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Sample records for acidic soils ph

  1. [Characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in red soil profile under different vegetation types].

    PubMed

    Ji, Gang; Xu, Ming-gang; Wen, Shi-lin; Wang, Bo-ren; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Li-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in soil profile under different vegetation types were studied in hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan Province, China. The soil samples from red soil profiles within 0-100 cm depth at fertilized plots and unfertilized plots were collected and analyzed to understand the profile distribution of soil pH and exchangeable acidity. The results showed that, pH in 0-60 cm soil from the fertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: citrus orchard > Arachis hypogaea field > tea garden. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was A. hypogaea field ≤ citrus orchard < tea garden. After tea tree and A. hypogaea were planted for long time, acidification occurred in surface soil (0-40 cm), compared with the deep soil (60-100 cm), and soil pH decreased by 0.55 and 0.17 respectively, but such changes did not occur in citrus orchard. Soil pH in 0-40 cm soil from the natural recovery vegetation unfertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: Imperata cylindrica land > Castanea mollissima garden > Pinus elliottii forest ≥ Loropetalum chinensis forest. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was L cylindrica land < C. mollissima garden < L. chinensis forest ≤ P. elliottii forest. Soil pH in surface soil (0-20 cm) from natural forest plots, secondary forest and Camellia oleifera forest were significantly lower than that from P. massoniana forest, decreased by 0.34 and 0.20 respectively. For exchangeable acidity content in 0-20 cm soil from natural forest plot, P. massoniana forest and secondary forest were significantly lower than C. oleifera forest. Compared with bare land, surface soil acidification in unfertilized plots except I. cylindrica land had been accelerated, and the natural secondary forest was the most serious among them, with surface soil pH decreasing by 0.52. However, the pH increased in deep soils from unfertilized plots except natural secondary forest, and I. cylindrica

  2. [Effects of thiourea on pH and availability of metal ions in acid red soil].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Wen; Zeng, Qing-Ru; Zhou, Xi-Hong

    2014-03-01

    Through the simulation research, the effects of application of thiourea and urea on pH and availability of metal ions in acid red soil were studied, and the results showed that after applying urea, the soil pH increased in the first experimental stage and then reduced gradually to a low level, however, decreased trends of soil pH values were inhibited by the application of thiourea, especially when the concentration of thiourea reached to 5.0 mmol x kg(-1) dry soil, the soil pH was stable at high level, which exceeded to 6.0. It proved that the application of thiourea could inhibit the soil acidification due to urea application. After applying urea with different concentrations of thiourea, the available contents of Zn and Al decreased with the increasing concentration of thiourea, nevertheless, when the concentration of thiourea reached to 5.0 mmol x kg(-1), the available content of Mn was stable at high level which was over 110 mg x kg(-1). In addition, the results showed a highly significant negative correlation between the soil pH and the available content of Cu, Zn and Al, but for Mn, no discipline was found between the soil pH and the availability after applying thiourea. Moreover, the soil pH became higher after applying urea with thiourea compared to add urea only, which led to the decreasing of available content of Al, and it was benefited for the control of the phytotoxic effect of Al. The available content of Mn in the soil not only depended on soil pH but also the content of thiourea due to its redox and complexing reaction with Mn.

  3. Changes in soil pH across England and Wales in response to decreased acid deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, G. J. D.; Bellamy, P. H.

    2009-04-01

    In our recent analysis of data from the National Soil Inventory of England and Wales, we found widespread changes in soil pH across both countries between the two samplings of the Inventory. In general, soil pH increased - i.e. soils became less acid - under all land uses. The Inventory was first sampled in 1978-83 on a 5-km grid over the whole area. This yielded about 6,000 sites of which 5,662 could be sampled for soil. Roughly 40% of the sites were re-sampled at intervals from 12 to 25 years after the original sampling - in 1994/96 for agricultural land and in 2002/03 for non-agricultural. Exactly the same sampling and analytical protocols were used in the two samplings. In arable soils, the increase in pH was right across the range, whereas in grassland soils the main increase was at the acid end of the scale (pH < 5.5) with a small increase above pH 7. Some part of the change is likely to have been due to changes in land management. This includes better targeting of agricultural lime on acid soils; changes in nitrogen fertilizer use; deeper ploughing bringing up more calcareous subsoil on soils on calcareous materials; and so forth. However a major driver appears to have been decreased acid deposition to land. The total amounts of nitrogen compounds deposited were relatively unchanged over the survey period, but the amounts of acidifying sulphur compounds decreased by approximately 50%. We constructed a linear regression model to assess the relation between the rate of change in pH (normalised to an annual basis) and the rate of change in acid deposition, as modified by soil properties (pH, clay content, organic matter content), rainfall and past acid deposition. We used data on rainfall and acid deposition over the survey period on the same 5-km grid as the NSI data. We fitted the model separately for each land use category. The results for arable land showed a significant effect of the change in rate of acid deposition, though a significant part of the

  4. Nestedness in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities along Soil pH Gradients in Early Primary Succession: Acid-Tolerant Fungi Are pH Generalists.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Ai; An, Gi-Hong; Miyakawa, Sachie; Sonoda, Jun; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Soil acidity is a major constraint on plant productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi support plant colonization in acidic soil, but soil acidity also constrains fungal growth and diversity. Fungi in extreme environments generally evolve towards specialists, suggesting that AM fungi in acidic soil are acidic-soil specialists. In our previous surveys, however, some AM fungi detected in strongly acidic soils could also be detected in a soil with moderate pH, which raised a hypothesis that the fungi in acidic soils are pH generalists. To test the hypothesis, we conducted a pH-manipulation experiment and also analyzed AM fungal distribution along a pH gradient in the field using a synthesized dataset of the previous and recent surveys. Rhizosphere soils of the generalist plant Miscanthus sinensis were collected both from a neutral soil and an acidic soil, and M. sinensis seedlings were grown at three different pH. For the analysis of field communities, rhizosphere soils of M. sinensis were collected from six field sites across Japan, which covered a soil pH range of 3.0-7.4, and subjected to soil trap culture. AM fungal community compositions were determined based on LSU rDNA sequences. In the pH-manipulation experiment the acidification of medium had a significant impact on the compositions of the community from the neutral soil, but the neutralization of the medium had no effect on those of the community from the acidic soil. Furthermore, the communities in lower -pH soils were subsets of (nested in) those in higher-pH soils. In the field communities a significant nestedness pattern was observed along the pH gradient. These observations suggest that the fungi in strongly acidic soils are pH generalists that occur not only in acidic soil but also in wide ranges of soil pH. Nestedness in AM fungal community along pH gradients may have important implications for plant community resilience and early primary succession after disturbance in acidic soils.

  5. Nestedness in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities along Soil pH Gradients in Early Primary Succession: Acid-Tolerant Fungi Are pH Generalists

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Ai; An, Gi-Hong; Miyakawa, Sachie; Sonoda, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Soil acidity is a major constraint on plant productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi support plant colonization in acidic soil, but soil acidity also constrains fungal growth and diversity. Fungi in extreme environments generally evolve towards specialists, suggesting that AM fungi in acidic soil are acidic-soil specialists. In our previous surveys, however, some AM fungi detected in strongly acidic soils could also be detected in a soil with moderate pH, which raised a hypothesis that the fungi in acidic soils are pH generalists. To test the hypothesis, we conducted a pH-manipulation experiment and also analyzed AM fungal distribution along a pH gradient in the field using a synthesized dataset of the previous and recent surveys. Rhizosphere soils of the generalist plant Miscanthus sinensis were collected both from a neutral soil and an acidic soil, and M. sinensis seedlings were grown at three different pH. For the analysis of field communities, rhizosphere soils of M. sinensis were collected from six field sites across Japan, which covered a soil pH range of 3.0–7.4, and subjected to soil trap culture. AM fungal community compositions were determined based on LSU rDNA sequences. In the pH-manipulation experiment the acidification of medium had a significant impact on the compositions of the community from the neutral soil, but the neutralization of the medium had no effect on those of the community from the acidic soil. Furthermore, the communities in lower -pH soils were subsets of (nested in) those in higher-pH soils. In the field communities a significant nestedness pattern was observed along the pH gradient. These observations suggest that the fungi in strongly acidic soils are pH generalists that occur not only in acidic soil but also in wide ranges of soil pH. Nestedness in AM fungal community along pH gradients may have important implications for plant community resilience and early primary succession after disturbance in acidic soils. PMID

  6. [Effects of simulated acid rain on respiration rate of cropland system with different soil pH].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue-zhu; Zhang, Gao-chuan; Li, Hui

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the effects of acid rain on the respiration rate of cropland system, an outdoor pot experiment was conducted with paddy soils of pH 5.48 (S1), pH 6.70 (S1) and pH 8.18 (S3) during the 2005-2007 wheat-growing seasons. The cropland system was exposed to acid rain by spraying the wheat foliage and irrigating the soil with simulated rainwater of T1 (pH 6.0), T2 (pH 6.0, ionic concentration was twice as rainwater T1), and T3 (pH 4.4, ionic concentration was twice as rainwater T1), respectively. The static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method was used to measure CO2 fluxes from cropland system. The results showed that acid rain affected the respiration rate of cropland system through crop plant, and the cropland system could adapt to acid rain. Acid rainwater significantly increased the average respiration rate in alkaline soil (S3) cropland system, while it had no significant effects on the average respiration rate in neutral soil (S2) and acidic soil (S1) cropland systems. During 2005-2006, after the alkaline soil cropland system was treated with rainwater T3, the average respiration rate was 23.6% and 27.6% higher than that of alkaline soil cropland system treated with rainwater T1 and T2, respectively. During March to April, the respiration rate was enhanced with the increase of rainwater ionic concentration, while it was dropped with the decrease of rainwater pH value in acidic soil cropland system. It was demonstrated that soil pH and crop plant played important roles on the respiration rate of cropland system.

  7. Effect of acid rain pH on leaching behavior of cement stabilized lead-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan-Jun; Wei, Ming-Li; Reddy, Krishna R; Liu, Zhao-Peng; Jin, Fei

    2014-04-30

    Cement stabilization is a practical approach to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of lead. However, the potential for leaching of lead out of these stabilized soils under variable acid rain pH conditions is a major environmental concern. This study investigates the effects of acid rain on the leaching characteristics of cement stabilized lead contaminated soil under different pH conditions. Clean kaolin clay and the same soil spiked with 2% lead contamination are stabilized with cement contents of 12 and 18% and then cured for 28 days. The soil samples are then subjected to a series of accelerated leaching tests (or semi-dynamic leaching tests) using a simulated acid rain leachant prepared at pH 2.0, 4.0 or 7.0. The results show that the strongly acidic leachant (pH ∼2.0) significantly altered the leaching behavior of lead as well as calcium present in the soil. However, the differences in the leaching behavior of the soil when the leachant was mildly acidic (pH ∼4.0) and neutral (pH ∼7.0) prove to be minor. In addition, it is observed that the lead contamination and cement content levels can have a considerable impact on the leaching behavior of the soils. Overall, the leachability of lead and calcium is attributed to the stability of the hydration products and their consequent influence on the soil buffering capacity and structure.

  8. Biogenic precipitation of manganese oxides and enrichment of heavy metals at acidic soil pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayanna, Sathish; Peacock, Caroline L.; Schäffner, Franziska; Grawunder, Anja; Merten, Dirk; Kothe, Erika; Büchel, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The precipitation of biogenic Mn oxides at acidic pH is rarely reported and poorly understood, compared to biogenic Mn oxide precipitation at near neutral conditions. Here we identified and investigated the precipitation of biogenic Mn oxides in acidic soil, and studied their role in the retention of heavy metals, at the former uranium mining site of Ronneburg, Germany. The site is characterized by acidic pH, low carbon content and high heavy metal loads including rare earth elements. Specifically, the Mn oxides were present in layers identified by detailed soil profiling and within these layers pH varied from 4.7 to 5.1, Eh varied from 640 to 660 mV and there were enriched total metal contents for Ba, Ni, Co, Cd and Zn in addition to high Mn levels. Using electron microprobe analysis, synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we identified poorly crystalline birnessite (δ-MnO2) as the dominant Mn oxide in the Mn layers, present as coatings covering and cementing quartz grains. With geochemical modelling we found that the environmental conditions at the site were not favourable for chemical oxidation of Mn(II), and thus we performed 16S rDNA sequencing to isolate the bacterial strains present in the Mn layers. Bacterial phyla present in the Mn layers belonged to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, and from these phyla we isolated six strains of Mn(II) oxidizing bacteria and confirmed their ability to oxidise Mn(II) in the laboratory. The biogenic Mn oxide layers act as a sink for metals and the bioavailability of these metals was much lower in the Mn layers than in adjacent layers, reflecting their preferential sorption to the biogenic Mn oxide. In this presentation we will report our findings, concluding that the formation of natural biogenic poorly crystalline birnessite can occur at acidic pH, resulting in the formation of a biogeochemical barrier which, in turn, can control the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in

  9. Influence of metal ions and pH on the hydraulic properties of potential acid sulfate soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, T. M. H.; Collins, R. N.; Waite, T. D.

    2008-07-01

    SummaryAcid sulfate soils (ASS) cover extensive areas of east Australian coastal floodplains. Upon oxidation, these hydromorphic pyritic sediments produce large quantities of sulfuric acid. In addition, due to their geographic location, these soils may also come in contact with high ionic strength estuarine tidal waters. As a result, there is typically a large variation in acidity (pH) and cation concentrations in soil porewaters and adjacent aquatic systems (e.g., agricultural field drains, rivers, estuaries, etc.). Acid sulfate soils, especially from the unoxidized gelatinous deeper layers, contain a relatively high proportion of montmorillonite, which is wellknown for its shrink-swell properties. Variations in cation concentrations, including H3O+, can influence montmorillonite platelet interactions and may, thus, also significantly affect the hydraulic conductivity of materials containing this clay. In this paper we report on the effect of four common cations, at reasonable environmental concentrations, on the hydraulic properties of potential (unoxidized) acid sulfate soil materials. The natural system was simplified by examining individually the effects of each cation (H+, Ca2+, Fe2+ and Na+) on a soil-water suspension in a filtration cell unit. Moisture ratio, hydraulic conductivity and the consolidation coefficient of the deposited filter cakes were calculated using material coordinates theory. The results indicate that the hydraulic conductivity of potential acid sulfate soils increases at low pH and with cation concentration. Although an increase in the charge of amphoteric edge groups on montmorillonite clays may result in some aggregation between individual clay platelets, we conclude that the extent of these changes are unlikely to cause significant increases in the transportation of acidity (and contaminants) through potential acid sulfate soils as the hydraulic conductivity of these materials remain low (<10-9 m/s) at pH and ionic conditions normally

  10. Characterization of cultures enriched from acidic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil for growth on pyrene at low pH.

    PubMed

    Uyttebroek, Maarten; Vermeir, Steven; Wattiau, Pierre; Ryngaert, Annemie; Springael, Dirk

    2007-05-01

    Two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils of pH 2 were successfully used as inoculum to enrich cultures growing on phenanthrene and pyrene at different pHs, including pH 3. Selected pyrene-utilizing cultures obtained at pH 3, pH 5, and pH 7 were further characterized. All showed rapid [14C]pyrene mineralization at pH 3 and pH 5 and grew on pyrene at pH values ranging from 2 to 6. Eubacterial and mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting and sequencing indicated that the cultures were dominated by a single bacterium closely related to Mycobacterium montefiorense, belonging to the slow-growing Mycobacterium sp. In contrast, a culture enriched on pyrene at pH 7 from a slightly alkaline soil sampled at the same site was dominated by Pseudomonas putida and a fast-growing Mycobacterium sp. The M. montefiorense-related species dominating the pyrene-utilizing cultures enriched from the acidic soils was also the dominant Mycobacterium species in the acidic soils. Our data indicate that a slow-growing Mycobacterium species is involved in PAH degradation in that culture and show that bacteria able to degrade high-molecular-weight PAHs at low pH are present in acidic PAH-contaminated soil.

  11. Effect of Soil pH Increase by Biochar on NO, N2O and N2 Production during Denitrification in Acid Soils.

    PubMed

    Obia, Alfred; Cornelissen, Gerard; Mulder, Jan; Dörsch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Biochar (BC) application to soil suppresses emission of nitrous- (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO), but the mechanisms are unclear. One of the most prominent features of BC is its alkalizing effect in soils, which may affect denitrification and its product stoichiometry directly or indirectly. We conducted laboratory experiments with anoxic slurries of acid Acrisols from Indonesia and Zambia and two contrasting BCs produced locally from rice husk and cacao shell. Dose-dependent responses of denitrification and gaseous products (NO, N2O and N2) were assessed by high-resolution gas kinetics and related to the alkalizing effect of the BCs. To delineate the pH effect from other BC effects, we removed part of the alkalinity by leaching the BCs with water and acid prior to incubation. Uncharred cacao shell and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were also included in the study. The untreated BCs suppressed N2O and NO and increased N2 production during denitrification, irrespective of the effect on denitrification rate. The extent of N2O and NO suppression was dose-dependent and increased with the alkalizing effect of the two BC types, which was strongest for cacao shell BC. Acid leaching of BC, which decreased its alkalizing effect, reduced or eliminated the ability of BC to suppress N2O and NO net production. Just like untreated BCs, NaOH reduced net production of N2O and NO while increasing that of N2. This confirms the importance of altered soil pH for denitrification product stoichiometry. Addition of uncharred cacao shell stimulated denitrification strongly due to availability of labile carbon but only minor effects on the product stoichiometry of denitrification were found, in accordance with its modest effect on soil pH. Our study indicates that stimulation of denitrification was mainly due to increases in labile carbon whereas change in product stoichiometry was mainly due to a change in soil pH.

  12. Effect of Soil pH Increase by Biochar on NO, N2O and N2 Production during Denitrification in Acid Soils

    PubMed Central

    Obia, Alfred; Cornelissen, Gerard; Mulder, Jan; Dörsch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Biochar (BC) application to soil suppresses emission of nitrous- (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO), but the mechanisms are unclear. One of the most prominent features of BC is its alkalizing effect in soils, which may affect denitrification and its product stoichiometry directly or indirectly. We conducted laboratory experiments with anoxic slurries of acid Acrisols from Indonesia and Zambia and two contrasting BCs produced locally from rice husk and cacao shell. Dose-dependent responses of denitrification and gaseous products (NO, N2O and N2) were assessed by high-resolution gas kinetics and related to the alkalizing effect of the BCs. To delineate the pH effect from other BC effects, we removed part of the alkalinity by leaching the BCs with water and acid prior to incubation. Uncharred cacao shell and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were also included in the study. The untreated BCs suppressed N2O and NO and increased N2 production during denitrification, irrespective of the effect on denitrification rate. The extent of N2O and NO suppression was dose-dependent and increased with the alkalizing effect of the two BC types, which was strongest for cacao shell BC. Acid leaching of BC, which decreased its alkalizing effect, reduced or eliminated the ability of BC to suppress N2O and NO net production. Just like untreated BCs, NaOH reduced net production of N2O and NO while increasing that of N2. This confirms the importance of altered soil pH for denitrification product stoichiometry. Addition of uncharred cacao shell stimulated denitrification strongly due to availability of labile carbon but only minor effects on the product stoichiometry of denitrification were found, in accordance with its modest effect on soil pH. Our study indicates that stimulation of denitrification was mainly due to increases in labile carbon whereas change in product stoichiometry was mainly due to a change in soil pH. PMID:26397367

  13. Copper availability and bioavailability are controlled by rhizosphere pH in rape grown in an acidic Cu-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Chaignon, Valérie; Quesnoit, Marie; Hinsinger, Philippe

    2009-12-01

    We evaluated how root-induced changes in rhizosphere pH varied and interacted with Cu availability and bioavailability in an acidic soil. Rape was grown on a Cu-contaminated acidic soil, which had been limed at 10 rates. Soil Cu bioavailability was not influenced by liming. However, liming significantly decreased CaCl(2)-extracted Cu for pH between 3.7 and 5.1. Little effect was found for pH above 5.1. For soil pH < 4.4, CaCl(2)-Cu contents were smaller in rhizosphere than uncropped soil. Rhizosphere alkalisation occurred at pH < 4.8, while acidification occurred at greater pH. This explained the changes of CaCl(2)-Cu in the rhizosphere at low pH and the absence of pH dependency of Cu bioavailability to rape. In addition, apoplastic Cu in roots increased with increasing soil pH, most probably as a result of increased dissociation and affinity of cell wall compounds for Cu.

  14. Novel Technique to improve the pH of Acidic Barren Soil using Electrokinetic-bioremediation with the application of Vetiver Grass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Nabila, A. T. A.; Nurshuhaila, M. S.; Zaidi, E.; Azim, M. A. M.; Zahin, A. M. F.

    2016-11-01

    Residual acidic slopes which are not covered by vegetation greatly increases the risk of soil erosion. In addition, low soil pH can bring numerous problems such as Al and Fe toxicity, land degradation issues and some problems related to vegetation. In this research, a series of electrokinetic bioremediation (EK-Bio) treatments using Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida with a combination of Vetiver grass were performed in the laboratory. Investigations were conducted for 14 days and included the observation of changes in the soil pH and the mobilization of microorganism cells through an electrical gradient of 50 V/m under low pH. Based on the results obtained, this study has successfully proven that the pH of soil increases after going through electrokinetic bioremediation (EK-Bio). The treatment using Bacillus sphaericus increases the pH from 2.95 up to 4.80, followed by Bacillus subtilis with a value of 4.66. Based on the overall performance, Bacillus sphaericus show the highest number of bacterial cells in acidic soil with a value of 6.6 × 102 cfu/g, followed by Bacillus subtilis with a value of 5.7 × 102 cfu/g. In conclusion, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis show high survivability and is suitable to be used in the remediation of acidic soil.

  15. Low pH, aluminum, and phosphorus coordinately regulate malate exudation through GmALMT1 to improve soybean adaptation to acid soils.

    PubMed

    Liang, Cuiyue; Piñeros, Miguel A; Tian, Jiang; Yao, Zhufang; Sun, Lili; Liu, Jiping; Shaff, Jon; Coluccio, Alison; Kochian, Leon V; Liao, Hong

    2013-03-01

    Low pH, aluminum (Al) toxicity, and low phosphorus (P) often coexist and are heterogeneously distributed in acid soils. To date, the underlying mechanisms of crop adaptation to these multiple factors on acid soils remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that P addition to acid soils could stimulate Al tolerance, especially for the P-efficient genotype HN89. Subsequent hydroponic studies demonstrated that solution pH, Al, and P levels coordinately altered soybean (Glycine max) root growth and malate exudation. Interestingly, HN89 released more malate under conditions mimicking acid soils (low pH, +P, and +Al), suggesting that root malate exudation might be critical for soybean adaptation to both Al toxicity and P deficiency on acid soils. GmALMT1, a soybean malate transporter gene, was cloned from the Al-treated root tips of HN89. Like root malate exudation, GmALMT1 expression was also pH dependent, being suppressed by low pH but enhanced by Al plus P addition in roots of HN89. Quantitative real-time PCR, transient expression of a GmALMT1-yellow fluorescent protein chimera in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and electrophysiological analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing GmALMT1 demonstrated that GmALMT1 encodes a root cell plasma membrane transporter that mediates malate efflux in an extracellular pH-dependent and Al-independent manner. Overexpression of GmALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis, as well as overexpression and knockdown of GmALMT1 in transgenic soybean hairy roots, indicated that GmALMT1-mediated root malate efflux does underlie soybean Al tolerance. Taken together, our results suggest that malate exudation is an important component of soybean adaptation to acid soils and is coordinately regulated by three factors, pH, Al, and P, through the regulation of GmALMT1 expression and GmALMT1 function.

