. A significant reduction in metal uptake by plants was also observed as a result of sewage sludge application, which was attributed to decreased bioavailability through soil stabilisation. We have observed that the sludge amendment decreased metal bioavailability and concentrations in soil at a depth of 25 cm, in contrast to untreated columns, where metal concentrations in the soil solution were very high.

  10. Efficacy of Biosolids in Assisted Phytostabilization of Metalliferous Acidic Sandy Soils with Five Grass Species

    PubMed Central

    Kacprzak, Malgorzata; Grobelak, Anna; Grosser, Anna; Prasad, M. N. V.

    2013-01-01

    The role of sewage sludge as an immobilising agent in the phytostabilization of metal-contaminated soil was evaluated using five grass species viz., Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., F. rubra L., Lolium perenne L., L. westerwoldicum L. The function of metal immobilization was investigated by monitoring pH, Eh and Cd, Pb, and Zn levels in column experiment over a period of 5-months. Grasses grown on sewage sludge-amendments produced high biomass in comparison to controls. A significant reduction in metal uptake by plants was also observed as a result of sewage sludge application, which was attributed to decreased bioavailability through soil stabilisation. We have observed that the sludge amendment decreased metal bioavailability and concentrations in soil at a depth of 25 cm, in contrast to untreated columns, where metal concentrations in the soil solution were very high. PMID:24912245

  11. Dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) application in acidic sandy soil in reducing leaching of phosphorus and heavy metals-a column leaching study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuangen; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Stoffella, Peter J

    2013-06-01

    A column leaching study was designed to investigate the leaching potential of phosphorus (P) and heavy metals from acidic sandy soils applied with dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) fertilizers containing varying amounts of DPR material and N-Viro soils. DPR fertilizers were made from DPR materials mixing with N-Viro soils at the ratios of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 %, and applied in acidic sandy soils at the level of 100 mg available P per kilogram soil. A control and a soluble P chemical fertilizer were also included. The amended soils were incubated at room temperature with 70 % field water holding capacity for 21 days before packed into a soil column and subjected to leaching. Seven leaching events were conducted at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 70, respectively, and 258.9 mL of deionized water was applied at each leaching events. The leachate was collected for the analyses of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), major elements, and heavy metals. DPR fertilizer application resulted in elevations up to 1 unit in pH, 7-10 times in EC, and 20-40 times in K and Ca concentrations, but 3-10 times reduction in P concentration in the leachate as compared with the chemical fertilizer or the control. After seven leaching events, DPR fertilizers with adequate DPR materials significantly reduced cumulative leaching losses of Fe, P, Mn, Cu, and Zn by 20, 55, 3.7, 2.7, and 2.5 times than chemical fertilizer or control. Even though higher cumulative losses of Pb, Co, and Ni were observed after DPR fertilizer application, the loss of Pb, Co, and Ni in leachate was <0.10 mg (in total 1,812 mL leachate). Significant correlations of pH (negative) and DOC (positive) with Cu, Pb, and Zn (P<0.01) in leachate were observed. The results indicated that DPR fertilizers had a great advantage over the soluble chemical fertilizer in reducing P loss from the acidic sandy soil with minimal likelihood of heavy metal risk to the water environment. pH elevation and high

  12. Effects of soil amendment on soil characteristics and maize yield in Horqin Sandy Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Liu, J. H.; Zhao, B. P.; Xue, A.; Hao, G. C.

    2016-08-01

    A 4-year experiment was conducted to investigate the inter-annual effects of sandy soil amendment on maize yield, soil water storage and soil enzymatic activities in sandy soil in Northeast China in 2010 to 2014. We applied the sandy soil amendment in different year, and investigated the different effects of sandy soil amendment in 2014. There were six treatments including: (1) no sandy soil amendment application (CK); (2) one year after applying sandy soil amendment (T1); (3) two years after applying sandy soil amendment(T2); (4) three years after applying sandy soil amendment(T3); (5)four years after applying sandy soil amendment(T4); (6) five years after applying sandy soil amendment (T5). T refers to treatment, and the number refers to the year after application of the sandy soil amendment. Comparing with CK, sandy soil amendments improved the soil water storage, soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in different growth stages and soil layers, the order of soil water storage in all treatments roughly performed: T3 > T5 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. the order of soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in all treatments roughly performed: T5 > T3 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. Soil application of sandy soil amendment significantly (p≤⃒0.05) increased the grain yield and biomass yield by 22.75%-41.42% and 29.92%-45.45% respectively, and maize yield gradually increased with the years go by in the following five years. Sandy soil amendment used in poor sandy soil had a positive effect on soil water storage, soil enzymatic activities and maize yield, after five years applied sandy soil amendment (T5) showed the best effects among all the treatments, and deserves further research.

  13. BACTERIOPHAGE TRANSPORT IN SANDY SOIL AND FRACTURED TUFF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacteriophage transport was investigated in laboratory column experiments using sandy soil, a controlled field study in a sandy wash, and laboratory experiments using fractured rock. In the soil columns, the phage MS-2 exhibited significant dispersion and was excluded from 35 to ...

  14. Responses of soil fungal community to the sandy grassland restoration in Horqin Sandy Land, northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Kun; Zuo, Xiao-An; Zhao, Xue-Yong; Li, Yu-Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Lv, Peng; Luo, Yong-Qing; Yun, Jian-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Sandy grassland restoration is a vital process including re-structure of soils, restoration of vegetation, and soil functioning in arid and semi-arid regions. Soil fungal community is a complex and critical component of soil functioning and ecological balance due to its roles in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling following sandy grassland restoration. In this study, soil fungal community and its relationship with environmental factors were examined along a habitat gradient of sandy grassland restoration: mobile dunes (MD), semi-fixed dunes (SFD), fixed dunes (FD), and grassland (G). It was found that species abundance, richness, and diversity of fungal community increased along with the sandy grassland restoration. The sequences analysis suggested that most of the fungal species (68.4 %) belonged to the phylum of Ascomycota. The three predominant fungal species were Pleospora herbarum, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Deconica Montana, accounting for more than one fourth of all the 38 species. Geranomyces variabilis was the subdominant species in MD, Pseudogymnoascus destructans and Mortierella alpine were the subdominant species in SFD, and P. destructans and Fungi incertae sedis were the dominant species in FD and G. The result from redundancy analysis (RDA) and stepwise regression analysis indicated that the vegetation characteristics and soil properties explain a significant proportion of the variation in the fungal community, and aboveground biomass and C:N ratio are the key factors to determine soil fungal community composition during sandy grassland restoration. It was suggested that the restoration of sandy grassland combined with vegetation and soil properties improved the soil fungal diversity. Also, the dominant species was found to be alternative following the restoration of sandy grassland ecosystems.

  15. Leaching potential of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu and Zn) from acidic sandy soil amended with dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Chen, G C; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Yang, X E; Yu, S; Yang, J Y; Calvert, D V

    2006-01-01

    There is an increasing concern on heavy metal leaching from the soils amended with sewage sludge. A column study was conducted to examine the extent of leaching of five important heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu and Zn) from an acidic sandy soil amended with different dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) fertilizers (an application rate of 1% fertilizers) developed from DPR and N-Viro (consisting of biosolids and fly ash) at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 100% DPR. Ten leaching events were carried out with each event done at an interval of 7 days and with total leaching volume of 1183mm, which is equivalent to the mean annual rainfall of this region during the period of 2001-2003. Leachate was collected after each leaching event and analyzed for heavy metals. The maximum leachate concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu and Zn were all below drinking water quality guidance limits set by Florida Department of Environmental Protection and World Health Organization, suggesting that the application of DPR fertilizers may not pose a threat to water quality by leaching. Most of leachate concentrations of Cd, Ni and Pb were below their detection limits and there were no significant differences between the control and the treatments with different DPR fertilizers. By contrast, there were higher leachate concentrations of Cu and Zn (ranging from 0.7 to 37.1mug Cu/l and 5.1 to 205.6mug Zn/l for all treatments) due to their higher contents in both the soil and different DPR fertilizers compared with Cd, Ni and Pb. The leachate concentrations of Cu and Zn for each treatment decreased with increasing leaching events. The differences in leachate concentrations of Cu and Zn between the control and the treatments with different DPR fertilizers containing N-Viro were significant, especially in the first several leaching events and, moreover, they increased with increasing proportion of N-Viro in the DPR fertilizers. There were similar trends in total losses of Cu and Zn after ten leaching events

  16. Microfungi diversity isolation from sandy soil of Acapulco touristic beaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microscopic fungi diversity in marine sandy soil habitats is associated with key functions of beach ecosystems. There are few reports on their presence in Mexican beaches. Although standard methods to obtain the fungi from soil samples are established, the aim of this pilot study was to test the pla...

  17. FIELD SAMPLING OF RESIDUAL AVIATION GASOLINE IN SANDY SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two complimentary field sampling methods for the determination of residual aviation gasoline content in the contaminated capillary fringe of a fine, uniform, sandy soil were investigated. The first method featured filed extrusion of core barrels into pint size Mason jars, while ...

  18. [Soil microbes functional diversity in sand-fixing Caragana microphylla communities in Horqin Sandy Land].

    PubMed

    Cao, Cheng-you; Yag, Jin-dong; Han, Xiao-shu; Zhang, Ying

    2011-09-01

    Aimed to understand the soil microbes functional diversity in sand-fixing Caragana microphylla communities in Horqin Sandy Land, the soil microbial carbon sources metabolism diversity in 9-, 16-, and 26-yr-old C. microphylla plantations, natural C. microphylla community, and mov-ture, the average well color development (AWCD) and the capabilities of soil microbes in metabo-lizing carboxylic acids, carbohydrates, polymers, amino acids, amines, and aromatics were obvi-ously higher in moving sand dune than in the plantations. The carbon source types metabolized by soil microbes increased with the increasing age of the plantations, and the carbon source metabolic pattern of the soil microbes in 26-yr-old C. microphylla plantation was similar to that in natural C. microphylla community. The functional diversity and evenness index of soil microbes decreased after the establishment of C. microphylla on moving sand dune, whereas the functional diversity of soil microbes increased with increasing age of C. microphylla plantation.

  19. Improvement in the water retention characteristics of sandy loam soil using a newly synthesized poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)/AlZnFe2O4 superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposite material.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Shaukat Ali; Qidwai, Ansar Ahmad; Anwar, Farooq; Ullah, Inam; Rashid, Umer

    2012-08-03

    The use of some novel and efficient crop nutrient-based superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposites (SHNCs), is currently becoming increasingly important to improve the crop yield and productivity, due to their water retention properties. In the present study a poly(Acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)/AlZnFe2O4 superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposite was synthesized and its physical properties characterized using Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), FE-SEM and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The effects of different levels of SHNC were studied to evaluate the moisture retention properties of sandy loam soil (sand 59%, silt 21%, clay 19%, pH 7.4, EC 1.92 dS/m). The soil amendment with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 w/w% of SHNC enhanced the moisture retention significantly at field capacity compared to the untreated soil. Besides, in a separate experiment, seed germination and seedling growth of wheat was found to be notably improved with the application of SHNC. A delay in wilting of seedlings by 5-8 days was observed for SHNC-amended soil, thereby improving wheat plant growth and establishment.

  20. Deep Compaction Control of Sandy Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bałachowski, Lech; Kurek, Norbert

    2015-02-01

    Vibroflotation, vibratory compaction, micro-blasting or heavy tamping are typical improvement methods for the cohesionless deposits of high thickness. The complex mechanism of deep soil compaction is related to void ratio decrease with grain rearrangements, lateral stress increase, prestressing effect of certain number of load cycles, water pressure dissipation, aging and other effects. Calibration chamber based interpretation of CPTU/DMT can be used to take into account vertical and horizontal stress and void ratio effects. Some examples of interpretation of soundings in pre-treated and compacted sands are given. Some acceptance criteria for compaction control are discussed. The improvement factors are analysed including the normalised approach based on the soil behaviour type index.

  1. Effects of leachate on geotechnical characteristics of sandy clay soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harun, N. S.; Ali, Z. Rahman; Rahim, A. S.; Lihan, T.; Idris, R. M. W.

    2013-11-01

    Leachate is a hazardous liquid that poses negative impacts if leaks out into environments such as soil and ground water systems. The impact of leachate on the downgraded quality in terms of chemical characteristic is more concern rather than the physical or mechanical aspect. The effect of leachate on mechanical behaviour of contaminated soil is not well established and should be investigated. This paper presents the preliminary results of the effects of leachate on the Atterberg limit, compaction and shear strength of leachate-contaminated soil. The contaminated soil samples were prepared by mixing the leachate at ratiosbetween 0% and 20% leachate contents with soil samples. Base soil used was residual soil originated from granitic rock and classified as sandy clay soil (CS). Its specific gravity ranged between 2.5 and 2.64 with clay minerals of kaolinite, muscovite and quartz. The field strength of the studied soil ranged between 156 and 207 kN/m2. The effects of leachate on the Atterberg limit clearly indicated by the decrease in liquid and plastic limit values with the increase in the leachate content. Compaction tests on leachate-contaminated soil caused the dropped in maximum dry density, ρdry and increased in optimum moisture content, wopt when the amount of leachate was increased between 0% and 20%. The results suggested that leachate contamination capable to modify some geotechnical properties of the studied residual soils.

  2. Use of dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) fertilizers to reduce phosphorus leaching from sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, G C; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Yang, X E; Yu, S; Calvert, D

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing concern over P leaching from sandy soils applied with water-soluble P fertilizers. Laboratory column leaching experiments were conducted to evaluate P leaching from a typical acidic sandy soil in Florida amended with DPR fertilizers developed from dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) and N-Viro soil. Ten leaching events were carried out at an interval of 7 days, with a total leaching volume of 1,183 mm equivalent to the mean annual rainfall of this region during the period of 2001-2003. Leachates were collected and analyzed for total P and inorganic P. Phosphorus in the leachate was dominantly reactive, accounting for 67.7-99.9% of total P leached. Phosphorus leaching loss mainly occurred in the first three leaching events, accounting for 62.0-98.8% of the total P leached over the whole period. The percentage of P leached (in the total P added) from the soil amended with water-soluble P fertilizer was higher than those receiving the DPR fertilizers. The former was up to 96.6%, whereas the latter ranged from 0.3% to 3.8%. These results indicate that the use of N-Viro-based DPR fertilizers can reduce P leaching from sandy soils.

  3. Changes in physical properties of sandy soil after long-term compost treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranyos, József Tibor; Tomócsik, Attila; Makádi, Marianna; Mészáros, József; Blaskó, Lajos

    2016-07-01

    Studying the long-term effect of composted sewage sludge application on chemical, physical and biological properties of soil, an experiment was established in 2003 at the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza in Hungary. The applied compost was prepared from sewage sludge (40%), straw (25%), bentonite (5%) and rhyolite (30%). The compost was ploughed into the 0-25 cm soil layer every 3rd year in the following amounts: 0, 9, 18 and 27 Mg ha-1 of dry matter. As expected, the compost application improved the structure of sandy soil, which is related with an increase in the organic matter content of soil. The infiltration into soil was improved significantly, reducing the water erosion under simulated high intensity rainfall. The soil compaction level was reduced in the first year after compost re-treatment. In accordance with the decrease in bulk density, the air permeability of soil increased tendentially. However, in the second year the positive effects of compost application were observed only in the plots treated with the highest compost dose because of quick degradation of the organic matter. According to the results, the sewage sludge compost seems to be an effective soil improving material for acidic sandy soils, but the beneficial effect of application lasts only for two years.

  4. Sorption-desorption of indaziflam and its three metabolites in sandy soils.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Carmen; Koskinen, William C; Kookana, Rai S

    2014-01-01

    Indaziflam is a relatively new herbicide for which sorption-desorption information is lacking, and nothing is available on its metabolites. Information is needed on the multiple soil and pesticide characteristics known to influence these processes. For four soils, the order of sorption was indaziflam (N-[1R,2S)-2,3-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-1H-inden-1-yl]-6-[(1R)-1-fluoroethyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) (sandy clay loam: Kf = 5.9, 1/nf = 0.7, Kfoc = 447; sandy loam: Kf = 3.9, 1/nf = 0.9, Kfoc = 276) > triazine indanone metabolite (N-[(1R,2S)-2,3-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxo-1H-inden-1-yl]-6-[(1R)-1-fluoroethyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) (sandy clay loam: Kf = 2.1, 1/nf = 0.8, Kfoc = 177; sandy loam: Kf = 1.7, 1/nf = 0.9, Kfoc = 118) > fluoroethyldiaminotriazine metabolite (6-[(1R-1-Fluoroethyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) (sandy clay loam: Kf = 0.3, 1/nf = 0.9, Kfoc = 28; sandy loam: Kf = 0.3, 1/nf = 0.9, Kfoc = 22) = indaziflam carboxylic acid metabolite (2S,3R)-3-[[4-amino-6-[(1R)-1-fluoroethyl]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-1H-indene-5-carboxylic acid) (sandy clay loam: Kf = 0.3, 1/nf = 0.9, Kfoc = 22; sandy loam: Kf = 0.5, 1/nf = 0.8, Kfoc = 32). The metabolites being more polar than the parent compound showed lower sorption. Desorption was hysteretic for indaziflam and triazine indanone metabolite, but not for the other two metabolites. Unsaturated transient flow Kd's were lower than batch Kd's for indaziflam, but similar for fluoroethyldiaminotriazine metabolite. Batch Kd's would overpredict potential offsite transport if desorption hysteresis is not taken into account.

  5. Remediation of sandy soils using surfactant solutions and foams.

    PubMed

    Couto, Hudson J B; Massarani, Guilio; Biscaia, Evaristo C; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L

    2009-05-30

    Remediation of sandy soils contaminated with diesel oil was investigated in bench-scale experiments. Surfactant solution, regular foams and colloidal gas aphrons were used as remediation fluids. An experimental design technique was used to investigate the effect of relevant process variables on remediation efficiency. Soils prepared with different average particle sizes (0.04-0.12 cm) and contaminated with different diesel oil contents (40-80 g/kg) were used in experiments conducted with remediation fluids. A mathematical model was proposed allowing for the determination of oil removal rate-constant (k(v)) and oil content remaining in the soil after remediation (C(of)) as well as estimation of the percentage of oil removed. Oil removal efficiencies obtained under the central experimental design conditions were 96%, 88% and 35% for aphrons, regular foams and surfactant solutions, respectively. High removal efficiencies were obtained using regular foams and aphrons, demanding small amounts of surfactant.

  6. Alum amendment effects on phosphorus release and distribution in poultry litter-amended sandy soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staats, K.E.; Arai, Y.; Sparks, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Increased poultry production has contributed to excess nutrient problems in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils due to land application of poultry litter (PL). Aluminum sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3?? 14H2O] amendment of PL effectively reduces soluble phosphorus (P) in the PL; however, the effects of these litters when added to acidic, sandy soils are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of alum-amended poultry litter in reducing P release from three Delaware Coastal Plain soils: Evesboro loamy sand (Ev; excessively drained, mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments), Rumford loamy sand (Ru; well drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults), and Pocomoke sandy loam (Pm; very poorly drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, active, thermic Typic Umbraquults). Long-term (25 d) and short-term (24 h) desorption studies were conducted, in addition to chemical extractions and kinetic modeling, to observe the changes that alum-amended versus unamended PL caused in the soils. The Ev, Ru, and Pm soils were incubated with 9 Mg ha-1 of alum-amended or unamended PL. Long-term desorption (25 d) of the incubated material resulted in approximately 13.5% (Ev), 12.7% (Ru), and 13.3% (Pm) reductions in cumulative P desorbed when comparing soil treated with unamended and alum-amended PL. In addition, the P release from the soil treated with alum-amended litter was not significantly different from the control (soil alone). Short-term desorption (24 h) showed 7.3% (Ev), 15.4% (Ru), and 20% (Pm) reductions. The overall implication from this study is that the use of alum as a PL amendment is useful in coarse-textured soils of the Coastal Plain. With increased application of alum-amended PL, more significant decreases may be possible with little or no effect on soil quality.

  7. Alum amendment effects on phosphorus release and distribution in poultry litter-amended sandy soils.

    PubMed

    Staats, Kristin E; Arai, Yuji; Sparks, Donald L

    2004-01-01

    Increased poultry production has contributed to excess nutrient problems in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils due to land application of poultry litter (PL). Aluminum sulfate [alum, Al(2)(SO(4))(3).14H(2)O] amendment of PL effectively reduces soluble phosphorus (P) in the PL; however, the effects of these litters when added to acidic, sandy soils are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of alum-amended poultry litter in reducing P release from three Delaware Coastal Plain soils: Evesboro loamy sand (Ev; excessively drained, mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments), Rumford loamy sand (Ru; well drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults), and Pocomoke sandy loam (Pm; very poorly drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, active, thermic Typic Umbraquults). Long-term (25 d) and short-term (24 h) desorption studies were conducted, in addition to chemical extractions and kinetic modeling, to observe the changes that alum-amended versus unamended PL caused in the soils. The Ev, Ru, and Pm soils were incubated with 9 Mg ha(-1) of alum-amended or unamended PL. Long-term desorption (25 d) of the incubated material resulted in approximately 13.5% (Ev), 12.7% (Ru), and 13.3% (Pm) reductions in cumulative P desorbed when comparing soil treated with unamended and alum-amended PL. In addition, the P release from the soil treated with alum-amended litter was not significantly different from the control (soil alone). Short-term desorption (24 h) showed 7.3% (Ev), 15.4% (Ru), and 20% (Pm) reductions. The overall implication from this study is that the use of alum as a PL amendment is useful in coarse-textured soils of the Coastal Plain. With increased application of alum-amended PL, more significant decreases may be possible with little or no effect on soil quality.

  8. Travel of pollution, and purification en route, in sandy soils

    PubMed Central

    Baars, J. K.

    1957-01-01

    The travel of pollution in sandy soils, and the extent to which purification takes place en route, are discussed, with special reference to the possible contamination of ground water—a problem which is of particular importance in the Netherlands, where the water-supply for many of the large towns is drawn from the water underneath the dunes. Specifically, two types of soil pollution are considered: (a) severe pollution of the surface layers with matter concentrated in a small volume of water (e.g., faecal matter from pit privies at camping-sites); and (b) moderate pollution of the surface layers with matter contained in large quantities of water (e.g., organic matter and bacteria in river water used for the artificial recharge of ground water). It is shown that in both these types of pollution the self-purification is sufficient to prevent contamination of the ground water, provided that the soil is very fine and—in the case of the first type—dry and well aerated, and provided that the ground-water level is not too high or the rate of infiltration too great. PMID:13472428

  9. Morphology of Rain Water Channeling in Systematically Varied Model Sandy Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuli; Cejas, Cesare M.; Barrois, Rémi; Dreyfus, Rémi; Durian, Douglas J.

    2014-10-01

    We visualize the formation of fingered flow in dry model sandy soils under different rain conditions using a quasi-2D experimental setup and systematically determine the impact of the soil grain diameter and surface wetting properties on the water channeling phenomenon. The model sandy soils we use are random closely packed glass beads with varied diameters and surface treatments. For hydrophilic sandy soils, our experiments show that rain water infiltrates a shallow top layer of soil and creates a horizontal water wetting front that grows downward homogeneously until instabilities occur to form fingered flows. For hydrophobic sandy soils, in contrast, we observe that rain water ponds on the top of the soil surface until the hydraulic pressure is strong enough to overcome the capillary repellency of soil and create narrow water channels that penetrate the soil packing. Varying the raindrop impinging speed has little influence on water channel formation. However, varying the rain rate causes significant changes in the water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. At a fixed rain condition, we combine the effects of the grain diameter and surface hydrophobicity into a single parameter and determine its influence on the water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. We also demonstrate the efficiency of several soil water improvement methods that relate to the rain water channeling phenomenon, including prewetting sandy soils at different levels before rainfall, modifying soil surface flatness, and applying superabsorbent hydrogel particles as soil modifiers.

  10. Effect of hydrocarbon pollution on the microbial properties of a sandy and a clay soil.

    PubMed

    Labud, Valeria; Garcia, Carlos; Hernandez, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to ascertain the effects of different types of hydrocarbon pollution on soil microbial properties and the influence of a soil's characteristics on these effects. For this, toxicity bioassays and microbiological and biochemical parameters were studied in two soils (one sandy and one clayey) contaminated at a loading rate of 5% and 10% with three types of hydrocarbon (diesel oil, gasoline and crude petroleum) differing in their volatilisation potential and toxic substance content. Soils were maintained under controlled conditions (50-70% water holding capacity, and room temperature) for six months and several microbiological and toxicity parameters were monitored 1, 60, 120 and 180 days after contamination. The toxic effects of hydrocarbon contamination were greater in the sandy soil. Hydrocarbons inhibited microbial biomass, the greatest negative effect being observed in the gasoline-polluted sandy soil. In both soils crude petroleum and diesel oil contamination increased microbial respiration, while gasoline had little effect on this parameter, especially in the sandy soil. In general, gasoline had the highest inhibitory effect on the hydrolase activities involved in N, P or C cycles in both soils. All contaminants inhibited hydrolase activities in the sandy soil, while in the clayey soil diesel oil stimulated enzyme activity, particularly at the higher concentration. In both soils, a phytotoxic effect on barley and ryegrass seed germination was observed in the contaminated soils, particularly in those contaminated with diesel or petroleum.

  11. Remediation of sandy soils contaminated with hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons by soil vapour extraction.

    PubMed

    Albergaria, José Tomás; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceição M; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2012-08-15

    This paper presents the study of the remediation of sandy soils containing six of the most common contaminants (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene) using soil vapour extraction (SVE). The influence of soil water content on the process efficiency was evaluated considering the soil type and the contaminant. For artificially contaminated soils with negligible clay contents and natural organic matter it was concluded that: (i) all the remediation processes presented efficiencies above 92%; (ii) an increase of the soil water content led to a more time-consuming remediation; (iii) longer remediation periods were observed for contaminants with lower vapour pressures and lower water solubilities due to mass transfer limitations. Based on these results an easy and relatively fast procedure was developed for the prediction of the remediation times of real soils; 83% of the remediation times were predicted with relative deviations below 14%.

  12. Relationships between hydric soil indicators and wetland hydrology for sandy soils in Florida. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, D.S.; Sprecher, S.W.; Watts, F.C.

    1995-02-01

    Several alternative lists of hydric soil indicators have been proposed for use in delineating jurisdictional wetlands in the sandy landscapes of the southeast coastal plain. Because the issue is so recent, very little quantitative research has been conducted to test the validity of these alternative lists. Presence of various hydric soil indicators from four different hydric soil lists was compared with 3 to 5 years of shallow water well data along 14 wetland transects in peninsular Florida. Lists of indicators recently proposed by the USDA Soil Conservation Service were an improvement to the list of hydric soil indicators currently mandated in the Corps of Engineers 1987 and 1989 Wetlands Delineation Manuals. Wetland hydrology and morphological indicators of sandy hydric soils were compared at 58 sites along 14 transects in Florida. The best correspondence between hydrology and soil morphology was found for accumulation of muck on the soil surface and sulfur smell. Poorest correspondence was found for subsoil mineral horizon features such as organic accretions, thick dark A horizon, wet spodosol, and vertical streaking.

  13. Trade-offs between soil hydrology and plant disease effects after biochar amendment in sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheijen, Frank; Silva, Flavio; Amaro, Antonio; Pinto, Gloria; Mesquita, Raquel; Jesus, Claudia; Alves, Artur; Keizer, Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Biochar can affect multiple soil-based ecosystem services to varying extents, leading to trade-offs. Improvements in plant-available water have predominantly been found at high biochar application rates in sandy soils. Reductions in plant diseases after biochar application have been found in various horticultural plants, and trees such as maple and oak, mostly at relatively low biochar application rates. Serious damage to Eucalyptus globulus has been reported since 1999 when frequent and severe defoliation of young trees was observed, and eucalypts are the major tree species in commercial forestry plantations of Portugal, forming an important economic activity. Here we investigated simultaneous effects on plant available water and on disease suppression of eucalypt, in a completely randomised full factorial greenhouse pot experiment, using a range of woody feedstock biochar concentrations in sandy soil. Treatments included plant inoculation with the fungus Neofusicoccum kwambonambiense and cycles of acute drought stress. Preliminary results showed delayed wilting for plants treated with 3-6% biochar, but also increased stem lesion length. These results suggest a trade-off between effects on water availability and disease for Eucalyptus globulus plants in the selected sandy soil amended with this specific biochar, at the selected application rates.

  14. Recharge in northern clime calcareous sandy soils: soil water chemical and carbon-14 evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, E. J.; Mozeto, A. A.; Fritz, P.

    1980-11-01

    Chemical analyses were performed on soil water extracted from two cores taken from a sandy calcareous soil near Delhi, Ontario. Calcite saturation is attained within the unsaturated zone over short distances and short periods of time, whereas dolomite undersaturation persists to the groundwater table. The progressive dissolution of dolomite by soil water, within the unsaturated zone, after calcite saturation is reached results in calcite supersaturation. Deposition of iron and manganese oxyhydroxide phases occurs at the carbonate leached/unleached zone boundary. This is a result of soil water neutralization due to carbonate dissolution during infiltration but may also reflect the increased rate of oxidation of dissolved ferrous and manganous ions at higher pH's. The role of bacteria in this process has not been investigated. The depth of the carbonate leached/unleached zone boundary in a calcareous soil has important implications for 14C groundwater dating. The depth of this interface at the study site (-2 m) does not appear to limit 14C diffusion from the root zone to the depth at which carbonate dissolution occurs. Thus, soil water achieves open system isotopic equilibrium with the soil CO 2 gas phase. It is calculated that in soils with similar physical properties to the study soil but with depths of leaching of 5 m or more, complete 14C isotopic equilibration of soil water with soil gas would not occur. Soil water, under these conditions would recharge to the groundwater exhibiting some degree of closed system 14C isotopic evolution.

  15. Rain water transport and storage in a model sandy soil with hydrogel particle additives.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y; Durian, D J

    2014-10-01

    We study rain water infiltration and drainage in a dry model sandy soil with superabsorbent hydrogel particle additives by measuring the mass of retained water for non-ponding rainfall using a self-built 3D laboratory set-up. In the pure model sandy soil, the retained water curve measurements indicate that instead of a stable horizontal wetting front that grows downward uniformly, a narrow fingered flow forms under the top layer of water-saturated soil. This rain water channelization phenomenon not only further reduces the available rain water in the plant root zone, but also affects the efficiency of soil additives, such as superabsorbent hydrogel particles. Our studies show that the shape of the retained water curve for a soil packing with hydrogel particle additives strongly depends on the location and the concentration of the hydrogel particles in the model sandy soil. By carefully choosing the particle size and distribution methods, we may use the swollen hydrogel particles to modify the soil pore structure, to clog or extend the water channels in sandy soils, or to build water reservoirs in the plant root zone.

  16. Effects of sodium polyacrylate on water retention and infiltration capacity of a sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wenhua; Li, Longguo; Liu, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Based on the laboratory study, the effects of sodium polyacrylate (SP) was investigated at 5 rates of 0, 0.08, 0.2, 0.5, and 1%, on water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity(Ks), infiltration characteristic and water distribution profiles of a sandy soil. The results showed that water retention and available water capacity effectively increased with increasing SP rate. The Ks and the rate of wetting front advance and infiltration under certain pond infiltration was significantly reduced by increasing SP rate, which effectively reduced water in a sandy soil leaking to a deeper layer under the plough layer. The effect of SP on water distribution was obviously to the up layer and very little to the following deeper layers. Considering both the effects on water retention and infiltration capacity, it is suggested that SP be used to the sandy soil at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 0.5%.

  17. Effect of soil coarseness on soil base cations and available micronutrients in a semi-arid sandy grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Linyou; Wang, Ruzhen; Liu, Heyong; Yin, Jinfei; Xiao, Jiangtao; Wang, Zhengwen; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Guoqing; Han, Xingguo; Jiang, Yong

    2016-04-01

    Soil coarseness is the main process decreasing soil organic matter and threatening the productivity of sandy grasslands. Previous studies demonstrated negative effect of soil coarseness on soil carbon storage, but less is known about how soil base cations (exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, and Na) and available micronutrients (available Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn) response to soil coarseness. In a semi-arid grassland of Northern China, a field experiment was initiated in 2011 to mimic the effect of soil coarseness on soil base cations and available micronutrients by mixing soil with different mass proportions of sand: 0 % coarse elements (C0), 10 % (C10), 30 % (C30), 50 % (C50), and 70 % (C70). Soil coarseness significantly increased soil pH in three soil depths of 0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm with the highest pH values detected in C50 and C70 treatments. Soil fine particles (smaller than 0.25 mm) significantly decreased with the degree of soil coarseness. Exchangeable Ca and Mg concentrations significantly decreased with soil coarseness degree by up to 29.8 % (in C70) and 47.5 % (in C70), respectively, across three soil depths. Soil available Fe, Mn, and Cu significantly decreased with soil coarseness degree by 62.5, 45.4, and 44.4 %, respectively. As affected by soil coarseness, the increase of soil pH, decrease of soil fine particles (including clay), and decline in soil organic matter were the main driving factors for the decrease of exchangeable base cations (except K) and available micronutrients (except Zn) through soil profile. Developed under soil coarseness, the loss and redistribution of base cations and available micronutrients along soil depths might pose a threat to ecosystem productivity of this sandy grassland.

  18. SOIL AND HYDROLOGY OF A WET-SANDY CATENA IN EAST-CENTRAL MINNESOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sail properties are strongly related to the retention and movement of water within the soil system. The purposes of this study were to document the near-surface hydrology of a wetland-upland hillslope on a sandy glacial outwash plain in east-central Minnesota and to describe the ...

  19. Irrigation initiation timing in soybean grown on sandy soils in Northeast Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation initiation timing was evaluated in furrow-irrigated soybean field with sandy soils in Mississippi County, AR. A major objective of this 2015 study was to validate and expand irrigation timing recommendations that pair plant growth measures with weather cues including use of local weather ...

  20. Biochar and Mill Ash Use as Soil Amendments to Grow Sugarcane in Sandy Soils of South Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Campos, O.; Lang, T. A.; Bhadha, J. H.; McCray, M.; Gao, B.; Glaz, B.; Daroub, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The use of agricultural and urban organic residues as amendments provides an option to improve sugarcane production in sandy soils located northwest of the Everglades Agricultural Area, while reducing waste. This study was conducted to determine the effect of mill ash and three biochars on sugarcane yield and sandy soil properties. Mill ash and biochars produced from hardwood yard waste (HY), barn shavings with horse manure (HM), and rice hulls (RH) were incorporated at 1% and 2% (by weight) to sandy soils in a lysimeter experiment. A control without amendment and an often-used commercial practice of mill ash applied at 6% (AS6) were also included. Results showed that RH2 and AS6 produced greater biomass and sucrose yield compared with the control. According to critical nutrient level analysis, RH and AS amendments also resulted in the highest silicon content, which had a positive correlation with increasing sugarcane yield. In addition, RH2 and AS6 increased total phosphorus, Mehlich-3 phosphorus, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) compared with the control. While CEC remained constant with AS2 and AS6 applications, CEC significantly increased over time with RH2. Moreover, higher amendment applications increased soil organic matter compared with the control and did not decrease over time, which suggests a positive influence for long term carbon sustainability and nutrient cycling in sandy soils. Overall, RH2 and AS6 have the most potential to be used as amendments in sandy soils of South Florida due to their positive effects on soil properties, which improved sugarcane yield. However, no negative consequences were found with the application of any other amendment in terms of sugarcane growth and soil quality. Future research should focus on the use of RH and AS amendments on long-term field-scale studies, and the economic feasibility of a single year application on plant and ratoon cane yields.

  1. Effect of silver nano-particles on soil microbial growth, activity and community diversity in a sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Samarajeewa, A D; Velicogna, J R; Princz, J I; Subasinghe, R M; Scroggins, R P; Beaudette, L A

    2017-01-01

    Silver nano-particles (AgNPs) are widely used in a range of consumer products as a result of their antimicrobial properties. Given the broad spectrum of uses, AgNPs have the potential for being released to the environment. As a result, environmental risks associated with AgNPs need to be assessed to aid in the development of regulatory guidelines. Research was performed to assess the effects of AgNPs on soil microbial activity and diversity in a sandy loam soil with an emphasis on using a battery of microbial tests involving multiple endpoints. The test soil was spiked with PVP coated (0.3%) AgNPs at the following concentrations of 49, 124, 287, 723 and 1815 mg Ag kg(-1) dry soil. Test controls included an un-amended soil; soil amended with PVP equivalent to the highest PVP concentration of the coated AgNP; and soil amended with humic acid, as 1.8% humic acid was used as a suspension agent for the AgNPs. The impact on soil microbial community was assessed using an array of tests including heterotrophic plate counting, microbial respiration, organic matter decomposition, soil enzyme activity, biological nitrification, community level physiological profiling (CLPP), Ion Torrent™ DNA sequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). An impact on microbial growth, activity and community diversity was evident from 49 to 1815 mg kg(-1) with the median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) as low as 20-31 mg kg(-1) depending on the test. AgNP showed a notable impact on microbial functional and genomic diversity. Emergence of a silver tolerant bacterium was observed at AgNP concentrations of 49-287 mg kg(-1) after 14-28 days of incubation, but not detectable at 723 and 1815 mg kg(-1). The bacterium was identified as Rhodanobacter sp. The study highlighted the effectiveness of using multiple microbial endpoints for inclusion to the environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials.

  2. [Soil moisture dynamics of artificial Caragana microphylla shrubs at different topographical sites in Horqin sandy land].

    PubMed

    Huang, Gang; Zhao, Xue-yong; Huang, Ying-xin; Su, Yan-gui

    2009-03-01

    Based on the investigation data of vegetation and soil moisture regime of Caragana microphylla shrubs widely distributed in Horqin sandy land, the spatiotemporal variations of soil moisture regime and soil water storage of artificial sand-fixing C. microphylla shrubs at different topographical sites in the sandy land were studied, and the evapotranspiration was measured by water balance method. The results showed that the soil moisture content of the shrubs was the highest in the lowland of dunes, followed by in the middle, and in the crest of the dunes, and increased with increasing depth. No water stress occurred during the growth season of the shrubs. Soil moisture content of the shrubs was highly related to precipitation event, and the relationship of soil moisture content with precipitation was higher in deep soil layer (50-180 cm) than in shallow soil layer (0-50 cm). The variation coefficient of soil moisture content was also higher in deep layer than in shallow layer. Soil water storage was increasing in the whole growth season of the shrubs, which meant that the accumulation of soil water occurred in this area. The evapotranspiriation of the shrubs occupied above 64% of the precipitation.

  3. Temporal stability of electrical conductivity in a sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrera-Parrilla, Aura; Brevik, Eric C.; Giráldez, Juan V.; Vanderlinden, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Understanding of soil spatial variability is needed to delimit areas for precision agriculture. Electromagnetic induction sensors which measure the soil apparent electrical conductivity reflect soil spatial variability. The objectives of this work were to see if a temporally stable component could be found in electrical conductivity, and to see if temporal stability information acquired from several electrical conductivity surveys could be used to better interpret the results of concurrent surveys of electrical conductivity and soil water content. The experimental work was performed in a commercial rainfed olive grove of 6.7 ha in the `La Manga' catchment in SW Spain. Several soil surveys provided gravimetric soil water content and electrical conductivity data. Soil electrical conductivity values were used to spatially delimit three areas in the grove, based on the first principal component, which represented the time-stable dominant spatial electrical conductivity pattern and explained 86% of the total electrical conductivity variance. Significant differences in clay, stone and soil water contents were detected between the three areas. Relationships between electrical conductivity and soil water content were modelled with an exponential model. Parameters from the model showed a strong effect of the first principal component on the relationship between soil water content and electrical conductivity. Overall temporal stability of electrical conductivity reflects soil properties and manifests itself in spatial patterns of soil water content.

  4. Metal redistribution by surface casting of four earthworm species in sandy and loamy clay soils.

    PubMed

    Zorn, Mathilde I; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Eijsackers, Herman J P

    2008-12-01

    Bioturbation of metal contaminated soils contributes considerably to redistribution and surfacing of contaminated soil from deeper layers. To experimentally measure the contribution of Allolobophora chlorotica, Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus rubellus and L. terrestris to soil surface casting, a time-course experiment was performed under laboratory conditions. Earthworms were incubated in perspex columns filled with sandy soil (2% organic matter, 2.9% clay) or loamy clay soil (15% organic matter, 20% clay), and surface casts were collected after up to 80 days. On the sandy soil, A. caliginosa and L. rubellus brought approximately 7.1-16 g dry wt. casts/g fresh wt. earthworm to the surface, which is significantly more than A. chlorotica and L. terrestris (2.5-5.0 g dry wt./g fresh wt.). A. caliginosa was the only species that produced significantly more surface casts in the sandy soil than in the loamy clay soil. In the loamy clay soil, no differences in biomass-corrected casting rates were found among the species. Surface casting rates tended to decrease after 20 days. Considering the densities of the different species in a Dutch floodplain area Afferdensche and Deestsche Waarden, surface cast production is estimated to amount to 2.0 kg dry soil/m2 after 80 days, which could be extrapolated to 2.7-9.1 kg/m2 per year. These amounts correspond to a surface deposition of a layer of approximately 1.9-6.5 mm/year, which is of the same order or even slightly higher than the sedimentation rate and much higher than the amount of soil brought to the soil surface by bioturbating small mammals.

  5. Plant functional diversity enhances associations of soil fungal diversity with vegetation and soil in the restoration of semiarid sandy grassland.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xiaoan; Wang, Shaokun; Lv, Peng; Zhou, Xin; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhang, Tonghui; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The trait-based approach shows that plant functional diversity strongly affects ecosystem properties. However, few empirical studies show the relationship between soil fungal diversity and plant functional diversity in natural ecosystems. We investigated soil fungal diversity along a restoration gradient of sandy grassland (mobile dune, semifixed dune, fixed dune, and grassland) in Horqin Sand Land, northern China, using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 18S rRNA and gene sequencing. We also examined associations of soil fungal diversity with plant functional diversity reflected by the dominant species' traits in community (community-weighted mean, CWM) and the dispersion of functional trait values (FD is). We further used the structure equation model (SEM) to evaluate how plant richness, biomass, functional diversity, and soil properties affect soil fungal diversity in sandy grassland restoration. Soil fungal richness in mobile dune and semifixed dune was markedly lower than those of fixed dune and grassland (P < 0.05). Soil fungal richness was positively associated with plant richness, biomass, CWM plant height, and soil gradient aggregated from the principal component analysis, but SEM results showed that plant richness and CWM plant height determined by soil properties were the main factors exerting direct effects. Soil gradient increased fungal richness through indirect effect on vegetation rather than direct effect. The negative indirect effect of FDis on soil fungal richness was through its effect on plant biomass. Our final SEM model based on plant functional diversity explained nearly 70% variances of soil fungal richness. Strong association of soil fungal richness with the dominant species in the community supported the mass ratio hypothesis. Our results clearly highlight the role of plant functional diversity in enhancing associations of soil fungal diversity with community structure and soil properties in sandy grassland ecosystems.

  6. Effects of paper mill sludge and lime sludge on copper sorption and desorption in a marginal sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, A.; Karam, A.; Ziadi, N.; Jaouich, A.

    2009-04-01

    Copper (Cu) is most readily mobile and available in acid coarse-textured mineral soils, but adsorption by soil is expected to render it less mobile, and therefore less hazardous. The aim of the study is to assess the Cu sorption capacity of a marginal sandy soil (pH 5.5) amended with paper mill sludge (PMS) and lime sludge (LS). The amendments were added to the soil at nine rates (0 - 350 g/kg soil). The sorption measurement was carried out by adding 30 mL of 0.01 M CaCl2 containing 100 mg Cu/L as CuCl2 to 1.00 g of amended soil samples. The soil suspensions were shaken for 30 min and equilibrated at room temperature for 72 h. After centrifugation, the concentration of Cu in the supernatant was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The amount of Cu sorbed was calculated as the difference between Cu added and Cu remaining in solution. The sorption experiment was replicated 4 times. The statistical analysis showed a highly significant effect (p<0.001) of the type and the rate of sludges on both Cu sorbed and Mehlich3-extractable Cu (total of four successive extractions). The percentage of Cu sorbed by LS-soils varied between 9.4 and 88.4 % and that of Cu sorbed by the PMS-soils varied between 5.4 and 68.4 %. The percentage of Cu desorbed by sludges-treated soils varied between 1.4 and 9.4%. Application of LS tended to increase soil pH and was more effective than PMS in increasing the pH of acid sandy soil. The amounts of Cu sorbed were positively and significantly correlated (r=0.937, p<0.001) with pH of LS-treated soils. Lime sludge and paper mill sludge could provide possible means to remediate Cu contaminated soils through chemical stabilization.

  7. Biological activity and biodegradation of organic matter in sandy peat soils

    SciTech Connect

    Zimenko, T.G.; Bambalov, N.N.; Belkovskii, V.I.; Gavrilkina, N V.

    1986-11-01

    Various techniques for sandy reclaimed peat soils act differently on the microbiochemical processes responsible for peat biodegradation. Mixing the upper layer of peat with sand increases its biogenicity and intensifies biodegradation. These processes are greatly inhibited by creating a mineral screen (sand without mixing) on the surface of the peat soil. Deep reclamational tilling of thin peatbogs, which produces from the underlying mineral substrate a thicker (20-25 cm) organic-mineral plowed layer, ensures a high biological activity and fertility of the new soil. Mixing the peat layer into the soil profile by tilling promotes its preservation from rapid biodegradation.

  8. Competition between n-alkane-assimilating yeasts and bacteria during colonization of sandy soil microcosms.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, C; Goebel, I; Wagner, S; Vomberg, A; Klinner, U

    2000-07-01

    An n-alkane-assimilating strain of Candida tropicalis was selected in sandy soil inoculated with microorganisms from contaminated sites. Competition experiments with n-alkane utilizers from different strain collections confirmed that yeasts overgrow bacteria in sandy soil. Acidification of the soil is one of the colonization factors useful for the yeasts. It can be counteracted by addition of bentonite, a clay mineral with high ion exchange capacity, but not, however, by kaolin. Strains of different yeast species showed different levels of competitiveness. Strains of Arxula adeninivorans, Candida maltosa, and Yarrowia lipolytica overgrew strains of C. tropicalis, C. shehatae or Pichia stipitis. Two strains of C. maltosa and Y. lipolytica coexisted during several serial transfers under microcosm conditions.

  9. Phosphorus leaching from a sandy soil in the presence of modified and un-modified adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Moharami, Somayeh; Jalali, Mohsen

    2014-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from a sandy soil was investigated in the presence of modified and unmodified clay minerals and nanoparticles (NPs). Compared with control soil, amended soil with NPs had the highest percentage of P retention than amended soil with clay minerals. Among the adsorbents used, the highest percentage of P retention was produced by Al₂O₃-chitosan while the lowest percentage of P retention was by zeolite. Data measured for P leaching after using adsorbents were used to predict P leaching using transport model. PHREEQC model was able to model P leaching from control and amended soil. After leaching, P values in control and amended soil were fractionated by a sequential extraction procedure. Concentration of P in Ca-bound fraction (HCl-P) after application of modified and unmodified clay minerals and NPs (except TiO₂ and Al₂O₃) increased and decreased, respectively. Saturation indices (SIs) and P speciation were assessed using the Visual MINTEQ version 2.3 program. According to the SIs, leaching P from control and amended soil with different adsorbent was controlled by dissolution of hydroxyapatite. The results indicated that used adsorbents can reduce P leaching from the sandy soil. Thus, retention of P by amended soil reduced a risk in terms of groundwater contamination with P.

  10. Thallium dynamics in contrasting light sandy soils--soil vulnerability assessment to anthropogenic contamination.

    PubMed

    Vanek, Ales; Chrastný, Vladislav; Komárek, Michael; Galusková, Ivana; Drahota, Petr; Grygar, Tomás; Tejnecký, Václav; Drábek, Ondrej

    2010-01-15

    The influence of different soil conditions and the presence of LMWOA (Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids) on anthropogenic Tl dynamics were discussed in this study. A shift from the "labile" to the residual fraction during the ageing was identified, indicating Tl incorporation into stable phases (e.g., illite and/or amorphous silicates). The increased water-soluble Tl concentration (1.8-fold, in maximum) after the split application of LMWOA (simulating root exudation) was observed in all soils; partial dissolution of relatively "insoluble" Tl-bearing phases (silicates and eventually oxides) in the presence of LMWOA is suggested. Thermodynamic modeling showed that Tl mobilization in the presence of citric and oxalic acids was indirect and could be attributed to complexation of major elements (Ca, Mg, Al) originating from the dissolution of various soil phases. On the contrary, H(+)-promoted dissolution by acetic acid was assumed as the predominant mechanism of Tl mobilization. Manganese(III,IV) oxides, illite and probably amorphous silicates were evaluated as the dominant phases responsible for Tl retention in the soils. In carbonate-rich soils, Tl coprecipitation with the newly formed carbonates seems to be an important factor influencing Tl release. Therefore, we suggest data on CEC, pH(ZPC) and soil mineralogy to be critical for assessment of Tl behavior in soil systems.

  11. Nitrogen limitation and nitrogen fixation during alkane biodegradation in a sandy soil.

    PubMed Central

    Toccalino, P L; Johnson, R L; Boone, D R

    1993-01-01

    We investigated nutrient limitations during hydrocarbon degradation in a sandy soil and found that fixed nitrogen was initially a limiting nutrient but that N limitation could sometimes be overcome by N2 fixation. Hydrocarbon biodegradation was examined in an unsaturated sandy soil incubated aerobically at 20 degrees C with propane or butane and various added nutrients. Propane and butane degradation proceeded similarly during the first 3 months of incubation. That is, bacteria in soil amended with N oxidized these hydrocarbons more rapidly than in controls without nutrient additions or in soil with added phosphate or trace minerals. Both propane- and butane-amended soil apparently became N limited after the initial available inorganic N was utilized, as indicated by a decrease in the rates of hydrocarbon degradation. After 3 months, propane and butane degradation proceeded differently. Bacteria in propane-degrading soil apparently remained N limited because propane degradation rates stayed low unless more N was added. In contrast, bacteria in butane-degrading soil appeared to overcome their N limitation because butane degradation rates later increased regardless of whether more N was added. Analyses of total N and acetylene reduction assays supported this apparent surplus of N in butane-amended soil. Total N was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in soil incubated with butane and no N amendments than in soil incubated with propane, even when the latter was amended with N. Acetylene reduction occurred only in butane-amended soil. These results indicate that N2 fixation occurred in butane-amended soil but not in propane-amended soil. PMID:8215369

  12. Methane emissions from MSW landfill with sandy soil covers under leachate recirculation and subsurface irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming

    CH 4 emissions and leachate disposal are recognized as the two major concerns in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. Recently, leachate recirculation was attempted to accelerate land-filled waste biodegradation and thus enhanced landfill gas generation. Leachate irrigation was also conducted for volume reduction effectively. Nevertheless, the impacts of leachate recirculation and irrigation on landfill CH 4 emissions have not been previously reported. A field investigation of landfill CH 4 emissions was conducted on selected sandy soil cover with leachate recirculation and subsurface irrigation based on whole year around measurement. The average CH 4 fluxes were 311±903, 207±516, and 565±1460 CH 4 m -2 h -1 from site A without leachate recirculation and subsurface irrigation, lift B2 with leachate subsurface irrigation, and lift B1 with both leachate recirculation and subsurface irrigation, respectively. Both gas recovery and cover soil oxidation minimized CH 4 emissions efficiently, while the later might be more pronounced when the location was more than 5 m away from gas recovery well. After covered by additional clay soil layer, CH 4 fluxes dropped by approximately 35 times in the following three seasons compared to the previous three seasons in lift B2. The diurnal peaks of CH 4 fluxes occurred mostly followed with air or soil temperature in the daytimes. The measured CH 4 fluxes were much lower than those of documented data from the landfills, indicating that the influences of leachate recirculation and subsurface irrigation on landfill CH 4 emissions might be minimized with the help of a well-designed sandy soil cover. Landfill cover composed of two soil layers (clay soil underneath and sandy soil above) is suggested as a low-cost and effective alternative to minimize CH 4 emissions.

  13. Chemical oxidation of contaminants in clay or sandy soil

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.D.; Cline, S.R.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes laboratory studies conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), investigating the feasibility of the application of low-strength hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or potassium permanganate (KMnO{sub 4}) solutions to remediate soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A statistically designed screening study was completed that evaluated the effect of several factors on chemical oxidation treatment efficiency. This study revealed that the most important factors include oxidant type, oxidant concentration, reaction time and soil type. Using the optimum treatment conditions, greater than 90% reduction of trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) was achieved using in situ chemical oxidation.

  14. Process-based reconstruction of sedimentary rocks, sandy soils and soil aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, Roman; Gerke, Kirill; Čapek, Pavel; Karsanina, Marina; Korost, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    There are three main approaches to model and reconstruct (using 2D cut(s), grain size distribution or some other limited information/properties) porous media: 1) statistical methods (correlation functions and simulated annealing, multi-point statistics, entropy methods), 2) sequential methods (sphere or other shapes granular packs), and 3) morphological methods. Each method has its own advantages and shortcomings, so there is no readily available solution and methods should be carefully chosen and tested for each particular media. Here we mainly focus on sequential process-based method due to its general simplicity and straightforward usability for different transformation modeling: diagenesis, mechanical compaction, erosion, etc. It is well known that process-based models for sandstone thin-sections give good transport properties after 3D reconstruction. This method is also useful for pore-network extraction validation. At first, polydisperse sphere packs are created using two different techniques: (1) modified Lubachevsky-Stillinger method, and (2) original Øren-Bakke method with global minimal or local minimal energy ballistic disposition rules. The latter are known to create anisotropic packs with kissing numbers different from real sedimentary materials. During the next step, the third phase (clay minerals for rocks and clay and organic matter for soils) is grown within pore space based on Voronoi tesselation to determine distances to the nearest grains. Input parameters, i.e., grain size distributions and porosities are determined using laboratory methods or image analysis for real porous media: sandstones, sandy soils and soil aggregates. To model soil aggregate structure a gravitational algorithm is used there a set of granules falls onto a gravity center in the middle of the aggregate. All further steps are similar to that of sedimentary rocks and soils. Resulted 3D reconstructions are compared with original 3D structures obtained using X

  15. Fine dust emissions in sandy and silty agricultural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dust emissions from strong winds are common in arid and semi-arid regions and occur under both natural and managed land systems. A portable field wind tunnel has been developed to allow measurements of dust emissions from soil surfaces to test the premise that dust concentrations are highly correlat...

  16. Measurement and computation of movement of bromide ions and carbofuran in ridged humic-sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Leistra, Minze; Boesten, Jos J T I

    2010-07-01

    Water flow and pesticide transport in the soil of fields with ridges and furrows may be more complex than in the soil of more level fields. Prior to crop emergence, the tracer bromide ion and the insecticide carbofuran were sprayed on the humic-sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows. Rainfall was supplemented by sprinkler irrigation. The distribution of the substances in the soil profile of the ridges and furrows was measured on three dates in the potato growing season. Separate ridge and furrow systems were simulated by using the pesticide emission assessment at regional and local scales (PEARL) model for pesticide behavior in soil-plant systems. The substances travelled deeper in the furrow soil than in the ridge soil, because of runoff from the ridges to the furrows. At 19 days after application, the peak of the bromide distribution was measured to be in the 0.1-0.2 m layer of the ridges, while it was in the 0.3-0.5 m layer of the furrows. After 65 days, the peak of the carbofuran distribution in the ridge soil was still in the 0.1 m top layer, while the pesticide was rather evenly distributed in the top 0.6 m of the furrow soil. The wide ranges in concentration measured with depth showed that preferential water flow and substance transport occurred in the sandy soil. Part of the bromide ion distribution was measured to move faster in soil than the computed wave. The runoff of water and pesticide from the ridges to the furrows, and the thinner root zone in the furrows, are expected to increase the risk of leaching to groundwater in ridged fields, in comparison with more level fields.

  17. Effect of pH on bacteriophage transport through sandy soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinoshita, Takashi; Bales, Roger C.; Maguire, Kimberley M.; Gerba, Charles P.

    1993-01-01

    Effects of pH and hydrophobicity on attachment and detachment of PRD-1 and MS-2 in three different sandy soils were investigated in a series of laboratory-column experiments. Concentrations of the lipid-containing phage PRD-1 decreased 3–4 orders of magnitude during passage through the 10–15-cm-long columns. Attachment of the lipid-containing phage PRD-1 was insensitive to pH and was apparently controlled by hydrophobic interactions in soil media. The less-hydrophobic phage MS-2 acted conservatively; it was not removed in the columns at pH's 5.7–8.0. The sticking efficiency (α) in a colloid-filtration model was between 0.1 and 1 for PRD-1, indicating a relatively high removal efficiency. Phage attachment was reversible, but detachment under steady-state conditions was slow. An increase in pH had a moderate effect on enhancing detachment. Still, these soils should continue to release phage to virus-free water for days to weeks following exposure to virus-containing water. In sandy soils with a mass-fraction organic carbon as low as a few hundredths of a percent, pH changes in the range 5.7–8.0 should have little effect on retention of more-hydrophobic virus (e.g., PRD-1), in that retardation will be dominated by hydrophobic effects. Sharp increases in pH should enhance detachment and transport of virus previously deposited on soil grains. A more hydrophilic virus (e.g., MS-2) will transport as a conservative tracer in low-carbon sandy soil.

  18. Microbial Diversity and Heterogeneity in Sandy Subsurface Soils

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jizhong; Xia, Beicheng; Huang, Heshu; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Tiedje, James M.

    2004-01-01

    Microbial community diversity and heterogeneity in saturated and unsaturated subsurface soils from Abbott's Pit in Virginia (1.57, 3.25, and 4.05 m below surface) and Dover Air Force Base in Delaware (6.00 and 7.50 m below surface) were analyzed using a culture-independent small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene (rDNA)-based cloning approach. Four to six dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in 33 to 100 unique SSU rDNA clones (constituting about 40 to 50% of the total number of SSU rDNA clones in the clone library) from the saturated subsurface samples, whereas no dominant OTUs were observed in the unsaturated subsurface sample. Less than 10% of the clones among samples from different depths at the same location were identical, and the proportion of overlapping OTUs was lower for the samples that were vertically far apart than for adjacent samples. In addition, no OTUs were shared between the Abbott's Pit and Dover samples. The majority of the clones (80%) had sequences that were less than 5% different from those in the current databases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of the bacterial clones were affiliated with members of the Proteobacteria family (90%), gram-positive bacteria (3%), and members of the Acidobacteria family (3%). Principal component analysis revealed that samples from different geographic locations were well separated and that samples from the same location were closely grouped together. In addition, the nonsaturated subsurface samples from Abbott's Pit clustered together and were well separated from the saturated subsurface soil sample. Finally, the overall diversity of the subsurface samples was much lower than that of the corresponding surface soil samples. PMID:15006798

  19. Measurement and Computation of Movement of Bromide Ions and Carbofuran in Ridged Humic-Sandy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Boesten, Jos J. T. I.

    2009-01-01

    Water flow and pesticide transport in the soil of fields with ridges and furrows may be more complex than in the soil of more level fields. Prior to crop emergence, the tracer bromide ion and the insecticide carbofuran were sprayed on the humic-sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows. Rainfall was supplemented by sprinkler irrigation. The distribution of the substances in the soil profile of the ridges and furrows was measured on three dates in the potato growing season. Separate ridge and furrow systems were simulated by using the pesticide emission assessment at regional and local scales (PEARL) model for pesticide behavior in soil–plant systems. The substances travelled deeper in the furrow soil than in the ridge soil, because of runoff from the ridges to the furrows. At 19 days after application, the peak of the bromide distribution was measured to be in the 0.1–0.2 m layer of the ridges, while it was in the 0.3–0.5 m layer of the furrows. After 65 days, the peak of the carbofuran distribution in the ridge soil was still in the 0.1 m top layer, while the pesticide was rather evenly distributed in the top 0.6 m of the furrow soil. The wide ranges in concentration measured with depth showed that preferential water flow and substance transport occurred in the sandy soil. Part of the bromide ion distribution was measured to move faster in soil than the computed wave. The runoff of water and pesticide from the ridges to the furrows, and the thinner root zone in the furrows, are expected to increase the risk of leaching to groundwater in ridged fields, in comparison with more level fields. PMID:20041324

  20. Relationships between water infiltration and oil spill migration in sandy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Avner; Rubin, Hillel

    1987-06-01

    This article summarizes a study directed towards the prediction of oil spill migration in sandy soils. Such a prediction is needed for the design of remedial measures against soil and groundwater contamination. The geneal approach in this study is to convert available data concerning water infiltration into equivalent unknown data concerning oil spillage. This information is then fed into a numerical model by which the oil spill migration is simulated. Laboratory measurements including retention curve, hydraulic conductivity and infiltration rate, were made separately for water and kerosene in order to evaluate and confirm the suggested approach.

  1. Initial soil formation and humus accumulation on the spoil heaps of sandy quarry, Russian-North-West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, E.

    2009-04-01

    The accumulation and transformation of organic matter were studied in chronoseries of different aged (3-, 10-, 20-, 30-, 43-, and 60-year-old) soils and a reference (mature) plot. The ecogenetic succession of plants on sand quarry dumps was started from grass plant community and finished on the Scotch Pine forest on the 60-years old plot. The pedogenesis rate was closely related to the rate of phytocenosis development, and the thicknesses of organic and mineral horizons increased synchronously. The profile distribution of organic matter in young soils was estimated as an ectomorphic distribution, and the humus stocks in the mineral horizons of the same soils were comparable with the reserves of organic matter in the litters. The illuvial (Bs) horizons of the soils under study played a significant role in the accumulation of organic carbon; the resistance of organic matter to mineralization increased with age. In the soil chronoseries, the caloricity of litter organic matter increased, as well as the content of energy accumulated in the litters. The composition of humus differed strongly between the eluvial and illuvial horizons; in the chronosequence, the relative content of humic acids increased in the E horizon, and that of fulvic acids increased in the B horizon. On the base of C-13 NMR study of humic substances the humic and fulvic acid are different in organic, eluvial and illuvial horizons in terms of different structural components content. The effect of the phytocenosis on the soil was increasingly mediated with time. The accumulation and transformation of organic matter were the leading pedogenic processes at all stages. The main conclusion of investigation is that the 60 years is enough for formation of embrio-profile of podzol soil on the dumps of quaternary sands of former sandy quarry in the south taiga, North-West of Russia.

  2. Toluene Removal from Sandy Soils via In Situ Technologies with an Emphasis on Factors Influencing Soil Vapor Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Hatamipour, Mohammad Sadegh; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Farhadkhani, Marzieh; Mohammadi-Moghadam, Fazel

    2014-01-01

    The integration of bioventing (BV) and soil vapor extraction (SVE) appears to be an effective combination method for soil decontamination. This paper serves two main purposes: it evaluates the effects of soil water content (SWC) and air flow rate on SVE and it investigates the transition regime between BV and SVE for toluene removal from sandy soils. 96 hours after air injection, more than 97% removal efficiency was achieved in all five experiments (carried out for SVE) including 5, 10, and 15% for SWC and 250 and 500 mL/min for air flow rate on SVE. The highest removal efficiency (>99.5%) of toluene was obtained by the combination of BV and SVE (AIBV: Air Injection Bioventing) after 96 h of air injection at a constant flow rate of 250 mL/min. It was found that AIBV has the highest efficiency for toluene removal from sandy soils and can remediate the vadose zone effectively to meet the soil guideline values for protection of groundwater. PMID:24587723

  3. Toluene removal from sandy soils via in situ technologies with an emphasis on factors influencing soil vapor extraction.