  16. Aluminium Uptake and Translocation in Al Hyperaccumulator Rumex obtusifolius Is Affected by Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids Content and Soil pH

    PubMed Central

    Vondráčková, Stanislava; Száková, Jiřina; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Hejcman, Michal; Müllerová, Vladimíra; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims High Al resistance of Rumex obtusifolius together with its ability to accumulate Al has never been studied in weakly acidic conditions (pH > 5.8) and is not sufficiently described in real soil conditions. The potential elucidation of the role of organic acids in plant can explain the Al tolerance mechanism. Methods We established a pot experiment with R. obtusifolius planted in slightly acidic and alkaline soils. For the manipulation of Al availability, both soils were untreated and treated by lime and superphosphate. We determined mobile Al concentrations in soils and concentrations of Al and organic acids in organs. Results Al availability correlated positively to the extraction of organic acids (citric acid < oxalic acid) in soils. Monovalent Al cations were the most abundant mobile Al forms with positive charge in soils. Liming and superphosphate application were ambiguous measures for changing Al mobility in soils. Elevated transport of total Al from belowground organs into leaves was recorded in both lime-treated soils and in superphosphate-treated alkaline soil as a result of sufficient amount of Ca available from soil solution as well as from superphosphate that can probably modify distribution of total Al in R. obtusifolius as a representative of “oxalate plants.” The highest concentrations of Al and organic acids were recorded in the leaves, followed by the stem and belowground organ infusions. Conclusions In alkaline soil, R. obtusifolius is an Al-hyperaccumulator with the highest concentrations of oxalate in leaves, of malate in stems, and of citrate in belowground organs. These organic acids form strong complexes with Al that can play a key role in internal Al tolerance but the used methods did not allow us to distinguish the proportion of total Al-organic complexes to the free organic acids. PMID:25880431

  17. Effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculum treatments in increasing pH and reducing sulfur-total of acid sulfate soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufieq, Nur Anny Suryaningsih; Rahim, Sahibin Abdul; Jamil, Habibah

    2013-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness ofsulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in using bran as a source of food and energy, and to see the effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculums treatments for pH and sulfur-total of acid sulfate reduction insoils. This study used two factors in group random designs with four treatments for bacteria inoculum of B1 (1%), B2 (5%), B3 (10%), B4 (15%) and two treatments for organic media (bran) of D1 (1:1) and D2 (1:19). Based on three replications, the combination resulted in a total of 24 treatments. Soil pH was measured using the Duddridge and Wainright method and determination of sulfate content in soil was conducted by the spectrophotometry method. The data obtained was analyzed for significance by Analysis of Variance and the Least Significant Difference Test. The pH of the initial acid sulfate soils ranged from 3 to 4 and the soil sulfur-total ranged from 1.4% to 10%. After mixing sulfate reducing bacteria with the bran mediaand incubated for four days, the pH of the acid sulfate soils increased from 3.67 to 4.20, while the soil sulfur-total contents had been reduced by 2.85% to 0.35%. This experiment has proven that an acid sulfate soil with low pH is a good growth medium for the sulfate reducing bacteria. The bestincubation period to achieve an effective bioremediation resultthrough sulfate percentage reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria was 10 days, while the optimum bran media dose was 1:19, and the bacteria inoculums dose was 10%.

  18. Interactions of Zn(II) Ions with Humic Acids Isolated from Various Type of Soils. Effect of pH, Zn Concentrations and Humic Acids Chemical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Boguta, Patrycja; Sokołowska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was the analysis of the interaction between humic acids (HAs) from different soils and Zn(II) ions at wide concentration ranges and at two different pHs, 5 and 7, by using fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopy, as well as potentiometric measurements. The presence of a few areas of HAs structures responsible for Zn(II) complexing was revealed. Complexation at α-sites (low humified structures of low-molecular weight and aromatic polycondensation) and β-sites (weakly humified structures) was stronger at pH 7 than 5. This trend was not observed for γ-sites (structures with linearly-condensed aromatic rings, unsaturated bonds and large molecular weight). The amount of metal complexed at pH5 and 7 by α and γ-structures increased with a decrease in humification and aromaticity of HAs, contrary to β-areas where complexation increased with increasing content of carboxylic groups. The stability of complexes was higher at pH 7 and was the highest for γ-structures. At pH 5, stability decreased with C/N increase for α-areas and -COOH content increase for β-sites; stability increased with humification decrease for γ-structures. The stability of complexes at α and β-areas at pH 7 decreased with a drop in HAs humification. FTIR spectra at pH 5 revealed that the most-humified HAs tended to cause bidentate bridging coordination, while in the case of the least-humified HAs, Zn caused bidentate bridging coordination at low Zn additions and bidentate chelation at the highest Zn concentrations. Low Zn doses at pH 7 caused formation of unidentate complexes while higher Zn doses caused bidentate bridging. Such processes were noticed for HAs characterized by high oxidation degree and high oxygen functional group content; where these were low, HAs displayed bidentate bridging or even bidentate chelation. To summarize, the above studies have showed significant impact of Zn concentration, pH and some properties of HAs on complexation reactions of humic

  19. Interactions of Zn(II) Ions with Humic Acids Isolated from Various Type of Soils. Effect of pH, Zn Concentrations and Humic Acids Chemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Boguta, Patrycja; Sokołowska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was the analysis of the interaction between humic acids (HAs) from different soils and Zn(II) ions at wide concentration ranges and at two different pHs, 5 and 7, by using fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopy, as well as potentiometric measurements. The presence of a few areas of HAs structures responsible for Zn(II) complexing was revealed. Complexation at α-sites (low humified structures of low-molecular weight and aromatic polycondensation) and β-sites (weakly humified structures) was stronger at pH 7 than 5. This trend was not observed for γ-sites (structures with linearly-condensed aromatic rings, unsaturated bonds and large molecular weight). The amount of metal complexed at pH5 and 7 by α and γ-structures increased with a decrease in humification and aromaticity of HAs, contrary to β-areas where complexation increased with increasing content of carboxylic groups. The stability of complexes was higher at pH 7 and was the highest for γ-structures. At pH 5, stability decreased with C/N increase for α-areas and -COOH content increase for β-sites; stability increased with humification decrease for γ-structures. The stability of complexes at α and β-areas at pH 7 decreased with a drop in HAs humification. FTIR spectra at pH 5 revealed that the most-humified HAs tended to cause bidentate bridging coordination, while in the case of the least-humified HAs, Zn caused bidentate bridging coordination at low Zn additions and bidentate chelation at the highest Zn concentrations. Low Zn doses at pH 7 caused formation of unidentate complexes while higher Zn doses caused bidentate bridging. Such processes were noticed for HAs characterized by high oxidation degree and high oxygen functional group content; where these were low, HAs displayed bidentate bridging or even bidentate chelation. To summarize, the above studies have showed significant impact of Zn concentration, pH and some properties of HAs on complexation reactions of humic

  20. Influence of pH, soil humic/fulvic acid, ionic strength, foreign ions and addition sequences on adsorption of Pb(II) onto GMZ bentonite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suowei; Hu, Jun; Li, Jiaxing; Dong, Yunhui

    2009-08-15

    This work contributed to the adsorption of Pb(II) onto GMZ bentonite in the absence and presence of soil humic acid (HA)/fulvic acid (FA) using a batch technique. The influences of pH from 2 to 12, ionic strengths from 0.004M to 0.05M NaNO(3), soil HA/FA concentrations from 1.6 mg/L to 20mg/L, foreign cations (Li+, Na+, K+), anions (Cl(-), NO(3)(-)), and addition sequences on the adsorption of Pb(II) onto GMZ bentonite were tested. The adsorption isotherms of Pb(II) were determined at pH 3.6+/-0.1 and simulated with the Langmuir, Freundlich, and D-R adsorption models, respectively. The results demonstrated that the adsorption of Pb(II) onto GMZ bentonite increased with increasing pH from 2 to 6. HA was shown to enhance Pb(II) adsorption at low pH, but to reduce Pb(II) adsorption at high pH, whereas FA was shown to decrease Pb(II) adsorption at pH from 2 to 11. The results also demonstrated that the adsorption was strongly dependent on ionic strength and slightly dependent on the concentration of HA/FA. The adsorption of Pb(II) onto GMZ bentonite was dependent on foreign ions in solution. The addition sequences of bentonite/Pb(II)/HA had no effect on the adsorption of Pb(II).

  1. Past and future seasonal variation in pH and metal concentrations in runoff from river basins on acid sulphate soils in Western Finland.

    PubMed

    Saarinen, Tuomas S; Kløve, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Drainage of acid sulphate soils (ASS) increases oxidation, leading to extensive leaching of acidity and metals to rivers (Al, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn). This is often apparent during high runoff periods in spring and autumn after long dry periods with low groundwater levels and associated ASS oxidation. Regression models were used to study changes in these water quality variables according to various discharge scenarios. The knowledge of seasonal patterns of water quality variables in future is important for planning land use of the catchments in relation to WFD of European Union. The data showed that river water acidity (pH and metals) increased with discharge, with the correlation being strongest in low runoff periods in winter and summer and less clear in spring. With future climate change, river acidity can increase radically, especially during winters following extremely dry summers, and pH and metal peaks may occur even during winter.

  2. Soil redox and pH effects on methane production in a flooded rice soil

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.P.; DeLaune, R.D.; Masscheleyn, P.H.; Patrick, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Methane formation in soil is a microbiological process controlled by many factors. Of them soil redox potential (Eh) and soil pH are considered as critical controls. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to study the critical initiation soil Eh, the optimum soil pH, and the interaction of Eh and pH on methane production. A small decrease in pH resulting from the introduction of acidic materials significantly decreased methane production. However, a slight increase in soil pH (about 0.2 unit higher than the natural soil suspension pH) resulted in an enhancement of methane production by 11-20 percent and 24-25 percent at controlled Eh of -250 mV and -200 mV, respectively. Results suggest that decrease in methane emission could be obtained by a small reduction in soil pH in Crowley soil.

  3. Remediation of grey forest soils heavily polluted with heavy metals by means of their leaching at acidic pH followed by the soil reclamation by means of neutralization and bacterial manure addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan; Spasova, Irena; Nicolova, Marina

    2014-05-01

    Some grey forest soils in Western Bulgaria are heavily polluted with heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc), arsenic, and uranium due to the infiltration of acid mine drainage generated at the abandoned uranium mine Curilo. This paper presents some results from a study about soil remediation based on the contaminants leaching from the topsoil by means of irrigation with solutions containing sulphuric acid or its in situ generation by means of sulphur-oxidizing chemolithotrophic bacteria in or without the presence of finely cut straw. These methods were tested in large scale zero suction lysimeters. The approaches based on S° and finely cut straw addition was the most efficient amongst the tested methods and for seven months of soil remediation the concentration of all soil contaminants were decreased below the relevant Maximum Admissible Concentration (MAC). Neutralization of the soil acidity was applied as a next stage of soil reclamation by adding CaCO3 and cow manure. As a result, soil pH increased from strongly acidic (2.36) to slightly acidic (6.15) which allowed subsequent addition of humic acids and bacterial manure to the topsoil. The soil habitat changed in this way facilitated the growth of microorganisms which restored the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and carbon to the levels typical for non-polluted grey forest soil.

  4. Copper release kinetics from a long-term contaminated acid soil using a stirred flow chamber: effect of ionic strength and pH.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Bermúdez-Couso, Alipio; Garrido-Rodríguez, Beatriz; Peña Rodríguez, Susana; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2012-02-01

    The effect of pH and ionic strength on copper release in a long-term Cu-polluted soil was studied using a stirred flow chamber. The presence of Ca(2+) and Na(+) was also evaluated. More copper was released as the ionic strength increased, and it was significantly higher in the presence of Ca(2+) than in the presence of Na(+). The maximum amount of Cu that could be released under experimental conditions increased logarithmically as the ionic strength increased, and the release rate parameters were not significantly correlated with ionic strength values. The maximum amount of Cu that could be released was similar for solutions with pH values between 5.5 and 8.5. For solutions with a pH value below 4.5, the amount of Cu released increased exponentially as the pH decreased. The release rate parameters and Cu release pattern were affected by pH, especially for more acidic solutions (pH values of 2.5 and 3.5).

  5. Mapping Soil pH Buffering Capacity of Selected Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, A. R.; Kissel, D. E.; Chen, F.; West, L. T.; Adkins, W.; Rickman, D.; Luvall, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    Soil pH buffering capacity, since it varies spatially within crop production fields, may be used to define sampling zones to assess lime requirement, or for modeling changes in soil pH when acid forming fertilizers or manures are added to a field. Our objective was to develop a procedure to map this soil property. One hundred thirty six soil samples (0 to 15 cm depth) from three Georgia Coastal Plain fields were titrated with calcium hydroxide to characterize differences in pH buffering capacity of the soils. Since the relationship between soil pH and added calcium hydroxide was approximately linear for all samples up to pH 6.5, the slope values of these linear relationships for all soils were regressed on the organic C and clay contents of the 136 soil samples using multiple linear regression. The equation that fit the data best was b (slope of pH vs. lime added) = 0.00029 - 0.00003 * % clay + 0.00135 * % O/C, r(exp 2) = 0.68. This equation was applied within geographic information system (GIS) software to create maps of soil pH buffering capacity for the three fields. When the mapped values of the pH buffering capacity were compared with measured values for a total of 18 locations in the three fields, there was good general agreement. A regression of directly measured pH buffering capacities on mapped pH buffering capacities at the field locations for these samples gave an r(exp 2) of 0.88 with a slope of 1.04 for a group of soils that varied approximately tenfold in their pH buffering capacities.

  6. Effect of acid rain on the growth and nutrient content of two species of hardwood tree seedlings, and on the pH, microflora and nutrient content of the soil

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of two hardwood tree species and three soils to simulated acid rain. The value of infecting tree seedlings with mycorrhizal fungi before transplanting into acid-leached soils was also examined. Dundas silt loam, Hayden loam and Luther loam supporting coleus and sorghum were leached three times each week for 20 weeks with a mixture of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and HNO/sub 3/ adjusted by dilution to pH 5.5, 4.0 or 2.5 Ninety seedlings each of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) were transplanted into the soils and were misted twice weekly with the acid solutions. Ash seedlings misted with the pH 2.5 solution were shorter, had a smaller total leaf area and produced less leaf and stem material than ash seedlings misted wth pH 5.5 solution. In contrast, the growth and weight of the maple seedlings increased in response to the pH 2.5 treatments. Leaves of the ash exposed to the pH 2.5 treatment were covered with numerous small lesions, and the cuticular wax was partially worn away. Nitrogen concentrations in the leaves, stems and roots of both species increased with increasing acidity, while phosphorus concentration in the leaves decreased. Soils became increasingly acidic as the acid treatments continued.

  7. Acid loading test (pH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  8. Observation of pH Value in Electrokinetic Remediation using various electrolyte (MgSO4, KH2PO4 and Na(NO3)) for Barren Acidic Soil at Ayer Hitam, Johor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norashira, J.; Zaidi, E.; Aziman, M.; Saiful Azhar, A. T.

    2016-07-01

    Barren acidic soil collected at Ayer Hitam, Johor Malaysia was recorded at pH value of 2.36 with relative humidity of 86%. This pH value is not suitable for the growth of any plants especially for the soil stabilization purposes. Gradation weathering within the range of 4 to 6 indicates an incomplete/partial weathering process. The soil grade in this range is known as a black shale mudstone. Beside, this also influences to a factor of the high surface water runoff at this particular soil species. As the acidic pH become a major problem for soil fertilizing hence an appropriate technique was implemented known as using ‘Electrokinetic Remediation’, EKR. This technique has a great potential in changing the soil pH value from acidic to less acidic and also kept maintain the pH at the saturated rate of electrochemical process. This research study presents the monitoring data of pH value due to the effect of various electrolyte consist of 0.5M of MgSO4, KH2PO4, and Na(NO3). Here, the distilled water (DW) was used as reference solution. The electric field was provided by dipping two pieces of identical rectangular aluminum foil as anode and cathode. The EKR was conducted under a constant voltage gradient of 50 V/m across the sample bulk at 0.14 m length measured between both electrodes. The data collection was conducted during the total period of 7 days surveillance. The variation of pH values at the remediation area between anode and cathode for various type of electrolyte indicates that there are a significant saturated value as it reaches 7 days of treatment. During the analysis, it is found that the highest pH value at the remediation area after 7 days treatment using Na(NO3), KH2PO4 and MgSO4 was 3.93, 3.33 and 3.39 respectively. Hence from the last stage of pH value observation, it can be conclude that the best electrolyte for barren soil treatment is Na(NO3) whereby it contribute to highest pH value and turn the soil to be less acidic.

  9. Biochar contribution to soil pH buffer capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonutare, Tonu; Krebstein, Kadri; Utso, Maarius; Rodima, Ako; Kolli, Raimo; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2014-05-01

    Biochar as ecologically clean and stable form of carbon has complex of physical and chemical properties which make it a potentially powerful soil amendment (Mutezo, 2013). Therefore during the last decade the biochar application as soil amendment has been a matter for a great number of investigations. For the ecological viewpoint the trend of decreasing of soil organic matter in European agricultural land is a major problem. Society is faced with the task to find possibilities to stabilize or increase soil organic matter content in soil and quality. The availability of different functional groups (e.g. carboxylic, phenolic, acidic, alcoholic, amine, amide) allows soil organic matter to buffer over a wide range of soil pH values (Krull et al. 2004). Therefore the loss of soil organic matter also reduces cation exchange capacity resulting in lower nutrient retention (Kimetu et al. 2008). Biochar can retain elements in soil directly through the negative charge that develops on its surfaces, and this negative charge can buffer acidity in the soil. There are lack of investigations about the effect of biochar to soil pH buffering properties, The aim of our investigation was to investigate the changes in soil pH buffer capacity in a result of addition of carbonizated material to temperate region soils. In the experiment different kind of softwood biochars, activated carbon and different soil types with various organic matter and pH were used. The study soils were Albeluvisols, Leptosols, Cambisols, Regosols and Histosols . In the experiment the series of the soil: biochar mixtures with the biochar content 0 to 100% were used. The times of equiliberation between solid and liquid phase were from 1 to 168 hours. The suspension of soil: biochar mixtures was titrated with HCl solution. The titration curves were established and pH buffer capacities were calculated for the pH interval from 3.0 to 10.0. The results demonstrate the dependence of pH buffer capacity from soil type

  10. [Spatiotemporal variation of soil pH in Guangdong Province of China in past 30 years].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhi-Xing; Wang, Jing; Chai, Min; Chen, Ze-Peng; Zhan, Zhen-Shou; Zheng, Wu-Ping; Wei, Xiu-Guo

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1980s' soil inventory data and the 2002-2007 soil pH data of Guangdong Province, the spatiotemporal variation of soil pH in the Province in past 30 years was studied. In the study period, the spatial distribution pattern of soil pH in the Province had less change (mainly acidic), except that in Pearl River Delta and parts of Qingyuan and Shaoguan (weak alkaline). The overall variation of soil pH was represented as acidification, with the average pH value changed from 5.70 to 5.44. Among the soil types in the Province, alluvial soil had an increased pH, lateritic red soil, paddy soil, and red soil had a large decrement of pH value, and lime soil was most obvious in the decrease of pH value and its area percentage. The soil acidification was mainly induced by soil characteristics, some natural factors such as acid rain, and human factors such as unreasonable fertilization and urbanization. In addition, industrialization and mining increased the soil pH in some areas.

  11. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  12. Designer, acidic biochar influences calcareous soil characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An acidic (pH 5.8) biochar was created using a low pyrolysis temperature (350 degrees celsius) and steam activation to potentially improve the soil physicochemical status of an eroded calcareous soil. Biochar was added at 0, 1, 2, and 10 percent (by weight) to an eroded Portneuf soil (coarse-silty,...

  13. Cell culturability of Pseudomonas protegens CHA0 depends on soil pH.

    PubMed

    Mascher, Fabio; Hase, Carsten; Bouffaud, Marie-Lara; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2014-02-01

    Pseudomonas inoculants may lose colony-forming ability in soil, but soil properties involved are poorly documented. Here, we tested the hypothesis that soil acidity could reduce persistence and cell culturability of Pseudomonas protegens CHA0. At 1 week in vitro, strain CHA0 was found as culturable cells at pH 7, whereas most cells at pH 4 and all cells at pH 3 were noncultured. In 21 natural soils of contrasted pH, cell culturability loss of P. protegens CHA0 took place in all six very acidic soils (pH < 5.0) and in three of five acidic soils (5.0 < pH < 6.5), whereas it was negligible in the neutral and alkaline soils at 2 weeks and 2 months. No correlation was found between total cell counts of P. protegens CHA0 and soil composition data, whereas colony counts of the strain correlated with soil pH. Maintenance of cell culturability in soils coincided with a reduction in inoculant cell size. Some of the noncultured CHA0 cells were nutrient responsive in Kogure's viability test, both in vitro and in soil. Thus, this shows for the first time that the sole intrinsic soil composition factor triggering cell culturability loss in P. protegens CHA0 is soil acidity.

  14. Survival of Rhizobium in Acid Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lowendorf, Henry S.; Baya, Ana Maria; Alexander, Martin

    1981-01-01

    A Rhizobium strain nodulating cowpeas did not decline in abundance after it was added to sterile soils at pH 6.9 and 4.4, and the numbers fell slowly in nonsterile soils at pH 5.5 and 4.1. A strain of R. phaseoli grew when added to sterile soils at pH 6.7 and 6.9; it maintained large, stable populations in soils of pH 4.4, 5.5, and 6.0, but the numbers fell markedly and then reached a stable population size in sterile soils at pH 4.3 and 4.4. The abundance of R. phaseoli added to nonsterile soils with pH values of 4.3 to 6.7 decreased similarly with time regardless of soil acidity, and the final numbers were less than in the comparable sterile soils. The minimum pH values for the growth of strains of R. meliloti in liquid media ranged from 5.3 to 5.9. Two R. meliloti strains, which differed in acid tolerance for growth in culture, did not differ in numbers or decline when added to sterile soils at pH 4.8, 5.2, and 6.3. The population size of these two strains was reduced after they were introduced into nonsterile soils at pH 4.8, 5.4, and 6.4, and the number of survivors was related to the soil pH. The R. meliloti strain that was more acid sensitive in culture declined more readily in sterile soil at pH 4.6 than did the less sensitive strain, and only the former strain was eliminated from nonsterile soil at pH 4.8; however, the less sensitive strain also survived better in limed soil. The cell density of the two R. meliloti strains was increased in pH 6.4 soil in the presence of growing alfalfa. The decline and elimination of the tolerant, but not the sensitive, strain was delayed in soil at pH 4.6 by roots of growing alfalfa. PMID:16345909

  15. pH as a Driver for Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Forest Soils.

    PubMed

    Stempfhuber, Barbara; Engel, Marion; Fischer, Doreen; Neskovic-Prit, Ganna; Wubet, Tesfaye; Schöning, Ingo; Gubry-Rangin, Cécile; Kublik, Susanne; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Rattei, Thomas; Welzl, Gerhard; Nicol, Graeme W; Schrumpf, Marion; Buscot, Francois; Prosser, James I; Schloter, Michael

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of soil pH on the diversity and abundance of archaeal ammonia oxidizers in 27 different forest soils across Germany. DNA was extracted from topsoil samples, the amoA gene, encoding ammonia monooxygenase, was amplified; and the amplicons were sequenced using a 454-based pyrosequencing approach. As expected, the ratio of archaeal (AOA) to bacterial (AOB) ammonia oxidizers' amoA genes increased sharply with decreasing soil pH. The diversity of AOA differed significantly between sites with ultra-acidic soil pH (<3.5) and sites with higher pH values. The major OTUs from soil samples with low pH could be detected at each site with a soil pH <3.5 but not at sites with pH >4.5, regardless of geographic position and vegetation. These OTUs could be related to the Nitrosotalea group 1.1 and the Nitrososphaera subcluster 7.2, respectively, and showed significant similarities to OTUs described from other acidic environments. Conversely, none of the major OTUs typical of sites with a soil pH >4.6 could be found in the ultra- and extreme acidic soils. Based on a comparison with the amoA gene sequence data from a previous study performed on agricultural soils, we could clearly show that the development of AOA communities in soils with ultra-acidic pH (<3.5) is mainly triggered by soil pH and is not influenced significantly by the type of land use, the soil type, or the geographic position of the site, which was observed for sites with acido-neutral soil pH.