    PubMed

    Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Hatamipour, Mohammad Sadegh; Momenbeik, Fariborz; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Farhadkhani, Marzieh; Mohammadi-Moghadam, Fazel

    2014-01-01

    The integration of bioventing (BV) and soil vapor extraction (SVE) appears to be an effective combination method for soil decontamination. This paper serves two main purposes: it evaluates the effects of soil water content (SWC) and air flow rate on SVE and it investigates the transition regime between BV and SVE for toluene removal from sandy soils. 96 hours after air injection, more than 97% removal efficiency was achieved in all five experiments (carried out for SVE) including 5, 10, and 15% for SWC and 250 and 500 mL/min for air flow rate on SVE. The highest removal efficiency (>99.5%) of toluene was obtained by the combination of BV and SVE (AIBV: Air Injection Bioventing) after 96 h of air injection at a constant flow rate of 250 mL/min. It was found that AIBV has the highest efficiency for toluene removal from sandy soils and can remediate the vadose zone effectively to meet the soil guideline values for protection of groundwater.

  4. [Community structure and diversity of soil arthropods in naturally restored sandy grasslands after grazing].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-tao; Zhao, Ha-lin; Zhao, Xue-yong

    2010-11-01

    Taking the Naiman Desertification Research Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences as a base, an investigation was conducted on the community structure of soil arthropods in the naturally restored sandy grasslands after different intensity grazing disturbance, with the effects of vegetation and soil on this community structure approached. In the non-grazing grassland, soil arthropods were rich in species and more in individuals, and had the highest diversity. In the restored grassland after light grazing, soil arthropods had the lowest evenness and diversity. In the restored grassland after moderate grazing, the individuals of soil arthropods were lesser but the major groups were more, and the evenness and diversity were higher. In the restored grassland after heavy grazing, the individuals of soil arthropods were more but the major groups were lesser, and the diversity was higher. Plant individuals' number, vegetation height and coverage, and soil alkalinity were the main factors affecting the soil arthropod community in naturally restored grasslands after different intensity grazing disturbance. It was implied that after 12-year exclosure of grassland, soil arthropod community could be recovered to some degree, while grazing disturbance had long-term negative effects on the arthropod community.

  5. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles to grass litter decomposition in a sandy soil

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar; Ismail, Iqbal M. I.; Basahi, Jalal M.; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-01-01

    We examined time-dependent effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) at a rate of 2000 mg kg−1 soil on Cynodon dactylon litter (3 g kg−1) decomposition in an arid sandy soil. Overall, heterotrophic cultivable bacterial and fungal colonies, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly decreased in litter-amended soil by the application of nanoparticles after 90 and 180 days of incubation. Time dependent effect of nanoparticles was significant for microbial biomass in litter-amended soil where nanoparticles decreased this variable from 27% after 90 days to 49% after 180 days. IONPs decreased CO2 emission by 28 and 30% from litter-amended soil after 90 and 180 days, respectively. These observations indicated that time-dependent effect was not significant on grass-litter carbon mineralization efficiency. Alternatively, nanoparticles application significantly reduced mineral nitrogen content in litter-amended soil in both time intervals. Therefore, nitrogen mineralization efficiency was decreased to 60% after 180 days compared to that after 90 days in nanoparticles grass-litter amended soil. These effects can be explained by the presence of labile Fe in microbial biomass after 180 days in nanoparticles amendment. Hence, our results suggest that toxicity of IONPs to soil functioning should consider before recommending their use in agro-ecosystems. PMID:28155886

  6. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles to grass litter decomposition in a sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar; Ismail, Iqbal M I; Basahi, Jalal M; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-02-03

    We examined time-dependent effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) at a rate of 2000 mg kg(-1) soil on Cynodon dactylon litter (3 g kg(-1)) decomposition in an arid sandy soil. Overall, heterotrophic cultivable bacterial and fungal colonies, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly decreased in litter-amended soil by the application of nanoparticles after 90 and 180 days of incubation. Time dependent effect of nanoparticles was significant for microbial biomass in litter-amended soil where nanoparticles decreased this variable from 27% after 90 days to 49% after 180 days. IONPs decreased CO2 emission by 28 and 30% from litter-amended soil after 90 and 180 days, respectively. These observations indicated that time-dependent effect was not significant on grass-litter carbon mineralization efficiency. Alternatively, nanoparticles application significantly reduced mineral nitrogen content in litter-amended soil in both time intervals. Therefore, nitrogen mineralization efficiency was decreased to 60% after 180 days compared to that after 90 days in nanoparticles grass-litter amended soil. These effects can be explained by the presence of labile Fe in microbial biomass after 180 days in nanoparticles amendment. Hence, our results suggest that toxicity of IONPs to soil functioning should consider before recommending their use in agro-ecosystems.

  7. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles to grass litter decomposition in a sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar; Ismail, Iqbal M. I.; Basahi, Jalal M.; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-02-01

    We examined time-dependent effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) at a rate of 2000 mg kg‑1 soil on Cynodon dactylon litter (3 g kg‑1) decomposition in an arid sandy soil. Overall, heterotrophic cultivable bacterial and fungal colonies, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly decreased in litter-amended soil by the application of nanoparticles after 90 and 180 days of incubation. Time dependent effect of nanoparticles was significant for microbial biomass in litter-amended soil where nanoparticles decreased this variable from 27% after 90 days to 49% after 180 days. IONPs decreased CO2 emission by 28 and 30% from litter-amended soil after 90 and 180 days, respectively. These observations indicated that time-dependent effect was not significant on grass-litter carbon mineralization efficiency. Alternatively, nanoparticles application significantly reduced mineral nitrogen content in litter-amended soil in both time intervals. Therefore, nitrogen mineralization efficiency was decreased to 60% after 180 days compared to that after 90 days in nanoparticles grass-litter amended soil. These effects can be explained by the presence of labile Fe in microbial biomass after 180 days in nanoparticles amendment. Hence, our results suggest that toxicity of IONPs to soil functioning should consider before recommending their use in agro-ecosystems.

  8. Estimation of Nitrogen Pools in Irrigated Potato Production on Sandy Soil Using the Model SUBSTOR

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Rishi; Hochmuth, George J.; Boote, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent increases in nitrate concentrations in the Suwannee River and associated springs in northern Florida have raised concerns over the contributions of non-point sources. The Middle Suwannee River Basin (MSRB) is of special concern because of prevalent karst topography, unconfined aquifers and sandy soils which increase vulnerability of the ground water contamination from agricultural operations- a billion dollar industry in this region. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production poses a challenge in the area due to the shallow root system of potato plants, and low water and nutrient holding capacity of the sandy soils. A four-year monitoring study for potato production on sandy soil was conducted on a commercial farm located in the MSRB to identify major nitrogen (N) loss pathways and determine their contribution to the total environmental N load, using a partial N budget approach and the potato model SUBSTOR. Model simulated environmental N loading rates were found to lie within one standard deviation of the observed values and identified leaching loss of N as the major sink representing 25 to 38% (or 85 to 138 kg ha-1 N) of the total input N (310 to 349 kg ha-1 N). The crop residues left in the field after tuber harvest represented a significant amount of N (64 to 110 kg ha-1N) and posed potential for indirect leaching loss of N upon their mineralization and the absence of subsequent cover crops. Typically, two months of fallow period exits between harvest of tubers and planting of the fall row crop (silage corn). The fallow period is characterized by summer rains which pose a threat to N released from rapidly mineralizing potato vines. Strategies to reduce N loading into the groundwater from potato production must focus on development and adoption of best management practices aimed on reducing direct as well as indirect N leaching losses. PMID:25635904

  9. Estimating water retention curves for sandy soils at the Doñana National Park, SW Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The determination of soil water retention curves (SWRC) in the laboratory is a slow and tedious task, which is especially challenging for sandy soils due to their low water retention capacity and large water content changes for small pressure head differences. Due to spatial variability within larg...

  10. Aggregate-associated carbon and nitrogen in reclaimed sandy loam soils

    SciTech Connect

    Wick, A.F.; Stahl, P.D.; Ingram, L.J.

    2009-11-15

    Minimal research has been conducted on aggregate, C, and N in coarse-textured soils used to reclaim surface coal mine lands. Furthermore, little is known about the contribution different plant communities make to the recovery of aggregation in these soils. Two chronosequences of semiarid reclaimed sites with sandy loam soils were sampled under shrub- and grass-dominated communities. Aggregation, aggregate fractions, and associated C and N were measured. No definitive trends of increasing macroaggregates between sites were observed undershrubs; however, macro- and microaggregation was greater in the 16-yr-old (0.20 and 0.23 kg aggregate kg{sup -1} soil, respectively) than in the 5-yr-old soils (0.02 and 0.08 kg aggregate kg{sup -1} soil, respectively) under grasses. Although C and N concentrations were drastically reduced (50-75%) with mining activity between the <1-yr-old and native soils, aggregate C and N concentrations tinder shrubs and grasses were similar to each other and to the native soils in the 5-yr-old site. Sods under grass in the 16-yr-old site had lower available and aggregate-occluded C and N concentrations than the 5-yr-old site, while C and N concentrations did not change between 5- and 16-yr-old soils under shrubs. Conversely, aggregate C and N pool sizes under shrubs and grasses both increased with site age to conditions similar to those observed in the native soil. Reclaimed shrub site soils had consistently higher C concentrations in the older reclaimed sites (10 and 16 yr old) than the soils under grasses, indicating greater accumulation and retention of C and N in organic material under shrub than grass communities in semiarid reclaimed sites.

  11. Contribution of individual sorbents to the control of heavy metal activity in sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Weng, L; Temminghoff, E J; Van Riemsdijk, W H

    2001-11-15

    A multisurface model is used to evaluate the contribution of various sorption surfaces to the control of heavy metal activity in sandy soil samples at pH 3.7-6.1 with different sorbent contents. This multisurface model considers soil as a set of independent sorption surfaces, i.e. organic matter (NICA-Donnan), clay silicate (Donnan), and iron hydroxides (DDL, CD-MUSIC). The activities of Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, and Pb2+ in equilibrium with the soil have been measured using a Donnan membrane technique. The metal activities predicted by the model agree with those measured reasonably well over a wide concentration range for all the metals of interest except for Pb. The modeling results suggest that soil organic matter is the most important sorbent that controls the activity of Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+ in these sandy soils. When metal loading is high in comparison with soil organic matter content, the contribution of clay silicates to metal binding becomes more important. Adsorption to iron hydroxides is found not significant in these samples for Cu, Cd, Zn, and Ni. However, for Pb the model estimates strong adsorption on iron hydroxides. The model predicts that acidification will not only lead to increased solution concentrations but also to a shift toward more nonspecific cation-exchange type binding especially for the metals Cd, Zn, and Ni. Lowering the pH has led to a loss of 56% of Cd, 69% of Zn, and 66% of Ni during 16 years due to increased leaching.

  12. Soil development in OSL dated sandy dune substrates under Quercus robur Forest (Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, J. M.; Nierop, Ir. K.; Verstraten, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal dune landscapes are very dynamic. The present distribution of vegetation and soil is the result of over 2000 years of natural processes and human management. The initial soil development was controlled by an increase of the organic matter content, which consisted mainly of decomposed roots of grasses (rhizomull), and a decrease of the soil pH to 3-4 by decalcification. This stage was followed by the development of a deciduous forest, which was dominated by Quercus robur. Since 1600 AD, a large part of the deciduous forest that dominated the east side of the coastal dune landscape transferred in expensive residential areas and urbanizations. Nevertheless some parts of the oak forest belt remained. The present forest soils are acid and the controlling soil processes are leaching of sesquioxides and storage of organic matter in mormoder humus forms. The sustainability of ecosystems is closely related to the quality of the humus form, controlling nutrient cycling and water supply. Therefore, improve of knowledge of humus form development and properties is important. We applied soil micromorphology and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to investigate more details of humus form development at two locations (Duivendrift and Hoek van Klaas) in the coastal dune area of the Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen (near Haarlem, the Netherlands). However, to understand forest soil development, including the organic matter composition in the humus form, the age of the substrate and the forest is required. Therefore, we used tradition techniques as pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating but also the recently introduced optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating technique. OSL dating works excellent for aeolian sandy deposits with a high percentage of quartz grains. The OSL age is defined as the time after the last bleaching by solar radiation of mineral grains. Or in other words, the start of a stable period without sand drifting. In the Ah horizons we

  13. Phytotoxicity and uptake of nitroglycerin in a natural sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Rocheleau, Sylvie; Kuperman, Roman G; Dodard, Sabine G; Sarrazin, Manon; Savard, Kathleen; Paquet, Louise; Hawari, Jalal; Checkai, Ronald T; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2011-11-15

    Nitroglycerin (NG) is widely used for the production of explosives and solid propellants, and is a soil contaminant of concern at some military training ranges. NG phytotoxicity data reported in the literature cannot be applied directly to development of ecotoxicological benchmarks for plant exposures in soil because they were determined in studies using hydroponic media, cell cultures, and transgenic plants. Toxicities of NG in the present studies were evaluated for alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) exposed to NG in Sassafras sandy loam soil. Uptake and degradation of NG were also evaluated in ryegrass. The median effective concentration values for shoot growth ranged from 40 to 231 mg kg(-1) in studies with NG freshly amended in soil, and from 23 to 185 mg kg(-1) in studies with NG weathered-and-aged in soil. Weathering-and-aging NG in soil did not significantly affect the toxicity based on 95% confidence intervals for either seedling emergence or plant growth endpoints. Uptake studies revealed that NG was not accumulated in ryegrass but was transformed into dinitroglycerin in the soil and roots, and was subsequently translocated into the ryegrass shoots. The highest bioconcentration factors for dinitroglycerin of 685 and 40 were determined for roots and shoots, respectively. Results of these studies will improve our understanding of toxicity and bioconcentration of NG in terrestrial plants and will contribute to ecological risk assessment of NG-contaminated sites.

  14. Biochar increases plant available water in a sandy soil under an aerobic rice cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo Carvalho, M. T.; de Holanda Nunes Maia, A.; Madari, B. E.; Bastiaans, L.; van Oort, P. A. J.; Heinemann, A. B.; Soler da Silva, M. A.; Petter, F. A.; Meinke, H.

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of biochar rate (0, 8, 16 and 32 t ha-1) on the water retention capacity (WRC) of a sandy Dystric Plinthosol. The applied biochar was a by-product of slow pyrolysis (∼450 °C) of eucalyptus wood, milled to pass through a 2000 μm sieve that resulted in a material with an intrinsic porosity ≤10 μm and a specific surface area of ∼3.2 m2 g-1. The biochar was incorporated into the top 15 cm of the soil under an aerobic rice system. Our study focused on both the effects on WRC and rice yields at 2 and 3 years after application. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from 16 plots in two soil layers (5-10 and 15-20 cm). Soil water retention curves were modelled using a nonlinear mixed model which appropriately accounts for uncertainties inherent of spatial variability and repeated measurements taken within a specific soil sample. We found an increase in plant available water in the upper soil layer proportional to the rate of biochar, with about 0.8% for each t ha-1 of biochar amendment at 2 and 3 years after application. The impact of biochar on soil WRC was most likely related to an increase in overall porosity of the sandy soil, which was evident from an increase in saturated soil moisture and macro porosity with 0.5% and 1.6% for each t ha-1 of biochar applied, respectively. The increment in soil WRC did not translate into an increase in rice yield, essentially because in both seasons the amount of rainfall during critical period for rice production exceeded 650 mm. The use of biochar as a soil amendment can be a worthy strategy to guarantee yield stability under water limited conditions. Our findings raise the importance of assessing the feasibility of very high application rates of biochar and the inclusion of a detailed analysis of its physical and chemical properties as part of future investigations.

  15. Biochar application to sandy and loamy soils for agricultural nutrient management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronwald, Marco; Don, Axel; Tiemeyer, Baerbel; Helfrich, Mirjam

    2014-05-01

    Soil fertility of agricultural soils is challenged by nutrients losses and increasing soil acidification. Furthermore, leached nutrients negatively affect the quality of ground and surface water 1]. In addition to the possible soil carbon sequestration by applying biochars, many positive soil-improving properties are attributed to biochars. The application of biochars to agricultural - especially sandy - soils could reduce leaching of nutrients and may improve their availability 1,2]. Thus, biochar application to agricultural fields could be an ecologically and economically viable option to improve soils' fertility. However, biochar properties strongly depend on their feedstock and production process 3]. Various types of biochars (pyrolysis char, hydrochar (produced at 200 and 250° C); feedstocks: digestate, Miscanthus and wood chips) were used to determine sorption kinetics and sorption isotherms for the major nutrients Ca, Mg, K, NH4 and NO3 as a function of biochar types in different soil substrates (sand, loess). In addition, the biochars were washed to create free binding sites on the chars' surface that simulate aged char. We compared the simulated aged char with biochars that was aged in-situ at a field experiment for seven months. The first results showed that pyrochars have the largest retention potential for NO3 and hydrochars have retention potential for NH4. Washing of biochars turned them from a PO4 and NH4 source into an adsorber, especially for hydrochars. Highest leaching was observed for biochars from digestates likely due to the high nutrient content of digestates. But the different ions may lead to pH-dependent interactions between each other and the chars' surface that override the adsoption effects. In this context, cation-bridge and ligand bindings 4,5] need to be further investigated. Most of the fresh, unwashed biochars were a source of nutrients with hardly any detectable nutrient retention. Pyrochars showed the highest potential for anion

  16. [Effects of farmland use type and winter irrigation on nitrate accumulation in sandy farmland soil].

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong; Su, Yong-zhong

    2009-03-01

    With the sandy farmland in the marginal oasis in middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, Northwest China as test object, this paper studied soil NO3- -N accumulation and leaching under effects of different farmland use type and winter irrigation. The results showed that the mean NO3- -N concentration in 0-300 cm soil profile in different farmlands ranged from 1.27 mg x kg(-1) to 83.60 mg x kg(-1) Soil NO3- -N concentration was higher in 0-40 cm and 135-300 cm layers, but lower in 40-135 cm layer. Greenhouse vegetable field had a significantly higher soil NO3- -N concentration than the other farmland use types. The accumulated amount of soil NO3- -N decreased in the order of greenhouse vegetable field > tomato field > cotton field > seed maize field > maize-wheat rotation field > maize-wheat stripe intercropping field > alfalfa field > jujube plantation. The NO3- -N accumulation in 0-300 cm soil profile in greenhouse vegetable filed reached 2171.45 kg x hm(-2), which would be a serious menace to groundwater quality, followed by tomato field and cotton field. Lesser accumulation of soil NO3- -N was found in seed maize field, maize-wheat intercropping field, maize-wheat rotation field, alfalfa field, and jujube plantation, but its pollution potential would not be neglected. After winter irrigation, soil NO3- -N concentration decreased in 0-80 cm layer but increased in 80-300 cm layer, indicating that winter irrigation caused NO3- -N leaching into deeper soil depth. The leached amount of soil NO3- -N to deeper layers increased with increasing amount of winter irrigation. To mitigate soil NO3- -N leaching and groundwater contamination, a comprehensive consideration should be made on the rational arrangement of farmland use type, proper decrease of planting N-accumulated crops, and reasonable winter irrigation.

  17. Different Behavior of Enteric Bacteria and Viruses in Clay and Sandy Soils after Biofertilization with Swine Digestate.

    PubMed

    Fongaro, Gislaine; García-González, María C; Hernández, Marta; Kunz, Airton; Barardi, Célia R M; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2017-01-01

    Enteric pathogens from biofertilizer can accumulate in the soil, subsequently contaminating water and crops. We evaluated the survival, percolation and leaching of model enteric pathogens in clay and sandy soils after biofertilization with swine digestate: PhiX-174, mengovirus (vMC0), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were used as biomarkers. The survival of vMC0 and PhiX-174 in clay soil was significantly lower than in sandy soil (iT90 values of 10.520 ± 0.600 vs. 21.270 ± 1.100 and 12.040 ± 0.010 vs. 43.470 ± 1.300, respectively) and PhiX-174 showed faster percolation and leaching in sandy soil than clay soil (iT90 values of 0.46 and 2.43, respectively). S. enterica Typhimurium was percolated and inactivated more slowly than E. coli O157:H7 (iT90 values of 9.340 ± 0.200 vs. 6.620 ± 0.500 and 11.900 ± 0.900 vs. 10.750 ± 0.900 in clay and sandy soils, respectively), such that E. coli O157:H7 was transferred more quickly to the deeper layers of both soils evaluated (percolation). Our findings suggest that E. coli O157:H7 may serve as a useful microbial biomarker of depth contamination and leaching in clay and sandy soil and that bacteriophage could be used as an indicator of enteric pathogen persistence. Our study contributes to development of predictive models for enteric pathogen behavior in soils, and for potential water and food contamination associated with biofertilization, useful for risk management and mitigation in swine digestate recycling.

  18. Different Behavior of Enteric Bacteria and Viruses in Clay and Sandy Soils after Biofertilization with Swine Digestate

    PubMed Central

    Fongaro, Gislaine; García-González, María C.; Hernández, Marta; Kunz, Airton; Barardi, Célia R. M.; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2017-01-01

    Enteric pathogens from biofertilizer can accumulate in the soil, subsequently contaminating water and crops. We evaluated the survival, percolation and leaching of model enteric pathogens in clay and sandy soils after biofertilization with swine digestate: PhiX-174, mengovirus (vMC0), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were used as biomarkers. The survival of vMC0 and PhiX-174 in clay soil was significantly lower than in sandy soil (iT90 values of 10.520 ± 0.600 vs. 21.270 ± 1.100 and 12.040 ± 0.010 vs. 43.470 ± 1.300, respectively) and PhiX-174 showed faster percolation and leaching in sandy soil than clay soil (iT90 values of 0.46 and 2.43, respectively). S. enterica Typhimurium was percolated and inactivated more slowly than E. coli O157:H7 (iT90 values of 9.340 ± 0.200 vs. 6.620 ± 0.500 and 11.900 ± 0.900 vs. 10.750 ± 0.900 in clay and sandy soils, respectively), such that E. coli O157:H7 was transferred more quickly to the deeper layers of both soils evaluated (percolation). Our findings suggest that E. coli O157:H7 may serve as a useful microbial biomarker of depth contamination and leaching in clay and sandy soil and that bacteriophage could be used as an indicator of enteric pathogen persistence. Our study contributes to development of predictive models for enteric pathogen behavior in soils, and for potential water and food contamination associated with biofertilization, useful for risk management and mitigation in swine digestate recycling. PMID:28197137

  19. Degradation pathway and field-scale DT50 determination of Boscalid in a sandy Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Anneli S.; Weihermüller, Lutz; Tappe, Wolfgang; Mukherjee, Santanu; Spielvogel, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The research on environmental fate of pesticides has received increasing attention within the last decades and the persistence of several compounds in soil matrices is well documented. However, the fate of the new fungicide Boscalid (introduced in 2003) is not yet completely investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the environmental fate of Boscalid in a sandy soil. Three years after the second application on a cropland site in Kaldenkirchen, Germany, 65 undisturbed soil samples from the plough layer were derived. Boscalid residues were extracted using Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) and measured with UPLC-MS/MS. The Boscalid residues ranged between 0.12 and 0.53 μg kg-1with a field mean of 0.20 ± 0.09 μg kg-1. These results differed considerably from the predicted field concentration of 16.89 μg kg-1 (calculated from the application rate) and half-lives (DT50) of 104-182 days compared to 345 days reported in literature. Adjusting the extraction efficiency to 20% could not explain the large difference. Therefore, an incubation study with 14C-labeled Boscalid was conducted to measure the DT50 under controlled conditions. Here, the DT50 values were in the range of values stated in literature (297-337 days compared to 345 days) but still much larger than the DT50 based on the field-study values (104-182 days). Our results indicate that Boscalid dissipation under field conditions is much faster at agricultural sites with sandy soil type as expected from laboratory incubation experiments. Future experiments with Boscalid will be conducted in two different soils with different particle size. A laboratory experiment with uniformly 13C-labeled Boscalid will provide insight into the uptake and incorporation in microbial biomass.

  20. Biochar reduces copper toxicity in Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Buss, Wolfram; Kammann, Claudia; Koyro, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    Mining, smelting, land applications of sewage sludge, the use of fungicides containing copper (Cu), and other human activities have led to widespread soil enrichment and contamination with Cu and potentially toxic conditions. Biochar (BC) can adsorb several substances, ranging from herbicides to plant-inhibiting allelochemicals. However, the range of potential beneficial effects on early-stage plant growth with regard to heavy metal toxicity is largely unexplored. We investigated the ameliorating properties of a forestry-residue BC under Cu toxicity conditions on early plant growth. Young quinoa plants () were grown in the greenhouse in the presence of 0, 2, and 4% BC application (w/w) added to a sandy soil with 0, 50, or 200 μg g Cu supplied. The plants without BC showed severe stress symptoms and reduced growth shortly after Cu application of 50 μg g and died at 200 μg Cu g. Increasing BC concentrations in the growth medium significantly increased the plant performance without Cu toxicity or under Cu stress. At the 4% BC application rate, the plants with 200 μg g Cu almost reached the same biomass as in the control treatment. In the presence of BC, less Cu entered the plant tissues, which had reduced Cu concentrations in the order roots, shoots, leaves. The amelioration effect also was reflected in the plant-soil system CO gas exchange, which showed clear signs of improvement with BC presence. The most likely ameliorating mechanisms were adsorption of Cu to negatively charged BC surfaces and an improvement of the water supply. Overall, BC seems to be a beneficial amendment with the potential to ameliorate Cu toxicity in sandy soils. Further research with a broad spectrum of different soil types, BCs, and crop plants is required.

  1. Effect of vegetation on infiltration into sandy soils during wet and dry spells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfanus, T.; Fodor, N.; Hallett, P. D.; Lichner, L.; Dlapa, P.; Rajkai, K.

    2012-04-01

    Plant cover can influence the hydraulic characteristics of soil considerably. Water repellency, which commonly evolves in sandy soils during longer dry spells, can result in water infiltration retardation. Water infiltration into natural-meadow, pine-forest, glade and fallow sandy soils was evaluated after during several wet and dry spells in respect of: soil porosity, hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity estimated by mini-disc infiltrometer, water drop penetration time, effective contact angle and water repellency index. Bare aeolian sand containing practically no organic matter was taken as etalon material. All materials have similar texture and pore-size distributions but their wettability and hydraulic properties differed considerably. Long dry spells enhanced the infiltration capacity in wettable etalon material because of sorptivity increase. Sorptivities of meadow and fallow soils, however, remained restrained during both, wet and dry seasons either due to higher water content (when wet) or to stronger water repellency (when dry). For this reason no temporal variability of infiltration capacity was observed in these soils unlike the etalon material. It was confirmed (for the fallow soil) that subcritical water repellency can significantly retarded water infiltration. The infiltration rate vs. time relationships measured both in the laboratory and field for the grass site revealed different behaviour in the initial phase of infiltration. In the laboratory, the onset of infiltration depended on the water ponding depth. As is often found in water repellent soil, the infiltration rate increased with time as a result of fingered flow. In the field, infiltration started immediately after the water application. This was the result of temporarily stable wetting patterns observed in all studied water repellent soils. Important founding is also that substantial part (71%) of the hydraulic conductivity variation in meadow soil could be explained by the variation of

  2. Phytotoxicity of nitroaromatic energetic compounds freshly amended or weathered and aged in sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Rocheleau, Sylvie; Kuperman, Roman G; Martel, Majorie; Paquet, Louise; Bardai, Ghalib; Wong, Stephen; Sarrazin, Manon; Dodard, Sabine; Gong, Ping; Hawari, Jalal; Checkai, Ronald T; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2006-01-01

    The toxicities of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) to terrestrial plants alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Japanese millet (Echinochloa crusgalli L.), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were determined in Sassafras sandy loam soil using seedling emergence, fresh shoot, and dry mass measurement endpoints. A 13-week weathering and aging of energetic materials in soils, which included wetting and drying cycles, and exposure to sunlight of individual soil treatments, was incorporated into the study design to better reflect the soil exposure conditions in the field than toxicity determinations in freshly amended soils. Definitive toxicity tests showed that dinitrotoluenes were more phytotoxic for all plant species in freshly amended treatments based on EC20 values for dry shoot ranging from 3 to 24mgkg(-1) compared with values for TNB or TNT ranging from 43 to 62mgkg(-1). Weathering and aging of energetic materials (EMs) in soil significantly decreased the toxicity of TNT, TNB or 2,6-DNT to Japanese millet or ryegrass based on seedling emergence, but significantly increased the toxicity of all four EMs to all three plant species based on shoot growth. Exposure of the three plant species to relatively low concentrations of the four compounds initially stimulated plant growth before the onset of inhibition at greater concentrations (hormesis).

  3. Improving irrigation efficiency of sandy soils by subsurface water retaining membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guber, Andrey; Smucker, Alvin; Berhanu, Samrawi

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable crop production in sandy soils is challenging due to low soil water holding capacity and high water permeability. The subsurface water retention technology (SWRT) is a relatively new long-term approach that offers precision control of water and nutrients in the root zone. However, multiple design of SWRT membrane configurations and spatial distributions require more modeling for best application in arid regions with relevant irrigation methods. The objective of this study was to define optimal geometric parameters of the SWRT membranes and the most accurate irrigation rates for corn production in sandy soils. HYDRUS-2D model, that describes two-dimensional water flow in unsaturated soil, was calibrated and validated on data in a large sand-filled lysimeter with SWRT membranes installed at different depths with different aspect ratios. The model adequately reproduced soil water content dynamics measured at 12 locations inside the sand profile. Then HYDRUS-2D simulations were repeated with different SWRT installation depths and aspect ratios. The installation depths in these simulations were 20 cm, 40 cm, and 60 cm, while the aspect ratios were 2:1, 3:1, 5:1 and 10:1. The results of simulations confirmed water holding capacity of the soil can be differentially controlled by aspect ratios of SWRT membranes. SWRT membranes with an aspect ratio of 2:1 substantially increased soil water content at 20-cm soil layer above the membrane, and this effect diminished with increasing aspect ratio of the membrane. Installation depth within the soil profile had no significant effect on water loss. The HYDRUS-2D simulations were repeated with SWRT installed at depth of 20 cm for sprinkle, surface drip and subsurface drip irrigation. Corn irrigation was triggered at pressure head of -30cm at a depth of 15 cm for all irrigation techniques. Simulated water losses by deep infiltration in sands without SWRT membranes approached 60% with approximately 15% losses when SWRT

  4. Biofuel components change the ecology of bacterial volatile petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in aerobic sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Elazhari-Ali, Abdulmagid; Singh, Arvind K; Davenport, Russell J; Head, Ian M; Werner, David

    2013-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the biodegradation of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs) in aerobic sandy soil is affected by the blending with 10 percent ethanol (E10) or 20 percent biodiesel (B20). When inorganic nutrients were scarce, competition between biofuel and VPH degraders temporarily slowed monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Ethanol had a bigger impact than biodiesel, reflecting the relative ease of ethanol compared to methyl ester biodegradation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that each fuel mixture selected for a distinct bacterial community, each dominated by Pseudomonas spp. Despite lasting impacts on soil bacterial ecology, the overall effects on VHP biodegradation were minor, and average biomass yields were comparable between fuel types, ranging from 0.40 ± 0.16 to 0.51 ± 0.22 g of biomass carbon per gram of fuel carbon degraded. Inorganic nutrient availability had a greater impact on petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation than fuel composition.

  5. Temporal stability of the apparent electrical conductivity measured in seasonally dry sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrera, Aura; Brevik, Eric C.; Giráldez, Juan V.; Vanderlinden, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Soil is spatially heterogeneous due to differences in parent material, climate, topography, time and management practices. The use of non-invasive and non-contact geophysical methods facilitates the exploration of natural landscapes or cropped areas. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors which measure the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) express soil spatial variability in terms of spatial soil ECa variability. In an agricultural context, knowledge and understanding of the soil spatial variability will allow us to delimit areas where precision agriculture techniques could be used to improve management practices. These practices enhance soil and water conservation, especially for sandy soils in Mediterranean climates where soils are dry for substantial periods of time. The first objective of this work was to apply principal component analysis (PCA) to see if a temporally stable component could be found. The second objective was to see if temporal stability information acquired from several ECa surveys could be used to better interpret results of a single survey in terms of relationships between ECa and soil water content (SWC). The experimental catchment, "La Manga", is located in SW Spain and covers 6.7 ha of a rainfed olive orchard. Soil profile samples were collected at 41 locations on a pseudo-regular grid. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory for soil texture, stone content, and bulk density (ρb). The catchment was sampled for gravimetric SWC at the 0-0.1 and 0.1-0.2 m depth intervals at the same 41 locations on 18 occasions. At the same 41 locations ECa was measured during 9 of the 18 SWC surveys using a DUALEM-21S EMI sensor. In addition, 7 field-wide ECa surveys were conducted. Soil ECa values were used to delimit three areas in the orchard, based on the spatial distribution of the first principal component (PC), which represented the spatial ECa pattern. Soil properties were studied within each area, and using analysis of variance

  6. [Soil sandy desertification and salinization and their interrelationships in Yanghuang irrigated area of Hongsipu, Ningxia of northwest China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-guo; Song, Nai-ping

    2011-09-01

    By the methods of controlled and typical sampling, this paper analyzed the texture, salinization characteristics, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and their correlations in the 0-40 cm soil profiles of corn land, medlar land, and non-utilized land in Yanghuang irrigated area of Hongsipu, Northwest China. Under controlled sampling, the salt content in the soil profiles was 0.69-1.30 g x kg(-1) (except in non-utilized land where the 0-10 cm soil salt content was up to 1.74 g x kg(-1)), with no obvious salinization. The sodium adsorption ratio and exchangeable sodium percentage in the 20-40 cm soil layer of medlar land were 12.18 and 14.1%, respectively, and the total content of clay and silt in the 0-40 cm soil profile of medlar land was up to 37.3% whereas that in the 0-20 cm soil layer of corn land was only 13.5%. In the 20-40 cm soil layer of corn land, the indices of sandy desertification and salinization had significant correlations under controlled sampling but no correlations under typical sampling, while the CEC and the sandy desertification and salinization indices had significant correlations under typical sampling. In different land use types in the study area, soil sandy desertification and salinization had complicated interrelationships, and CEC could be used as the indicator for the changes in soil environmental quality.

  7. Manure Refinement Affects Apple Rhizosphere Bacterial Community Structure: A Study in Sandy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Jian; Liu, Songzhong; Wei, Qinping

    2013-01-01

    We used DNA-based pyrosequencing to characterize the bacterial community structure of the sandy soil of an apple orchard with different manure ratios. Five manure percentages (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) were examined. More than 10,000 valid reads were obtained for each replicate. The communities were composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes), of which Proteobacteria content gradually decreased from 41.38% to 37.29% as manure ratio increased from 0% to 25%, respectively. Redundancy analysis showed that 37 classes were highly correlated with manure ratio, 18 of which were positively correlated. Clustering revealed that the rhizosphere samples were grouped into three components: low manure (control, 5%) treatment, medium manure (10%, 15%) treatment and high manure (20%, 25%) treatment. Venn analysis of species types of these three groups revealed that the bacteria community difference was primarily reflected by quantity ratio rather than species variety. Although greater manure content led to higher soil organic matter content, the medium manure improved soil showed the highest urease activity and saccharase activity, while 5% to 20% manure ratio improvement also resulted in higher bacteria diversity than control and 25% manure ratio treatment. Our experimental results suggest that the use of a proper manure ratio results in significantly higher soil enzyme activity and different bacteria community patterns, whereas the use of excessive manure amounts has negative effect on soil quality. PMID:24155909

  8. [Effects of degraded sandy grassland afforestation on soil quality in semi-arid area of northern China].

    PubMed

    Hu, Ya-lin; Zeng, De-hui; Fan, Zhi-ping; Ai, Gui-yan

    2007-11-01

    By the methods of field survey and incubation test, this paper studied the effects of degraded sandy grassland afforestation with Mongolian pine on the soil physical, chemical and biological properties in 0-10 cm layer on Keerqin sandy land. The results showed that after 32 years afforestation, soil organic C, total N and total P decreased by 21%, 42% and 45%, respectively. In May and November, soil NH4+ -N content was significantly higher under Mongolian pine plantation than under grassland (P = 0.001; P = 0.019), but in May, August and November, soil NO3- -N content was in adverse (P < 0.001; P = 0.048; P = 0.031). In May, August and November, soil C mineralization rate was higher under Mongolian pine plantation than under grassland, but the difference in N mineralization rate was not significant (P > 0.05). In May and August, soil microbial biomass C under Mongolian pine plantation and grassland had little difference, but in November, it was significantly higher under Mongolian pine plantation than under grassland. Soil nutrients- and moisture contents were the important factors affecting soil microbial biomass C. Soil urease and invertase activities decreased but catalase activity increased under Mongolian pine plantation, compared with those under grassland. It was suggested that 32 years afforestation of degraded sandy grassland with Mongolian pine on Keerqin sandy land led to a definite degradation of soil quality. Owing to the changes of vegetation, the test indicators of soil quality had different seasonal dynamic characteristics under Mongolian pine plantation and grassland. As a means of degraded ecosystem restoration in semi-arid area of Northern China, afforestation had its definite limitations.

  9. Nitrogen Amendment Stimulated Decomposition of Maize Straw-Derived Biochar in a Sandy Loam Soil: A Short-Term Study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weiwei; Ding, Weixin; Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Huanjun; Luo, Jiafa; Bolan, Nanthi

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of nitrogen (N) on biochar stability in relation to soil microbial community as well as biochar labile components using δ13C stable isotope technology. A sandy loam soil under a long-term rotation of C3 crops was amended with biochar produced from maize (a C4 plant) straw in absence (BC0) and presence (BCN) of N and monitored for dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2) flux, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) profile and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. N amendment significantly increased the decomposition of biochar during the first 5 days of incubation (P < 0.05), and the proportions of decomposed biochar carbon (C) were 2.30% and 3.28% in BC0 and BCN treatments, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. The magnitude of decomposed biochar C was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than DOC in biochar (1.75%) and part of relatively recalcitrant biochar C was mineralized in both treatments. N amendment increased soil PLFAs concentration at the beginning of incubation, indicating that microorganisms were N-limited in test soil. Furthermore, N amendment significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proportion of gram-positive (G+) bacteria and decreased that of fungi, while no noticeable changes were observed for gram-negative (G-) bacteria and actinobacteria at the early stage of incubation. Our results indicated that N amendment promoted more efficiently the proliferation of G+ bacteria and accelerated the decomposition of relatively recalcitrant biochar C, which in turn reduced the stability of maize straw-derived biochar in test soil.

  10. Nitrogen Amendment Stimulated Decomposition of Maize Straw-Derived Biochar in a Sandy Loam Soil: A Short-Term Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Weiwei; Ding, Weixin; Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Huanjun; Luo, Jiafa; Bolan, Nanthi

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of nitrogen (N) on biochar stability in relation to soil microbial community as well as biochar labile components using δ13C stable isotope technology. A sandy loam soil under a long-term rotation of C3 crops was amended with biochar produced from maize (a C4 plant) straw in absence (BC0) and presence (BCN) of N and monitored for dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2) flux, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) profile and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. N amendment significantly increased the decomposition of biochar during the first 5 days of incubation (P < 0.05), and the proportions of decomposed biochar carbon (C) were 2.30% and 3.28% in BC0 and BCN treatments, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. The magnitude of decomposed biochar C was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than DOC in biochar (1.75%) and part of relatively recalcitrant biochar C was mineralized in both treatments. N amendment increased soil PLFAs concentration at the beginning of incubation, indicating that microorganisms were N-limited in test soil. Furthermore, N amendment significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proportion of gram-positive (G+) bacteria and decreased that of fungi, while no noticeable changes were observed for gram-negative (G−) bacteria and actinobacteria at the early stage of incubation. Our results indicated that N amendment promoted more efficiently the proliferation of G+ bacteria and accelerated the decomposition of relatively recalcitrant biochar C, which in turn reduced the stability of maize straw-derived biochar in test soil. PMID:26192282

  11. Chemical contamination of soils in the New York City area following Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Mandigo, Amy C; DiScenza, Dana J; Keimowitz, Alison R; Fitzgerald, Neil

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a unique data set of lead, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in soil samples collected from the metropolitan New York City area in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Initial samples were collected by citizen scientists recruited via social media, a relatively unusual approach for a sample collection project. Participants in the affected areas collected 63 usable samples from basements, gardens, roads, and beaches. Results indicate high levels of arsenic, lead, PCBs, and PAHs in an area approximately 800 feet south of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Superfund site at Newtown Creek. A location adjacent to the Gowanus Canal, another Superfund site, was found to have high PCB concentrations. Areas of high PAH contamination tended to be near high traffic areas or next to sites of known contamination. While contamination as a direct result of Hurricane Sandy cannot be demonstrated conclusively, the presence of high levels of contamination close to known contamination sites, evidence for co-contamination, and decrease in number of samples containing measureable amounts of semi-volatile compounds from samples collected at similar locations 9 months after the storm suggest that contaminated particles may have migrated to residential areas as a result of flooding.

  12. Combating wind erosion of sandy soils and crop damage in the coastal deserts: Wind tunnel experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genis, Arthur; Vulfson, Leonid; Ben-Asher, Jiftah

    2013-06-01

    In the western Negev desert of Israel frequent sandstorms cause heavy damage to young lettuce, carrot, peanut and potato plants during the planting season. The damage of plants is based mainly on the mechanical impact of saltating sand particles, which causes irreversible injuries to the plant leaves. Current agro-technique measures taken to prevent wind damage to crop in Israel are based on high frequency irrigation. Although the high-frequency irrigation helps bind soil particles together by forming a soil crust, it is associated with the large waste of water, which is not practical under the arid conditions. Application of polyacrylamide (PAM) as a chemical stabilizer has proved to be effective for prevention of soil erosion, saving irrigation water and a stable growth of plants in the early stages. Although the technique of PAM application is not yet used commercially in Israel, the preliminary studies suggested that it might have the potential to reduce the damage to the plant leaves by sandstorms, providing both environmental and agricultural benefits. In this study the effectiveness of PAM for preventing sandstorms in the western Negev was also investigated. Optimal concentration and volume of PAM solution per hectare of bare sandy soil were determined. For this purpose a wind tunnel was used to determine wind velocities of the first and continuous detachment of particles. The ability of PAM application to minimize the damage of plants by sandstorms was experimentally verified using image analysis tools.

  13. Fate of thiodicarb and its metabolite methomyl in sandy loam soil under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Sushma; Chauhan, Reena; Kumari, Beena; Singh, Rajvir

    2015-07-01

    Fate of thiodicarb and its major metabolite in sandy loam soil were studied by applying thiodicarb (Larvin 75 WP) at 500 and 1000 g a. i. ha(-1) under laboratory conditions. Samples drawn periodically were analysed on GC-FTD equipped with capillary column. The average initial deposits of total thiodicarb (thiodicarb and methomyl) were 0.025 and 0.035 mg kg(-1) at single and double dosages, respectively. Residues of thiodicarb reached below the determination level (BDL) of 0.005 mg kg(-1) after 15 days. Half-life periods for total thiodicarb were calculated to be 5.90 and 8.29 days at two doses, respectively, following first-order kinetics.

  14. Persistence of fensulfothion in a sandy-loam soil and uptake by rutabagas, carrots and radishes using microplots

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, R.; Read, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Field microplots were treated with 141 and 282 ppm fensulfothion and 37.1 and 74.2 ppm fensulfothion sulfone. These concentrations are equivalent to field treatment rates of 8.48 and 16.96 kg AI/ha, fensulfothion, and 2.23 and 4.47 kg AI/ha, fensulfothion sulfone, respectively, for banded application (10 cm wide, rows 80 cm apart). The half-lives in a sandy loam soil were 30-39 and 14-23 days, respectively. Fensulfothion sulfone and sulfide were the main derivatives found in fensulfothion treated soil. The maximum levels of these derivatives were 21.22 and 22.95 ppm, respectively for the 8.48 kg/ha treatment and 33.90 and 42.45 ppm, respectively, for the higher treatment, which occurred between 30-60 days. Carrots appeared to take up more fensulfothion from soil than rutabagas or radishes. The residue levels at harvest decreased in the order carrot peel greater than pulp greater than rutabagas root greater than peel greater than pulp. Residue levels of fensulfothion and sulfone in radishes were similar to those found in rutabagas. The ratio sulfoxide/sulfone in rutabagas ranged from 0.4-1.5 and in carrots from 1.7-7.6. This phenomenon is thought to be due to oxidative enzyme systems present in rutabagas. Dimethyl phosphorothioic acid, but not dimethyl phosphoric acid was detected (max. 1.33 ppm) in some rutabagas samples but not in carrots.

  15. Copper Accumulation, Availability and Adsorption Capacity in Sandy Soils of Vineyards with Different Cultivation Duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallmann, F. J. K.; Miotto, A.; Bender, M. A.; Gubiani, E.; Rheinheimer, D. D. S.; Kaminski, J.; Ceretta, C. A.; Šimůnek, J.

    2015-12-01

    Bordeaux mixture is a copper-based (Cu) fungicide and bactericide applied in vineyards to control plant diseases. Since it is applied several times per year, it accumulates in large quantities on plants and in soil. This study evaluates the Cu accumulation in, and desorption kinetics and adsorption capability of a sandy Ultisol in a natural field and in 3 vineyards for 5 (V1), 11 (V2), and 31 (V3) years in South of Brazil. Soil samples were collected in 8 depths (0-60 cm) of all four soil profiles, which all displayed similar soil properties. The following soil properties were measured: pH, organic matter (OM), soil bulk density, Cu total concentration, and Cu desorption and adsorption curves. A two first-order reactions model and the Langmuir isotherm were fitted to the desorption and adsorption curves, respectively. An increase in the total mass of Cu in the vineyards followed a linear regression curve, with an average annual increase of 7.15 kg ha-1. Cu accumulated down to a depth of 5, 20, and 30 cm in V1, V2 and V3, respectively, with the highest Cu content reaching 138.4 mg kg-1 in the 0-5 cm soil layer of V3. Cu desorption parameters showed a high correlation with its total concentration. Approximately 57 and 19% of total Cu were immediately and slowly available, respectively, indicating a high potential for plant absorption and/or downward movement. Cu concentrations extracted by EDTA from soil layers not affected by anthropogenic Cu inputs were very low. The maximum Cu adsorption capacity of the 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers increased with the vineyard age, reaching concentrations higher than 900 mg kg-1. This increase was highly related to OM and pH, which both increased with cultivation duration. Despite of low clay content of these soils, there is low risk of groundwater Cu contamination for actual conditions. However, high Cu concentrations in the surface layer of the long-term vineyards could cause toxicity problems for this and for companion crops.

  16. Percolation and transport in a sandy soil under a natural hydraulic gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, C.T.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Bekins, B.A.; Akstin, K.C.; Schulz, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Unsaturated flow and transport under a natural hydraulic gradient in a Mediterranean climate were investigated with a field tracer experiment combined with laboratory analyses and numerical modeling. Bromide was applied to the surface of a sandy soil during the dry season. During the subsequent rainy season, repeated sediment sampling tracked the movement of bromide through the profile. Analysis of data on moisture content, matric pressure, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, and soil texture and structure provides insights into parameterization and use of the advective-dispersive modeling approach. Capturing the gross features of tracer and moisture movement with model simulations required an order-of-magnitude increase in laboratory-measured hydraulic conductivity. Wetting curve characteristics better represented field results, calling into question the routine estimation of hydraulic characteristics based only on drying conditions. Measured increases in profile moisture exceeded cumulative precipitation in early winter, indicating that gains from dew drip can exceed losses from evapotranspiration during periods of heavy ("Tule") fog. A single-continuum advective-dispersive modeling approach could not reproduce a peak of bromide that was retained near the soil surface for over 3 years. Modeling of this feature required slow exchange of solute at a transfer rate of 0.5-1 ?? 10-4 d-1 with an immobile volume approaching the residual moisture content.

  17. Dissolved Organic Carbon Dynamics Along Terrestrial-aquatic Flowpaths in a Catchment Dominated by Sandy Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickland, K.; Walker, J. F.; Hood, K.; Butler, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic systems receive significant amounts of terrestrially-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from their watersheds. The amount and nature received depends on terrestrial carbon source strength, processing and losses of carbon during transport, and hydrologic connectivity between terrestrial and aquatic systems. While much research has been done on terrestrial DOC dynamics along terrestrial-aquatic flowpaths, there is still considerable uncertainty in many areas including the importance of different carbon sources, microbial metabolism and sorption of DOC, and processing of carbon in groundwater. Here we investigate DOC dynamics in soils, groundwater, and stream waters at the USGS Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical (WEBB) Program research site in northern Wisconsin. This site is well-suited for studying DOC dynamics as soils are sandy and homogenous with small DOC sorption potential, and previous work has characterized the hydrology of the region in detail. We collected water samples over two years from soil pit lysimeters along a series of hillslope transects, from shallow and deep groundwater wells, and from a first-order stream receiving these waters. We measured DOC concentration, DOC optical properties, and biodegradability of DOC. Combined with historical DOC and companion water chemistry data we characterize DOC generation and loss along the following flowpaths: 1) infiltration through the unsaturated zone to the groundwater table, 2) shallow groundwater flow, and 3) long groundwater flowpaths of different origin (lake-derived vs. terrestrial-derived water).

  18. High technology biomass production by Salix clones on a sandy soil in southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Christersson, Lars

    1986-12-01

    An investigation was undertaken to (1) determine maximum biomass production of fast-growing Salix clones on dry or nutrient-deficient land where adequate nutrients and water are supplied by irrigation and fertilization, (2) compare the efficiency of different irrigation-fertilization systems, (3) investigate the possibilities of successively increasing soil fertility by a fertilization routine adjusted to growth and uptake, (4) monitor the leakage of different nutrients to groundwater, and (5) make economic calculations with respect to the different irrigation-fertilization systems. The experimental area, which was abandoned farmland, was planted in 1982 with clones of Salix. The soil was very sandy with small amounts of organic matter. The groundwater table was 2-3 m deep. The pH of the soil at 0-15 cm depth was initially 4.8-5.5. Three irrigation-fertilization systems were used: (1) drip, (2) sprinklers, and (3) subsurface irrigation. During summer 1984, the area was irrigated and fertilized once a week for 12 weeks with a complete liquid fertilizer equivalent to 10 kg N per week. Production was about 1 kg m(-2) and 3 kg m(-2) for 1- and 2-year-old shoots, respectively. There were no significant differences between the irrigation-fertilization systems or between the species and clones, for either 1- or 2-year-old shoots.

  19. Controlled release fertilizer increased phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Cartmill, Andrew D; Cartmill, Donita L; Alarcón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the application of controlled release fertilizer [(CRF) 0, 4,6, or 8 kg m(-3)] on Lolium multiflorum Lam. survival and potential biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (0, 3000, 6000, or 15000 mg kg(-1)) in sandy soil. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, and proline content as well as rhizosphere microbial population (culturable heterotrophic fungal and bacterial populations) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-degradation were determined. Petroleum induced-toxicity resulted in reduced plant growth, photosynthesis, and nutrient status. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll content were enhanced by the application of CRF in contaminated soil. Proline content showed limited use as a physiological indicator of petroleum induced-stress in plants. Bacterial and filamentous fungi populations were stimulated by the petroleum concentrations. Bacterial populations were stimulated by CRF application. At low petroleum contamination, CRF did not enhance TPH-degradation. However, petroleum degradation in the rhizosphere was enhanced by the application of medium rates of CRF, especially when plants were exposed to intermediate and high petroleum contamination. Application of CRF allowed plants to overcome the growth impairment induced by the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils.

  20. Effects of Nitramine Explosive CL-20 on the Soil Microinvertebrate Community in a Sandy Loam Soil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    expand upon the ecotoxicological significance of data from standardized single-species toxicity tests. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Soil invertebrate community...14 3. Toxicity Benchmarks for Soil Invertebrates Established in Standardized Single-Species Toxicity Tests with...overestimate the potential exposure effects on soil invertebrates in the field. For example, in a 7 day microcosm assay, total microarthropod

  1. Stability Behavior and Thermodynamic States of Iron and Manganese in Sandy Soil Aquifer, Manukan Island, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chin Yik; Abdullah, Mohd. Harun; Musta, Baba; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2011-03-15

    A total of 20 soil samples were collected from 10 boreholes constructed in the low lying area, which included ancillary samples taken from the high elevation area. Redox processes were investigated in the soil as well as groundwater in the shallow groundwater aquifer of Manukan Island, Sabah, Malaysia. Groundwater samples (n = 10) from each boreholes were also collected in the low lying area to understand the concentrations and behaviors of Fe and Mn in the dissolved state. This study strives to obtain a general understanding of the stability behaviors on Fe and Mn at the upper unsaturated and the lower-saturated soil horizons in the low lying area of Manukan Island as these elements usually play a major role in the redox chemistry of the shallow groundwater. Thermodynamic calculations using PHREEQC showed that the groundwater samples in the study area are oversaturated with respect to goethite, hematite, Fe(OH){sub 3} and undersaturated with respect to manganite and pyrochroite. Low concentrations of Fe and Mn in the groundwater might be probably due to the lack of minerals of iron and manganese oxides, which exist in the sandy aquifer. In fact, high organic matters that present in the unsaturated horizon are believed to be responsible for the high Mn content in the soil. It was observed that the soil samples collected from high elevation area (BK) comprises considerable amount of Fe in both unsaturated (6675.87 mg/kg) and saturated horizons (31440.49 mg/kg) compared to the low Fe content in the low lying area. Based on the stability diagram, the groundwater composition lies within the stability field for Mn{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 2+} under suboxic condition and very close to the FeS/Fe{sup 2+} stability boundary. This study also shows that both pH and Eh values comprise a strong negative value thus suggesting that the redox potential is inversely dependent on the changes of pH.

  2. [Effects of long-term fertilization on pH buffer system of sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Dong; Qi, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Chun; Zhang, Ai-Jun; Ning, Yun-Wang; Xu, Xian-Ju; Zhang, Hui; Ma, Hong-Bo

    2012-04-01

    Soil samples (0-80 cm) were collected from a 30-year fertilization experimental site in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province of East China to study the variations of the pH, calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents, and pH buffer capacity of sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil under different fertilization treatments. Thirty-year continuous application of different fertilizers accelerated the acidification of topsoil (0-20 cm), with the soil pH decreased by 0.41-0.70. Under different fertilization, the soil pH buffer capacity (pHBC) varied from 15.82 to 21.96 cmol x kg(-1). As compared with no fertilization, single N fertilization decreased the pHBC significantly, but N fertilization combined with organic fertilization could significantly increase the pHBC. The soil pHBC had significant positive correlations with soil calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents, but less correlation with soil organic matter content and soil cation exchange capacity, suggesting that after a long-term fertilization, the sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil was still of an elementary calcium carbonate buffer system, and soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity contributed little to the buffer system. The soil calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents were greater in 0-40 cm than in 40-80 cm soil layer. Comparing with soil calcium carbonate, soil active calcium carbonate was more sensitive to reflect the changes of soil physical and chemical properties, suggesting that the calcium carbonate buffer system could be further classified as soil active calcium carbonate buffer system.

  3. Quasi 3D modelling of water flow in the sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Meisam; Seuntjens, Piet; Joris, Ingeborg; Boënne, Wesley; De Pue, Jan; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring and modeling tools may improve irrigation strategies in precision agriculture. Spatial interpolation is required for analyzing the effects of soil hydraulic parameters, soil layer thickness and groundwater level on irrigation management using hydrological models at field scale. We used non-invasive soil sensor, a crop growth (LINGRA-N) and a soil hydrological model (Hydrus-1D) to predict soil-water content fluctuations and crop yield in a heterogeneous sandy grassland soil under supplementary irrigation. In the first step, the sensitivity of the soil hydrological model to hydraulic parameters, water stress, crop yield and lower boundary conditions was assessed after integrating models at one soil column. Free drainage and incremental constant head conditions were implemented in a lower boundary sensitivity analysis. In the second step, to predict Ks over the whole field, the spatial distributions of Ks and its relationship between co-located soil ECa measured by a DUALEM-21S sensor were investigated. Measured groundwater levels and soil layer thickness were interpolated using ordinary point kriging (OK) to a 0.5 by 0.5 m in aim of digital elevation maps. In the third step, a quasi 3D modelling approach was conducted using interpolated data as input hydraulic parameter, geometric information and boundary conditions in the integrated model. In addition, three different irrigation scenarios namely current, no irrigation and optimized irrigations were carried out to find out the most efficient irrigation regime. In this approach, detailed field scale maps of soil water stress, water storage and crop yield were produced at each specific time interval to evaluate the best and most efficient distribution of water using standard gun sprinkler irrigation. The results show that the effect of the position of the groundwater level was dominant in soil-water content prediction and associated water stress. A time-dependent sensitivity analysis of the hydraulic

  4. The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil

    PubMed Central

    El-Hadad, M.E.; Mustafa, M.I.; Selim, Sh.M.; El-Tayeb, T.S.; Mahgoob, A.E.A.; Abdel Aziz, Norhan H.

    2011-01-01

    In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains), the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) Bacillus megaterium (three strains) and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) B. circulans (three strains) were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm), number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g) / plant and root dry weight (g) / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium) and for the biological control of M. incognita. PMID:24031611

  5. Desorption kinetics of benzene in a sandy soil in the presence of powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Choi, J-W; Kim, S-B; Kim, D-J

    2007-02-01

    Desorption kinetics of benzene was investigated with a modified biphasic desorption model in a sandy soil with five different powdered activated carbon (PAC) contents (0, 1, 2, 5, 10% w/w) as sorbents. Sorption experiments followed by series dilution desorption were conducted for each sorbent. Desorption of benzene was successively performed at two stages using deionized water and hexane. Modeling was performed on both desorption isotherm and desorption rate for water-induced desorption to elucidate the presence of sorption-desorption hysteresis and biphasic desorption and if present to quantify the desorption-resistant fraction (q (irr)) and labile fraction (F) of desorption site responsible for rapid process. Desorption isotherms revealed that sorption-desorption exhibited a severe hysteresis with a significant fraction of benzene being irreversibly adsorbed onto both pure sand and PAC, and that desorption-resistant fraction (q (irr)) increased with PAC content. Desorption kinetic modeling showed that desorption of benzene was biphasic with much higher (4-40 times) rate constant for rapid process (k (1)) than that for slow process (k (2)), and that the difference in the rate constant increased with PAC content. The labile fraction (F) of desorption site showed a decreasing tendency with PAC. The experimental results would provide valuable information on remediation methods for soils and groundwater contaminated with BTEX.

  6. Hydraulic conductivity of a sandy soil at low water content after compaction by various methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, John R.; Akstin, Katherine C.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the degree to which compaction of a sandy soil influences its unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K, samples of Oakley sand (now in the Delhi series; mixed, thermic, Typic Xeropsamments) were packed to various densities and K was measured by the steady-state centrifuge method. The air-dry, machine packing was followed by centrifugal compression with the soil wet to about one-third saturation. Variations in (i) the impact frequency and (ii) the impact force during packing, and (iii) the amount of centrifugal force applied after packing, produced a range of porosity from 0.333 to 0.380. With volumetric water content θ between 0.06 and 0.12, K values were between 7 × 10−11 and 2 × 10−8 m/s. Comparisons of K at a single θ value for samples differing in porosity by about 3% showed as much as fivefold variation for samples prepared by different packing procedures, while there generally was negligible variation (within experimental error of 8%) where the porosity difference resulted from a difference in centrifugal force. Analysis involving capillary-theory models suggests that the differences in K can be related to differences in pore-space geometry inferred from water retention curves measured for the various samples.

  7. Short-term biodegradation of petroleum in planted and unplanted sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Cartmill, Andrew D; Cartmill, Donita L; Alarcón, Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of microbial populations and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in Lam. 'Passerel Plus' planted and unplanted contaminated sandy soil. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, rhizosphere microbial population, and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation were determined. Petroleum contamination resulted in reduced plant growth, photosynthesis, and macro- and micronutrient content. Filamentous fungi populations were stimulated by the petroleum concentrations, especially when plants were exposed to intermediate to high petroleum contamination. In general, unplanted containers had lower bacterial colony forming units compared with planted containers. Thus, bacterial populations were stimulated by the rhizosphere effect of when compared with fungal populations. Degradation of TPH was greater in the lower petroleum concentration when compared with the higher petroleum concentrations in the soil and was not affected by plant presence. Nevertheless, the TPH biodegradation occurred at greater rates: 48 mg kg d for concentration of 3000 mg kg and 66 and 165 mg kg d for concentrations of 6000 and 15,000 mg kg, respectively, which concurs with the high fungal and bacterial populations with increasing petroleum concentrations regardless of plant presence.

  8. Features of abandoned cemetery soils on sandy substrates in Northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majgier, L.; Rahmonov, O.; Bednarek, R.

    2014-06-01

    Morphological and chemical features of cemetery soils (Necrosols and undisturbed cemetery soils) have been studied with Northern Poland as an example. Special attention has been given to the contents of the total phosphorus (as an indicator of the anthropogenic impact); the organic carbon; the total nitrogen; the calcium carbonate; and the changes in the acidity and total Ca, Na, K, Al, Fe, Mg, Zn, Cd, and Pb. The soil profiles have been compared to the control soil (a Brunic Arenosol according to the WRB classification) occurring beyond the cemetery area. The changes in the studied burial soils are mainly manifested in their morphology: the disturbance of the primary genetic horizons and the presence of mixed soil horizons and artifacts (bones, coffin remains, limestone-concrete debris of the cemetery infrastructure). Such changes in the chemical properties as an increase in the contents of the organic carbon and total nitrogen and the soil reaction were observed. Our studies have shown that the highest Ptotal concentration is observed in the A horizons of the anthropogenic burial horizons and undisturbed cemetery soils. The content of phosphorus in the Necrosols is significantly higher than that in the control soil profile, as is observed for the Cgrb layers of burial Necrosols. The morphology and chemistry of the undisturbed cemetery soils are very similar to those of the control profile.

  9. Field performance of nine soil water content sensors on a sandy loam soil in new brunswick, maritime region, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chow, Lien; Xing, Zisheng; Rees, Herb W; Meng, Fanrui; Monteith, John; Stevens, Lionel

    2009-01-01

    An in situ field test on nine commonly-used soil water sensors was carried out in a sandy loam soil located in the Potato Research Center, Fredericton, NB (Canada) using the gravimetric method as a reference. The results showed that among the tested sensors, regardless of installation depths and soil water regimes, CS615, Trase, and Troxler performed the best with the factory calibrations, with a relative root mean square error (RRMSE) of 15.78, 16.93, and 17.65%, and a r(2) of 0.75, 0.77, and 0.65, respectively. TRIME, Moisture Point (MP917), and Gopher performed slightly worse with the factory calibrations, with a RRMSE of 45.76, 26.57, and 20.41%, and a r(2) of 0.65, 0.72, and 0.78, respectively, while the Gypsum, WaterMark, and Netafim showed a frequent need for calibration in the application in this region.

  10. Zinc oxide nanoparticles affect carbon and nitrogen mineralization of Phoenix dactylifera leaf litter in a sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Ismail, Iqbal M I; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs; 1000mgkg(-1) soil) on soil microbes and their associated soil functions such as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) leaf litter (5gkg(-1) soil) carbon and nitrogen mineralization in mesocosms containing sandy soil. Nanoparticles application in litter-amended soil significantly decreased the cultivable heterotrophic bacterial and fungal colony forming units (cfu) compared to only litter-amended soil. The decrease in cfu could be related to lower microbial biomass carbon in nanoparticles-litter amended soil. Likewise, ZnO NPs also reduced CO2 emission by 10% in aforementioned treatment but this was higher than control (soil only). Labile Zn was only detected in the microbial biomass of nanoparticles-litter applied soil indicating that microorganisms consumed this element from freely available nutrients in the soil. In this treatment, dissolved organic carbon and mineral nitrogen were 25 and 34% lower respectively compared to litter-amended soil. Such toxic effects of nanoparticles on litter decomposition resulted in 130 and 122% lower carbon and nitrogen mineralization efficiency respectively. Hence, our results entail that ZnO NPs are toxic to soil microbes and affect their function i.e., carbon and nitrogen mineralization of applied litter thus confirming their toxicity to microbial associated soil functions.