  16. Influence of soil pH on properties of the soil-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Doerte

    2010-05-01

    Surface characteristics of soils are one of the main factors controlling processes at the soil-water interface like wetting, sorption or dissolution processes and, thereby, have a high impact on natural soil functions like habitat, filter, buffer, storage and transformation functions. Since surface characteristics, like wettability or repellency, are not static soil properties but continuously changing, the relevant processes and mechanisms are in the focus of the presented study. These mechanisms help to gain further insight into the behaviour of soil and its dynamics under changing environmental conditions. The influence of water content, relative air humidity and drying temperature on soil water repellency has been investigated in many studies. In contrast, few studies have systematically investigated the relationship between soil water repellency (SWR) and soil pH. Several studies found alkaline soils to be less prone to SWR compared to acidic soils (e.g., Cerdà, and Doerr 2007; Mataix-Solera et al. 2007). Furthermore, SWR has been successfully reduced in acidic soils by increasing soil pH via liming (e.g., Karnok et al. 1993; Roper 2005). However, SWR has also been reported in calcareous soils in the Netherlands (Dekker and Jungerius 1990), California, USA (Holzhey 1968) and Spain (Mataix-Solera and Doerr 2004). The hypothesis that the pH may control repellency via changes in the variable surface charge of soil material has not yet been tested. Previously it has been shown that it is necessary to eliminate the direct influence of changes in soil moisture content so that the unique relationship between pH and SWR can be isolated (Bayer and Schaumann 2007). A method has been developed which allows adjustment of the pH of soils with low moisture content via the gas phase with minimal change in moisture content. The method was applied to 14 soil samples from Germany, Netherlands, the UK and Australia, using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) as the indicator

  17. Teaching Plant-Soil Relationships with Color Images of Rhizosphere pH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckman, J. R.; Strick, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise that uses a simple imaging technique to illustrate the profound effects that living roots exert on the pH of the surrounding soil environment. Achieves visually stimulating results that can be used to reinforce lectures on rhizosphere pH, nutrient availability, plant tolerance of soil acidity, microbial activity, and…

  18. Water balance creates a threshold in soil pH at the global scale.

    PubMed

    Slessarev, E W; Lin, Y; Bingham, N L; Johnson, J E; Dai, Y; Schimel, J P; Chadwick, O A

    2016-11-21

    Soil pH regulates the capacity of soils to store and supply nutrients, and thus contributes substantially to controlling productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. However, soil pH is not an independent regulator of soil fertility-rather, it is ultimately controlled by environmental forcing. In particular, small changes in water balance cause a steep transition from alkaline to acid soils across natural climate gradients. Although the processes governing this threshold in soil pH are well understood, the threshold has not been quantified at the global scale, where the influence of climate may be confounded by the effects of topography and mineralogy. Here we evaluate the global relationship between water balance and soil pH by extracting a spatially random sample (n = 20,000) from an extensive compilation of 60,291 soil pH measurements. We show that there is an abrupt transition from alkaline to acid soil pH that occurs at the point where mean annual precipitation begins to exceed mean annual potential evapotranspiration. We evaluate deviations from this global pattern, showing that they may result from seasonality, climate history, erosion and mineralogy. These results demonstrate that climate creates a nonlinear pattern in soil solution chemistry at the global scale; they also reveal conditions under which soils maintain pH out of equilibrium with modern climate.

  19. Water balance creates a threshold in soil pH at the global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slessarev, E. W.; Lin, Y.; Bingham, N. L.; Johnson, J. E.; Dai, Y.; Schimel, J. P.; Chadwick, O. A.

    2016-12-01

    Soil pH regulates the capacity of soils to store and supply nutrients, and thus contributes substantially to controlling productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. However, soil pH is not an independent regulator of soil fertility—rather, it is ultimately controlled by environmental forcing. In particular, small changes in water balance cause a steep transition from alkaline to acid soils across natural climate gradients. Although the processes governing this threshold in soil pH are well understood, the threshold has not been quantified at the global scale, where the influence of climate may be confounded by the effects of topography and mineralogy. Here we evaluate the global relationship between water balance and soil pH by extracting a spatially random sample (n = 20,000) from an extensive compilation of 60,291 soil pH measurements. We show that there is an abrupt transition from alkaline to acid soil pH that occurs at the point where mean annual precipitation begins to exceed mean annual potential evapotranspiration. We evaluate deviations from this global pattern, showing that they may result from seasonality, climate history, erosion and mineralogy. These results demonstrate that climate creates a nonlinear pattern in soil solution chemistry at the global scale; they also reveal conditions under which soils maintain pH out of equilibrium with modern climate.

  20. Influences of soil acidity on Streptomyces populations inhabiting forest soils.

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, C

    1976-01-01

    The Streptomyces populations inhabiting five acidic forest soils were examined. It was found that lowering the pH of a medium selective for streptomycetes (starch-casein agar) to the pH of the particular soil horizon being plated influenced both the total numbers and types of streptomycetes that were isolated from the soils examined in this study. On the acidified medium both the numbers of streptomycetes and the percentage of total bacteria on the plates represented by streptomycetes increased (as compared with the same medium with a pH of 7.2). These differences were greatest on the isolations from the most acid soils. The largest concentrations of streptomycetes were found in the surface horizon (0 to 15 cm) and the litter layer immediately over the surface mineral horizon. Acidity tolerance tests demonstrated that random samplings of isolates contained acidophilic, neutrophilic, and acidoduric strains, with the largest numbers of acidophiles being found on the acidified media from the most acid soils. There were no differences between overall utilization of selected carbohydrates among the isolates taken from either the neutral or acidic media, although a larger proportion of the acid media isolates produced acid from the carbohydrates. Evidence is presented which indicates that different types of streptomycetes were isolated on the acid media, and possible reasons for the presence of these acid-tolerant populations are discussed. PMID:10835

  1. pH dominates variation in tropical soil archaeal diversity and community structure.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Binu M; Kim, Mincheol; Lai-Hoe, Ang; Shukor, Nor A A; Rahim, Raha A; Go, Rusea; Adams, Jonathan M

    2013-11-01

    Little is known of the factors influencing soil archaeal community diversity and composition in the tropics. We sampled soils across a range of forest and nonforest environments in the equatorial tropics of Malaysia, covering a wide range of pH values. DNA was PCR-amplified for the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and 454-pyrosequenced. Soil pH was the best predictor of diversity and community composition of Archaea, being a stronger predictor than land use. Archaeal OTU richness was highest in the most acidic soils. Overall archaeal abundance in tropical soils (determined by qPCR) also decreased at higher pH. This contrasts with the opposite trend previously found in temperate soils. Thaumarcheota group 1.1b was more abundant in alkaline soils, whereas group 1.1c was only detected in acidic soils. These results parallel those found in previous studies in cooler climates, emphasizing niche conservatism among broad archaeal groups. Among the most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs), there was clear evidence of niche partitioning by pH. No individual OTU occurred across the entire range of pH values. Overall, the results of this study show that pH plays a major role in structuring tropical soil archaeal communities.

  2. Community structure and soil pH determine chemoautotrophic carbon dioxide fixation in drained paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Long, Xi-En; Yao, Huaiying; Wang, Juan; Huang, Ying; Singh, Brajesh K; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-06-16

    Previous studies suggested that microbial photosynthesis plays a potential role in paddy fields, but little is known about chemoautotrophic carbon fixers in drained paddy soils. We conducted a microcosm study using soil samples from five paddy fields to determine the environmental factors and quantify key functional microbial taxa involved in chemoautotrophic carbon fixation. We used stable isotope probing in combination with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and molecular approaches. The amount of microbial (13)CO2 fixation was determined by quantification of (13)C-enriched fatty acid methyl esters and ranged from 21.28 to 72.48 ng of (13)C (g of dry soil)(-1), and the corresponding ratio (labeled PLFA-C:total PLFA-C) ranged from 0.06 to 0.49%. The amount of incorporationof (13)CO2 into PLFAs significantly increased with soil pH except at pH 7.8. PLFA and high-throughput sequencing results indicated a dominant role of Gram-negative bacteria or proteobacteria in (13)CO2 fixation. Correlation analysis indicated a significant association between microbial community structure and carbon fixation. We provide direct evidence of chemoautotrophic C fixation in soils with statistical evidence of microbial community structure regulation of inorganic carbon fixation in the paddy soil ecosystem.

  3. The influence of soil pH on the diversity, abundance and transcriptional activity of ammonia oxidizing archaea and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Graeme W; Leininger, Sven; Schleper, Christa; Prosser, James I

    2008-11-01

    Autotrophic ammonia oxidation occurs in acid soils, even though laboratory cultures of isolated ammonia oxidizing bacteria fail to grow below neutral pH. To investigate whether archaea possessing ammonia monooxygenase genes were responsible for autotrophic nitrification in acid soils, the community structure and phylogeny of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea were determined across a soil pH gradient (4.9-7.5) by amplifying 16S rRNA and amoA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequence analysis. The structure of both communities changed with soil pH, with distinct populations in acid and neutral soils. Phylogenetic reconstructions of crenarchaeal 16S rRNA and amoA genes confirmed selection of distinct lineages within the pH gradient and high similarity in phylogenies indicated a high level of congruence between 16S rRNA and amoA genes. The abundance of archaeal and bacterial amoA gene copies and mRNA transcripts contrasted across the pH gradient. Archaeal amoA gene and transcript abundance decreased with increasing soil pH, while bacterial amoA gene abundance was generally lower and transcripts increased with increasing pH. Short-term activity was investigated by DGGE analysis of gene transcripts in microcosms containing acidic or neutral soil or mixed soil with pH readjusted to that of native soils. Although mixed soil microcosms contained identical archaeal ammonia oxidizer communities, those adapted to acidic or neutral pH ranges showed greater relative activity at their native soil pH. Findings indicate that different bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizer phylotypes are selected in soils of different pH and that these differences in community structure and abundances are reflected in different contributions to ammonia oxidizer activity. They also suggest that both groups of ammonia oxidizers have distinct physiological characteristics and ecological niches, with consequences for nitrification in acid soils.

  4. Soil pH regulates the abundance and diversity of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota.

    PubMed

    Lehtovirta, Laura E; Prosser, James I; Nicol, Graeme W

    2009-12-01

    Archaeal communities in many acidic forest soil systems are dominated by a distinct crenarchaeal lineage Group 1.1c. In addition, they are found consistently in other acidic soils including grassland pasture, moorland and alpine soils. To determine whether soil pH is a major factor in determining their presence and abundance, Group 1.1c community size and composition were investigated across a pH gradient from 4.5 to 7.5 that has been maintained for > 40 years. The abundances of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota, total Crenarchaeota and total bacteria were assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes and the diversity of Group 1.1c crenarchaeal community was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phylogenetic analysis. The abundance of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota declined as the pH increased, whereas total Crenarchaeota and Bacteria showed no clear trend. Community diversity of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota was also influenced with different DGGE bands dominating at different pH. Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota were also quantified in 13 other soils representing a range of habitats, soil types and pH. These results exhibited the same trend as that shown across the pH gradient with Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota representing a greater proportion of total Crenarchaeota in the most acidic soils.

  5. Long-term changes in soil pH across major forest ecosystems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuanhe; Li, Pin; He, Honglin; Zhao, Xia; Datta, Arindam; Ma, Wenhong; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Xuejun; Han, Wenxuan; Wilson, Maxwell C.; Fang, Jingyun

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric acidic deposition has been a major environmental problem since the industrial revolution. However, our understanding of the effect of acidic deposition on soil pH is inconclusive. Here we examined temporal variations in topsoil pH and their relationships with atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition across China's forests from the 1980s to the 2000s. To accomplish this goal, we conducted artificial neural network simulations using historical soil inventory data from the 1980s and a data set synthesized from literature published after 2000. Our results indicated that significant decreases in soil pH occurred in broadleaved forests, while minor changes were observed in coniferous and mixed coniferous and broadleaved forests. The magnitude of soil pH change was negatively correlated with atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition. This relationship highlights the need for stringent measures that reduce sulfur and nitrogen emissions so as to maintain ecosystem structure and function.

  6. Effect of soil pH on as hyperaccumulation capacity in fern species, Pityrogramma calomelanos.

    PubMed

    Anh, B T Kim; Kim, D D; Kuschk, P; Tua, T V; Hue, N T; Minh, N N

    2013-03-01

    Arsenic uptake by hyperaccumulator plant species depends on many different environmental factors. Soil pH is one of the most important factors due to its combined effect on both chemical and biological processes. In greenhouse experiment, the effect of pH (within the pH range 3.6 - 8.9) on As uptake as well as biomass of Pityrogramma calomelanos was evaluated. The plants were grown in mining soil containing 645.6 mg As kg(-1) for 14 weeks. Within this time, the plant biomass growth was 3.78 - 8.64 g d. wt. per plant and the removal amounted 6.3-18.4 mg As per plant. Translocation factor (ratio of As in fronds to roots) of the fern was 3.6 - 9.7, indicating its potential in phytoremediation of As contaminated soil. Influence of pH on As bioavailability was visible as the available As concentration was higher in acidic soil compared to alkaline soil. Furthermore, it was found that As accumulation by Pityrogramma calomelanos was optimum in the soil of pH 3.6. Nevertheless, the results of this study demonstrate that remediation of As-contaminated mining soils, by this fern, can be improved by changing the soil pH from 4.6 to 6.8.

  7. Acid soil and acid rain, 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, I.R.

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the basic chemical processes involved in acidification in order to better assess their long-term effects on the status of soils, the health of plants and other living species that depend on them. It also discusses acidity, pH and protons their significance in bioenergetics and the consequent role of autotrophic organisms in acidifying ecosystems. This edition incorporates and integrates recent findings that render more explanations of the causes of the environmental impacts of acidity, especially in forests and lakes. Also explores current research into acid rain and soil in order to devise appropriate measures for their amelioration.

  8. Reduced carbon sequestration potential of biochar in acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yaqi; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-12-01

    Biochar application in soil has been proposed as a promising method for carbon sequestration. While factors affecting its carbon sequestration potential have been widely investigated, the number of studies on the effect of soil pH is limited. To investigate the carbon sequestration potential of biochar across a series of soil pH levels, the total carbon emission, CO2 release from inorganic carbon, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) of six soils with various pH levels were compared after the addition of straw biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperatures. The results show that the acidic soils released more CO2 (1.5-3.5 times higher than the control) after the application of biochar compared with neutral and alkaline soils. The degradation of both native soil organic carbon (SOC) and biochar were accelerated. More inorganic CO2 release in acidic soil contributed to the increased degradation of biochar. Higher proportion of gram-positive bacteria in acidic soil (25%-36%) was responsible for the enhanced biochar degradation and simultaneously co-metabolism of SOC. In addition, lower substrate limitation for bacteria, indicated by higher C-O stretching after the biochar application in the acidic soil, also caused more CO2 release. In addition to the soil pH, other factors such as clay contents and experimental duration also affected the phsico-chemical and biotic processes of SOC dynamics. Gram-negative/gram-positive bacteria ratio was found to be negatively related to priming effects, and suggested to serve as an indicator for priming effect. In general, the carbon sequestration potential of rice-straw biochar in soil reduced along with the decrease of soil pH especially in a short-term. Given wide spread of acidic soils in China, carbon sequestration potential of biochar may be overestimated without taking into account the impact of soil pH.

  9. Influence of soil pH on the sorption of ionizable chemicals: modeling advances.

    PubMed

    Franco, Antonio; Fu, Wenjing; Trapp, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    The soil-water distribution coefficient of ionizable chemicals (K(d)) depends on the soil acidity, mainly because the pH governs speciation. Using pH-specific K(d) values normalized to organic carbon (K(OC)) from the literature, a method was developed to estimate the K(OC) of monovalent organic acids and bases. The regression considers pH-dependent speciation and species-specific partition coefficients, calculated from the dissociation constant (pK(a)) and the octanol-water partition coefficient of the neutral molecule (log P(n)). Probably because of the lower pH near the organic colloid-water interface, the optimal pH to model dissociation was lower than the bulk soil pH. The knowledge of the soil pH allows calculation of the fractions of neutral and ionic molecules in the system, thus improving the existing regression for acids. The same approach was not successful with bases, for which the impact of pH on the total sorption is contrasting. In fact, the shortcomings of the model assumptions affect the predictive power for acids and for bases differently. We evaluated accuracy and limitations of the regressions for their use in the environmental fate assessment of ionizable chemicals.

  10. [Soil pH buffer capacity of tea garden with different planting years].

    PubMed

    Su, You-Jian; Wang, Ye-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Li; Luo, Yi; Sun, Li; Song, Li; Liao, Wan-You

    2014-10-01

    In order to investigate the effects of long-term tea planting on soil pH buffer capacity (pHBC), the variation of pHBC and its influence factors were investigated in tea gardens of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 years in Langxi and Qimen of Anhui Province. The results showed that the acid-base titration method was suitable for the determination of soil pHBC of tea gardens. The amount of acid-base added had approximate linear relationship with soil pH value in specific section (pH 4.0-6.0) of acid-base titration curves, so the soil pHBC could be calculated by linear regression equation. Soil pHBC in the tea gardens from the two regions showed a downward trend with increasing the planting years, which decreased at rates of 0.10 and 0.06 mmol · kg(-1) · a(-1) in Langxi and Qimen tea gardens, respectively. Soil pHBC had significant positive correlation with CEC, soil organic matter, base saturation and physical clay content, and significant negative correlation with exchangeable acid and exchange H+.

  11. Effect of fertilizers on faba bean (V. faba) growth and soil pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, C.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to see the effect of fertilizers on faba bean (V. faba) growth and soil pH. This experiment is important because of the agriculture here in California and the damage fertilizers are doing to the soil. Three Broad Fava Windsor beans (Vicia faba) were planted per pot, with at least three pots per treatment. There were four treatments: soil with phosphorus (P) fertilizer, soil with nitrogen (N) fertilizer, soil with both N and P fertilizer, and soil without any fertilizers (control). The soil pH was 7.7, and it had 26.6mg/kg Olsen-P, 2.2mg/kg ammonium-N and no nitrate-N (Data from UCD Horwath Lab). All pots were put in a greenhouse with a stable temperature of 80 degrees. I watered them 2-3 times a week. After two months I measured the soil pH using a calibrated pHep HI 98107 pocket-sized pH meter. After letting the plants dry I weighed the shoots and roots separately for dry biomass. From testing pH of the soil of the faba bean plants with and without fertilizer I found that only the nitrogen fertilizer made the soil more acidic than the other ones. The other ones became more basic. Also the N-fertilized plants weighed more than the other ones. This shows how the nitrogen fertilizer had a greater impact on the plants. I think the reason why the nitrogen and the phosphorus fertilizers didn't work as well is because there was an interaction between the fertilizers and the nitrogen one made the soil more acidic because of the way nitrogen is made.

  12. Soil pH effect on phosphate induced cadmium precipitation in Arable soil.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang Oh; Owens, Vance N; Kim, Yong Gyun; Lee, Sang Mong; Park, Hyean Cheal; Kim, Keun Ki; Son, Hong Joo; Suh, Jeong Min; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine soil pH conditions that allow cadmium (Cd) to precipitate as Cd minerals in phosphate (P) amended soil. Cadmium immobilization could be attributed primarily to Cd adsorption due to increase in pH and negative charge. Soil pH might not affect Cd precipitation as Cd3(PO4)2 by direct reaction of Cd and P in the studied soil, even when soil pH increased up to 9.0. However, Cd might precipitate as CdCO3 with increasing pH up to 9.0 in P untreated soil and up to 8.0 in P treated soil depending on CO2 level.

  13. Designer, acidic biochar influences calcareous soil characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, J A; Ducey, T F; Cantrell, K B; Novak, J M; Lentz, R D

    2016-01-01

    In a proof-of-concept study, an acidic (pH 5.8) biochar was created using a low pyrolysis temperature (350 °C) and steam activation (800 °C) to potentially improve the soil physicochemical status of an eroded calcareous soil. Biochar was added at 0%, 1%, 2%, and 10% (by wt.) and soils were destructively sampled at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 month intervals. Soil was analyzed for gravimetric water content, pH, NO3-N, plant-available Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, and P, organic C, CO2 respiration, and microbial enumeration via extractable DNA and 16S rRNA gene copies. Gravimetric soil water content increased with biochar application regardless of rate, as compared to the control. Soil pH decreased between 0.2 and 0.4 units, while plant-available Zn, Mn, and P increased with increasing biochar application rate. Micronutrient availability decreased over time likely due to insoluble mineral species precipitation. Increasing biochar application raised the soil organic C content and remained elevated over time. Increasing biochar application rate also increased respired CO2, yet the CO2 released decreased over time. Soil NO3-N concentrations significantly decreased with increasing biochar application rate likely due to microbial immobilization or denitrification. Depending on application rate, biochar produced a 1.4 to 2.1-fold increase in soil DNA extracted and 1.4- to 2.4-fold increase in 16S rRNA gene abundance over control soils, suggesting microbial stimulation and a subsequent burst of activity upon biochar addition. Our results showed that there is promise in designing a biochar to improve the quality and water relations of eroded calcareous soils.

  14. Denitrification at pH 4 by a soil-derived Rhodanobacter-dominated community.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, R N; van der Biezen, E; Jetten, M S M; Hefting, M M; Kartal, B

    2010-12-01

    Soil denitrification is a major source of nitrous oxide emission that causes ozone depletion and global warming. Low soil pH influences the relative amount of N₂O produced and consumed by denitrification. Furthermore, denitrification is strongly inhibited in pure cultures of denitrifying microorganisms below pH 5. Soils, however, have been shown to denitrify at pH values as low as pH 3. Here we used a continuous bioreactor to investigate the possibility of significant denitrification at low pH under controlled conditions with soil microorganisms and naturally available electron donors. Significant NO₃⁻ and N₂O reduction were observed for 3 months without the addition of any external electron donor. Batch incubations with the enriched biomass showed that low pH as well as low electron donor availability promoted the relative abundance of N₂O as denitrification end-product. Molecular analysis of the enriched biomass revealed that a Rhodanobacter-like bacterium dominated the community in 16S rRNA gene libraries as well as in FISH microscopy during the highest denitrification activity in the reactor. We conclude that denitrification at pH 4 with natural electron donors is possible and that a Rhodanobacter species may be one of the microorganisms involved in acidic denitrification in soils.

  15. [Effect of different N, P and K fertilizers on soil pH and available Cd under waterlogged conditions].

    PubMed

    Jia, Ka-La-Tie; Yu, Hua; Feng, Wen-Qiang; Qin, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Jing; Liao, Ming-Lan; Wang, Chang-Quan; Tu, Shi-Hua

    2009-11-01

    In order to tackle the problem of Cd pollution in paddy soils and investigate soil available Cd as affected by different fertilizers, incubation experiments were carried out to study the effects of different N, P and K fertilizers and pH by adding acid or base on soil available Cd under waterlogged conditions. Results revealed that soil pH increased sharply after the soil was flooded, especially at the beginning of incubation, and gradually decreased with incubation time and finally tended to approach the neutral values. The patterns of soil pH change were just opposite to those of soil available Cd, a negative correlation observed between the two. Soil flooding made the soil available Cd drop by 58.2%-84.1%. There were significant differences between different fertilizer types/varieties on soil available Cd, being most complex with N fertilizers and followed by K and P fertilizers. Among the fertilizers studied, ammonium chloride showed the unique ability in reducing soil pH and enhancing soil available Cd, and urea, single super phosphate and potassium chloride also promoted to a less extent amounts of Cd extracted from the soil. Ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate and mono-ammonium phosphate significantly decreased soil available Cd compared to the CK treatment. Whether or not the soil was flooded, soil available Cd was highly negatively correlated with soil pH after adding acid or base (R = - 0.994 without incubation and R = - 0.919 after incubation for 60 d). The results further suggest that in the Cd polluted paddy soil, use of ammonium chloride should be avoided, S bearing fertilizers in combination with alkaline materials can be adopted, and the rice field should be flooded all the time during growing season, all the these practices can effectively lower soil available Cd.

  16. [Effects of simulated acid rain on decomposition of soil organic carbon and crop straw].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue-Zhu; Huang, Yao; Yang, Xin-Zhong

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of acid rain on the organic carbon decomposition in different acidity soils, a 40-day incubation test was conducted with the paddy soils of pH 5.48, 6.70 and 8.18. The soils were amended with 0 and 15 g x kg(-1) of rice straw, adjusted to the moisture content of 400 g x kg(-1) air-dried soil by using simulated rain of pH 6.0, 4.5, and 3.0, and incubated at 20 degrees C. The results showed that straw, acid rain, and soil co-affected the CO2 emission from soil system. The amendment of straw increased the soil CO2 emission rate significantly. Acid rain had no significant effects on soil organic carbon decomposition, but significantly affected the straw decomposition in soil. When treated with pH 3.0 acid rain, the amount of decomposed straw over 40-day incubation in acid (pH 5.48) and alkaline (pH 8.18) soils was 8% higher, while that in neutral soil (pH 6.70) was 15% lower, compared to the treatment of pH 6.0 rain. In the treatment of pH 3.0 acid rain, the decomposition rate of soil organic C in acid (pH 5.48) soil was 43% and 50% (P < 0.05) higher than that in neutral (pH 6.70) and alkaline (pH 8.18) soils, while the decomposition rate of straw in neutral soil was 17% and 16% (P < 0.05) lower than that in acid and alkaline soils, respectively.