  11. Enhanced retention of linuron, alachlor and metalaxyl in sandy soil columns intercalated with wood barriers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cruz, M S; Ordax, J M; Arienzo, M; Sánchez-Martín, M J

    2011-03-01

    A study has been made of the effect a reactive barrier made of pine (softwood) or oak (hardwood) wood intercalated in a sandy soil column has on the retention of linuron, alachlor and metalaxyl (pesticides with contrasting physicochemical characteristics). The leaching of pesticides has been carried out under a saturated flow regime and breakthrough curves (BTCs) have been obtained at flow rates of 1 m Lmin(-1) (all pesticides) and 3 m Lmin(-1) (linuron). The cumulative curves in the unmodified soil indicate a leaching of pesticides >80% of the total amount of compound added. After barrier intercalation, linuron leaching decreases significantly and a modification of the leaching kinetics of alachlor and metalaxyl has been observed. The theoretical R factors increased ∼2.6-3.3, 1.2-1.6-fold, and 1.4-1.7-fold and the concentration of the maximum peak decreased ∼6-12-fold, 2-4-fold and 1.2-2-fold for linuron, alachlor and metalaxyl, respectively. When considering the three pesticides, significant correlations have been found between the theoretical retardation factor (R) and the pore volume corresponding to the maximum peaks of the BTCs (r=0.77; p<0.05) or the total volume leached (r=-0.78; p<0.05). The results reveal the efficacy of reactive wood barriers to decrease the leaching of pesticides from point sources of pollution depends on the type of wood, the hydrophobicity of the pesticide and the adopted water flow rate. Pine was more effective than oak in decreasing the leaching of hydrophobic pesticide linuron or in decreasing the maximum peak concentration of the less hydrophobic pesticides in soils. Efficacy of these wood barriers was limited for the least hydrophobic pesticide metalaxyl.

  12. Spatial and temporal variation of nitrogen exported by runoff from sandy agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Kui; Wang, Li-Ping; He, Zhen-Li

    2007-01-01

    The eutrophication problem has drawn attention to nutrient leaching from agricultural soils, and an understanding of spatial and temporal variability is needed to develop decision-making tools. Thus, eleven sites were selected to monitor, over a two-year period, spatial and temporal variation of runoff discharge and various forms of N in surface runoff in sandy agricultural soils. Factors influencing the variation of runoff discharge and various forms of N in surface runoff were analyzed. Variation of annual rainfall was small among 11 sites, especially between 2001 and 2002. However, variation of annual discharge was significant among the sites. The results suggest that rainfall patterns and land use had significant effect on discharge. The concentrations of total N, total kjeldahl N (TKN), organic matter-associated N (OM-N), NO3(-)-N, and NH4(+)-N in the runoff ranged widely from 0.25 to 54.1, 0.15 to 20.3, 0.00 to 14.6, 0.00 to 45.3, and 0.00 to 19.7 mg/L, respectively. Spatial and temporal variations in the N concentration and runoff discharge were noted among the different sites. Annual loads of N in the runoff varied widely among monitoring sites and depend mainly on runoff discharge. High loads of total N, OM-N, NO3(-)-N, and NH4(+)-N in the runoff either in citrus groves or on vegetable farms occurred from June to October for each year, which coincided with the rainy season in the region. This study found that N in surface runoff was related to rainfall intensity, soil N level, and fertilizer use.

  13. Effect of biochar and compost application on quantity, quality and stability of organic carbon in sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holes, Annamaria; Szegi, Tamas; Fuchs, Marta; Micheli, Erika; Aleksza, Laszlo

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays the amount of waste is increasing as a consequence of civilization development. Significant proportion of municipal waste is biodegradable. For the treatment of these wastes composting and pyrolysis can be one solution. Many studies were published on the effects of composts in soils, but on combined application of biochars and composts only a limited number of articles are available. Total carbon content, water soluble organic carbon content and organic matter quality have decisive role in the utilization of soils. In our study the effects of combined application of biochars and compost on organic carbon quality, quantity and stability were measured in sandy soil. The sandy soil was mixed with different proportions (1w/w%, 2,5w/w%, 5w/w%, 10w/w%) of biochars. Two types of biochars produced by pyrolization were used: plant origin biochar (POB) and animal origin biochar (AOB). 20w/w% urban green compost was mixed into each sample in addition to biochars. After the 30 days of wet incubation soil organic carbon (SOC) content was determined by Walkley-Black method, while for the SOC quality measurements E4/E6 method was used. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was extracted from the soil samples by cold water, and determined by titrimetric method. The future purpose of our study is to find the optimal compost-biochar treatment in order to improve soil fertility and maximize crop yield.

  14. Toxicity of Nitro-Heterocyclic and Nitroaromatic Energetic Materials to Terrestrial Plants in a Natural Sandy Loam Soil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    inclusion of growth component among the measurement endpoints. Tests were conducted in Sassafras sandy loam soil, which supports relatively high...including EC20 values for growth that can be used for Eco-SSL development. These study results will be provided to the Eco-SSL workgroup for review...Freshly Amended TNB (Acetonitrile Extraction) on Alfalfa Shoot Growth (Fresh [A] and Dry [B] Mass

  15. Experimental investigation on seismic behavior of single piles in sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raongjant, Werasak; Meng, Jing

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a quasi-static test program featuring lateral cyclic loading on single piles in sandy soil. The tests were conducted on 18 aluminum model piles with different cross sections and lateral load eccentricity ratios, e/d, ( e is the lateral load eccentricity and d is the diameter of pile) of 0, 4 and 8, embedded in sand with a relative density of 30% and 70%. The experimental results include lateral load-displacement hysteresis loops, skeleton curves and energy dissipation curves. Lateral capacity, ductility and energy dissipation capacity of single piles under seismic load were evaluated in detail. The lateral capacities and the energy dissipation capacity of piles in dense sand were much higher than in loose sand. When embedded in loose sand, the maximum lateral load and the maximum lateral displacement of piles increased as e/d increased. On the contrary, when embedded in dense sand, the maximum lateral load of piles decreased as e/d increased. Piles with a higher load eccentricity ratio experienced higher energy dissipation capacity than piles with e/d of 0 in both dense and loose sand. At a given level of displacement, piles with circular cross sections provided the best energy dissipation capacity in both loose and dense sand.

  16. Irrigation and fertigation scheduling under drip irrigation for maize crop in sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; El-Baroudy, Ahmed A.; Taha, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments was conducted to determine the best irrigation scheduling and the proper period for injecting fertilizers through drip irrigation water in a sandy soil to optimize maize yield and water productivity. Four irrigation levels (0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2) of the crop evapotranspiration and two fertigation periods (applying the recommended fertilizer dose in 60 and 80% of the irrigation time) were applied in a split-plot design, in addition to a control treatment which represented conventional irrigation and fertilization of maize in the studied area. The results showed that increasing the irrigation water amount and the fertilizer application period increased vegetative growth and yield. The highest grain yield and the lowest one were obtained under the treatment at 1.2 and of 0.6 crop evapotranspiration, respectively. The treatment at 0.8 crop evapotranspiration with fertilizer application in 80% of the irrigation time gave the highest water productivity (1.631 kg m-3) and saved 27% of the irrigation water compared to the control treatment. Therefore, this treatment is recommended to irrigate maize crops because of the water scarcity conditions of the studied area.

  17. Phosphate reactivity in long-term poultry litter-amended southern Delaware sandy soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arai, Y.; Livi, K.J.T.; Sparks, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    Eutrophication caused by dissolved P from poultry litter (PL)-amended agricultural soils has been a serious environmental concern in the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia Peninsula (Delmarva), USA. To evaluate state and federal nutrient management strategies for reducing the environmental impact of soluble P from long-term PL-amended Delaware (DE) soils, we investigated (i) inorganic P speciation; (ii) P adsorption capacity; and (iii) the extent of P desorption. Although the electron microprobe (EMP) analyses showed a strong correlation between P and Al/Fe, crystalline Al/Fe-P precipitates were not detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Instead, the inorganic P fractionation analyses showed high levels of oxalate extractable P, Al, and Fe fractions (615-858, 1215-1478, and 337-752 mg kg-1, respectively), which were susceptible to slow release during the long-term (30-d) P desorption experiments at a moderately acidic soil pHwater. The labile P in the short-term (24-h) desorption studies was significantly associated with oxalate and F extractable Fe and Al, respectively. This was evident in an 80% reduction maximum in total desorbable P from NH4 oxalate/F pretreated soils. In the adsorption experiments, P was strongly retained in soils at near targeted pH of lime (???6.0), but P adsorption gradually decreased with decreasing pH near the soil pHwater (???5.0). The overall findings suggest that P losses from the can be suppressed by an increase in the P retention capacity of soils via (i) an increase in the number of lime applications to maintain soil pHwater at near targeted pH values, and/or (ii) alum/iron sulfate amendments to provide additional Al- and Fe-based adsorbents. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  18. No-tillage lessens soil CO2 emissions the most under arid and sandy soil conditions: results from a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, K.; Chivenge, P.; Ciais, P.; Chaplot, V.

    2015-09-01

    The management of agroecosystems plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle with soil tillage leading to known organic carbon redistributions within soils and changes in soil CO2 emissions. Yet, discrepancies exist on the impact of tillage on soil CO2 emissions and on the main soil and environmental controls. A meta-analysis was conducted using 46 peer-reviewed publications totaling 174 paired observations comparing CO2 emissions over entire seasons or years from tilled and untilled soils across different climates, crop types and soil conditions with the objective of quantifying tillage impact on CO2 emissions and assessing the main controls. On average, tilled soils emitted 21 % more CO2 than untilled soils, which corresponded to a significant difference at P < 0.05. The difference increased to 29 % in sandy soils from arid climates with low soil organic carbon content (SOCC < 1 %) and low soil moisture, but tillage had no impact on CO2 fluxes in clayey soils with high background SOCC (> 3 %). Finally, nitrogen fertilization and crop residue management had little effect on the CO2 responses of soils to no-tillage. These results suggest no-tillage is an effective mitigation measure of carbon dioxide losses from dry land soils. They emphasize the importance of including information on soil factors such as texture, aggregate stability and organic carbon content in global models of the carbon cycle.

  19. No-tillage lessens soil CO2 emissions the most under arid and sandy soil conditions: results from a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Khatab; Chivenge, Pauline; Ciais, Philippe; Chaplot, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    The management of agroecosystems plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle with soil tillage leading to known organic carbon redistributions within soils and changes in soil CO2 emissions. Yet, discrepancies exist on the impact of tillage on soil CO2 emissions and on the main soil and environmental controls. A meta-analysis was conducted using 46 peer-reviewed publications totaling 174 paired observations comparing CO2 emissions over entire seasons or years from tilled and untilled soils across different climates, crop types and soil conditions with the objective of quantifying tillage impact on CO2 emissions and assessing the main controls. On average, tilled soils emitted 21 % more CO2 than untilled soils, which corresponded to a significant difference at P<0.05. The difference increased to 29 % in sandy soils from arid climates with low soil organic carbon content (SOCC < 1 %) and low soil moisture, but tillage had no impact on CO2 fluxes in clayey soils with high background SOCC (> 3 %). Finally, nitrogen fertilization and crop residue management had little effect on the CO2 responses of soils to no-tillage. These results suggest no-tillage is an effective mitigation measure of carbon dioxide losses from dry land soils. They emphasize the importance of including information on soil factors such as texture, aggregate stability and organic carbon content in global models of the carbon cycle.

  20. Response of N2O emissions to biochar amendment in a cultivated sandy loam soil during freeze-thaw cycles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Wang, Quan; Qi, Zhiming; Han, Jiangang; Li, Lanhai

    2016-10-17

    In the last decade, an increasing number of studies have reported that soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions can be reduced by adding biochar. However, the effect of biochar amendment on soil N2O emissions during freeze-thaw cycle (FTC) is still unknown. In this laboratory study, biochar (0%, 2% and 4%, w/w) was added into a cultivated sandy loam soil and then treated with 15 times of FTC (each FTC consisted of freeze at -5/-10 °C for 24 h and thaw at 5/10 °C for 24 h), to test whether biochar can mitigate soil N2O emissions during FTC, and estimate the relationships between N2O emissions and soil inorganic nitrogen contents/microbial biomass content/enzyme activities. The results showed that biochar amendment suppressed soil N2O emissions by 19.9-69.9% as compared to soils without biochar amendment during FTC. However, N2O emissions were only significantly correlated to soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) contents, which decreased after biochar amendment, indicating that the decreased soil nitrification by adding biochar played an important role in mitigating N2O emissions during FTC. Further studies are needed to estimate the effectiveness of biochar amendment on reducing freeze-thaw induced N2O emissions from different soils under field conditions.

  1. Response of N2O emissions to biochar amendment in a cultivated sandy loam soil during freeze-thaw cycles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang; Wang, Quan; Qi, Zhiming; Han, Jiangang; Li, Lanhai

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, an increasing number of studies have reported that soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions can be reduced by adding biochar. However, the effect of biochar amendment on soil N2O emissions during freeze-thaw cycle (FTC) is still unknown. In this laboratory study, biochar (0%, 2% and 4%, w/w) was added into a cultivated sandy loam soil and then treated with 15 times of FTC (each FTC consisted of freeze at −5/−10 °C for 24 h and thaw at 5/10 °C for 24 h), to test whether biochar can mitigate soil N2O emissions during FTC, and estimate the relationships between N2O emissions and soil inorganic nitrogen contents/microbial biomass content/enzyme activities. The results showed that biochar amendment suppressed soil N2O emissions by 19.9–69.9% as compared to soils without biochar amendment during FTC. However, N2O emissions were only significantly correlated to soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3−-N) contents, which decreased after biochar amendment, indicating that the decreased soil nitrification by adding biochar played an important role in mitigating N2O emissions during FTC. Further studies are needed to estimate the effectiveness of biochar amendment on reducing freeze-thaw induced N2O emissions from different soils under field conditions. PMID:27748462

  2. [Changes of species diversity and productivity in relation to soil properties in sandy grassland in Horqin Sand Land].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xiao-an; Zhao, Xue-yong; Zhao, Ha-lin; Li, Yu-qiang; Guo, Yi-rui; Zhao, Yu-ping

    2007-05-01

    This study provided the analysis of changes of species diversity and productivity in relation to soil properties in six typical habitats (wet meadow, dry grassland, fixed dune, semi-fixed dune, semi- shifted dune, and shifted dune) in Horqin Sand Land. The changes of vegetation and soil properties, following the degraded process of sandy grassland, show the following trends: (1) productivity decreases gradually, (2) species diversity changes in a pattern of near-formal distribution, firstly increases from wet meadow, dry grassland, to fixed dune (at the peak), and then decreases from semi-fixed dune, semi-shifted dune, to shifted dune, while (3) contents of soil fine sand, silt, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and electrical conductivity, decrease consistently. Ordination technique of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to examine the relationship between the vegetation pattern and soil parameters. Results show that soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available potassium, soil water content, pH and electrical conductivity are main factors of vegetation pattern in this area. These factors are closely related to the first two canonical axes, accounting for 40% of the species-soil properties relationship, and soil nutrient is the key factor for determining the distributions of the major vegetation type and pattern. Furthermore, the correlation between species diversity or ecological dominance of the communities and gradient of soil factors is significant, shows that changes of species diversity and productivity are affected by soil nutrients, soil water content, pH and electrical conductivity. The regression model of productivity and soil property reveals that soil nutrient is the key factor to community productivity, accounting for 86.73% of the relationship between productivity-soil properties.

  3. Acid-activated biochar increased sulfamethazine retention in soils.

    PubMed

    Vithanage, Meththika; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Zhang, Ming; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-02-01

    Sulfamethazine (SMZ) is an ionizable and highly mobile antibiotic which is frequently found in soil and water environments. We investigated the sorption of SMZ onto soils amended with biochars (BCs) at varying pH and contact time. Invasive plants were pyrolyzed at 700 °C and were further activated with 30 % sulfuric (SBBC) and oxalic (OBBC) acids. The sorption rate of SMZ onto SBBC and OBBC was pronouncedly pH dependent and was decreased significantly when the values of soil pH increased from 3 to 5. Modeled effective sorption coefficients (K D,eff) values indicated excellent sorption on SBBC-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils for 229 and 183 L/kg, respectively. On the other hand, the low sorption values were determined for OBBC- and BBC700-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Kinetic modeling demonstrated that the pseudo second order model was the best followed by intra-particle diffusion and the Elovich model, indicating that multiple processes govern SMZ sorption. These findings were also supported by sorption edge experiments based on BC characteristics. Chemisorption onto protonated and ligand containing functional groups of the BC surface, and diffusion in macro-, meso-, and micro-pores of the acid-activated BCs are the proposed mechanisms of SMZ retention in soils. Calculated and experimental q e (amount adsorbed per kg of the adsorbent at equilibrium) values were well fitted to the pseudo second order model, and the predicted maximum equilibrium concentration of SBBC for loamy sand soils was 182 mg/kg. Overall, SBBC represents a suitable soil amendment because of its high sorption rate of SMZ in soils.

  4. Factors driving the carbon mineralization priming effect in a sandy loam soil amended with different types of biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cely, P.; Tarquis, A. M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of biochar on the soil carbon mineralization priming effect depends on the characteristics of the raw materials, production method and pyrolysis conditions. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the impact of three different types of biochar on physicochemical properties and CO2 emissions of a sandy loam soil. For this purpose, soil was amended with three different biochars (BI, BII and BIII) at a rate of 8 wt% and soil CO2 emissions were measured for 45 days. BI is produced from a mixed wood sieving from wood chip production, BII from a mixture of paper sludge and wheat husks and BIII from sewage sludge. Cumulative CO2 emissions of biochars, soil and amended soil were well fit to a simple first-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.97. Results show a negative priming effect in the soil after addition of BI and a positive priming effect in the case of soil amended with BII and BIII. These results can be related to different biochar properties such as carbon content, carbon aromaticity, volatile matter, fixed carbon, easily oxidized organic carbon or metal and phenolic substance content in addition to surface biochar properties. Three biochars increased the values of soil field capacity and wilting point, while effects over pH and cation exchange capacity were not observed.

  5. Using Biochar composts for improving sandy vineyard soils while reducing the risk of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammann, Claudia; Mengel, Jonathan; Mohr, Julia; Muskat, Stefan; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Löhnertz, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, biochar has increasingly been discussed as an option for sustainable environmentalmanagement, combining C sequestration with the aim of soil fertility improvement. Biochar has shownpositive effects in viticulture before (Genesio et al. 2015) which were largely attributed to improved water supply to the plants. However, in fertile temperate soils, the use of pure, untreated biochar does not guarantee economic benefits on the farm level (Ruysschaert et al., 2016). Hence, recent approaches started introducing biochar in management of nutrient-rich agricultural waste, e.g. in compost production (Kammann et al. 2015). Compost is frequently used in German vineyards for humus buildup and as a slow-release organic fertilizer. This, and increasingly mild, precipitation-rich winters, promoting mineralization, increase the risk of unwanted nitrate leaching losses into surface and ground waters during winter. To investigate if biochar pure, or biochar-compost mixtures and -products may have the potential to reduce nitrate leaching, we set up the following experiment: Either 30 or 60 t ha-1 of the following additives were mixed into the top 30 cm of sandy soil in large (120 L) containers, and planted with oneRiesling grapevine (Clone 198-30 GM) per container: Control (no addition), pure woody biochar, pure compost, biochar-compost (produced from the same organic feedstock than the compost, with 20 vol. - % of a woody biochar added), and pure compost plus pure biochar (same mixing ratio as in the former product). Once monthly, containers were exposed to simulated heavy rainfall that caused drainage. Leachates were collected from an outlet at the bottom of the containers, and analyzed for nutrients. The nutrient-rich additives containing compost all improved grape biomass and yield, most markedly pure compost and biochar-compost; same amendments were not significantly different. However,while the addition of the lower amount (30 t ha-1) of compost reduced nitrate

  6. Effects of fertilizer application to sweet corn (Zea mays.) grown on sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Ferenc; Jakab, Samuel; Losak, Tomas; Slezak, Katalin

    2009-11-01

    In our experiment we tried to find out what kind of eventual changes in the environment and in plant chemical composition occurred in response to different fertilizer treatments applied to sweet corn (Zea mays convar. saccharata) grown on sandy soil with low humus content. The ploughed layer contained <1% CaCO3 and around 1% humus. The soil was very well supplied with P, well supplied with K, Mg, Mn and Cu, and weakly supplied with N and Ca. The treatments were planned in accordance with the recommendations, with a planned unhusked ear yield of 16 tons per hectare, of the new environmental friendly advisory system recently elaborated for field vegetable crops in Hungary. The treatments applied included: G1 (blank control)(N0P0K0), G2(N222.5P22.2K143), G3(N445 P22.5 K143), G4(N222.5 P22.5K143), G5(N222.5P22.5 K286), G6(N222.5 P22.5 K143) + Mg(1.52). According to our findings, of the composition parameters of the grains of the treatments with no fertilizer application, the invert and reducing sugar contents (4.42%, respectively 2.59% relative to fresh weight(-1)) in grains were the highest among the treatments. The same conclusion was drawn on the K 120.2, Mg 13.3, Fe 0.24, Cu 0.66 mg 100 g(-1) grain dry weight levels among minerals. In the case of the basic treatment (G2) recommended by the advisory system we obtained favourable results for the measured parameters, including yields. Invert and reducing sugar contents were (3.26% respectively 1.97% relative to fresh weight(-1)), and mineral contents K 101.9; Mg 11.8; Fe 0.21; Cu 0.56 mg 100 g(-1) dry weight. In the grains, no translocation of toxic elements was observed in response to the direct or indirect effect of the treatments.

  7. Effects of sandy desertified land rehabilitation on soil carbon sequestration and aggregation in an arid region in China.

    PubMed

    Su, Yong Zhong; Wang, Xue Fen; Yang, Rong; Lee, Jaehoon

    2010-11-01

    The rehabilitation of sandy desertified land in semi-arid and arid regions has a great potential to increase carbon sequestration and improve soil quality. Our objective was to investigate the changes in the soil carbon pool and soil properties of surface soil (0-15 cm) under different types of rehabilitation management. Our study was done in the short-term (7 years) and long-term (32 years) desertification control sites in a marginal oasis of northwest China. The different management treatments were: (1) untreated shifting sand land as control; (2) sand-fixing shrubs with straw checkerboards; (3) poplar (Populus gansuensis) shelter forest; and (4) irrigated cropland after leveling sand dune. The results showed that the rehabilitation of severe sandy desertified land resulted in significant increases in soil organic C (SOC), inorganic C, and total N concentrations, as well as enhanced soil aggregation. Over a 7-year period of revegetation and cultivation, SOC concentration in the recovered shrub land, forest land and irrigated cropland increased by 4.1, 14.6 and 11.9 times compared to the control site (shifting sand land), and increased by 11.2, 17.0 and 23.0 times over the 32-year recovery period. Total N, labile C (KMnO(4)-oxidation C), C management index (CMI) and inorganic C (CaCO(3)-C) showed a similar increasing trend as SOC. The increased soil C and N was positively related to the accumulation of fine particle fractions. The accumulation of silt and clay, soil C and CaCO(3) enhanced the formation of aggregates, which was beneficial to mitigate wind erosion. The percentage of >0.25 mm dry aggregates increased from 18.0% in the control site to 20.0-87.2% in the recovery sites, and the mean weight diameter (MWD) of water-stable aggregates significantly increased, with a range of 0.09-0.30 mm at the recovery sites. Long-term irrigation and fertilization led to a greater soil C and N accumulation in cropland than in shrub and forest lands. The amount of soil C

  8. A New approach for evaluate a sandy soil infiltration to calculate the permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechergui, M. Mohamed; Latifa Dhaouadi, Ms

    2016-04-01

    10 sites were chosen in the four ha field of Research Regional Center of Oasis Agriculture in Deguache (Tozeur). The soil is homogeneous to the depth of 120 cm; with a sandy texture (60% big sand, 20% small sand 13% silt and 7% clay); with a mean bulk density equal to 1.43g/cm3 and with field capacity and welting point equal respectively to 11.9 and 6 %. The time duration for each infiltration essay lasted between 352 and 554 minutes. The number of observation points for each infiltration curve varies between 31 and 40. The shape of the infiltration curves observed in all sites is in part similar to what observed in literature (high increase with time of cumulative infiltration for a short time and then a linear increase of this parameter to a time varying between 122 to 197 minutes depending on the site) and then something special a slowdown in the cumulative infiltration to the end of the essay. The (F(t) / t 1/2 versus t 1/2) plotted curves showed two distinguished parts: A linear relation to the time varying between 122 and 197 minutes confirming the validity of Philips model and a second part showed a slowdown in the slope to a time varying between 231 and 347 minutes depending on the site and then drop down to the end of the essay. This is may be due to the rearrangement of particles after a long time of infiltration which led to a decrease in hydraulic conductivity. To improve the calculation of the saturated hydraulic conductivity, we choose only the part that is validated by Philips model, the linear part. The number of omitted points in the cumulative infiltration varies between 11 and 22 points. By this method, the saturated hydraulic conductivity varies between 1 and 3.72 m/day with a mean equal to 2.35. However the previous technique used gave a mean value equal to 2.07. The new method is accurate and gives better results of K and sorbtivity.

  9. Microcalorimetric study the toxic effect of hexavalent chromium on microbial activity of Wuhan brown sandy soil: an in vitro approach.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Tian, Lin; Wang, Yanxin; Djah, Atakora; Wang, Fei; Chen, Huilun; Su, Chunli; Zhuang, Rensheng; Zhou, Yong; Choi, Martin M F; Bramanti, Emilia

    2008-02-01

    A multi-channel thermal activity monitor was applied to study soil microbial activity in Wuhan brown sandy soil in the presence of different concentrations of hexavalent chromium (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)). In order to stimulate the soil microbial activity, 5.0mg of glucose and 5.0mg of ammonium sulfate were added to a 1.20-g soil sample under a controlled humidity of 35%. The results show that the poisonous species of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) at an half inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value of 4.27 microg mL(-1) against soil microbe, and an increase of the amount of hexavalent chromium is associated to a decrease in the microbial activity of the soil, probably due to an increase in the toxicity of hexavalent chromium, affecting strongly the life in this soil microbial environment. Our work also suggests that microcalorimetry is a fast, simple and more sensitive method that can be easily performed to study the toxicity of different species of heavy metals on microorganism compared to other biological methods.

  10. Biochar increases plant-available water in a sandy loam soil under an aerobic rice crop system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo Carvalho, M. T.; de Holanda Nunes Maia, A.; Madari, B. E.; Bastiaans, L.; van Oort, P. A. J.; Heinemann, A. B.; Soler da Silva, M. A.; Petter, F. A.; Marimon, B. H., Jr.; Meinke, H.

    2014-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of biochar rate (0, 8, 16 and 32 Mg ha-1) on the water retention capacity (WRC) of a sandy loam Dystric Plinthosol. The applied biochar was a by-product of slow pyrolysis (∼450 °C) of eucalyptus wood, milled to pass through a 2000 μm sieve that resulted in a material with an intrinsic porosity ≤10 μm and a specific surface area of ∼3.2 m2 g-1. The biochar was incorporated into the top 15 cm of the soil under an aerobic rice system. Our study focused on both the effects on WRC and rice yields 2 and 3 years after its application. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from 16 plots in two soil layers (5-10 and 15-20 cm). Soil water retention curves were modelled using a nonlinear mixed model which appropriately accounts for uncertainties inherent of spatial variability and repeated measurements taken within a specific soil sample. We found an increase in plant-available water in the upper soil layer proportional to the rate of biochar, with about 0.8% for each Mg ha-1 biochar amendment 2 and 3 years after its application. The impact of biochar on soil WRC was most likely related to an effect in overall porosity of the sandy loam soil, which was evident from an increase in saturated soil moisture and macro porosity with 0.5 and 1.6% for each Mg ha-1 of biochar applied, respectively. The increment in soil WRC did not translate into an increase in rice yield, essentially because in both seasons the amount of rainfall during the critical period for rice production exceeded 650 mm. The use of biochar as a soil amendment can be a worthy strategy to guarantee yield stability under short-term water-limited conditions. Our findings raise the importance of assessing the feasibility of very high application rates of biochar and the inclusion of a detailed analysis of its physical and chemical properties as part of future investigations.

  11. Toxicities of dinitrotoluenes and trinitrobenzene freshly amended or weathered and aged in a sandy loam soil to Enchytraeus crypticus.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Roman G; Checkai, Ronald T; Simini, Michael; Phillips, Carlton T; Kolakowski, Jan E; Kurnas, Carl W

    2006-05-01

    Scientifically based ecological soil-screening levels are needed to identify concentrations of contaminant energetic materials (EMs) in soil that present an acceptable ecological risk at a wide range of military installations. Insufficient information regarding the toxicity of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) to soil invertebrates necessitated toxicity testing. We adapted the standardized Enchytraeid Reproduction Test (International Standardization Organization 16387:2003) and selected Enchytraeus crypticus for these studies. Tests were conducted in Sassafras sandy loam soil, which supports relatively high bioavailability of nitroaromatic EMs. Weathering and aging procedures for EMs amended to test soil were incorporated into the study design to produce toxicity data that better reflect the soil exposure conditions in the field compared with toxicity in freshly amended soils. This included exposing hydrated, EM-amended soils in open glass containers in the greenhouse to alternating wetting and drying cycles. Definitive tests established that the order of EM toxicity to E. crypticus based on the median effect concentration values for juvenile production in either freshly amended or weathered and aged treatments was (from the greatest to least toxicity) TNB > 2,4-DNT > 2,6-DNT. Toxicity to E. crypticus juvenile production was significantly increased in 2,6-DNT weathered and aged soil treatments compared with toxicity in freshly amended soil, based on 95% confidence intervals. This result shows that future investigations should include a weathering and aging component to generate toxicity data that provide more complete information regarding ecotoxicological effects of energetic contaminants in soil.

  12. Effect of minimum tillage and mulching on maize ( Zea mays L.) yield and water content of clayey and sandy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mupangwa, Walter; Twomlow, Steve; Walker, Sue; Hove, Lewis

    Rainfed smallholder agriculture in semi-arid areas of southern Africa is subject to numerous constraints. These include low rainfall with high spatial and temporal variability, and significant loss of soil water through evaporation. An experiment was established at Matopos Research Station, Zimbabwe, to determine the effect of mulching and minimum tillage on maize ( Zea mays L.) yield and soil water content. The experiment was run for two years at two sites: clay (Matopos Research Station fields) and sand (Lucydale fields) soils, in a 7 × 3 factorial combination of mulch rates (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10 t ha -1) and tillage methods (planting basins, ripper tine and conventional plough). Each treatment was replicated three times at each site in a split plot design. Maize residue was applied as mulch before tillage operations. Two maize varieties, a hybrid (SC 403) and an open pollinated variety (ZM 421), were planted. Maize yield and soil water content (0-30 and 30-60 cm depth) were measured under each treatment. On both soil types, neither mulching nor tillage method had a significant effect on maize grain yield. Tillage methods significantly influenced stover production with planting basins giving the highest stover yield (1.1 t ha -1) on sandy soil and conventional ploughing giving 3.6 t ha -1 on clay soil during the first season. The three tillage methods had no significant effect on seasonal soil water content, although planting basins collected more rainwater during the first half of the cropping period. Mulching improved soil water content in both soil types with maximum benefits observed at 4 t ha -1 of mulch. We conclude that, in the short term, minimum tillage on its own, or in combination with mulching, performs as well as the farmers’ traditional practices of overall ploughing.

  13. Vegetation pattern variation, soil degradation and their relationship along a grassland desertification gradient in Horqin Sandy Land, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Xiaoan; Zhao, Halin; Zhao, Xueyong; Guo, Yirui; Yun, Jianying; Wang, Shaokun; Miyasaka, Takafumi

    2009-09-01

    The Horqin Sandy Land is one of the most severely desertified regions in northern China. Plant communities and soil conditions at five stages of grassland desertification (potential, light, moderate, severe and very severe) were selected for the study of vegetation pattern variation relating to soil degradation. The results showed that vegetation cover, species richness and diversity, aboveground biomass (AGB), underground biomass, litter, soil organic carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), electrical conductivity, very fine sand (0.1-0.05 mm) content and silt (0.05-0.002 mm) content decreased with the desertification development. Plant community succession presented that the palatable herbaceous plants gave place to the shrub species with asexual reproduction and sand pioneer plants. The decline of vegetation cover and AGB was positively related to the loss of soil organic C and total N with progressive desertification ( P < 0.01). The multivariate statistical analysis showed that plant community distribution, species diversity and ecological dominance had the close relationship with the gradient of soil nutrients in the processes of grassland desertification. These results suggest that grassland desertification results in the variation of vegetation pattern which presents the different composition and structure of plant community highly influenced by the soil properties.

  14. Biological soil crust formation under artificial vegetation effect and its properties in the Mugetan sandy land, northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. W.; Jia, Y. H.; Zhang, K.

    2016-08-01

    Mugetan sandy land is an inland desertification area of about 2,065 km2 in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In the ecological restoration region of the Mugetan sandy land, different crusts have formed under the action of vegetation in three types of sandy soil (i.e. semi-fixed sand dune, fixed sand dune and ancient fixed aeolian sandy soil). The surface sand particle distribution, mineral component and vegetation composition of moving sand dunes and three types of sandy soil were studied in 2010-2014 to analyze the biological crust formation properties in the Mugetan sandy land and the effects of artificial vegetation. Results from this study revealed that artificial vegetation increases the clay content and encourages the development of biological curst. The fine particles (i.e. clay and humus) of the surface layer of the sand dunes increased more than 15% ten years after the artificial vegetation planting, and further increased up to 20% after one hundred years. The interaction of clay, humus, and other fine particles formed the soil aggregate structure. Meanwhile, under the vegetation effect from the microbes, algae, and moss, the sand particles stuck together and a biological crust formed. The interconnection of the partial crusts caused the sand dunes to gradually be fixed as a whole. Maintaining the integrity of the biological crust plays a vital role in fixing the sand under the crust. The precipitation and temperature conditions in the Mugetan sandy land could satisfy the demand of biological crust formation and development. If rational vegetation measures are adopted in the region with moving sand dunes, the lichen-moss-algae biological curst will form after ten years, but it still takes more time for the sand dunes to reach the nutrient enrichment state. If the biological curst is partly broken due to human activities, reasonable closure and restoration measures can shorten the restoration time of the biological crust.

  15. Complexation with dissolved organic matter and solubility control of heavy metals in a sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Weng, Liping; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; Lofts, Stephen; Tipping, Edward; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H

    2002-11-15

    The complexation of heavy metals with dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the environment influences the solubility and mobility of these metals. In this paper, we measured the complexation of Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Pb with DOM in the soil solution at pH 3.7-6.1 using a Donnan membrane technique. The results show that the DOM-complexed species is generally more significant for Cu and Pb than for Cd, Zn, and Ni. The ability of two advanced models for ion binding to humic substances, e.g., model VI and NICA-Donnan, in the simulation of metal binding to natural DOM was assessed by comparing the model predictions with the measurements. Using the default parameters of fulvic and humic acid, the predicted concentrations of free metal ions from the solution speciation calculation using the two models are mostly within 1 order of magnitude difference from the measured concentrations, except for Ni and Pb in a few samples. Furthermore, the solid-solution partitioning of the metals was simulated using a multisurface model, in which metal binding to soil organic matter, dissolved organic matter, clay, and iron hydroxides was accounted for using adsorption and cation exchange models (NICA-Donnan, Donnan, DDL, CD-MUSIC). The model estimation of the dissolved concentration of the metals is mostly within 1 order of magnitude difference from those measured except for Ni in some samples and Pb. The solubility of the metals depends mainly on the metal loading over soil sorbents, pH, and the concentration of inorganic ligands and DOM in the soil solution.

  16. Estimating water retention curves for sandy soils at the Doñana National Park, SW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prados Garcia, M. Luisa; Vanderlinden, Karl; Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; Giraldez Cervera, Juan Vicente; Guber, Andrey K.; Pachepsky, Yakov A.

    2010-05-01

    The determination of soil water retention curves (SWRC) in the laboratory is a slow and tedious task, which is especially challenging for sandy soils due to their low water retention capacity and large water content changes for small pressure head differences. Due to spatial variability within larger areas and difficulties to obtain minimally disturbed soil samples, especially under dry conditions, laboratory measurements of the SWRCs are only suitable for guidance, as a consequence of their low representativity and accuracy. This work was developed within the framework of a research project on the ecohydrological behaviour of the soil-plant-atmosphere system within the Doñana National Park (SW Spain). In order to characterise the hydrological behaviour of the soils, a good estimation of water retention curves and hydraulic parameters is needed. Ten locations within the study area were equipped with soil moisture sensors (ECH2O-EC20, Decagon Devices Inc.) to monitor volumetric water content at different depths throughout the vadose zone. These data allow the estimation of water fluxes and recharge of the underlying aquifer, which plays a crucial role in the wetland system of the Park, declared by UNESCO as Biosphere Reserve. In this work three methods for estimating SWRCs were developed and compared. First, sand and kaolin suction tables were used to obtain SWRCs for both minimally disturbed and disturbed samples. Second, SWRC were estimated with HYDRUS-1D using the monitored volumetric soil water content data. Finally, SWRCs were estimated using the additivity hypothesis, based on the idea that SWRCs can be approximated by summing up SWRCs corresponding to different particle-size and pore-space classes of which the soil is composed. Particle-size distributions were determined in the laboratory while water retention data for the different particle-size classes were taken from literature. The comparison of these three methods allowed us to define their strengths

  17. The effects of woodchip- and straw-derived biochars on the persistence of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in soils.

    PubMed

    Muter, Olga; Berzins, Andrejs; Strikauska, Silvija; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims; Dobele, Galina; Truu, Jaak; Truu, Marika; Steiner, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    Sorption and degradation are the primary processes controlling the efficacy and runoff contamination risk of agrochemicals. This study assessed the influence of two biochars, made from woodchips and straw at a pyrolysis temperature of 725°C and applied to a loamy sand and a sandy soil in the concentration of 5.3 g 100 g(-1) sandy soil and 4.1 g 100 g(-1) loamy sand soil, or 53 t ha(-1) for both soil types, on degradation of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA). Soils were spiked with 50 mg MCPA kg(-1) soil. In the sandy soil, significantly more MCPA remained after 100 days if amended with straw-derived biochar in comparison to wood-derived biochar. Both biochars types significantly increased urease activity (p<0.05) after 37 days in the loamy sand soil, but these differences disappeared after 100 days. A root and shoot elongation test demonstrated that the soils containing straw-derived biochar and spiked with MCPA, showed the highest phytotoxicity. Both biochars were found to retard MCPA degradation in loamy sand and sandy soils. This effect could not be explained only by sorption processes due to comparatively low developed micro/mesoporous structure of both biochars shown by BET surface analysis. However, an enhanced MCPA persistence and soil toxicity in sandy soil amended with straw biochar was observed and further studies are needed to reveal the responsible mechanisms.

  18. Effect of Simulated Weathering and Aging of TNT in Amended Sandy Loam Soil on Toxicity to the Enchytraeid Worm, Enchytreaeus Crypticus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    necessitated standardized toxicity testing to fill the data gap. In these studies, the Enchytraeid Reproduction Test (ISO/16387:2001) was adapted for...use with Enchytraeus crypticus. Tests were conducted in Sassafras sandy loam soil, which supports relatively high bioavailability of TNT. Weathering...aging procedures for TNT amended to the test soil were included to reflect the exposure conditions in field soils. Definitive toxicity tests conducted

  19. Investigation of Interactive Effects on Water Flow and Solute Transport in Sandy Loam Soil Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    PubMed Central

    Merdun, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Surface-applied chemicals move through the unsaturated zone with complex flow and transport processes due to soil heterogeneity and reach the saturated zone, resulting in groundwater contamination. Such complex processes need to be studied by advanced measurement and modeling techniques to protect soil and water resources from contamination. In this study, the interactive effects of factors like soil structure, initial soil water content (SWC), and application rate on preferential flow and transport were studied in a sandy loam field soil using measurement (by time domain reflectometry (TDR)) and modeling (by MACRO and VS2DTI) techniques. In addition, statistical analyses were performed to compare the means of the measured and modeled SWC and EC, and solute transport parameters (pore water velocity and dispersion coefficient) in 12 treatments. Research results showed that even though the effects of soil structural conditions on water and solute transport were not so clear, the applied solution moved lower depths in the profiles of wet versus dry initial SWC and high application rate versus low application rates. The effects of soil structure and initial SWC on water and solute movement could be differentiated under the interactive conditions, but the effects of the application rates were difficult to differentiate under different soil structural and initial SWC conditions. Modeling results showed that MACRO had somewhat better performance than VS2DTI in the estimation of SWC and EC with space and time, but overall both models had relatively low performances. The means of SWC, EC, and solute transport parameters of the 12 treatments were divided into some groups based on the statistical analyses, indicating different flow and transport characteristics or a certain degree nonuniform or preferential flow and transport in the soil. Conducting field experiments with more interactive factors and applying the models with different approaches may allow better understanding

  20. Community-specific impacts of exotic earthworm invasions on soil carbon dynamics in a sandy temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Crumsey, Jasmine M; Le Moine, James M; Capowiez, Yvan; Goodsitt, Mitchell M; Larson, Sandra C; Kling, George W; Nadelhoffer, Knute J

    2013-12-01

    Exotic earthworm introductions can alter above- and belowground properties of temperate forests, but the net impacts on forest soil carbon (C) dynamics are poorly understood. We used a mesocosm experiment to examine the impacts of earthworm species belonging to three different ecological groups (Lumbricus terrestris [anecic], Aporrectodea trapezoides [endogeic], and Eisenia fetida [epigeic]) on C distributions and storage in reconstructed soil profiles from a sandy temperate forest soil by measuring CO2 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) losses, litter C incorporation into soil, and soil C storage with monospecific and species combinations as treatments. Soil CO2 loss was 30% greater from the Endogeic x Epigeic treatment than from controls (no earthworms) over the first 45 days; CO2 losses from monospecific treatments did not differ from controls. DOC losses were three orders of magnitude lower than CO2 losses, and were similar across earthworm community treatments. Communities with the anecic species accelerated litter C mass loss by 31-39% with differential mass loss of litter types (Acer rubrum > Populus grandidentata > Fagus grandifolia > Quercus rubra > or = Pinus strobus) indicative of leaf litter preference. Burrow system volume, continuity, and size distribution differed across earthworm treatments but did not affect cumulative CO2 or DOC losses. However, burrow system structure controlled vertical C redistribution by mediating the contributions of leaf litter to A-horizon C and N pools, as indicated by strong correlations between (1) subsurface vertical burrows made by anecic species, and accelerated leaf litter mass losses (with the exception of P. strobus); and (2) dense burrow networks in the A-horizon and the C and N properties of these pools. Final soil C storage was slightly lower in earthworm treatments, indicating that increased leaf litter C inputs into soil were more than offset by losses as CO2 and DOC across earthworm community treatments.

  1. Experimental studies on the physico-mechanical properties of jet-grout columns in sandy and silty soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Muge K.

    2016-04-01

    The term of ground improvement states to the modification of the engineering properties of soils. Jet-grouting is one of the grouting methods among various ground improvement techniques. During jet-grouting, different textures of columns can be obtained depending on the characteristics of surrounding subsoil as well as the adopted jet-grouting system for each site is variable. In addition to textural properties, strength and index parameters of jet-grout columns are highly affected by the adjacent soil. In this study, the physical and mechanical properties of jet-grout columns constructed at two different sites in silty and sandy soil conditions were determined by laboratory tests. A number of statistical relationships between physical and mechanical properties of soilcrete were established in this study in order to investigate the dependency of numerous variables. The relationship between qu and γd is more reliable for sandy soilcrete than that of silty columns considering the determination coefficients. Positive linear relationships between Vp and γd with significantly high determination coefficients were obtained for the jet-grout columns in silt and sand. The regression analyses indicate that the P-wave velocity is a very dominant parameter for the estimation of physical and mechanical properties of jet-grout columns and should be involved during the quality control of soilcrete material despite the intensive use of uniaxial compressive strength test. Besides, it is concluded that the dry unit weight of jet-grout column is a good indicator of the efficiency of employed operational parameters during jet-grouting.

  2. The origin and early genesis of clay bands in youthful sandy soils along lake Michigan, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berg, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A beach ridge and dune complex with good radiocarbon control sampling the last 3500 radiocarbon years B.P. provides new insights on the early genesis of clay bands in sandy soils. Soil profiles were sampled by age groups, described in the field, and then subjected to laboratory analyses for particle-size distribution, pH, organic carbon, carbonate minerals, and extractable iron and manganese. This study suggests that small increases in pH, brought about by small increases in carbonate content within the soil profile, are responsible for flocculating small amounts of illuviated clay. This process, along with a transition to a greater hydraulic conductivity with soil depth due to coarser textures in any given profile, partly explains the existence and possible reason for the initiation of illuvial zones and eventually for clay-band horizons. A pronounced increase in the thickness of incipient clay-band horizons in soils older than 2300 years appears due to finer textures in the parent materials than are present in younger soils. Because of slightly reduced porosity and lower permeability, carbonates and a high pH are retained in both illuvial and eluvial horizons of some of these older soils. In addition, only in those profiles older than 2300 years do clay and iron oxide concentrations coincide and is there some suggestion of greater amounts of extractable manganese in horizons of minimum iron and clay. A pronounced segregation of clay-iron bands is not apparent at the study area but should occur in future years as additional amounts of iron and clay are deposited. ?? 1984.

  3. Changes in soil properties after establishment of Artemisia halodendron and Caragana microphylla on shifting sand dunes in semiarid Horqin Sandy Land, northern China.

    PubMed

    Su, Yong Zhong; Zhang, Tong Hui; Li, Yu Lin; Wang, Fang

    2005-08-01

    In the semiarid Horqin sandy land of northern China, establishment of artificial sand-fixing shrubs on desertified sandy lands is an effective measure to control desertification and improve the regional environment. Caragana microphylla Lam. and Artemisia halodendron Turcz. ex Bess. are two of the dominant native shrub species, which are adapted well to windy and sandy environments, and thus, are widely used in revegetation programs to control desertification in Horqin region. To assess the effects of artificially planting these two shrub species on restoration of desertified sandy land, soil properties and plant colonization were measured 6 years after planting shrubs on shifting sand dunes. Soil samples were taken from two depths (0-5 cm and 5-20 cm) under the shrub canopy, in the mid-row location (alley) between shrub belts, and from nonvegetated shifting sand dune (as a control). Soil fine fractions, soil water holding capacity, soil organic C and total N have significantly increased, and pH and bulk density have declined at the 0-5-cm topsoil in both C. microphylla and A. halodendron. At the 5-20 cm subsurface soil, changes in soil properties are not significant, with exception of bulk density and organic C concentration under the canopy of A. halodendron and total N concentration under the canopy of C. microphylla. Soil amelioration processes are initiated under the shrub canopies, as higher C and N concentrations were found under the canopies compared with alleys. At the same time, the establishment of shrubs facilitates the colonization and development of herbaceous species. A. halodendron proved to have better effects in fixing the sand surface, improving soil properties, and restoring plant species in comparison to C. microphylla.

  4. Evaluation of Diuron Tolerance and Biotransformation by Fungi from a Sugar Cane Plantation Sandy-Loam Soil.

    PubMed

    Perissini-Lopes, Bruna; Egea, Tássia Chiachio; Monteiro, Diego Alves; Vici, Ana Cláudia; Da Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Lisboa, Daniela Correa de Oliveira; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Parsons, John Robert; Da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni

    2016-12-14

    Microorganisms capable of degrading herbicides are essential to minimize the amount of chemical compounds that may leach into other environments. This work aimed to study the potential of sandy-loam soil fungi to tolerate the herbicide Herburon (50% diuron) and to degrade the active ingredient diuron. Verticillium sp. F04, Trichoderma virens F28, and Cunninghamella elegans B06 showed the highest growth in the presence of the herbicide. The evaluation of biotransformation showed that Aspergillus brasiliensis G08, Aspergillus sp. G25, and Cunninghamella elegans B06 had the greatest potential to degrade diuron. Statistical analysis demonstrated that glucose positively influences the potential of the microorganism to degrade diuron, indicating a cometabolic process. Due to metabolites founded by diuron biotransformation, it is indicated that the fungi are relevant in reducing the herbicide concentration in runoff, minimizing the environmental impact on surrounding ecosystems.

  5. Self-purification of loamy-sandy agrosoddy-podzolic soils polluted by sewage sludge in the eastern Moscow region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plekhanova, I. O.

    2009-06-01

    For 12 years, the contents of Zn and Cd compounds in the plow horizons of the loamy-sandy agrosoddy-podzolic soils polluted due to the application of sewage sludge decreased by 2 times; the Cu and Ni concentrations became lower by 1.5 times. The thickness of the polluted layer increased from 20 to 45 cm. The reserves of Cd, Zn, and Cu in the 0- to 50-cm-thick layer decreased, on the average, by 22, 14, and 9%, respectively. The changes in the fractional composition of the metal compounds were found. The sum of the Cu and Ni compounds increased due to the fraction of these metals bound with organic matter; for the Cd compounds, due to the weakly adsorbed fraction.

  6. Determination of Selenium Toxicity for Survival and Reproduction of Enchytraeid Worms in a Sandy Loam Soil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    ecotoxicological benchmarks for developing the ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSLs) for risk assessments of contaminated soils. For the present study, we...invertebrate-based Eco-SSL for Se. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ecological soil screening level (Eco-SSL) Selenium Natural soil Enchytraeus crypticus Selenate...level concentrations for assessment of ecological risks at Se-contaminated sites. Much of the previous research published on the ecotoxicology of Se

  7. Removal of Fast Flowing Nitrogen from Marshes Restored in Sandy Soils

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Eric L.; Cebrian, Just; Smith, Sara M.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater flow rates and nitrate removal capacity from an introduced solution were examined for five marsh restoration designs and unvegetated plots shortly after planting and 1 year post-planting. The restoration site was a sandy beach with a wave-dampening fence 10 m offshore. Simulated groundwater flow into the marsh was introduced at a rate to mimic intense rainfall events. Restoration designs varied in initial planting density and corresponded to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the plot area planted. In general, groundwater flow was slower with increasing planting density and decreased from year 0 to year 1 across all treatments. Nevertheless, removal of nitrate from the introduced solution was similar and low for all restoration designs (3–7%) and similar to the unvegetated plots. We suggest that the low NO3− removal was due to sandy sediments allowing rapid flow of groundwater through the marsh rhizosphere, thereby decreasing the contact time of the NO3− with the marsh biota. Our findings demonstrate that knowledge of the groundwater flow regime for restoration projects is essential when nutrient filtration is a target goal of the project. PMID:25353607

  8. Acid soil infertility effects on peanut yields and yield components

    SciTech Connect

    Blamey, F.P.C.

    1983-01-01

    The interpretation of soil amelioration experiments with peanuts is made difficult by the unpredictibility of the crop and by the many factors altered when ameliorating acid soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on peanut kernel yield via the three first order yield components, pods per ha, kernels per pod, and kernel mass. On an acid medium sandy loam soil (typic Plinthustult), liming resulted in a highly significant kernel yield increase of 117% whereas gypsum applications were of no significant benefit. As indicated by path coefficient analysis, an increase in the number of pods per ha was markedly more important in increasing yield than an increase in either the number of kernels per pod or kernel mass. Furthermore, exch. Al was found to be particularly detrimental to pod number. It was postulated that poor peanut yields resulting from acid soil infertility were mainly due to the depressive effect of exch. Al on pod number. Exch. Ca appeared to play a secondary role by ameliorating the adverse effects of exch. Al.

  9. Extraction of bitumen, crude oil and its products from tar sand and contaminated sandy soil under effect of ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Abramov, O V; Abramov, V O; Myasnikov, S K; Mullakaev, M S

    2009-03-01

    In the present paper, the kinetics of the water extraction of bitumen from tar sand and crude oil or residual fuel oil from model contaminated soils under the effect of ultrasound is studied. The influence of process temperature, ultrasound power, the nature, and properties of the components of heterogeneous mixtures being separated, and the concentration of added alkaline reagents on the rate and degree of oil recovery is investigated. A functional form of the dependencies of separation efficiency on the mean size of solid particles and the temperature of a working medium is found. Optimum concentrations of reagents in the process solution are determined. It is shown that the spent solution of sodium silicate can be multiply used for separation, its reuse even speeding up the yield of oil in the initial period. Taking into account obtained results, a multipurpose pilot plant with a flow-type reactor for ultrasonic extraction of petroleum and its products from contaminated soils was manufactured and tested. During tests, the purification of sandy soil contaminated with residual fuel oil was carried out which verified the results of laboratory studies.

  10. Accelerated simulation of the migration of solutes in sandy soils amended by sewage sludge: Transport and retardation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etchebers, O.; Kedziorek, M. A.; Chossat, J.; Riou, C.; Bourg, A. C.

    2003-12-01

    A common way to dispose of sewage sludge is to spead it on agricultural land because of its high nutrient (P, N) and org C contents. However, in addition to these beneficial components, sewage sludge can contain toxic chemicals such as heavy metals. This farming technique is relatively recent (several decades, at most) and there is still a need for information concerning the processes controlling the fate of the heavy metals in the sludge. To study how fast they migrate in the soil profile, the transfer of water and associated solutes in both unsaturated and unsaturated conditions can be accelerated by centrifugation according to the equation: tsimulated = treal * g2. (t: time). In a lysimeter study (diameter 30 cm, depth 60 cm) carried out using the CEA-CESTA Silat 265 centrifuge, we simulated, at 20 g, several months of percolation in one day. Experiments were done on cores of sandy forest soil (podzol) to which various sewage sludges (containing 2 to 12 mg/kg Cd, 20 to 120 mg/kg Ni, 50 to 465 mg/kg Pb) and simulated rain were applied. Major ions migrated at an estimated rate of 6-8.5 mm/simulated day (2-3 m/simulated year), while heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb) were retarded by a factor of 1.5 to 2. The retention of these heavy metals is associated with the organic C content of the soil profile (rich in the upper horizon).

  11. Sensitivity of water stress in a two-layered sandy grassland soil to variations in groundwater depth and soil hydraulic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, M.; Seuntjens, P.; Joris, I.; Boënne, W.; Van Hoey, S.; Campling, P.; Cornelis, W. M.

    2015-07-01

    Monitoring and modeling tools may improve irrigation strategies in precision agriculture. We used non-invasive soil moisture monitoring, a crop growth and a soil hydrological model to predict soil-water content fluctuations and crop yield in a heterogeneous sandy grassland soil under supplementary irrigation. The sensitivity of the model to hydraulic parameters, water stress, crop yield and lower boundary conditions was assessed. Free drainage and incremental constant head conditions was implemented in a lower boundary sensitivity analysis. A time-dependent sensitivity analysis showed that changes in soil water content are mainly affected by the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and the Mualem-van Genuchten retention curve shape parameters n and α. Results further showed that different parameter optimization strategies (two-, three-, four- or six-parameter optimizations) did not affect the calculated water stress and water content as significantly as does the bottom boundary. For this case, a two-parameter scenario, where Ks was optimized for each layer under the condition of a constant groundwater depth at 135-140 cm, performed best. A larger yield reduction, and a larger number and longer duration of stress conditions occurred in the free drainage condition as compared to constant boundary conditions. Numerical results showed that optimal irrigation scheduling using the aforementioned water stress calculations can save up to 12-22 % irrigation water as compared to the current irrigation regime. This resulted in a yield increase of 4.5-6.5 %, simulated by crop growth model.

  12. Distributions of labeled nitrogen in the profile of a fertilized sandy soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mansell, R.S.; Fiskell, J.G.A.; Calvert, D.V.; Rogers, J.S.

    1986-02-01

    Isotopically labeled (/sup 15/N-depleted) ammonium sulfate (115 kg N ha/sup -1/) was applied to a Spodosol in a citrus grove, to determine the fate and subsequent distributions of NO/sub 3/-N and NH/sub 4/-N in the soil profile. The soil was tile-drained, and citrus trees were located on soil beds. The authors examined three soil management treatments: the original A1 horizon (ST): deep mixing of A1 and A2 horizons with the underlying Spodic horizon (DT); and incorporation of 56 Mg ha/sup -1/ of dolomitic limestone, along with deep mixing (DTL) of the profile. Soil samples were taken to the 70-cm depth in ST and to the 95-cm depth in DT and DTL soils and were extracted with 1 M KCl. Extracts were chemically analyzed for NH/sub 4/-N and NO/sub 3/-N concentrations and isotopic analysis was performed by mass spectroscopy. At 12 d after fertilization, both NH/sub 4/-N and NO/sub 3/-N values in the ST soil profile exceeded corresponding values for DT and DTL soils. This N was derived primarily from the fertilizer. With time, concentrations of both NH/sub 4/-N and NO/sub 3/-N decreased in profiles for all three soils; however, N concentrations in the ST soil consistently exceeded corresponding values for DT and DTL profiles.

  13. The evolution of sandy soils under the influence of vegetation succession and anthropogenic activities - case study from Błędów Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gus, Magdalena; Drewnik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Sandy areas are an important source of research about early stages of the soils formation process and their further development. The rate of succession is reflecting the influence of vegetation on chemical and physical properties of soils which as the time goes undergo the evolution process caused by other environmental factors. The Błędów Desert (Poland, Central Europe) is an example of this kind of area, where sandy soils evolved into Podzols, but as a result of human activities conducted since Middle Ages soil cover has been destroyed to bedrock. Currently progressing vegetation succession occurred in two ways: primary, which took place in areas covered by loose sand and secondary, in the areas with fossil soils. Presently the Błędów Desert is a suitable example to study soil changes in both cases mentioned above. The main aim of the study was to present diversity and characteristics of soils in The Błędów Desert in relation to their development stages and vegetation succession. During field studies soil profiles were described and selected for the detailed studies and soils samples were taken for laboratory analysis, including a determination of basic physical and chemical analysis as well as for micromorphological analysis (selected profiles). Podzols located near the boundary of the study area was selected as a reference soils. The results proved the complexity of the soil process formation, which strongly depends on the vegetation succession and human activities including human-induced aeolian processes. Results confirmed the presence of buried soils, which together with the contemporary soils formed a soil sequence. Moreover, research shows that the dominant soil-forming processes at the Błędów Desert are humus accumulation and podzolization. To summarize, The Błędów Desert is a dynamic environment undergoing rapid changes of soil cover under the influence of the interaction of vegetation, anthropopression and aeolian processes.

  14. Microbial response to salinity stress in a tropical sandy soil amended with native shrub residues or inorganic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Sall, Saïdou Nourou; Ndour, Ndèye Yacine Badiane; Diédhiou-Sall, Siré; Dick, Richard; Chotte, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-15

    Soil degradation and salinization caused by inappropriate cultivation practices and high levels of saltwater intrusion are having an adverse effect on agriculture in Central Senegal. The residues of Piliostigma reticulatum, a local shrub that coexists with crops, were recently shown to increase particulate organic matter and improve soil quality and may be a promising means of alleviating the effects of salinization. This study compared the effects of inorganic fertilizer and P. reticulatum residues on microbial properties and the ability of soil to withstand salinity stress. We hypothesized that soils amended with P. reticulatum would be less affected by salinity stress than soils amended with inorganic fertilizer and control soil. Salinity stress was applied to soil from a field site that had been cultivated for 5 years under a millet/peanut crop rotation when microbial biomass, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) community profile, catabolic diversity, microbial activities were determined. Microbial biomass, nitrification potential and dehydrogenase activity were higher by 20%, 56% and 69% respectively in soil with the organic amendment. With salinity stress, the structure and activities of the microbial community were significantly affected. Although the biomass of actinobacteria community increased with salinity stress, there was a substantial reduction in microbial activity in all soils. The soil organically amended was, however, less affected by salinity stress than the control or inorganic fertilizer treatment. This suggests that amendment using P. reticulatum residues may improve the ability of soils to respond to saline conditions.

  15. Physical and hydraulic properties of a sandy loam soil under zero, shallow and deep tillage practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the centuries, tillage has been an important agronomic practice that has been used to mechanically alter soil properties and enhance the soil ecosystem for growth of crops. A 4-yr study investigated the impact of no-tillage (NT), shallow tillage at a 10-cm depth (ST), and deep tillage at a 30-c...

  16. Research Highlight: Water-extractable organic matter from sandy loam soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Labile organic matter plays important roles in soil health and nutrient cycling because of its dynamic nature. Water-extractable organic matter is part of the soil labile organic matter. In an article recently published in Agricultural & Environmental Letters, researchers report on the level and na...

  17. A field wind tunnel study of fine dust emissions in sandy soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A portable field wind tunnel has been developed to allow measurements of dust emissions from soil surfaces to test the premise that dust concentration and properties are highly correlated with surface soil properties, as modified by crop management system. In this study, we report on the effect of ...

  18. Cumulative effects of sewage sludge and effluent mixture application on soil properties of a sandy soil under a mixture of star and kikuyu grasses in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madyiwa, S.; Chimbari, M.; Nyamangara, J.; Bangira, C.

    Although sewage effluent and sludge provides nutrients for plant growth, its continual use over extended periods can result in the accumulation of heavy metals in soils and in grass to levels that are detrimental to the food chain. This study was carried in 2001 out at Firle farm, owned by the Municipality of Harare, to assess heavy metal loading on a sandy soil and uptake of the metals by pasture grass consisting of a mixture of Cynodon nlemfuensis (star grass) and Pennisetum clandestinum Chiov (kikuyu grass) following sewage effluent and sludge application for 29 years. Firle Farm receives treated effluent and sludge emanating from domestic and industrial sources. Soil and grass samples were taken from the study area, consisting of 3 ha of non-irrigated area (control) and 1.3 ha of irrigated area. Both the soil and grass samples were tested for Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Sewage sludge addition resulted in high levels of soil pollution, especially in the 20 cm horizon, in the irrigated area when compared to the control. Grasses took up moderate levels of Cu and Zn, and limited levels of Pb. Nickel was not detectable in grasses despite high levels in the irrigated soil. Copper uptake was several times higher than the suggested potentially toxic level of 12 mg/kg [Soil Science Society of America, Micronutrients in agriculture, second ed., Wisconsin, USA, 1991]. Lead uptake averaged 1.0 mg/kg, which was below 10 mg/kg the suggested limit for agronomic crops [E.M. Seaker, Zinc, copper, cadmium and lead in minespoil, water and plants from reclaimed mine land amended with sewage sludge, 1991]. Cu and Zn showed relatively higher mobility down the soil profile than Ni and Pb. Even then, the concentrations in the lower soil layers were very small, suggesting that the metals were unlikely to contaminate groundwater. There was no direct correlation between metal levels in soils and grasses. It was postulated that it is the bio

  19. Root growth of Lotus corniculatus interacts with P distribution in young sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felderer, B.; Boldt-Burisch, K. M.; Schneider, B. U.; Hüttl, R. F. J.; Schulin, R.

    2013-03-01

    Large areas of land are restored with unweathered soil substrates following mining activities in eastern Germany and elsewhere. In the initial stages of colonization of such land by vegetation, plant roots may become key agents in generating soil formation patterns by introducing gradients in chemical and physical soil properties. On the other hand, such patterns may be influenced by root growth responses to pre-existing substrate heterogeneities. In particular, the roots of many plants were found to preferentially proliferate into nutrient-rich patches. Phosphorus (P) is of primary interest in this respect because its availability is often low in unweathered soils, limiting especially the growth of leguminous plants. However, leguminous plants occur frequently among the pioneer plant species on such soils, as they only depend on atmospheric nitrogen (N) fixation as N source. In this study we investigated the relationship between root growth allocation of the legume Lotus corniculatus and soil P distribution on recently restored land. As test sites, the experimental Chicken Creek Catchment (CCC) in eastern Germany and a nearby experimental site (ES) with the same soil substrate were used. We established two experiments with constructed heterogeneity, one in the field on the experimental site and the other in a climate chamber. In addition, we conducted high-density samplings on undisturbed soil plots colonized by L. corniculatus on the ES and on the CCC. In the field experiment, we installed cylindrical ingrowth soil cores (4.5 × 10 cm) with and without P fertilization around single two-month-old L. corniculatus plants. Roots showed preferential growth into the P-fertilized ingrowth-cores. Preferential root allocation was also found in the climate chamber experiment, where single L. corniculatus plants were grown in containers filled with ES soil and where a lateral portion of the containers was additionally supplied with a range of different P concentrations. In

  20. Root growth of Lotus corniculatus interacts with P distribution in young sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felderer, B.; Boldt-Burisch, K. M.; Schneider, B. U.; Hüttl, R. F. J.; Schulin, R.

    2012-07-01

    Large areas of land are restored with un-weathered soil substrates following mining activities in eastern Germany and elsewhere. In the initial stages of colonization of such land by vegetation, plant roots may become key agents in generating soil formation patterns by introducing gradients in chemical and physical soil properties. On the other hand, such patterns may be influenced by root growth responses to pre-existing substrate heterogeneities. In particular, the roots of many plants were found to preferentially proliferate into nutrient-rich patches. Phosphorus (P) is of primary interest in this respect because its availability is often low in unweathered soils, limiting especially the growth of leguminous plants. However, leguminous plants occur frequently among the pioneer plant species on such soils as they only depend on atmospheric nitrogen (N) fixation as N source. In this study we investigated the relationship between root growth allocation of the legume Lotus corniculatus and soil P distribution on recently restored land. As test sites the experimental Chicken Creek Catchment (CCC) in eastern Germany and a nearby experimental site (ES) with the same soil substrate were used. We established two experiments with constructed heterogeneity, one in the field on the experimental site and the other in a climate chamber. In addition we conducted high-density samplings on undisturbed soil plots colonized by L. corniculatus on the ES and on the CCC. In the field experiment, we installed cylindrical ingrowth soil cores (4.5×10 cm) with and without P fertilization around single two-month-old L. corniculatus plants. Roots showed preferential growth into the P-fertilized ingrowth-cores. Preferential root allocation was also found in the climate chamber experiment, where single L. corniculatus plants were grown in containers filled with ES soil and where a lateral portion of the containers was additionally supplied with a range of different P concentrations. In the

  1. Hurricane Sandy

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-05

    article title:  Hurricane Sandy's Wind Flow     ... NASA's Terra spacecraft captured this imagery and data over Hurricane Sandy as the storm approached the U.S. east coast on October 28, ... to Florida; it shows much of the western half of the hurricane. The eye of the storm is to the right and outside of the observed ...

  2. Biodegradation of Jet Fuel in Vented Columns of Water-Unsaturated Sandy Soil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    construction, a wrap-around column template was used to position the sampling, tensiometer and venting ports on all three columns. The single column used...during the preliminary phase of this experiment was constructed with nine 0.5-inch diameter soil sampling ports and six 0.375-inch diameter tensiometer ...ports. The two columns used during the biodegradation testing had no soil sampling ports and only three water tensiometer ports. Each column had air

  3. Isotope fractionation of sandy-soil water during evaporation - an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Rao, Wen-Bo; Han, Liang-Feng; Tan, Hong-Bing; Wang, Shuai

    2016-12-05

    Soil samples containing water with known stable isotopic compositions were prepared. The soil water was recovered by using vacuum/heat distillation. The experiments were held under different conditions to control rates of water evaporation and water recovery. Recoveries, δ(18)O and δ(2)H values of the soil water were determined. Analyses of the data using a Rayleigh distillation model indicate that under the experimental conditions only loosely bound water is extractable in cases where the recovery is smaller than 100 %. Due to isotopic exchange between vapour and remaining water in the micro channels or capillaries of the soil matrix, isotopic fractionation may take place under near-equilibrium conditions. This causes the observed relationship between δ(2)H and δ(18)O of the extracted water samples to have a slope close to 8. The results of this study may indicate that, in arid zones when soil that initially contains water dries out, the slope of the relationship between δ(2)H and δ(18)O values should be close to 8. Thus, a smaller slope, as observed by some groundwater and soil water samples in arid zones, may be caused by evaporation of water before the water has entered the unsaturated zone.

  4. Pressure-Water Content Relations for a Sandy, Granitic Soil Under Field and Laboratory Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, D. G.; McNamara, J. M.; Gribb, M. M.

    2001-12-01

    A new sensor was developed to measure soil water potential in order to determine the predominant mechanisms of snowmelt delivery to streamflow. The sensors were calibrated for +50 to -300 cm for application on steep granitic slopes and deployed at three depths and 2 locations on a slope in a headwater catchment of the Idaho Batholith throughout the 2001 snowmelt season. Soil moisture was measured simultaneously with Water Content Reflectometers (Cambell Scientific, Logan, UT), that were calibrated in situ with Time Domain Reflectometry measurements. Sensor performance was evaluated in a laboratory soil column via side-by-side monitoring during injection of water with a cone permeameter. Soil characteristic curves were also determined for the field site by multi-step outflow tests. Comparison of the results from the field study to those from the laboratory experiment and to the characteristic curves demonstrate the utility of the new sensor for recording dynamic changes in soil water status. During snowmelt, the sensor responded to both matric potential and bypass-flow pore potential. Large shifts in the pressure record that correspond to changes in the infiltration flux indicate initiation and cessation of macropore flow. The pore pressure records may be used to document the frequency, timing and duration of bypass flow that are not apparent from the soil moisture records.

  5. Sensitivity of water stress in a two-layered sandy grassland soil to variations in groundwater depth and soil hydraulic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, M.; Seuntjens, P.; Joris, I.; Boënne, W.; Van Hoey, S.; Campling, P.; Cornelis, W. M.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and modelling tools may improve irrigation strategies in precision agriculture. We used non-invasive soil moisture monitoring, a crop growth and a soil hydrological model to predict soil water content fluctuations and crop yield in a heterogeneous sandy grassland soil under supplementary irrigation. The sensitivity of the soil hydrological model to hydraulic parameters, water stress, crop yield and lower boundary conditions was assessed after integrating models. Free drainage and incremental constant head conditions were implemented in a lower boundary sensitivity analysis. A time-dependent sensitivity analysis of the hydraulic parameters showed that changes in soil water content are mainly affected by the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and the Mualem-van Genuchten retention curve shape parameters n and α. Results further showed that different parameter optimization strategies (two-, three-, four- or six-parameter optimizations) did not affect the calculated water stress and water content as significantly as does the bottom boundary. In this case, a two-parameter scenario, where Ks was optimized for each layer under the condition of a constant groundwater depth at 135-140 cm, performed best. A larger yield reduction, and a larger number and longer duration of stress conditions occurred in the free drainage condition as compared to constant boundary conditions. Numerical results showed that optimal irrigation scheduling using the aforementioned water stress calculations can save up to 12-22 % irrigation water as compared to the current irrigation regime. This resulted in a yield increase of 4.5-6.5 %, simulated by the crop growth model.

  6. Effects of grazing exclusion on soil properties and on ecosystem carbon and nitrogen storage in a sandy rangeland of Inner Mongolia, northern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinping; Li, Yuqiang; Zhao, Xueyong; Awada, Tala; Shang, Wen; Han, Juanjuan

    2012-10-01

    The Horqin sandy rangeland of northern China is a seriously desertified region with a fragile ecology. The sandy alluvial and aeolian sediments have a coarse texture and loose structure and are therefore vulnerable to damage caused by grazing animals and wind erosion. We investigated whether grazing exclusion could enhance ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage and thereby improve overall soil quality. We compared soil properties, C and N storage in biomass (aboveground and below-ground), and the total and light fraction soil organic matter between adjacent areas with continuous grazing and a 12-year grazing exclosure. The soil silt + clay content, organic C, total Kjeldahl N, available N and K, and cation-exchange capacity were significantly (P < 0.05) greater in the exclosure. We found that to a depth of 100 cm, the exclosure plots had greater light fraction C storage (by 267.2 g m(-2) = 73.3 %), light fraction N storage (by 16.6 g m(-2) = 105.7 %), total soil C storage (by 1174.4 g m(-2) = 43.9 %), and total N storage (by 91.1 g m(-2) = 31.3 %). Biomass C and N storage were also 205.0 and 8.0 g m(-2) greater (154.8 and 181.8 %, respectively). The increase was greatest in the light fraction organic matter and biomass and decreased with increasing depth in the soil. The results suggest that light fraction C and N respond more rapidly than total soil C and N to grazing exclusion and that vegetation recovers faster than soil. Our results confirmed that the degraded sandy rangeland is recovering and sequestering C after the removal of grazing pressure.

  7. [Dynamic changes of surface soil organic carbon and light-fraction organic carbon after mobile dune afforestation with Mongolian pine in Horqin Sandy Land].

    PubMed

    Shang, Wen; Li, Yu-qiang; Wang, Shao-kun; Feng, Jing; Su, Na

    2011-08-01

    This paper studied the dynamic changes of surface (0-15 cm) soil organic carbon (SOC) and light-fraction organic carbon (LFOC) in 25- and 35-year-old sand-fixing Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) plantations in Horqin Sandy Land, with a mobile dune as a comparison site. After the afforestation on mobile dune, the content of coarse sand in soil decreased, while that of fine sand and clay-silt increased significantly. The SOC and LFOC contents also increased significantly, but tended to decrease with increasing soil depth. Afforestation increased the storages of SOC and LFOC in surface soil, and the increment increased with plantation age. In the two plantations, the increment of surface soil LFOC storage was much higher than that of SOC storage, suggesting that mobile dune afforestation had a larger effect on surface soil LFOC than on SOC.

  8. Long-term reactivity of lung and mediastinal lymph nodes following intratracheal instillation of sandy loam soil or Mount St. Helens volcanic ash

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.L.; Rhoads, K.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of Ritzville sandy loam soil and Mount St. Helens volcanic ash particles on the lung and mediastinal lymph nodes of Fischer rats were studied about 400 days after intratracheal instillation. A total of 22 or 77 mg of soil or ash was given in two or seven equally divided, consecutive, weekly intervals as a suspension in 0.5 ml saline. Significantly elevated levels of lipid-phosphorus and protein were found in lung lavages of rats given ash compared to those given soil. An enhanced histological degree of granulomatous reactivity, lipoproteinosis, fibrosis, and bronchiolar hyperplasia was seen in ash-exposed rats as compared to soil-exposed rats. Mediastinal lymph nodes of ash-exposed rats were 8-18 times larger than those of soil-exposed rats due to abundant cellular microgranuloma formation and early fibrosis. Mount St. Helens volcanic ash is apparently more biologically reactive than soil particles commonly found in eastern Washington.

  9. Long-term reactivity of lung and mediastinal lymph nodes following intratracheal instillation of sandy loam soil or Mount St. Helens volcanic ash.

    PubMed

    Sanders, C L; Rhoads, K; Mahaffey, J A

    1983-10-01

    The effects of Ritzville sandy loam soil and Mount St. Helens volcanic ash particles on the lung and mediastinal lymph nodes of Fischer rats were studied about 400 days after intratracheal instillation. A total of 22 or 77 mg of soil or ash was given in two or seven equally divided, consecutive, weekly intervals as a suspension in 0.5 ml saline. Significantly elevated levels of lipid-phosphorus and protein were found in lung lavages of rats given ash compared to those given soil. An enhanced histological degree of granulomatous reactivity, lipoproteinosis, fibrosis, and bronchiolar hyperplasia was seen in ash-exposed rats as compared to soil-exposed rats. Mediastinal lymph nodes of ash-exposed rats were 8-18 times larger than those of soil-exposed rats due to abundant cellular microgranuloma formation and early fibrosis. Mount St. Helens volcanic ash is apparently more biologically reactive than soil particles commonly found in eastern Washington.

  10. Sorption-desorption of indaziflam and its three metabolites in sandy soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indaziflam is a relatively new herbicide for which sorption-desorption information is lacking, and nothing is available on its metabolites. Information is needed on the multiple soil and pesticide characteristics known to influence these processes. Freundlich sorption isotherm slopes were < 1, there...

  11. Soil C dynamics in a 26-year CRP chronosequence on an Amarillo fine sandy loam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) sequesters more carbon (C) on private lands than any other federally administered program, but the rate and maximum amount of sequestered SOC is dependent on inherent soil properties (e.g. texture), local climate, and initial restoration efforts. We estimated t...

  12. Clinoptilolite Zeolite Influence on Inorganic Nitrogen in Silt Loam and Sandy Agricultural Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of best management practices can help improve inorganic nitrogen (N) availability to plants and reduce nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching in soils. This study was conducted to determine the influence of the zeolite mineral Clinoptilolite (CL) additions on NO3-N and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4...

  13. Clinoptilolite zeolite influence on inorganic nitrogen in silt loam and sandy agricultural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of best management practices can help improve inorganic nitrogen (N) availability to plants and reduce nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching in soils. This study was conducted to determine the influence of the zeolite mineral Clinoptilolite (CL) additions on NO3-N and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4...

  14. Clinoptilolite zeolite influence on nitrogen in a manure-amended sandy agricultural soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of best management practices can help improve inorganic nitrogen (N) availability to plants and reduce nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching in soils. This study was conducted to determine the influence of the zeolite mineral clinoptilolite (CL) additions on NO3-N and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-...

  15. Monitoring of nitrate leaching in sandy soils: comparison of three methods.

    PubMed

    Zotarelli, Lincoln; Scholberg, Johannes M; Dukes, Michael D; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Proper N fertilizer and irrigation management can reduce nitrate leaching while maintaining crop yield, which is critical to enhance the sustainability of vegetable production on soils with poor water and nutrient-holding capacities. This study evaluated different methods to measure nitrate leaching in mulched drip-irrigated zucchini, pepper, and tomato production systems. Fertigation rates were 145 and 217 kg N ha(-1) for zucchini; 192 and 288 kg N ha(-1) for pepper; and 208 and 312 kg N ha(-1) for tomato. Irrigation was either applied at a fixed daily rate or based on threshold values of soil moisture sensors placed in production beds. Ceramic suction cup lysimeters, subsurface drainage lysimeters and soil cores were used to access the interactive effects of N rate and irrigation management on N leaching. Irrigation treatments and N rate interaction effects on N leaching were significant for all crops. Applying N rates in excess of standard recommendations increased N leaching by 64, 59, and 32%, respectively, for pepper, tomato, and zucchini crops. Independent of the irrigation treatment or nitrogen rate, N leaching values measured from the ceramic cup lysimeter-based N leaching values were lower than the values from the drainage lysimeter and soil coring methods. However, overall nitrate concentration patterns were similar for all methods when the nitrate concentration and leached volume were relatively low.

  16. Nitrogen mineralization and transformation from composts and biosolids during field incubation in a sandy soil

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.L.; Alva, A.K.; Yan, P.; Li, Y.C.; Calvert, D.V.; Stoffella, P.J.; Banks, D.J.

    2000-02-01

    Field evaluation of nutrient release from composts is important to estimate nutrient contribution to crops, potential leaching of nutrients, and, ultimately, to determine optimum application rates, timing, and placement of composts. Field incubation and laboratory analyses were conducted to evaluate the mineralization rate and transformation of N in biosolids (BSD), yard waste (YW), and West Palm Beach co-compost (WPCC). Each of the composts or biosolids was packed into PVC columns and inserted vertically into the upper layer of an Oldsmar fine sand of raised citrus beds. The top end of the PVC column was capped to prevent excessive leaching of nutrients from the columns. The moisture equilibrium between the incubated sample and the soil in the field was attained through the bottom and four side holes of each column, which were separated from the contacting soil by 400-mesh nylon screen. A set of the incubated columns was removed at monthly intervals, and the soil underlying each column was sampled to analyze for KCl-extractable NH{sub 4}-N and NO{sub 3}-N. Total C and N of the incubated samples were determined at the end of the 1-year incubation.

  17. Imaging saline tracer infiltration into unsaturated sandy soil using full-waveform inversion of cross-borehole ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looms, M. C.; Haarder, E. B.; Keskinen, J.; Nielsen, L.; Van Der Kruk, J.; Klotzsche, A.

    2015-12-01

    Cross-borehole ground penetrating radar (GPR) can provide high-resolution (tens of centimeter) information of the subsurface between boreholes located 5-10 m apart. The method is minimal invasive and therefore provides a unique opportunity to image subsurface variability not possible with standard point-scale equipment, such as TDR- and/or capacitance probes. Full-waveform inversion (FWI) of cross-borehole GPR uses the entire waveform of the transmitted electromagnetic signal. The recorded data contains information on the travel time of the pulse, as well as the attenuation, resulting in moisture content and electrical conductivity images of the subsurface using just one method. Few case studies of cross-borehole GPR FWI using real data have been published to date. The majority of these studies focus on estimating the variation in porosity in the saturated zone (e.g. in gravel aquifers, fractured metamorphic rock, and heterogeneous chalk sediments). In this study, we use cross-borehole GPR to monitor the infiltration of a saline tracer into an unsaturated sandy soil. In September 2011, saline water was added across a 142 m2 area at an agricultural field site in Denmark. A total of 3.3 mm saline water was applied mimicking a natural infiltration event. During the following year, the tracer infiltration into the subsurface was monitored using cross-borehole GPR at weekly to monthly intervals. Furthermore, five cores were extracted within the field site to obtain independent profiles of soil moisture and pore water conductivity for comparison. The cross-borehole GPR data were inverted using ray-based and FWI techniques. For the FWI an appropriate starting model and an effective wavelet must be estimated. Preliminary results indicate that the data modeled for the FWI results mimic better the measured data compared to the ray-based results. However, more research is needed to investigate the influence of the used starting model and the effective wavelet estimation.

  18. Effect of rainfall and tillage direction on the evolution of surface crusts, soil hydraulic properties and runoff generation for a sandy loam soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndiaye, Babacar; Esteves, Michel; Vandervaere, Jean-Pierre; Lapetite, Jean-Marc; Vauclin, Michel

    2005-06-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of rainfall and tillage-induced soil surface characteristics on infiltration and runoff on a 2.8 ha catchment located in the central region of Senegal. This was done by simulating 30 min rain storms applied at a constant rate of about 70 mm h -1, on 10 runoff micro-plots of 1 m 2, five being freshly harrowed perpendicularly to the slope and five along the slope (1%) of the catchment. Runoff was automatically recorded at the outlet of each plot. Hydraulic properties such as capillary sorptivity and hydraulic conductivity of the sandy loam soil close to saturation were determined by running 48 infiltration tests with a tension disc infiltrometer. That allowed the calculation of a mean characteristic pore size hydraulically active and a time to ponding. Superficial water storage capacity was estimated using data collected with an electronic relief meter. Because the soil was subject to surface crusting, crust-types as well as their spatial distribution within micro-plots and their evolution with time were identified and monitored by taking photographs at different times after tillage. The results showed that the surface crust-types as well as their tillage dependent dynamics greatly explain the decrease of hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity as the cumulative rainfall since tillage increases. The exponential decaying rates were found to be significantly greater for the soil harrowed along the slope (where the runoff crust-type covers more than 60% of the surface after 140 mm of rain) than across to the slope (where crusts are mainly of structural (60%) and erosion (40%) types). That makes ponding time smaller and runoff more important. Also it was shown that soil hydraulic properties after about 160 mm of rain were close to those of untilled plot not submitted to any rain. That indicates that the effects of tillage are short lived.

  19. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in organo-mineral particles of alluvial sandy soil profiles at a petroleum-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhe; Zeng, Fangang; Xue, Nandong; Li, Fasheng

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and the distribution of 16 USEPA priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in two alluvial sandy soil profiles and in their four sizes of organo-mineral particles (<2 μm clay, 2-20 μm silt, 20-200 μm fine sand, and >200 μm coarse sand) beside a typical oil sludge storage site in eastern China. PAHs were mainly enriched in the surface soil (0-20 cm) and the concentrations declined in deeper soils, from 3.68 to 0.128 μg/g in profile 1 and 10.8 to 0.143 μg/g in profile 2 (dry wt.). The PAHs in the upper soil layers of this study site mainly came from combustion pollution, whereas in the lower soil layers petroleum contamination became the major source of PAHs. The content of different sized organo-mineral particles of this alluvial sandy soil decreased in the following order: fine sand>coarse sand>silt>clay. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all the different sized soil fractions of this study site were dominated by quartz, calcite and feldspar. The particle surface became smoother with size increasing as shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized soil fractions. The highest PAH concentration was associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay>silt>coarse sand>fine sand. Soil organic matter (SOM) content, mineral composition and particle surface characteristics were suggested as three main factors affecting the distribution of PAHs in different sized organo-mineral particles. This study will help to understand the distribution and transport characteristics of PAHs in soil profiles at petroleum-contaminated sites.

  20. Distinct effects of moisture and air contents on acoustic properties of sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Takuya; Hiraguri, Yasuhiro; Okuzono, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of distinct effects of moisture content and air volume on acoustic properties of soil is sought to predict the influence of human activities such as cultivation on acoustic propagation outdoors. This work used an impedance tube with the two-thickness method to investigate such effects. For a constant moisture weight percentage, the magnitude of the characteristic impedance became smaller and the absorption coefficient became higher with increase of the air space ratio. For a constant air space ratio, the absorption coefficient became larger and the magnitude of the propagation constant became smaller with increasing moisture weight percentage.

  1. [Mechanisms of grass in slope erosion control in Loess sandy soil region of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun-Hong; Gao, Jian-En; Xu, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    By adopting the method of simulated precipitation and from the viewpoint of slope hydrodynamics, in combining with the analysis of soil resistance to erosion, a quantitative study was made on the mechanisms of grass in controlling the slope erosion in the cross area of wind-water erosion in Loess Plateau of Northwest China under different combinations of rainfall intensity and slope gradient, aimed to provide basis to reveal the mechanisms of vegetation in controlling soil erosion and to select appropriate vegetation for the soil and water conservation in Loess Plateau. The grass Astragalus adsurgens with the coverage about 40% could effectively control the slope erosion. This grass had an efficiency of more than 70% in reducing sediment, and the grass root had a greater effect than grass canopy. On bare slope and on the slopes with the grass plant or only the grass root playing effect, there existed a functional relation between the flow velocity on the slopes and the rainfall intensity and slope gradient (V = DJ(0.33 i 0.5), where V is flow velocity, D is the comprehensive coefficient which varies with different underlying surfaces, i is rainfall intensity, and J is slope gradient). Both the grass root and the grass canopy could markedly decrease the flow velocity on the slopes, and increase the slope resistance, but the effect of grass root in decreasing flow velocity was greater while the effect in increasing resistance was smaller than that of grass canopy. The effect of grass root in increasing slope resistance was mainly achieved by increasing the sediment grain resistance, while the effect of canopy was mainly achieved by increasing the slope form resistance and wave resistance. The evaluation of the soil resistance to erosion by using a conceptual model of sediment generation by overland flow indicated that the critical shear stress value of bare slope and of the slopes with the grass plant or only the grass root playing effect was 0.533, 1.672 and 0

  2. Water quality and surfactant effects on the water repellency of a sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrsch, G. A.; Sojka, R. E.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryDifferences in irrigation water quality may affect the water repellency of soils treated or untreated with surfactants. Using simulated irrigations, we evaluated water quality and surfactant application rate effects upon the water repellency of a Quincy sand (Xeric Torripsamment). We used a split plot design with two irrigation water qualities, three surfactant application rates, two irrigations, and 12 sampling depths as fixed effects, with four replications. Each water quality × rate × irrigation combination was a main plot and depth was a repeated-measures subplot. A slightly water repellent Quincy soil (average water drop penetration time, WDPT, of 2.5 s) was packed in 25-mm lifts (or layers) to a bulk density of 1.6 Mg m -3 into 0.15-m-high × 0.105-m-diameter plastic columns. We studied a nonionic surfactant, a blend of an ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymer and an alkyl polyglycoside. We sprayed the surfactant at rates of 0, 9.4, and 46.8 L ha -1, diluted with reverse osmosis water (RW) to apply 187 L ha -1 of solution, onto the soil surface of each packed column. About 1 and 5 days after surfactant application, columns were sprinkler irrigated with either RW or well water (WW). The WDPT was then measured with depth on soil air-dried after the first and after the second irrigation. After the first irrigation, WDPT at depths from 97 to 117 mm averaged across surfactant rates reached a maximum of 28 s, regardless of irrigation water quality. WDPT was greatest at 117 mm with RW but only at 97 mm with WW. After the second irrigation, maximum WDPT was 1202 s at 139 mm with RW but only 161 s at 117 mm with WW, nearly 7.5 fold less than with RW. WDPT was greatest near the wetting front, irrespective of water quality. We conclude that irrigation water containing modest amounts of electrolytes or salts, in this case mostly salts of Ca 2+, reduces water repellency in the presence or absence of surfactant. Our experimental results may also help

  3. Designer, acidic biochar influences calcareous soil characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An acidic (pH 5.8) biochar was created using a low pyrolysis temperature (350 degrees celsius) and steam activation to potentially improve the soil physicochemical status of an eroded calcareous soil. Biochar was added at 0, 1, 2, and 10 percent (by weight) to an eroded Portneuf soil (coarse-silty,...

  4. Hydrodispersive characterization of a sandy porous medium by tracer tests carried out in laboratory on undisturbed soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrante, Aldo Pedro; Fallico, Carmine; Rios, Ana C.; Fernanda Rivera, Maria; Santillan, Patricio; Salazar, Mario

    2013-04-01

    The contamination of large areas and correspondent aquifers often imposes to implement some recovery operations which are generally complex and very expensive. Anyway, these interventions necessarily require the preventive characterization of the aquifers to be reclaimed and in particular the knowledge of the relevant hydrodispersive parameters. The determination of these parameters requires the implementation tracer tests for the specific site (Sauty JP, 1978). To reduce cost and time that such test requires tracer tests on undisturbed soil samples, representative of the whole aquifer, can be performed. These laboratory tests are much less expensive and require less time, but the results are certainly less reliable than those obtained by field tests for several reasons, including the particular scale of investigation. In any case the hydrodispersive parameters values, obtained by tests carried out in laboratory, can provide useful information on the considered aquifer, allowing to carry out initial verifications on the transmission and propagation of the pollutants in the aquifer considered. For this purpose, tracer tests with inlet of short time were carried out in the Soil Physics Laboratory of the Department of Soil Protection (University of Calabria), on a series of sandy soil samples with six different lengths, repeating each test with three different water flow velocities (5 m/d; 10 m/s and 15 m/d) (J. Feyen et al., 1998). The lengths of the samples taken into account are respectively 15 cm, 24 cm, 30 cm, 45 cm, 60 cm and 75 cm, while the solution used for each test was made of 100 ml of water and NaCl with a concentration of this substance corresponding to 10 g/L. For the porous medium taken into consideration a particle size analysis was carried out, resulting primarily made of sand, with total porosity equal to 0.33. Each soil sample was placed in a flow cell in which was inlet the tracer from the bottom upwards, measuring by a conductivimeter the

  5. Persistence, distribution, and emission of Telone C35 injected into a Florida sandy soil as affected by moisture, organic matter, and plastic film cover.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J E; Ou, L T; Allen, L H; McCormack, L A; Vu, J C; Dickson, D W

    2004-05-01

    With the phase-out of methyl bromide scheduled for 2005, alternative fumigants are being sought. This study of Telone C35, a mixture of (Z)- and (E)-1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) with chloropicirin (CP), focuses on its emissions, distribution, and persistence in Florida sandy soil in microplots with different soil-water and organic matter carbon (C) content with and without two different plastic film mulches. The addition of CP did not affect the physical behavior of the isomers of 1,3-D. Slower subsurface dispersion and longer residence time of the mixed fumigant occurred at higher water content. An increase in the percent organic carbon in the soil led to a more rapid decrease for chloropicirin than for 1,3-dichloropene isomers. The use of a virtually impermeable film (VIF) for soil cover provided a more even distribution and longer persistence under all the conditions studied in comparison to polyethylene (PE) film cover or no cover. The conditions of near field capacity water content, low organic matter, and a virtually impermeable film cover yielded optimum conditions for the distribution, emission control, and persistence of Telone C35 in a Florida sandy soil.

  6. Impact of slurry management strategies on potential leaching of nutrients and pathogens in a sandy soil amended with cattle slurry.

    PubMed

    Fangueiro, D; Surgy, S; Napier, V; Menaia, J; Vasconcelos, E; Coutinho, J

    2014-12-15

    For farmers, management of cattle slurry (CS) is now a priority, in order to improve the fertilizer value of the slurry and simultaneously minimize its environmental impact. Several slurry pre-treatments and soil application methods to minimize ammonia emissions are now available to farmers, but the impact of such management strategies on groundwater is still unclear. A laboratory experiment was performed over 24 days in controlled conditions, with undisturbed soil columns (sandy soil) in PVC pipes (30 cm high and 5.7 cm in diameter). The treatments considered (4 replicates) were: a control with no amendment (CTR), injection of whole CS (WSI), and surface application of: whole CS (WSS), acidified (pH 5.5) whole CS (AWSS), the liquid fraction obtained by centrifugation of CS (LFS), and acidified (pH 5.5) liquid fraction (ALFS). An amount of CS equivalent to 240 kg N ha(-1) was applied in all treatments. The first leaching event was performed 72 h after application of the treatments and then leaching events were performed weekly to give a total of four irrigation events (IEs). All the leachates obtained were analyzed for mineral and organic nitrogen, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total carbon, and phosphorus. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli were also quantified in the leachates obtained in the first IE. The results show that both acidification and separation had significant effects on the composition of the leachates: higher NO3(-) concentrations were observed for the LFS and ALFS relative to all the other treatments, throughout the experiment, and lower NO3(-) concentrations were observed for acidified relative to non-acidified treatments at IE2. Acidification of both the LF and WS led to higher NH4(+) concentrations as well as an increase of EC for treatment ALFS relative to the control, in the first IE, and lower pH values in the AWSS. Furthermore, the E. coli and total coliform concentrations in AWSS, LFS, and ALFS were significantly higher than in

  7. Influences of soil acidity on Streptomyces populations inhabiting forest soils.

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, C

    1976-01-01

    The Streptomyces populations inhabiting five acidic forest soils were examined. It was found that lowering the pH of a medium selective for streptomycetes (starch-casein agar) to the pH of the particular soil horizon being plated influenced both the total numbers and types of streptomycetes that were isolated from the soils examined in this study. On the acidified medium both the numbers of streptomycetes and the percentage of total bacteria on the plates represented by streptomycetes increased (as compared with the same medium with a pH of 7.2). These differences were greatest on the isolations from the most acid soils. The largest concentrations of streptomycetes were found in the surface horizon (0 to 15 cm) and the litter layer immediately over the surface mineral horizon. Acidity tolerance tests demonstrated that random samplings of isolates contained acidophilic, neutrophilic, and acidoduric strains, with the largest numbers of acidophiles being found on the acidified media from the most acid soils. There were no differences between overall utilization of selected carbohydrates among the isolates taken from either the neutral or acidic media, although a larger proportion of the acid media isolates produced acid from the carbohydrates. Evidence is presented which indicates that different types of streptomycetes were isolated on the acid media, and possible reasons for the presence of these acid-tolerant populations are discussed. PMID:10835

  8. The relevance of in-situ and laboratory characterization of sandy soil hydraulic properties for soil water simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Meisam; Seuntjens, Piet; Shahidi, Reihaneh; Joris, Ingeborg; Boënne, Wesley; Al-Barri, Bashar; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-03-01

    Field water flow processes can be precisely delineated with proper sets of soil hydraulic properties derived from in situ and/or laboratory experiments. In this study we analyzed and compared soil hydraulic properties obtained by traditional laboratory experiments and inverse optimization tension infiltrometer data along the vertical direction within two typical Podzol profiles with sand texture in a potato field. The main goal was to identify proper sets of hydraulic parameters and to evaluate their relevance on hydrological model performance for irrigation management purposes. Tension disc infiltration experiments were carried out at four and five different depths for both profiles at consecutive negative pressure heads of 12, 6, 3 and 0.1 cm. At the same locations and depths undisturbed samples were taken to determine Mualem-van Genuchten (MVG) hydraulic parameters (θr, residual water content, θs, saturated water content, α and n, shape parameters and Kls, lab saturated hydraulic conductivity) in the laboratory. Results demonstrated horizontal differences and vertical variability of hydraulic properties. The tension disc infiltration data fitted well in inverse modeling using Hydrus 2D/3D in combination with final water content at the end of the experiment, θf. Four MVG parameters (θs, α, n and field saturated hydraulic conductivity Kfs) were estimated (θr set to zero), with estimated Kls and α values being relatively similar to values from Wooding's solution which used as initial value and estimated θs corresponded to (effective) field saturated water content, θf. The laboratory measurement of Kls yielded 2-30 times higher values than the field method Kfs from top to subsoil layers, while there was a significant correlation between both Ks values (r = 0.75). We found significant differences of MVG parameters θs, n and α values between laboratory and field measurements, but again a significant correlation was observed between laboratory and field MVG

  9. Influence of a Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant on the Transport of Bacteria through a Sandy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Bai, G.; Brusseau, M. L.; Miller, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of an anionic rhamnolipid biosurfactant on the transport of bacterial cells through soil under saturated conditions. Three cell types with various hydrophobicities, i.e., Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, ATCC 27853, and ATCC 15442, were used in this study. In a series of experiments, columns packed with sterile sand were saturated with sterile artificial groundwater for 15 h, and then 3 pore volumes of (sup3)H-labeled bacterial suspensions with various rhamnolipid concentrations was pumped through the column. This was followed by 4 pore volumes of the rhamnolipid solution alone. The measured bacterial cell breakthrough curves were optimized by using an advection-dispersion transport model incorporating two-domain reversible sorption (instantaneous and rate limited) and with two first-order sink terms for irreversible adsorption. The influence of the rhamnolipid on the surface charge densities of the bacteria and the porous medium was also investigated. The results show that the rhamnolipid enhanced the transport of all cell types tested. For example, the rhamnolipid increased the recovery of the most hydrophilic strain, ATCC 9027, from 22.5 to 56.3%. Similarly, the recovery of ATCC 27853 increased from 36.8 to 49.4%, and the recovery of ATCC 15442, the most hydrophobic strain, increased from 17.7 to 40.5% in the presence of the rhamnolipid. The negative surface charge density of the porous medium was increased, while the surface charge density of the bacteria was not changed in the presence of the rhamnolipid. The model results suggest that the rhamnolipid predominantly affected irreversible adsorption of cells. PMID:16535601

  10. Toxicity of a New Polynitramine Energetic Material, CL-20, to the Enchytraeid Worm, Enchytraeus Crypticus, in a Sandy Loam Soil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    The use of either trade or manufacturers ’ names in this report does not constitute an official endorsement of any commercial products. This report may...ASTM Type II water, analytical reagent grade nitric acid 1% (volume/volume), then with ASTM Type I water. 2.3 Soil Amendment Procedures. Studies were...ecological receptors. This information should be considered by the manufacturer , potential users, risk assessors, and future site managers, during

  11. Mitigation of Water Stress on Apple Trees under Rotational Irrigation Conditions by Increasing the Application Rate of Organic Fertilizers to Sandy Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, Lamy Mamdoh Mohamed; Ramadan Eid, Abdelraouf; Mohsmed Rabie Abdellatif Abdelaziz, Adel; Fathy Abdelsalam Essa, El-Sayed

    2016-04-01

    Egypt, as part of Mediterranean regions, is characterized by irregular and low rainfall amount which varies between (30-150 mm.year-1), and characterized also by high temperature which increase the rate of evapotranspiration from the cultivated soil. On the other hand, New reclaimed soils are mostly occupies around 84 % of total area of Egypt, which is mainly sandy soils. These soils generally characterized by low water capacity holding, soil organic matter, and weak in nutrients retention. Under these conditions which have a great influence on crop production, there is a great needing to increase the crop water use efficiency and increasing of nutrient retention in sandy soils. In this context, two field experiments were carried out on sand soil located in north Cairo-Egypt at the experimental farm of National Research Center, El-NUBARIA, (latitude 30° 30' N, and longitude 30° 19' E). The effect of compost rates on soil hydraulic characteristics, fruit yields, quality traits, and water use efficiency and productivity of apple tree (Apple Anna Cultivar), was studied under deficit irrigation conditions. Four rates of compost [I1: control, I2: 12 ton.ha-1., I3: 24 ton.ha-1., I4: 36 ton.ha-1. and I5:48 ton.ha-1.] were applied under irrigation frequencies of (IF1 :once per week; IF2 :twice per week, IF3 :three times per week). The obtained results indicated that by increasing the application rate of compost, the available water capacity and saturated water content of sandy soil have been enhanced. In the same time, the fruit yield, quality traits and water productivity were increased by increasing the application rate of compost. It is worthy to mention that the I5IF3 treatment gave the highest values of fruit yield, quality traits and water productivity, whereas I1IF1 treatment gave the lowest values of all the above mentioned variables. As result, for apple cultivation in El-NUBARIA region, the recommended rate of compost is 48 ton.ha-1 and irrigation frequency

  12. Water flux components and soil water-atmospheric controls in a temperate pine forest growing in a well-drained sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaren, Joshua D.; Arain, M. Altaf; Khomik, Myroslava; Peichl, Matthias; Brodeur, Jason

    2008-12-01

    The influences of soil water supply and atmospheric demand on transpiration were studied to gain insight into the physical mechanisms limiting forest water use within the broader context of total canopy water loss to the atmosphere. Evaporation from forests (E) can be partitioned in to four main source components: canopy transpiration (Ec), understorey transpiration (Eu), evaporation from the soil (Es), and the evaporation of intercepted water (EI). Ec and EI usually make up most of E. Ec estimated from sap flow measurements and modeled EI estimates were compared with eddy covariance measured values of E to quantify the components of the above canopy water flux to the atmosphere, in a temperate pine forest ecosystem established on a well-drained sandy plain at Turkey Point in southern Ontario, Canada. Daily values of E averaged 2.4 mm d-1 and reached maximums of 4 mm d-1 while daily values of Ec averaged 1.2 mm d-1 over the growing season. The evaporation of intercepted water (EI) was generally between 2 and 3 mm per event. EI accounted for 34% and Ec accounted for 47% (31 to 67% range on a monthly basis), together accounting for 81% of E during the growing season. Ec increased linearly with vapor pressure deficit (VPD) until a transition point was reached, after which mid-day Ec rates remained more or less constant. For analysis purposes, data were segregated by early morning VPD (or VPDin) in an attempt to characterize the atmosphere at the beginning of the daily transpiration cycle. This technique revealed that shifts in the timing and magnitude of Ec rates masked the response of Ec to changes in soil water content. Analysis also suggested that while increasing VPDs may limit maximum transpiration rates, daily total transpiration is a conservative quantity. This study improves the understanding of the physical mechanisms limiting water loss in forested ecosystems growing on water-stressed soils by investigating the effects of VPD and soil water content on Ec.

  13. Acid rain on acid soil: a new perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, E.C.; Frink, C.R.

    1983-08-05

    Acid rain is widely believed to be responsible for acidifying soil and water in areas of North America and Northern Europe. However, factors commonly considered to make landscapes susceptible to acidification by acid rain are the same factors long known to strongly acidify soils through the natural processes of soil formation. Recovery from extreme and widespread careless land use has also occurred in regions undergoing acidification. There is evidence that acidification by acid rain is superimposed on long-term acidification induced by changes in land use and consequent vegetative succession. Thus, the interactions of acid rain, acid soil, and vegetation need to be carefully examined on a watershed basis in assessing benefits expected from proposed reductions in emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen.

  14. Acid rain on acid soil: a new perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, E.C.; Frink, C.R.

    1983-08-05

    Acid rain is widely believed to be responsible for acidifying soil and water in areas of North America and northern Europe. However, factors commonly considered to make landscapes susceptible to acidification by acid rain are the same factors long known to strongly acidify soils through the natural processes of soil formation. Recovery from extreme and widespread careless land use has also occurred in regions undergoing acidification. There is evidence that acidification by acid rain is superimposed on long-term acidification induced by changes in land use and consequent vegetative succession. Thus, the interactions of acid rain, acid soil, and vegetation need to be carefully examined on a watershed basis in assessing benefits expected from proposed reductions in emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen.

  15. Effect of oil pollution on function of sandy soils in protected deserts and investigation of their improvement guidelines (case study: Kalmand area, Iran).

    PubMed

    Saberian, Mohammad; Khabiri, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-11-25

    Soil pollution is one of the most dangerous sorts of environmental pollutions because of waste materials, fossil fuels, etc. Unfortunately in developing countries, there are very few arrangements to prevent soil pollution due to the fossil fuels and to improve polluted soil. In this research, influences of gas oil on properties of Kalmand protected area's sandy soil near Yazd, Iran, were studied. It was found that gas oil constituted 5.25% of soil weight in the refueling station in the region. Therefore, cleaning and strengthening of the soil by adding cement rather than expensive and complicated methods were the most important goals of this research. First, the influence of gas oil on soil properties was studied, and to improve the soil, different percentages of ordinary portland cement were added to the polluted sand to study the improved soil properties using laboratory tests. It was found that unconfined compressive strength, cohesion, and angle of internal friction of sample with 16% cement and 8% gas oil after 28 days of curing were higher than those of the specimen of 6% cement and 14% gas oil, at 4.6, 5.4, and 1.3 times, respectively. Moreover, based on falling head tests it was observed that permeability of the stabilized specimens decreased substantially. From SEM tests, fewer voids were observed in the stabilized samples, which led to less pollutant penetration into the soil. According to EDX, although dangerous elements in the contaminated specimen made up 3.99% of the specimen total weight, addition of cement introduced considerable amounts of elements that are vital for pozzolanic reactions. Therefore, it can be concluded that addition of cement to the gas oil-polluted soil not only can improve geotechnical properties of the soil and reduce its permeability, but also is very efficient for environmental issues.

  16. Effect of soil acidity, soil strength and macropores on root growth and morphology of perennial grass species differing in acid-soil resistance.

    PubMed

    Haling, Rebecca E; Simpson, Richard J; Culvenor, Richard A; Lambers, Hans; Richardson, Alan E

    2011-03-01

    It is unclear whether roots of acid-soil resistant plants have significant advantages, compared with acid-soil sensitive genotypes, when growing in high-strength, acid soils or in acid soils where macropores may allow the effects of soil acidity and strength to be avoided. The responses of root growth and morphology to soil acidity, soil strength and macropores by seedlings of five perennial grass genotypes differing in acid-soil resistance were determined, and the interaction of soil acidity and strength for growth and morphology of roots was investigated. Soil acidity and strength altered root length and architecture, root hair development, and deformed the root tip, especially in acid-soil sensitive genotypes. Root length was restricted to some extent by soil acidity in all genotypes, but the adverse impact of soil acidity on root growth by acid-soil resistant genotypes was greater at high levels of soil strength. Roots reacted to soil acidity when growing in macropores, but elongation through high-strength soil was improved. Soil strength can confound the effect of acidity on root growth, with the sensitivity of acid-resistant genotypes being greater in high-strength soils. This highlights the need to select for genotypes that resist both acidity and high soil strength.

  17. Sorption/desorption of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane(4,4'-DDT) on a sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Ziya; Cutright, Teresa J

    2015-02-01

    1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane(4,4'-DDT) is a pesticide well-known for its negative health and environmental effects. Despite being banned by a majority of world countries more than 30 years ago, its persistence in the environment is a continuing problem even today. The objective of the study was the investigation of sorption/desorption behavior of 4,4'-DDT in sandy loam soil. The impact of contaminant concentration and age was observed with three different experiments. The sorption percentages at the end of the short time step (8 h) were 50 and 92 %, for initial concentrations 2.26 and 5.28 mg/L, respectively. When freshly spiked soil was subjected to a conventional sorption study, 82 to 99.6 % of the initial aqueous DDT concentrations were sorbed within 24 h. When modeled with a Freundlich isotherm, the log K f was found to be 3.62. After six consecutive 24 h desorption steps, 33 to 96.6 % still remained in the soil. This was more pronounced for soils that had been aged for 60 days. After seven consecutive 24 h desorption steps of aged soil, the percent remaining sorbed to the soil were 44, 64, and 77 %, for 25, 250, and 500 mg/kg, respectively. All results show that 4,4-DDT has a tendency of sorbing to the soil rapidly and showing resistance to desorption. When comparing desorption values, aged soils were seen to desorb less than non-aged soils. This result was attributed to stronger binding to soil with increased contact time.

  18. HONO (nitrous acid) emissions from acidic northern soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maljanen, Marja; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Martikainen, Pertti J.

    2015-04-01

    The photolysis of HONO (nitrous acid) is an important source of OH radical, the key oxidizing agent in the atmosphere, contributing also to removal of atmospheric methane (CH4), the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide (CO2). The emissions of HONO from soils have been recently reported in few studies. Soil HONO emissions are regarded as missing sources of HONO when considering the chemical reactions in the atmosphere. The soil-derived HONO has been connected to soil nitrite (NO2-) and also directly to the activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria, which has been studied with one pure culture. Our hypothesis was that boreal acidic soils with high nitrification activity could be also sources of HONO and the emissions of HONO are connected with nitrification. We selected a range of dominant northern acidic soils and showed in microcosm experiments that soils which have the highest nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions (drained peatlands) also have the highest HONO production rates. The emissions of HONO are thus linked to nitrogen cycle and also NO and N2O emissions. Natural peatlands and boreal coniferous forests on mineral soils had the lowest HONO emissions. It is known that in natural peatlands with high water table and in boreal coniferous forest soils, low nitrification activity (microbial production of nitrite and nitrate) limits their N2O production. Low availability of nitrite in these soils is the likely reason also for their low HONO production rates. We also studied the origin of HONO in one peat soil with acetylene and other nitrification inhibitors and we found that HONO production is not closely connected to ammonium oxidation (nitrification). Acetylene blocked NO emissions but did not affect HONO or N2O emissions, thus there is another source behind HONO emission from these soils than ammonium oxidation. It is still an open question if this process is microbial or chemical origin.

  19. Survival of Rhizobium in Acid Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lowendorf, Henry S.; Baya, Ana Maria; Alexander, Martin

    1981-01-01

    A Rhizobium strain nodulating cowpeas did not decline in abundance after it was added to sterile soils at pH 6.9 and 4.4, and the numbers fell slowly in nonsterile soils at pH 5.5 and 4.1. A strain of R. phaseoli grew when added to sterile soils at pH 6.7 and 6.9; it maintained large, stable populations in soils of pH 4.4, 5.5, and 6.0, but the numbers fell markedly and then reached a stable population size in sterile soils at pH 4.3 and 4.4. The abundance of R. phaseoli added to nonsterile soils with pH values of 4.3 to 6.7 decreased similarly with time regardless of soil acidity, and the final numbers were less than in the comparable sterile soils. The minimum pH values for the growth of strains of R. meliloti in liquid media ranged from 5.3 to 5.9. Two R. meliloti strains, which differed in acid tolerance for growth in culture, did not differ in numbers or decline when added to sterile soils at pH 4.8, 5.2, and 6.3. The population size of these two strains was reduced after they were introduced into nonsterile soils at pH 4.8, 5.4, and 6.4, and the number of survivors was related to the soil pH. The R. meliloti strain that was more acid sensitive in culture declined more readily in sterile soil at pH 4.6 than did the less sensitive strain, and only the former strain was eliminated from nonsterile soil at pH 4.8; however, the less sensitive strain also survived better in limed soil. The cell density of the two R. meliloti strains was increased in pH 6.4 soil in the presence of growing alfalfa. The decline and elimination of the tolerant, but not the sensitive, strain was delayed in soil at pH 4.6 by roots of growing alfalfa. PMID:16345909

  20. Toxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid towards earthworm and enzymatic activities in soil.

    PubMed

    He, Wenxiang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widespread persistent organic contaminant in the environment that has recently raised much of regulatory and public concern. Therefore, assessment of its ecological risk is a top priority research. Hence, this study investigated the toxicity of PFOA to beneficial microbial processes in the soil such as activities of dehydrogenase, urease and potential nitrification in addition to earthworm survival, weight loss and PFOA bioaccumulation in two contrasting soils. In general, PFOA caused inhibition of all the measured microbial processes in a dose-dependent manner and the inhibition was higher in Williamtown (WT) soil than Edinburgh (EB) soil. Thus, WT soil being sandy in nature with low clay content showed higher PFOA bioavailability and hence showed higher toxicity. There was no mortality in earthworms exposed up to 100 mg PFOA/kilogram soil in both the soils; however, there was a significant weight loss from 25 mg/kg onwards. This study clearly demonstrates that soil contamination of PFOA can lead to adverse effects on soil health.

  1. Acid soil and acid rain, 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, I.R.

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the basic chemical processes involved in acidification in order to better assess their long-term effects on the status of soils, the health of plants and other living species that depend on them. It also discusses acidity, pH and protons their significance in bioenergetics and the consequent role of autotrophic organisms in acidifying ecosystems. This edition incorporates and integrates recent findings that render more explanations of the causes of the environmental impacts of acidity, especially in forests and lakes. Also explores current research into acid rain and soil in order to devise appropriate measures for their amelioration.

  2. [Nitrate nitrogen leaching and residue of humic acid fertilizer in field soil].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang-chun; Xing, Shang-jun; Duan, Chun-hua; Du, Zhen-yu; Ma, Hai-lin; Ma, Bing-yao

    2010-07-01

    To elucidate the potential influence of humic acidfertilizer on groundwater and soil quality in clay soil (CS) and sandy soil (SS), nitrate nitrogen leaching and residue of different fertilizers in field soil were studied using a self-made leaching field device. Nitrate nitrogen concentration in leaching water of fertilizer treatments was 28.1%-222.2% higher than that of non-nitrogen treatment in different times, but humic acid fertilizer could prevent nitrate nitrogen leaching both in CS and SS, especially in CS. Nitrate nitrogen concentration of leaching water in CS was 41.2%-59.1% less than that in SS and the inhibiting effect in CS was greater than that in SS. Nitrate nitrogen could be accumulated in soil profile by fertilizer application. The residue of nitrate nitrogen retained in 0-40 cm soil layer of humic acid fertilizer treatment was 59.8% and 54.4% respectively, higher than that of urea and compound fertilizer treatments. Nitrate nitrogen amount of humic acid, urea and compound fertilizer treatments in SS was significantly less than that in CS, being 81.7%, 81.1% and 47.6% respectively. Compared with the conventional fertilizer, humic acid fertilizer treatment improved the contents of organic matter, available nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium of upper layer soil as well as cation exchange capacity. Besides, total amount of water-soluble salts in humic acid fertilizer treatment was decreased by 24.8% and 22.5% in comparison to urea and compound fertilizer treatments in CS, respectively. In summary, the application of humic acid fertilizer could improve physical and chemical properties of upper layer soil and reduce the risk of potential pollution to groundwater.

  3. [Effects of different vegetation restoration patterns on the diversity of soil nitrogen-fixing microbes in Hulunbeier sandy land, Inner Mongolia of North China].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li-Juan; Li, Yu-Jie; Qiao, Jiang; Zhang, Hai-Fang; Song, Xiao-Long; Yang, Dian-Lin

    2013-06-01

    By using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and sequence analysis, this paper studied the nifH gene diversity and community structure of soil nitrogen-fixing microbes in Hulunbeier sandy land of Inner Mongolia under four years management of five vegetation restoration modes, i. e., mixed-planting of Agropyron cristatum, Hedysarum fruticosum, Caragana korshinskii, and Elymus nutans (ACHE) and of Agropyron cristatum and Hedysarum fruticosum (AC), and mono-planting of Caragana korshinskii (UC), Agropyron cristatum (UA), and Hedysarum fruticosum (UH), taking the bare land as the control (CK). There existed significant differences in the community composition of nitrogen-fixing microbes among the five vegetation restoration patterns. The Shannon index of the nifH gene was the highest under ACHE, followed by under AC, UC, UA, and UH, and the lowest in CK. Except that UH and CK had less difference in the Shannon index, the other four vegetation restoration modes had a significantly higher Shannon index than CK (P < 0.05). The phylogenetic analysis showed that the soil nitrogen-fixing microbes under UA, UH, and UC were mainly of cyanobacteria, but the soil nitrogen-fixing microbes under AC and ACHE changed obviously, mainly of proteobacteria, and also of cyanobacteria. The canonical correlation analysis showed that the soil total phosphorus, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen contents under the five vegetation restoration modes had significant effects on the nitrogen-fixing microbial communities, and there existed significant correlations among the soil total phosphorus, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen. It was suggested that the variations of the community composition of soil nitrogen-fixing microbes under the five vegetation restoration modes were resulted from the interactive and combined effects of the soil physical and chemical factors.

  4. Designer, acidic biochar influences calcareous soil characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, J A; Ducey, T F; Cantrell, K B; Novak, J M; Lentz, R D

    2016-01-01

    In a proof-of-concept study, an acidic (pH 5.8) biochar was created using a low pyrolysis temperature (350 °C) and steam activation (800 °C) to potentially improve the soil physicochemical status of an eroded calcareous soil. Biochar was added at 0%, 1%, 2%, and 10% (by wt.) and soils were destructively sampled at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 month intervals. Soil was analyzed for gravimetric water content, pH, NO3-N, plant-available Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, and P, organic C, CO2 respiration, and microbial enumeration via extractable DNA and 16S rRNA gene copies. Gravimetric soil water content increased with biochar application regardless of rate, as compared to the control. Soil pH decreased between 0.2 and 0.4 units, while plant-available Zn, Mn, and P increased with increasing biochar application rate. Micronutrient availability decreased over time likely due to insoluble mineral species precipitation. Increasing biochar application raised the soil organic C content and remained elevated over time. Increasing biochar application rate also increased respired CO2, yet the CO2 released decreased over time. Soil NO3-N concentrations significantly decreased with increasing biochar application rate likely due to microbial immobilization or denitrification. Depending on application rate, biochar produced a 1.4 to 2.1-fold increase in soil DNA extracted and 1.4- to 2.4-fold increase in 16S rRNA gene abundance over control soils, suggesting microbial stimulation and a subsequent burst of activity upon biochar addition. Our results showed that there is promise in designing a biochar to improve the quality and water relations of eroded calcareous soils.

  5. High-quality draft genome sequence of Enterobacter sp. Bisph2, a glyphosate-degrading bacterium isolated from a sandy soil of Biskra, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Benslama, Ouided; Boulahrouf, Abderrahmane

    2016-06-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain Bisph2 was isolated from a sandy soil from Biskra, Algeria and exhibits glyphosate-degrading activity. Multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp60, gyrB and dnaJ genes demonstrated that Bisph2 might be a member of a new species of the genus Enterobacter. Genomic sequencing of Bisph2 was used to better clarify the relationships among Enterobacter species. Annotation and analysis of the genome sequence showed that the 5.535.656 bp genome of Enterobacter sp. Bisph2 consists in one chromosome and no detectable plasmid, has a 53.19% GC content and 78% of genes were assigned a putative function. The genome contains four prophages of which 3 regions are intact and no CRISPER was detected. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JXAF00000000.

  6. Accumulation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine by the earthworm Eisenia andrei in a sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Manon; Dodard, Sabine G; Savard, Kathleen; Lachance, Bernard; Robidoux, Pierre Y; Kuperman, Roman G; Hawari, Jalal; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2009-10-01

    The heterocyclic polynitramine hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a highly energetic compound found as a soil contaminant at some defense installations. Although RDX is not lethal to soil invertebrates at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg, it decreases earthworm cocoon formation and juvenile production at environmentally relevant concentrations found at contaminated sites. Very little is known about the uptake of RDX in earthworms and the potential risks for food-chain transfer of RDX in the environment. Toxicokinetic studies were conducted to quantify the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) using adult earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed for up to 14 d to sublethal concentrations of nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX in a Sassafras sandy loam soil. High-performance liquid chromatography of acetonitrile extracts of tissue and soil samples indicated that nonlabeled RDX can be accumulated by the earthworm in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The BAF, expressed as the earthworm tissue to soil concentration ratio, decreased from 6.7 to 0.1 when the nominal soil RDX concentrations were increased from 1 to 10,000 mg/kg. Tissue concentrations were comparable in earthworms exposed to nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX. The RDX bioaccumulation also was estimated using the kinetically derived model (BAFK), based on the ratio of the uptake to elimination rate constants. The established BAFK of 3.6 for [14C]RDX uptake was consistent with the results for nonlabeled RDX. Radioactivity also was present in the tissue residues of [14C]RDX-exposed earthworms following acetonitrile extraction, suggesting the formation of nonextractable [14C]RDX metabolites associated with tissue macromolecules. These findings demonstrated a net accumulation of RDX in the earthworm and the potential for food-chain transfer of RDX to higher-trophic-level receptors.

  7. Effects of Monotypic and Binary Mixtures of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles on Microbial Growth in Sandy Soil Collected from Artificial Recharge Sites

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kyung-Seok; Ha, Kyoochul; Kong, In Chul

    2015-01-01

    The potential effects of monotypic and binary metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs, ZnO, NiO, Co3O4 and TiO2) on microbial growth were evaluated in sandy soil collected from artificial recharge sites. Microbial growth was assessed based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, dehydrogenase activity (DHA), and viable cell counts (VCC). Microbial growth based on ATP content and VCC showed considerable differences depending on NP type and concentration, whereas DHA did not significantly change. In general, ZnO NPs showed the strongest effect on microbial growth in all measurements, showing an EC50 value of 10.9 mg/L for ATP content. The ranking (EC50) of NPs based on their effect on microbial growth assessed by ATP content and VCC was ZnO > Co3O4 > NiO > TiO2. Upon exposure to binary NP mixtures, synergistic and additive modes of action were observed for ATP content and VCC, respectively. The ranges of observed (P(O)) and expected (P(E)) activity were 83%–92% and 78%–82% of the control (p-value 0.0010) based on ATP content and 78%–95% and 72%–94% of the control (p-value 0.8813) based on VCC under the tested conditions, respectively. The results indicate that the effects of NP mixtures on microbial growth in the sandy soil matrix were as great, or greater, than those of single NPs. Therefore, understanding the effects of single NPs and NP mixtures is essential for proper ecological risk assessment. Additionally, these findings demonstrate that the evaluation of NP effects may be profoundly influenced by the method of microbial growth measurement. PMID:26610489

  8. Chloroacetic acids in European soils and vegetation.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ruud J B

    2003-04-01

    Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCA) are possible minor atmospheric degradation products of perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene, respectively. These acids may be wet- or dry-deposited from the atmosphere to land surfaces and hence possibly affect plant growth. However, the existing database on TCA levels in soil is limited to a few studies carried out in the late 1980's and the early to mid-1990's and it was concluded that there is a need for further measurements of concentrations of TCA and DCA in soils. In this study soil samples from 10 locations in 5 European countries, as well as vegetation samples, and a limited number of rainwater and air samples were collected and analysed for DCA and TCA to determine the concentrations of these compounds. An isotope dilution method using GC-MS was used for the determination of these acids in the samples. The method was briefly validated and the performance characteristics are presented. The results of the analysis of the soil samples show that the DCA and TCA concentrations in soil from different sites in Europe are more or less comparable, with the exception of Germany, especially Freudenstadt, where significantly higher TCA concentrations (up to 12 microg kg(-1) dw) were found. The average DCA and TCA concentrations in soil in this study were 0.25 +/- 0.12 and 0.64 +/- 1.40 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. Generally, the concentration in soils from forest areas are about twice those from open-land areas. The DCA and TCA concentrations in vegetation samples ranged from 2.1 to 73 microg kg(-1) dw for DCA and from 4.7 to 17 microg kg(-1) dw for TCA. Thus, the concentrations in vegetation samples are 10-20 times higher than the soil concentrations. DCA and TCA concentrations in wet deposition samples and air samples collected in The Netherlands were 0.14 and 0.15 microg l(-1) for wet deposition samples and <0.5 and 0.7 ng m(-3) for air samples respectively. For these samples taken in The Netherlands

  9. Non-Linear finite element analysis of cone penetration in layered sandy loam soil-considering precompression stress state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Axisymmetric finite element (FE) method was developed using a commercial computer program to simulate cone penetration process in layered granular soil. Soil was considered as a non-linear elastic plastic material which was modeled using variable elastic parameters of Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s r...

  10. Quantity and nature of water-extractable organic matter from sandy loam soils with potato cropping managements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) is part of the soil labile organic matter components. In this work, we evaluated the level and nature of soil WEOM from a long-term (6-year) potato crop rotation field experiment. The contents of water-extractable organic C (WEOC) were higher in continuous pot...

  11. [Characteristics of N2, N2O, NO, CO2 and CH4 Emissions in Anaerobic Condition from Sandy Loam Paddy Soil].

    PubMed

    Cao, Na; Wang, Rui; Liao, Ting-ting; Chen, Nuo; Zheng, Xun-hua; Yao, Zhi-sheng; Zhang, Hai; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the characteristics of the production of nitrogen gases (N2, N2O and NO), CO2 and CH4 in anaerobic paddy soils is not only a prerequisite for an improved mechanistic understanding of key microbial processes involved in the production of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG), but might also provide the basis for designing greenhouse gas mitigation strategies. Moreover, quantifying the composition fractions of denitrification gaseous products is of key importance for improving parameterization schemes of microbial processes in process-oriented models which are increasingly used for assessing soil GHG emissions at site and national scales. In our experiments we investigated two sandy loam soils from two paddy fields. The initial concentrations of soil nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were set at approximately 50 mg.kg-1 and mg.kg-1, respectively, by adding a mixture solution of KNO3 and glucose. The emissions of N2, N2O NO, CO2 and CH4, as well as concentrations of carbon and nitrogen substrates for each soil sample were measured simultaneously, using a gas-flow-soil-core technique and a paralleling substrate monitoring system. The results showed that the accumulative emissions of N2, N2O and NO of the two soil samples for the entire incubation period were 6 - 8, 20, and 15 - 18 mg.kg-1, respectively. By measuring the cumulative emissions of denitrification gases (N, = N2 + N2O + NO) we were able to explain 95% to 98% of observed changes in s1ifr nilrate concentrations. The mass fractions of N2, N2O and NO emissions to Nt were approximately 15% -19%, 47% -49%, and 34% -36%, respectively. Thus, in our experiments N2O and NO were the main products of denitrification for the entire incubation period. However, as the temporal courses of hourly or daily production of the denitrification gases showed, NO production dominated and peaked firstly, and then N2O, before finally N2 became the dominant product. Our results show the high temporal dynamic of

  12. Toxicity of Nitro-Heterocyclic and Nitroaromatic Energetic Materials to Folsomia candida in a Natural Sandy Loam Soil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    Protection Agency (USEPA) developed ecological soil screening level (EcoSSL) values for contaminants at Superfund sites. EcoSSL values are derived by...RDX, HMX, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, and TNB. We used the Folsomia Reproduction Test, which uses an ecologically relevant test species and includes at least one...2,6-DNT) Bioavailability 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) Natural soil Ecological

  13. Measurement of ²²²Rn diffusion through sandy soil with solar cells photodiodes as the detector.

    PubMed

    Shitrit, Y; Dody, A; Alfassi, Z B; Berant, Z

    2012-02-01

    An experimental system was developed to study the diffusion rate of radon (²²²Rn) gas through porous media as a function of soil porosity/grain size and soil water content. Columns with different grain sizes, soil water content and soil depths were used. The system used solar cells photodiodes as alpha (α) detectors. This new detector is highly efficient and low cost compared to other known detectors. Soil water content was found to be the most dominant factor affecting the ²²²Rn diffusion rate. A maximum diffusion rate value of (6.5 ± 0.07) × 10⁻⁶ m²/s was found in dry conditions. The minimum diffusion value of less than (3.9 ± 0.14) × 10⁻⁷ m²/s was found in 2% soil water content. The experimental results were compared with theoretical calculations done with the "GREEN equation". Two discrepancies were observed: the time to equilibrium state in the measurements was longer compare to the calculated values and the α count rates were lower in the experiment compared with the theoretical calculations. These results can be explained by the differences in the system geometry.