  17. Effects of soil pH on the Vicia-micronucleus genotoxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Dhyèvre, Adrien; Foltête, Anne Sophie; Aran, Delphine; Muller, Serge; Cotelle, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    In the field of contaminated sites and soil management, chemical analyses only bring typological data about pollution. As far as bioavailability and effects on organisms are concerned, we need ecotoxicology tools. In this domain, among many existing tests, we chose to study genotoxicity because it is a short-term endpoint with long-term consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of soil pH on the results of the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus test for the two following reasons: (i) to define the pH range within which the test can be performed without modifying the soil to be tested, within the framework of the ISO standard of the test and (ii) to provides information about the effects of the pH on the genotoxic potential of soils. In this context, we modified the pH of a standard soil with HCl or NaOH and we spiked the matrix with copper (2, 4 and 8 mmol kg(-1) dry soil) or with maleic hydrazide, an antigerminative chemical (5, 10 and 20 μmol kg(-1) dry soil). We concluded that the pH had no effect on the mitotic index or micronucleus frequency in the root cells of the negative controls: extreme pH values did not induce micronucleus formation in root cells. Moreover, according to our results, the Vicia-micronucleus test can be performed with pH values ranging between 3.2 and 9.0, but in the ISO 29200 "Soil quality--assessment of genotoxic effects on higher plants--V. faba micronucleus test" we recommended to use a control soil with a pH value ranging between 5 and 8 for a more accurate assessment of chemical genotoxicity. We also found that acid pH could increase the genotoxic potential of pollutants, especially heavy metals. With hydrazide maleic spiked soil, plants were placed in a situation of double stress, i.e. toxicity caused by extreme pH values and toxicity induced by the pollutant.

  18. Bacterial chitinolytic communities respond to chitin and pH alteration in soil.

    PubMed

    Kielak, Anna M; Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Semenov, Alexander V; Sørensen, Søren J; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Chitin amendment is a promising soil management strategy that may enhance the suppressiveness of soil toward plant pathogens. However, we understand very little of the effects of added chitin, including the putative successions that take place in the degradative process. We performed an experiment in moderately acid soil in which the level of chitin, next to the pH, was altered. Examination of chitinase activities revealed fast responses to the added crude chitin, with peaks of enzymatic activity occurring on day 7. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based analyses of 16S rRNA and chiA genes showed structural changes of the phylogenetically and functionally based bacterial communities following chitin addition and pH alteration. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated (i) that the diversity of chiA gene types in soil is enormous and (i) that different chiA gene types are selected by the addition of chitin at different prevailing soil pH values. Interestingly, a major role of Gram-negative bacteria versus a minor one of Actinobacteria in the immediate response to the added chitin (based on 16S rRNA gene abundance and chiA gene types) was indicated. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the response of the soil bacterial communities to chitin and are of use for both the understanding of soil suppressiveness and the possible mining of soil for novel enzymes.

  19. Amelioration of acidic soil using various renewable waste resources.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, improvement of acidic soil with respect to soil pH and exchangeable cations was attempted for sample with an initial pH of approximately 5. Acidic soil was amended with various waste resources in the range of 1 to 5 wt.% including waste oyster shells (WOS), calcined oyster shells (COS), Class C fly ash (FA), and cement kiln dust (CKD) to improve soil pH and exchangeable cations. Upon treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, a maize growth experiment was conducted with selected-treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The treatment results indicate that in order to increase the soil pH to a value of 7, 1 wt.% of WOS, 3 wt.% of FA, and 1 wt.% of CKD are required. In the case of COS, 1 wt.% was more than enough to increase the soil pH value to 7 because of COS's strong alkalinity. Moreover, the soil pH increases after a curing period of 7 days and remains virtually unchanged thereafter up to 1 month of curing. Upon treatment, the summation of cations (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) significantly increased. The growth of maize is superior in the treated samples rather than the untreated one, indicating that the amelioration of acidic soil is beneficial to plant growth, since soil pH was improved and nutrients were replenished.

  20. Contrasting pH buffering patterns in neutral-alkaline soils along a 3600 km transect in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W. T.; Nelson, P. N.; Li, M.-H.; Cai, J. P.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Zhang, Y. G.; Yang, S.; Wang, R. Z.; Wang, Z. W.; Wu, Y. N.; Han, X. G.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Soil pH buffering capacity (pHBC) plays a crucial role in predicting acidification rates, yet its large-scale patterns and controls are poorly understood, especially for neutral-alkaline soils. Here, we evaluated the spatial patterns and drivers of pHBC along a 3600 km long transect (1900 km sub-transect with carbonate-containing soils and 1700 km sub-transect with non-carbonate-containing soils) across northern China. Soil pHBC was greater in the carbonate-containing soils than in the non-carbonate-containing soils. Acid addition decreased soil pH in the non-carbonate-containing soils more markedly than in the carbonate-containing soils. Within the carbonate soil sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC), carbonate content and exchangeable sodium (Na) concentration, but negatively correlated with initial pH and clay content, and not correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Within the non-carbonate sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively related to initial pH, clay content, CEC and exchangeable Na concentration, but not related to SOC content. Carbonate content was the primary determinant of pHBC in the carbonate-containing soils and CEC was the main determinant of buffering capacity in the non-carbonate-containing soils. Along the transect, soil pHBC was different in regions with different aridity index. Soil pHBC was positively related to aridity index and carbonate content across the carbonate-containing soil sub-transect. Our results indicated that mechanisms controlling pHBC differ among neutral-alkaline soils of northern China, especially between carbonate- and non-carbonate-containing soils. This understanding should be incorporated into the acidification risk assessment and landscape management in a changing world.

  1. pH [Measure of Acidity].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Paula

    This autoinstructional program deals with the study of the pH of given substances by using litmus and hydrion papers. It is a learning activity directed toward low achievers involved in the study of biology at the secondary school level. The time suggested for the unit is 25-30 minutes (plus additional time for further pH testing). The equipment…

  2. Bioavailability of freshly added and aged naphthalene in soils under gastric pH conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Z.; Simkins, S.; Xing, B.

    1999-12-01

    The bioavailability of hydrophobic organic chemicals decreases with aging in soil because of sequestration. However, assessments of the risk of exposure to contaminated soils are usually dependent on either chemical concentrations, which are measured using vigorous extraction methods, or models that assume an equilibrium without considering the actual conditions. The objective of this research was to determine the availability and desorption kinetics of freshly added and aged naphthalene from a peat and a mineral soil; naphthalene was desorbed into solutions with pH levels that approximate those found in different gastric regions. Soil and peat samples were spiked with radiolabeled and unlabeled naphthalene at 2 and 20 {micro}g/g and were aged from 0 to 135 d. Desorption kinetics were determined using a simulated stomach solution and a neutral solution that represented the pH of intestinal conditions and most soils. Peat sorbed much more naphthalene than did soil, and it allowed little desorption. Though both acidic and neutral extracting solutions could desorb naphthalene, little apparent effect of aging was observed in peat, whereas desorption from soil declined markedly with aging. In addition, the percentage of naphthalene that desorbed from soil was greater for the higher incubation concentration. The desorption of naphthalene from the peat and soil was higher into the neutral solution than into the gastric solution. These results suggest that aging, exposure conditions, concentration effect, and organic matter content should be taken into account in predictive models and risk assessments.

  3. Contrasting pH buffering patterns in neutral-alkaline soils along a 3600 km transect in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W.; Nelson, P. N.; Li, M.-H.; Cai, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Shan, Y.; Wang, R.; Han, X.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Soil pH buffering capacity (pHBC) plays a crucial role in predicting acidification rates, yet its large-scale patterns and controls are poorly understood, especially for neutral-alkaline soils. Here, we evaluated the spatial patterns and drivers of pHBC along a 3600 km long transect (1900 km sub-transect with carbonate containing soils and 1700 km sub-transect with non-carbonate containing soils) across northern China. Soil pHBC was greater in the carbonate containing soils than in the non-carbonate containing soils. Acid addition decreased soil pH in the non-carbonate containing soils more markedly than in the carbonate containing soils. Within the carbonate soil sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC), carbonate content and exchangeable sodium (Na) concentration, but negatively correlated with initial pH and clay content, and not correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Within the non-carbonate sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively related to initial pH, clay content, CEC and exchangeable Na concentration, but not related to SOC content. Carbonate content was the primary determinant of pHBC in the carbonate containing soils and CEC was the main determinant of buffering capacity in the non-carbonate containing soils. Soil pHBC was positively related to aridity index and carbonate content across the carbonate containing soil sub-transect. Our results indicated that mechanisms controlling pHBC differ among neutral-alkaline soils of northern China, especially between carbonate and non-carbonate containing soils, leading to different rates, risks, and impacts of acidification. This understanding should be incorporated into the acidification risk assessment and landscape management in a changing world.

  4. Acidity field of soils as ion-exchange systems and the diagnostics of genetic soil horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokotov, Yu. A.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.; Aparin, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    For the comprehensive description of the acidity of a two-phase ion-exchange system, we should analyze two curves of the ionite titration by a strong base in water and salt solutions and find the quantitative relationships between the corresponding pH characteristics. An idea of the three-dimensional field of acidity of ion-exchange systems (the phase space of the soil acidity characteristics) and its three two-dimensional projections is suggested. For soils, three interrelated characteristics—the pH values of the salt and water extracts and the degree of base saturation—can serve as spatial coordinates for the acidity field. Representation of factual data in this field makes it possible to compare and analyze the acidity characteristics of different soils and soil horizons and to determine their specific features. Differentiation of the field into separate volumes allows one to present the data in a discrete form. We have studied the distribution patterns of the groups of soil horizons from Leningrad oblast and other regions of northwestern Russia in the acidity field. The studied samples are grouped in different partially overlapping areas of the projections of the acidity field. The results of this grouping attest to the correctness of the modern classification of Russian soils. A notion of the characteristic soil area in the acidity field is suggested; it can be applied to all the soils with a leaching soil water regime.

  5. Natural abiotic formation of oxalic acid in soils: results from aromatic model compounds and soil samples.

    PubMed

    Studenroth, Sabine; Huber, Stefan G; Kotte, Karsten; Schöler, Heinz F

    2013-02-05

    Oxalic acid is the smallest dicarboxylic acid and plays an important role in soil processes (e.g., mineral weathering and metal detoxification in plants). We have first proven its abiotic formation in soils and investigated natural abiotic degradation processes based on the oxidation of soil organic matter, enhanced by Fe(3+) and H(2)O(2) as hydroxyl radical suppliers. Experiments with the model compound catechol and further hydroxylated benzenes were performed to examine a common degradation pathway and to presume a general formation mechanism of oxalic acid. Two soil samples were tested for the release of oxalic acid and the potential effects of various soil parameters on oxalic acid formation. Additionally, the soil samples were treated with different soil sterilization methods to prove the oxalic acid formation under abiotic soil conditions. Different series of model experiments were conducted to determine a range of factors including Fe(3+), H(2)O(2), reaction time, pH, and chloride concentration on oxalic acid formation. Under certain conditions, catechol is degraded up to 65.6% to oxalic acid referring to carbon. In serial experiments with two soil samples, oxalic acid was produced, and the obtained results are suggestive of an abiotic degradation process. In conclusion, Fenton-like conditions with low Fe(3+) concentrations and an excess of H(2)O(2) as well as acidic conditions were required for an optimal oxalic acid formation. The presence of chloride reduced oxalic acid formation.

  6. Soil bacterial and fungal communities across a pH gradient in an arable soil.

    PubMed

    Rousk, Johannes; Bååth, Erland; Brookes, Philip C; Lauber, Christian L; Lozupone, Catherine; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2010-10-01

    Soils collected across a long-term liming experiment (pH 4.0-8.3), in which variation in factors other than pH have been minimized, were used to investigate the direct influence of pH on the abundance and composition of the two major soil microbial taxa, fungi and bacteria. We hypothesized that bacterial communities would be more strongly influenced by pH than fungal communities. To determine the relative abundance of bacteria and fungi, we used quantitative PCR (qPCR), and to analyze the composition and diversity of the bacterial and fungal communities, we used a bar-coded pyrosequencing technique. Both the relative abundance and diversity of bacteria were positively related to pH, the latter nearly doubling between pH 4 and 8. In contrast, the relative abundance of fungi was unaffected by pH and fungal diversity was only weakly related with pH. The composition of the bacterial communities was closely defined by soil pH; there was as much variability in bacterial community composition across the 180-m distance of this liming experiment as across soils collected from a wide range of biomes in North and South America, emphasizing the dominance of pH in structuring bacterial communities. The apparent direct influence of pH on bacterial community composition is probably due to the narrow pH ranges for optimal growth of bacteria. Fungal community composition was less strongly affected by pH, which is consistent with pure culture studies, demonstrating that fungi generally exhibit wider pH ranges for optimal growth.

  7. Using marble wastes as a soil amendment for acidic soil neutralization.

    PubMed

    Tozsin, Gulsen; Arol, Ali Ihsan; Oztas, Taskin; Kalkan, Ekrem

    2014-01-15

    One of the most important factors limiting plant growth is soil pH. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of marble waste applications on neutralization of soil acidity. Marble quarry waste (MQW) and marble cutting waste (MCW) were applied to an acid soil at different rates and their effectiveness on neutralization was evaluated by a laboratory incubation test. The results showed that soil pH increased from 4.71 to 6.36 and 6.84 by applications of MCW and MQW, respectively. It was suggested that MQW and MCW could be used as soil amendments for the neutralization of acid soils and thus the negative impact of marble wastes on the environment could be reduced.

  8. Mycorrhizal fungal communities respond to experimental elevation of soil pH and P availability in temperate hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R; Kluber, Laurel A; Petersen, Sheryl M; Coyle, Kaitlin P; Hewins, Charlotte R; DeForest, Jared L; Smemo, Kurt A; Burke, David J

    2016-03-01

    Many forests are affected by chronic acid deposition, which can lower soil pH and limit the availability of nutrients such as phosphorus (P), but the response of mycorrhizal fungi to changes in soil pH and P availability and how this affects tree acquisition of nutrients is not well understood. Here, we describe an ecosystem-level manipulation in 72 plots, which increased pH and/or P availability across six forests in Ohio, USA. Two years after treatment initiation, mycorrhizal fungi on roots were examined with molecular techniques, including 454-pyrosequencing. Elevating pH significantly increased arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization and total fungal biomass, and affected community structure of AM and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi, suggesting that raising soil pH altered both mycorrhizal fungal communities and fungal growth. AM fungal taxa were generally negatively correlated with recalcitrant P pools and soil enzyme activity, whereas EcM fungal taxa displayed variable responses, suggesting that these groups respond differently to P availability. Additionally, the production of extracellular phosphatase enzymes in soil decreased under elevated pH, suggesting a shift in functional activity of soil microbes with pH alteration. Thus, our findings suggest that elevating pH increased soil P availability, which may partly underlie the mycorrhizal fungal responses we observed.

  9. Mycorrhizal fungal communities respond to experimental elevation of soil pH and P availability in temperate hardwood forests

    SciTech Connect

    Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R.; Kluber, Laurel A.; Petersen, Sheryl M.; Coyle, Kaitlin P.; Hewins, Charlotte R.; DeForest, Jared L.; Smemo, Kurt A.; Burke, David J.

    2016-02-04

    Many forests are affected by chronic acid deposition, which can lower soil pH and limit the availability of nutrients such as phosphorus (P), but the response of mycorrhizal fungi to changes in soil pH and P availability and how this affects tree acquisition of nutrients is not well understood. Here, we describe an ecosystem-level manipulation in 72 plots, which increased pH and/or P availability across six forests in Ohio, USA. Two years after treatment initiation, mycorrhizal fungi on roots were examined with molecular techniques, including 454-pyrosequencing. Elevating pH significantly increased arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization and total fungal biomass, and affected community structure of AM and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi, suggesting that raising soil pH altered both mycorrhizal fungal communities and fungal growth. AM fungal taxa were generally negatively correlated with recalcitrant P pools and soil enzyme activity, whereas EcM fungal taxa displayed variable responses, suggesting that these groups respond differently to P availability. Additionally, the production of extracellular phosphatase enzymes in soil decreased under elevated pH, suggesting a shift in functional activity of soil microbes with pH alteration. Furthermore, our findings suggest that elevating pH increased soil P availability, which may partly underlie the mycorrhizal fungal responses we observed.

  10. Mycorrhizal fungal communities respond to experimental elevation of soil pH and P availability in temperate hardwood forests

    DOE PAGES

    Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R.; Kluber, Laurel A.; Petersen, Sheryl M.; ...

    2016-02-04

    Many forests are affected by chronic acid deposition, which can lower soil pH and limit the availability of nutrients such as phosphorus (P), but the response of mycorrhizal fungi to changes in soil pH and P availability and how this affects tree acquisition of nutrients is not well understood. Here, we describe an ecosystem-level manipulation in 72 plots, which increased pH and/or P availability across six forests in Ohio, USA. Two years after treatment initiation, mycorrhizal fungi on roots were examined with molecular techniques, including 454-pyrosequencing. Elevating pH significantly increased arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization and total fungal biomass, andmore » affected community structure of AM and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi, suggesting that raising soil pH altered both mycorrhizal fungal communities and fungal growth. AM fungal taxa were generally negatively correlated with recalcitrant P pools and soil enzyme activity, whereas EcM fungal taxa displayed variable responses, suggesting that these groups respond differently to P availability. Additionally, the production of extracellular phosphatase enzymes in soil decreased under elevated pH, suggesting a shift in functional activity of soil microbes with pH alteration. Furthermore, our findings suggest that elevating pH increased soil P availability, which may partly underlie the mycorrhizal fungal responses we observed.« less

  11. Potential of elemental sulfur fertigation to reduce high soil pH for production of highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry is adapted to acidic soil conditions but is often planted in high pH soils by adding elemental sulfur (S) prior to planting. Two pot experiments were carried out in a glasshouse to determine the potential of applying elemental S by fertigation through a drip irrigation system. In the first...

  12. Reduction of dehydroascorbic acid at low pH.

    PubMed

    Wechtersbach, Luka; Cigić, Blaz

    2007-08-01

    Ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid are unstable in aqueous solution in the presence of copper and iron ions, causing problems in the routine analysis of vitamin C. Their stability can be improved by lowering the pH below 2, preferably with metaphosphoric acid. Dehydroascorbic acid, an oxidised form of vitamin C, gives a relatively low response on the majority of chromatographic detectors, and is therefore routinely determined as the increase of ascorbic acid formed after reduction. The reduction step is routinely performed at a pH that is suboptimal for the stability of both forms. In this paper, the reduction of dehydroascorbic acid with tris-[2-carboxyethyl] phosphine (TCEP) at pH below 2 is evaluated. Dehydroascorbic acid is fully reduced with TCEP in metaphosphoric acid in less than 20 min, and yields of ascorbic acid are the same as at higher pH. TCEP and ascorbic acid formed by reduction, are more stable in metaphosphoric acid than in acetate or citrate buffers at pH 5, in the presence of redox active copper ions. The simple experimental procedure and low probability of artefacts are major benefits of this method, over those currently applied in a routine assay of vitamin C, performed on large number of samples.

  13. The crucial role of calcium interacting with soil pH in enhanced biodegradation of metam-sodium.

    PubMed

    Warton, Ben; Matthiessen, John N

    2005-09-01

    Enhanced biodegradation of soil-applied pesticides has long been correlated with soil pH above ca 6.5-7.5, but the possibility of confounding or interdependence with calcium, given that soil calcium concentration increases exponentially as pH rises above that range, has not previously been studied. Enhanced biodegradation of the broad-spectrum biocide metam-sodium was readily induced de novo in a naturally acid sandy soil (pH 4.2 measured in 0.01 M CaCl2) by multiple treatments, but only when the pH and calcium concentration were raised simultaneously using calcium carbonate (lime). Enhanced biodegradation was not induced when soil pH alone was raised with magnesium carbonate, nor when calcium alone was raised using calcium chloride. In limed sand treated monthly for 12 months, the degradation rate increased to where dissipation was complete within 24 h of application after the fifth metam-sodium treatment at pH 7.8 and after the eighth metam-sodium treatment at pH 6.8. Pesticide concentration was reduced, but not eliminated, at pH 5.8 and was unchanged at pH 4.8. When metam-sodium was applied bi- and tri-monthly, the degradation rate also increased when soil pH was raised with calcium carbonate, but to a lesser extent than with monthly applications. In an acid loam soil amended to the same pH values with calcium carbonate and treated monthly, there was no correlation between soil pH or calcium concentration and degradation. The results reveal the crucial interdependence of pH and calcium concentration in enhancement of biodegradation of soil-applied pesticides, but confirm that the phenomenon ultimately depends on interaction with soil type and frequency of application factors, all of which probably together act to affect the abundance, composition and activity of the soil microbial biomass.

  14. DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER AND METALS: EFFECTS OF PH ON PARTITIONING NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER IN SOILS AND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eighteen Dutch soils were extracted in aqueous solutions at varying pH. Extracts were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by ICP-AES. Extract dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was fractionated into three operationally defined fractions: hydrophilic acids (Hyd), fulvic acids (FA), an...

  15. Determination of critical pH and Al concentration of acidic Ultisols for wheat and canola crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulaha-Al Baquy, M.; Li, Jiu-Yu; Xu, Chen-Yang; Mehmood, Khalid; Xu, Ren-Kou

    2017-02-01

    Soil acidity has become a principal constraint in dry land crop production systems of acidic Ultisols in tropical and subtropical regions of southern China, where winter wheat and canola are cultivated as important rotational crops. There is little information on the determination of critical soil pH as well as aluminium (Al) concentration for wheat and canola crops. The objective of this study is to determine the critical soil pH and exchangeable aluminium concentration (AlKCl) for wheat and canola production. Two pot cultures with two Ultisols from Hunan and Anhui (SE China) were conducted for wheat and canola crops in a controlled growth chamber. Aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) were used to obtain the target soil pH levels from 3.7 (Hunan) and 3.97 (Anhui) to 6.5. Plant height, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, and chlorophyll content (SPAD value) of wheat and canola were adversely affected by soil acidity in both locations. The critical soil pH and AlKCl of the Ultisol from Hunan for wheat were 5.29 and 0.56 cmol kg-1, respectively. At Anhui, the threshold soil pH and AlKCl for wheat were 4.66 and 1.72 cmol kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the critical soil pH for canola was 5.65 and 4.87 for the Ultisols from Hunan and Anhui, respectively. The critical soil exchangeable Al for canola cannot be determined from the experiment of this study. The results suggested that the critical soil pH and AlKCl varied between different locations for the same variety of crop, due to the different soil types and their other soil chemical properties. The critical soil pH for canola was higher than that for wheat for both Ultisols, and thus canola was more sensitive to soil acidity. Therefore, we recommend that liming should be undertaken to increase soil pH if it falls below these critical soil pH levels for wheat and canola production.

  16. Effect of pH and soil structure on transport of sulfonamide antibiotics in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Yol; Huwe, Bernd

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the effect of solution pH and soil structure on transport of sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine) in combination with batch sorption tests and column experiments. Sorption isotherms properly conformed to Freundlich model, and sorption potential of the antibiotics is as follows; sulfadimethoxine > sulfamethoxazole > sulfamethazine. Decreasing pH values led to increased sorption potential of the antibiotics on soil material in pH range of 4.0-8.0. This likely resulted from abundance of neutral and positive-charged sulfonamides species at low pH, which electrostatically bind to sorption sites on soil surface. Due to destruction of macropore channels, lower hydraulic conductivities of mobile zone were estimated in the disturbed soil columns than in the undisturbed soil columns, and eventually led to lower mobility of the antibiotics in disturbed column. The results suggest that knowledge of soil structure and solution condition is required to predict fate and distribution of sulfonamide antibiotics in environmental matrix.

  17. Acid soil indicators in forest soils of the Cherry River Watershed, West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Farr, C; Skousen, J; Edwards, P; Connolly, S; Sencindiver, J

    2009-11-01

    Declining forest health has been observed during the past several decades in several areas of the eastern USA, and some of this decline is attributed to acid deposition. Decreases in soil pH and increases in soil acidity are indicators of potential impacts on tree growth due to acid inputs and Al toxicity. The Cherry River watershed, which lies within the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia, has some of the highest rates of acid deposition in Appalachia. East and West areas within the watershed, which showed differences in precipitation, stream chemistry, and vegetation composition, were compared to evaluate soil acidity conditions and to assess their degree of risk on tree growth. Thirty-one soil pits in the West area and 36 pits in the East area were dug and described, and soil samples from each horizon were analyzed for chemical parameters. In A horizons, East area soils averaged 3.7 pH with 9.4 cmol(c) kg(-1) of acidity compared to pH 4.0 and 6.2 cmol(c) kg(-1) of acidity in West area soils. Extractable cations (Ca, Mg, and Al) were significantly higher in the A, transition, and upper B horizons of East versus West soils. However, even with differences in cation concentrations, Ca/Al molar ratios were similar for East and West soils. For both sites using the Ca/Al ratio, a 50% risk of impaired tree growth was found for A horizons, while a 75% risk was found for deeper horizons. Low concentrations of base cations and high extractable Al in these soils translate into a high degree of risk for forest regeneration and tree growth after conventional tree harvesting.