  14. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (<50 μm) fraction were on average 3-times higher than those (17-250 μg g-1) in the fine earth (<2 mm), the former containing almost all bromine (90 ± 5%). Inventories were between 148 and 314 g m-2, indicating a rather large variability in a small area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM bromination, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p < 0.01) with the age of the SOM for the last ∼12 ka. Partial least squares modeling indicates that bromine concentration depends on the amount of organic matter stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  15. Differential Soil Acidity Tolerance of Tropical Legume Cover Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In tropical regions, soil acidity and low soil fertility are the most important yield limiting factors for sustainable crop production. Using legume cover crops as mulch is an important strategy not only to protect the soil loss from erosion but also ameliorating soil fertility. Information is limit...

  16. Sorbent amendment as a remediation strategy to reduce PFAS mobility and leaching in a contaminated sandy soil from a Norwegian firefighting training facility.

    PubMed

    Hale, Sarah E; Arp, Hans Peter H; Slinde, Gøril Aasen; Wade, Emma Jane; Bjørseth, Kamilla; Breedveld, Gijs D; Straith, Bengt Fredrik; Moe, Kamilla Grotthing; Jartun, Morten; Høisæter, Åse

    2017-03-01

    Aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) containing poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) used for firefighting have led to the contamination of soil and water at training sites. The unique physicochemical properties of PFAS results in environmental persistency, threatening water quality and making remediation of such sites a necessity. This work investigated the role of sorbent amendment to PFAS contaminated soils in order to immobilise PFAS and reduce mobility and leaching to groundwater. Soil was sampled from a firefighting training facility at a Norwegian airport and total and leachable PFAS concentrations were quantified. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the most dominant PFAS present in all soil samples (between 9 and 2600 μg/kg). Leaching was quantified using a one-step batch test with water (L/S 10). PFOS concentrations measured in leachate water ranged between 1.2 μg/L and 212 μg/L. Sorbent amendment (3%) was tested by adding activated carbon (AC), compost soil and montmorillonite to selected soils. The extent of immobilisation was quantified by measuring PFAS concentrations in leachate before and after amendment. Leaching was reduced between 94 and 99.9% for AC, between 29 and 34% for compost soil and between 28 and 40% for the montmorillonite amended samples. Sorbent + soil/water partitioning coefficients (KD) were estimated following amendment and were around 8 L/kg for compost soil and montmorillonite amended soil and ranged from 1960 to 16,940 L/kg for AC amended soil. The remediation of AFFF impacted soil via immobilisation of PFAS following sorbent amendment with AC is promising as part of an overall remediation strategy.

  17. Speciation of organic matter in sandy soil size fractions as revealed by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) and FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; de la Rosa, José M.; González-Pérez, José A.

    2015-04-01

    This research deals with the assessment of organic matter structural differences in soil physical fractions before and after lipid extractions. Soil samples were collected in sandy soils, Arenosols (WRB 2006) from the Doñana National Park (SW Spain) under different vegetation cover: cork oak (Quercus suber, QS), eagle fern (Pteridium aquilinum, PA), pine (Pinus pinea, PP) and rockrose (Halimium halimifolium, HH). Two size fractions; coarse (C: 1-2 mm) and fine (F: 0.05-0.25 mm) were studied from each soil. . In addition, the two fractions from each soil were exhaustively Soxhlet extracted with a Dichlorometane-Methanol (3:1) mixture to obtain the lipid-free fractions (LF) from each size fraction (LFC and LFF). The composition of the organic matter at a molecular level in the different soil fractions was approached by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) and FT-IR spectroscopy. These techniques are complementary and have been found suitable for the structural characterization of complex organic matrices (Moldoveanu, 1998; Piccolo and Stevenson, 1982); whereas Py-GC/MS provides detailed structural information of individual compounds present and a finger-printing of soil organic matter, FT-IR is informative about major functional groups present. The advantages of these techniques are well known: no need for pretreatment are fast to perform, highly reproducible and only small amount of samples are needed. Soil size fractions show contrasting differences in organic matter content (C 4-7 % and F > 40 %) and conspicuous differences were found in the pyrolysis products released by the fractions studied. The main families of pyrolysis compounds have well defined macromolecular precursors, such as lignin, polypeptides, polysaccharides and lipids (González-Vila et al., 2001). The C fractions yield higher relative abundance of lignin and polysaccharide derived pyrolysis compounds. Regarding the differences in the soil organic matter as affected by the different vegetation covers

  18. INDICATORS OF NITRATE LEACHING LOSS UNDER DIFFERENT LAND USE OF CLAYEY AND SANDY SOILS IN SOUTHEASTERN OKLAHOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence of increasing nitrate (NO3-) leaching losses from soils under various land use systems has elevated the interest and need to find better land management practices. An essential step in developing new management practices is understanding of the com...

  19. Dynamic sorption of ammonium by sandy soil in fixed bed columns: Evaluation of equilibrium and non-equilibrium transport processes.

    PubMed

    Jellali, S; Diamantopoulos, E; Kallali, H; Bennaceur, S; Anane, M; Jedidi, N

    2010-01-01

    The release of excess nitrogen-containing compounds into groundwater is a major concern in aquifer recharge by the Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) process. Ammonium (NH(4)(+)) is one of the most nocive and common nitrogen compounds in wastewaters. In order to assess the risk of wastewater use for aquifer recharge, NH(4)(+)adsorption onto Souhil wadi soil sampled from the SAT pilot plant (Nabeul, Tunisia) was studied using laboratory columns experiments. Several experiments were conducted using aqueous synthetic solutions under different aqueous ammonium concentrations and flow rates. Furthermore, a real wastewater solution was used to test the effect of competitive cations contents on NH(4)(+) adsorption. Afterwards, the Hydrus-1D model was used in inverse mode to simulate the ammonium transport through the Souhil wadi soil. For the synthetic solutions, the adsorbed ammonium amount varied from 1 to 30.7 mg kg(-1) for aqueous ammonium concentrations between 4.9 and 36.4 mg L(-1). The linear isotherm model was found to be the most suitable for describing this adsorption. The flow rate decrease from 45 to 15 mL min(-1) induced an increase in the ammonium adsorption capacity by 49%. Indeed, the lesser the flow rate is, the longer the residence time and the higher the exchange between the aqueous solution and soil matrix. The use of wastewater instead of aqueous synthetic solution decreased about 7 times the Souhil wadi adsorption capacity of ammonium because of its relatively high concentrations of competitive ions such as calcium and magnesium. The use of the Hydrus-1D model showed that the chemical non-equilibrium model was the best to simulate the ammonium transport through the laboratory soil columns.

  20. Natural abiotic formation of oxalic acid in soils: results from aromatic model compounds and soil samples.

    PubMed

    Studenroth, Sabine; Huber, Stefan G; Kotte, Karsten; Schöler, Heinz F

    2013-02-05

    Oxalic acid is the smallest dicarboxylic acid and plays an important role in soil processes (e.g., mineral weathering and metal detoxification in plants). We have first proven its abiotic formation in soils and investigated natural abiotic degradation processes based on the oxidation of soil organic matter, enhanced by Fe(3+) and H(2)O(2) as hydroxyl radical suppliers. Experiments with the model compound catechol and further hydroxylated benzenes were performed to examine a common degradation pathway and to presume a general formation mechanism of oxalic acid. Two soil samples were tested for the release of oxalic acid and the potential effects of various soil parameters on oxalic acid formation. Additionally, the soil samples were treated with different soil sterilization methods to prove the oxalic acid formation under abiotic soil conditions. Different series of model experiments were conducted to determine a range of factors including Fe(3+), H(2)O(2), reaction time, pH, and chloride concentration on oxalic acid formation. Under certain conditions, catechol is degraded up to 65.6% to oxalic acid referring to carbon. In serial experiments with two soil samples, oxalic acid was produced, and the obtained results are suggestive of an abiotic degradation process. In conclusion, Fenton-like conditions with low Fe(3+) concentrations and an excess of H(2)O(2) as well as acidic conditions were required for an optimal oxalic acid formation. The presence of chloride reduced oxalic acid formation.

  1. [Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on speciation of exogenous Cu in an acid soil].

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Yong; Fu, Qing-Ling; Zhu, Jun; Wan, Tian-Ying; Hu, Hong-Qing

    2014-08-01

    In order to ascertain the effect of LMWOA (citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid) on Cu-contaminated soils and to investigate the change of Cu species, a red soil derived from quartz sandstone deposit was added by Cu (copper) in the form of CuSO4 x 5H2O so as to simulate soil Cu pollution, keeping the additional Cu concentrations were 0, 100, 200, 400 mg x kg(-1) respectively. After 9 months, different LMWOA was also added into the simulated soil, keeping the additional LMWOAs in soil were 0, 5, 10, 20 mmol x kg(-1) respectively. After 2 weeks incubation, the modified sequential extraction method on BCR (European Communities Bureau of Reference) was used to evaluate the effects of these LMWOAs on the changes of copper forms in soil. The result showed that the percentage of weak acid dissolved Cu, the most effective form in the soil increased with three organic acids increase in quantity in the simulated polluted soil. And there was a good activation effect on Cu in the soil when organic acid added. Activation effects on Cu increased with concentration of citric acid increasing, but it showed a rise trend before they are basically remained unchanged in the case of tartaric acid and oxalic acid added in the soil. On the contrary, the state of the reduction of copper which was regarded as a complement for effective state decreased with the increased concentration of organic acid in the soil, especially with citric acid. When 20 mmol x kg(-1) oxalic acid and citric acid were added into the soil, the activation effect was the best; whereas for tartaric, the concentration was 10 mmol x kg(-1). In general, the effect on the changes of Cu forms in the soil is citric acid > tartaric acid > oxalic acid.

  2. Sorption-desorption of imidacloprid onto a lacustrine Egyptian soil and its clay and humic acid fractions.

    PubMed

    Kandil, Mahrous M; El-Aswad, Ahmed F; Koskinen, William C

    2015-01-01

    Sorption-desorption of the insecticide imidacloprid 1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)-methyl]-N-nitro-2-imidazolidinimine onto a lacustrine sandy clay loam Egyptian soil and its clay and humic acid (HA) fractions was investigated in 24-h batch equilibrium experiments. Imidacloprid (IMDA) sorption-desorption isotherms onto the three sorbents were found to belong to a non-linear L-type and were best described by the Freundlich model. The value of the IMDA adsorption distribution coefficient, Kd(ads), varied according to its initial concentration and was ranged 40-84 for HA, 14-58 for clay and 1.85-4.15 for bulk soil. Freundlich sorption coefficient, Kf(ads), values were 63.0, 39.7 and 4.0 for HA, clay and bulk soil, respectively. The normalized soil Koc value for imidacloprid sorption was ∼800 indicating its slight mobility in soils. Nonlinear sorption isotherms were indicated by 1/n(ads) values <1 for all sorbents. Values of the hysteresis index (H) were <1, indicating the irreversibility of imidacloprid sorption process with all tested sorbents. Gibbs free energy (ΔG) values indicated a spontaneous and physicosorption process for IMDA and a more favorable sorption to HA than clay and soil. In conclusion, although the humic acid fraction showed the highest capacity and affinity for imidacloprid sorption, the clay fraction contributed to approximately 95% of soil-sorbed insecticide. Clay and humic acid fractions were found to be the major two factors controlling IMDA sorption in soils. The slight mobility of IMDA in soils and the hysteresis phenomenon associated with the irreversibility of its sorption onto, mainly, clay and organic matter of soils make its leachability unlikely to occur.

  3. Reduced carbon sequestration potential of biochar in acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yaqi; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-12-01

    Biochar application in soil has been proposed as a promising method for carbon sequestration. While factors affecting its carbon sequestration potential have been widely investigated, the number of studies on the effect of soil pH is limited. To investigate the carbon sequestration potential of biochar across a series of soil pH levels, the total carbon emission, CO2 release from inorganic carbon, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) of six soils with various pH levels were compared after the addition of straw biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperatures. The results show that the acidic soils released more CO2 (1.5-3.5 times higher than the control) after the application of biochar compared with neutral and alkaline soils. The degradation of both native soil organic carbon (SOC) and biochar were accelerated. More inorganic CO2 release in acidic soil contributed to the increased degradation of biochar. Higher proportion of gram-positive bacteria in acidic soil (25%-36%) was responsible for the enhanced biochar degradation and simultaneously co-metabolism of SOC. In addition, lower substrate limitation for bacteria, indicated by higher C-O stretching after the biochar application in the acidic soil, also caused more CO2 release. In addition to the soil pH, other factors such as clay contents and experimental duration also affected the phsico-chemical and biotic processes of SOC dynamics. Gram-negative/gram-positive bacteria ratio was found to be negatively related to priming effects, and suggested to serve as an indicator for priming effect. In general, the carbon sequestration potential of rice-straw biochar in soil reduced along with the decrease of soil pH especially in a short-term. Given wide spread of acidic soils in China, carbon sequestration potential of biochar may be overestimated without taking into account the impact of soil pH.

  4. Contribution of nitrous oxide and methan to the overall climate impact of maize on well-drained sandy soils of north-east Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, M.; Hagemann, U.; Pohl, M.; Sommer, M.; Augustin, J.

    2012-04-01

    Erosion effects and the influence of organic fertiliser (fermentation residues, FR) on the climate impact and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of N2O, CH4 and CO2 were investigated at an experimental field side in the lowlands of north-east Germany during the years 2010 and 2011. This intensively used agricultural landscape is glacially shaped and characterized by well-drained sandy and loamy soils. Erosion effects on GHG exchange were investigated for energy maize at the CarboZALF-D project site near Dedelow, Uckermark. In addition to a non-eroded haplic luvisol (reference), emissions were measured for three eroded soil types: a) eroded haplic luvisol, b) haplic regosol (calcaric) and c) endogleyic colluvic regosol (deposition side). In a second field trial, the impact of organic fertilization on GHG emissions was assessed for a range of FR fertilization (0-200% N) and compared to a non-fertilized and a minerally fertilized control. Only 70% of the N content of the FR was assumed to be available for plants. Discontinuous measurements of N2O and CH4 were carried out bi-weekly using the closed-chamber method and 20-minute interval sampling. Gas samples were analysed using a gas chromatograph. Gas fluxes were calculated using linear regression, interpolated and finally cumulated. CO2 flux measurements of ecosystem respiration (Reco) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were conducted every four weeks by using a non-flow-through non-steady-state closed chamber system (Livingston and Hutchinson 1995) based on Drösler (2005). Measurement gaps of NEE were filled by modeling the Reco fluxes using the Lloyd-Taylor (Lloyd and Taylor 1994) method and the gross primary production (GPP) fluxes using Michaelis-Menten (Michaelis and Menten 1913) modeling approach. Annual NEE balances were then calculated based on the modeled Reco and GPP fluxes. All investigated soil types were C sinks, storing up to 9,6 t CO2eq ha-1 yr-1. As expected for this well-drained soils, the climate impact

  5. Differential soil acidity tolerance of dry bean genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil acidity is a major yield limiting factors for bean production in the tropical regions. Using soil acidity tolerant genotypes is an important strategy in improving bean yields and reducing cost of production. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating 20 dry bean geno...

  6. Environmental analyses of the parasitic profile found in the sandy soil from the Santos municipality beaches, SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Silvana; Pinto, Rosa Maria Ferreiro; Floriano, Aline Petrollini; Teixeira, Lais Helena; Bassili, Bianca; Martinez, Araceles; Costa, Sergio Olavo Pinto da; Caseiro, Marcos Montani

    2011-01-01

    The environmental contamination by geohelminths represents a world public health problem and has been well documented by several authors. However, few papers describe the presence of such contamination in saline soils of coastal beaches. A study was performed on the beaches of the municipality of Santos in the period between May 2004 to April 2005 with the aim of determining the degree of contamination, and the correlation between contamination level and seasonal conditions and characteristics of the environment. Of the 2,520 samples analyzed, 18.2% (458) were contaminated, 32.3% (148) of which were localized in children's recreational areas (playgrounds). The parasite profile found in the analyzed samples indicated the presence of several zoonotic parasites: Ancylostoma larvae (82.5%), Toxocara sp. eggs (59.4%), Ancylostomidae-like eggs (37.1%), coccid oocysts (13.5%), Trichostrongylus sp. eggs and larvae, Ascaris lumbricoides eggs, (11.6%), Entamoeba sp. cysts (10.0%), Strongyloides sp. (4.8%), several free nematoids and some non-identified parasitic structures (3.3%). It was established that the highest frequency of parasitic structures occurred in the months between May and October 2004, and from February to March 2005. An increase in the diversity of parasitic forms was documented in the months between February to December 2004 and from January to April 2005, these periods having the highest rainfall.

  7. Leaching behaviour of pendimethalin causes toxicity towards different cultivars of Brassica juncea and Brassica campestris in sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Subhendu; Choudhury, Partha P

    2009-12-01

    An experiment was conducted at the farm of Zonal Adaptive Research Station, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidhyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal to evaluate the effect of pendimethalin on the yield, weed density and phytotoxicity in different varieties of rai (Brassica juncea) and yellow sarson (B. campestris var. yellow sarson) under higher soil moisture regime in Terai region of West Bengal. Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin at higher dose i.e. 1.0 kg/ha recorded higher plant mortality (30.92%) due to the presence of higher concentration of pendimethalin residue (0.292 µg/g) till the tenth day of crop age and consequently had the reduced yield (12.59 q/ha) than the dose of 0.7 kg/ha (13.33 q/ha) where plant mortality was only 12.62% due to comparatively lower level of pendimethalin residue (0.192 µg/g). Although the application of pendimethalin at the rate of 1.0 kg/ha was able to control weed more efficiently (18.96/m(2)) than the dose of 0.7 kg/ha (30.41/m(2)) and subsequent lower doses. The herbicide leached down to the root zone resulting in phytotoxicity towards crop. Yellow sarson group (Brassica campestris) showed more susceptibility than rai (Brassica juncea) group against pendimethalin application at higher doses.

  8. Comparing the potentials of clay and biochar in improving water retention and mechanical resilience of sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajayi, Ayodele Ebenezer; Horn, Rainer

    2016-10-01

    Changing climate is threatening rainfall regularity particularly in the semi-arid and arid regions; therefore, strategies to conserve water within their coarse-grained soils and to improve water use efficiency of crops are critical. This study compared the effectiveness of biochar and two types of clay materials in augmenting water retention and improving mechanical resilience of fine sand. The amendment of fine sand with woodchip-biochar and kaolinite (non-swelling clay) and Na-bentonite (swelling clay) improved the water retention capacity and interparticle bonding of the substrate depending of the rate of amendment and water content of the substrates. Na-bentonite was more effective at increasing water retention capacity at more negative matric potentials. Biochar was more effective at saturation due to the increased porosity, while kaolinite responds similarly to biochar. It is, however, shown that most of the water retained by the Na-betonite may not be available to plants, particularly at high amendment rate. Furthermore, the clay and biochar materials improved particle bonding in the fine sand with the Na-bentonite being more effective than biochar and kaolinite (in that order) in strengthening interparticle bonds and improving the resilience of fine sand, if the rate of amendment is kept at ≤50 g kg-1.

  9. [Hydraulic limitation on photosynthetic rate of old Populus simonii trees in sandy soil of north Shaanxi Province].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Li-Xiang; Li, Yang-Yang; Chen, Jia-Cun

    2014-06-01

    'Old and dwarf trees' on the loess plateau region mainly occurred among mature trees rather than among small trees. To elucidate the mechanism of tree age on 'old and dwarf trees' formation, taking Populus simonii, a tree species that accounted for the largest portion of 'old and dwarf trees' on the loess plateau, as an example, the growth, photosynthesis and hydraulic traits of P. simonii trees with different ages (young: 13-15 years, mid-aged: 31-34 years, and old: 49-54 years) were measured. The results showed that the dieback length increased, and net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and whole plant hydraulic conductance decreased significantly with the increasing tree age. Both net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance measured at different dates were significantly and positively related to the whole plant hydraulic conductance, suggesting that the decreasing photosynthetic rate of old trees was possibly caused by the declined hydraulic conductance. Although the resistance to cavitation in stems and leaves was stronger in old trees than in young and mid-aged trees, there were no differences in midday native stem embolization degree and leaf hydraulic conductance based on the vulnerability curve estimation, suggesting that the increased hydraulic resistance of the soil-root system is probably the most important reason for decreasing the whole plant hydraulic conductance of old trees.

  10. Enhancement of acid phosphatase secretion and Pi acquisition in Suaeda fruticosa on calcareous soil by high saline level.

    PubMed

    Labidi, Nehla; Snoussi, Sana; Ammari, Manel; Metoui, Wissal; Ben Yousfi, N; Hamrouni, Lamia; Abdelly, C

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between the adaptive processes of Suaeda fruticosa for Pi acquisition and the physic-chemical and biological characteristics of two soil types under moderate and high saline conditions. Four treatments were established in pots: namely SS100, SS600, CS100 and CS600 where SS stood for sandy soil and CS for calcareous soil, and the indexes 100 and 600 were NaCl concentrations (mM) in irrigation distilled water. Assuming that Pi per g of plant biomass is an indicator of plant efficiency for P acquisition, the results showed that Pi acquisition was easiest on SS100 and was difficult on CS100. The differences in Pi acquisition between plants on SS100 and CS100 could be attributed to the low root surface area (-30%) and to the low alkaline phosphatases (Pases) activities (-50%) in calcareous rhizospheric soil. The high salinity level had no effect on the efficiency of P acquisition on SS but increased this parameter on CS (+50%). In the latter soil type, high acid phosphatase activities were observed in rhizospheric soil at high salinity level. Acid phosphatase seemed to be secreted from the roots. The higher secretion of acid phosphatase in this soil was related to the root lipid peroxidation in response to elevated salinity associated with the augmentation of unsaturated acids which might induce an oxidative damage of the root membrane. Thus we can conclude that in deficient soil such as calcareous, the efficiency of P acquisition in S. fruticosa which was difficult at moderate salinity level can be enhanced by high salinity level.

  11. Acidity field of soils as ion-exchange systems and the diagnostics of genetic soil horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokotov, Yu. A.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.; Aparin, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    For the comprehensive description of the acidity of a two-phase ion-exchange system, we should analyze two curves of the ionite titration by a strong base in water and salt solutions and find the quantitative relationships between the corresponding pH characteristics. An idea of the three-dimensional field of acidity of ion-exchange systems (the phase space of the soil acidity characteristics) and its three two-dimensional projections is suggested. For soils, three interrelated characteristics—the pH values of the salt and water extracts and the degree of base saturation—can serve as spatial coordinates for the acidity field. Representation of factual data in this field makes it possible to compare and analyze the acidity characteristics of different soils and soil horizons and to determine their specific features. Differentiation of the field into separate volumes allows one to present the data in a discrete form. We have studied the distribution patterns of the groups of soil horizons from Leningrad oblast and other regions of northwestern Russia in the acidity field. The studied samples are grouped in different partially overlapping areas of the projections of the acidity field. The results of this grouping attest to the correctness of the modern classification of Russian soils. A notion of the characteristic soil area in the acidity field is suggested; it can be applied to all the soils with a leaching soil water regime.

  12. Dissipation of pterosin B in acid soils - Tracking the fate of the bracken fern carcinogen ptaquiloside.

    PubMed

    Skourti-Stathaki, Eirini; Clauson-Kaas, Frederik; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed; Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun

    2016-12-01

    Bracken ferns (Pteridium spp.) are well-known for their carcinogenic properties, which are ascribed to the content of ptaquiloside and ptaquiloside-like substances. Ptaquiloside leach from the ferns and may cause contamination of drinking water. Pterosin B is formed by hydrolysis of ptaquiloside. In soil, Pterosin B is adsorbed more strongly and it is expected to have a slower turnover than ptaquiloside. We thus hypothesized that pterosin B may serve as an indicator for any past presence of ptaquiloside. Pterosin B degradation was studied in acid forest soils from bracken-covered and bracken-free areas. Soil samples were incubated with pterosin B at 3 and 8 μg g(-1) for 10 days, whereas sterile (autoclaved) samples were incubated for 23 days. Pterosin B showed unexpected fast degradation in soils with full degradation in topsoils in 2-5 days. Pterosin B dissipation followed the sum of two-first order reactions. The initial fast reaction with half-lives of 0.7-3.5 h contributed 11-59% of the total pterosin B degradation, while the slow reaction was 20-100 times slower than the fast reaction. Total dissipation half-lives were shorter for loamy sand (4 h) than for sandy loam soils (28 h). No degradation of pterosin B took place under sterile conditions assuming observed dissipation during the first 3 h could be attributed to irreversible sorption. Our results demonstrate that pterosin B is microbially degraded and that pterosin B is as unstable as ptaquiloside and hence cannot be used as an indicator for former presence of ptaquiloside in soil.

  13. Improved analyses for soil carbohydrates, amino acids, and phenols: Tools for understanding soil processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A process-level understanding of soil carbon(C) and nitrogen (N) cycling will be facilitated by precise measurement of biochemical compounds in soil organic matter. This review summarizes some recent developments in analyses for soil carbohydrates, amino compounds (amino acids and amino sugars), and...

  14. COMPARISON OF GEOPROBE PRT AND AMS GVP SOIL-GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS WITH DEDICATED VAPOR PROBES IN SANDY SOILS AT THE RAYMARK SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted near the Raymark Superfund Site in Stratford, Connecticut to compare results of soil-gas sampling using dedicated vapor probes, a truck-mounted direct-push technique - the Geoprobe Post-Run-Tubing (PRT) system, and a hand-held rotary hammer technique - the A...

  15. Pedological constraints controlling the occurrence of mire plant bioindicators from north Atlantic formerly frozen soils to present-day Mediterranean sandy wet habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldes, Miguel; da Conceição Freitas, Maria; Cruces, Anabela; Andrade, César; Oliva, Marc; Neto, Carlos; do Rosário Carvalho, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Unlocking the palaeoenvironmental context, in which present peaty sols in former cold regions of Western Europe, may contribute to the understanding of the actual distribution of three acid-soil vascular plants. Likewise can the role played by similar soil and water conditions (due to other context) be the key to explain their expansion further South. The present work aims to compare the origins and traits of such similar ecotons and to verify how these vascular plants can be use as bioindicators for the presence of peaty soils, picking the proper variables and their geographical variation fits in the Ecological amplitude of the species. The soil and the water are the two compartmeents in which some of the variables might control the present-day distributions of the three taxa. The reactions of a certain number of soil samples carefully taken at shallow depths in the profiles of peaty soils of mires or peat-reach habitats, which cover more than fifty tiny to moderate sampled areas of western Europe (Atlantic Façade and the Iberian Península) and Northwestern Morocco, are being determined in the laboratory of the Geology Department of the University of Lisbon, where some characteristic mire-akin plant taxa have their southernmost range, somewhat in disharmony with meso-to thermomediterranean climates (Rivas Martínez, Global Bioclimatics). Two samples (A and B) were collected per site, the A corresponding to the presence of one of the three bioindicators, the B dug where the species ceases to be present. The present soil processes in the northern part of this sampling is in many cases related to a cold region, glaciated or under periglacial conditions during LGM, but the sedimentary and hydrologic analogies further south might help to explain how euro-siberian species can migrate that long and withstand present-day warmer and drier climates. The pH values of samples were plotted against the depth, and curves, correlations and other possible relationships will be

  16. Modeling the influence of organic acids on soil weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Corey R.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Maher, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Biological inputs and organic matter cycling have long been regarded as important factors in the physical and chemical development of soils. In particular, the extent to which low molecular weight organic acids, such as oxalate, influence geochemical reactions has been widely studied. Although the effects of organic acids are diverse, there is strong evidence that organic acids accelerate the dissolution of some minerals. However, the influence of organic acids at the field-scale and over the timescales of soil development has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, a reactive-transport model of soil chemical weathering and pedogenic development was used to quantify the extent to which organic acid cycling controls mineral dissolution rates and long-term patterns of chemical weathering. Specifically, oxalic acid was added to simulations of soil development to investigate a well-studied chronosequence of soils near Santa Cruz, CA. The model formulation includes organic acid input, transport, decomposition, organic-metal aqueous complexation and mineral surface complexation in various combinations. Results suggest that although organic acid reactions accelerate mineral dissolution rates near the soil surface, the net response is an overall decrease in chemical weathering. Model results demonstrate the importance of organic acid input concentrations, fluid flow, decomposition and secondary mineral precipitation rates on the evolution of mineral weathering fronts. In particular, model soil profile evolution is sensitive to kaolinite precipitation and oxalate decomposition rates. The soil profile-scale modeling presented here provides insights into the influence of organic carbon cycling on soil weathering and pedogenesis and supports the need for further field-scale measurements of the flux and speciation of reactive organic compounds.

  17. Comment on: ``Influence of inter-granular void ratio on monotonic and cyclic undrained shear response of sandy soils'' by M. Belkhatir, A. Arab, H. Missoum, T. Schanz [C. R. Mecanique 338 (2010) 290-303

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Mizanur

    2011-01-01

    The authors should be commended for their interesting experimental work on sandy soils presented in Belkhatir et al. (2010) [1]. They used the inter-granular void ratio, e, to interpret the experimental results and developed some useful correlations with e. However, the Note fails to address the further development of e over a decade to a more generalized form of equivalent granular void ratio, e. This comment aims at adding missing literature on e and presents a re-interpretation of the experimental data based on e. The advantages of using e over e are significant and explained in subsequent sections.

  18. Glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid chronic risk assessment for soil biota.

    PubMed

    von Mérey, Georg; Manson, Philip S; Mehrsheikh, Akbar; Sutton, Peter; Levine, Steven L

    2016-11-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide used widely in agriculture, horticulture, private gardens, and public infrastructure, where it is applied to areas such as roadsides, railway tracks, and parks to control the growth of weeds. The exposure risk from glyphosate and the primary soil metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on representative species of earthworms, springtails, and predatory soil mites and the effects on nitrogen-transformation processes by soil microorganisms were assessed under laboratory conditions based on internationally recognized guidelines. For earthworms, the reproductive no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was 472.8 mg glyphosate acid equivalent (a.e.)/kg dry soil, which was the highest concentration tested, and 198.1 mg/kg dry soil for AMPA. For predatory mites, the reproductive NOEC was 472.8 mg a.e./kg dry soil for glyphosate and 320 mg/kg dry soil for AMPA, the highest concentrations tested. For springtails, the reproductive NOEC was 472.8 mg a.e./kg dry soil for glyphosate and 315 mg/kg dry soil for AMPA, the highest concentrations tested. Soil nitrogen-transformation processes were unaffected by glyphosate and AMPA at 33.1 mg a.e./kg soil and 160 mg/kg soil, respectively. Comparison of these endpoints with worst-case soil concentrations expected for glyphosate (6.62 mg a.e./kg dry soil) and AMPA (6.18 mg/kg dry soil) for annual applications at the highest annual rate of 4.32 kg a.e./ha indicate very low likelihood of adverse effects on soil biota. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2742-2752. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  19. Degradation of dissolved organic monomers and short-chain fatty acids in sandy marine sediment by fermentation and sulfate reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdemarsen, Thomas; Kristensen, Erik

    2010-03-01

    The decay of a wide range of organic monomers (short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA's), amino acids, glucose and a pyrimidine) was studied in marine sediments using experimental plug flow-through reactors. The reactions were followed in the presence and absence of 10 mM SO 42-. Degradation stoichiometry of individual monomers (inflow concentration of 6 mM organic C) was traced by measuring organic (VFA's, amino acids) and inorganic (CO 2, NH 4+, SO 42-) compounds in the outflow. Fermentation of amino acids was efficient and complete during passage through anoxic sediment reactors. Aliphatic amino acids (alanine, serine and glutamate) were primarily recovered as CO 2 (24-34%), formate (3-22%) and acetate (41-83%), whereas only ˜1/3 of the aromatic amino acid (tyrosine) was recovered as CO 2 (13%) and acetate (20%). Fermentation of glucose and cytosine was also efficient (78-86%) with CO 2 (30-35%), formate (3%) and acetate (28-33%) as the primary products. Fermentation of VFA's (acetate, propionate and butyrate), on the other hand, appeared to be product inhibited. The presence of SO 42- markedly stimulated VFA degradation (29-45% efficiency), and these compounds were recovered as CO 2 (17% for butyrate to 100% for acetate) and acetate (51% and 82% for propionate and butyrate, respectively). When reaction stoichiometry during fermentation is compared with compound depletion during sulfate reduction, the higher proportion CO 2 recovery is consistent with lower acetate and formate accumulation. Our results therefore suggest that fermentation reactions mediate the initial degradation of added organic compounds, even during active sulfate reduction. Fermentative degradation stoichiometry also suggested significant H 2 production, and >50% of sulfate reduction appeared to be fuelled by H 2. Furthermore, our results suggest that fermentation was the primary deamination step during degradation of the amino acids and cytosine.

  20. Influence of humic acid applications on soil physicochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gümüş, İ.; Şeker, C.

    2015-09-01

    Soil structure is often said to be the key to soil productivity since a fertile soil, with desirable soil structure and adequate moisture supply, constitutes a productive soil. Soil structure influences soil water movement and retention, erosion, crusting, nutrient recycling, root penetration and crop yield. The objective of this work is to study, humic acid (HA) application on some physical and chemical properties in weak structured soils investigated. The approach involved establishing a plot experiment in the laboratory conditions. Different rates of HA (control, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 %) were applied to soil at three incubation periods (21, 42 and 62 days). At the end of the each incubation period, the changes in physicochemical properties were measured. Generally, HA addition increased EC values at the all incubation periods. HA applications decreased soil modulus of rupture. Application of HA at the rate of 4 % was significantly increased soil organic carbon contents. HA applications at the rate of 4 % significantly increased both mean soil total nitrogen content and aggregate stability after at three incubation periods (p < 0.05). Therefore, HA was potential to improve structure of soil in short term.

  1. Acid soils of western Serbia and their further acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrvic, Vesna

    2010-05-01

    Acid soils cause many unfavorable soil characteristics from the plant nutrition point of view. Because of increased soil acidity the violation of buffering soil properties due to leaching of Ca and Mg ions is taking place that also can cause soil physical degradation via peptization of colloids. Together with increasing of soil acidity the content of mobile Al increases that can be toxic for plants. Easily available nutritive elements transforms into hardly avaialble froms. The process of deactivation is especially expressed for phosphorous that under such conditions forms non-soluble compounds with sesqui-oxides. From the other hand the higher solubility of some microelements (Zn and B) can cause their accelerated leaching from root zone and therefore, result in their deficiency for plant nutrition. Dangerous and toxic matters transforms into easly-available forms for plants, especially, Cd and Ni under the lower soil pH. The studied soil occupies 36675 hectare in the municipality of Krupan in Serbia, and are characterized with very unfavorable chemical properties: 26% of the territory belongs to the cathegory of very acidic, and 44 % belongs to the cathegory of acidic. The results showed that the soil of the territory of Krupan is limited for agricultural land use due to their high acidity. Beside the statement of negative soil properties determined by acidity, there is a necessity for determination of soil sensitivity for acidification processes toward soil protection from ecological aspect and its prevention from further acidification. Based on such data and categorization of soils it is possible to undertake proper measures for soil protection and melioration of the most endangered soil cover, where the economic aspect of these measures is very important. One of the methods of soil classification based on sensitivity for acidification classification the determination of soil categories is based on the values of soil CEC and pH in water. By combination of these

  2. Using marble wastes as a soil amendment for acidic soil neutralization.

    PubMed

    Tozsin, Gulsen; Arol, Ali Ihsan; Oztas, Taskin; Kalkan, Ekrem

    2014-01-15

    One of the most important factors limiting plant growth is soil pH. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of marble waste applications on neutralization of soil acidity. Marble quarry waste (MQW) and marble cutting waste (MCW) were applied to an acid soil at different rates and their effectiveness on neutralization was evaluated by a laboratory incubation test. The results showed that soil pH increased from 4.71 to 6.36 and 6.84 by applications of MCW and MQW, respectively. It was suggested that MQW and MCW could be used as soil amendments for the neutralization of acid soils and thus the negative impact of marble wastes on the environment could be reduced.

  3. Comparison of classic with novel in situ extraction of soil amino acids from grassland soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Williams, D. G.

    2012-12-01

    Characterization of organic and inorganic soil nitrogen availability is important for determining ecosystem response to global change, as nitrogen limitation is often a major constraint on ecosystem productivity. Classic methods of soil nitrogen extraction involve field collection of soil samples and disturbance of soil aggregates during processing. A novel method of soil amino acid extraction is described that allows the collection of semi-sterile soil water extracts in situ with minimal disturbance to soils. Comparison of samples collected using this novel method to samples collected in parallel using classic methods developed by Brookes et al. 1985 and Kielland 1994 revealed different detectable amino acid N pools relative to ammonium. Glutamate and arginine comprised the highest amino acid N pools from extracts collected from a semiarid grassland site using this new method of extraction. In contrast, samples collected and extracted using the classic method contained higher relative levels of serine, glycine and glutamate. The amounts of dominant amino acids relative to ammonium were significantly greater using the classic method compared to the new method. These observed higher ratios of amino acids to ammonium are likely the result of additional amino acid inputs by lysis of microorganisms which are not removed when filtering in the classic method. Disturbance associated with classic methods of soil N determination may have led to alterations in the quantity and distribution of ammonium and amino acids in extracts. Minimizing disturbance of soil aggregates when sampling nitrogen pools and selection of an appropriate filter for collecting free amino acids may be important for accurately determining nitrogen availability to plant roots and soil microbes.

  4. Biodegradation, sorption, and transport of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in saturated and unsaturated soils.

    PubMed Central

    Estrella, M R; Brusseau, M L; Maier, R S; Pepper, I L; Wierenga, P J; Miller, R M

    1993-01-01

    The fate of an organic contaminant in soil depends on many factors, including sorption, biodegradation, and transport. The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was used as a model compound to illustrate the impact of these interacting factors on the fate of an organic contaminant. Batch and column experiments performed with a sandy loam soil mixture under saturated and unsaturated conditions were used to determine the effects of sorption and biodegradation on the fate and transport of 2,4-D. Sorption of 2,4-D was found to have a slight but significant effect on transport of 2,4-D under saturated conditions (retardation factor, 1.8) and unsaturated conditions (retardation factor, 3.4). Biodegradation of 2,4-D was extensive under both batch and column conditions and was found to have a significant impact on 2,4-D transport in column experiments. In batch experiments, complete mineralization of 2,4-D (100 mg kg-1) occurred over a 4-day period following a 3-day lag phase under both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The biodegradation rate parameters calculated for batch experiments were found to be significantly different from those estimated for column experiments. PMID:8285717

  5. Impact of biochar amendment on fertility of a southeastern Coastal Plain soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural soils in the southeastern USA Coastal Plain region have meager soil fertility characteristics due to their sandy textures, acidic pH values, kaolinitic clays, low cation exchange capacities (CEC), and diminutive soil organic carbon (SOC) contents. We hypothesized that biochar additions ...

  6. Influence of 20-year organic and inorganic fertilization on organic carbon accumulation and microbial community structure of aggregates in an intensively cultivated sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanjun; Ding, Weixin; He, Xinhua; Yu, Hongyan; Fan, Jianling; Liu, Deyan

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effect of compost (CM) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK) application on microbial community structure and organic carbon (OC) accumulation at aggregate scale, soils from plots amended with CM, NPK and no fertilizer (control) for 20 years (1989-2009) were collected. Soil was separated into large macroaggregate (>2,000 μm), small macroaggregate (250-2,000 μm), microaggregate (53-250 μm), silt (2-53 μm) and clay fraction (<2 μm) by wet-sieving, and their OC concentration and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were measured. The 20-year application of compost significantly (P<0.05) increased OC by 123-134% and accelerated the formation of macroaggregates, but decreased soil oxygen diffusion coefficient. NPK mainly increased OC in macroaggregates and displayed weaker influence on aggregation. Bacteria distributed in all aggregates, while fungi and actinobacteria were mainly in macroaggregates and microaggregates. The ratio of monounsaturated to branched (M/B) PLFAs, as an indicator for the ratio of aerobic to anaerobic microorganisms, increased inversely with aggregate size. Both NPK and especially CM significantly (P<0.05) decreased M/B ratios in all aggregates except the silt fraction compared with the control. The increased organic C in aggregates significantly (P<0.05) negatively correlated with M/B ratios under CM and NPK. Our study suggested that more efficient OC accumulations in aggregates under CM-treated than under NPK-treated soil was not only due to a more effective decrease of actinobacteria, but also a decrease of monounsaturated PLFAs and an increase of branched PLFAs. Aggregations under CM appear to alter micro-habitats to those more suitable for anaerobes, which in turn boosts OC accumulation.

  7. Acid soil indicators in forest soils of the Cherry River Watershed, West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Farr, C; Skousen, J; Edwards, P; Connolly, S; Sencindiver, J

    2009-11-01

    Declining forest health has been observed during the past several decades in several areas of the eastern USA, and some of this decline is attributed to acid deposition. Decreases in soil pH and increases in soil acidity are indicators of potential impacts on tree growth due to acid inputs and Al toxicity. The Cherry River watershed, which lies within the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia, has some of the highest rates of acid deposition in Appalachia. East and West areas within the watershed, which showed differences in precipitation, stream chemistry, and vegetation composition, were compared to evaluate soil acidity conditions and to assess their degree of risk on tree growth. Thirty-one soil pits in the West area and 36 pits in the East area were dug and described, and soil samples from each horizon were analyzed for chemical parameters. In A horizons, East area soils averaged 3.7 pH with 9.4 cmol(c) kg(-1) of acidity compared to pH 4.0 and 6.2 cmol(c) kg(-1) of acidity in West area soils. Extractable cations (Ca, Mg, and Al) were significantly higher in the A, transition, and upper B horizons of East versus West soils. However, even with differences in cation concentrations, Ca/Al molar ratios were similar for East and West soils. For both sites using the Ca/Al ratio, a 50% risk of impaired tree growth was found for A horizons, while a 75% risk was found for deeper horizons. Low concentrations of base cations and high extractable Al in these soils translate into a high degree of risk for forest regeneration and tree growth after conventional tree harvesting.

  8. Acidification of soil-water in low base-saturated sand soils of the superior uplands under acid and normal precipitation.

    PubMed

    Harris, A R

    1989-04-01

    now being analyzed for the 1986 treatment year. In leachate collected from the upper horizons of the soil colums, there was a significant difference in pH, alkalinity, nitrate, and sulfate concentrations between the pH 5.4 and pH 4.2 precipitation treatments. This difference, however, disappears at the bottom of the columns. This could be partly due to exchange reactions in the B horizon. The pH and alkalinities are higher in bottom leachate. Chloride and nitrate also increased significantly due mainly to concentrating effects. Even with a pickup of sulfate in the B horizon, sulfate adsorption decreased bottom leachate concentrations well below surface values.Alkalinity, pH, and sulfate concentration in the leachate decreased over the treatment season. Nitrate concentration increased by 4- to 5-fold over the season. Leachate from the bottom of the soil columns is becoming more acidic with time with negative alkalinities appearing more frequently in columns with soils of lower base saturation. There were some significant alkalinity differences due to humus treatments; however, these were not consistent between pH treatments, and need further study. This research will eventually answer whether soil processes can be important to the acidification of lakes in poor, sandy, outwash plains of the Superior Uplands, and whether a reduction in acid sulfate deposition will reverse the percolate alkalinity from negative to positive.

  9. Soil Bacteria Take Up D-Amino Acids, Protect Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H. J.; Zhang, G.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, many groups reported D-amino acid uptake by plant roots, raising the question of whether soil D-amino acids represent a source of nitrogen or a source of toxicity. The discussion needs to be placed in the context of competition with rhizosphere bacteria. To provide this context, we followed the concentrations of D- and L-enantiomers of alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and leucine after they were added to soils in the laboratory. In all cases, the uptake of L-enantiomer began immediately and proceeded rapidly until exhausted. In contrast, the uptake of D-enantiomer required induction: an initial period of inactivity followed by rapid consumption comparable in rate to L-enantiomer. The induced nature of the D activity was confirmed by the addition of rifampicin, an mRNA synthesis inhibitor. Preventing the synthesis of new enzymes abolished soil flora's ability to consume D-amino acids, but not L-amino acids. These results suggest that inducible special racemase enzymes, which can convert D-amino acids back to their native L-forms, are widespread among soil microorganisms. This finding does not rule out the possibility that some plants may out-compete microorganisms and be able to access D-amino acids. It does suggest, however, that rhizosphere bacteria can shield plants from the toxic effect of D-amino acids.

  10. Analyzing Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convertino, Angelyn; Meyer, Stephan; Edwards, Becca

    2015-03-01

    Post-tropical Storm Sandy underwent extratropical transition shortly before making landfall in southern New Jersey October 29 2012. Data from this system was compared with data from Hurricane Ike (2008) which represents a classic hurricane with a clear eye wall and symmetry after landfall. Storm Sandy collided with a low pressure system coming in from the north as the hurricane made landfall on the US East coast. This contributed to Storm Sandy acting as a non-typical hurricane when it made landfall. Time histories of wind speed and wind direction were generated from data provided by Texas Tech's StickNet probes for both storms. The NOAA Weather and Climate program were used to generate radar loops of reflectivity during the landfall for both storms; these loops were compared with time histories for both Ike and Sandy to identify a relationship between time series data and storm-scale features identified on radar.

  11. Arsenic removal from contaminated soil using phosphoric acid and phosphate.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Min; Liao, Bohan; Lei, Ming; Zhang, Yong; Zeng, Qingru; Ouyang, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory batch experiments were conducted to study arsenic (As) removal from a naturally contaminated soil using phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4). Both H3PO4 and KH2PO4 proved to reduce toxicity of the soil in terms of soil As content, attaining more than 20% As removal at a concentration of 200 mmol/L. At the same time, acidification of soil and dissolution of soil components (Ca, Mg, and Si) resulted from using these two extractants, especially H3PO4. The effectiveness of these two extractants could be attributed to the replacement of As by phosphate ions (PO4(3-)). The function of H3PO4 as an acid to dissolve soil components had little effects on As removal. KH2PO4 almost removed as much As as H3PO4, but it did not result in serious damage to soils, indicating that it was a more promising extractant. The results of a kinetic study showed that As removal reached equilibrium after incubation for 360 min, but dissolution of soil components, especially Mg and Ca, was very rapid. Therefore dissolution of soil components would be inevitable if As was further removed. Elovich model best described the kinetic data of As removal among the four models used in the kinetic study.

  12. Seasonal variations of the composition of microbial biofilms in sandy tidal flats: Focus of fatty acids, pigments and exopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passarelli, Claire; Meziane, Tarik; Thiney, Najet; Boeuf, Dominique; Jesus, Bruno; Ruivo, Mickael; Jeanthon, Christian; Hubas, Cédric

    2015-02-01

    Biofilms, or microbial mats, are common associations of microorganisms in tidal flats; they generally consist of a large diversity of organisms embedded in a matrix of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS). These molecules are mainly composed of carbohydrates and proteins, but their detailed monomer compositions and seasonal variations are currently unknown. Yet this composition determines the numerous roles of biofilms in these systems. This study investigated the changes in composition of carbohydrates in intertidal microbial mats over a year to decipher seasonal variations in biofilms and in varying hydrodynamic conditions. This work also aimed to assess how these compositions are related to microbial assemblages. In this context, natural biofilms whose development was influenced or not by artificial structures mimicking polychaete tubes were sampled monthly for over a year in intertidal flats of the Chausey archipelago. Biofilms were compared through the analysis of their fatty acid and pigment contents, and the monosaccharide composition of their EPS carbohydrates. Carbohydrates from both colloidal and bound EPS contained mainly glucose and, to a lower extent, galactose and mannose but they showed significant differences in their detailed monosaccharide compositions. These two fractions displayed different seasonal evolution, even if glucose accumulated in both fractions in summer; bound EPS only were affected by artificial biogenic structures. Sediment composition in fatty acids and pigments showed that microbial communities were dominated by diatoms and heterotrophic bacteria. Their relative proportions, as well as those of other groups like cryptophytes, changed between times and treatments. The changes in EPS composition were not fully explained by modifications of microbial assemblages but also depended on the processes taking place in sediments and on environmental conditions. These variations of EPS compositions are likely to alter different

  13. Effect of organic waste amendments on zinc adsorption by two soils

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, L.M. . Georgia Experiment station)

    1999-03-01

    Two soils (fine and coarse textured) were amended with five organic wastes or humic acid. One adsorption experiment was carried out at 1 mmol L[sup [minus]1] Zn and at pH levels from 4 to 8. A second experiment was at pH 6 and 0 to 4 mmol/L[sup [minus]1] Zn. The greatest variation in Zn adsorption among organic treatments came at pH 6, with a lesser range for the fine textured soil (pH 5--6) and a wider range for the sandy soil (pH 5--7). Adsorption followed a two-site Langmuir model, and maxima were higher for the finer textured soil compared with the sandy soil. Adsorption maxima were not changed by the organic wastes for the fine textured soil, but all were increased over the controls for the sandy soil. Zinc adsorption for poultry litter was lower than the control for the sandy soil. Industrial sewage sludge and humic acid increased Zn adsorption more than did commercial compost, spent mushroom compost, and cotton litter. It was concluded that organic materials have more influence on Zn adsorption for sandy soils than for fine textured soils and that most materials will increase Zn adsorption, whereas those with high soluble C can decrease Zn adsorption.

  14. Effect of selected soil conditioners on soil properties, erosion, runoff, and rye growth in nonfertile acid soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Construction operations result in highly disturbed soil, vulnerable to erosion and excess runoff and sediment loads. Limited information exists about effects of erosion mitigation practices on soil and runoff properties in low fertility acidic sites. The current study evaluates the use of polyacry...

  15. Biochar impacts soil microbial community composition and nitrogen cycling in an acidic soil planted with rape.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui-Juan; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Li, Hu; Yao, Huai-Ying; Su, Jian-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2014-08-19

    Biochar has been suggested to improve acidic soils and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. However, little has been done on the role of biochar in ameliorating acidified soils induced by overuse of nitrogen fertilizers. In this study, we designed a pot trial with an acidic soil (pH 4.48) in a greenhouse to study the interconnections between microbial community, soil chemical property changes, and N2O emissions after biochar application. The results showed that biochar increased plant growth, soil pH, total carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, and soil cation exchange capacity. The results of high-throughput sequencing showed that biochar application increased α-diversity significantly and changed the relative abundances of some microbes that are related with carbon and nitrogen cycling at the family level. Biochar amendment stimulated both nitrification and denitrification processes, while reducing N2O emissions overall. Results of redundancy analysis indicated biochar could shift the soil microbial community by changing soil chemical properties, which modulate N-cycling processes and soil N2O emissions. The significantly increased nosZ transcription suggests that biochar decreased soil N2O emissions by enhancing its further reduction to N2.

  16. Amelioration of acidic soil using various renewable waste resources.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, improvement of acidic soil with respect to soil pH and exchangeable cations was attempted for sample with an initial pH of approximately 5. Acidic soil was amended with various waste resources in the range of 1 to 5 wt.% including waste oyster shells (WOS), calcined oyster shells (COS), Class C fly ash (FA), and cement kiln dust (CKD) to improve soil pH and exchangeable cations. Upon treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, a maize growth experiment was conducted with selected-treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The treatment results indicate that in order to increase the soil pH to a value of 7, 1 wt.% of WOS, 3 wt.% of FA, and 1 wt.% of CKD are required. In the case of COS, 1 wt.% was more than enough to increase the soil pH value to 7 because of COS's strong alkalinity. Moreover, the soil pH increases after a curing period of 7 days and remains virtually unchanged thereafter up to 1 month of curing. Upon treatment, the summation of cations (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) significantly increased. The growth of maize is superior in the treated samples rather than the untreated one, indicating that the amelioration of acidic soil is beneficial to plant growth, since soil pH was improved and nutrients were replenished.

  17. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  18. Phosphoric acid, nitric acid, and hydrogen peroxide digestion of soil and plant materials for selenium determination

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, A.; Rendig, V.V.; Burau, R.G.; Besga, G.S.

    1987-11-15

    A mixture of phosphoric acid, nitric acid, and hydrogen peroxide has been proposed as an alternative to the use of the nitric/perchloric acid mixture to digest biological fluids to determine their selenium (Se) content. The purpose of the studies reported here was to test the applicability of this digestion method for the determination of Se in soil and plant materials.

  19. Soil water samplers in ion balance studies on acidic forest soils

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, L.; Joergensen, P.; Kruse, S.

    1986-04-01

    During the last years an increasing consciousness has appeared of the injurious effects of acid rain on the forest ecosystems both in Europe and North America. At several localities ion balance studies have been implemented in order to evaluate the impact of the atmospheric deposition of acidic substances and heavy metals on the forest ecosystem. In many localities the leaching of material to the ground water or output from the ecosystem has to be determined by means of tensiometer measurements and soil water sampling. Many different soil water samplers are available on the market and they show useful applicability under the given circumstances. But in many cases soil water samples taken with different equipment give incommensurable results leading to differing explanations of the effects of acid precipitation on elements and their cycling in the ecosystem. The purpose of the present study is twofold. Firstly, the sorption characteristics of different types of soil water samplers are examined under acidic soil conditions both by installation in the field and by laboratory experiments. Secondly, a new method is introduced for current and constant soil water sampling under varying soil suctions in the unsaturated zone.

  20. The abiotic degradation of soil organic matter to oxalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenroth, Sabine; Huber, Stefan; Schöler, H. F.

    2010-05-01

    The abiotic degradation of soil organic matter to volatile organic compounds was studied intensely over the last years (Keppler et al., 2000; Huber et al., 2009). It was shown that soil organic matter is oxidised due to the presence of iron (III), hydrogen peroxide and chloride and thereby produces diverse alkyl halides, which are emitted into the atmosphere. The formation of polar halogenated compounds like chlorinated acetic acids which are relevant toxic environmental substances was also found in soils and sediments (Kilian et al., 2002). The investigation of the formation of other polar halogenated and non-halogenated compounds like diverse mono- and dicarboxylic acids is going to attain more and more importance. Due to its high acidity oxalic acid might have impacts on the environment e.g., nutrient leaching, plant diseases and negative influence on microbial growth. In this study, the abiotic formation of oxalic acid in soil is examined. For a better understanding of natural degradation processes mechanistic studies were conducted using the model compound catechol as representative for structural elements of the humic substances and its reaction with iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide. Iron is one of the most abundant elements on earth and hydrogen peroxide is produced by bacteria or through incomplete reduction of oxygen. To find suitable parameters for an optimal reaction and a qualitative and quantitative analysis method the following reaction parameters are varied: concentration of iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide, time dependence, pH-value and influence of chloride. Analysis of oxalic acid was performed employing an ion chromatograph equipped with a conductivity detector. The time dependent reaction shows a relatively fast formation of oxalic acid, the optimum yield is achieved after 60 minutes. Compared to the concentration of catechol an excess of hydrogen peroxide as well as a low concentration of iron (III) are required. In absence of chloride the

  1. Microbiological aspects of determination of trichloroacetic acid in soil.

    PubMed

    Matucha, M; Gryndler, M; Uhlírová, H; Fuksová, K; Rohlenová, J; Forczek, S T; Schröder, P

    2004-01-01

    Soils have been shown to possess a strong microbial trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-degrading activity. High TCA-degradation rate was also observed during soil extraction with water. For correct measurements of TCA levels in soil all TCA-degrading activities have to be inhibited immediately after sampling before analysis. We used rapid freezing of soil samples (optimally in liquid nitrogen) with subsequent storage and slow thawing before analysis as an efficient technique for suppressing the degradation. Frozen soil samples stored overnight at -20 degrees C and then thawed slowly exhibited very low residual TCA-degrading activity for several hours. Omitting the above procedure could lead to the confusing differences between the TCA levels previously reported in the literature.

  2. A reexamination of amino acids in lunar soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinton, K. L. F.; Bada, J. L.; Arnold, J. R.

    1993-03-01

    Amino acids in lunar soils provide an important indicator of the level of prebiotic organic compounds on the moon. The results provide insight into the chemistry of amino acid precursors, and furthermore, given the flux of carbonaceous material to the moon, we can evaluate the survival of organics upon impact. The amino acid contents of both hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed hot-water extracts of Apollo 17 lunar soil were determined using ophthaldialdehyde/N-acetyl cysteine (OPA/NAC) derivatization followed by HPLC analysis. Previous studies of lunar amino acids were inconclusive, as the technique used (derivatization with ninhydrin followed by HPLC analysis) was unable to discriminate between cosmogenic amino acids and terrestrial contaminants. Cosmogenic amino acids are racemic, and many of the amino acids found in carbonaceous meteorites such as Murchison, i.e., alpha-amino-i-butyric acid (aib), are extremely rare on Earth. The ninhydrin method does not distinguish amino acid enantiomers, nor does it detect alpha-alkyl amino acids such as aib, whereas the OPA/NAC technique does both.

  3. A reexamination of amino acids in lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, K. L. F.; Bada, J. L.; Arnold, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    Amino acids in lunar soils provide an important indicator of the level of prebiotic organic compounds on the moon. The results provide insight into the chemistry of amino acid precursors, and furthermore, given the flux of carbonaceous material to the moon, we can evaluate the survival of organics upon impact. The amino acid contents of both hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed hot-water extracts of Apollo 17 lunar soil were determined using ophthaldialdehyde/N-acetyl cysteine (OPA/NAC) derivatization followed by HPLC analysis. Previous studies of lunar amino acids were inconclusive, as the technique used (derivatization with ninhydrin followed by HPLC analysis) was unable to discriminate between cosmogenic amino acids and terrestrial contaminants. Cosmogenic amino acids are racemic, and many of the amino acids found in carbonaceous meteorites such as Murchison, i.e., alpha-amino-i-butyric acid (aib), are extremely rare on Earth. The ninhydrin method does not distinguish amino acid enantiomers, nor does it detect alpha-alkyl amino acids such as aib, whereas the OPA/NAC technique does both.

  4. Barren Acidic Soil Assessment using Seismic Refraction Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajudin, S. A. A.; Abidin, M. H. Z.; Madun, A.; Zawawi, M. H.

    2016-07-01

    Seismic refraction method is one of the geophysics subsurface exploration techniques used to determine subsurface profile characteristics. From past experience, seismic refraction method is commonly used to detect soil layers, overburden, bedrock, etc. However, the application of this method on barren geomaterials remains limited due to several reasons. Hence, this study was performed to evaluate the subsurface profile characteristics of barren acidic soil located in Ayer Hitam, Batu Pahat, Johor using seismic refraction survey. The seismic refraction survey was conducted using ABEM Terraloc MK 8 (seismograph), a sledge hammer weighing 7 kg (source) and 24 units of 10 Hz geophones (receiver). Seismic data processing was performed using OPTIM software which consists of SeisOpt@picker (picking the first arrival and seismic configureuration data input) and SeisOpt@2D (generating 2D image of barren acidic soil based on seismic velocity (primary velocity, Vp) distribution). It was found that the barren acidic soil profile consists of three layers representing residual soil (Vp= 200-400 m/s) at 0-2 m, highly to completely weathered soil (Vp= 500-1800 m/s) at 3-8 m and shale (Vp= 2100-6200 m/s) at 9-20 m depth. Furthermore, result verification was successfully done through the correlation of seismic refraction data based on physical mapping and the geological map of the study area. Finally, it was found that the seismic refraction survey was applicable for subsurface profiling of barren acidic soil as it was very efficient in terms of time, cost, large data coverage and sustainable.

  5. Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Nutrients after the Establishment of Caragana intermedia Plantation on Sand Dunes in Alpine Sandy Land of the Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingxue; Jia, Zhiqing; Zhu, Yajuan; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Defu; Zhao, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    The Gonghe Basin region of the Tibet Plateau is severely affected by desertification. Compared with other desertified land, the main features of this region is windy, cold and short growing season, resulting in relatively difficult for vegetation restoration. In this harsh environment, identification the spatial distribution of soil nutrients and analysis its impact factors after vegetation establishment will be helpful for understanding the ecological relationship between soil and environment. Therefore, in this study, the 12-year-old C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes was selected as the experimental site. Soil samples were collected under and between shrubs on the windward slopes, dune tops and leeward slopes with different soil depth. Then analyzed soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK). The results showed that the spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrients was existed in C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes. (1) Depth was the most important impact factor, soil nutrients were decreased with greater soil depth. One of the possible reasons is that windblown fine materials and litters were accumulated on surface soil, when they were decomposed, more nutrients were aggregated on surface soil. (2) Topography also affected the distribution of soil nutrients, more soil nutrients distributed on windward slopes. The herbaceous coverage were higher and C. intermedia ground diameter were larger on windward slopes, both of them probably related to the high soil nutrients level for windward slopes. (3) Soil “fertile islands” were formed, and the “fertile islands” were more marked on lower soil nutrients level topography positions, while it decreased towards higher soil nutrients level topography positions. The enrichment ratio (E) for TN and AN were higher than other nutrients, most likely because C. intermedia is a leguminous

  6. Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Nutrients after the Establishment of Caragana intermedia Plantation on Sand Dunes in Alpine Sandy Land of the Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingxue; Jia, Zhiqing; Zhu, Yajuan; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Defu; Zhao, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    The Gonghe Basin region of the Tibet Plateau is severely affected by desertification. Compared with other desertified land, the main features of this region is windy, cold and short growing season, resulting in relatively difficult for vegetation restoration. In this harsh environment, identification the spatial distribution of soil nutrients and analysis its impact factors after vegetation establishment will be helpful for understanding the ecological relationship between soil and environment. Therefore, in this study, the 12-year-old C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes was selected as the experimental site. Soil samples were collected under and between shrubs on the windward slopes, dune tops and leeward slopes with different soil depth. Then analyzed soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK). The results showed that the spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrients was existed in C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes. (1) Depth was the most important impact factor, soil nutrients were decreased with greater soil depth. One of the possible reasons is that windblown fine materials and litters were accumulated on surface soil, when they were decomposed, more nutrients were aggregated on surface soil. (2) Topography also affected the distribution of soil nutrients, more soil nutrients distributed on windward slopes. The herbaceous coverage were higher and C. intermedia ground diameter were larger on windward slopes, both of them probably related to the high soil nutrients level for windward slopes. (3) Soil "fertile islands" were formed, and the "fertile islands" were more marked on lower soil nutrients level topography positions, while it decreased towards higher soil nutrients level topography positions. The enrichment ratio (E) for TN and AN were higher than other nutrients, most likely because C. intermedia is a leguminous shrub.

  7. Reflections on Sandy Hook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his thoughts for district administrators regarding the Sandy Hook Elementary school tragedy. Administrators heard a lot of potential solutions or attempts at solutions. However, these proposals raise lengthy lists of implementation questions and issues that illustrate a lack of understanding of school operations,…

  8. Comparison of the stable-isotopic composition of soil water collected from suction lysimeters, wick samplers, and cores in a sandy unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon, M. K.; Delin, G. N.; Komor, S. C.; Regan, C. P.

    1999-10-01

    Soil water collected from suction lysimeters and wick samplers buried in the unsaturated zone of a sand and gravel aquifer and extracted from soil cores were analyzed for stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope values. Soil water isotopic values differed among the three sampling methods in most cases. However, because each sampling method collected different fractions of the total soil-water reservoir, the isotopic differences indicated that the soil water at a given depth and time was isotopically heterogeneous. This heterogeneity reflects the presence of relatively more and less mobile components of soil water. Isotopic results from three field tests indicated that 95-100% of the water collected from wick samplers was mobile soil water while samples from suction lysimeters and cores were mixtures of more and less mobile soil water. Suction lysimeter samples contained a higher proportion of more mobile water (15-95%) than samples from cores (5-80%) at the same depth. The results of this study indicate that, during infiltration events, soil water collected with wick samplers is more representative of the mobile soil water that is likely to recharge ground water during or soon after the event than soil water from suction lysimeters or cores.

  9. Soil Studies: Applying Acid-Base Chemistry to Environmental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Donna M.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory activities for chemistry students focus attention on the use of acid-base chemistry to examine environmental conditions. After using standard laboratory procedures to analyze soil and rainwater samples, students use web-based resources to interpret their findings. Uses CBL probes and graphing calculators to gather and analyze data and…

  10. Aldohexuronic Acid Catabolism by a Soil Aeromonas

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, J. J.; Eagon, R. G.

    1969-01-01

    Bacteria which utilize mannuronic acid as an energy source were isolated from nature. One of the organisms, identified as a member of the genus Aeromonas, used glucuronate, galacturonate, and mannuronate as the sole source of carbon and energy. Glucuronate- and galacturonate-grown resting cells oxidized both glucuronate and galacturonate rapidly, but mannuronate slowly. Mannuronate-grown cells oxidized all three rapidly, with the rate of mannuronate utilization somewhat lower. Cell-free extracts from glucuronate-, galacturonate-, and mannuronate-grown Aeromonas C11-2B contained glucuronate and galacturonate isomerases, fructuronate, tagaturonate, and mannuronate reductases, and mannonate and altronate dehydratases, with the exception of glucuronate-grown cells which lacked altronate dehydratase. Thus, the pathway for glucuronate and galacturonate catabolism for Aeromonas was identical to Escherichia coli. Glucuronate and galacturonate were isomerized to d-fructuronate and d-tagaturonate which were then reduced by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to d-mannonate and d-altronate, respectively. The hexonic acids were dehydrated to 2-keto-3-deoxy gluconate which was phosphorylated by adenosine triphosphate to 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phospho gluconate. The latter was then cleaved to pyruvate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Mannuronate was reduced directly to d-mannonate by a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-linked oxidoreductase. d-Mannonate was then further broken down as in the glucuronate pathway. The mannuronate reducing enzyme, for which the name d-mannonate:nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) oxidoreductase (d-mannuronate-forming) was proposed, was shown to be distinct from altronate and mannoate oxidoreductases. This is the first report of a bacterial oxidoreductase which reduces an aldohexuronic acid to a hexonic acid. The enzyme should prove to be a useful analytical tool for determining mannuronate in the presence of other uronic

  11. Natural acidity of waters in podzolized soils and potential impacts from acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Stednick, J.D.; Johnson, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Nutrient movements through sites in southeast Alaska and Washington were documented to determine net changes in chemical composition of precipitation water as it passed through a forest soil and became stream-flow. These sites were not subject to acid precipitation (rainfall pH 5.8 to 7.2), yet soil water was acidified to 4.2 by natural organic acid-forming processes in the podzol soils. Organic acids precipitated in the subsoils, allowing a pH increase. Streamwater pH ranged from 6.5 to 7.2 indicating a natural buffering capacity that may exceed any additional acid input from acid rain. Precipitation composition was dominated by calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride due to the proximity of the ocean at the southeast Alaska site. Anionic constituents of the precipitation were dominated by bicarbonate at the Washington site. Soil podzolization processes concurrently increased solution color and iron concentrations in the litter and surface horizons leachates. The anion flux through the soil profile was dominated by chloride and sulfate at the southeast Alaska site, whereas at the Washington site anion flux appeared to be dominated by organic acids. Electroneutrality calculations indicated a cation deficit for the southeast Alaska site.

  12. Natural acidity of waters in podzolized soils and potential impacts from acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Stednick, J.D.; Johnson, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Nutrient movements through sites in southeast Alaska and Washington were documented to determine net changes in chemical composition of precipitation water as it passed through a forest soil and became stream flow. These sites were not subject to acid precipitation (rainfall pH 5.8 to 7.2), yet soil water was acidified to 4.2 by natural organic acid forming processes in the podzol soils. Organic acids precipitated in the subsoils, allowing a pH increase. Stream water pH ranged from 6.5 to 7.2 indicating a natural buffering capacity that may exceed any additional acid input from acid rain. Precipitation composition was dominated by magnesium, sodium, and chloride due to the proximity of the ocean at the southeast Alaska site. Anionic constituents of the precipitation were dominated by bicarbonate at the Washington site. Soil podzolization processes concurrently increased solution color and iron concentrations in the litter and surface horizons leachates. The anion flux through the soil profile was dominated by chloride and sulfate at the southwast Alaska site, whereas at the Washington site anion flux appeared to be dominated by organic acids. Electroneutrality calculations indicated a cation deficit for the southeast Alaska site. 10 references, 2 tables.

  13. Analysis of volatile organic compound from Elaeis guineensis inflorescences planted on different soil types in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamad Fahmi, M. H.; Ahmad Bukhary, A. K.; Norma, H.; Idris, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    The main attractant compound for Eleidobius kamerunicus to male spikelet Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) were determined by analyzing volatile organic compound extracted from E. guineenses inflorescences planted on different soil types namely peat soil, clay soil and sandy soil. Anthesizing male oil palm inflorescences were randomly choosen from palm aged between 4-5 years old age. Extraction of the volatiles from the oil palm inflorescences were performed by Accelerated Solvent Extraction method (ASE). The extracted volatile compound were determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Out of ten identified compound, estragole was found to be a major compound in sandy soil (37.49%), clay soil (30.71%) and peat soil (27.79%). Other compound such as 9,12-octadecadieonic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid were found as major compound in peat soil (27.18%) and (7.45%); sandy soil (14.15 %) and (9.31%); and clay soil (30.23%) and (4.99%). This study shows that estragole was the predominant volatile compound detected in oil palm inflorescences with highly concentrated in palm planted in sandy soil type.

  14. Degradation of 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid in Soil by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes POB310(pPOB) and Two Modified Pseudomonas Strains

    PubMed Central

    Halden, Rolf U.; Tepp, Sandra M.; Halden, Barbara G.; Dwyer, Daryl F.

    1999-01-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes POB310(pPOB) and Pseudomonas sp. strains B13-D5(pD30.9) and B13-ST1(pPOB) were introduced into soil microcosms containing 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-POB) in order to evaluate and compare bacterial survival, degradation of 3-POB, and transfer of plasmids to a recipient bacterium. Strain POB310 was isolated for its ability to use 3-POB as a growth substrate; degradation is initiated by POB-dioxygenase, an enzyme encoded on pPOB. Strain B13-D5 contains pD30.9, a cloning vector harboring the genes encoding POB-dioxygenase; strain B13-ST1 contains pPOB. Degradation of 3-POB in soil by strain POB310 was incomplete, and bacterial densities decreased even under the most favorable conditions (100 ppm of 3-POB, supplementation with P and N, and soil water-holding capacity of 90%). Strains B13-D5 and B13-ST1 degraded 3-POB (10 to 100 ppm) to concentrations of <50 ppb with concomitant increases in density from 106 to 108 CFU/g (dry weight) of soil. Thus, in contrast to strain POB310, the modified strains had the following two features that are important for in situ bioremediation: survival in soil and growth concurrent with removal of an environmental contaminant. Strains B13-D5 and B13-ST1 also completely degraded 3-POB when the inoculum was only 30 CFU/g (dry weight) of soil. This suggests that in situ bioremediation may be effected, in some cases, with low densities of introduced bacteria. In pure culture, transfer of pPOB from strains POB310 and B13-ST1 to Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 occurred at frequencies of 5 × 10−7 and 10−1 transconjugant per donor, respectively. Transfer of pPOB from strain B13-ST1 to strain B13 was observed in autoclaved soil but not in nonautoclaved soil; formation of transconjugant bacteria was more rapid in soil containing clay and organic matter than in sandy soil. Transfer of pPOB from strain POB310 to strain B13 in soil was never observed. PMID:10427019

  15. Organic amendments increase soil solution phosphate concentrations in an acid soil: A controlled environment study

    SciTech Connect

    Schefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, R.

    2008-04-15

    Soil acidification affects at least 4 million hectares of agricultural land in Victoria, Australia. Low soil pH can inhibit plant growth through increased soluble aluminum (Al) concentrations and decreased available phosphorus (P). The addition of organic amendments may increase P availability through competition for P binding sites, solubilization of poorly soluble P pools, and increased solution pH. The effect of two organic amendments (lignite and compost) on P solubility in an acid soil was determined through controlled environment (incubation) studies. Three days after the addition of lignite and compost, both treatments increased orthophosphate and total P measured in soil solution, with the compost treatments having the greatest positive effect. Increased incubation time (26 days) increased soil solution P concentrations in both untreated and amended soils, with the greatest effect seen in total P concentrations. The measured differences in solution P concentrations between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were likely caused by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment with lignite or compost also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. Based on the results presented, it is proposed that the measured increase in soil solution P with amendment addition was likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including biotic and abiotic P solubilization reactions, and the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  16. Isotopically exchangeable Al in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils.

    PubMed

    Yvanes-Giuliani, Yliane A M; Fink, D; Rose, J; Waite, T David; Collins, Richard N

    2016-01-15

    Periodic discharges of high concentrations of aluminium (Al) causing fish kills and other adverse effects occur worldwide in waterways affected by coastal lowland acid sulfate soils (CLASS). The exchangeability - a metal's ability to readily transfer between the soil solid- and solution-phases - of Al in these soils is therefore of particular importance as it has implications for metal transport, plant availability and toxicity to living organisms. In the present study, the concentrations of isotopically exchangeable Al (E values) were measured in 27 CLASS and compared with common salt extractions (i.e. KCl and CuCl2) used to estimate exchangeable soil pools of Al. E values of Al were high in the soils, ranging from 357 to 3040 mg·kg(-1). Exchangeable concentrations estimated using 1 M KCl were consistently lower than measured E values, although a reasonable correlation was obtained between the two values (E=1.68×AlKCl, r(2)=0.66, n=25). The addition of a 0.2 M CuCl2 extraction step improved the 1:1 agreement between extractable and isotopically exchangeable Al concentrations, but lead to significant mobilisation of non-isotopically exchangeable Al in surficial 'organic-rich' CLASS having E values<1000 mg·kg(-1). It was concluded that currently used (i.e. 1 M KCl) methodology severely underestimates exchangeable Al and total actual acidity values in CLASS and should be corrected by a factor similar to the one determined here.

  17. Sorption of tebuconazole onto selected soil minerals and humic acids.

    PubMed

    Cadková, Eva; Komárek, Michael; Kaliszová, Regina; Koudelková, Věra; Dvořák, Jiří; Vaněk, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate tebuconazole sorption on common soil minerals (birnessite, ferrihydrite, goethite, calcite and illite) and humic acids (representing soil organic matter). Tebuconazole was used (i) in the commercial form Horizon 250 EW and (ii) as an analytical grade pure chemical. In the experiment with the commercially available tebuconazole, a significant pH-dependent sorption onto the oxides was observed (decreasing sorption with increasing pH). The highest sorption was found for ferrihydrite due to its high specific surface area, followed by humic acids, birnessite, goethite and illite. No detectable sorption was found for calcite. The sorption of analytical grade tebuconazole on all selected minerals was significantly lower compared to the commercial product. The sorption was the highest for humic acids, followed by ferrihydrite and illite and almost negligible for goethite and birnessite without any pH dependence. Again, no sorption was observed for calcite. The differences in sorption of the commercially available and analytical grade tebuconazole can be attributed to the additives (e.g., solvents) present in the commercial product. This work proved the importance of soil mineralogy and composition of the commercially available pesticides on the behavior of tebuconazole in soils.

  18. Mechanisms for the retention of inorganic N in acidic forest soils of southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-bo; Cai, Zu-cong; Zhu, Tong-bin; Yang, Wen-yan; Müller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the retention of inorganic N in acidic forest soils in southern China are not well understood. Here, we simultaneously quantified the gross N transformation rates of various subtropical acidic forest soils located in southern China (southern soil) and those of temperate forest soils located in northern China (northern soil). We found that acidic southern soils had significantly higher gross rates of N mineralization and significantly higher turnover rates but a much greater capacity for retaining inorganic N than northern soils. The rates of autotrophic nitrification and NH3 volatilization in acidic southern soils were significantly lower due to low soil pH. Meanwhile, the relatively higher rates of NO3− immobilization into organic N in southern soils can counteract the effects of leaching, runoff, and denitrification. Taken together, these processes are responsible for the N enrichment of the humid subtropical forest soils in southern China. PMID:23907561

  19. Plant adaptation to acid soils: the molecular basis for crop aluminum resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity on acid soils is a significant limitation to crop production worldwide, as approximately 50% of the world’s potentially arable soils are acidic. Because acid soils are such an important constraint to agriculture, understanding the mechanisms and genes conferring resistance to ...

  20. Adsorption of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampazzo, N.; Rampazzo Todorovic, G.; Mentler, A.; Blum, W. E. H.

    2013-03-01

    The results showed that glyphosate is initially adsorbed mostly in the upper 2 cm. It is than transported and adsorbed after few days in deeper soil horizons with concomitant increasing content of its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid. Moreover, Fe-oxides seem to be a key parameter for glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic adsorption in soils. This study confirmed previous studies: the analysis showed lower contents of dithionite-soluble and Fe-oxides for the Chernozem, with consequently lower adsorption of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic as compared with the Cambisol and the Stagnosol.

  1. High abundance of Crenarchaeota in a temperate acidic forest soil.

    PubMed

    Kemnitz, Dana; Kolb, Steffen; Conrad, Ralf

    2007-06-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate the depth distribution and community composition of Archaea in a temperate acidic forest soil. Numbers of Archaea and Bacteria were measured in the upper 18 cm of the soil, and soil cores were sampled on two separate occasions using quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA genes. Maximum numbers of Archaea were 0.6-3.8 x 10(8) 16S rRNA genes per gram of dry soil. Numbers of Bacteria were generally higher, but Archaea always accounted for a high percentage of the total gene numbers (12-38%). The archaeal community structure was analysed by the construction of clone libraries and by terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP) using the same Archaea-specific primers. With the reverse primer labelled, T-RFLP analysis led to the detection of four T-RFs. Three had lengths of 83, 185 and 218 bp and corresponded to uncultured Crenarchaeota. One (447 bp) was assigned to Thermoplasmales. Labelling of the forward primer allowed further separation of the T-RF into Crenarchaeota Group I.1c and Group I.1b, and indicated that Crenarchaeota of the Group I.1c were the predominant 16S rRNA genotype (soil. The abundance of Archaea and concentration of ammonia and nitrate decreased with soil depth. Hence it is unclear if the detected Crenarchaeota Group I.1c participated in ammonia oxidation or had another phenotype.

  2. Acid sulfate soils are an environmental hazard in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) create significant threats to the environment on coastal regions of the Baltic Sea in Finland. The sediments were deposited during the ancient Litorina Sea phase of the Baltic Sea about 7500-4500 years ago. Finland has larger spatial extent of the ASS than any other European country. Mostly based on anthropogenic reasons (cultivation, trenching etc.) ASS deposits are currently being exposed to oxygen which leads to chemical reaction creating sulfuric acid. The acidic waters then dissolve metals form the soil. Acidic surface run off including the metals are then leached into the water bodies weakening the water quality and killing fish or vegetation. In constructed areas acidic waters may corrode building materials. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is mapping ASS deposits in Finland. The goal is to map a total of 5 million hectares of the potentially ASS affected region. It has been estimated that the problematic Litorina Sea deposits, which are situated 0-100 m above the recent Baltic Sea shoreline, cover 500 000 hectares area. There are several phases in mapping. The work begins at the office with gathering the existing data, interpreting airborne geophysical data and compiling a field working plan. In the field, quality of the soil is studied and in uncertain cases samples are taken to laboratory analyses. Also electrical conductivity and pH of soil and water are measured in the field. Laboratory methods include multielemental determinations with ICP-OES, analyses of grain size and humus content (LOI), and incubation. So far, approximately 60 % of the potential ASS affected regions in Finland are mapped. Over 15 000 sites have been studied in the field and 4000 laboratory analyses are done. The spatial database presented in the scale of 1: 250 000 can be viewed at the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/hasu/index.html).

  3. Concentration of soil CO2 as an indicator of the decalcification rate after liming treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmiel, Stanisław; Hałas, Stanisław; Głowacki, Sławomir; Sposób, Joanna; Maciejewska, Ewa; Trembaczowski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results of investigation of decalcification of acid sandy and loamy sand soils by infiltration waters, and potential Ca-leaching after liming treatment. For this purpose, monthly measurements were made of the concentration of CO2 in the soil air, dissolved inorganic carbon in the soil waters, and their ionic composition. The determined dissolved inorganic carbon ranged from 5.9 to 10.6 mg dm-3 and from 9.9 to 16.5 mg dm-3 for the sandy and loamy sand soil, respectively. The Ca concentration in soil waters was determined as 5.9-12.4 mg dm-3 in sandy soil and 14.2-19.8 mg dm-3 in soil loamy sand. The calculated rate of decalcification amounted to 23.0 kg ha-1 year-1 in soil sandy and 19.4 kg ha-1 year-1 in loamy sand soil. The potential Ca-leaching is predicted as 124 kg ha-1 year-1 for S and 87 kg ha-1 year-1 for loamy sand soil. At the treatment level of 3 000 kg ha-1 4 year-1 of CaO, 20% of the Ca-fertilizer can be leached after the liming treatment. The results of the CO2 concentration in the soil air may be useful in estimation of Ca-leaching from soils developed by slightly clayey sands and clayey sands in zones with a moderate climate.

  4. Gas entrapment and microbial N2O reduction reduce N2O emissions from a biochar-amended sandy clay loam soil

    PubMed Central

    Harter, Johannes; Guzman-Bustamante, Ivan; Kuehfuss, Stefanie; Ruser, Reiner; Well, Reinhard; Spott, Oliver; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that is produced during microbial nitrogen transformation processes such as nitrification and denitrification. Soils represent the largest sources of N2O emissions with nitrogen fertilizer application being the main driver of rising atmospheric N2O concentrations. Soil biochar amendment has been proposed as a promising tool to mitigate N2O emissions from soils. However, the underlying processes that cause N2O emission suppression in biochar-amended soils are still poorly understood. We set up microcosm experiments with fertilized, wet soil in which we used 15N tracing techniques and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to investigate the impact of biochar on mineral and gaseous nitrogen dynamics and denitrification-specific functional marker gene abundance and expression. In accordance with previous studies our results showed that biochar addition can lead to a significant decrease in N2O emissions. Furthermore, we determined significantly higher quantities of soil-entrapped N2O and N2 in biochar microcosms and a biochar-induced increase in typical and atypical nosZ transcript copy numbers. Our findings suggest that biochar-induced N2O emission mitigation is based on the entrapment of N2O in water-saturated pores of the soil matrix and concurrent stimulation of microbial N2O reduction resulting in an overall decrease of the N2O/(N2O + N2) ratio. PMID:28008997

  5. Gas entrapment and microbial N2O reduction reduce N2O emissions from a biochar-amended sandy clay loam soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, Johannes; Guzman-Bustamante, Ivan; Kuehfuss, Stefanie; Ruser, Reiner; Well, Reinhard; Spott, Oliver; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that is produced during microbial nitrogen transformation processes such as nitrification and denitrification. Soils represent the largest sources of N2O emissions with nitrogen fertilizer application being the main driver of rising atmospheric N2O concentrations. Soil biochar amendment has been proposed as a promising tool to mitigate N2O emissions from soils. However, the underlying processes that cause N2O emission suppression in biochar-amended soils are still poorly understood. We set up microcosm experiments with fertilized, wet soil in which we used 15N tracing techniques and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to investigate the impact of biochar on mineral and gaseous nitrogen dynamics and denitrification-specific functional marker gene abundance and expression. In accordance with previous studies our results showed that biochar addition can lead to a significant decrease in N2O emissions. Furthermore, we determined significantly higher quantities of soil-entrapped N2O and N2 in biochar microcosms and a biochar-induced increase in typical and atypical nosZ transcript copy numbers. Our findings suggest that biochar-induced N2O emission mitigation is based on the entrapment of N2O in water-saturated pores of the soil matrix and concurrent stimulation of microbial N2O reduction resulting in an overall decrease of the N2O/(N2O + N2) ratio.

  6. Simple method of isolating humic acids from organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, O.

    2009-04-01

    Humic substances particularly humic acids (HA) play a major role in soil conditioning e.g. erosion control, soil cation exchange capacity, complexation of heavy metal ions and pesticides, carbon and nitrogen cycles, plant growth and reduction of ammonia volatilization from urea. Humified substances such as coal, composts, and peat soils have substantial amounts of HA but the isolation of these acids is expensive, laborious, and time consuming. Factors that affect the quality and yield of HA isolated from these materials include extraction, fractionation, and purification periods. This work developed a simple, rapid, and cost effective method of isolating HA from peat soils. There was a quadratic relationship between extraction period and HA yield. Optimum extraction period was estimated at 4 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 48 h. There was no relationship between fractionation period and HA yield. As such 2 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 24 h fractionation period could be considered optimum. Low ash content (5%), remarkable reduction in K, coupled with the fact that organic C, E4/E6, carboxylic COOH, phenolic OH, and total acidity values of the HA were consistent with those reported by other authors suggest that the HA dealt with were free from mineral matter. This was possible because the distilled water used to purify the HA served as Bronsted-Lowry acid during the purification process of the HA. Optimum purification period using distilled waster was 1 h instead of the usual range of 1 and 7 days (uses HF and HCl and dialysis). Humic acids could be isolated from tropical peat soils within 7 h (i.e. 4 h extraction, 2 h fractionation, and 1 h purification) instead of the existing period of 2 and 7 days. This could facilitate the idea of producing organic fertilizers such as ammonium-humate and potassium-humate from humified substances since techniques devised in this study did not alter the true nature of the HA. Besides, the technique is rapid, simple

  7. Soil surface acidity plays a determining role in the atmospheric-terrestrial exchange of nitrous acid

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Melissa A.; Bish, David L.; Raff, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important hydroxyl (OH) radical source that is formed on both ground and aerosol surfaces in the well-mixed boundary layer. Recent studies report the release of HONO from nonacidic soils, although it is unclear how soil that is more basic than the pKa of HONO (∼3) is capable of protonating soil nitrite to serve as an atmospheric HONO source. Here, we used a coated-wall flow tube and chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) to study the pH dependence of HONO uptake onto agricultural soil and model substrates under atmospherically relevant conditions (1 atm and 30% relative humidity). Experiments measuring the evolution of HONO from pH-adjusted surfaces treated with nitrite and potentiometric titrations of the substrates show, to our knowledge for the first time, that surface acidity rather than bulk aqueous pH determines HONO uptake and desorption efficiency on soil, in a process controlled by amphoteric aluminum and iron (hydr)oxides present. The results have important implications for predicting when soil nitrite, whether microbially derived or atmospherically deposited, will act as a net source or sink of atmospheric HONO. This process represents an unrecognized mechanism of HONO release from soil that will contribute to HONO emissions throughout the day. PMID:25512517

  8. Soil surface acidity plays a determining role in the atmospheric-terrestrial exchange of nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Melissa A; Bish, David L; Raff, Jonathan D

    2014-12-30

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important hydroxyl (OH) radical source that is formed on both ground and aerosol surfaces in the well-mixed boundary layer. Recent studies report the release of HONO from nonacidic soils, although it is unclear how soil that is more basic than the pKa of HONO (∼ 3) is capable of protonating soil nitrite to serve as an atmospheric HONO source. Here, we used a coated-wall flow tube and chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) to study the pH dependence of HONO uptake onto agricultural soil and model substrates under atmospherically relevant conditions (1 atm and 30% relative humidity). Experiments measuring the evolution of HONO from pH-adjusted surfaces treated with nitrite and potentiometric titrations of the substrates show, to our knowledge for the first time, that surface acidity rather than bulk aqueous pH determines HONO uptake and desorption efficiency on soil, in a process controlled by amphoteric aluminum and iron (hydr)oxides present. The results have important implications for predicting when soil nitrite, whether microbially derived or atmospherically deposited, will act as a net source or sink of atmospheric HONO. This process represents an unrecognized mechanism of HONO release from soil that will contribute to HONO emissions throughout the day.

  9. Soil peroxidase-mediated chlorination of fulvic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, Gunilla; Borén, Hans; Carlsson, Uno; Grimvall, Anders

    Humic matter has recently been shown to contain considerable quantities of naturally produced organohalogens. The present study investigated the possibility of a non-specific, enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter in soil. The results showed that, in the presence of chloride and hydrogen peroxide, the enzyme chloroperoxidase (CPO) from the fungus Caldariomyces fumago catalyzes chlorination of fulvic acid. At pH 2.5 - 6.0, the chlorine to fulvic acid ratio in the tested sample was elevated from 12 mg/g to approximately 40-50 mg/g. It was also shown that this reaction can take place at chloride and hydrogen peroxide concentrations found in the environment. An extract from spruce forest soil was shown to have a measurable chlorinating capacity. The activity of an extract of 0.5 kg soil corresponded to approximately 0.3 enzyme units, measured as CPO activity. Enzymatically mediated halogenation of humic substances may be one of the mechanisms explaining the widespread occurrence of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) in soil and water.

  10. Extraction and Analysis of Microbial Phospholipid Fatty Acids in Soils

    PubMed Central

    Quideau, Sylvie A.; McIntosh, Anne C.S.; Norris, Charlotte E.; Lloret, Emily; Swallow, Mathew J.B.; Hannam, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) are key components of microbial cell membranes. The analysis of PLFAs extracted from soils can provide information about the overall structure of terrestrial microbial communities. PLFA profiling has been extensively used in a range of ecosystems as a biological index of overall soil quality, and as a quantitative indicator of soil response to land management and other environmental stressors. The standard method presented here outlines four key steps: 1. lipid extraction from soil samples with a single-phase chloroform mixture, 2. fractionation using solid phase extraction columns to isolate phospholipids from other extracted lipids, 3. methanolysis of phospholipids to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and 4. FAME analysis by capillary gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Two standards are used, including 1,2-dinonadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PC(19:0/19:0)) to assess the overall recovery of the extraction method, and methyl decanoate (MeC10:0) as an internal standard (ISTD) for the GC analysis. PMID:27685177

  11. Engineered biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass for increasing water-holding capacity and fertility of sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Badr A; Ellis, Naoko; Kim, Chang Soo; Bi, Xiaotao; Emam, Ahmed El-Raie

    2016-10-01

    Engineered biochars produced from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass have been evaluated in terms of their ability on improving water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and fertility of loamy sand soil. The addition of K3PO4, clinoptilolite and/or bentonite as catalysts during the pyrolysis process increased biochar surface area and plant nutrient contents. Adding biochar produced with 10wt.% K3PO4+10 wt.% clinoptilolite as catalysts to the soil at 2wt% load increased soil WHC by 98% and 57% compared to the treatments without biochar (control) and with 10wt.% clinoptilolite, respectively. Synergistic effects on increased soil WHC were manifested for biochars produced from combinations of two additives compared to single additive, which may be the result of increased biochar microporosity due to increased microwave heating rate. Biochar produced from microwave catalytic pyrolysis was more efficient in increasing the soil WHC due to its high porosity in comparison with the biochar produced from conventional pyrolysis at the same conditions. The increases in soil CEC varied widely compared to the control soil, ranging from 17 to 220% for the treatments with biochars produced with 10wt% clinoptilolite at 400°C, and 30wt% K3PO4 at 300°C, respectively. Strong positive correlations also exist among soil WHC with CEC and biochar micropore area. Biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis appears to be a novel approach for producing biochar with high sorption affinity and high CEC. These catalysts remaining in the biochar product would provide essential nutrients for the growth of bioenergy and food crops.

  12. Effects of sewage sludge amendment on the properties of two Brazilian oxisols and their humic acids.

    PubMed

    Bertoncini, E I; D'Orazio, V; Senesi, N; Mattiazzo, M E

    2008-07-01

    The effect of sewage sludge (SS) amendment on the general properties of the top layers of a sandy and a clayey oxisols and on the nature of their humic acid (HA) fractions was evaluated by chemical and physico-chemical techniques. The amended soils, especially the sandy soil, benefited of SS amendment by increasing their pH to above neutrality and enhancing the contents of C, N, P, and Ca and cation exchange capacity. The SS-HA-like sample showed larger H and N contents and a greater aliphatic character and humification degree than the HAs isolated from non-amended soils. The composition and structure of amended soil HAs were affected by SS application as a function of soil type and layer. In particular, N-containing groups and aliphatic structures of SS-HA-like sample appears to be partially incorporated in the amended soil HAs, and these effects were more evident in the HAs from the sandy oxisol.

  13. Acid washing and stabilization of an artificial arsenic-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Shuzo; Hakuta, Toshikatsu

    2002-01-01

    An acid-washing process was studied on a laboratory scale to extract the bulk of arsenic(V) from a highly contaminated Kuroboku soil (Andosol) so as to minimize the risk of arsenic to human health and the environment. The sorption and desorption behavior of arsenic in the soil suggested the possibility of arsenic leaching under acidic conditions. Artificially contaminated Kuroboku soil (2830 mg As/kg soil) was washed with different concentrations of hydrogen fluoride, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrogen chloride, nitric acid, perchloric acid, hydrogen bromide, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, 3:1 hydrogen chloride-nitric acid, or 2:1 nitric acid-perchloric acid. Phosphoric acid proved to be most promising as an extractant, attaining 99.9% arsenic extraction at 9.4% acid concentration in 6 h. Sulfuric acid also attained high percentage extraction. The arsenic extraction by these acids reached equilibrium within 2 h. Elovich-type equation best described most of the kinetic data for dissolution of soil components as well as for extraction of arsenic. Dissolution of the soil components could be minimized by ceasing acid washing in 2 h. The acid-washed soil was further stabilized by the addition of lanthanum, cerium, and iron(III) salts or their oxides or hydroxides which form insoluble complex with arsenic. Both salts and oxides of lanthanum and cerium were effective in immobilizing arsenic in the soil attaining less than 0.01 mg/l As in the leaching test.

  14. Community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria under long-term application of mineral fertilizer and organic manure in a sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Chu, Haiyan; Fujii, Takeshi; Morimoto, Sho; Lin, Xiangui; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Hu, Junli; Zhang, Jiabao

    2007-01-01

    The effects of mineral fertilizer (NPK) and organic manure on the community structure of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated in a long-term (16-year) fertilizer experiment. The experiment included seven treatments: organic manure, half organic manure N plus half fertilizer N, fertilizer NPK, fertilizer NP, fertilizer NK, fertilizer PK, and the control (without fertilization). N fertilization greatly increased soil nitrification potential, and mineral N fertilizer had a greater impact than organic manure, while N deficiency treatment (PK) had no significant effect. AOB community structure was analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of the amoA gene, which encodes the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. DGGE profiles showed that the AOB community was more diverse in N-fertilized treatments than in the PK-fertilized treatment or the control, while one dominant band observed in the control could not be detected in any of the fertilized treatments. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the DGGE bands derived from N-fertilized treatments belonged to Nitrosospira cluster 3, indicating that N fertilization resulted in the dominance of Nitrosospira cluster 3 in soil. These results demonstrate that long-term application of N fertilizers could result in increased soil nitrification potential and the AOB community shifts in soil. Our results also showed the different effects of mineral fertilizer N versus organic manure N; the effects of P and K on the soil AOB community; and the importance of balanced fertilization with N, P, and K in promoting nitrification functions in arable soils.

  15. Processes and fluxes during the initial stage of acid sulfate soil formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, J.; Hamer, K.; Schulz, H. D.

    2009-04-01

    Acid sulfate soils occur over a wide range of climatic zones, mainly in coastal landscapes. In these soils, the release of sulfuric acid by the oxidation of pyrite generates a very acidic environment (e.g., DENT and PONS, 1995, PONS, 1973). Two major types of acid sulfate soils can be distinguished: In actual acid sulfate soils, the initially contained pyrite was at least partly oxidized. This resulted in a severe acidification of the soil. Potential acid sulfate soils are generally unoxidized and contain large amounts of pyrite. Upon oxidation, these soils will turn into actual acid sulfate soils. By excavation or lowering of the groundwater table, potential acid sulfate soils can be exposed to atmospheric oxygen. During oxidation the pH drops sharply to values below pH 4. This acidification promotes the release of various metals, e.g., alumina, iron and heavy metals. Additionally, large quantities of sulfate are released. In order to assess the effects of disturbances of potential acid sulfate soils, for example by excavations during construction works, several large scale column experiments were conducted with various types of potential acid sulfate soils from Northern Germany. In these experiments, the oxidation and initial profile development of pyritic fen peats and thionic fluvisols were studied over a period of 14 months. The study focused on leaching and the translocation of various metals in the soil profile. To study mobilization processes, element fluxes and the progress of acidification, soil water and leachate were analyzed for total element concentrations. Furthermore, several redox-sensitive parameters, e.g., Fe2+ and sulfide, were measured and changes to the initial solid phase composition were analyzed. Chemical equilibria calculations of the soil water were used to gain insights into precipitation processes of secondary products of pyrite oxidation and leaching products. The results of this study will support the assessment of risks deriving from

  16. Paleosols can promote root growth of recent vegetation - a case study from the sandy soil-sediment sequence Rakt, the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocke, Martina I.; Kessler, Fabian; van Mourik, Jan M.; Jansen, Boris; Wiesenberg, Guido L. B.

    2016-10-01

    Soil studies commonly comprise the uppermost meter for tracing, e.g., soil development. However, the maximum rooting depth of various plants significantly exceeds this depth. We hypothesized that deeper parts of the soil, soil parent material and especially paleosols provide beneficial conditions in terms of, e.g., nutrient contents, thus supporting their utilization and exploitation by deep roots. We aimed to decipher the different phases of soil formation in Dutch drift sands and cover sands. The study site is located at Bedafse Bergen (southeastern Netherlands) in a 200-year-old oak stand. A recent Podzol developed on drift sand covering a Plaggic Anthrosol that was piled up on a relict Podzol on Late Glacial eolian cover sand. Root-free soil and sediment samples, collected in 10-15 cm depth increments, were subjected to a multi-proxy physical and geochemical approach. The Plaggic Anthrosol revealed low bulk density and high phosphorous and organic carbon contents, whereas the relict Podzol was characterized by high iron and aluminum contents. Frequencies of fine (diameter ≤ 2 mm) and medium roots (2-5 mm) were determined on horizontal levels and the profile wall for a detailed pseudo-three-dimensional insight. On horizontal levels, living roots were most abundant in the uppermost part of the relict Podzol with ca. 4450 and 220 m-2, significantly exceeding topsoil root abundances. Roots of oak trees thus benefited from the favorable growth conditions in the nutrient-rich Plaggic Anthrosol, whereas increased compactness and high aluminum contents of the relict Podzol caused a strong decrease of roots. The approach demonstrated the benefit of comprehensive root investigation to support interpretation of soil profiles, as fine roots can be significantly underestimated when quantified at the profile wall. The possible rooting of soil parent material and paleosols long after their burial confirmed recent studies on the potential influence of rooting to overprint

  17. Paleosols can promote root growth of the recent vegetation - a case study from the sandy soil-sediment sequence Rakt, the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocke, M. I.; Kessler, F.; van Mourik, J. M.; Jansen, B.; Wiesenberg, G. L. B.

    2015-12-01

    Soil studies commonly comprise the uppermost meter for tracing e.g. soil development. However, the maximum rooting depth of various plants significantly exceeds this depth. We hypothesized that deeper parts of the soil, soil parent material and especially paleosols provide beneficial conditions in terms of e.g. nutrient contents, thus supporting their utilization and exploitation by deep roots. We aimed to decipher the different phases of soil formation in Dutch drift- and coversands. The study site is located at Bedafse Bergen (SE Netherlands) in a 200 year old oak stand. A recent Podzol developed on driftsand covering a Plaggic Anthrosol that established in a relict Podzol on Late Glacial eolian coversand. Root-free soil and sediment samples, collected in 10-15 cm depth increments, were subjected to a multi-proxy physical and geochemical approach. The Plaggic Anthrosol revealed low bulk density and high phosphorous and organic carbon contents, whereas the relict Podzol was characterized by high iron and aluminum contents. Frequencies of fine (≤ 2 mm) and medium roots (2-5 mm) were determined on horizontal levels and the profile wall for a detailed pseudo-three-dimensional insight. On horizontal levels, living roots maximized in the uppermost part of the relict Podzol with ca. 4450 and 220 m-2, significantly exceeding topsoil root abundances. Roots of oak trees thus benefited from the favorable growth conditions in the nutrient-rich Plaggic Anthrosol, whereas increased compactness and high aluminum contents of the relict Podzol caused a strong decrease of roots. The approach demonstrated the benefit of comprehensive root investigation to support and explain pedogenic investigations of soil profiles, as fine roots can be significantly underestimated when quantified at the profile wall. The possible rooting of soil parent material and paleosols long after their burial confirmed recent studies on the potential influence of rooting to overprint sediment-(paleo)soil

  18. Interactive effects of soil acidity and fluoride on soil solution aluminium chemistry and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root growth.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, V; Loganathan, P; Tillman, R W; Parfitt, R L

    2007-02-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine if concentrations of fluoride (F), which would be added to acid soils via P fertilisers, were detrimental to barley root growth. Increasing rates of F additions to soil significantly increased the soil solution concentrations of aluminium (Al) and F irrespective of the initial adjusted soil pH, which ranged from 4.25 to 5.48. High rates of F addition severely restricted root growth; the effect was more pronounced in the strongly acidic soil. Speciation calculations demonstrated that increasing rates of F additions substantially increased the concentrations of Al-F complexes in the soil. Stepwise regression analysis showed that it was the combination of the activities of AlF2(1+) and AlF(2+) complexes that primarily controlled barley root growth. The results suggested that continuous input of F to soils, and increased soil acidification, may become an F risk issue in the future.

  19. The effectiveness of surface liming in ameliorating the phytotoxic effects of soil contaminated by copper acid leach pad solution in an arid ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golos, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Revegetation of sites following soil contamination can be challenging especially in identifying the most effective method for ameliorating phytotoxic effects in arid ecosystems. This study at a copper mine in the Great Sandy Desert of Western Australia investigated vegetation restoration of a site contaminated by acid (H2SO4) leach pad solution. Elevated soil copper at low soil pH is phytotoxic to plant roots inhibiting root elongation. In arid ecosystems where rapid root growth is crucial for seedling survival post germination physical or chemical barriers to root growth need to be identified and ameliorated. Initial attempt at rehabilitation of contaminated site with hydrated lime (CaOH2) at 2 tonnes/ha followed by ripping to 30 cm depth then seeding was ineffective as successful seedling emergence was followed by over 90% seedling mortality which was 10-fold greater than seedling mortality in an uncontaminated reference site. High mortality was attributed to seedling roots being impededed as soil water was more than 3-fold greater at 5 to 40 cm depth in contaminated site than reference site. In response to high seedling mortality after emergence test pits were dug to 1 m deep to collect soil samples at 10 cm intervals for phytotoxicity testing and to measure soil pH-CaCl2, copper (DPTA ion extraction), electrical conductivity and gravimetric water content in three replicate pits at three replicate sites. Also, soil impedance was measured down the soil profile at 5 cm intervals at six replicate points/pit. For phytotoxicity testing soil samples were placed into three replicate plastic pots/sample and seeded with 10 seeds of Avena sativa and watered daily. Seedlings were harvested after at least two weeks after seedling emergence and rooting depth in pots measured. There was no difference in seedling emergence and survival of seedlings between contaminated and uncontaminated soil samples however mean seedling root growth was significantly lower in soil samples

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus enhances P acquisition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a sandy loam soil with long-term inorganic fertilization regime.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junli; Lin, Xiangui; Wang, Junhua; Cui, Xiangchao; Dai, Jue; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Jiabao

    2010-10-01

    The P efficiency, crop yield, and response of wheat to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus caledonium were tested in an experimental field with long-term (19 years) fertilizer management. The experiment included five fertilizer treatments: organic amendment (OA), half organic amendment plus half mineral fertilizer (1/2 OM), mineral fertilizer NPK, mineral fertilizer NK, and the control (without fertilization). AMF inoculation responsiveness (MIR) of wheat plants at acquiring P were estimated by comparing plants grown in unsterilized soil inoculated with G. caledonium and in untreated soil containing indigenous AMF. Without AMF inoculation, higher crop yields but lower colonization rates were observed in the NPK and two OA-inputted treatments, and NPK had significantly (P < 0.05) lower impacts on organic C and available P in soils and thereby P acquisition of wheat plants compared with OA and 1/2 OM. G. caledonium inoculation significantly (P < 0.05) increased colonization rates with the NPK and two P-deficient treatments but significantly (P < 0.05) increased vegetative biomass, crop yield, and P acquisition of wheat as well as soil alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, only with the NPK treatment. This gave an MIR of ca. 45% on total P acquisition of wheat plants. There were no other remarkable MIRs. It suggested that the MIR is determined by soil available P status, and rational combination of AMF with chemical NPK fertilizer can compensate for organic amendments by improving P-acquisition efficiency in arable soils.

  1. Ameliorating soil chemical properties of a hard setting subsoil layer in coastal plain USA with different designer biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Norfolk soils in the southeastern United States of America (USA) Coastal Plain region have meager soil fertility characteristics because of their sandy textures, acidic pH values, kaolinitic clays and with depleted organic carbon contents. Extensive clay mineral weathering and clay eluviation along ...

  2. Relationships between soil properties and community structure of soil macroinvertebrates in oak-history forests along an acidic deposition gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Kuperman, R.G.

    1996-02-01

    Soil macroinvertebrate communities were studied in ecologically analogous oak-hickory forests across a three-state atmospheric pollution gradient in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The goal was to investigate changes in the community structure of soil fauna in study sites receiving different amounts of acidic deposition for several decades and the possible relationships between these changes and physico-chemical properties of soil. The study revealed significant differences in the numbers of soil animals among the three study sites. The sharply differentiated pattern of soil macroinvertebrate fauna seems closely linked to soil chemistry. Significant correlations of the abundance of soil macroinvertebrates with soil parameters suggest that their populations could have been affected by acidic deposition in the region. Abundance of total soil macroinvertebrates decreased with the increased cumulative loading of acidic deposition. Among the groups most sensitive to deposition were: earthworms gastropods, dipteran larvae, termites, and predatory beetles. The results of the study support the hypothesis that chronic long-term acidic deposition could aversely affect the soil decomposer community which could cause lower organic matter turnover rates leading to an increase in soil organic matter content in high deposition sites.

  3. Effects of water treatment residuals and coal combustion byproduct amendments on properties of a sandy soil and impact on crop production – A pot experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Byproducts of coal combustion (such as fly ash: FA), livestock industry (such as chicken manure: CM, or animal manure, etc), or water treatment residuals (such as sewage sludge: SS, or incinerated sewage sludge: ISS) can be used as amendments to agricultural soils, provided that these byproducts (ap...

  4. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Zhu, Lianfeng; Zhang, Junhua; Jin, Qianyu; Wu, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N), which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3−-N + NH4+-N). On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine) did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10). The compositional similarity of many

  5. [Characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in red soil profile under different vegetation types].

    PubMed

    Ji, Gang; Xu, Ming-gang; Wen, Shi-lin; Wang, Bo-ren; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Li-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in soil profile under different vegetation types were studied in hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan Province, China. The soil samples from red soil profiles within 0-100 cm depth at fertilized plots and unfertilized plots were collected and analyzed to understand the profile distribution of soil pH and exchangeable acidity. The results showed that, pH in 0-60 cm soil from the fertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: citrus orchard > Arachis hypogaea field > tea garden. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was A. hypogaea field ≤ citrus orchard < tea garden. After tea tree and A. hypogaea were planted for long time, acidification occurred in surface soil (0-40 cm), compared with the deep soil (60-100 cm), and soil pH decreased by 0.55 and 0.17 respectively, but such changes did not occur in citrus orchard. Soil pH in 0-40 cm soil from the natural recovery vegetation unfertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: Imperata cylindrica land > Castanea mollissima garden > Pinus elliottii forest ≥ Loropetalum chinensis forest. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was L cylindrica land < C. mollissima garden < L. chinensis forest ≤ P. elliottii forest. Soil pH in surface soil (0-20 cm) from natural forest plots, secondary forest and Camellia oleifera forest were significantly lower than that from P. massoniana forest, decreased by 0.34 and 0.20 respectively. For exchangeable acidity content in 0-20 cm soil from natural forest plot, P. massoniana forest and secondary forest were significantly lower than C. oleifera forest. Compared with bare land, surface soil acidification in unfertilized plots except I. cylindrica land had been accelerated, and the natural secondary forest was the most serious among them, with surface soil pH decreasing by 0.52. However, the pH increased in deep soils from unfertilized plots except natural secondary forest, and I. cylindrica

  6. [Effect of low molecular weight organic acids on inorganic phosphorus transformation in red soil and its acidity].

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongqing; Liao, Lixia; Wang, Xinglin

    2002-07-01

    Red soil samples collected from southern Hubei province and northern Jiangxi province were tested to analyze their inorganic phosphorus fractions, pH and active aluminum after incubated with added various organic acids. The results indicated that application of organic acids increased the content of Ca2-P in both red soils, in the order of citric acid > malic acid > succinic acid > acetic acid, did not affect the contents of Ca8-P and Ca10-P, but usually reduced Fe-P, Al-P and O-P. The pH values of the soils treated by organic acids, except for acetic acid, were reduced by 0.65-1.96, compared with the control. Soil active Al extracted with 0.02 mol.L-1 CaCl2 in treatments with citric, malic and succinic acid was 5.7-51.3 times as the control, and Al extracted with 1 mol.L-1 KCl also increased 4.0-67.3 times. However, acetic acid had little influence on active soil Al. It was concluded that in red soils, organic acid could improve phosphorus availability, but enhance the soil toxicity caused by active Al.

  7. [Effects of simulated acid rain on decomposition of soil organic carbon and crop straw].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue-Zhu; Huang, Yao; Yang, Xin-Zhong

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of acid rain on the organic carbon decomposition in different acidity soils, a 40-day incubation test was conducted with the paddy soils of pH 5.48, 6.70 and 8.18. The soils were amended with 0 and 15 g x kg(-1) of rice straw, adjusted to the moisture content of 400 g x kg(-1) air-dried soil by using simulated rain of pH 6.0, 4.5, and 3.0, and incubated at 20 degrees C. The results showed that straw, acid rain, and soil co-affected the CO2 emission from soil system. The amendment of straw increased the soil CO2 emission rate significantly. Acid rain had no significant effects on soil organic carbon decomposition, but significantly affected the straw decomposition in soil. When treated with pH 3.0 acid rain, the amount of decomposed straw over 40-day incubation in acid (pH 5.48) and alkaline (pH 8.18) soils was 8% higher, while that in neutral soil (pH 6.70) was 15% lower, compared to the treatment of pH 6.0 rain. In the treatment of pH 3.0 acid rain, the decomposition rate of soil organic C in acid (pH 5.48) soil was 43% and 50% (P < 0.05) higher than that in neutral (pH 6.70) and alkaline (pH 8.18) soils, while the decomposition rate of straw in neutral soil was 17% and 16% (P < 0.05) lower than that in acid and alkaline soils, respectively.

  8. Influence of ameliorating soil acidity with dolomite on the priming of soil C content and CO2 emission.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Muhammad; Wu, Lei; Peng, Qi-An; van Zwieten, Lukas; Chhajro, Muhammad Afzal; Wu, Yupeng; Lin, Shan; Ahmed, Muhammad Mahmood; Khalid, Muhammad Salman; Abid, Muhammad; Hu, Ronggui

    2017-02-21

    Lime or dolomite is commonly implemented to ameliorate soil acidity. However, the impact of dolomite on CO2 emissions from acidic soils is largely unknown. A 53-day laboratory study was carried out to investigate CO2 emissions by applying dolomite to an acidic Acrisol (rice-rapeseed rotation [RR soil]) and a Ferralsol (rice-fallow/flooded rotation [RF soil]). Dolomite was dosed at 0, 0.5, and 1.5 g 100 g(-1) soil, herein referred to as CK, L, and H, respectively. The soil pH(H2O) increased from 5.25 to 7.03 and 7.62 in L and H treatments of the RR soil and from 5.52 to 7.27 and 7.77 in L and H treatments of the RF soil, respectively. Dolomite application significantly (p ≤ 0.001) increased CO2 emissions in both RR and RF soils, with higher emissions in H as compared to L dose of dolomite. The cumulative CO2 emissions with H dose of dolomite were greater 136% in the RR soil and 149% in the RF soil as compared to CK, respectively. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) increased and reached at 193 and 431 mg kg(-1) in the RR soil and 244 and 481 mg kg(-1) in the RF soil by H treatments. The NH4(-)-N and NO3(-)-N were also increased by dolomite application. The increase in C and N contents stimulated microbial activities and therefore higher respiration in dolomite-treated soil as compared to untreated. The results suggest that CO2 release in dolomite-treated soils was due to the priming of soil C content rather than chemical reactions.

  9. Toxicity of RDX, HMX, TNB, 2,4-DNT, and 2,6-DNT to the Earthworm, Eisenia Fetida, in a Sandy Loam Soil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    ATCLP is a modification of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure ( TCLP ) (40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 268.41, Hazardous Waste...and BACCTO® potting soil (Michigan Peat Co., Houston, TX, USA). The pH was adjusted to 6.2 + 0.1 by adding calcium carbonate (pulverized lime). The...culture was kept moist at 21 ± 2 °C with continuous light. Earthworm colonies were fed biweekly with dehydrated alfalfa pellets (27% fiber , 17% protein

  10. Effect of Short-Chain Fatty Acids and Soil Atmosphere on Tylenchorhynchus spp.

    PubMed Central

    McElderry, Claire F.; Browning, Marsha; Amador, José A.

    2005-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids can be produced under anaerobic conditions by fermentative soil microbes and have nematicidal properties. We evaluated the effects of butyric and propionic acids on death and recovery of stunt nematodes (Tylenchorhynchus spp.), a common parasite of turfgrass. Nematodes in a sand-soil mix (80:20) were treated with butyric or propionic acid and incubated under air or N₂ for 7 days at 25 °C. Amendment of soil with 0.1 and 1.0 µmol (8.8 and 88 µg) butyric acid/g soil or 1.0 µmol (74 µg) propionic acid/g soil resulted in the death of all nematodes. The composition of the soil atmosphere had no effect on the nematicidal activity of the acids. Addition of hydrochloric acid to adjust soil pH to 4.4 and 3.5 resulted in nematode mortality relative to controls (41% to 86%) but to a lesser degree than short-chain fatty acids at the same pH. Nematodes did not recover after a 28-day period following addition of 10 µmol butyric acid/g soil under air or N₂. Carbon mineralization decreased during this period, whereas levels of inorganic N and microbial biomass-N remained constant. Short-chain fatty acids appear to be effective in killing Tylenchorhynchus spp. independent of atmospheric composition. Nematode mortality appears to be a function of the type and concentration of fatty acid and soil pH. PMID:19262845

  11. EDTA and HCl leaching of calcareous and acidic soils polluted with potentially toxic metals: remediation efficiency and soil impact.

    PubMed

    Udovic, Metka; Lestan, Domen

    2012-07-01

    The environmental risk of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) in soil can be diminished by their removal. Among the available remediation techniques, soil leaching with various solutions is one of the most effective but data about the impact on soil chemical and biological properties are still scarce. We studied the effect of two common leaching agents, hydrochloric acid (HCl) and a chelating agent (EDTA) on Pb, Zn, Cd removal and accessibility and on physico-chemical and biological properties in one calcareous, pH neutral soil and one non-calcareous acidic soil. EDTA was a more efficient leachant compared to HCl: up to 133-times lower chelant concentration was needed for the same percentage (35%) of Pb removal. EDTA and HCl concentrations with similar PTM removal efficiency decreased PTM accessibility in both soils but had different impacts on soil properties. As expected, HCl significantly dissolved carbonates from calcareous soil, while EDTA leaching increased the pH of the acidic soil. Enzyme activity assays showed that leaching with HCl had a distinctly negative impact on soil microbial and enzyme activity, while leaching with EDTA had less impact. Our results emphasize the importance of considering the ecological impact of remediation processes on soil in addition to the capacity for PTM removal.

  12. Transport of two naphthoic acids and salicylic acid in soil: experimental study and empirical modeling.

    PubMed

    Hanna, K; Lassabatere, L; Bechet, B

    2012-09-15

    In contrast to the parent compounds, the mechanisms responsible for the transport of natural metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in contaminated soils have been scarcely investigated. In this study, the sorption of three aromatic acids (1-naphthoic acid (NA), 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNA) and salicylic acid (SA)) was examined on soil, in a batch equilibrium single-system, with varying pH and acid concentrations. Continuous flow experiments were also carried out under steady-state water flow. The adsorption behavior of naphthoic and benzoic acids was affected by ligand functionality and molecular structure. All modeling options (equilibrium, chemical nonequilibrium, i.e. chemical kinetics, physical nonequilibrium, i.e. surface sites in the immobile water fraction, and both chemical and physical nonequilibrium) were tested in order to describe the breakthrough behavior of organic compounds in homogeneously packed soil columns. Tracer experiments showed a small fractionation of flow into mobile and immobile compartments, and the related hydrodynamic parameters were used for the modeling of reactive transport. In all cases, the isotherm parameters obtained from column tests differed from those derived from the batch experiments. The best accurate modeling was obtained considering nonequilibrium for the three organic compounds. Both chemical and physical nonequilibrium led to appropriate modeling for HNA and NA, while chemical nonequilibrium was the sole option for SA. SA sorption occurs mainly in mobile water and results from the concomitancy of instantaneous and kinetically limited sites. For all organic compounds, retention is contact condition dependent and differs between batch and column experiments. Such results show that preponderant mechanisms are solute dependent and kinetically limited, which has important implications for the fate and transport of carboxylated aromatic compounds in contaminated soils.

  13. Influences of humic acid and fulvic acid on horizontal leaching behavior of anthracene in soil barriers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sheng; Li, Bang-Yu; Chen, Yi-Hu

    2015-12-01

    The influences of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) on horizontal leaching behaviors of anthracene in barriers were investigated. Soil colloids (≤1 μm) were of concern because of their abilities of colloid-facilitated transport for hydrophobic organic compounds with soluble and insoluble organic matters. Through freely out of the barriers in the presence of soil colloids with FA added, the higher concentrations of anthracene were from 320 μg L(-1) (D1 and D3) to 390 μg L(-1) (D2 and D4) with 1 to 20 cm in length. The contents of anthracene were distributed evenly at 25 ng g(-1) dry weight (DW) (D1 and D3) and 11 ng g(-1) DW (D2 and D4) in barriers. Therefore, anthracene leaching behaviors were mainly induced by soil colloids with soluble organic matters. The insoluble organic matters would facilitate anthracene onto soil colloids and enhance the movement in and through porous media of soil matrix.

  14. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil fauna community composition and their ecological niches.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Jiaen; Qin, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Acid rain is one of the severest environmental issues globally. Relative to other global changes (e.g., warming, elevated atmospheric [CO2], and nitrogen deposition), however, acid rain has received less attention than its due. Soil fauna play important roles in multiple ecological processes, but how soil fauna community responds to acid rain remains less studied. This microcosm experiment was conducted using latosol with simulated acid rain (SAR) manipulations to observe potential changes in soil fauna community under acid rain stress. Four pH levels, i.e., pH 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5, and a neutral control of pH 7.0 were set according to the current pH condition and acidification trend of precipitation in southern China. As expected, we observed that the SAR treatments induced changes in soil fauna community composition and their ecological niches in the tested soil; the treatment effects tended to increase as acidity increased. This could be attributable to the environmental stresses (such as acidity, porosity and oxygen supply) induced by the SAR treatments. In addition to direct acidity effect, we propose that potential changes in permeability and movability of water and oxygen in soils induced by acid rain could also give rise to the observed shifts in soil fauna community composition. These are most likely indirect pathways of acid rain to affect belowground community. Moreover, we found that nematodes, the dominating soil fauna group in this study, moved downwards to mitigate the stress of acid rain. This is probably detrimental to soil fauna in the long term, due to the relatively severer soil conditions in the deep than surface soil layer. Our results suggest that acid rain could change soil fauna community and the vertical distribution of soil fauna groups, consequently changing the underground ecosystem functions such as organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Formation of diphenylthioarsinic acid from diphenylarsinic acid under anaerobic sulfate-reducing soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Shihoko; Guan, Ling; Nakajima, Mami; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2013-11-15

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is a toxic phenylarsenical compound often found around sites contaminated with phenylarsenic chemical warfare agents, diphenylcyanoarsine or diphenylchloroarsine, which were buried in soil after the World Wars. This research concerns the elucidation of the chemical structure of an arsenic metabolite transformed from DPAA under anaerobic sulfate-reducing soil conditions. In LC/ICP-MS analysis, the retention time of the metabolite was identical to that of a major phenylarsenical compound synthesized by chemical reaction of DPAA and hydrogen sulfide. Moreover the mass spectra for the two compounds measured using LC/TOF-MS were similar. Subsequent high resolution mass spectral analysis indicated that two major ions at m/z 261 and 279, observed on both mass spectra, were attributable to C12H10AsS and C12H12AsSO, respectively. These findings strongly suggest that the latter ion is the molecular-related ion ([M+H](+)) of diphenylthioarsinic acid (DPTA; (C6H5)2AsS(OH)) and the former ion is its dehydrated fragment. Thus, our results reveal that DPAA can be transformed to DPTA, as a major metabolite, under sulfate-reducing soil conditions. Moreover, formation of diphenyldithioarsinic acid and subsequent dimerization were predicted by the chemical reaction analysis of DPAA with hydrogen sulfide. This is the first report to elucidate the occurrence of DPAA-thionation in an anaerobic soil.

  16. A Simulation of the Interaction of Acid Rain with Soil Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Amber L.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Yoder, Claude H.

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric issue of acid rains is subjected to a five-part laboratory experiment by concentrating on the chemistry of the infiltration process of acid rainwater through soils. This procedure of quantitative scrutiny helps students realize the efficacy of soil minerals in the consumption of surplus acidity in rainwater.

  17. Formation of chloroacetic acids from soil, humic acid and phenolic moieties.

    PubMed

    Fahimi, I J; Keppler, F; Schöler, H F

    2003-07-01

    The mechanism of formation of chloroacetates, which are important toxic environmental substances, has been controversial. Whereas the anthropogenic production has been well established, a natural formation has also been suggested. In this study the natural formation of chloroacetic acids from soil, as well as from humic material which is present in soil and from phenolic model substances has been investigated. It is shown that chloroacetates are formed from humic material with a linear relationship between the amount of humic acid used and chloroacetates found. More dichloroacetate (DCA) than trichloroacetate (TCA) is produced. The addition of Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and H(2)O(2) leads to an increased yield. NaCl was added as a source of chloride. We further examined the relationship between the structure and reactivity of phenolic substances, which can be considered as monomeric units of humic acids. Ethoxyphenol with built-in ethyl groups forms large amounts of DCA and TCA. The experiments with phenoxyacetic acid yielded large amounts of monochloroacetate (MCA). With other phenolic substances a ring cleavage was observed. Our investigations indicate that chloroacetates are formed abiotically from humic material and soils in addition to their known biotic mode of formation.

  18. Root-secreted malic acid recruits beneficial soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rudrappa, Thimmaraju; Czymmek, Kirk J; Paré, Paul W; Bais, Harsh P

    2008-11-01

    Beneficial soil bacteria confer immunity against a wide range of foliar diseases by activating plant defenses, thereby reducing a plant's susceptibility to pathogen attack. Although bacterial signals have been identified that activate these plant defenses, plant metabolites that elicit rhizobacterial responses have not been demonstrated. Here, we provide biochemical evidence that the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate L-malic acid (MA) secreted from roots of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) selectively signals and recruits the beneficial rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis FB17 in a dose-dependent manner. Root secretions of L-MA are induced by the foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst DC3000) and elevated levels of L-MA promote binding and biofilm formation of FB17 on Arabidopsis roots. The demonstration that roots selectively secrete L-MA and effectively signal beneficial rhizobacteria establishes a regulatory role of root metabolites in recruitment of beneficial microbes, as well as underscores the breadth and sophistication of plant-microbial interactions.

  19. [Effect of acetic acid on adsorption of acid phosphatase by some soil colloids and clay minerals].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenhua; Huang, Qiaoyun; Jiang, Xin; Yu, Guifen; Wang, Fang; Li, Xueyuan

    2004-03-01

    This paper studied the effect of acetic acid with different concentrations and pH values on the adsorption of acid phosphatase by some soil colloids and clay minerals (SCCM). The results showed that the pH values for the maximum adsorption of the enzyme were between the IEP of the enzyme and the PZC of SCCM. In the acetic acid systems, the amount of the enzyme adsorbed by SCCM was in the order of goethite > yellow brown soil > latosol > kaolinite > delta-MnO2. A remarkable influence of acetic acid concentration on the adsorption amount and the binding energy of the enzyme was observed. With the increase of the concentration from 0 to 200 mmol.L-1 in the system, acetic acid exhibited an enhanced effect, followed by an inhibition action on the adsorption of the enzyme on SCCM. The changes of the binding energy (K value) for the enzyme on SCCM were on the contrary to those of the maximum adsorption. The possible mechanisms for the influence of acetic acid on the adsorption of enzyme by SCCM were also discussed.

  20. Enhanced biodegradation of anthracene in acidic soil by inoculated Burkholderia sp. VUN10013.

    PubMed

    Somtrakoon, Khanitta; Suanjit, Sudarat; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Lee, Hung; Upatham, Suchart

    2008-08-01

    The ability of Burkholderia sp. VUN10013 to degrade anthracene in microcosms of two acidic Thai soils was studied. The addition of Burkholderia sp. VUN10013 (initial concentration of 10(5) cells g(-1) dry soil) to autoclaved soil collected from the Plew District, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand, supplemented with anthracene (50 mg kg(-1) dry soil) resulted in complete degradation of the added anthracene within 20 days. In contrast, under the same test conditions but using autoclaved soil collected from the Kitchagude District, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand, only approximately 46.3% of the added anthracene was degraded after 60 days of incubation. In nonautoclaved soils, without adding the VUN10013 inocula, 22.8 and 19.1% of the anthracene in Plew and Kitchagude soils, respectively, were degraded by indigenous bacteria after 60 days. In nonautoclaved soil inoculated with Burkholderia sp. VUN10013, the rate and extent of anthracene degradation were considerably better than those seen in autoclaved soils or in uninoculated nonautoclaved soils in that only 8.2 and 9.1% of anthracene remained in nonautoclaved Plew and Kitchagude soils, respectively, after 10 days of incubation. The results showed that the indigenous microorganisms in the pristine acidic soils have limited ability to degrade anthracene. Inoculation with the anthracene-degrading Burkholderia sp. VUN10013 significantly enhanced anthracene degradation in such acidic soils. The indigenous microorganisms greatly assisted the VUN10013 inoculum in anthracene degradation, especially in the more acidic Kitchagude soil.

  1. The influence of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and stream waters on a seasonal basis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Pippa J; Clark, Joanna M; Reynolds, Brian; Adamson, John K

    2008-01-01

    Much uncertainty still exists regarding the relative importance of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and surface waters. This paper contributes to this debate by presenting analysis of seasonal variations in atmospheric deposition, soil solution and stream water chemistry for two UK headwater catchments with contrasting soils. Acid neutralising capacity (ANC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the Na:Cl ratio of soil and stream waters displayed strong seasonal patterns with little seasonal variation observed in soil water pH. These patterns, plus the strong relationships between ANC, Cl and DOC, suggest that cation exchange and seasonal changes in the production of DOC and seasalt deposition are driving a shift in the proportion of acidity attributable to strong acid anions, from atmospheric deposition, during winter to predominantly organic acids in summer.