  18. [Effects of soil acidity on Pinus resinosa seedlings photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Qing-cheng; Liu, Ya-li; Tian, Yu-ming; Sun, Jing; Xu, Jing

    2009-12-01

    Red pine (Pinus resinosa) is one of the most important tree species for timber plantation in North America, and preliminary success has been achieved in its introduction to the mountainous area of Northeast China since 2004. In order to expand its growth area in other parts of Northeast China, a pot experiment was conducted to study the adaptability of this tree species to varying soil acidity. P. resinosa seedlings were grown in soils with different acidity (pH = 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5, and 8.0) to test the responses of their photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters to soil pH levels, and the appropriate soil acidity was evaluated. Dramatic responses in chlorophyll a and b contents, Pn and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fm, Fv, Fv/Fm, and phi(PS II)) were detected under different soil acidity (P < 0.05), with the highest chlorophyll content and Pn under soil pH 5.5, and significantly lower chlorophyll content and Pn under soil pH 7.5 and 8.0. The chlorophyll content and Pn were 41% and 50%, and 61% and 88% higher under soil pH 5.5 than under soil pH 7.5 and 8.0. The seedlings had a significant photosynthetic inhibition under soil pH 7.5 and 8.0, but the highest Fv/Fm and phi (PS II) under soil pH 5.5. Comparing with those under soil pH 7.5 and 8.0, the Fv/Fm and phi (PS II) under soil pH 5.5 were 8% and 12%, and 22% and 35% higher, respectively. It was suggested that soil pH 5.5 was most appropriate for P. resinosa growth.

  19. Evaluation of soil pH and moisture content on in-situ ozonation of pyrene in soils.

    PubMed

    Luster-Teasley, S; Ubaka-Blackmoore, N; Masten, S J

    2009-08-15

    In this study, pyrene spiked soil (300 ppm) was ozonated at pH levels of 2, 6, and 8 and three moisture contents. It was found that soil pH and moisture content impacted the effectiveness of PAH oxidation in unsaturated soils. In air-dried soils, as pH increased, removal increased, such that pyrene removal efficiencies at pH 6 and pH 8 reached 95-97% at a dose of 2.22 mg O(3)/mg pyrene. Ozonation at 16.2+/-0.45 mg O(3)/ppm pyrene in soil resulted in 81-98% removal of pyrene at all pH levels tested. Saturated soils were tested at dry, 5% or 10% moisture conditions. The removal of pyrene was slower in moisturized soils, with the efficiency decreasing as the moisture content increased. Increasing the pH of the soil having a moisture content of 5% resulted in improved pyrene removals. On the contrary, in the soil having a moisture content of 10%, as the pH increased, pyrene removal decreased. Contaminated PAH soils were stored for 6 months to compare the efficiency of PAH removal in freshly contaminated soil and aged soils. PAH adsorption to soil was found to increase with longer exposure times; thus requiring much higher doses of ozone to effectively oxidize pyrene.

  20. Soil moisture and pH control relative contributions of fungi and bacteria to N2O production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huaihai; Mothapo, Nape V; Shi, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Fungal N(2)O production has been progressively recognized, but its controlling factors remain unclear. This study examined the impacts of soil moisture and pH on fungal and bacterial N(2)O production in two ecosystems, conventional farming and plantation forestry. Four treatments, antibiotic-free soil and soil amended with streptomycin, cycloheximide, or both were used to determine N(2)O production of fungi versus bacteria. Soil moisture and pH effects were assessed under 65-90 % water-filled pore space (WFPS) and pH 4.0-9.0, respectively. Irrespective of antibiotic treatments, soil N(2)O fluxes peaked at 85-90 % WFPS and pH 7.0 or 8.0, indicating that both fungi and bacteria preferred more anoxic and neutral or slightly alkaline conditions in producing N(2)O. However, compared with bacteria, fungi contributed more to N(2)O production under sub-anoxic and acidic conditions. Real-time polymerase chain reaction of 16S, ITS rDNA, and denitrifying genes for quantifications of bacteria, fungi, and denitrifying bacteria, respectively, showed that fungi were more abundant at acidic pH, whereas total and denitrifying bacteria favored neutral conditions. Such variations in the abundance appeared to be related to the pH effects on the relative fungal and bacterial contribution to N(2)O production.

  1. Double pH control on humic substance-borne trace elements distribution in soil waters as inferred from ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Pédrot, Mathieu; Dia, Aline; Davranche, Mélanie

    2009-11-15

    Colloidal dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important carrier phase for trace elements (TE) in subsurface environments. As suggested by previously published field observations, preferential sorption of DOC onto mineral surfaces tends to enrich the solid phase in humic acids. This DOC fractionation may affect the mobility of TE. pH is known to play an important role in the stability of colloids. This study was therefore dedicated to identifying the influence of DOC fractionation on TE mobility. Sequential extraction has been used to provide information on the possible TE carriers within soil (as exchangeable, weak acid soluble, reducible, oxidizable, and nonextractible metal fractions). Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of pH on the detachment of colloids and associated TE. Different groups of elements were identified according to TE behavior during pH changes. Several elements displayed increasing concentrations with decreasing pH. These concentrations can represent an important fraction of the total soil concentration. By contrast, other elements showed increasing concentrations following increasing pH, in association with an increasing amount of colloids in soil solution. Concerning this latter group, two colloidal carrier phases were identified during the pH increase: (i) the first one concerned the majority of elements, which were associated with humic substances remaining in solution, and (ii) the second one involved several TE rather associated with nanooxides. Therefore, DOC fractionation plays a key role in the TE concentration in soil solution during pH changes.

  2. Electrokinetic remediation of a Cu contaminated red soil by conditioning catholyte pH with different enhancing chemical reagents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dong-Mei; Deng, Chang-Fen; Cang, Long

    2004-07-01

    The effect of enhancement reagents on the efficiency of electrokinetic remediation of Cu contaminated red soil is evaluated. The enhancement agents were a mix of organic acids, including lactic acid+NaOH, HAc-NaAc and HAc-NaAc+EDTA. The soil was prepared to an initial Cu concentration of 438 mgkg(-1) by incubating the soil with CuSO4 solution in a flooded condition for 1 month. Sequential extraction showed that Cu was partitioned in the soil as follows: 195 mgkg(-1) as water soluble and exchangeable, 71 mgkg(-1) as carbonate bound and 105 mgkg(-1) as Fe and Mn oxides. The results indicate that neutralizing the catholyte pH maintains a lower soil pH compared to that without electrokinetic treatment. The electric currents varied depending upon the conditioning solutions and increased with an increasing applied voltage potential. The electroosmotic flow rate changed significantly when different conditioning enhancing reagents were used. It was observed that lactic acid+NaOH treatments resulted in higher soil electric conductivities than HAc-NaAc and HAc-NaAc+EDTA treatments. Ultimately, enhancement by lactic acid+NaOH resulted in highest removal efficiency (81% Cu removal) from the red soil. The presence of EDTA did not enhance Cu removal efficiencies from the red soil, because EDTA complexed with Cu to form negatively charge complexes, which slowly migrated toward the anode chamber retarding Cu2+ transport towards the cathode.

  3. Aging of nickel added to soils as predicted by soil pH and time.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yibing; Lombi, Enzo; McLaughlin, Mike J; Oliver, Ian W; Nolan, Annette L; Oorts, Koen; Smolders, Erik

    2013-08-01

    Although aging processes are important in risk assessment for metals in soils, the aging of Ni added to soils has not been studied in detail. In this study, after addition of water soluble Ni to soils, the changes over time in isotopic exchangeability, total concentrations and free Ni(2+) activity in soil pore water, were investigated in 16 European soils incubated outdoors for 18 months. The results showed that after Ni addition, concentrations of Ni in soil pore water and isotopic exchangeability of Ni in soils initially decreased rapidly. This phase was followed by further decreases in the parameters measured but these occurred at slower rates. Increasing soil pH increased the rate and extent of aging reactions. Semi-mechanistic models, based on Ni precipitation/nucleation on soil surfaces and micropore diffusion, were developed and calibrated. The initial fast processes, which were attributed to precipitation/nucleation, occurred over a short time (e.g. 1h), afterwards the slow processes were most likely controlled by micropore diffusion processes. The models were validated by comparing predicted and measured Ni aging in three additional, widely differing soils aged outdoors for periods up to 15 months in different conditions. These models could be used to scale ecotoxicological data generated in short-term studies to longer aging times.

  4. Leachability and desorption of PCBs from soil and their dependency on pH and dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu; Mustafa, Majid; Lundstedt, Staffan; Tysklind, Mats

    2014-11-15

    pH affects both soil-water partitioning coefficient (Kd) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), thereby influencing PCBs' leachability from contaminated soils. To explore these incompletely understood interactions, the leachability of 11 selected PCBs in a naturally aged soil was investigated in pH static leaching tests spanning a wide pH range (2 to 9). The K(d) was calculated for each of the PCBs, based on their observed concentrations in the soil and leachates obtained from each test. The concentration and composition of DOM in each leachate were also determined, the latter using FTIR spectroscopy. Correlations between the DOM's FTIR spectra and K(d) values were investigated by orthogonal projections to latent structures. The log K(d)-values varied among the PCB congeners and were most variable at low pH, but the values for all studied congeners decreased with increasing pH, by up to 3 log units (for PCB 187). In the pH 5-7 interval, an abrupt decrease in log K(d) values with increases in pH was observed, although the total organic carbon content remained relatively stable. The FTIR data indicate that fulvic and humic acids in DOM partially deprotonate as the pH rises from 5 to 7.

  5. [Inhibitory effect of DMPP on soil nitrification as affected by soil moisture content, pH and organic matter].

    PubMed

    Xue, Yan; Wu, Zhi-Jie; Zhang, Li-Li; Gong, Ping; Dong, Xin-Xin; Nie, Yan-Xia

    2012-10-01

    A laboratory incubation test with meadow brown soil was conducted to study the inhibitory effect of 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on soil nitrification as affected by soil moisture content (40%, 60% and 80% of the maximum field capacity), pH (4, 7 and 10), and organic matter (retained and removal). With the decrease of soil moisture content, the degradation of DMPP in soil tended to slow down, and the oxidation of soil NH4+ was more inhibited. At pH 10, more DMPP was remained in soil, and had the greatest inhibitory effect; at pH 7 and pH 4, the DMPP was lesser remained, with a smaller inhibitory effect. The removal of organic matter prolonged the remaining time of DMPP in soil, and decreased the apparent soil nitrification rate significantly.

  6. Exploration of a Basin and Range-Type Geothermal System Using Soil pH Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, L.; Hill, G.; Norman, D. I.

    2005-12-01

    The Socorro Peak, NM Known Geothermal Reservoir Area (KGRA) is a Basin and Range-type extentional-fault geothermal system boasting thermal gradients upwards of 420 mW/m3 in an uplift Precambrian fault block. Structural and geophysical evidence suggests that a low-to-mid temperature (60-100C) geothermal aquifer may reside within the fault-bounded alluvial basin, capped and insulated by over 1000meters of Tertiary mudstone aquitard strata and Quaternary flanglomerates. Select Ion Leach Analysis Geochemistry (SILG) and pH analysis of soils were employed to investigate the location and extent of the Socorro KGRA. The SILG geothermal exploration method is commonly used for mineral and oil exploration; the soil pH is method is a new method being developed. Soil samples for SILG were collected at 100m intervals over the alluvial basin and range bounding fault. Oxide Suite elements (As, V, I, Hg) and alkali elements (Rb, Sr) were observed in a series of nested halos of anomalously high concentrations surrounding a central core of anomalously low concentrations. The center of this 3 km-wide anomaly is located just in to the east of the range bounding fault. This pattern is interpreted as an oxidizing environment surrounding a reduction chimney created by the geothermal waters. Field pH analyses were also performed on a 25 meter interval grid over the same exploration area. A 25 g soil sample screened to 18 mesh is mixed with 10 cc water, stirred and pH measured. Two dimensional plots indicate a central region of 7.0 to 7.5 pH values surrounded by a 1.5 km radius semi-halo of 5.0 to 6.5 pH values . This pattern corresponds with those observed by SILG. If a geothermal reservoir is responsible for the oxidizing/reduction environment causing the volatilization of select ions through the substrate, then we would also expect to see a decrease in pH caused by the release of free hydrogen ions. Spikes of acidic pH values (5.0-6.0) were also observed along sub alluvium faults

  7. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (<50 μm) fraction were on average 3-times higher than those (17-250 μg g-1) in the fine earth (<2 mm), the former containing almost all bromine (90 ± 5%). Inventories were between 148 and 314 g m-2, indicating a rather large variability in a small area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM bromination, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p < 0.01) with the age of the SOM for the last ∼12 ka. Partial least squares modeling indicates that bromine concentration depends on the amount of organic matter stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  8. Biochar impacts soil microbial community composition and nitrogen cycling in an acidic soil planted with rape.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui-Juan; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Li, Hu; Yao, Huai-Ying; Su, Jian-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2014-08-19

    Biochar has been suggested to improve acidic soils and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. However, little has been done on the role of biochar in ameliorating acidified soils induced by overuse of nitrogen fertilizers. In this study, we designed a pot trial with an acidic soil (pH 4.48) in a greenhouse to study the interconnections between microbial community, soil chemical property changes, and N2O emissions after biochar application. The results showed that biochar increased plant growth, soil pH, total carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, and soil cation exchange capacity. The results of high-throughput sequencing showed that biochar application increased α-diversity significantly and changed the relative abundances of some microbes that are related with carbon and nitrogen cycling at the family level. Biochar amendment stimulated both nitrification and denitrification processes, while reducing N2O emissions overall. Results of redundancy analysis indicated biochar could shift the soil microbial community by changing soil chemical properties, which modulate N-cycling processes and soil N2O emissions. The significantly increased nosZ transcription suggests that biochar decreased soil N2O emissions by enhancing its further reduction to N2.

  9. Mycorrhizal response to experimental pH and P manipulation in acidic hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    Kluber, Laurel A; Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R; Coyle, Kaitlin P; DeForest, Jared L; Hewins, Charlotte R; Shaw, Alanna N; Smemo, Kurt A; Burke, David J

    2012-01-01

    Many temperate forests of the Northeastern United States and Europe have received significant anthropogenic acid and nitrogen (N) deposition over the last century. Although temperate hardwood forests are generally thought to be N-limited, anthropogenic deposition increases the possibility of phosphorus (P) limiting productivity in these forest ecosystems. Moreover, inorganic P availability is largely controlled by soil pH and biogeochemical theory suggests that forests with acidic soils (i.e., <pH 5) are particularly vulnerable to P limitation. Results from previous studies in these systems are mixed with evidence both for and against P limitation. We hypothesized that shifts in mycorrhizal colonization and community structure help temperate forest ecosystems overcome an underlying P limitation by accessing mineral and organic P sources that are otherwise unavailable for direct plant uptake. We examined arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) communities and soil microbial activity in an ecosystem-level experiment where soil pH and P availability were manipulated in mixed deciduous forests across eastern Ohio, USA. One year after treatment initiation, AM root biomass was positively correlated with the most available P pool, resin P, while AM colonization was negatively correlated. In total, 15,876 EcM root tips were identified and assigned to 26 genera and 219 operational taxonomic units (97% similarity). Ectomycorrhizal richness and root tip abundance were negatively correlated with the moderately available P pools, while the relative percent of tips colonized by Ascomycetes was positively correlated with soil pH. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed regional, but not treatment, differences in AM communities, while EcM communities had both treatment and regional differences. Our findings highlight the complex interactions between mycorrhizae and the soil environment and further underscore the fact that mycorrhizal communities do not merely

  10. Mycorrhizal Response to Experimental pH and P Manipulation in Acidic Hardwood Forests

    PubMed Central

    Kluber, Laurel A.; Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R.; Coyle, Kaitlin P.; DeForest, Jared L.; Hewins, Charlotte R.; Shaw, Alanna N.; Smemo, Kurt A.; Burke, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Many temperate forests of the Northeastern United States and Europe have received significant anthropogenic acid and nitrogen (N) deposition over the last century. Although temperate hardwood forests are generally thought to be N-limited, anthropogenic deposition increases the possibility of phosphorus (P) limiting productivity in these forest ecosystems. Moreover, inorganic P availability is largely controlled by soil pH and biogeochemical theory suggests that forests with acidic soils (i.e., <pH 5) are particularly vulnerable to P limitation. Results from previous studies in these systems are mixed with evidence both for and against P limitation. We hypothesized that shifts in mycorrhizal colonization and community structure help temperate forest ecosystems overcome an underlying P limitation by accessing mineral and organic P sources that are otherwise unavailable for direct plant uptake. We examined arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) communities and soil microbial activity in an ecosystem-level experiment where soil pH and P availability were manipulated in mixed deciduous forests across eastern Ohio, USA. One year after treatment initiation, AM root biomass was positively correlated with the most available P pool, resin P, while AM colonization was negatively correlated. In total, 15,876 EcM root tips were identified and assigned to 26 genera and 219 operational taxonomic units (97% similarity). Ectomycorrhizal richness and root tip abundance were negatively correlated with the moderately available P pools, while the relative percent of tips colonized by Ascomycetes was positively correlated with soil pH. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed regional, but not treatment, differences in AM communities, while EcM communities had both treatment and regional differences. Our findings highlight the complex interactions between mycorrhizae and the soil environment and further underscore the fact that mycorrhizal communities do not merely

  11. Relation of pH and other soil variables to concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Se in earthworms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Hensler, G.L.; Moore, J.

    1987-01-01

    Various soil treatments (clay, composted peat, superphosphate, sulfur, calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, zinc chloride, selenous acid) were added to experimental field plots to test the effect of different soil variables on the concentrations of 5 elements in earthworms (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Se). Concentrations of the 5 elements were related to 9 soil variables (soil Pb, soil Cu, soil Zn, pH, organic matter, P, K, Mg, and Ca) with linear multiple regression. Lead concentrations in earthworms were positively correlated with soil Pb and soil organic matter, and negatively correlated with soil pH and soil Mg, with an R2 of 64%. Se concentrations were higher in earthworms from plots amended with Se, and Zn concentrations were higher in earthworms from plots amended with Zn. However, none of the other soil variables had important effects on the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Se in earthworms. Although some significant statistical relations were demonstrated, the values of r2 of all relations (> 20%) were so low that they had little predictive value.

  12. Mechanisms for the retention of inorganic N in acidic forest soils of southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-bo; Cai, Zu-cong; Zhu, Tong-bin; Yang, Wen-yan; Müller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the retention of inorganic N in acidic forest soils in southern China are not well understood. Here, we simultaneously quantified the gross N transformation rates of various subtropical acidic forest soils located in southern China (southern soil) and those of temperate forest soils located in northern China (northern soil). We found that acidic southern soils had significantly higher gross rates of N mineralization and significantly higher turnover rates but a much greater capacity for retaining inorganic N than northern soils. The rates of autotrophic nitrification and NH3 volatilization in acidic southern soils were significantly lower due to low soil pH. Meanwhile, the relatively higher rates of NO3− immobilization into organic N in southern soils can counteract the effects of leaching, runoff, and denitrification. Taken together, these processes are responsible for the N enrichment of the humid subtropical forest soils in southern China. PMID:23907561

  13. Fertilization and pH effects on processes and mechanisms controlling dissolved inorganic phosphorus in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devau, Nicolas; Hinsinger, Philippe; Le Cadre, Edith; Colomb, Bruno; Gérard, Frédéric

    2011-05-01

    We used of a set of mechanistic adsorption models (1-pK TPM, ion exchange and Nica-Donnan) within the framework of the component additive (CA) approach in an attempt to determine the effect of repeated massive application of inorganic P fertilizer on the processes and mechanisms controlling the concentration of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) in soils. We studied the surface layer of a Luvisol with markedly different total concentrations of inorganic P as the result of different P fertilizer history (i.e. massive or no application for 40 years). Soil pH was made to vary from acid to alkaline. Soil solutions were extracted with water and CaCl 2 (0.01 M). The occurrence of montmorillonite led us to determine the binding properties of P and Ca ions for this clay mineral. Satisfactory results were obtained using generic values for model parameters and soil-specific ones, which were either determined directly by measurements or estimated from the literature. We showed that adsorption largely controlled the variations of DIP concentration and that, because of kinetic constrains, only little Ca-phosphates may be precipitated under alkaline conditions, particularly in the P fertilized treatment. The mineral-P pool initially present in both P treatments did not dissolve significantly during the course of the experiments. The adsorption of Ca ions onto soil minerals also promoted adsorption of P ions through electrostatic interactions. The intensity of the mechanism was high under neutral to alkaline conditions. Changes in DIP concentration as a function of these environmental variables can be related to changes in the contribution of the various soil minerals to P adsorption. The extra P adsorbed in the fertilized treatment compared with the control treatment was mainly adsorbed onto illite. This clay mineral was the major P-fixing constituent from neutral to alkaline pH conditions, because the repulsion interactions between deprotonated hydroxyl surface sites and P

  14. Distribution of dermatophytes and other related fungi in Jaipur city, with particular reference to soil pH.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neetu; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    Screening of 217 soil samples of different habitats, such as PG study centre, garden, farmhouse, nursery, roadside, hostel, animal habitat, bird habitat, marriage garden, temple, vegetable market and house dust, was carried out for the presence of dermatophytes and related fungi in relation to soil pH. A total of 461 isolates belonging to 26 genera and 34 species were recorded. Soil pH values vary from 3 to 10.5. Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum audouinii and M. canis were isolated for the first time in Jaipur from pH range 7.0 to 9.0. Chrysosporium tropicum (46.08%) was the most predominant fungus isolated from pH range 6.5 to 9.5. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (24.88%) was the second most common fungal species isolated from pH 6.5 to 9.5. Most of the keratinophilic fungi were isolated from pH 6.5 to 8.5. Only one isolate of Fusarium moniliforme was reported from a highly acidic site at pH 3. Roadside and garden soils were found to be the most suitable sites for almost all keratinophilic fungi.

  15. Influence of Soil and Irrigation Water pH on the Availability of Phosphorus in Struvite Derived from Urine through a Greenhouse Pot Experiment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoning; Tao, Yi; Wen, Guoqi; Kong, Fanxin; Zhang, Xihui; Hu, Zhengyi

    2016-05-04

    One greenhouse pot experiment was used to investigate the availability of phosphorus in struvite derived from urine affected by soil pH (cinnamon soil, pH 7.3; paddy soil, pH 5.3) and irrigation water (pH 6.0 and 7.5) with bird rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.). The biomass of applied struvite in paddy soil was significantly greater than that of applied calcium superphosphate. However, statistically significant differences were not observed in cinnamon soil. Soil-applied struvite had a higher Olsen P compared to soil-applied calcium superphosphate irrespective of soil type. The biomass of applied struvite and irrigation with pH 6.0 water was greater compared to that with irrigation with pH 7.3 water irrespective of soil type, accompanied with significantly higher leaf chlorophyll concentration. Therefore, struvite has the potential to be an effective P fertilizer, and acidic irrigation water has greater influence on the availability of phosphorus in struvite than does acidic soil.

  16. Tropical soil bacterial communities in Malaysia: pH dominates in the equatorial tropics too.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Binu M; Kim, Mincheol; Singh, Dharmesh; Lee-Cruz, Larisa; Lai-Hoe, Ang; Ainuddin, A N; Go, Rusea; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Husni, M H A; Chun, Jongsik; Adams, Jonathan M

    2012-08-01

    The dominant factors controlling soil bacterial community variation within the tropics are poorly known. We sampled soils across a range of land use types--primary (unlogged) and logged forests and crop and pasture lands in Malaysia. PCR-amplified soil DNA for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene targeting the V1-V3 region was pyrosequenced using the 454 Roche machine. We found that land use in itself has a weak but significant effect on the bacterial community composition. However, bacterial community composition and diversity was strongly correlated with soil properties, especially soil pH, total carbon, and C/N ratio. Soil pH was the best predictor of bacterial community composition and diversity across the various land use types, with the highest diversity close to neutral pH values. In addition, variation in phylogenetic structure of dominant lineages (Alphaproteobacteria, Beta/Gammaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria) is also significantly correlated with soil pH. Together, these results confirm the importance of soil pH in structuring soil bacterial communities in Southeast Asia. Our results also suggest that unlike the general diversity pattern found for larger organisms, primary tropical forest is no richer in operational taxonomic units of soil bacteria than logged forest, and agricultural land (crop and pasture) is actually richer than primary forest, partly due to selection of more fertile soils that have higher pH for agriculture and the effects of soil liming raising pH.