  2. Extraction of amino acids from soils and sediments with superheated water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, C. N.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1974-01-01

    A method of extraction for amino acids from soils and sediments involving superheated water has been investigated. About 75-97 per cent of the amino acids contained in four soils of a soil profile from Illinois were extracted by this method. Deep penetration of water into soil aggregates and partial hydrolysis of peptide bonds during this extraction by water at high temperature are likely mechanisms responsible for the release of amino acids from samples. This extraction method does not require subsequent desalting treatments when analyses are carried out with an ion-exchange amino acid analyzer.

  3. Effect of fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on yield, nutrient uptake, heavy metal content and residual fertility in a rice-mustard cropping sequence under acid lateritic soils.

    PubMed

    Rautaray, S K; Ghosh, B C; Mittra, B N

    2003-12-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years in sandy loam acid lateritic soil to study the direct effect of fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on rice (Oryza sativa) and their residual effect on mustard (Brassica napus var glauca) grown in sequence. Rice yields were higher when fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers were used in an integrated manner as compared to sole application of chemical fertilizers. Yields of mustard were also higher under the residual effect of the former rather than the latter. However, this beneficial residual effect under integrated nutrient sources was inadequate for the mustard crop in the low fertility test soil. Hence, direct application of fertilizers was needed, in addition to residual fertility. The effect of fly ash on mean rice equivalent yield of the rice-mustard cropping sequence was highest (up to 14%) when it was used in combination with organic wastes and chemical fertilizers. While the yield increase was 10% when it was used in combination with only chemical fertilizers. The minimum yield advantage, 3%, occurred when fly ash was applied alone. The equivalent yield of the rice-mustard cropping sequence was equally influenced by either of the organic wastes. Cadmium and Ni content in rice grain and straw were less under the direct effect of fly ash. The residual effect on mustard was similar for Ni content in seed and stover; however, Cd content was increased. Beneficial residual soil chemical properties in terms of pH, organic carbon and available N, P and K were noted for integrated nutrient treatments involved fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers as compared to continuous use of only chemical fertilizers. Application of fly ash alone was effective in raising soil available P. Thus, integrated use of fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers was beneficial in improving crop yield, soil pH, organic carbon and available N, P and K in sandy loam acid lateritic soil.

  4. ANALYSIS OF PERFLUORINATED CARBOXYLIC ACIDS IN SOILS II: OPTIMIZATION OF CHROMATOGRAPHY AND EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the objective of detecting and quantitating low concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), including perfluorinated octanoic acid (PFOA), in soils, we compared the analytical suitability of liquid chromatography columns containing three different stationary p...

  5. Effects of surfactants on low-molecular-weight organic acids to wash soil zinc.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Zhang, Shirong; Xu, Xiaoxun; Yao, Ping; Li, Ting; Wang, Guiyin; Gong, Guoshu; Li, Yun; Deng, Ouping

    2016-03-01

    Soil washing is an effective approach to the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of the surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and non-ionic polyacrylamide (NPAM) on oxalic acid, tartaric acid, and citric acid used to remove zinc from contaminated soils were investigated. The Zn removal efficiencies of all washing solutions showed a logarithmic increase with acid concentrations from 0.5 to 10.0 g/L, while they decreased as pH increased from 4 to 9. Increasing the reaction time enhanced the effects of surfactants on Zn removal efficiencies by the acids during washing and significantly (P < 0.05) improved the removal under some mixed cases. Oxalic acid suffered antagonistic effects from the three surfactants and seriously damaged soil nutrients during the removal of soil Zn. Notably, the three surfactants caused synergistic effects on tartaric and citric acid during washing, with NPAM leading to an increase in Zn removal by 5.0 g/L citric acid of 10.60 % (P < 0.05) within 2 h. NPAM also alleviated the loss of cation exchange capacity of washed soils and obviously improved soil nitrogen concentrations. Overall, combining citric acid with NPAM offers a promising approach to the removal of zinc from contaminated soil.

  6. Metagenomic analysis of the rhizosphere soil microbiome with respect to phytic acid utilization.

    PubMed

    Unno, Yusuke; Shinano, Takuro

    2013-01-01

    While phytic acid is a major form of organic phosphate in many soils, plant utilization of phytic acid is normally limited; however, culture trials of Lotus japonicus using experimental field soil that had been managed without phosphate fertilizer for over 90 years showed significant usage of phytic acid applied to soil for growth and flowering and differences in the degree of growth, even in the same culture pot. To understand the key metabolic processes involved in soil phytic acid utilization, we analyzed rhizosphere soil microbial communities using molecular ecological approaches. Although molecular fingerprint analysis revealed changes in the rhizosphere soil microbial communities from bulk soil microbial community, no clear relationship between the microbiome composition and flowering status that might be related to phytic acid utilization of L. japonicus could be determined. However, metagenomic analysis revealed changes in the relative abundance of the classes Bacteroidetes, Betaproteobacteria, Chlorobi, Dehalococcoidetes and Methanobacteria, which include strains that potentially promote plant growth and phytic acid utilization, and some gene clusters relating to phytic acid utilization, such as alkaline phosphatase and citrate synthase, with the phytic acid utilization status of the plant. This study highlights phylogenetic and metabolic features of the microbial community of the L. japonicus rhizosphere and provides a basic understanding of how rhizosphere microbial communities affect the phytic acid status in soil.

  7. Metals in European roadside soils and soil solution--a review.

    PubMed

    Werkenthin, Moritz; Kluge, Björn; Wessolek, Gerd

    2014-06-01

    This review provides a summary of studies analysing metal concentrations in soils and soil solution at European roadsides. The data collected during 27 studies covering a total of 64 sites across a number of European countries were summarised. Highest median values of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in the top soil layer at the first 5 m beside the road. Generally, the influence of traffic on soil contamination decreased with increasing soil depth and distance to the road. The concentration patterns of metals in soil solution were independent from concentrations in the soil matrix. At 10-m distance, elevated soil metal concentrations, low pH, and low percolation rates led to high solute concentrations. Directly beside the road, high percolation rates lead to high annual loadings although solute concentrations are comparatively low. These loadings might be problematic, especially in regions with acidic sandy soils and a high groundwater table.

  8. Biogenic arsenic volatilisation from an acidic wetland soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgen, Gunter; Huang, Jen-How; Lu, Shipeng; Tian, Liyan; Alewell, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic arsenic (As) volatilisation was budgeted at 26000 t yr-1as the largest input of the global As release into the atmosphere, thereby playing an important role in the biogeochemical cycle of As in the surface environment. In order to quantify As volatilisation from wetland soils and to elucidate the geochemical and microbiological factors governing As volatilisation, a series of incubations with an acidic wetland soil collected in NE-Bavaria in Germany were performed at 15oC for 4 months with addition of NaN3, arsenite (As(III)), FeCl3, NaSO4 and NaOAc with N2 and air in the headspace. Speciation of gaseous As in the headspace using GC-ICP-MS/ ESI-MS coupling showed the predominance of either arsine (AsH3) or trimethylarsine ((CH3)3As) in all treatments during the time course of incubation. Monomethylarsine ((CH3)AsH2) and dimethylarsine ((CH3)2AsH) could be only detected in trace amounts. Arsenic speciation in porewater with HPLC-ICP-MS revealed the predominance of As(III) and methylated As was never detectable. Arsenic volatilisation summed to 2.3 ng As (88% as AsH3) in the control incubations, which accounted for ~0.25 % of the total As storage in the wetland soil. Treatments with 10 mM NaN3 resulted in emission of only 0.03 ng As. In contrast, addition of 10 mM NaOAc stimulated microbial activities in wetland soils and subsequently rose As volatilisation to 8.5 ng As. It could be therefore concluded that As volatilisation from the wetland soils was mainly biological. Spiking 67 μM As(III) increased 10 times of As volatilisation and the proportion of methylated arsines increased to 66%, which is supposed to be caused by the largely enhanced As availability in porewater for microbes (480 ppb, ~65 times higher than those in the controls). Adding 10 mM FeCl3 stimulated microbial Fe(III) reducing activities but suppressed other microbial activities by lowering soil pH from 5 to 3.6, decreasing consequently As volatilisation to 0.3 ng As. The much lower redox

  9. Phytoremediation of uranium-contaminated soils: Role of organic acids in triggering uranium hyperaccumulation in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.W.; Blaylock, M.J.; Kapulnik, Y.; Ensley, B.D.

    1998-07-01

    Uranium phytoextraction, the use of plants to extract U from contaminated soils, is an emerging technology. The authors report on the development of this technology for the cleanup of U-contaminated soils. In this research, they investigated the effects of various soil amendments on U desorption from soil to soil solution, studied the physiological characteristics of U uptake and accumulation in plants, and developed techniques to trigger U hyperaccumulation in plants. A key to the success of U phytoextraction is to increase soil U availability to plants. The authors have found that some organic acids can be added to soils to increase U desorption from soil to soil solution and to trigger a rapid U accumulation in plants. Of the organic acids (acetic acid, citric acid, and malic acid) tested, citric acid was the most effective in enhancing U accumulation in plants. Shoot U concentrations of Brassica juncea and Brassica chinensis grown in a U-contaminated soil increased from less than 5 mg kg{sup {minus}1} to more than 5,000 mg kg{sup {minus}1} in citric acid-treated soils. To their knowledge, this is the highest shoot U concentration reported for plants grown on U-contaminated soils. Using this U hyperaccumulation technique, they are now able to increase U accumulation in shoots of selected plant species grown in two U-contaminated soils by more than 1,000-fold within a few days. The results suggest that U phytoextraction may provide an environmentally friendly alternative for the cleanup of U-contaminated soils.

  10. [Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on the Speciation of Pb in Purple Soil and Soil Solution].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Jiang, Tao; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Chen, Hong

    2016-04-15

    Lead (Pb) in purple soil was selected as the research target, using one-step extraction method with 0.01 mol · L⁻¹ sodium nitrate as the background electrolyte to study the release effect of citric acid (CA), tartaric acid (TA) and acetic acid (AC) with different concentrations. Sequential extraction and geochemical model (Visual Minteq v3.0) were applied to analyze and predict the speciation of Pb in soil solid phase and soil solution phase. Then the ebvironmental implications and risks of low-molecule weight organic acid (LMWOA) on soil Pb were analyzed. The results indicated that all three types of LMWOA increased the desorption capacity of Pb in purple soil, and the effect followed the descending order of CA > TA > AC. After the action of LMWOAs, the exchangeable Pb increased; the carbonate-bound Pb and Fe-Mn oxide bound Pb dropped in soil solid phase. Organic bound Pb was the main speciation in soil solution phase, accounting for 45.16%-75.05%. The following speciation of Pb in soil solution was free Pb, accounting for 22.71%-50.25%. For CA and TA treatments, free Pb ions and inorganic bound Pb in soil solution increased with increasing LMWOAs concentration, while organic bound Pb suffered a decrease in this process. An opposite trend for AC treatment was observed compared with CA and TA treatments. Overall, LMWOAs boosted the bioavailability of Pb in purple soil and had a potential risk to contaminate underground water. Among the three LMWOAs in this study, CA had the largest potential to activate soil Pb.

  11. Effect of soil acidity factors on yields and foliar composition of tropical root crops

    SciTech Connect

    Abruna-Rodriguez, F.; Vicente-Chandler, J.I. Rivera, E.; Rodriguez, J.

    1982-09-01

    Tropical root crops, a major source of food for subsistence farmers, varied in their sensitivity to soil acidity factors. Tolerance to soil acidity is an important characteristic of crops for the humid tropics where soils are often very acid and lime-scarce and expensive. Experiments on two Ultisols and an Oxisol showed that three tropical root crops differed markedly in sensitivity to soil acicity factors. Yams (Dioscorea alata L.) were very sensitive to soil acidity with yields on a Ultisol decreasing from 70% of maximum when Al saturation of the effective cation exchange capacity of the soil was 10 to 25% of maximum when Al saturation was 40%. On the other hand, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was very tolerant to high levels of soil acidity, yielding about 85% of maximum with 60% Al saturation. Taniers (Xanthosoma sp.) were intermediate between yams and cassava in their tolerance to soil acidity yielding about 60% of maximum with 50% Al saturation of the soil. Foliar composition of cassava was not affected by soil acidity levels and that of yams and taniers was also unaffected except for Ca content which decreased with decreasing soil pH and increasing Al saturation.Response of these tropical root crops to soil acidity components was far more striking on Ultisols than on the Oxisol. For yams, soils should be limed to about pH 5.5 with essentially no exhangeable Al/sup 3 +/ present whereas high yields of taniers can be obtained at about pH 4.8 with 20% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/ and of cassava at pH as low as 4.5 with 60% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/.

  12. Influence of different forms of acidities on soil microbiological properties and enzyme activities at an acid mine drainage contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Tripathy, Subhasish; Equeenuddin, Sk Md; Panigrahi, M K

    2010-07-15

    Assessment of microbial parameters, viz. microbial biomass, fluorescence diacetate, microbial respiration, acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase and urease with respect to acidity helps in evaluating the quality of soils. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different forms of acidities on soil microbial parameters in an acid mine drainage contaminated site around coal deposits in Jainta Hills of India. Total potential and exchangeable acidity, extractable and exchangeable aluminium were significantly higher in contaminated soil compared to the baseline (p<0.01). Different forms of acidity were significantly and positively correlated with each other (p<0.05). Further, all microbial properties were positively and significantly correlated with organic carbon and clay (p<0.05). The ratios of microbial parameters with organic carbon were negatively correlated with different forms of acidity. Principal component analysis and cluster analyses showed that the microbial activities are not directly influenced by the total potential acidity and extractable aluminium. Though acid mine drainage affected soils had higher microbial biomass and activities due to higher organic matter content than those of the baseline soils, the ratios of microbial parameters/organic carbon indicated suppression of microbial growth and activities due to acidity stress.

  13. Modeling the contribution of soil fauna to litter decomposition influenced by acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, B.; Loucks, O.L; Kuperman, R. Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1993-06-01

    The effect of acidic deposition on soil pH and therefore on soil invertebrates and litter decomposition is being investigated in oak-hickory forests across a three-state, midwest, pollution gradient. The role of soil invertebrates has been assessed previously through the use of feeding, assimilation and respiratory rates. These energetic parameters depend strongly on the form of the allometric equations which have been improved here by incorporating uncertainties in body and population size. Results show that changes in reproduction and turnover dynamics of soil invertebrates (particularly of earthworms) due to acid-induced changes in soil pH explains observed patterns in litter depth.

  14. The microbial communities and potential greenhouse gas production in boreal acid sulphate, non-acid sulphate, and reedy sulphidic soils.

    PubMed

    Šimek, Miloslav; Virtanen, Seija; Simojoki, Asko; Chroňáková, Alica; Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav; Yli-Halla, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Acid sulphate (AS) soils along the Baltic coasts contain significant amounts of organic carbon and nitrogen in their subsoils. The abundance, composition, and activity of microbial communities throughout the AS soil profile were analysed. The data from a drained AS soil were compared with those from a drained non-AS soil and a pristine wetland soil from the same region. Moreover, the potential production of methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide from the soils was determined under laboratory conditions. Direct microscopic counting, glucose-induced respiration (GIR), whole cell hybridisation, and extended phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis confirmed the presence of abundant microbial communities in the topsoil and also in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil. The patterns of microbial counts, biomass and activity in the profile of the AS soil and partly also in the non-AS soil therefore differed from the general tendency of gradual decreases in soil profiles. High respiration in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil (5.66 μg Cg(-1)h(-1), as compared to 2.71 μg Cg(-1)h(-1) in a top Ap horizon) is unusual but reasonable given the large amount of organic carbon in this horizon. Nitrous oxide production peaked in the BCgc horizon of the AS and in the BC horizon of the non-AS soil, but the peak value was ten-fold higher in the AS soil than in the non-AS soil (82.3 vs. 8.6 ng Ng(-1)d(-1)). The data suggest that boreal AS soils on the Baltic coast contain high microbial abundance and activity. This, together with the abundant carbon and total and mineral nitrogen in the deep layers of AS soils, may result in substantial gas production. Consequently, high GHG emissions could occur, for example, when the generally high water table is lowered because of arable farming.

  15. Optimization of water and nitrogen application to menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L.) through sugarcane trash mulch in a sandy loam soil of semi-arid subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Ram, Dasha; Ram, Muni; Singh, Ranjeet

    2006-05-01

    Studies were carried out to optimize the use of water and nutrients by the crop with three moisture regimes [0.9, 1.2 and 1.5 irrigation water:cumulative pan evaporation (IW:CPE) ratios], two variables of organic mulch (control and sugarcane trash at 7 t/ha) and three levels of nitrogen (0, 100 and 200 kg/ha). Soil moisture regimes maintained at 1.2 IW:CPE ratio significantly increased the crop growth and herb and essential oil yields as compared with that of 0.9 IW:CPE ratio. The increase in herb yield due to 1.5 and 1.2 IW:CPE ratios was recorded to be 28.5% and 19%, respectively, over the irrigation given at 0.9 IW:CPE ratio, with the corresponding increase in essential oil yield to the extent of 23.5% and 15.5%. Interaction effect of moisture regimes and nitrogen rates indicated that increasing levels of irrigation at the highest level of N (200 kg/ha) improved essential oil yield of the crop. Application of N at 200 kg/ha in the mulched plots significantly enhanced the N uptake by the crop and essential oil yield over the control and 100 kg N/ha applied in the mulched/or unmulched plots and 200 kg N/ha applied in the unmulched plots. Application of organic mulch and nitrogen at 200 kg/ha improved the water use efficiency (WUE) in menthol mint crop. Higher moisture regimes maintained up to 1.2 IW:CPE ratio increased the WUE. The quality of essential oil in terms of its major constituent, menthol, improved slightly with 1.2 IW:CPE ratio as compared to 0.9 and 1.5 IW:CPE ratios at first and second harvests of the crop. It is recommended that menthol mint crop could be grown profitably by providing 16 irrigations, that is 80 cm water (based on 1.2 IW:CPE ratio) and nitrogen at 200 kg/ha in the sugarcane trash mulched plots, which could give a highest benefit:cost ratio from menthol mint cropping.

  16. Soil-calcium depletion linked to acid rain and forest growth in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Huntington, T.G.

    1999-01-01

    Since the discovery of acid rain in the 1970's, scientists have been concerned that deposition of acids could cause depletion of calcium in forest soils. Research in the 1980's showed that the amount of calcium in forest soils is controlled by several factors that are difficult to measure. Further research in the 1990's, including several studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, has shown that (1) calcium in forest soils has decreased at locations in the northeastern and southeastern U.S., and (2) acid rain and forest growth (uptake of calcium from the soil by roots) are both factors contributing to calcium depletion.

  17. Humic acid toxicity in biologically treated soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Nieman, J K C; Sims, R C; Sorensen, D L; McLean, J E

    2005-10-01

    Contaminated soil from a land treatment unit at the Libby Groundwater Superfund Site in Libby, MT, was amended with 14C pyrene and incubated for 396 days to promote biodegradation and the formation of soil-associated bound residues. Humic and fulvic acids were extracted from the treated soil microcosms and analyzed for the presence of pyrene residues. Biologic activity promoted 14C association with the fulvic acid fraction, but humic acid-associated 14C did not increase with biologic activity. The Aboatox flash toxicity assay was used to assess the toxicity of humic and fulvic acid fractions. The fulvic acid gave no toxic response, but the humic acid showed significant toxicity. The observed toxicity was likely associated with pentachlorophenol, a known contaminant of the soil that was removed by solvent extraction of the humic acid and that correlated well with toxicity reduction.

  18. Aliphatic, Cyclic, and Aromatic Organic Acids, Vitamins, and Carbohydrates in Soil: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research. PMID:24319374

  19. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil: a review.

    PubMed

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-11-10

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research.

  20. Crossing the pedogenetic threshold: Apparent phosphorus limitation by soil microorganisms in unglaciated acidic eastern hardwood forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deforest, J. L.; Smemo, K. A.; Burke, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The availability of soil phosphorus (P) can significantly influence microbial community composition and the ecosystem-level processes they mediate. However, the threshold at which soil microorganisms become functionally P-limited is unclear because of soil acidity effect on P availability. We reason that acidic temperate hardwood forest ecosystems are, in fact, functionally P-limited, but compensation occur via soil microbial production of phosphatase enzymes. We tested this hypothesis in glaciated and unglaciated mature mixed-mesophytic forests in eastern Ohio where both soil pH and P availability had been experientially manipulated. We measured the activity of two P acquiring soil enzymes, phosphomonoesterase (PMono) and phosphodiesterase (PDi), to understand how soil acidity and available P influence microbial function. Our experimental treatments elevated ambient soil pH from below 4.5 to around 5.5 and increased readily available phosphate from 3 to ~25 mg P/kg on glaciated soils and from 0.5 to ~5 mg P/kg on unglaciated soils. The P treatment decreased the activity of PDi by 82% relative to the control on unglaciated soils, but we observed no P treatment effect on glaciated soils. A similar result was observed for PMono. Soil pH, alone, did not significantly influence enzyme activities. Results suggest that soil microorganisms are more likely to be P-limited in older unglaciated soils. However, dramatically higher phosphatase activity in response to very low P availability suggests that an underlying ecosystem P limitation can be ameliorated by soil microbial community dynamics. This mechanism may be more important for older, unglaciated soils that have already crossed a pedogenic threshold where P availability influences ecosystem and microbial function.

  1. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ash, Christopher; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Jehlička, Jan; Michon, Ninon; Borůvka, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Shredded card (SC) was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE) carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water). We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4). Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons) before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49) were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC). In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC). In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC). In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil), and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC). A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption). SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing.

  2. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Christopher; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Jehlička, Jan; Michon, Ninon; Borůvka, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Shredded card (SC) was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE) carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water). We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4). Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons) before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49) were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC). In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC). In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC). In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil), and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC). A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption). SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing. PMID:26900684

  3. Oral bioaccessibility of trivalent and hexavalent chromium in soil by simulated gastric fluid.

    PubMed

    Skowronski, G A; Seide, M; Abdel-Rahman, M S

    2001-07-06

    Chromium is found in soil from natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The ingestion of soil contaminated with chromium especially by children can have toxic consequences. Therefore, it is important to quantify the oral bioaccessibility of chromium in chromium in contaminated soil. In this study, chromium-51 as chromic (III) chloride and sodium chromate (VI), was mixed with an Atsion sandy soil and a Keyport clay soil and stored for 4 mo at either 21-25 degrees C or 2-4 degrees C. Utilizing simulated gastric conditions, the oral bioaccessibility of chromium in soil was determined. When the effects of soil on the bioaccessibility of chromium were compared, the data revealed the the bioaccessibility of chromium (III) from the clay soil was significantly lower than from the sandy at 21-25 degrees C. However, at 2-4 degrees C, more chromium (III) was extracted by synthetic gastric fluid from the clay soil than from the sandy soil. Temperature was also a factor as evidenced by the higher bioaccessibility of chromium (IV) in the sandy soil at 2-4 degrees C and of both chromium species in the clay soil at the same temperature. Reduction of the soluble chromium (VI) chemical to the nonsoluble chromium (III) compound in the acidic soils by naturally occurring organic matter in soil would explain the lower bioaccessibilty of chromium (VI) at 21-25 degrees C. At 2-4 degrees C, the data indicate that the rate of chromium (VI) reduction to chromium (III) was slowed. Although the results of this study are limited to one low concentration of chromium (III) and chromium (VI) and indicate that the bioaccessibility of chromium in soil can range between 18% and 72%, the data also suggest that there may be a potential health hazard from oral exposure to chromium in heavily contaminated sites. Therefore, more extensive research should be conducted to determine if thes findings can be extended to environmentally relevant concentrations.

  4. Identifying sources of acidity and spatial distribution of acid sulfate soils in the Anglesea River catchment, southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Vanessa; Yau, Chin; Kennedy, David

    2015-04-01

    Globally, coastal and estuarine floodplains are frequently underlain by sulfidic sediments. When exposed to oxygen, sulfidic sediments oxidise to form acid sulfate soils, adversely impacting on floodplain health and adjacent aquatic ecoystems. In eastern Australia, our understanding of the formation of these coastal and estuarine floodplains, and hence, spatial distribution of acid sulfate soils, is relatively well established. These soils have largely formed as a result of sedimentation of coastal river valleys approximately 6000 years BP when sea levels were one to two metres higher. However, our understanding of the evolution of estuarine systems and acid sulfate soil formation, and hence, distribution, in southern Australia remains limited. The Anglesea River, in southern Australia, is subjected to frequent episodes of poor water quality and low pH resulting in closure of the river and, in extreme cases, large fish kill events. This region is heavily reliant on tourism and host to a number of iconic features, including the Great Ocean Road and Twelve Apostles. Poor water quality has been linked to acid leakage from mining activities and Tertiary-aged coal seams, peat swamps and acid sulfate soils in the region. However, our understanding of the sources of acidity and distribution of acid sulfate soils in this region remains poor. In this study, four sites on the Anglesea River floodplain were sampled, representative of the main vegetation communities. Peat swamps and intertidal marshes were both significant sources of acidity on the floodplain in the lower catchment. However, acid neutralising capacity provided by carbonate sands suggests that there are additional sources of acidity higher in the catchment. This pilot study has highlighted the complexity in the links between the floodplain, upper catchment and waterways with further research required to understand these links for targeted acid management strategies.

  5. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AS PREDICTORS OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL EFFECTS ON SOIL MICROBIAL RESPIRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Structure-activity analysis was used to evaluate the effects of 19 hazardous organic chemicals on microbial respiration in two slightly acidic soils (a Captina silt loam from Roane County Tennessee, and a McLaurin sandy loam from Stone County, Mississippi), both low in organic ca...

  6. Soil microbial response to tetracycline in two different soils amended with cow manure.

    PubMed

    Chessa, Luigi; Pusino, Alba; Garau, Giovanni; Mangia, Nicoletta Pasqualina; Pinna, Maria Vittoria

    2016-03-01

    High amounts of antibiotics are introduced in the soil environment by manure amendment, which is the most important spreading route in soil, with a potential ecotoxicological impact on the environment. The objectives of this study were (a) to assess the tetracycline (Tc) bioavailability in a clay and in a sandy soil, and (b) to evaluate the effects of the Tc and cow manure on the structure and function of soil microbial communities. Clay and sandy soils were spiked with Tc at the concentrations of 100 and 500 mg Tc kg(-1) soil, and were amended or not with cow manure. The clay soil showed greater Tc sorption capacity and bioavailable Tc was between 0.157 and 4.602 mg kg(-1) soil. Tc dose and time-dependent effects on soil microbial communities were investigated by fluorescein diacetate activity, phospholipid fatty acids analysis, as well as by Biolog community level physiological profile and microbial counts at 2, 7 and 60 days after Tc and/or manure addition. The added Tc caused detrimental effect on the microbial activity and structure, particularly in the short term at the highest concentrations. However, the Tc effect was transient' it decreased after 7 days and totally disappeared within 60 days. Cow manure shifted the bacterial structure in both soils, increased the microbial activity in clay soil and contributed to recover the microbial structure in Tc-spiked manure treatments.

  7. Effects of simulated acid rain on microbial characteristics in a lateritic red soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-qin; Zhang, Jia-en; Ouyang, Ying; Lin, Ling; Quan, Guo-ming; Zhao, Ben-liang; Yu, Jia-yu

    2015-11-01

    A laboratory experiment was performed to examine the impact of simulated acid rain (SAR) on nutrient leaching, microbial biomass, and microbial activities in a lateritic red soil in South China. The soil column leaching experiment was conducted over a 60-day period with the following six SAR pH treatments (levels): 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 and one control treatment (pH = 7). Compared with the control treatment, the concentrations of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), and average well color density (AWCD) in the Ecoplates were all significantly decreased by leaching with SAR at different pH levels. The decrease in MBC and MBN indicated that acid rain reduced the soil microbial population, while the decrease in AWCD revealed that acid rain had a negative effect on soil bacterial metabolic function. Soil basal respiration increased gradually from pH 4.0 to 7.0 but decreased dramatically from pH 2.5 to 3.0. The decrease in soil nutrient was the major reason for the change of soil microbial functions. A principal component analysis showed that the major carbon sources used by the bacteria were carbohydrates and carboxylic acids.

  8. Ammonia-oxidizing activity and microbial community structure in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, K.; Takanashi, A.; Yamada, T.; Hiraishi, A.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ammonia-oxidizing activity and the phylogentic composition of microorganisms involved in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil. All soil samples were collected from three sites located in Tahara and Toyohashi, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The potential nitrification rate (PNR) was measured by the chlorate inhibition method. The soil pH of tea orchards studied ranged from 2.78 to 4.84, differing significantly from sample to sample, whereas that of meadow and unplanted fields ranged from 5.78 to 6.35. The PNR ranged from 0.050 to 0.193 μg NO2--Ng-1 h-1 and were positively correlated with the soil pH (r2 = 0.382, p<0.001). Bulk DNA was extracted from a tea orchard soil (pH 4.8; PNR, 0.078 μg NO2--Ng-1 h-1) and subjected to PCR-aided clone library analyses targeting archaeal and bacterial amoA genes. The detected archaeal clones separated from the cluster of the 'Soil clones' and tightly clustered with the clones originating from other acidic soil environments including the Chinese tea orchard soil. These results suggest that the specific archaeal populations dominate as the ammonia oxidizers in acid tea-orchard soils and possibly other acid soils, independent of geographic locations, which results from the adaptation to specific ecological niches.

  9. Reduced nitrification and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in acidic soil amended with biochar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zong, Haiying; Zheng, Hao; Liu, Guocheng; Chen, Lei; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-11-01

    Adding biochar into soils has potential to manipulate soil nitrification process due to its impacts on nitrogen (N) cycling, however, the exact mechanisms underlying the alteration of nitrification process in soils are still not clear. Nitrification in an acidic orchard soil amended with peanut shell biochar (PBC) produced at 400 °C was investigated. Nitrification was weakened by PBC addition due to the decreased NH4(+)-N content and reduced ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) abundance in PBC-amended soils. Adding phenolic compounds (PHCs) free biochar (PBC-P) increased the AOB abundance and the DGGE band number, indicating that PHCs remaining in the PBC likely reduced AOB abundance and diversity. However, PBC addition stimulated rape growth and increased N bioavailability. Overall, adding PBC could suppress the nitrification process and improve N bioavailability in the agricultural soils, and thus possibly mitigate the environmental negative impacts and improving N use efficiency in the acidic soils added with N fertilizer.

  10. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Rich, Courtney D; Blaine, Andrea C; Hundal, Lakhwinder; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-01-20

    The presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in biosolids-amended and aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)-impacted soils results in two potential pathways for movement of these environmental contaminants into terrestrial foodwebs. Uptake of PFAAs by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to unspiked soils with varying levels of PFAAs (a control soil, an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids-amended soil, and two AFFF-impacted soils) was measured. Standard 28 day exposure experiments were conducted in each soil, and measurements taken at additional time points in the municipal soil were used to model the kinetics of uptake. Uptake and elimination rates and modeling suggested that steady state bioaccumulation was reached within 28 days of exposure for all PFAAs. The highest concentrations in the earthworms were for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the AFFF-impacted Soil A (2160 ng/g) and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA) in the industrially impacted soil (737 ng/g). Wet-weight (ww) and organic carbon (OC)-based biota soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) for the earthworms were calculated after 28 days of exposure for all five soils. The highest BSAF in the industrially impacted soil was for PFDoA (0.42 goc/gww,worm). Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs, dry-weight-basis, dw) were also calculated at 28 days for each of the soils. With the exception of the control soil and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) in the industrially impacted soil, all BAF values were above unity, with the highest being for perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in the AFFF-impacted Soil A (139 gdw,soil/gdw,worm). BSAFs and BAFs increased with increasing chain length for the perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and decreased with increasing chain length for the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs). The results indicate that PFAA bioaccumulation into earthworms depends on soil concentrations, soil characteristics, analyte, and duration of exposure, and that accumulation into earthworms may be a potential

  11. Alleviating aluminium toxicity on an acid sulphate soils in Peninsular Malaysia with application of calcium silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to alleviate Al toxicity of an acid sulphate soils collected from paddy cultivation area in Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. For this purpose, the collected acid sulphate soils were treated with calcium silicate. The treated soils were incubated for 120 days in submerged condition in a glasshouse. Subsamples were collected every 30 days throughout the incubation period. Soil pH and exchangeable Al showed positive effect; soil pH increased from 2.9 to 3.5, meanwhile exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 to 0.82 cmolc kg-1, which was well below the critical Al toxicity level for rice growth of 2 cmolc kg-1. It was noted that the dissolution of calcium silicate (CaSiO3) supplied substantial amount of Ca2+ and H4SiO42- ions into the soil, noted with increment in Si (silicate) content from 21.21 to 40 mg kg-1 at day 30 and reduction of exchangeable Al at day 90 from 4.26 to below 2 cmolc kg-1. During the first 60 days of incubation, Si content was positively correlated with soil pH, while the exchangeable Al was negatively correlated with Si content. It is believed that the silicate anions released by calcium silicate were active in neutralizing H+ ions that governs the high acidity (pH 2.90) of the acid sulphate soils. This scenario shows positive effect of calcium silicate to reduce soil acidity, therefore creates a favourable soil condition for good rice growth during its vegetative phase (30 days). Thus, application of calcium silicate to alleviate Al toxicity of acid sulphate soils for rice cultivation is a good soil amendment.

  12. Remediation of Pb-contaminated soils by washing with hydrochloric acid and subsequent immobilization with calcite and allophanic soil.

    PubMed

    Isoyama, Masahiro; Wada, Shin-Ichiro

    2007-05-17

    Removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil is not popular because of its high cost. Reducing the bioaccessible heavy metals content to an allowable level by washing with inorganic acids and subsequent immobilization of remained metals may be a low cost option for soil remediation. The applicability of this combined treatment was investigated using three different types of soil, a kaolinitic, a smectitic and an allophanic soil, which were artificially contaminated with Pb. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated using two main criteria: (i) reduction of the HCl extractable Pb (bioaccessible Pb) below 150 mg kg(-1), reduction of water extractable Pb below the concentration of 0.01 mg L(-1). These values correspond to allowable levels suggested by the Japanese Ministry of Environment. The soils were washed batch-wise at a solution to soil ratio of 5 L kg(-1) successively with 1 mol L(-1) HCl and 0.1 mol L(-1) CaCl(2) solutions. The two solutions were separated by filtration from one batch and reused for washing the next batch of soil without processing. The Pb concentration in the solutions increased after repeated use and removal efficiency gradually declined. The efficiency of the treatment was highly dependent on the type of soil. In the kaolinitic soil, HCl extractable Pb content of the soil from the first batch was about 50 mg kg(-1) and it exceeded 150 mg kg(-1) in that from sixth batch. But the combined soils from 1st to 10th batches gave bioaccessible Pb content barely below 150 mg kg(-1). For the smectitic soil having higher cation exchange capacity, the acceptable number of times of reuse was estimated to be 4. For the allophanic soil, treatment with the HCl solution was efficient only for the first batch of the soil, and the reuse of the acid solution was found to be ineffective. The application of 50 g kg(-1) of calcite or slacked lime was effective for reducing the water extractable Pb content. To keep soil pH near neutral and secure long

  13. [Effects of soil acidity on Pinus resinosa seedlings photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Qing-cheng; Liu, Ya-li; Tian, Yu-ming; Sun, Jing; Xu, Jing

    2009-12-01

    Red pine (Pinus resinosa) is one of the most important tree species for timber plantation in North America, and preliminary success has been achieved in its introduction to the mountainous area of Northeast China since 2004. In order to expand its growth area in other parts of Northeast China, a pot experiment was conducted to study the adaptability of this tree species to varying soil acidity. P. resinosa seedlings were grown in soils with different acidity (pH = 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5, and 8.0) to test the responses of their photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters to soil pH levels, and the appropriate soil acidity was evaluated. Dramatic responses in chlorophyll a and b contents, Pn and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fm, Fv, Fv/Fm, and phi(PS II)) were detected under different soil acidity (P < 0.05), with the highest chlorophyll content and Pn under soil pH 5.5, and significantly lower chlorophyll content and Pn under soil pH 7.5 and 8.0. The chlorophyll content and Pn were 41% and 50%, and 61% and 88% higher under soil pH 5.5 than under soil pH 7.5 and 8.0. The seedlings had a significant photosynthetic inhibition under soil pH 7.5 and 8.0, but the highest Fv/Fm and phi (PS II) under soil pH 5.5. Comparing with those under soil pH 7.5 and 8.0, the Fv/Fm and phi (PS II) under soil pH 5.5 were 8% and 12%, and 22% and 35% higher, respectively. It was suggested that soil pH 5.5 was most appropriate for P. resinosa growth.

  14. An acid-tolerant ammonia-oxidizing γ-proteobacterium from soil.

    PubMed

    Hayatsu, Masahito; Tago, Kanako; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Toyoda, Atsushi; Wang, Yong; Shimomura, Yumi; Okubo, Takashi; Kurisu, Futoshi; Hirono, Yuhei; Nonaka, Kunihiko; Akiyama, Hiroko; Itoh, Takehiko; Takami, Hideto

    2017-01-10

    Nitrification, the microbial oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, occurs in a wide range of acidic soils. However, the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) that have been isolated from soil to date are acid-sensitive. Here we report the isolation and characterization of an acid-adapted AOB from an acidic agricultural soil. The isolated AOB, strain TAO100, is classified within the Gammaproteobacteria based on phylogenetic characteristics. TAO100 can grow in the pH range of 5-7.5 and survive in highly acidic conditions until pH 2 by forming cell aggregates. Whereas all known gammaproteobacterial AOB (γ-AOB) species, which have been isolated from marine and saline aquatic environments, are halophiles, TAO100 is not phenotypically halophilic. Thus, TAO100 represents the first soil-originated and non-halophilic γ-AOB. The TAO100 genome is considerably smaller than those of other γ-AOB and lacks several genes associated with salt tolerance which are unnecessary for survival in soil. The ammonia monooxygenase subunit A gene of TAO100 and its transcript are higher in abundance than those of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and betaproteobacterial AOB in the strongly acidic soil. These results indicate that TAO100 plays an important role in the nitrification of acidic soils. Based on these results, we propose TAO100 as a novel species of a new genus, Candidatus Nitrosoglobus terrae.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 10 January 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2016.191.

  15. The effect of acidity on the distribution and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia in Lithuanian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapinskas, E. B.

    2007-04-01

    The distribution and symbiotic efficiency of nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum_bv. trifolii F., Sinorhizobium meliloti D., Rhizobium galegae L., and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae F. in Lithuanian soils as dependent on the soil acidity were studied in the long-term field, pot, and laboratory experiments. The critical and optimal pH values controlling the distribution of rhizobia and the symbiotic nitrogen fixation were determined for every bacterial species. The relationship was found between the soil pH and the nitrogen-fixing capacity of rhizobia. A positive effect of liming of acid soils in combination with inoculation of legumes on the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation was demonstrated.

  16. Hydraulic conductivity study of compacted clay soils used as landfill liners for an acidic waste.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Noureddine; Srasra, Ezzeddine

    2013-01-01

    Three natural clayey soils from Tunisia were studied to assess their suitability for use as a liner for an acid waste disposal site. An investigation of the effect of the mineral composition and mechanical compaction on the hydraulic conductivity and fluoride and phosphate removal of three different soils is presented. The hydraulic conductivity of these three natural soils are 8.5 × 10(-10), 2.08 × 10(-9) and 6.8 × 10(-10)m/s for soil-1, soil-2 and soil-3, respectively. Soil specimens were compacted under various compaction strains in order to obtain three wet densities (1850, 1950 and 2050 kg/m(3)). In this condition, the hydraulic conductivity (k) was reduced with increasing density of sample for all soils. The test results of hydraulic conductivity at long-term (>200 days) using acidic waste solution (pH=2.7, charged with fluoride and phosphate ions) shows a decrease in k with time only for natural soil-1 and soil-2. However, the specimens of soil-2 compressed to the two highest densities (1950 and 2050 kg/m(3)) are cracked after 60 and 20 days, respectively, of hydraulic conductivity testing. This damage is the result of a continued increase in the internal stress due to the swelling and to the effect of aggressive wastewater. The analysis of anions shows that the retention of fluoride is higher compared to phosphate and soil-1 has the highest sorption capacity.

  17. Persistent episodic acidification of streams linked to acid rain effects on soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    Episodic acidification of streams, identified in the late 1980s as one of the most significant environmental problems caused by acidic deposition, had not been evaluated since the early 1990s despite decreasing levels of acidic deposition over the past decade. This analysis indicates that episodic acidification of streams in upland regions in the northeastern United States persists, and is likely to be much more widespread than chronic acidification. Depletion of exchangeable Ca in the mineral soil has decreased the neutralization capacity of soils and increased the role of the surface organic horizon in the neutralization of acidic soil water during episodes. Increased accumulation of N and S in the forest floor from decades of acidic deposition will delay the recovery of soil base status, and therefore, the elimination of acidic episodes, which is anticipated from decreasing emissions.

  18. Hurricane Sandy -- Pass 1, Oct. 29, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    Hurricane Sandy was viewed Monday morning from the International Space Station as it orbited 260 miles above the Atlantic Ocean. Sandy had sustained winds of 90 miles an hour as the station passed ...

  19. Hurricane Sandy Prowls the Eastern Seaboard

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations from Oct. 26-29, 2012, shows Hurricane Sandy move along the U.S. East coast and into the Mid-Atlantic and northeastern U.S. Sandy had still not made landfall ...

  20. Hurricane Sandy -- Pass 2, Oct. 29, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    Hurricane Sandy was viewed Monday morning from the International Space Station as it orbited 260 miles above the Atlantic Ocean. Sandy had sustained winds of 90 miles an hour as the station passed ...

  1. ANALYSIS OF PERFLUORINATED CARBOXYLIC ACIDS IN SOILS: DETECTION AND QUANTITATION ISSUES AT LOW CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods were developed for the extraction from soil, identification, confirmation and quantitation by LC/MS/MS of trace levels of perfluorinated octanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorinated nonanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorinated decanoic acid (PFDA). Whereas PFOA, PFNA and PFDA all can...

  2. Effects of dicyandiamide and dolomite application on N2O emission from an acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Muhammad; Wu, Yupeng; Peng, Qi-an; Lin, Shan; Mo, Yongliang; Wu, Lei; Hu, Ronggui; Zhou, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Soil acidification is a major problem for sustainable agriculture since it limits productivity of several crops. Liming is usually adopted to ameliorate soil acidity that can trigger soil processes such as nitrification, denitrification, and loss of nitrogen (N) as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The loss of N following liming of acidic soils can be controlled by nitrification inhibitors (such as dicyandiamide). However, effects of nitrification inhibitors following liming of acidic soils are not well understood so far. Here, we conducted a laboratory study using an acidic soil to examine the effects of dolomite and dicyandiamide (DCD) application on N2O emissions. Three levels of DCD (0, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1); DCD0, DCD10, and DCD20, respectively) were applied to the acidic soil under two levels of dolomite (0 and 1 g kg(-1)) which were further treated with two levels of N fertilizer (0 and 200 mg N kg(-1)). Results showed that N2O emissions were highest at low soil pH levels in fertilizer-treated soil without application of DCD and dolomite. Application of DCD and dolomite significantly (P ≤ 0.001) reduced N2O emissions through decreasing rates of NH4 (+)-N oxidation and increasing soil pH, respectively. Total N2O emissions were reduced by 44 and 13% in DCD20 and dolomite alone treatments, respectively, while DCD20 + dolomite reduced N2O emissions by 54% when compared with DCD0 treatment. The present study suggests that application of DCD and dolomite to acidic soils can mitigate N2O emissions.

  3. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2016-03-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to ameliorate soil acidity in rice-cropped soil. The secondary objective was to study the effects of calcium silicate amendment on soil acidity, exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca, and Si content. The soil was treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 Mg ha-1 of calcium silicate under submerged conditions and the soil treatments were sampled every 30 days throughout an incubation period of 120 days. Application of calcium silicate induced a positive effect on soil pH and exchangeable Al; soil pH increased from 2.9 (initial) to 3.5, while exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 (initial) to 0.82 cmolc kg-1. Furthermore, the exchangeable Ca and Si contents increased from 1.68 (initial) to 4.94 cmolc kg-1 and from 21.21 (initial) to 81.71 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it was noted that calcium silicate was effective at alleviating Al toxicity in acid sulfate, rice-cropped soil, yielding values below the critical level of 2 cmolc kg-1. In addition, application of calcium silicate showed an ameliorative effect as it increased soil pH and supplied substantial amounts of Ca and Si.

  4. Potential origin and formation for molecular components of humic acids in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiDonato, Nicole; Chen, Hongmei; Waggoner, Derek; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2016-04-01

    Soil humic acids are the base soluble/acid insoluble organic components of soil organic matter. Most of what we know about humic acids comes from studies of their bulk molecular properties or analysis of individual fractions after extraction from soils. This work attempts to better define humic acids and explain similarities and differences for several soils varying in degrees of humification using advanced molecular level techniques. Our investigation using electrospray ionization coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) has given new insight into the distinctive molecular characteristics of humic acids which suggest a possible pathway for their formation. Humic acids from various ecosystems, climate regions and soil textural classes are distinguished by the presence of three predominant molecular components: lignin-like molecules, carboxyl-containing aliphatic molecules and condensed aromatic molecules that bear similarity to black carbon. Results show that humification may be linked to the relative abundance of these three types of molecules as well as the relative abundance of carboxyl groups in each molecular type. This work also demonstrates evidence for lignin as the primary source of soil organic matter, particularly condensed aromatic molecules often categorized as black carbon and is the first report of the non-pyrogenic source for these compounds in soils. We also suggest that much of the carboxyl-containing aliphatic molecules are sourced from lignin.

  5. On Sandy Shores. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Craig; And Others

    The activities in this guide (for grades 2-4) transport students to the sandy shore, one of the most fascinating ecosystems on the planet. At this ecological juncture a multiplicity of life forms find ways to survive, thrive, and interact with each other. Using a wide variety of learning formats, students explore and deepen their understanding of…

  6. Seismic tracking of Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Wen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Very weak, narrow band seismic signals excited by Hurricane Sandy are detected in cross-correlations of continuous waveforms recorded by stations in eastern United States, at the end of October 2012. We analyze propagational properties of the signal and track the source locations using travel-time difference residual projection, from 26 October to 1 November 2012. We find that (1) the seismic signals driven by Hurricane Sandy are azimuthal dependent. Signals are correlated only within close azimuths from the source, (2) seismic signals propagate as Rayleigh surface wave with an average velocity of about 3.3 km/s, and (3) the inferred seismic source locations follow the path of Sandy before UTC 2012.10.30 12:00:00(about half a day after its landfall in New Jersey), but then deviate from the hurricane center and stay in the coastal area near New England for another 12 hours after the hurricane dissipated. Our research discovers the properties of seismic source excited by Hurricane Sandy and demonstrates the capability of using seismic data to real-time track a hurricane and estimate its direct impacts and the subsequent disasters after it dissipates.

  7. Emergency Plan for Sandy Lake Dam and Reservoir

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    Guidelines for Dam Safety, Prepared by Ad Hoc Interagency Committee on Dam Safety of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science , Engineering and...Paul District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, August 1977. (13) Earth Manual, Second Edition, U.S. Department of the Interior, Water and Power Resources...varies from 285 feet at the east watershed boundary in the Fond du Lac State Forest to 115 feet north of Sandy Lake. c. Geology and Soils The area

  8. Phytoremediation of Cu and Zn by vetiver grass in mine soils amended with humic acids.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Carmen; Pérez-Esteban, Javier; Escolástico, Consuelo; Masaguer, Alberto; Moliner, Ana

    2016-07-01

    Phytoremediation of contaminated mine soils requires the use of fast-growing, deep-rooted, high-biomass, and metal-tolerant plants with the application of soil amendments that promote metal uptake by plants. A pot experiment was performed to evaluate the combined use of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) and humic acid for phytoremediation of Cu and Zn in mine soils. Vetiver plants were grown in soil samples collected from two mine sites of Spain mixed with a commercial humic acid derived from leonardite at doses of 0, 2, 10, and 20 g kg(-1). Plant metal concentrations and biomass were measured and metal bioavailability in soils was determined by a low molecular weight organic acid extraction. Results showed that humic acid addition decreased organic acid-extractable metals in soil. Although this extraction method is used to estimate bioavailability of metals, it was not a good estimator under these conditions due to competition with the strong chelators in the added humic acid. High doses of humic acid also promoted root growth and increased Cu concentrations in plants due to formation of soluble metal-organic complexes, which enhanced removal of this metal from soil and its accumulation in roots. Although humic acid was not able to improve Zn uptake, it managed to reduce translocation of Zn and Cu to aerial parts of plants. Vetiver resulted unsuitable for phytoextraction, but our study showed that the combined use of this species with humic acid at 10-20 g kg(-1) could be an effective strategy for phytostabilization of mine soils.

  9. Impact of acid effluent from Kawah Ijen crater lake on irrigated agricultural soils: Soil chemical processes and plant uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rotterdam-Los, A. M. D.; Heikens, A.; Vriend, S. P.; van Bergen, M. J.; van Gaans, P. F. M.

    2008-12-01

    Volcanogenic contamination of irrigation water, caused by effluent from the hyperacid Ijen crater lake, has severely affected the properties of agricultural soils in East Java, Indonesia. From a comparison of acidified topsoil with subsoil and with top- and subsoil in a reference area, we identified processes responsible for changes in soil and soil solution chemistry induced by acid irrigation water, with emphasis on the nutrients Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn, and on Al, which may become phytotoxic under acid conditions in soils. Compositional data for bulk soil composition and selective extractions with 1 M KCl and 0.2 M acid ammonium oxalate are used in a mass balance approach to specify element fluxes, including uptake by rice plants. The results show that input via irrigation water has produced an increase in the total aluminum content in the affected topsoil, which is of the same order of magnitude as the increase in labile Al. High bioavailability of Al, as reflected by concentrations in KCl extracts, is consistent with elevated concentrations observed in rice plants. In contrast, and despite the high input via irrigation water, Ca and Mg concentrations have decreased in all measured soil fractions through dissolution of amorphous phases and minerals, and through competition of Al for adsorption sites on the exchange complex and plant roots. Strong leaching is also evident for Fe and especially Mn. In terms of the overall mass balance of the topsoil, plant uptake of Al, Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn is negligible. If the use of acid irrigation would be stopped and the soil pH were to increase to values above 4.5, the observed phytotoxicity of Al will be halted. However, crops may then become fully dependent on the input from irrigation water or fertilizer for essential elements, due to the previous removal from the topsoil through leaching.

  10. P Limitation and Microbial Biogeochemistry in Acidic Forest Soils of the Northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smemo, K. A.; Deforest, J. L.; Burke, D. J.; Elliot, H. L.; Kluber, L. A.; Carrino-Kyker, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    In forest ecosystems with acidic soils, such as many hardwood forests of the Northeastern United States, net primary productivity should be limited by phosphorus (P) because P is biologically less available at pH < 5 and nitrogen (N) has become more abundant in response to anthropogenic inputs. However, previous studies have failed to demonstrate widespread P limitation in temperate forests that have naturally acidic soil or are exposed to chronic acid deposition; such findings are contrary to biogeochemical expectations. We hypothesize that many eastern forests possess an underlying P limitation not realized at the ecosystem level. Instead, shifts in the composition, structure and function of soil microbial communities compensate by acquiring more P from organic sources and P limitation is therefore not manifested at the aboveground (plant) level. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated soil pH and P availability in 72 20 x 40 m mature hardwood forest plots across northeastern (glaciated) and southeastern (unglaciated) Ohio beginning in late summer 2009. Ten months after treatment initiation, soil pH has increased from 4.5 to 5.5 and soil P has increased from 3 to ~25 mg P/kg soil on glaciated soils and from 0.5 to ~5 mg P/kg soil on unglaciated soils. To quantify treatment responses, we measured the activity of soil extracellular enzymes associated with liberation of P, N, and C from organic matter, as well as pools of N and N cycling processes. We saw no significant effects of our treatments on pools of available ammonium or nitrate, nor did we see effects on net N mineralization and net nitrification rates. However, glaciated soils had significantly greater nitrate pools and higher N cycling rates than older unglaciated soils. Nitrogen and C cycling enzymes in treatment plots were not significantly different than control plots, but N-acetylglucosaminidase activity (N acquisition) was significantly greater in the unglaciated soils and β-glucosidase and

  11. Understanding the effect low molecular weight organic acids on the desorption and availability of soil phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, Daniel; Zhang, Hao; Stutter, Marc; Giles, Courtney; George, Timothy; Shand, Charles; Lumsdon, David; Cooper, Pat; Wendler, Renate; Brown, Lawrie; Blackwell, Martin; Darch, Tegan; Wearing, Catherine; Haygarth, Philip

    2016-04-01

    The mobility and resupply of inorganic phosphorus (P) from the soil solid phase after equilibration with increasing doses of citric acid (CA) and oxalic acid (OA) were studied in 2 soils with contrasting P status. The combined methods of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), diffusive equilibration in thin films (DET) and the DGT-induced fluxes in sediments model (DIFS) were used as tools to evaluate the changes in solid-to-solution interchange kinetics. A significant effect of CA and OA in soil solution P was observed only for doses over 1 mMol kg-1. Curiously, low organic acid doses (0.5-1 mMol kg-1) were associated with a steep increase in microbial biomass P, which was not seen for doses over 2 mMol kg-1. The trivalent CA was able to promote a higher increase in soil solution P than the bivalent OA for both soils. Organic phosphorus was only significantly mobilized by organic acids in the low P soil, possibly because in the high P soil these P forms were less labile than inorganic P. Both CA and OA promoted a decrease in the adsorbed-to-solution distribution coefficient, desorption rate constants and an increase in the response time of solution P equilibration. The extent of this effect was shown to be both soil specific and organic acid specific. Since both organic acids negatively affected the kinetics of P interchange between the soil matrix and the soil solution, their net effect on P bioavailability is expected to be much lower than the observed increase in solution concentration.

  12. Soil carbon stock and soil characteristics at Tasik Chini Forest Reserve, Pahang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur Aqlili Riana, R.; Sahibin A., R.

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine soil carbon stock and soil characteristic at Tasik Chini Forest Reserve (TCFR), Pahang. A total of 10 (20 m x 25 m) permanent sampling plot was selected randomly within the area of TCFR. Soil samples were taken from all subplots using dutch auger based on soil depth of 0-20cm, 20-40cm, 40-60cm. Soil parameters determined were size distribution, soil water content, bulk density, organic matter, organic carbon content, pH and electrical conductivity. All parameters were determined following their respective standard methods. Results obtained showed that the soil in TCFR was dominated by clay texture (40%), followed by sandy clay loam (30%), loam (20%). Silty clay, clay loam and sandy loam constitutes about 10% of the soil texture. Range of mean percentage of organic matter and bulk density are from 2.42±0.06% to 11.64±0.39% and 1.01 to 1.04 (gcm-ł), respectively. Soil pH are relatively very acidic and mean of electrical conductivity is low. Soil carbon content ranged from 0.83±0.03 to 1.87±0.41%. All soil parameter showed a decreasing trend with depth except electrical conductivity. ANOVA test of mean percentage of organic matter, soil water content, soil pH and electrical conductivity showed a significant difference between plot (p<0.05). However there are no significant difference of mean bulk density between plots (p>0.05). There are no significant difference in mean percentage of soil water content, organic matter and bulk density between three different depth (p>0.05). There were a significant difference on percentage of soil carbon organic between plots and depth. The mean of soil organic carbon stock in soil to a depth of 60 cm calculated was 35.50 t/ha.

  13. Mobilization of soil-borne arsenic by three common organic acids: Dosage and time effects.

    PubMed

    Onireti, Olaronke O; Lin, Chuxia

    2016-03-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to investigate the mobilization of soil-borne arsenic by three common low-molecular-weight organic acids with a focus on dosage and time effects. The results show that oxalic acid behaved differently from citric acid and malic acid in terms of mobilizing As that was bound to iron compounds. At an equivalent molar concentration, reactions between oxalic acid and soil-borne Fe were kinetically more favourable, as compared to those between either citric acid or malic acid and the soil-borne Fe. It was found that reductive dissolution of soil-borne Fe played a more important role in liberating As, as compared to non-reductive reactions. Prior to the 7th day of the experiment, As mobility increased with increasing dose of oxalic acid while there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in mobilized As among the treatments with different doses of citric acid or malic acid. The dosage effect on soil-borne As mobilization in the citric acid and malic acid treatments became clear only after the 7th day of the experiment. Soluble Ca present in the soils could cause re-immobilization of As by competing with solution-borne Fe for available organic ligands to form practically insoluble organic compounds of calcium (i.e. calcium oxalate). This resulted in transformation of highly soluble organic complexes of iron (i.e. iron oxalate complexes) into slightly soluble organic compounds of iron (i.e. iron oxalate) or free ferric ion, which then reacted with the solution-borne arsenate ions to form practically insoluble iron arsenates in the latter part of the experiment.

  14. Influence of ingestion of aluminum, citric acid and soil on mineral metabolism of lactating beef cows.

    PubMed

    Allen, V G; Horn, F P; Fontenot, J P

    1986-05-01

    Lactating beef cows (16 Hereford and 34 Angus, 430 kg average body weight, aged 8 to 10 yr) were fed a basal diet containing 200 micrograms/g Al alone or supplemented with Al-citrate, citric acid, soil or soil plus citric acid for 56 d. Diets containing Al-citrate, soil and soil plus citric acid contained 1,730, 1,870 and 1,935 micrograms/g Al, dry-basis, respectively. Adding soil to the diet also increased Mg and Fe content of the diet. Aluminum values in ruminal contents of beef cows fed the basal alone or supplemented with citric acid, Al-citrate, soil or soil plus citric acid were 800, 990, 2,930, 3,410 and 2,910 micrograms/g, air-dry basis, respectively. Serum Mg and inorganic P declined (P less than .01) and urinary Ca concentration increased (P less than .01) for cows fed Al-citrate. By d 56, serum Mg was 1.5 and 2.2 mg/dl, and serum P was 3.8 and 6.8 mg/dl, for cows fed Al-citrate and basal diets, respectively. Calcium concentrations in urine were 281 and 11 micrograms/g for cows fed Al-citrate and basal diets, respectively. Citric acid, soil and soil plus citric acid had no detrimental effects on serum Mg and inorganic P, or urinary Ca concentration. By d 56, serum Ca was higher (P less than .06) in cows fed Al-citrate, compared with cows on the other four diets. Bone Ca, P, Zn and percent ash were not significantly affected by treatment but bone Mg tended to be slightly lower (P less than .07) for cows fed Al-citrate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Regularities of extracting humic acids from soils using sodium pyrophosphate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakina, L. G.; Drichko, V. F.; Orlova, N. E.

    2017-02-01

    Regularities of extracting humic acids from different soil types (soddy-podzolic soil, gray forest soil, and all chernozem subtypes) with sodium pyrophosphate solutions at different pH values (from 5 to 13) have been studied. It is found that, regardless of soil type, the process occurs in two stages through the dissociation of carboxylic groups and phenolic hydroxyls, each of which can be described by a logistic function. Parameters of the logistic equations approximating the extraction of humic acids from soils at different pH values are independent of the content and composition of humus in soils. Changes in the optical density of humic acids extracted from soils using sodium pyrophosphate solutions with different pH values are described in the first approximation by the Gaussian function. The optically densest humic acids are extracted using sodium pyrophosphate solutions at pH 10. Therefore, it is proposed to use an extract with pH 10 for the characterization of organic matter with the maximum possible degree of humification in the given soil.

  16. USE OF FATTY ACID STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIO TO INDICATE MICROBIAL CARBON SOURCE IN TROPICAL SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory


    We use measurements of the concentration and stable carbon isotope ratio of individual microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in soils as indicators of live microbial biomass levels, broad microbial community structure, and microbial carbon source. For studies of soil o...

  17. Emerging Technology Summary. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) is intended to reduce the concentrations and/or teachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. The objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and com...

  18. Effect of tannic acid on the transcriptome of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins are plant-produced organic compounds that are found in soils, are able to sequester iron, and have antimicrobial properties. We studied the effect of tannic acid on the molecular physiology of the soil-inhabiting biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 (formerly Pseudomonas fluoresce...

  19. FATTY ACID STABLE ISOTOPE INDICATORS OF MICROBIAL CARBON SOURCE IN TROPICAL SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The soil microbial community plays an important role in tropical ecosystem functioning because of its importance in the soil organic matter (SOM) cycle. We have measured the stable carbon isotopic ratio (delta13C) of individual phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in a variety of tr...

  20. Ameliorating soil acidity of tropical Oxisols by liming for sustainable crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The greatest potential for expanding the world’s agricultural frontier lies in the savanna regions of the tropics, which are dominated by Oxisols. Soil acidity and low native fertility, however, are major constraints for crop production on tropical Oxisols. Soil acidification is an ongoing natural p...

  1. Bioavailability of heavy metals in strongly acidic soils treated with exceptional quality biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Basta, N.T.; Sloan, J.J.

    1999-03-01

    New federal regulations may increase application of exceptional quality (EQ) biosolids to acidic soils, and information on the effect of this practice on bioavailability of heavy metal is limited. The objective of this study was to compare bioavailability of heavy metal in soil treated with nonalkaline or alkaline EQ biosolids with limestone-treated soils. Three acidic soils (pH 3.7--4.3) were treated with three amounts of lime-stabilized biosolids (LS), anaerobic-digested biosolids (AN), or agricultural limestone (L), and incubated at 25 C. Soil solution Cd, Zn, and other chemical constituents were measured at 1, 30, 90, and 180 d incubation. Soil solution Cd and Zn were AN > LS {ge} L, C. Soil solution Cd and Zn increased with AN applied but decreased wit h LS applied. The high application of LS had soil solution Zn dramatically decreased at soil pH > 5.5 and >5.1, respectively. Soil solution Cd and Zn increases were AN > LS with incubation time. Biosolids treatments increased heavy metal in Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and NaOAc fractions. Except for Cd, most metal from biosolids were in EDTA and HNO{sub 3} fractions. Heavy metal bioavailability, measured using lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), was AN > LS {ge} L, C. Although state regulations prohibiting application of nonalkaline EQ biosolids to acidic soil is a prudent practice, application of EQ alkaline biosolids that achieves soil pH > 5 minimizes risk from soil solution Cd and Zn and plant uptake of heavy metal.

  2. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the acidity and salinity of greenhouse soils.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiangpei; Shi, Jiachun; Zeng, Lingzao; Xu, Jianming; Wu, Laosheng

    2015-02-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of conventional nitrogen fertilization on soil acidity and salinity. Three N rates (urea; N0, 0 kg N ha(-1); N1, 600 kg N ha(-1); and N2, 1,200 kg N ha(-1)) were applied in five soils with different greenhouse cultivation years to evaluate soil acidification and salinization rate induced by nitrogen fertilizer in lettuce production. Both soil acidity and salinity increased significantly as N input increased after one season, with pH decrease ranging from 0.45 to 1.06 units and electrolytic conductivity increase from 0.24 to 0.68 mS cm(-1). An estimated 0.92 mol H(+) was produced for 1 mol (NO2 (-) + NO3 (-))-N accumulation in soil. The proton loading from nitrification was 14.3-27.3 and 12.1-58.2 kmol H(+) ha(-1) in the center of Shandong Province under N1 and N2 rate, respectively. However, the proton loading from the uptake of excess bases by lettuces was only 0.3-4.5 % of that from nitrification. Moreover, the release of protons induced the direct release of base cations and accelerated soil salinization. The increase of soil acidity and salinity was attributed to the nitrification of excess N fertilizer. Compared to the proton loading by lettuce, nitrification contributed more to soil acidification in greenhouse soils.

  3. Effects of Fe oxide on N transformations in subtropical acid soils

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xianjun; Xin, Xiaoping; Li, Shiwei; Zhou, Junchao; Zhu, Tongbin; Müller, Christopher; Cai, Zucong; Wright, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    Subtropical ecosystems are often characterized by high N cycling rates, but net nitrification rates are often low in subtropical acid soils. NO3−-N immobilization into organic N may be a contributing factor to understand the observed low net nitrification rates in these acid soils. The effects of Fe oxide and organic matter on soil N transformations were evaluated using a 15N tracing study. Soil net nitrification was low for highly acidic yellow soil (Ferralsols), but gross ammonia oxidation was 7 times higher than net nitrification. In weakly acidic purple soil (Cambisols), net nitrification was 8 times higher than in Ferralsols. The addition of 5% Fe oxide to Cambisols, reduced the net nitrification rate to a negative rate, while NO3−-N immobilization rate increased 8 fold. NO3−-N immobilization was also observed in Ferralsols which contained high Fe oxides levels. A possible mechanism for these reactions could be stimulation of NO3−-N immobilization by Fe oxide which promoted the abiotic formation of nitrogenous polymers, suggesting that the absence of net nitrification in some highly acid soils may be due to high rates of NO3−-N immobilization caused by high Fe oxide content rather than a low pH. PMID:25722059

  4. Composition of exchangeable bases and acidity in soils of the Crimean Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostenko, I. V.

    2015-08-01

    Acid forest and mountainous meadow soils of the Crimean Mountains were studied. The amount of hydrogen and aluminum ions extracted from these soils depended on the pH of extracting agents. The maximum values of the soil acidity were obtained upon the extraction with a strongly alkaline solution of sodium acetate in 0.05 N NaOH. The application of this extractant made it possible to determine the total exchange acidity, the total amount of extractable aluminum, and the total cation exchange capacity of the soils after the extraction of all the acidic components from them. The values of these characteristics were significantly higher than the values of the potential acidity and cation exchange capacity obtained by the routine analytical methods. Hydrogen predominated among the acidic components of the exchange acidity in the humus horizons, whereas aluminum predominated among them in the underlying mineral horizons. Hydrothermic conditions and the character of vegetation and parent materials were the major factors affecting the relationships between bases and acidic components in the soil adsorption complex.

  5. Contributions of acid deposition and natural processes to cation leaching from forest soils: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Van Miegroet, H.; Cole, D.W.; Richter, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of quantifying the roles of atmospheric acid inputs and internal acid generation by carbonic, organic, and nitric acids are illustrated by reviewing data sets from several intensively studied sites in North America. Some of the sites (tropical, Costa Rica (La Selva); temperate deciduous, Tennessee (Walker Branch); and temperate coniferous, Washington (Thompson)) received acid precipitation whereas others (northern, southeast Alaska (Petersburg); and subalpine, Washington Cascades (Findley Lake)) did not. Natural leaching by carbonic acid dominated soil leaching in the tropical and temperate coniferous sites, nitric acid (caused by nitrification) dominated leaching in an N-fixing temperate deciduous site (red alder in Washington), and organic acids dominated surface soil leaching in the subalpine site and contributed to leaching of surface soils in several other sites. Only at the temperate deciduous sites in eastern Tennessee did atmospheric acid input play a major role in soil leaching. In no case, however, are the annual net losses of cations regarded as alarming as compared to soil exchangeable cation capital.

  6. Sequestration and bioavailability of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in soils: Implications for their underestimated risk.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lixia; Zhu, Lingyan; Zhao, Shuyan; Ma, Xinxin

    2016-12-01

    Different from typical hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs), perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are more soluble in water and less partitioned to soil than the HOCs. It remains unclear whether and to what extent PFAAs could be sequestrated in soil. In this study, sequential extraction of PFAAs in soil and bioaccumulation of PFAAs in earthworm were carried out to understand the sequestration and bioavailability of PFAAs in soils with different soil organic matter (SOM) and aged for different time periods (7 and 47d). Sequestration occurred in different degrees depending on the amount and compositions of SOM in soil, structural properties of PFAAs and aging time. Surprisingly, in one peat soil with high fraction of organic carbon (foc, 59%), the PFAAs were completely sequestrated in the soil. Aging might lead to further sequestration of PFAAs in soil with relatively lower foc. As a consequence of sequestration, the bioavailability of PFAAs in peat soils was reduced 3-10 times compared to that in the plain farmland soil. However, the sequestrated PFAAs were still bioaccumulative in earthworms to some extent. The results indicated that the risk of PFAAs in field soil with high content of SOM could be underestimated if only free PFAAs using mild solvent extraction were monitored.

  7. Dolomite application to acidic soils: a promising option for mitigating N2O emissions.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Muhammad; Peng, Qi-An; Hu, Ronggui; Wu, Yupeng; Lin, Shan; Zhao, Jinsong

    2015-12-01

    Soil acidification is one of the main problems to crop productivity as well as a potent source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). Liming practice is usually performed for the amelioration of acidic soils, but the effects of dolomite application on N2O emissions from acidic soils are still not well understood. Therefore, a laboratory study was conducted to examine N2O emissions from an acidic soil following application of dolomite. Dolomite was applied to acidic soil in a factorial design under different levels of moisture and nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Treatments were as follows: dolomite was applied as 0, 1, and 2 g kg(-1) soil (named as CK, L, and H, respectively) under two levels of moisture [i.e., 55 and 90 % water-filled pore space (WFPS)]. All treatments of dolomite and moisture were further amended with 0 and 200 mg N kg(-1) soil as (NH4)2SO4. Soil properties such as soil pH, mineral N (NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soil N2O emissions were analyzed throughout the study period. Application of N fertilizer rapidly increased soil N2O emissions and peaked at 0.59 μg N2O-N kg(-1) h(-1) under 90 % WFPS without dolomite application. The highest cumulative N2O flux was 246.32 μg N2O-N kg(-1) under 90 % WFPS without dolomite addition in fertilized soil. Addition of dolomite significantly (p ≤ 0.01) mitigated N2O emissions as soil pH increased, and H treatment was more effective for mitigating N2O emissions as compared to L treatment. The H treatment decreased the cumulative N2O emissions by up to 73 and 67 % under 55 and 90 % WFPS, respectively, in fertilized soil, and 60 and 68 % under 55 and 90 % WFPS, respectively, in unfertilized soil when compared to those without dolomite addition. Results demonstrated that application of dolomite to acidic soils is a promising option for mitigating N2O emissions.

  8. Removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil by electrodialytic remediation enhanced with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Merdoud, Ouarda; Cameselle, Claudio; Boulakradeche, Mohamed Oualid; Akretche, Djamal Eddine

    2016-11-09

    The soil from an industrial area in Algeria was contaminated with Cr (8370 mg kg(-1)), Ni (1135 mg kg(-1)) and zinc (1200 mg kg(-1)). The electrodialytic remediation of this soil was studied using citric acid and EDTA as facilitating agents. 0.1 M citric acid or EDTA was added directly to the soil before it was introduced in an electrodialytic cell in an attempt to enhance the heavy metal solubility in the interstitial fluid. The more acidic pH in the soil when citric acid was used as the facilitating agent was not enough to mobilize and remove the metals from the soil. Only 7.2% of Ni and 6.7% of Zn were removed from the soil in the test with citric acid. The best results were found with EDTA, which was able to solubilize and complex Zn and Ni forming negatively charged complexes that were transported and accumulated in the anolyte. Complete removal was observed for Ni and Zn in the electrodialytic treatment with EDTA. Minor amounts of Cr were removed with both EDTA and citric acid.

  9. Determination of water-soluble forms of oxalic and formic acids in soils by ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karicheva, E.; Guseva, N.; Kambalina, M.

    2016-03-01

    Carboxylic acids (CA) play an important role in the chemical composition origin of soils and migration of elements. The content of these acids and their salts is one of the important characteristics for agrochemical, ecological, ameliorative and hygienic assessment of soils. The aim of the article is to determine water-soluble forms of same carboxylic acids — (oxalic and formic acids) in soils by ion chromatography with gradient elution. For the separation and determination of water-soluble carboxylic acids we used reagent-free gradient elution ion-exchange chromatography ICS-2000 (Dionex, USA), the model solutions of oxalate and formate ions, and leachates from soils of the Kola Peninsula. The optimal gradient program was established for separation and detection of oxalate and formate ions in water solutions by ion chromatography. A stability indicating method was developed for the simultaneous determination of water-soluble organic acids in soils. The method has shown high detection limits such as 0.03 mg/L for oxalate ion and 0.02 mg/L for formate ion. High signal reproducibility was achieved in wide range of intensities which correspond to the following ion concentrations: from 0.04 mg/g to 10 mg/L (formate), from 0.1 mg/g to 25 mg/L (oxalate). The concentration of formate and oxalate ions in soil samples is from 0.04 to 0.9 mg/L and 0.45 to 17 mg/L respectively.

  10. How do crop plants tolerate acid soils? Mechanisms of aluminum tolerance and phosphorous efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kochian, Leon V; Hoekenga, Owen A; Pineros, Miguel A

    2004-01-01

    Acid soils significantly limit crop production worldwide because approximately 50% of the world's potentially arable soils are acidic. Because acid soils are such an important constraint to agriculture, understanding the mechanisms and genes conferring tolerance to acid soil stress has been a focus of intense research interest over the past decade. The primary limitations on acid soils are toxic levels of aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn), as well as suboptimal levels of phosphorous (P). This review examines our current understanding of the physiological, genetic, and molecular basis for crop Al tolerance, as well as reviews the emerging area of P efficiency, which involves the genetically based ability of some crop genotypes to tolerate P deficiency stress on acid soils. These are interesting times for this field because researchers are on the verge of identifying some of the genes that confer Al tolerance in crop plants; these discoveries will open up new avenues of molecular/physiological inquiry that should greatly advance our understanding of these tolerance mechanisms. Additionally, these breakthroughs will provide new molecular resources for improving crop Al tolerance via both molecular-assisted breeding and biotechnology.

  11. Selenium speciation in acidic environmental samples: application to acid rain-soil interaction at Mount Etna volcano.

    PubMed

    Floor, Geerke H; Iglesías, Mònica; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Corvini, Philippe F X; Lenz, Markus

    2011-09-01

    Speciation plays a crucial role in elemental mobility. However, trace level selenium (Se) speciation analyses in aqueous samples from acidic environments are hampered due to adsorption of the analytes (i.e. selenate, selenite) on precipitates. Such solid phases can form during pH adaptation up till now necessary for chromatographic separation. Thermodynamic calculations in this study predicted that a pH<4 is needed to prevent precipitation of Al and Fe phases. Therefore, a speciation method with a low pH eluent that matches the natural sample pH of acid rain-soil interaction samples from Etna volcano was developed. With a mobile phase containing 20mM ammonium citrate at pH 3, selenate and selenite could be separated in different acidic media (spiked water, rain, soil leachates) in <10 min with a LOQ of 0.2 μg L(-1) using (78)Se for detection. Applying this speciation analysis to study acid rain-soil interaction using synthetic rain based on H(2)SO(4) and soil samples collected at the flanks of Etna volcano demonstrated the dominance of selenate over selenite in leachates from samples collected close to the volcanic craters. This suggests that competitive behavior with sulfate present in acid rain might be a key factor in Se mobilization. The developed speciation method can significantly contribute to understand Se cycling in acidic, Al/Fe rich environments.

  12. Development of Ecological Toxicity and Biomagnification Data for Explosives Contaminants in Soil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    characteristics of Sassafras sandy loam soil.................................10 TABLE 2. Summary of the plant growth EC20 values (mg kg-1) for...in freshly amended Sassafras sandy loam soil using growth benchmarks for terrestrial plants alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Japanese millet (Echinochloa...Sassafras sandy loam soil using growth benchmarks for terrestrial plants alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Japanese millet (Echinochloa crusgalli), and

  13. Soil calcium status and the response of stream chemistry to changing acidic deposition rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.; Lovett, Gary M.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Burns, Douglas A.; Stoddard, J.L.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Porter, J.H.; Thompson, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a decreasing trend in acidic deposition rates over the past two to three decades, acidified surface waters in the northeastern United States have shown minimal changes. Depletion of soil Ca pools has been suggested as a cause, although changes in soil Ca pools have not been directly related to long-term records of stream chemistry. To investigate this problem, a comprehensive watershed study was conducted in the Neversink River Basin, in the Catskill Mountains of New York, during 1991-1996. Spatial variations of atmospheric deposition, soil chemistry, and stream chemistry were evaluated over an elevation range of 817-1234 m to determine whether these factors exhibited elevational patterns. An increase in atmospheric deposition of SO4 with increasing elevation corresponded with upslope decreases of exchangeable soil base concentrations and acid-neutralizing capacity of stream water. Exchangeable base concentrations in homogeneous soil incubated within the soil profile for one year also decreased with increasing elevation. An elevational gradient in precipitation was not observed, and effects of a temperature gradient on soil properties were not detected. Laboratory leaching experiments with soils from this watershed showed that (1) concentrations of Ca in leachate increased as the concentrations of acid anions in added solution increased, and (2) the slope of this relationship was positively correlated with base saturation. Field and laboratory soil analyses are consistent with the interpretation that decreasing trends in acid-neutralizing capacity in stream water in the Neversink Basin, dating back to 1984, are the result of decreases in soil base saturation caused by acidic deposition.

  14. Sorption of vapors of some organic liquids on soil humic acid and its relation to partitioning of organic compounds in soil organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chlou, G.T.; Kile, D.E.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Vapor sorption of water, ethanol, benzene, hexane, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2-dibromoethane on (Sanhedron) soil humic acid has been determined at room temperature. Isotherms for all organic liquids are highly linear over a wide range of relative pressure (P/P??), characteristic of the partitioning (dissolution) of the organic compounds in soil humic acid. Polar liquids exhibit markedly greater sorption capacities on soil humic acid than relatively nonpolar liquids, in keeping with the polar nature of the soil humic acid as a partition medium. The limiting sorption (partition) capacities of relatively non-polar liquids are remarkably similar when expressed in terms of volumes per unit weight of soil humic acid. The soil humic acid is found to be about half as effective as soil organic matter in sorption of relatively nonpolar organic compounds. The nearly constant limiting sorption capacity for nonpolar organic liquids with soil humic acid on a volume-to-weight basis and its efficiency in sorption relative to soil organic matter provide a basis for predicting the approximate sorption (partition) coefficients of similar compounds in uptake by soil in aqueous systems.

  15. Nitrogen saturation, soil acidification, and ecological effects in a subtropical pine forest on acid soil in southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongmei; Kang, Ronghua; Mulder, Jan; Zhang, Ting; Duan, Lei

    2015-11-01

    Elevated anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition has caused nitrate (NO3-) leaching, an indication of N saturation, in several temperate and boreal forests across the Northern Hemisphere. So far, the occurrence of N saturation in subtropical forests and its effects on the chemistry of the typically highly weathered soils, forest growth, and biodiversity have received little attention. Here we investigated N saturation and the effects of chronically high N inputs on soil and vegetation in a typical, subtropical Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest at Tieshanping, southwest China. Seven years of N flux data obtained in ambient conditions and in response to field manipulation, including a doubling of N input either as ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) or as sodium nitrate (NaNO3) solution, resulted in a unique set of N balance data. Our data showed extreme N saturation with near-quantitative leaching of NO3-, by far the dominant form of dissolved inorganic N in soil water. Even after 7 years, NH4+, added as NH4NO3, was nearly fully converted to NO3-, thus giving rise to a major acid input into the soil. Despite the large acid input, the decrease in soil pH was insignificant, due to pH buffering caused by Al3+ mobilization and enhanced SO42- adsorption. In response to the NH4NO3-induced increase in soil acidification and N availability, ground vegetation showed significant reduction of abundance and diversity, while Masson pine growth further declined. By contrast, addition of NaNO3 did not cause soil acidification. The comparison of NH4NO3 treatment and NaNO3 treatment indicated that pine growth decline was mainly attributed to acidification-induced nutrient imbalance, while the loss in abundance of major ground species was the combining effect of N saturation and acidification. Therefore, N emission control is of primary importance to curb further acidification and eutrophication of forest soils in much of subtropical south China.

  16. Extractive and oxidative removal of copper bound to humic acid in soil.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bo-Ram; Kim, Eun-Jung; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2015-04-01

    Copper (Cu) is often found strongly bound to natural organic matter (NOM) in soil through the formation of strong Cu-NOM complexes. Therefore, in order to successfully remediate Cu-contaminated soils, effective removal of Cu bound to soil organic matter should be considered. In this study, we investigated soil washing methods for Cu removal from a synthetic Cu-contaminated model silica soil coated with humic acid (HA) and from field contaminated soil. Various reagents were studied to extract Cu bound to NOM, which included oxidant (H2O2), base (NaOH), and chelating agents (citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)). Among the wash reagents, EDTA extracted Cu most effectively since EDTA formed very strong complexes with Cu, and Cu-HA complexes were transformed into Cu-EDTA complexes. NaOH extracted slightly less Cu compared to EDTA. HA was effectively extracted from the model soil under strongly alkaline conditions with NaOH, which seemed to concurrently release Cu bound to HA. However, chemical oxidation with H2O2 was not effective at destroying Cu-HA complexes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis revealed that chelating agents such as citrate and EDTA were adsorbed onto the model soil via possible complexation between HA and extraction agents. The extraction of Cu from a field contaminated soil sample was effective with chelating agents, while oxidative removal with H2O2 and extractive removal with NaOH separated negligible amounts of Cu from the soil. Based on these results, Cu bound to organic matter in soil could be effectively removed by chelating agents, although remnant agents may remain in the soil.

  17. Links between Ammonia Oxidizer Community Structure, Abundance, and Nitrification Potential in Acidic Soils ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Huaiying; Gao, Yangmei; Nicol, Graeme W.; Campbell, Colin D.; Prosser, James I.; Zhang, Limei; Han, Wenyan; Singh, Brajesh K.

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first and rate-limiting step of nitrification and is performed by both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB). However, the environmental drivers controlling the abundance, composition, and activity of AOA and AOB communities are not well characterized, and the relative importance of these two groups in soil nitrification is still debated. Chinese tea orchard soils provide an excellent system for investigating the long-term effects of low pH and nitrogen fertilization strategies. AOA and AOB abundance and community composition were therefore investigated in tea soils and adjacent pine forest soils, using quantitative PCR (qPCR), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and sequence analysis of respective ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes. There was strong evidence that soil pH was an important factor controlling AOB but not AOA abundance, and the ratio of AOA to AOB amoA gene abundance increased with decreasing soil pH in the tea orchard soils. In contrast, T-RFLP analysis suggested that soil pH was a key explanatory variable for both AOA and AOB community structure, but a significant relationship between community abundance and nitrification potential was observed only for AOA. High potential nitrification rates indicated that nitrification was mainly driven by AOA in these acidic soils. Dominant AOA amoA sequences in the highly acidic tea soils were all placed within a specific clade, and one AOA genotype appears to be well adapted to growth in highly acidic soils. Specific AOA and AOB populations dominated in soils at particular pH values and N content, suggesting adaptation to specific niches. PMID:21571885

  18. Decreasing Nitrogen Fertilizer Input Had Little Effect on Microbial Communities in Three Types of Soils.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hailing; Gao, Qiang; Shao, Zeqiang; Ying, Anning; Sun, Yuyang; Liu, Jingwei; Mao, Wei; Zhang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined the influence of different nitrogen (N) application rates (0, 168, 240, 270 and 312 kg N ha(-1)) on soil properties, maize (Zea mays L.) yields and microbial communities of three types of soils (clay, alluvial and sandy soils). Phospholipid fatty acid analysis was used to characterize soil microbial communities. Results indicated that N fertilization significantly decreased microbial biomass in both clay and sandy soils regardless of application rate. These decreases were more likely a result of soil pH decreases induced by N fertilization, especially in the sandy soils. This is supported by structural equation modeling and redundancy analysis results. Nitrogen fertilization also led to significant changes in soil microbial community composition. However, the change differences were gradually dismissed with increase in N application rate. We also observed that N fertilization increased maize yields to the same level regardless of application rate. This suggests that farmers could apply N fertilizers at a lower rate (i.e. 168 kg N ha(-1)), which could achieve high maize yield on one hand while maintain soil microbial functions on the other hand.

  19. Daily and seasonal changes in soil amino acid composition in a semiarid grassland exposed to elevated CO2 and warming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil amino acids are often an important source of nitrogen (N) for plants, and anticipated global changes, including climate warming and rising atmospheric CO2 levels, have the potential to alter plant and microbial production and consumption of this N source in soils. We determined soil amino acid ...

  20. Comparison of adipocere formation in four soil types of the Porto (Portugal) district.

    PubMed

    Durães, Nuno; Cortez, Débora; Algarra, Manuel; Sánchez, Francisco G; Rodríguez-Borges, José E; Bobos, Iulius; da Silva, Joaquim C G Esteves

    2010-02-25

    Four typical soils of the Porto (Portugal) area were characterized and used to study the decomposition of buried pieces of pork meat under controlled laboratory experiments (an 8 month experiment with a relatively high soil moisture and a 1 month experiment with relatively low soil moisture). The soils types were: organic, sandy, gravel and clay-gravel soils. Soils were characterized for their grain size distribution, pH, water content, organic matter percentage and mineral composition. Four free fatty acids (myristic, palmitic, oleic and stearic) were analysed (using a methodology based on an extraction step followed by a derivatization reaction and high performance liquid chromatography analysis) in soil samples as a sign of adipocere formation. The direct sensorial analysis of the buried sample residues and the free fatty acids profiles of the sampled soils showed that sandy and clay-gravel soils (in a low moisture environment) slowed the normal decomposition process promoting the formation of adipocere. Nevertheless, this apparent soil effect is indirect and a consequence of the different water retention and permeability of the soils. Thus, the water content of the soils is a crucial factor for adipocere formation.

  1. Cultivation of an obligate acidophilic ammonia oxidizer from a nitrifying acid soil.

    PubMed

    Lehtovirta-Morley, Laura E; Stoecker, Kilian; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Prosser, James I; Nicol, Graeme W

    2011-09-20

    Nitrification is a fundamental component of the global nitrogen cycle and leads to significant fertilizer loss and atmospheric and groundwater pollution. Nitrification rates in acidic soils (pH < 5.5), which comprise 30% of the world's soils, equal or exceed those of neutral soils. Paradoxically, autotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea, which perform the first stage in nitrification, demonstrate little or no growth in suspended liquid culture below pH 6.5, at which ammonia availability is reduced by ionization. Here we report the discovery and cultivation of a chemolithotrophic, obligately acidophilic thaumarchaeal ammonia oxidizer, "Candidatus Nitrosotalea devanaterra," from an acidic agricultural soil. Phylogenetic analysis places the organism within a previously uncultivated thaumarchaeal lineage that has been observed in acidic soils. Growth of the organism is optimal in the pH range 4 to 5 and is restricted to the pH range 4 to 5.5, unlike all previously cultivated ammonia oxidizers. Growth of this organism and associated ammonia oxidation and autotrophy also occur during nitrification in soil at pH 4.5. The discovery of Nitrosotalea devanaterra provides a previously unsuspected explanation for high rates of nitrification in acidic soils, and confirms the vital role that thaumarchaea play in terrestrial nitrogen cycling. Growth at extremely low ammonia concentration (0.18 nM) also challenges accepted views on ammonia uptake and metabolism and indicates novel mechanisms for ammonia oxidation at low pH.

  2. Influence of various concentrations of selenic acid (IV) on the activity of soil enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nowak, J; Kaklewski, K; Klódka, D

    2002-05-27

    The aim of this experiment was the assessment of the influence of various concentrations of H2SeO3 (0.05, 0.5 and 5 mM) on the activity of soil enzymes over 112 days. The lab experiment was performed using soil samples (dust-silt black soil of 1.92% organic C content, pH 7.7), 60% maximal water capacity. The soil samples were treated with a selenic acid water solution at the concentrations mentioned above. As a reference, natural soil was used (without the selenic acid). The activity of the following enzymes was tested: beta-glucosidase, nitrate reductase, urease, dehydrogenase, acid and alkaline phosphatases. The soil was sampled at days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 112. The results of the study have shown that the selenic acid had no effect on the activity of the beta-glucosidase in soil. In the course of the whole experiment, the applied selenic acid inhibited activity of the nitrate reductase up to 70% at 5 mM, and the activity of dehydrogenase was also decreased--by up to 85% at 5 mM, similarly to urease (with the exception of days 14 and 28), and acid phosphatase (until day 56). The activity of alkaline phosphatase was increased by the lowest concentration of selenic acid and decreased by the highest, which was found in the course of the whole experiment. The 5-mM concentration of selenic acid inhibited the activity of all the enzymes tested in this experiment.

  3. H-binding groups in lignite vs. soil humic acids: NICA-Donnan and spectroscopic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Drosos, M.; Jerzykiewicz, M.; Deligiannakis, Y.

    2009-04-15

    A comparative study has been carried out for two sets of humic acids isolated from lignites and soils. H-binding data were analyzed using the NICA-Donnan model, for three Greek lignite humic acids (HA) plus IHSS Leonardite reference HA, and five Greek soil HAs plus a commercial peat HA. {sup 13}C-CP-MAS NMR and H-binding data provide quantitative estimates for functional groups, showing that lignite HAs of diverse origin have strikingly homogeneous properties, while the H-binding structural units of soil HAs are characterized by a large degree of variability. Consistent differences between soil HA vs. lignite HA are revealed at the level of functional groups' concentrations. In the pH range 4 to 10, soil HA showed a charge variation < 3 (equiv kg{sup -1}) while lignite HAs showed a higher charge variation > 3.5 (equiv kg{sup -1}).

  4. Microseismic sources during Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaohan; Tian, Dongdong; Wen, Lianxing

    2015-09-01

    We find that microseisms generated by Hurricane Sandy exhibit coherent energy within 1 h time windows in the frequency band of 0.1-0.25 Hz, but with signals correlated among seismic stations aligned along close azimuths from the hurricane center. With the identification of this signal property, we show that travel time difference can be measured between the correlated stations. These correlated seismic signals can be attributed to two types of seismic sources, with one group of the seismic signals from the hurricane center and the other from coastal region. The seismic sources in coastal region are diffusive and move northward along the coastline as Sandy moves northward. We further develop a hurricane seismic source model, to quantitatively describe the coupling among sea level pressure fluctuations, ocean waves, and solid Earth in the region of hurricane center and determine the evolution of source's strength and pressure fluctuation in the region of hurricane center using seismic data. Strong seismic sources are also identified near the coastal region in New England after Sandy's dissipation, possibly related to subsequent storm surge in the area. The seismic method may be implemented as another practical means for hurricane monitoring, and seismological estimates of the hurricane seismic source model could be used as in situ proxy measurements of pressure fluctuation in the region of hurricane center for hurricane physics studies.

  5. Science and Sandy: Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, K.

    2013-12-01

    Following Hurricane Sandy's impact on the mid-Atlantic region, President Obama established a Task Force to '...ensure that the Federal Government continues to provide appropriate resources to support affected State, local, and tribal communities to improve the region's resilience, health, and prosperity by building for the future.' The author was detailed from NOAA to the Task Force between January and June 2013. As the Task Force and others began to take stock of the region's needs and develop plans to address them, many diverse approaches emerged from different areas of expertise including: infrastructure, management and construction, housing, public health, and others. Decision making in this environment was complex with many interests and variables to consider and balance. Although often relevant, science and technical expertise was not always at the forefront of this process. This talk describes the author's experience with the Sandy Task Force focusing on organizing scientific expertise to support the work of the Task Force. This includes a description of federal activity supporting Sandy recovery efforts, the role of the Task Force, and lessons learned from developing a science support function within the Task Force.

  6. Prolonged acid rain facilitates soil organic carbon accumulation in a mature forest in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Xiong, Xin; Qiu, Qingyan; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-15

    With the continuing increase in anthropogenic activities, acid rain remains a serious environmental threat, especially in the fast developing areas such as southern China. To detect how prolonged deposition of acid rain would influence soil organic carbon accumulation in mature subtropical forests, we conducted a field experiment with simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments in a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest at Dinghushan National Nature Reserve in southern China. Four levels of SAR treatments were set by irrigating plants with water of different pH values: CK (the control, local lake water, pH ≈ 4.5), T1 (water pH=4.0), T2 (water pH=3.5), and T3 (water pH=3.0). Results showed reduced pH measurements in the topsoil exposed to simulated acid rains due to soil acidification. Soil respiration, soil microbial biomass and litter decomposition rates were significantly decreased by the SAR treatments. As a result, T3 treatment significantly increased the total organic carbon by 24.5% in the topsoil compared to the control. Furthermore, surface soil became more stable as more recalcitrant organic matter was generated under the SAR treatments. Our results suggest that prolonged acid rain exposure may have the potential to facilitate soil organic carbon accumulation in the subtropical forest in southern China.

  7. What can legacy datasets tell us about soil quality trends? Soil acidity in Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, B. P.; Crawford, D. M.; Robinson, N. J.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose-built soil monitoring networks have been established in many countries to identify where soil functionality is threatened and to target remediation initiatives. An alternative to purpose-built soil monitoring networks is to use legacy soils information. Such information yields almost instant assessments of soil change but the results should be interpreted with caution since the information was not collected with monitoring in mind. We assess the threat of soil acidification in Victoria using two legacy datasets: (i) the Victorian Soils Information System (VSIS) which is a repository of the results of soil analyses conducted for scientific purposes since the 1950s and (ii) a database of 75 000 routine soil test results requested by farmers between 1973 and 1993. We find that the VSIS measurements are clustered in space and time and are therefore suitable for local rather than broad-scale assessments of soil change. The farmers’ results have better spatial and temporal coverage and space-time models can be used to quantify the spatial and temporal trends in the pH measurements. However, careful validation of these findings is required since we do not completely understand how the measured paddocks were selected and we cannot be certain that sampling or laboratory protocols have not changed with time.

  8. Interactions of aluminum with forest soils and vegetation: Implications for acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that an important ecological consequence of acidic deposition is increased aluminum mobilization. There is concern that increased aluminum activity may produce toxic effects in forested ecosystems. My studies were concerned with the behavior of pedogenic and added aluminum in soils derived from chemically different parent material. Soil aluminum was related to the aluminum content of the vegetation found growing in the soils. In addition, aluminum levels of forest litter was compared to levels determined 40 years ago. Field, greenhouse, and laboratory investigations were conducted in which the effects of aluminum concentration on germination and early growth was determined. Soils were then used in greenhouse and laboratory studies to establish patterns of soil and plant aluminum behavior with implications to acid deposition. Results show that the amount of aluminum extracted was related to the pH value of the extracting solution and to the chemical characteristics of the soil. Some acid rain solutions extracted measurable amounts of aluminum from selected primary minerals. Germination and early growth of Pinus radiata was controlled by levels of aluminum in the soil or in solution. Field studies indicated that most forest species were sensitive to rising levels of aluminum in the soil. In general, ferns and fern allies were less sensitive to very high levels of aluminum in the soil, continuing to grow when more advanced dicots have disappeared. Aluminum tissue levels of all species were related to the concentration of aluminum in the soil as was the reappearance of species. Aluminum levels in leaf litter have risen at least 50% in the last 40 years. These values were consistent over 3 years. The implications to acid deposition were discussed.

  9. Response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests of different maturity in southern China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guohua; Liu, Xingzhao; Chen, Xiaomei; Qiu, Qingyan; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Juxiu; Liu, Shizhong; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF), a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF) and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF)] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0). Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types.

  10. The effect of organic acid on the spectral-induced polarization response of soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, N.; Shalem, T.; Furman, A.

    2014-04-01

    In spectral-induced polarization (SIP) studies of sites contaminated by organic hydrocarbons, it was shown that biodegradation by-products in general, and organic acids in particular, significantly alter the SIP signature of the subsurface. Still a systematic study that considers the effect of organic acid on the physicochemical and electrical (SIP) properties of the soil is missing. The goal of this work is to relate between the effect of organic acid on the physicochemical properties of the soil, and the soil electrical properties. To do so, we measured the temporal changes of the soil chemical (ion content) and electrical (low-frequency SIP) properties in response to influx of organic acid at different concentrations, gradually altering the soil pH. Our results show that organic acid reduces the soil pH, enhances mineral weathering and consequently reduces both the in-phase and quadrature conductivity. At the pH range where mineral weathering is most significant (pH 6-4.5) a negative linear relation between the soil pH and the soil formation factor was found, suggesting that mineral weathering changes the pore space geometry and hence affecting the in-phase electrical conductivity. In addition, we attribute the reduction in the quadrature conductivity to an exchange process between the natural cation adsorbed on the mineral surface and hydronium, and to changes in the width of the pore bottleneck that results from the mineral weathering. Overall, our results allow a better understanding of the SIP signature of soil undergoing acidification process in general and as biodegradation process in particular.

  11. Response of Soil Respiration to Acid Rain in Forests of Different Maturity in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaomei; Qiu, Qingyan; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Juxiu; Liu, Shizhong; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF), a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF) and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF)] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0). Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types. PMID:23626790

  12. Assessment of bioavailable organic phosphorus in tropical forest soils by organic acid extraction and phosphatase hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Darch, Tegan; Blackwell, Martin S A; Chadwick, David; Haygarth, Philip M; Hawkins, Jane M B; Turner, Benjamin L

    2016-12-15

    Soil organic phosphorus contributes to the nutrition of tropical trees, but is not accounted for in standard soil phosphorus tests. Plants and microbes can release organic anions to solubilize organic phosphorus from soil surfaces, and synthesize phosphatases to release inorganic phosphate from the solubilized compounds. We developed a procedure to estimate bioavailable organic phosphorus in tropical forest soils by simulating the secretion processes of organic acids and phosphatases. Five lowland tropical forest soils with contrasting properties (pH 4.4-6.1, total P 86-429 mg P kg(- 1)) were extracted with 2 mM citric acid (i.e., 10 μmol g(- 1), approximating rhizosphere concentrations) adjusted to soil pH in a 4:1 solution to soil ratio for 1 h. Three phosphatase enzymes were then added to the soil extract to determine the forms of hydrolysable organic phosphorus. Total phosphorus extracted by the procedure ranged between 3.22 and 8.06 mg P kg(- 1) (mean 5.55 ± 0.42 mg P kg(- 1)), of which on average three quarters was unreactive phosphorus (i.e., organic phosphorus plus inorganic polyphosphate). Of the enzyme-hydrolysable unreactive phosphorus, 28% was simple phosphomonoesters hydrolyzed by phosphomonoesterase from bovine intestinal mucosa, a further 18% was phosphodiesters hydrolyzed by a combination of nuclease from Penicillium citrinum and phosphomonoesterase, and the remaining 51% was hydrolyzed by a broad-spectrum phytase from wheat. We conclude that soil organic phosphorus can be solubilized and hydrolyzed by a combination of organic acids and phosphatase enzymes in lowland tropical forest soils, indicating that this pathway could make a significant contribution to biological phosphorus acquisition in tropical forests. Furthermore, we have developed a method that can be used to assess the bioavailability of this soil organic phosphorus.

  13. Determination of the D and L isomers of some protein amino acids present in soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, G. E.; Cheng, C.-N.; Cronin, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The D and L isomers of some protein amino acids present in soils were measured by using a gas chromatographic technique. The results of two processing procedures were compared to determine the better method. Results of the comparison indicated that the determination of D and L percentages requires amino acid purification if one is to obtain accurate data. It was found that very significant amounts of D-alanine, D-aspartic acid, and D-glutamic acid were present in the contemporary soils studied. Valine, isoleucine, leucine, proline, and phenylalanine generally contained only a trace to very small amounts of the D isomer. It is probable that the D-amino acids from the alanine, aspartic, and glutamic acids are contributed to the soil primarily via microorganisms. The finding of very significant quantities of some D-amino acids (about 5-16%) in present-day soils may alert some investigators of geological sediments to a possible problem in using amino acid racemization as an age-dating technique.

  14. Impact of mitigation strategies on acid sulfate soil chemistry and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofen; Sten, Pekka; Engblom, Sten; Nowak, Pawel; Österholm, Peter; Dopson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Potential acid sulfate soils contain reduced iron sulfides that if oxidized, can cause significant environmental damage by releasing large amounts of acid and metals. This study examines metal and acid release as well as the microbial community capable of catalyzing metal sulfide oxidation after treating acid sulfate soil with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). Leaching tests of acid sulfate soil samples were carried out in the laboratory. The pH of the leachate during the initial flushing with water lay between 3.8 and 4.4 suggesting that the jarosite/schwertmannite equilibrium controls the solution chemistry. However, the pH increased to circa 6 after treatment with CaCO3 suspension and circa 12 after introducing Ca(OH)2 solution. 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from community DNA extracted from the untreated and both CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 treated acid sulfate soils were most similar to bacteria (69.1% to 85.7%) and archaea (95.4% to 100%) previously identified from acid and metal contaminated environments. These species included a Thiomonas cuprina-like and an Acidocella-like bacteria as well as a Ferroplasma acidiphilum-like archeon. Although the CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 treatments did not decrease the proportion of microorganisms capable of accelerating acid and metal release, the chemical effects of the treatments suggested their reduced activity.

  15. [Determination of 13C enrichment in soil amino acid enantiomers by gas chromatogram/mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    He, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Xue-Li; Bai, Zhen; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Xu-Dong

    2008-06-01

    The transformation and renewal of amino acid enantiomers is of significance in indicating the turnover mechanism of soil organic matter. In this paper, a method of gas chromatogram/mass spectrometry combined with U-13 C-glucose incubation was developed to determine the 13C enrichment in soil amino acid enantiomers, which could effectively differentiate the original and the newly synthesized amino acids in soil matrix. The added U-13 C-glucose was utilized rapidly to structure the amino acid carbon skeleton, and the change of relative abundance of isotope ions could be determined by mass spectrometry. The direct incorporation of U-13 C glucose was estimated by the intensity increase of m/z (F + n) to F (F was parent fragment, and n was the carbon number in the fragment), while the total isotope incorporation from the added 13C could be calculated according to the abundance ratio increment summation from m/z (Fa + 1) through (Fa + T) (Fa was the fragment containing all original skeleton carbons, and T was the carbon number in the amino acid molecule). The 13C enrichment in the target compound was expressed as atom percentage excess (APE), and that of D-amino acid needed to be corrected by the coefficient of hydrolysis-induced racemization. The 13C enrichment reflected the carbon turnover velocity of individual amino acid enantiomers, and was powerful to investigate the dynamics of soil amino acids.

  16. Early indications of soil recovery from acidic deposition in U.S. red spruce forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Shortle, Walter C.; David, Mark B.; Smith, Kevin T.; Warby, Richard A.F.; Lapenis, Andrei G.

    2012-01-01

    Forty to fifty percent decreases in acidic deposition through the 1980s and 1990s led to partial recovery of acidified surface waters in the northeastern United States; however, the limited number of studies that have assessed soil change found increased soil acidification during this period. From existing data, it's not clear whether soils continued to worsen in the 1990s or if recovery had begun. To evaluate possible changes in soils through the 1990s, soils in six red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) stands in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, first sampled in 1992 to 1993, were resampled in 2003 to 2004. The Oa-horizon pH increased (P 42−, which decreased the mobility of Al throughout the upper soil profile. Results indicate a nascent recovery driven largely by vegetation processes.

  17. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil washing residues with amino polycarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Arwidsson, Zandra; Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin; von Kronhelm, Thomas; Sjöberg, Ragnar; Allard, Bert; van Hees, Patrick

    2010-01-15

    Removal of Cu, Pb, and Zn by the action of the two biodegradable chelating agents [S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) and methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), as well as citric acid, was tested. Three soil samples, which had previously been treated by conventional soil washing (water), were utilized in the leaching tests. Experiments were performed in batches (0.3 kg-scale) and with a WTC-mixer system (Water Treatment Construction, 10 kg-scale). EDDS and MGDA were most often equally efficient in removing Cu, Pb, and Zn after 10-60 min. Nonetheless, after 10d, there were occasionally significant differences in extraction efficiencies. Extraction with citric acid was generally less efficient, however equal for Zn (mainly) after 10d. Metal removal was similar in batch and WTC-mixer systems, which indicates that a dynamic mixer system could be used in full-scale. Use of biodegradable amino polycarboxylic acids for metal removal, as a second step after soil washing, would release most remaining metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) from the present soils, however only after long leaching time. Thus, a full-scale procedure, based on enhanced metal leaching by amino polycarboxylic acids from soil of the present kind, would require a pre-leaching step lasting several days in order to be efficient.

  18. Understanding the mechanism behind the nitrous acid (HONO) emissions from the northern soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Hem Raj; Siljanen, Henri MP; Biasi, Christina; Maljanen, Marja

    2016-04-01

    The interest of the flux of nitrous acid (HONO) from soils has recently increased. HONO is an important source of the oxidant OH- radical in the troposphere and thus results a reduction of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the atmosphere. Soils have been recently found to be potential sources of HONO as these emissions are linked to other nitrogen cycle processes, especially presence of nitrite in soils. Ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have been suggested as possible yet substantial sources of HONO. Along with soil pH, other physical properties such as C:N, nitrogen availability, soil moisture and temperature may effect HONO emissions. Our preliminary results demonstrate that drained acidic peatlands with a low C:N produces higher NO, N2O and HONO emissions compared to those in pristine peatlands and upland forest soils. This study will identify the hotspots and the process involved in HONO emissions in northern ecosystems. Along with HONO, we will examine the emissions of NO and N2O to quantify the related N-gases emitted. These results will add a new piece of information in our knowledge of the nitrogen cycle. Soil samples will be collected from several boreal and arctic sites in Finland, Sweden and Russia. In the laboratory, soil samples will be manipulated based on previously described soil physical properties. This will be followed by labelling experiment coupled with selective nitrification inhibitor experiment in the soils. Our first hypothesis is that northern ecosystems are sources of HONO. Second, is that the soil properties (C:N ratio, moisture, N-availability, pH) regulate the magnitude of HONO emissions from northern soils. Third is that the first step of nitrification (ammonium oxidation) is the main pathway to produce HONO. This study will show that the northern ecosystems could be sources of HONO and therefore increasing the oxidizing capacity of the lower atmosphere.

  19. Accumulation of different sulfur fractions in Chinese forest soil under acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyi; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Zhangwei; Mulder, Jan

    2011-09-01

    Atmogenic sulfur (S) deposition loading by acid rain is one of the biggest environmental problems in China. It is important to know the accumulated S stored in soil, because eventually the size (and also the "desorption" rate) determines how rapidly the soil water pH responds to decrease in S deposition. The S fractions and the ratio of total carbon/total sulfur (C/S) of forest soil in 9 catchments were investigated by comparing soils at the rural and urban sites in China. The S fractions included water-soluble sulfate-S (SO(4)-S), adsorbed SO(4)-S, insoluble SO(4)-S and organic S. The ratio of C/S in soil at the rural site was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than that at the urban site. C/S of soil in the A horizon was significantly (p < 0.05) and negatively correlated with the wet S-deposition rate. The ratio of C/S presents a better indicator for atmogenic S loading. Organic S was the dominant form in soils at rural sites; contributing more than 69% of the total S in the uppermost 30 cm soil. Organic S and adsorbed SO(4)-S were the main forms of S in soil at urban sites. High contents of water-soluble SO(4)-S and adsorbed SO(4)-S were found in uppermost 30 cm soils at urban sites but not at rural sites. Decades of acid rain have caused accumulation of inorganic SO(4)-S in Chinese forest soil especially at the urban sites. The soil at urban sites had been firstly acidified, and the impacts on the forest ecosystem in these areas should be noticed.

  20. Ecosystem-specific selection of microbial ammonia oxidizers in an acid soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiful Alam, M.; Ren, G.; Lu, L.; Zheng, Y.; Peng, X.; Jia, Z.

    2013-01-01

    The function of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) depends on the availability of ammonia substrate and the supply of oxygen. The interactions and evolutions of AOA and AOB communities along ecological gradients of substrate availability in complex environment have been much debated, but rarely tested. In this study, two ecosystems of maize and rice crops under different fertilization regimes were selected to investigate the community diversification of soil AOA and AOB in response to long-term field fertilization and flooding management in an acid soil. Real-time quantitative PCR of amoA genes demonstrated that the abundance of AOA was significantly stimulated after conversion of upland to paddy soils, while slight decline of AOB populations was observed. DGGE fingerprints of amoA genes further revealed remarkable changes in community compositions of AOA in paddy soil when compared to upland soil. Sequencing analysis revealed that upland soil was dominated by AOA within the soil group 1.1b lineage, while the marine group 1.1a lineage predominated AOA communities in paddy soils. Irrespective of upland and paddy soils, long-term field fertilizations led to higher abundance of amoA genes of AOA and AOB than control treatment that received no fertilization, whereas archaeal amoA gene abundances outnumbered their bacterial counterpart in all samples. Phylogenetic analyses of amoA genes showed that Nitrosospira cluster 3-like AOB dominated bacterial ammonia oxidizers in both paddy and upland soils, regardless of fertilization treatments. The results of this study suggest that the marine group 1.1a AOA could be better adapted to low-oxygen environment than AOA ecotypes of the soil group 1.1b lineage, and implicate that long-term flooding as the dominant selective force driving the community diversification of AOA populations in the acid soil tested.

  1. Studies of the compositions of humic acids from Amazonian Dark Earth soils.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Etelvino H; deAzevedo, Eduardo R; Bonagamba, Tito J; Cunha, Tony J F; Madari, Beáta E; de M Benites, Vinícius; Hayes, Michael H B

    2007-01-15

    The compositions of humic acids (HAs) isolated from cultivated and forested "Terra Preta de Indio" or Amazonian Dark Earth soils (anthropogenic soils) were compared with those from adjacent non-anthropogenic soils (control soils) using elemental and thermogravimetric analyses, and a variety of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The thermogravimetric index, which indicates the molecular thermal resistance, was greater for the anthropogenic soils than for the control soils suggesting polycyclic aromatic components in the former. The cultivated anthropogenic soils were more enriched in C and depleted in H than the anthropogenic soils under forest, as the result of the selective degradation of aliphatic structures and the possible enrichment of H-deficient condensed aromatic structures. The combination of variable amplitude cross-polarization (VACP) and chemical shift anisotropy with total suppression of spinning sidebands experiments with composite pi pulses could be used to quantify the aromaticity of the HAs from the anthropogenic soils. From principal component analysis, using the VACP spectra, it was possible to separate the different constituents of the HAs, such as the carboxylated aromatic structures, from the anthropogenic soils and plant derived compounds. The data show that the HAs from anthropogenic soils have high contents of aryl and ionisable oxygenated functional groups, and the major functionalities from adjacent control soils are oxygenated functional groups from labile structures (carbohydrates, peptides, and with evidence for lignin structures). The anthropogenic soils HAs can be considered to be more recalcitrant, and with more stable reactive functional groups which may, in part, explain their more sustainable fertility due to the organic matter contribution to the soil cation exchange capacity.

  2. Carbon stabilization and microbial growth in acidic mine soils after addition of different amendments for soil reclamation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Acosta, Jose; Ángeles Muñoz, María; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Faz, Ángel; Bååth, Erland

    2016-04-01

    The extreme soil conditions in metalliferous mine soils have a negative influence on soil biological activity and therefore on soil carbon estabilization. Therefore, amendments are used to increase organic carbon content and activate microbial communities. In order to elucidate some of the factors controlling soil organic carbon stabilization in reclaimed acidic mine soils and its interrelationship with microbial growth and community structure, we performed an incubation experiment with four amendments: pig slurry (PS), pig manure (PM) and biochar (BC), applied with and without marble waste (MW; CaCO3). Results showed that PM and BC (alone or together with MW) contributed to an important increment in recalcitrant organic C, C/N ratio and aggregate stability. Bacterial and fungal growths were highly dependent on pH and labile organic C. PS supported the highest microbial growth; applied alone it stimulated fungal growth, and applied with MW it stimulated bacterial growth. BC promoted the lowest microbial growth, especially for fungi, with no significant increase in fungal biomass. MW+BC increased bacterial growth up to values similar to PM and MW+PM, suggesting that part of the biochar was degraded, at least in short-term mainly by bacteria rather than fungi. PM, MW+PS and MW+PM supported the highest microbial biomass and a similar community structure, related with the presence of high organic C and high pH, with immobilization of metals and increased soil quality. BC contributed to improved soil structure, increased recalcitrant organic C, and decreased metal mobility, with low stimulation of microbial growth.

  3. Red spruce germination and growth in soil-mediated regeneration microcosms under acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the past three decades, atmospheric pollution has caused substantial problems for the environment as well as for many biological processes. The objective of this study focuses on red spruce (Picea ruben Sarg.) regeneration potential and chemical change within the soil-water-plant continuum following simulated acid rain treatments. Inceptisols from three forests at 1735, 1920, and 2015 m at Mt. Mitchell, North Carolina had lower pH, bulk density, and higher organic matter, and base cations as altitude increased. Red spruce seeds were collected from two nearby standing trees at the 1735 m site. A strip-split-split plot experiment was constructed using soils from the two lower elevations, which support natural red spruce stands. Besides a control (pH 5.6, NO[sub 3]:SO[sub 4] ratio 0.10), eight treatments corresponding to two pHs (3.5 and 4.2) with four NO[sub 3]:SO[sub 4] ratios (0.20, 0.33, 0.40, and 0.67) each were used. Seedling emergence and growth, chemistry of soil. Soil leachate, and plant tissue were analyzed to test soil differences and treatment effects of acidity, nitrate, and sulfate. Temporal patterns of germination respond more to soil than to rain chemistry, but significant interactions were found. Besides higher survival, faster germinating seedlings in the 1735 m soil also produced more complex root system and more biomass. Lower root-to-shoot ratios at more acidic treatments suggest a negative effect of acidity on root growth. Canonical discriminant analysis revealed that factors controlling overall soil chemistry were dominated by soil origin, then by rain pH.

  4. Rhizosheaths on wheat grown in acid soils: phosphorus acquisition efficiency and genetic control

    PubMed Central

    James, Richard A.; Weligama, Chandrakumara; Verbyla, Klara; Ryan, Peter R.; Rebetzke, Gregory J.; Rattey, Allan; Richardson, Alan E.; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Rhizosheaths comprise soil bound to roots, and in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rhizosheath size correlates with root hair length. The aims of this study were to determine the effect that a large rhizosheath has on the phosphorus (P) acquisition by wheat and to investigate the genetic control of rhizosheath size in wheat grown on acid soil. Near-isogenic wheat lines differing in rhizosheath size were evaluated on two acid soils. The soils were fertilized with mineral nutrients and included treatments with either low or high P. The same soils were treated with CaCO3 to raise the pH and detoxify Al3+. Genotypic differences in rhizosheath size were apparent only when soil pH was low and Al3+ was present. On acid soils, a large rhizosheath increased shoot biomass compared with a small rhizosheath regardless of P supply. At low P supply, increased shoot biomass could be attributed to a greater uptake of soil P, but at high P supply the increased biomass was due to some other factor. Generation means analysis indicated that rhizosheath size on acid soil was controlled by multiple, additive loci. Subsequently, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of an F6 population of recombinant inbred lines identified five major loci contributing to the phenotype together accounting for over 60% of the total genetic variance. One locus on chromosome 1D accounted for 34% of the genotypic variation. Genetic control of rhizosheath size appears to be relatively simple and markers based on the QTL provide valuable tools for marker assisted breeding. PMID:26873980

  5. Quality improvement of acidic soils by biochar derived from renewable materials.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Hwang, Inseong; Chang, Yoon-Young; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Ji, Won Hyun; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2017-02-01

    Biochar derived from waste plant materials and agricultural residues was used to improve the quality of an acidic soil. The acidic soil was treated for 1 month with both soy bean stover-derived biochar and oak-derived biochar in the range of 1 to 5 wt% for pH improvement and exchangeable cation enhancement. Following 1 month of treatment, the soil pH was monitored and exchangeable cations were measured. Moreover, a maize growth experiment was performed for 14 days with selected treated soil samples to confirm the effectiveness of the treatment. The results showed that the pH of the treated acidic soil increased by more than 2 units, and the exchangeable cation values were greatly enhanced upon treatment with 5 wt% of both biochars, after 1 month of curing. Maize growth was superior in the 3 wt% biochar-treated samples compared to the control sample. The presented results demonstrate the effective use of biochar derived from renewable materials such as waste plant materials and agricultural residues for quality improvement of acidic soils.

  6. A modified acid digestion procedure for extraction of tungsten from soil.

    PubMed

    Bednar, A J; Jones, W T; Chappell, M A; Johnson, D R; Ringelberg, D B

    2010-01-15

    Interest in tungsten occurrence and geochemistry is increasing due to increased use of tungsten compounds and its unknown biochemical effects. Tungsten has a complex geochemistry, existing in most environmental matrices as the soluble and mobile tungstate anion, as well as poly- and heteropolytungstates. Because the geochemistry of tungsten is substantially different than most trace metals, including the formation of insoluble species under acidic conditions, it is not extracted from soil matrices using standard acid digestion procedures. Therefore, the current work describes a modification to a commonly used acid digestion procedure to facilitate quantification of tungsten in soil matrices. Traditional soil digestion procedures, using nitric and hydrochloric acids with hydrogen peroxide yield <1 up to 50% recovery on soil matrix spike samples, whereas the modified method reported here, which includes the addition of phosphoric acid, yields spike recoveries in the 76-98% range. Comparison of the standard and modified digestion procedures on National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Materials yielded significantly improved tungsten recoveries for the phosphoric acid modified method. The modified method also produces comparable results for other acid extractable metals as the standard methods, and therefore can be used simultaneously for tungsten and other metals of interest.

  7. Assessment of the use potential of edible sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus) processing waste within the agricultural system: influence on soil chemical and biological properties and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth in an amended acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Garau, Giovanni; Castaldi, Paola; Deiana, Salvatore; Campus, Paolo; Mazza, Antonio; Deiana, Pietrino; Pais, Antonio

    2012-10-30

    In this study we evaluated the influence of ground purple sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) endoskeletons, a processing waste common to all edible sea urchin plants, on the chemical, biochemical and microbiological features of an acidic (pH 5.65) sandy-loam soil. The purple sea urchin endoskeletons were characterized by a high content of total carbonates (∼94%), a moderately alkaline pH in water (pH 7.88) and electrical conductivity values (3.55 mS/cm) very similar to those of commercial lime. To evaluate the influence of the P. lividus endoskeletons on soil properties four different amendment rates were tested, notably 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0% based on soil dry weight, and the effects compared with those recorded on unamended control soil. The addition of the purple sea urchin processing waste caused an immediate and significant pH increase which was positively related to the rate of the amendment addition. After a six months equilibration period, the differences in soil pH were still evident and significant increases of electrical conductivity and available phosphorus were also detected in soils with the higher amendment rates. The number of heterotrophic and cellulolytic bacteria and actinomycetes significantly increased after amendment addition while the number of culturable fungi steadily declined. The analysis of the Biolog Community Level Physiological Profile indicated a clear influence of the purple sea urchin processing waste on the structure of the native microbial community while a significant increase of microbial functionality (i.e. dehydrogenase activity) was recorded in soil treated with the higher amendment rates (i.e. 3.0 and 5.0%). The improvement of microbial abundance and functionality as well as the change of the microbial community structure were ascribed to the pH shift induced by the P. lividus processing waste. To investigate possible effects on soil fertility, dwarf bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth were also

  8. Effective treatment of PAH contaminated Superfund site soil with the peroxy-acid process.

    PubMed

    Scott Alderman, N; N'Guessan, Adeola L; Nyman, Marianne C

    2007-07-31

    Peroxy-organic acids are formed by the chemical reaction between organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. The peroxy-acid process was applied to two Superfund site soils provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Initial small-scale experiments applied ratios of 3:5:7 (v/v/v) or 3:3:9 (v/v/v) hydrogen peroxide:acetic acid:deionized (DI) water solution to 5g of Superfund site soil. The experiment using 3:5:7 (v/v/v) ratio resulted in an almost complete degradation of the 14 EPA regulated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Bedford LT soil during a 24-h reaction period, while the 3:3:9 (v/v/v) ratio resulted in no applicable degradation in Bedford LT lot 10 soil over the same reaction period. Specific Superfund site soil characteristics (e.g., pH, total organic carbon content and particle size distribution) were found to play an important role in the availability of the PAHs and the efficiency of the transformation during the peroxy-acid process. A scaled-up experiment followed treating 150g of Bedford LT lot 10 soil with and without mixing. The scaled-up processes applied a 3:3:9 (v/v/v) solution resulting in significant decrease in PAH contamination. These findings demonstrate the peroxy-acid process as a viable option for the treatment of PAH contaminated soils. Further work is necessary in order to elucidate the mechanisms of this process.

  9. Influence of soil tillage and erosion on the dispersion of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorovic, Gorana Rampazzo; Rampazzo, Nicola; Mentler, Axel; Blum, Winfried E. H.; Eder, Alexander; Strauss, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Erosion processes can strongly influence the dissipation of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid applied with Roundup Max® in agricultural soils; in addition, the soil structure state shortly before erosive precipitations fall can be a key parameter for the distribution of glyphosate and its metabolite. Field rain simulation experiments showed that severe erosion processes immediately after application of Roundup Max® can lead to serious unexpected glyphosate loss even in soils with a high presumed adsorption like the Cambisols, if their structure is unfavourable. In one of the no-tillage-plot of the Cambisol, up to 47% of the applied glyphosate amount was dissipated with surface run-off. Moreover, at the Chernozem site with high erosion risk and lower adsorption potential, glyphosate could be found in collected percolation water transported far outside the 2x2 m experimental plots. Traces of glyphosate were found also outside the treated agricultural fields.

  10. Extractability of elements in sugar maple xylem along a gradient of soil acidity.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau Gauthier, Simon; Houle, Daniel; Gagnon, Christian; Côté, Benoît; Messier, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Dendrochemistry has been used for the historical dating of pollution. Its reliability is questionable due primarily to the radial mobility of elements in sapwood. In the present study, the extractability of seven elements was characterized to assess their suitability for the monitoring of environmental conditions. Nine mature sugar maple trees (Acer saccharum Marsh.), a wide-ranging species in eastern North America that has suffered decline in past decades, were sampled in three Quebec watersheds along a soil acidity gradient. Five-year groups of annual tree rings were treated by sequential chemical extractions using extractants of varying strength (deionized H2O, 0.05 M HCl, and concentrated HNO(3)) to selectively solubilize the elements into three fractions (water-soluble, acid-soluble, and residual). Monovalent K; divalent Ba, Ca, Cd, Mg, Mn; and trivalent Al cations were found mostly in the water-soluble, acid-soluble, and residual fractions, respectively. Forms more likely to be mobile within the tree (water-soluble and acid-soluble) do not seem to be suitable for temporal monitoring because of potential lateral redistribution in sapwood rings. However, certain elements (Cd, Mn) were responsive to current soil acidity and could be used in spatial variation monitoring. Extractability of Al varied according to soil acidity; at less acidic sites, up to 90% of Al was contained in the residual form, whereas on very acidic soils, as much as 45% was found in the water-soluble and acid-soluble fractions. Sequential extractions can be useful for determining specific forms of metals as key indicators of soil acidification.

  11. Impacts of simulated acid rain on recalcitrance of two different soils.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhongmin; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Jianjun; Xu, Jianming

    2013-06-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to estimate the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) on recalcitrance in a Plinthudult and a Paleudalfs soil in south China, which were a variable and a permanent charge soil, respectively. Simulated acid rains were prepared at pH 2.0, 3.5, 5.0, and 6.0, by additions of different volumes of H2SO4 plus HNO3 at a ratio of 6 to 1. The leaching period was designed to represent 5 years of local annual rainfall (1,200 mm) with a 33 % surface runoff loss. Both soils underwent both acidification stages of (1) cation exchange and (2) mineral weathering at SAR pH 2.0, whereas only cation exchange occurred above SAR pH 3.5, i.e., weathering did not commence. The cation exchange stage was more easily changed into that of mineral weathering in the Plinthudult than in the Paleudalfs soil, and there were some K(+) and Mg(2+) ions released on the stages of mineral weathering in the Paleudalfs soil. During the leaching, the release of exchangeable base cations followed the order Ca(2+) >K(+) >Mg(2+) >Na(+) for the Plinthudult and Ca(2+) >Mg(2+) >Na(+) >K(+) for the Paleudalfs soil. The SARs above pH 3.5 did not decrease soil pH or pH buffering capacity, while the SAR at pH 2.0 decreased soil pH and the buffering capacity significantly. We conclude that acid rain, which always has a pH from 3.5 to 5.6, only makes a small contribution to the acidification of agricultural soils of south China in the short term of 5 years. Also, Paleudalfs soils are more resistant to acid rain than Plinthudult soils. The different abilities to prevent leaching by acid rain depend upon the parent materials, types of clay minerals, and soil development degrees.

  12. N{sub 2}O production pathways in the subtropical acid forest soils in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jinbo; Cai Zucong; Zhu Tongbin

    2011-07-15

    To date, N{sub 2}O production pathways are poorly understood in the humid subtropical and tropical forest soils. A {sup 15}N-tracing experiment was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions to investigate the processes responsible for N{sub 2}O production in four subtropical acid forest soils (pH<4.5) in China. The results showed that denitrification was the main source of N{sub 2}O emission in the subtropical acid forest soils, being responsible for 56.1%, 53.5%, 54.4%, and 55.2% of N{sub 2}O production, in the GC, GS, GB, and TC soils, respectively, under aerobic conditions (40%-52%WFPS). The heterotrophic nitrification (recalcitrant organic N oxidation) accounted for 27.3%-41.8% of N{sub 2}O production, while the contribution of autotrophic nitrification was little in the studied subtropical acid forest soils. The ratios of N{sub 2}O-N emission from total nitrification (heterotrophic+autotrophic nitrification) were higher than those in most previous references. The soil with the lowest pH and highest organic-C content (GB) had the highest ratio (1.63%), suggesting that soil pH-organic matter interactions may exist and affect N{sub 2}O product ratios from nitrification. The ratio of N{sub 2}O-N emission from heterotrophic nitrification varied from 0.02% to 25.4% due to soil pH and organic matter. Results are valuable in the accurate modeling of N2O production in the subtropical acid forest soils and global budget. - Highlights: {yields} We studied N{sub 2}O production pathways in subtropical acid forest soil under aerobic conditions. {yields} Denitrification was the main source of N{sub 2}O production in subtropical acid forest soils. {yields} Heterotrophic nitrification accounted for 27.3%-41.8% of N{sub 2}O production. {yields} While, contribution of autotrophic nitrification to N{sub 2}O production was little. {yields} Ratios of N{sub 2}O-N emission from nitrification were higher than those in most previous references.

  13. Using spin labels to study molecular processes in soils: Covalent binding of aromatic amines to humic acids of soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, O. N.; Kholodov, V. A.; Perminova, I. V.

    2015-08-01

    Interactions of aliphatic and aromatic amines with soil and humic acids isolated from it are studied by means of spin labels and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Nitroxyl radicals containing amino groups are used as spin labels. It is found experimentally that aromatic amines are instantaneously converted to the bound state. It is shown that the microareas of their incorporation are characterized by a significant delay in the reduction of the nitroxyl fragment of spin-label molecules, indicating the formation of condensed structures typical of an oxidative binding mechanism. It is concluded that aliphatic amines do not bind to humic acids. It is noted that the studied process allows elucidating the formation of bound xenobiotic residues in soils.

  14. Contribution of ants in modifying of soil acidity and particle size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgun, Alexandra; Golichenkov, Maxim

    2015-04-01

    Being a natural body, formed by the influence of biota on the upper layers of the Earth's crust, the soil is the most striking example of biogenic-abiogenic interactions in the biosphere. Invertebrates (especially ants that build soil nests) are important agents that change soil properties in well developed terrestrial ecosystems. Impact of