  17. Natural acidity of waters in podzolized soils and potential impacts from acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Stednick, J.D.; Johnson, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Nutrient movements through sites in southeast Alaska and Washington were documented to determine net changes in chemical composition of precipitation water as it passed through a forest soil and became stream-flow. These sites were not subject to acid precipitation (rainfall pH 5.8 to 7.2), yet soil water was acidified to 4.2 by natural organic acid-forming processes in the podzol soils. Organic acids precipitated in the subsoils, allowing a pH increase. Streamwater pH ranged from 6.5 to 7.2 indicating a natural buffering capacity that may exceed any additional acid input from acid rain. Precipitation composition was dominated by calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride due to the proximity of the ocean at the southeast Alaska site. Anionic constituents of the precipitation were dominated by bicarbonate at the Washington site. Soil podzolization processes concurrently increased solution color and iron concentrations in the litter and surface horizons leachates. The anion flux through the soil profile was dominated by chloride and sulfate at the southeast Alaska site, whereas at the Washington site anion flux appeared to be dominated by organic acids. Electroneutrality calculations indicated a cation deficit for the southeast Alaska site.

  18. Natural acidity of waters in podzolized soils and potential impacts from acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Stednick, J.D.; Johnson, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Nutrient movements through sites in southeast Alaska and Washington were documented to determine net changes in chemical composition of precipitation water as it passed through a forest soil and became stream flow. These sites were not subject to acid precipitation (rainfall pH 5.8 to 7.2), yet soil water was acidified to 4.2 by natural organic acid forming processes in the podzol soils. Organic acids precipitated in the subsoils, allowing a pH increase. Stream water pH ranged from 6.5 to 7.2 indicating a natural buffering capacity that may exceed any additional acid input from acid rain. Precipitation composition was dominated by magnesium, sodium, and chloride due to the proximity of the ocean at the southeast Alaska site. Anionic constituents of the precipitation were dominated by bicarbonate at the Washington site. Soil podzolization processes concurrently increased solution color and iron concentrations in the litter and surface horizons leachates. The anion flux through the soil profile was dominated by chloride and sulfate at the southwast Alaska site, whereas at the Washington site anion flux appeared to be dominated by organic acids. Electroneutrality calculations indicated a cation deficit for the southeast Alaska site. 10 references, 2 tables.

  19. Effect of Short-Chain Fatty Acids and Soil Atmosphere on Tylenchorhynchus spp.

    PubMed Central

    McElderry, Claire F.; Browning, Marsha; Amador, José A.

    2005-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids can be produced under anaerobic conditions by fermentative soil microbes and have nematicidal properties. We evaluated the effects of butyric and propionic acids on death and recovery of stunt nematodes (Tylenchorhynchus spp.), a common parasite of turfgrass. Nematodes in a sand-soil mix (80:20) were treated with butyric or propionic acid and incubated under air or N₂ for 7 days at 25 °C. Amendment of soil with 0.1 and 1.0 µmol (8.8 and 88 µg) butyric acid/g soil or 1.0 µmol (74 µg) propionic acid/g soil resulted in the death of all nematodes. The composition of the soil atmosphere had no effect on the nematicidal activity of the acids. Addition of hydrochloric acid to adjust soil pH to 4.4 and 3.5 resulted in nematode mortality relative to controls (41% to 86%) but to a lesser degree than short-chain fatty acids at the same pH. Nematodes did not recover after a 28-day period following addition of 10 µmol butyric acid/g soil under air or N₂. Carbon mineralization decreased during this period, whereas levels of inorganic N and microbial biomass-N remained constant. Short-chain fatty acids appear to be effective in killing Tylenchorhynchus spp. independent of atmospheric composition. Nematode mortality appears to be a function of the type and concentration of fatty acid and soil pH. PMID:19262845

  20. Effect of iron oxide on nitrification in two agricultural soils with different pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xueru; Zhu-Barker, Xia; Horwath, William R.; Faeflen, Sarwee J.; Luo, Hongyan; Xin, Xiaoping; Jiang, Xianjun

    2016-10-01

    Iron (Fe) affects soil nitrogen (N) cycling processes both in anoxic and oxic environments. The role of Fe in soil N transformations including nitrification, mineralization, and immobilization, is influenced by redox activity, which is regulated by soil pH. The effect of Fe minerals, particularly oxides, on soil N transformation processes depends on soil pH, with Fe oxide often stimulating nitrification activity in the soil with low pH. We conducted lab incubations to investigate the effect of Fe oxide on N transformation rates in two subtropical agricultural soils with low pH (pH 5.1) and high pH (pH 7.8). 15N-labeled ammonium and nitrate were used separately to determine N transformation rates combined with Fe oxide (ferrihydrite) addition. Iron oxide stimulated net nitrification in low-pH soil (pH 5.1), while the opposite occurred in high-pH soil (pH 7.8). Compared to the control, Fe oxide decreased microbial immobilization of inorganic N by 50 % in low-pH soil but increased it by 45 % in high-pH soil. A likely explanation for the effects at low pH is that Fe oxide increased NH3-N availability by stimulating N mineralization and inhibiting N immobilization. These results indicate that Fe oxide plays an important role in soil N transformation processes and the magnitude of the effect of Fe oxide is dependent significantly on soil pH.

  1. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil fauna community composition and their ecological niches.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Jiaen; Qin, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Acid rain is one of the severest environmental issues globally. Relative to other global changes (e.g., warming, elevated atmospheric [CO2], and nitrogen deposition), however, acid rain has received less attention than its due. Soil fauna play important roles in multiple ecological processes, but how soil fauna community responds to acid rain remains less studied. This microcosm experiment was conducted using latosol with simulated acid rain (SAR) manipulations to observe potential changes in soil fauna community under acid rain stress. Four pH levels, i.e., pH 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5, and a neutral control of pH 7.0 were set according to the current pH condition and acidification trend of precipitation in southern China. As expected, we observed that the SAR treatments induced changes in soil fauna community composition and their ecological niches in the tested soil; the treatment effects tended to increase as acidity increased. This could be attributable to the environmental stresses (such as acidity, porosity and oxygen supply) induced by the SAR treatments. In addition to direct acidity effect, we propose that potential changes in permeability and movability of water and oxygen in soils induced by acid rain could also give rise to the observed shifts in soil fauna community composition. These are most likely indirect pathways of acid rain to affect belowground community. Moreover, we found that nematodes, the dominating soil fauna group in this study, moved downwards to mitigate the stress of acid rain. This is probably detrimental to soil fauna in the long term, due to the relatively severer soil conditions in the deep than surface soil layer. Our results suggest that acid rain could change soil fauna community and the vertical distribution of soil fauna groups, consequently changing the underground ecosystem functions such as organic matter decomposition and greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Integrating pH, substrate, and plant regrowth effects on soil nitrogen cycling after fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanan, E. J.; Schimel, J.; Tague, C.; D'Antonio, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Mediterranean-type ecosystems are structured by fire. In California chaparral, fires uncouple N production and consumption by enhancing nitrification and reducing plant uptake. NO3- that accumulates after fire is vulnerable to leaching. However, the extent to which fires decouple N fluxes can vary spatially and with timing of fire, and the specific mechanisms controlling N metabolism in recovering chaparral are not well understood. We combined empirical analysis and modeling in two chaparral watersheds to better understand how these systems recover from fire, and to explore their sensitivity to changing climate and fire regimes. To evaluate how pH, charcoal, and NH4+ supply influence N cycling, we measured mineralization and nitrification rates in chaparral soils that burned 1, 4, 20 and 40 years prior to sampling. We then experimentally adjusted pH, charcoal, and NH4+ concentrations for all soils in a factorial design, and incubated them for 8 weeks. Each week, we measured respiration, exchangeable NH4+ and NO3- content, nitrification potential, microbial biomass, and pH. Then to project the effects of altered precipitation patterns and fire timing on nitrogen dynamics and recovery, we used the hydro-biogeochemical model RHESSys. Fires were imposed at the beginning and end of the growing season under various climates. NO3- production was highest in soils collected from the most recently burned sites. Also, NO3- concentrations increased over the course of incubation in soils from all sites, especially at high pH, and with NH4+ addition. Charcoal slightly augmented the effects of elevated pH and NH4+ on NO3- production iduring the early stages of incubation in 1 and 4-year old sites, while it slightly dampened their effects by week 8. However, in 20 and 40-year old sites, charcoal had no effect. Overall, nitrification was most powerfully constrained by NH4+ supply. However, increases in pH that occur after fire may enhance nitrification rates when substrate is

  3. Modeling the contribution of soil fauna to litter decomposition influenced by acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, B.; Loucks, O.L; Kuperman, R. Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1993-06-01

    The effect of acidic deposition on soil pH and therefore on soil invertebrates and litter decomposition is being investigated in oak-hickory forests across a three-state, midwest, pollution gradient. The role of soil invertebrates has been assessed previously through the use of feeding, assimilation and respiratory rates. These energetic parameters depend strongly on the form of the allometric equations which have been improved here by incorporating uncertainties in body and population size. Results show that changes in reproduction and turnover dynamics of soil invertebrates (particularly of earthworms) due to acid-induced changes in soil pH explains observed patterns in litter depth.

  4. Acid soils of western Serbia and their further acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrvic, Vesna

    2010-05-01

    Acid soils cause many unfavorable soil characteristics from the plant nutrition point of view. Because of increased soil acidity the violation of buffering soil properties due to leaching of Ca and Mg ions is taking place that also can cause soil physical degradation via peptization of colloids. Together with increasing of soil acidity the content of mobile Al increases that can be toxic for plants. Easily available nutritive elements transforms into hardly avaialble froms. The process of deactivation is especially expressed for phosphorous that under such conditions forms non-soluble compounds with sesqui-oxides. From the other hand the higher solubility of some microelements (Zn and B) can cause their accelerated leaching from root zone and therefore, result in their deficiency for plant nutrition. Dangerous and toxic matters transforms into easly-available forms for plants, especially, Cd and Ni under the lower soil pH. The studied soil occupies 36675 hectare in the municipality of Krupan in Serbia, and are characterized with very unfavorable chemical properties: 26% of the territory belongs to the cathegory of very acidic, and 44 % belongs to the cathegory of acidic. The results showed that the soil of the territory of Krupan is limited for agricultural land use due to their high acidity. Beside the statement of negative soil properties determined by acidity, there is a necessity for determination of soil sensitivity for acidification processes toward soil protection from ecological aspect and its prevention from further acidification. Based on such data and categorization of soils it is possible to undertake proper measures for soil protection and melioration of the most endangered soil cover, where the economic aspect of these measures is very important. One of the methods of soil classification based on sensitivity for acidification classification the determination of soil categories is based on the values of soil CEC and pH in water. By combination of these

  5. Soil lime level (pH) and VA-Mycorrhiza effects on growth responses of sweetgum seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.A.; Young, J.L.; Linderman, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Sequential greenhouse experiments limed a strongly acid surface and subsurface horizons of phosphorus-deficient Jory clay loam with increments of calcium carbonate to attain a range in soil pH from 5.0 to 8.1. In the absence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM), neither the organic matter-rich surface nor the organic matter-poor subsurface horizon supported growth of sweetgum seedlings at any pH despite regular nutrient supplements. The effects of pH, VAM, and soil horizon on nutrient accumulation and plant nutrient concentrations were variable. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were generally higher in the VAM than in control seedlings, which suggests that host plant should be matched with VAM species adapted to particular soil and climate conditions to obtain maximum benefit from a mycorrhizal association. 18 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Organic acids make Escherichia coli more resistant to pulsed electric fields at acid pH.

    PubMed

    Somolinos, M; García, D; Mañas, P; Condón, S; Pagán, R

    2010-01-01

    Stationary growth phase cells of Escherichiacoli were more pulsed electric fields (PEF) resistant in citrate-phosphate McIlvaine buffer at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. The greater PEF resistance was also confirmed in fruit juices of similar acid pH. In this work we studied whether the higher PEF resistance of E. coli at acid pH was due to the low pH itself or to the interaction of the components of the treatment medium with the cells. The protective effect on E. coli cells was due to the presence of organic acids such as citric, acetic, lactic or malic at pH 4.0. The protective effect of citric acid at pH 4.0 depended on its concentration. A linear relationship was observed between the Log(10) of the citric acid concentration and the degree of inactivation. Organic acids contained in laboratory treatment media (citrate-phosphate buffer) or in fruit juices did not sensitize E. coli cells to PEF but, on the contrary, they induced a protective effect that made E. coli cells more resistant at pH 4.0 than at neutral pH. This work could be useful for improving food preservation by PEF technology and it contributes to the knowledge of the mechanism of microbial inactivation by PEF.

  7. Organic amendments increase soil solution phosphate concentrations in an acid soil: A controlled environment study

    SciTech Connect

    Schefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, R.

    2008-04-15

    Soil acidification affects at least 4 million hectares of agricultural land in Victoria, Australia. Low soil pH can inhibit plant growth through increased soluble aluminum (Al) concentrations and decreased available phosphorus (P). The addition of organic amendments may increase P availability through competition for P binding sites, solubilization of poorly soluble P pools, and increased solution pH. The effect of two organic amendments (lignite and compost) on P solubility in an acid soil was determined through controlled environment (incubation) studies. Three days after the addition of lignite and compost, both treatments increased orthophosphate and total P measured in soil solution, with the compost treatments having the greatest positive effect. Increased incubation time (26 days) increased soil solution P concentrations in both untreated and amended soils, with the greatest effect seen in total P concentrations. The measured differences in solution P concentrations between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were likely caused by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment with lignite or compost also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. Based on the results presented, it is proposed that the measured increase in soil solution P with amendment addition was likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including biotic and abiotic P solubilization reactions, and the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  8. Strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa Duch.) yield as affected by the soil pH.

    PubMed

    Milosevic, Tomo M; Milosevic, Nebojsa T; Glisic, Ivan P

    2009-06-01

    Two-year trials (20062007) suggested that the use of calcium oxide (CaO) on acid soils increased soil pH and yields in strawberry cultivars Marmolada, Selena and Senga Sengana, under the environmental conditions of Cacak (Western Serbia). The highest yield was obtained when CaO was applied at 750 kg ha-1 rate. Further increase in rate up to 1,500 kg ha-1 did not show corresponding increase in yield; the result was a slight yield drop compared to the peak yield shown at 750 kg ha(1) rate. Overall, yields at rates above 750 kg ha(1) were still higher than control and in the treatment employing lowest CaO application rate of 250 kg ha-1.

  9. Soil pH determines microbial diversity and composition in the park grass experiment.

    PubMed

    Zhalnina, Kateryna; Dias, Raquel; de Quadros, Patricia Dörr; Davis-Richardson, Austin; Camargo, Flavio A O; Clark, Ian M; McGrath, Steve P; Hirsch, Penny R; Triplett, Eric W

    2015-02-01

    The Park Grass experiment (PGE) in the UK has been ongoing since 1856. Its purpose is to study the response of biological communities to the long-term treatments and associated changes in soil parameters, particularly soil pH. In this study, soil samples were collected across pH gradient (pH 3.6-7) and a range of fertilizers (nitrogen as ammonium sulfate, nitrogen as sodium nitrate, phosphorous) to evaluate the effects nutrients have on soil parameters and microbial community structure. Illumina 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicon sequencing was used to determine the relative abundances and diversity of bacterial and archaeal taxa. Relationships between treatments, measured soil parameters, and microbial communities were evaluated. Clostridium, Bacteroides, Bradyrhizobium, Mycobacterium, Ruminococcus, Paenibacillus, and Rhodoplanes were the most abundant genera found at the PGE. The main soil parameter that determined microbial composition, diversity, and biomass in the PGE soil was pH. The most probable mechanism of the pH impact on microbial community may include mediation of nutrient availability in the soil. Addition of nitrogen to the PGE plots as ammonium sulfate decreases soil pH through increased nitrification, which causes buildup of soil carbon, and hence increases C/N ratio. Plant species richness and plant productivity did not reveal significant relationships with microbial diversity; however, plant species richness was positively correlated with soil microbial biomass. Plants responded to the nitrogen treatments with an increase in productivity and a decrease in the species richness.

  10. Acid-activated biochar increased sulfamethazine retention in soils.

    PubMed

    Vithanage, Meththika; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Zhang, Ming; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-02-01

    Sulfamethazine (SMZ) is an ionizable and highly mobile antibiotic which is frequently found in soil and water environments. We investigated the sorption of SMZ onto soils amended with biochars (BCs) at varying pH and contact time. Invasive plants were pyrolyzed at 700 °C and were further activated with 30 % sulfuric (SBBC) and oxalic (OBBC) acids. The sorption rate of SMZ onto SBBC and OBBC was pronouncedly pH dependent and was decreased significantly when the values of soil pH increased from 3 to 5. Modeled effective sorption coefficients (K D,eff) values indicated excellent sorption on SBBC-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils for 229 and 183 L/kg, respectively. On the other hand, the low sorption values were determined for OBBC- and BBC700-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Kinetic modeling demonstrated that the pseudo second order model was the best followed by intra-particle diffusion and the Elovich model, indicating that multiple processes govern SMZ sorption. These findings were also supported by sorption edge experiments based on BC characteristics. Chemisorption onto protonated and ligand containing functional groups of the BC surface, and diffusion in macro-, meso-, and micro-pores of the acid-activated BCs are the proposed mechanisms of SMZ retention in soils. Calculated and experimental q e (amount adsorbed per kg of the adsorbent at equilibrium) values were well fitted to the pseudo second order model, and the predicted maximum equilibrium concentration of SBBC for loamy sand soils was 182 mg/kg. Overall, SBBC represents a suitable soil amendment because of its high sorption rate of SMZ in soils.

  11. Importance of inoculum properties on the structure and growth of bacterial communities during Recolonisation of humus soil with different pH.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Marie; Bååth, Erland

    2013-08-01

    The relationship between community structure and growth and pH tolerance of a soil bacterial community was studied after liming in a reciprocal inoculum study. An unlimed (UL) humus soil with a pH of 4.0 was fumigated with chloroform for 4 h, after which < 1 % of the initial bacterial activity remained. Half of the fumigated soil was experimentally limed (EL) to a pH of 7.6. Both the UL and the EL soil were then reciprocally inoculated with UL soil or field limed (FL) soil with a pH of 6.2. The FL soil was from a 15-year-old experiment. The structural changes were measured on both bacteria in soil and on bacteria able to grow on agar plates using phospholipids fatty acid (PLFA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The developing community pH tolerance and bacterial growth were also monitored over time using thymidine incorporation. The inoculum source had a significant impact on both growth and pH tolerance of the bacterial community in the EL soil. These differences between the EL soil inoculated with UL soil and FL soil were correlated to structural changes, as evidenced by both PLFA and DGGE analyses on the soil. Similar correlations were seen to the fraction of the community growing on agar plates. There were, however, no differences between the soil bacterial communities in the unlimed soils with different inocula. This study showed the connection between the development of function (growth), community properties (pH tolerance) and the structure of the bacterial community. It also highlighted the importance of both the initial properties of the community and the selection pressure after environmental changes in shaping the resulting microbial community.

  12. Soil pH and electrical conductivity are key edaphic factors shaping bacterial communities of greenhouse soils in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Myeong; Roh, An-Sung; Choi, Seung-Chul; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Moon-Tae; Ahn, Byung-Koo; Kim, Sun-Kuk; Lee, Young-Han; Joa, Jae-Ho; Kang, Seong-Soo; Lee, Shin Ae; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Song, Jaekyeong; Weon, Hang-Yeon

    2016-12-01

    Soil microorganisms play an essential role in soil ecosystem processes such as organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling, and plant nutrient availability. The land use for greenhouse cultivation has been increasing continuously, which involves an intensive input of agricultural materials to enhance productivity; however, relatively little is known about bacterial communities in greenhouse soils. To assess the effects of environmental factors on the soil bacterial diversity and community composition, a total of 187 greenhouse soil samples collected across Korea were subjected to bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis. A total of 11,865 operational taxonomic units at a 97% similarity cutoff level were detected from 847,560 sequences. Among nine soil factors evaluated; pH, electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+)), available P2O5, organic matter, and NO3-N, soil pH was most strongly correlated with bacterial richness (polynomial regression, pH: R(2) = 0.1683, P < 0.001) and diversity (pH: R(2) = 0.1765, P < 0.001). Community dissimilarities (Bray-Curtis distance) were positively correlated with Euclidean distance for pH and EC (Mantel test, pH: r = 0.2672, P < 0.001; EC: r = 0.1473, P < 0.001). Among dominant phyla (> 1%), the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were also more strongly correlated with pH and EC values, compared with other soil cation contents, such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+). Our results suggest that, despite the heterogeneity of various environmental variables, the bacterial communities of the intensively cultivated greenhouse soils were particularly influenced by soil pH and EC. These findings therefore shed light on the soil microbial ecology of greenhouse cultivation, which should be helpful for devising effective management strategies to enhance soil microbial diversity and improving crop productivity.

  13. Solubility of lead and copper in biochar-amended small arms range soils: influence of soil organic carbon and pH.

    PubMed

    Uchimiya, Minori; Bannon, Desmond I

    2013-08-14

    Biochar is often considered a strong heavy metal stabilizing agent. However, biochar in some cases had no effects on, or increased the soluble concentrations of, heavy metals in soil. The objective of this study was to determine the factors causing some biochars to stabilize and others to dissolve heavy metals in soil. Seven small arms range soils with known total organic carbon (TOC), cation exchange capacity, pH, and total Pb and Cu contents were first screened for soluble Pb and Cu concentrations. Over 2 weeks successive equilibrations using weak acid (pH 4.5 sulfuric acid) and acetate buffer (0.1 M at pH 4.9), Alaska soil containing disproportionately high (31.6%) TOC had nearly 100% residual (insoluble) Pb and Cu. This soil was then compared with sandy soils from Maryland containing significantly lower (0.5-2.0%) TOC in the presence of 10 wt % (i) plant biochar activated to increase the surface-bound carboxyl and phosphate ligands (PS450A), (ii) manure biochar enriched with soluble P (BL700), and (iii) unactivated plant biochars produced at 350 °C (CH350) and 700 °C (CH500) and by flash carbonization (corn). In weak acid, the pH was set by soil and biochar, and the biochars increasingly stabilized Pb with repeated extractions. In pH 4.9 acetate buffer, PS450A and BL700 stabilized Pb, and only PS450A stabilized Cu. Surface ligands of PS450A likely complexed and stabilized Pb and Cu even under acidic pH in the presence of competing acetate ligand. Oppositely, unactivated plant biochars (CH350, CH500, and corn) mobilized Pb and Cu in sandy soils; the putative mechanism is the formation of soluble complexes with biochar-borne dissolved organic carbon. In summary, unactivated plant biochars can inadvertently increase dissolved Pb and Cu concentrations of sandy, low TOC soils when used to stabilize other contaminants.

  14. Site-specific management of soil pH and nutrients in blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Site-specific management of soil pH and fertilizers is one of the most promising strategies in precision agriculture and is potentially applicable to many horticultural crops, including blueberry. Unlike most fruit crops, blueberry is adapted to low soil pH conditions in the range of 4-5.5 and has ...

  15. Labile pools of Pb in vegetable-growing soils investigated by an isotope dilution method and its influence on soil pH.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong; Huang, Zhi-Yong; Cao, Ying-Lan; Cai, Chao; Zeng, Xiang-Cheng; Li, Jian

    2012-08-01

    Pollution of Pb in the surface of agricultural soils is of increasing concern due to its serious impact on the plant growth and the human health through the food chain. However, the mobility, activity and bioavailability of Pb rely mainly on its various chemical species in soils. In the present study, E and L values, the labile pools of isotopically exchangeable Pb, were estimated using the method of isotope dilution in three vegetable-growing soils. The experiments involved adding a stable enriched isotope ((206)Pb > 96%) to a soil suspension and to soils in which plants are subsequently grown, the labile pools of Pb were then estimated by measuring the isotopic composition of Pb in soil solutions and in the plant tissues, respectively. In addition, the correlation of E values and soil pH was investigated at the ranges of pH 4.5-7.0. The amount of labile Pb in soils was also estimated using different single chemical extractants and a modified BCR approach. The results showed that after spiking the enriched isotopes of (206)Pb (>96%) for 24 hours an equilibration of isotopic exchanges in soil suspensions was achieved, and the isotope ratios of (208)Pb/(206)Pb measured at that time was used for calculating the E(24 h) values. The labile pools of Pb by %E(24 h) values, ranging from 53.2% to 61.7% with an average 57%, were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the values estimated with L values, single chemical extractants and the Σ(BCR) values obtained with the BCR approach, respectively. A strong negative correlation (R(2) = 0.984) between E(24 h) values and soil pH was found in the tested soil sample. The results indicate that the %E(24 h) value can more rapidly and easily predict the labile pools of Pb in soils compared with L values, but it might be readily overestimated because of the artificial soil acidity derived from the spiked isotopic tracer and the excess of spiked enriched isotopes. The results also suggest that the amounts of Pb extracted

  16. Acidic pH environment induces autophagy in osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhichao; Lai, Qingguo; Li, Yanan; Xu, Chao; Tang, Xiaopeng; Ci, Jiangbo; Sun, Shaolong; Xu, Bingbing; Li, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Osteoblasts (OBs) play an important role in bone fracture healing, yet the extreme adverse microenvironment in fracture sites has a negative impact on the survival of OBs. Therefore, it is important to study how OBs behave in the complex fracture microenvironment. Studies have shown that autophagy plays a pivotal role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and defending the cell against adverse microenvironments. In this study we found the induction of autophagy in OBs at femoral bone fracture sites, which may be a result of ischemia, oxidative stress and hypoxia within the local area. At fracture sites a low pH environment also developed. Until now it has been unclear whether the induction of autophagy in osteoblasts is triggered by the acidic pH environment. Therefore, we cultured OBs in vitro in media of different pH values, and found both autophagy and apoptosis increased in OBs in acidic conditions. However, when autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) was used, apoptosis increased significantly compared with that without CQ. Thus indicating that inhibition of autophagy may promote apoptosis in OBs in an acidic environment, which may provide a new therapeutic strategy to decrease cell apoptosis in OBs through the use of drugs that modulate the autophagic state. PMID:28382973

  17. Tetracycline adsorption on kaolinite: pH, metal cations and humic acid effects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanping; Geng, Jinju; Wang, Xiaorong; Gu, Xueyuan; Gao, Shixiang

    2011-07-01

    Contamination of environmental matrixes by human and animal wastes containing antibiotics is a growing health concern. Because tetracycline is one of the most widely-used antibiotics in the world, it is important to understand the factors that influence its mobility in soils. This study investigated the effects of pH, background electrolyte cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)), heavy metal Cu(2+) and humic acid (HA) on tetracycline adsorption onto kaolinite. Results showed that tetracycline was greatly adsorbed by kaolinite over pH 3-6, then decreased with the increase of pH, indicating that tetracycline adsorption mainly through ion exchange of cations species and complexation of zwitterions species. In the presence of five types of cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)), tetracycline adsorption decreased in accordance with the increasing of atomic radius and valence of metal cations, which suggested that outer-sphere complexes formed between tetracycline and kaolinite, and the existence of competitor ions lead to the decreasing adsorption. The presence of Cu(2+) greatly enhanced the adsorption probably by acting as a bridge ion between tetracycline species and the edge sites of kaolinite. HA also showed a major effect on the adsorption: at pH < 6, the presence of HA increased the adsorption, while the addition of HA showed little effect on tetracycline adsorption at higher pH. The soil environmental conditions, like pH, metal cations and soil organic matter, strongly influence the adsorption behavior of tetracycline onto kaolinite and need to be considered when assessing the environmental toxicity of tetracycline.

  18. The effect of soil pH on N2O/(N2O+N2) product ratio of denitrification depends on soil NO3- concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senbayram, Mehmet; Dittert, Klaus; Well, Reinhard; Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika; Lammel, Joachim; Bakken, Lars

    2015-04-01

    Globally, agricultural soils account for about 60% of the atmospheric N2O emissions and denitrification in soil is the major source of atmospheric N2O, which contributes to global warming and destruction of stratospheric ozone. Denitrification is the microbially mediated process of dissimilatory nitrate reduction that may produce not only N2O but also nitric oxide (NO), and molecular nitrogen (N2). The major controls on denitrification rates are soil NO3, O2, and labile C levels. Typically, when soils become more anoxic, larger proportions of N2O produced in denitrification are further reduced to N2 before leaving the soil. Microbial ecology may possibly find solutions to this major environmental problem of agricultural systems once mechanisms controlling the product ratio of denitrification (N2O/N2O+N2) are better understood. Recent investigations of these gaseous microbial products provided the evidence for a negative effect of soil acidity on the N2O/N2O+N2 product ratio. However, in an earlier study, we showed that, regardless of soil type, higher NO3- concentrations in soil may also retard the reduction of N2O to N2. In this context, the positive effect of higher soil pH on the N2O/(N2O+N2) product ratio in soils with high NO3- content is still poorly understood. Therefore, we set up a number of incubation experiments in order to test short-term and long-term effects of soil pH and NO3- concentration on denitrification rates and the product stoichiometry of denitrification. We measured N2O, NO as well as elemental N2 in soils with pH levels ranging 4.1 to pH 6.9 collected from a long-term liming experiment. In a continuous flow incubation system we evacuated and flushed all vessels with He. Then, fresh He was directed through an inlet in the lid at a flow rate of 15-30 ml min-1. Gas samples were analyzed twice a day for N2O by ECD and for N2 by TCD detectors. Denitrification rates increased significantly with increasing soil pH, however, during the initial

  19. [Effect of low molecular weight organic acids on inorganic phosphorus transformation in red soil and its acidity].

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongqing; Liao, Lixia; Wang, Xinglin

    2002-07-01

    Red soil samples collected from southern Hubei province and northern Jiangxi province were tested to analyze their inorganic phosphorus fractions, pH and active aluminum after incubated with added various organic acids. The results indicated that application of organic acids increased the content of Ca2-P in both red soils, in the order of citric acid > malic acid > succinic acid > acetic acid, did not affect the contents of Ca8-P and Ca10-P, but usually reduced Fe-P, Al-P and O-P. The pH values of the soils treated by organic acids, except for acetic acid, were reduced by 0.65-1.96, compared with the control. Soil active Al extracted with 0.02 mol.L-1 CaCl2 in treatments with citric, malic and succinic acid was 5.7-51.3 times as the control, and Al extracted with 1 mol.L-1 KCl also increased 4.0-67.3 times. However, acetic acid had little influence on active soil Al. It was concluded that in red soils, organic acid could improve phosphorus availability, but enhance the soil toxicity caused by active Al.

  20. A Conventional Method for Valid "Actual Soil pH" Measurement.

    PubMed

    Oman, Srečko F

    2012-12-01

    After recognition of the Suspension Effect problem in potentiometric measurements in aqueous suspensions, no scientific consensus about its cause and nature was obtained. Numerous conventional methods of soil pH measurement were therefore introduced for practical soil pH determination. Most of the results of these methods are not valid with regard to the international pH scale. The method proposed in the present work rejects improper procedures and introduces correct soil sampling and a suitable pH measuring technique, as follows: the indicator glass electrode, substituting for roots in the soil, is inserted in a partly diluted sample suspension of the original soil and the modified reference electrode contacts the sample in a manner that eliminates the abnormal liquid junction potential. "Actual soil pH values" measured in this way are valid but the method used is a conventional one. Namely, the irreversible potential of the glass electrode includes the suspension effect of the first kind (SE1) and is a mixed steady-state potential. It is considered by convention as a substitute for and equivalent to the equilibrium potential which as a rule does not exist in a suspension. The soil pH values measured by the proposed conventional method are reproducible and valid with regard to the international hpH scale. They could be considered as the pH values, with uncertainty of +/- 0.1 pH unit, to which the roots are exposed.

  1. Effect of soil acidity factors on yields and foliar composition of tropical root crops

    SciTech Connect

    Abruna-Rodriguez, F.; Vicente-Chandler, J.I. Rivera, E.; Rodriguez, J.

    1982-09-01

    Tropical root crops, a major source of food for subsistence farmers, varied in their sensitivity to soil acidity factors. Tolerance to soil acidity is an important characteristic of crops for the humid tropics where soils are often very acid and lime-scarce and expensive. Experiments on two Ultisols and an Oxisol showed that three tropical root crops differed markedly in sensitivity to soil acicity factors. Yams (Dioscorea alata L.) were very sensitive to soil acidity with yields on a Ultisol decreasing from 70% of maximum when Al saturation of the effective cation exchange capacity of the soil was 10 to 25% of maximum when Al saturation was 40%. On the other hand, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was very tolerant to high levels of soil acidity, yielding about 85% of maximum with 60% Al saturation. Taniers (Xanthosoma sp.) were intermediate between yams and cassava in their tolerance to soil acidity yielding about 60% of maximum with 50% Al saturation of the soil. Foliar composition of cassava was not affected by soil acidity levels and that of yams and taniers was also unaffected except for Ca content which decreased with decreasing soil pH and increasing Al saturation.Response of these tropical root crops to soil acidity components was far more striking on Ultisols than on the Oxisol. For yams, soils should be limed to about pH 5.5 with essentially no exhangeable Al/sup 3 +/ present whereas high yields of taniers can be obtained at about pH 4.8 with 20% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/ and of cassava at pH as low as 4.5 with 60% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/.

  2. The effect of acidity on the distribution and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia in Lithuanian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapinskas, E. B.

    2007-04-01

    The distribution and symbiotic efficiency of nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum_bv. trifolii F., Sinorhizobium meliloti D., Rhizobium galegae L., and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae F. in Lithuanian soils as dependent on the soil acidity were studied in the long-term field, pot, and laboratory experiments. The critical and optimal pH values controlling the distribution of rhizobia and the symbiotic nitrogen fixation were determined for every bacterial species. The relationship was found between the soil pH and the nitrogen-fixing capacity of rhizobia. A positive effect of liming of acid soils in combination with inoculation of legumes on the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation was demonstrated.

  3. Processes and fluxes during the initial stage of acid sulfate soil formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, J.; Hamer, K.; Schulz, H. D.

    2009-04-01

    Acid sulfate soils occur over a wide range of climatic zones, mainly in coastal landscapes. In these soils, the release of sulfuric acid by the oxidation of pyrite generates a very acidic environment (e.g., DENT and PONS, 1995, PONS, 1973). Two major types of acid sulfate soils can be distinguished: In actual acid sulfate soils, the initially contained pyrite was at least partly oxidized. This resulted in a severe acidification of the soil. Potential acid sulfate soils are generally unoxidized and contain large amounts of pyrite. Upon oxidation, these soils will turn into actual acid sulfate soils. By excavation or lowering of the groundwater table, potential acid sulfate soils can be exposed to atmospheric oxygen. During oxidation the pH drops sharply to values below pH 4. This acidification promotes the release of various metals, e.g., alumina, iron and heavy metals. Additionally, large quantities of sulfate are released. In order to assess the effects of disturbances of potential acid sulfate soils, for example by excavations during construction works, several large scale column experiments were conducted with various types of potential acid sulfate soils from Northern Germany. In these experiments, the oxidation and initial profile development of pyritic fen peats and thionic fluvisols were studied over a period of 14 months. The study focused on leaching and the translocation of various metals in the soil profile. To study mobilization processes, element fluxes and the progress of acidification, soil water and leachate were analyzed for total element concentrations. Furthermore, several redox-sensitive parameters, e.g., Fe2+ and sulfide, were measured and changes to the initial solid phase composition were analyzed. Chemical equilibria calculations of the soil water were used to gain insights into precipitation processes of secondary products of pyrite oxidation and leaching products. The results of this study will support the assessment of risks deriving from

  4. Effects of simulated acid rain on microbial characteristics in a lateritic red soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-qin; Zhang, Jia-en; Ouyang, Ying; Lin, Ling; Quan, Guo-ming; Zhao, Ben-liang; Yu, Jia-yu

    2015-11-01

    A laboratory experiment was performed to examine the impact of simulated acid rain (SAR) on nutrient leaching, microbial biomass, and microbial activities in a lateritic red soil in South China. The soil column leaching experiment was conducted over a 60-day period with the following six SAR pH treatments (levels): 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 and one control treatment (pH = 7). Compared with the control treatment, the concentrations of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), and average well color density (AWCD) in the Ecoplates were all significantly decreased by leaching with SAR at different pH levels. The decrease in MBC and MBN indicated that acid rain reduced the soil microbial population, while the decrease in AWCD revealed that acid rain had a negative effect on soil bacterial metabolic function. Soil basal respiration increased gradually from pH 4.0 to 7.0 but decreased dramatically from pH 2.5 to 3.0. The decrease in soil nutrient was the major reason for the change of soil microbial functions. A principal component analysis showed that the major carbon sources used by the bacteria were carbohydrates and carboxylic acids.

  5. Nutrient leaching, soil pH and changes in microbial community increase with time in lead-contaminated boreal forest soil at a shooting range area.

    PubMed

    Selonen, Salla; Setälä, Heikki

    2017-02-01

    Despite the known toxicity of lead (Pb), Pb pellets are widely used at shotgun shooting ranges over the world. However, the impacts of Pb on soil nutrients and soil microbes, playing a crucial role in nutrient cycling, are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unknown whether these impacts change with time after the cessation of shooting. To shed light on these issues, three study sites in the same coniferous forest in a shooting range area were studied: an uncontaminated control site and an active and an abandoned shooting range, both sharing a similar Pb pellet load in the soil, but the latter with a 20-year longer contamination history. Soil pH and nitrate concentration increased, whilst soil phosphate concentration and fungal phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) decreased due to Pb contamination. Our results imply that shooting-derived Pb can influence soil nutrients and microbes not only directly but also indirectly by increasing soil pH. However, these mechanisms cannot be differentiated here. Many of the Pb-induced changes were most pronounced at the abandoned range, and nutrient leaching was increased only at that site. These results suggest that Pb disturbs the structure and functions of the soil system and impairs a crucial ecosystem service, the ability to retain nutrients. Furthermore, the risks of shooting-derived Pb to the environment increase with time.

  6. Effects of sodium hypochlorite and high pH buffer solution in electrokinetic soil treatment on soil chromium removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Cang, Long; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Alshawabkeh, Akram N; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2007-04-02

    Effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), applied as an oxidant in catholyte, and high pH buffer solution on soil Cr removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community during enhanced electrokinetic treatments of a chromium (Cr) contaminated red soil are evaluated. Using pH control system to maintain high alkalinity of soil together with the use of NaClO increased the electrical conductivities of soil pore liquid and electroosmotic flux compared with the control (Exp-01). The pH control and NaClO improved the removal of Cr(VI) and total Cr from the soil. The highest removal percentages of soil Cr(VI) and total Cr were 96 and 72%, respectively, in Exp-04 when the pH value of the anolyte was controlled at 10 and NaClO was added in the catholyte. The alkaline soil environment and introduction of NaClO in the soil enhanced the desorption of Cr(VI) from the soil and promoted Cr(III) oxidation to mobile Cr(VI), respectively. However, the elevated pH and introduction of NaClO in the soil, which are necessary for improving the removal efficiency of soil Cr, resulted in a significantly adverse impact on the functional diversity of soil microbial community. It suggests that to assess the negative impact of extreme conditions for enhancing the extraction efficiencies of Cr on the soil properties and function is necessary.

  7. Effect of organic carbon and pH on soil sorption of sulfamethazine.

    PubMed

    Lertpaitoonpan, Warisara; Ong, Say Kee; Moorman, Thomas B

    2009-07-01

    Batch sorption of sulfamethazine was conducted using five soils with organic carbon (OC) contents ranging from 0.1% to 3.8% and solution pHs ranging from 5.5 to 9. Sorption of sulfamethazine was found to be impacted by OC, soil surface area and soil solution pH, with higher K(d) values for soils with higher OC and lower K(d) values as the pH increased. However, OC was found to be the more dominant parameter. Linear partition coefficients at pH 5.5 were found to be 0.58+/-0.17 Lkg(-1) for soil with 0.1% OC and 3.91+/-0.36 Lkg(-1) for soil with 3.8% OC. At pH 9, the K(d) values were found to decrease by more than 50% to 0.23+/-0.06 Lkg(-1) (soil with 0.1% OC) and 1.16+/-0.05 Lkg(-1) (soil with 3.8% OC). Hydrophobic sorption was probably involved for pH<7.4 (pK(a,2)=7.4 for sulfamethazine) due to the non-ionized form of sulfamethazine while surface sorption was probably involved for pH>7.4 due to the ionized form of sulfamethazine. This was confirmed by regressing the estimated sorption coefficients of cationic, uncharged, and anionic species against the soil properties. A stepwise linear regression model incorporating the anionic fraction of sulfamethazine ionization and soil properties were developed and were found to estimate the K(d) values of other studies using soils of different pH and soil properties.

  8. Cultivation of an obligate acidophilic ammonia oxidizer from a nitrifying acid soil.

    PubMed

    Lehtovirta-Morley, Laura E; Stoecker, Kilian; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Prosser, James I; Nicol, Graeme W

    2011-09-20

    Nitrification is a fundamental component of the global nitrogen cycle and leads to significant fertilizer loss and atmospheric and groundwater pollution. Nitrification rates in acidic soils (pH < 5.5), which comprise 30% of the world's soils, equal or exceed those of neutral soils. Paradoxically, autotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea, which perform the first stage in nitrification, demonstrate little or no growth in suspended liquid culture below pH 6.5, at which ammonia availability is reduced by ionization. Here we report the discovery and cultivation of a chemolithotrophic, obligately acidophilic thaumarchaeal ammonia oxidizer, "Candidatus Nitrosotalea devanaterra," from an acidic agricultural soil. Phylogenetic analysis places the organism within a previously uncultivated thaumarchaeal lineage that has been observed in acidic soils. Growth of the organism is optimal in the pH range 4 to 5 and is restricted to the pH range 4 to 5.5, unlike all previously cultivated ammonia oxidizers. Growth of this organism and associated ammonia oxidation and autotrophy also occur during nitrification in soil at pH 4.5. The discovery of Nitrosotalea devanaterra provides a previously unsuspected explanation for high rates of nitrification in acidic soils, and confirms the vital role that thaumarchaea play in terrestrial nitrogen cycling. Growth at extremely low ammonia concentration (0.18 nM) also challenges accepted views on ammonia uptake and metabolism and indicates novel mechanisms for ammonia oxidation at low pH.

  9. Archaeal abundance across a pH gradient in an arable soil and its relationship to bacterial and fungal growth rates.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, Per; Sterngren, Anna E; Rousk, Johannes

    2012-08-01

    Soil pH is one of the most influential factors for the composition of bacterial and fungal communities, but the influence of soil pH on the distribution and composition of soil archaeal communities has yet to be systematically addressed. The primary aim of this study was to determine how total archaeal abundance (quantitative PCR [qPCR]-based estimates of 16S rRNA gene copy numbers) is related to soil pH across a pH gradient (pH 4.0 to 8.3). Secondarily, we wanted to assess how archaeal abundance related to bacterial and fungal growth rates across the same pH gradient. We identified two distinct and opposite effects of pH on the archaeal abundance. In the lowest pH range (pH 4.0 to 4.7), the abundance of archaea did not seem to correspond to pH. Above this pH range, there was a sharp, almost 4-fold decrease in archaeal abundance, reaching a minimum at pH 5.1 to 5.2. The low abundance of archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers at this pH range then sharply increased almost 150-fold with pH, resulting in an increase in the ratio between archaeal and bacterial copy numbers from a minimum of 0.002 to more than 0.07 at pH 8. The nonuniform archaeal response to pH could reflect variation in the archaeal community composition along the gradient, with some archaea adapted to acidic conditions and others to neutral to slightly alkaline conditions. This suggestion is reinforced by observations of contrasting outcomes of the (competitive) interactions between archaea, bacteria, and fungi toward the lower and higher ends of the examined pH gradient.

  10. Interactive effects of soil acidity and fluoride on soil solution aluminium chemistry and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root growth.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, V; Loganathan, P; Tillman, R W; Parfitt, R L

    2007-02-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine if concentrations of fluoride (F), which would be added to acid soils via P fertilisers, were detrimental to barley root growth. Increasing rates of F additions to soil significantly increased the soil solution concentrations of aluminium (Al) and F irrespective of the initial adjusted soil pH, which ranged from 4.25 to 5.48. High rates of F addition severely restricted root growth; the effect was more pronounced in the strongly acidic soil. Speciation calculations demonstrated that increasing rates of F additions substantially increased the concentrations of Al-F complexes in the soil. Stepwise regression analysis showed that it was the combination of the activities of AlF2(1+) and AlF(2+) complexes that primarily controlled barley root growth. The results suggested that continuous input of F to soils, and increased soil acidification, may become an F risk issue in the future.

  11. Prolonged acid rain facilitates soil organic carbon accumulation in a mature forest in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Xiong, Xin; Qiu, Qingyan; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-15

    With the continuing increase in anthropogenic activities, acid rain remains a serious environmental threat, especially in the fast developing areas such as southern China. To detect how prolonged deposition of acid rain would influence soil organic carbon accumulation in mature subtropical forests, we conducted a field experiment with simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments in a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest at Dinghushan National Nature Reserve in southern China. Four levels of SAR treatments were set by irrigating plants with water of different pH values: CK (the control, local lake water, pH ≈ 4.5), T1 (water pH=4.0), T2 (water pH=3.5), and T3 (water pH=3.0). Results showed reduced pH measurements in the topsoil exposed to simulated acid rains due to soil acidification. Soil respiration, soil microbial biomass and litter decomposition rates were significantly decreased by the SAR treatments. As a result, T3 treatment significantly increased the total organic carbon by 24.5% in the topsoil compared to the control. Furthermore, surface soil became more stable as more recalcitrant organic matter was generated under the SAR treatments. Our results suggest that prolonged acid rain exposure may have the potential to facilitate soil organic carbon accumulation in the subtropical forest in southern China.

  12. Regularities of extracting humic acids from soils using sodium pyrophosphate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakina, L. G.; Drichko, V. F.; Orlova, N. E.

    2017-02-01

    Regularities of extracting humic acids from different soil types (soddy-podzolic soil, gray forest soil, and all chernozem subtypes) with sodium pyrophosphate solutions at different pH values (from 5 to 13) have been studied. It is found that, regardless of soil type, the process occurs in two stages through the dissociation of carboxylic groups and phenolic hydroxyls, each of which can be described by a logistic function. Parameters of the logistic equations approximating the extraction of humic acids from soils at different pH values are independent of the content and composition of humus in soils. Changes in the optical density of humic acids extracted from soils using sodium pyrophosphate solutions with different pH values are described in the first approximation by the Gaussian function. The optically densest humic acids are extracted using sodium pyrophosphate solutions at pH 10. Therefore, it is proposed to use an extract with pH 10 for the characterization of organic matter with the maximum possible degree of humification in the given soil.

  13. Soil pH management by calcareous and siliceous minerals: effect on N2O yield in nitrification and denitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Shahid; Bakken, Lars; Dörsch, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Amelioration of soil pH by liming is necessary and common practice in vast areas of crop production. It is well known that pH is one of the most pervasive factors controlling rates and product stoichiometries in microbially mediated N transformations, including N2O emissions. While liming of acid soils appears to increase N2O reductase activity in denitrification (resulting in less N2O relative to N2), sudden pH raise may boost nitrification and hence N2O emission from ammonia oxidation. Thus, the net effect of liming on N2O emissions is not straightforward, which probably explains why soil pH management has not been embraced as a strategy for mitigating N2O emissions so far. Here we report laboratory incubations in which we determined potential rates and N2O yields in soils from an ongoing field experiment, comparing traditional calcareous limes (calcite, dolomite) with mafic minerals (olivine, different types of plagioclase). The experiment is in its second year, and shows strong pH increase (0.7-1.5, units) in plots with calcareous limes, a weak pH increase (~ 0.2 unit) in the olivine treatment and no measurable pH increase with the plagioclases. Potential nitrification rates correlated positively with effective soil pH as did the N2O yield, measured as N2O accumulation rate over NO2- + NO3- accumulation rate. The N2O yield increased in the order, control < plagioclase < olivine < dolomite < calcite and was significant for calcite and dolomite treated soils. Overall, the N2O yield from nitrification was quite low (0.09 - 0.17%). Potential denitrifications rates showed little response to pH increase (no C source added) but significantly lower N2O product ratios (N2O/(N2O + N2) with increasing pH in the order, calcite < dolomite < olivine < plagioclase < control. Given the overall low N2O yield of nitrification as compared to that of denitrification (10 - 100%), the observed increases in N2O yields of nitrification are unlikely to override a significant reduction

  14. Influences of biochar addition on vegetable soil nitrogen balance and pH buffering capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Odindo, AO; Xue, L.; Yang, L.

    2016-08-01

    Leaching is a major path for chemical nitrogen fertilizer loss from in vegetable soil, which would destroy soil pH buffering capacity soil and result in acidification. It has been a common phenomenon in Tai Lake Region, China. However, few study focused on the change soil pH buffering capacity, especially the effect of soil amendment on pH buffering capacity. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to research the effects of biochar addition to a vegetable soil on nitrogen leaching and pH buffering capacity with pakchoi (B.chinensis L.) growth as the experimental crop. The results showed that biochar could significantly increase the pakchoi nitrogen utilization efficiency, decrease 48%-65% nitrogen loss from leaching under the urea continuous applied condition. Biochar also could effectively maintain the content of soil organic matter and base cations. Therefore, it rose up soil pH buffering capacity by 9.4%-36.8% and significantly slowed down acidification rate. It was suggested that 1%-2% addition ratio was recommended from this study when used as similar soil condition.

  15. EDTA and HCl leaching of calcareous and acidic soils polluted with potentially toxic metals: remediation efficiency and soil impact.

    PubMed

    Udovic, Metka; Lestan, Domen

    2012-07-01

    The environmental risk of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) in soil can be diminished by their removal. Among the available remediation techniques, soil leaching with various solutions is one of the most effective but data about the impact on soil chemical and biological properties are still scarce. We studied the effect of two common leaching agents, hydrochloric acid (HCl) and a chelating agent (EDTA) on Pb, Zn, Cd removal and accessibility and on physico-chemical and biological properties in one calcareous, pH neutral soil and one non-calcareous acidic soil. EDTA was a more efficient leachant compared to HCl: up to 133-times lower chelant concentration was needed for the same percentage (35%) of Pb removal. EDTA and HCl concentrations with similar PTM removal efficiency decreased PTM accessibility in both soils but had different impacts on soil properties. As expected, HCl significantly dissolved carbonates from calcareous soil, while EDTA leaching increased the pH of the acidic soil. Enzyme activity assays showed that leaching with HCl had a distinctly negative impact on soil microbial and enzyme activity, while leaching with EDTA had less impact. Our results emphasize the importance of considering the ecological impact of remediation processes on soil in addition to the capacity for PTM removal.

  16. Seasonal Belowground Ecosystem and Eco-enzymatic Responses to Soil pH and Phosphorus Availability in Temperate Hardwood Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smemo, K. A.; Deforest, J. L.; Petersen, S. L.; Burke, D.; Hewins, C.; Kluber, L. A.; Kyker, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric acid deposition can increase phosphorus (P) limitation in temperate hardwood forests by increasing N availability, and therefore P demand, and/or by decreasing pH and occluding inorganic P. However, only recently have studies demonstrated that P limitation can occur in temperate forests and very little is known about the temporal aspects of P dynamics in acidic forest soils and how seasonal shifts in nutrient availability and demand influence microbial investment in extracellular enzymes. The objectives of this study were to investigate how P availability and soil pH influence seasonal patterns of nutrient cycling and soil microbial activity in hardwood forests that experience chronic acid deposition. We experimentally manipulated soil pH, P, or both for three years and examined soil treatment responses in fall, winter, spring, early summer, and late summer. We found that site (glaciated versus unglaciated) and treatment had the most significant influence on nutrient pools and cycling. In general, nutrient pools were higher in glaciated soils than unglaciated for measured nutrients, including total C and N (2-3 times higher), extractable inorganic nitrogen, and readily available P. Treatment had no impact on total C and N pools in either region, but did affect other measured nutrients such as ammonium, which was greatest in the elevated pH treatment for both sites. As expected, readily available P pools were highest in the elevated P treatments (3 fold increase in both sites), but raising pH decreased available P pools in the glaciated site. Raising soil pH increased both net N mineralization rates and net P mineralization rates, regardless of site. Nitrification responses were complex, but we observed an overall significant nitrification increase under elevated pH, particularly in the growing season. Extracellular enzyme activity showed more seasonal patterns than site and treatment effects, exhibiting significant growing season activity reductions for

  17. Soil surface acidity plays a determining role in the atmospheric-terrestrial exchange of nitrous acid

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Melissa A.; Bish, David L.; Raff, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important hydroxyl (OH) radical source that is formed on both ground and aerosol surfaces in the well-mixed boundary layer. Recent studies report the release of HONO from nonacidic soils, although it is unclear how soil that is more basic than the pKa of HONO (∼3) is capable of protonating soil nitrite to serve as an atmospheric HONO source. Here, we used a coated-wall flow tube and chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) to study the pH dependence of HONO uptake onto agricultural soil and model substrates under atmospherically relevant conditions (1 atm and 30% relative humidity). Experiments measuring the evolution of HONO from pH-adjusted surfaces treated with nitrite and potentiometric titrations of the substrates show, to our knowledge for the first time, that surface acidity rather than bulk aqueous pH determines HONO uptake and desorption efficiency on soil, in a process controlled by amphoteric aluminum and iron (hydr)oxides present. The results have important implications for predicting when soil nitrite, whether microbially derived or atmospherically deposited, will act as a net source or sink of atmospheric HONO. This process represents an unrecognized mechanism of HONO release from soil that will contribute to HONO emissions throughout the day. PMID:25512517

  18. Soil surface acidity plays a determining role in the atmospheric-terrestrial exchange of nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Melissa A; Bish, David L; Raff, Jonathan D

    2014-12-30

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important hydroxyl (OH) radical source that is formed on both ground and aerosol surfaces in the well-mixed boundary layer. Recent studies report the release of HONO from nonacidic soils, although it is unclear how soil that is more basic than the pKa of HONO (∼ 3) is capable of protonating soil nitrite to serve as an atmospheric HONO source. Here, we used a coated-wall flow tube and chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) to study the pH dependence of HONO uptake onto agricultural soil and model substrates under atmospherically relevant conditions (1 atm and 30% relative humidity). Experiments measuring the evolution of HONO from pH-adjusted surfaces treated with nitrite and potentiometric titrations of the substrates show, to our knowledge for the first time, that surface acidity rather than bulk aqueous pH determines HONO uptake and desorption efficiency on soil, in a process controlled by amphoteric aluminum and iron (hydr)oxides present. The results have important implications for predicting when soil nitrite, whether microbially derived or atmospherically deposited, will act as a net source or sink of atmospheric HONO. This process represents an unrecognized mechanism of HONO release from soil that will contribute to HONO emissions throughout the day.

  19. Sorption of tebuconazole onto selected soil minerals and humic acids.

    PubMed

    Cadková, Eva; Komárek, Michael; Kaliszová, Regina; Koudelková, Věra; Dvořák, Jiří; Vaněk, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate tebuconazole sorption on common soil minerals (birnessite, ferrihydrite, goethite, calcite and illite) and humic acids (representing soil organic matter). Tebuconazole was used (i) in the commercial form Horizon 250 EW and (ii) as an analytical grade pure chemical. In the experiment with the commercially available tebuconazole, a significant pH-dependent sorption onto the oxides was observed (decreasing sorption with increasing pH). The highest sorption was found for ferrihydrite due to its high specific surface area, followed by humic acids, birnessite, goethite and illite. No detectable sorption was found for calcite. The sorption of analytical grade tebuconazole on all selected minerals was significantly lower compared to the commercial product. The sorption was the highest for humic acids, followed by ferrihydrite and illite and almost negligible for goethite and birnessite without any pH dependence. Again, no sorption was observed for calcite. The differences in sorption of the commercially available and analytical grade tebuconazole can be attributed to the additives (e.g., solvents) present in the commercial product. This work proved the importance of soil mineralogy and composition of the commercially available pesticides on the behavior of tebuconazole in soils.

  20. [Release of Si, Al and Fe in red soil under simulated acid rain].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Song, Cun-yi; Li, Fa-sheng

    2007-10-01

    bstract:A laboratory leaching experiment on simulated acid rain was carried out using soil columns. The release of Si, Al and Fe from soils and pH values of eluates were investigated. The results showed that under the given leaching volume, the release amounts of cations were influenced by the pH value of simulated acid rain, while their response to acid rain was different. Acid rain led to Si release, nearly none of Fe. Within the range from pH 3.0 to 5.6, a little Al release but mass Al only release at the pH below 3.0, both Si and Al had a declining release ability with the undergoing eluviation. At pH 2.5, the release amounts of Si and Al, especially Al, increased significantly with the strengthened weathering process of soil mineral. With an increase of the leaching amount of acid rain, the release of Si and Al increased, but acceleration of Si was slower than Al which was slower and slower. When the soil pH falling down to a certain grade, there are negative correlation between pH and both Al and DOC concentration of eluate. released, but most of Al derived from the aluminosilicates dissolved. Acid deposition can result in solid-phase alumino-organics broken and Al released, but most of Al derived from the aluminosilicates dissolved.

  1. The Relationship between pH and Bacterial Communities in a Single Karst Ecosystem and Its Implication for Soil Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yuan; Wang, Hongmei; Man, Baiying; Xiang, Xing; Zhou, Jianping; Qiu, Xuan; Duan, Yong; Engel, Annette S.

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced monsoon duration and soil acidification from acid rain are expected to impact the distribution of microbial communities in surface and subsurface environments, although these impacts are poorly understood for most systems. In central China, soluble carbonate bedrock forms extensive karst landscapes. Current predictions are that the amount of monsoonal precipitation and acid rainfall in central China will increase, which is expected to lead to changes in the pH balance of karst ecosystems. To evaluate the role of pH, total organic carbon, and other geochemical parameters (e.g., Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, NOx, SO42-) in shaping bacterial communities within a single karst system in central China, samples were collected from the thin surface soils overlying Heshang Cave, cave sediments, and weathered cave passage rocks from the entrance, twilight, and dark zones, as well as from epikarstic drip waters inside the cave. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and multivariate statistical analyses revealed that each tested community was distinct and the community variability was significantly correlated with pH, total organic carbon, and potassium concentrations. Specifically, surface soils were dominated by Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes, and diversity significantly decreased with acidic pH values. Nitrospirae, Gemmatimonadetes, Firmicutes, and Chloroflexi were unique to cave sediments, while Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria dominated weathered rocks and drip waters, respectively. The results reveal important implications regarding the effects of acidification on bacterial communities in karst areas, and on the control of pH in shaping bacterial communities throughout a karst system. Increased water flux into and through karst habitats due to monsoonal precipitation may result in deeper penetration of acidic solutions into karst and shift the bacterial communities inside the cave in the future. PMID:28018299

  2. The Relationship between pH and Bacterial Communities in a Single Karst Ecosystem and Its Implication for Soil Acidification.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yuan; Wang, Hongmei; Man, Baiying; Xiang, Xing; Zhou, Jianping; Qiu, Xuan; Duan, Yong; Engel, Annette S

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced monsoon duration and soil acidification from acid rain are expected to impact the distribution of microbial communities in surface and subsurface environments, although these impacts are poorly understood for most systems. In central China, soluble carbonate bedrock forms extensive karst landscapes. Current predictions are that the amount of monsoonal precipitation and acid rainfall in central China will increase, which is expected to lead to changes in the pH balance of karst ecosystems. To evaluate the role of pH, total organic carbon, and other geochemical parameters (e.g., Ca(2+), Mg(2+), NH4(+), NOx, SO4(2-)) in shaping bacterial communities within a single karst system in central China, samples were collected from the thin surface soils overlying Heshang Cave, cave sediments, and weathered cave passage rocks from the entrance, twilight, and dark zones, as well as from epikarstic drip waters inside the cave. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and multivariate statistical analyses revealed that each tested community was distinct and the community variability was significantly correlated with pH, total organic carbon, and potassium concentrations. Specifically, surface soils were dominated by Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes, and diversity significantly decreased with acidic pH values. Nitrospirae, Gemmatimonadetes, Firmicutes, and Chloroflexi were unique to cave sediments, while Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria dominated weathered rocks and drip waters, respectively. The results reveal important implications regarding the effects of acidification on bacterial communities in karst areas, and on the control of pH in shaping bacterial communities throughout a karst system. Increased water flux into and through karst habitats due to monsoonal precipitation may result in deeper penetration of acidic solutions into karst and shift the bacterial communities inside the cave in the future.

  3. Differences in soil micro-eukaryotic communities over soil pH gradients are strongly driven by parasites and saprotrophs.

    PubMed

    Dupont, A Ö C; Griffiths, R I; Bell, T; Bass, D

    2016-06-01

    A recent large-scale assessment of bacterial communities across a range of UK soil types showed that bacterial community structure was strongly determined by soil pH. We analysed a data set of eukaryotic 454 sequencing 18S rDNA from the surveyed samples and showed significant differences in eukaryotic assemblages according to pH class, mostly between low pH and higher pH soils. Soil eukaryote communities (per sample) differed most at the taxonomic rank approximating to order level. Taxonomies assigned with the Protist Ribosomal Reference and the Silva 119 databases were taxonomically inconsistent, mostly due to differing 18S annotations, although general structure and composition according to pH were coherent. A relatively small number of lineages, mostly putative parasitic protists and fungi, drive most differences between pH classes, with weaker contributions from bacterivores and autotrophs. Overall, soil parasites included a large diversity of alveolates, in particular apicomplexans. Phylogenetic analysis of alveolate lineages demonstrates a large diversity of unknown gregarines, novel perkinsids, coccidians, colpodellids and uncharacterized alveolates. Other novel and/or divergent lineages were revealed across the eukaryote tree of life. Our study provides an in-depth taxonomic evaluation of micro-eukaryotic diversity, and reveals novel lineages and insights into their relationships with environmental variables across soil gradients.

  4. Acid rain on acid soil: a new perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, E.C.; Frink, C.R.

    1983-08-05

    Acid rain is widely believed to be responsible for acidifying soil and water in areas of North America and Northern Europe. However, factors commonly considered to make landscapes susceptible to acidification by acid rain are the same factors long known to strongly acidify soils through the natural processes of soil formation. Recovery from extreme and widespread careless land use has also occurred in regions undergoing acidification. There is evidence that acidification by acid rain is superimposed on long-term acidification induced by changes in land use and consequent vegetative succession. Thus, the interactions of acid rain, acid soil, and vegetation need to be carefully examined on a watershed basis in assessing benefits expected from proposed reductions in emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen.

  5. Acid rain on acid soil: a new perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, E.C.; Frink, C.R.

    1983-08-05

    Acid rain is widely believed to be responsible for acidifying soil and water in areas of North America and northern Europe. However, factors commonly considered to make landscapes susceptible to acidification by acid rain are the same factors long known to strongly acidify soils through the natural processes of soil formation. Recovery from extreme and widespread careless land use has also occurred in regions undergoing acidification. There is evidence that acidification by acid rain is superimposed on long-term acidification induced by changes in land use and consequent vegetative succession. Thus, the interactions of acid rain, acid soil, and vegetation need to be carefully examined on a watershed basis in assessing benefits expected from proposed reductions in emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen.

  6. The influence of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and stream waters on a seasonal basis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Pippa J; Clark, Joanna M; Reynolds, Brian; Adamson, John K

    2008-01-01

    Much uncertainty still exists regarding the relative importance of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and surface waters. This paper contributes to this debate by presenting analysis of seasonal variations in atmospheric deposition, soil solution and stream water chemistry for two UK headwater catchments with contrasting soils. Acid neutralising capacity (ANC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the Na:Cl ratio of soil and stream waters displayed strong seasonal patterns with little seasonal variation observed in soil water pH. These patterns, plus the strong relationships between ANC, Cl and DOC, suggest that cation exchange and seasonal changes in the production of DOC and seasalt deposition are driving a shift in the proportion of acidity attributable to strong acid anions, from atmospheric deposition, during winter to predominantly organic acids in summer.

  7. Ammonia-oxidizing activity and microbial community structure in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, K.; Takanashi, A.; Yamada, T.; Hiraishi, A.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ammonia-oxidizing activity and the phylogentic composition of microorganisms involved in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil. All soil samples were collected from three sites located in Tahara and Toyohashi, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The potential nitrification rate (PNR) was measured by the chlorate inhibition method. The soil pH of tea orchards studied ranged from 2.78 to 4.84, differing significantly from sample to sample, whereas that of meadow and unplanted fields ranged from 5.78 to 6.35. The PNR ranged from 0.050 to 0.193 μg NO2--Ng-1 h-1 and were positively correlated with the soil pH (r2 = 0.382, p<0.001). Bulk DNA was extracted from a tea orchard soil (pH 4.8; PNR, 0.078 μg NO2--Ng-1 h-1) and subjected to PCR-aided clone library analyses targeting archaeal and bacterial amoA genes. The detected archaeal clones separated from the cluster of the 'Soil clones' and tightly clustered with the clones originating from other acidic soil environments including the Chinese tea orchard soil. These results suggest that the specific archaeal populations dominate as the ammonia oxidizers in acid tea-orchard soils and possibly other acid soils, independent of geographic locations, which results from the adaptation to specific ecological niches.

  8. Effects of Soil Oxygen Conditions and Soil pH on Remediation of DDT-contaminated Soil by Laccase from White Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuechun; Yi, Xiaoyun

    2010-01-01

    High residues of DDT in agricultural soils are of concern because they present serious threats to food security and human health. This article focuses on remediation of DDT-contaminated soil using laccase under different soil oxygen and soil pH conditions. The laboratory experiment results showed significant effects of soil oxygen conditions and soil pH on remediation of DDT-contaminated soil by laccase at the end of a 25-d incubation period. This study found the positive correlation between the concentration of oxygen in soil and the degradation of DDT by laccase. The residue of DDTs in soil under the atmosphere of oxygen decreased by 28.1% compared with the atmosphere of nitrogen at the end of the incubation with laccase. A similar pattern was observed in the remediation of DDT-contaminated soil by laccase under different flooding conditions, the higher the concentrations of oxygen in soil, the lower the residues of four DDT components and DDTs in soils. The residue of DDTs in the nonflooding soil declined by 16.7% compared to the flooded soil at the end of the incubation. The residues of DDTs in soils treated with laccase were lower in the pH range 2.5–4.5. PMID:20617049

  9. Alleviating aluminium toxicity on an acid sulphate soils in Peninsular Malaysia with application of calcium silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to alleviate Al toxicity of an acid sulphate soils collected from paddy cultivation area in Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. For this purpose, the collected acid sulphate soils were treated with calcium silicate. The treated soils were incubated for 120 days in submerged condition in a glasshouse. Subsamples were collected every 30 days throughout the incubation period. Soil pH and exchangeable Al showed positive effect; soil pH increased from 2.9 to 3.5, meanwhile exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 to 0.82 cmolc kg-1, which was well below the critical Al toxicity level for rice growth of 2 cmolc kg-1. It was noted that the dissolution of calcium silicate (CaSiO3) supplied substantial amount of Ca2+ and H4SiO42- ions into the soil, noted with increment in Si (silicate) content from 21.21 to 40 mg kg-1 at day 30 and reduction of exchangeable Al at day 90 from 4.26 to below 2 cmolc kg-1. During the first 60 days of incubation, Si content was positively correlated with soil pH, while the exchangeable Al was negatively correlated with Si content. It is believed that the silicate anions released by calcium silicate were active in neutralizing H+ ions that governs the high acidity (pH 2.90) of the acid sulphate soils. This scenario shows positive effect of calcium silicate to reduce soil acidity, therefore creates a favourable soil condition for good rice growth during its vegetative phase (30 days). Thus, application of calcium silicate to alleviate Al toxicity of acid sulphate soils for rice cultivation is a good soil amendment.

  10. pH is the primary determinant of the bacterial community structure in agricultural soils impacted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yucheng; Zeng, Jun; Zhu, Qinghe; Zhang, Zhenfa; Lin, Xiangui

    2017-01-01

    Acidification and pollution are two major threats to agricultural ecosystems; however, microbial community responses to co-existed soil acidification and pollution remain less explored. In this study, arable soils of broad pH (4.26–8.43) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) gradients (0.18–20.68 mg kg‑1) were collected from vegetable farmlands. Bacterial community characteristics including abundance, diversity and composition were revealed by quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies significantly correlated with soil carbon and nitrogen contents, suggesting the control of nutrients accessibility on bacterial abundance. The bacterial diversity was strongly related to soil pH, with higher diversity in neutral samples and lower in acidic samples. Soil pH was also identified by an ordination analysis as important factor shaping bacterial community composition. The relative abundances of some dominant phyla varied along the pH gradient, and the enrichment of a few phylotypes suggested their adaptation to low pH condition. In contrast, at the current pollution level, PAH showed marginal effects on soil bacterial community. Overall, these findings suggest pH was the primary determinant of bacterial community in these arable soils, indicative of a more substantial influence of acidification than PAH pollution on bacteria driven ecological processes.

  11. pH is the primary determinant of the bacterial community structure in agricultural soils impacted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yucheng; Zeng, Jun; Zhu, Qinghe; Zhang, Zhenfa; Lin, Xiangui

    2017-01-01

    Acidification and pollution are two major threats to agricultural ecosystems; however, microbial community responses to co-existed soil acidification and pollution remain less explored. In this study, arable soils of broad pH (4.26–8.43) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) gradients (0.18–20.68 mg kg−1) were collected from vegetable farmlands. Bacterial community characteristics including abundance, diversity and composition were revealed by quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies significantly correlated with soil carbon and nitrogen contents, suggesting the control of nutrients accessibility on bacterial abundance. The bacterial diversity was strongly related to soil pH, with higher diversity in neutral samples and lower in acidic samples. Soil pH was also identified by an ordination analysis as important factor shaping bacterial community composition. The relative abundances of some dominant phyla varied along the pH gradient, and the enrichment of a few phylotypes suggested their adaptation to low pH condition. In contrast, at the current pollution level, PAH showed marginal effects on soil bacterial community. Overall, these findings suggest pH was the primary determinant of bacterial community in these arable soils, indicative of a more substantial influence of acidification than PAH pollution on bacteria driven ecological processes. PMID:28051171

  12. Selenium speciation in acidic environmental samples: application to acid rain-soil interaction at Mount Etna volcano.

    PubMed

    Floor, Geerke H; Iglesías, Mònica; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Corvini, Philippe F X; Lenz, Markus

    2011-09-01

    Speciation plays a crucial role in elemental mobility. However, trace level selenium (Se) speciation analyses in aqueous samples from acidic environments are hampered due to adsorption of the analytes (i.e. selenate, selenite) on precipitates. Such solid phases can form during pH adaptation up till now necessary for chromatographic separation. Thermodynamic calculations in this study predicted that a pH<4 is needed to prevent precipitation of Al and Fe phases. Therefore, a speciation method with a low pH eluent that matches the natural sample pH of acid rain-soil interaction samples from Etna volcano was developed. With a mobile phase containing 20mM ammonium citrate at pH 3, selenate and selenite could be separated in different acidic media (spiked water, rain, soil leachates) in <10 min with a LOQ of 0.2 μg L(-1) using (78)Se for detection. Applying this speciation analysis to study acid rain-soil interaction using synthetic rain based on H(2)SO(4) and soil samples collected at the flanks of Etna volcano demonstrated the dominance of selenate over selenite in leachates from samples collected close to the volcanic craters. This suggests that competitive behavior with sulfate present in acid rain might be a key factor in Se mobilization. The developed speciation method can significantly contribute to understand Se cycling in acidic, Al/Fe rich environments.

  13. Sulfate reduction in sulfuric material after re-flooding: Effectiveness of organic carbon addition and pH increase depends on soil properties.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chaolei; Fitzpatrick, Rob; Mosley, Luke M; Marschner, Petra

    2015-11-15

    Sulfuric material is formed upon oxidation of sulfidic material; it is extremely acidic, and therefore, an environmental hazard. One option for increasing pH of sulfuric material may be stimulation of bacterial sulfate reduction. We investigated the effects of organic carbon addition and pH increase on sulfate reduction after re-flooding in ten sulfuric materials with four treatments: control, pH increase to 5.5 (+pH), organic carbon addition with 2% w/w finely ground wheat straw (+C), and organic carbon addition and pH increase (+C+pH). After 36 weeks, in five of the ten soils, only treatment +C+pH significantly increased the concentration of reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) compared to the control and increased the soil pore water pH compared to treatment+pH. In four other soils, pH increase or/and organic carbon addition had no significant effect on RIS concentration compared to the control. The RIS concentration in treatment +C+pH as percentage of the control was negatively correlated with soil clay content and initial nitrate concentration. The results suggest that organic carbon addition and pH increase can stimulate sulfate reduction after re-flooding, but the effectiveness of this treatment depends on soil properties.

  14. Depth Matters: Soil pH and dilution effects in the northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the northern Great Plans (NGP), surface sampling depths of 0-15.2 cm or 0-20.3 cm are suggested for testing soil characteristics such as pH. However, acidification is often most pronounced near-surface (e.g., <10 cm). Thus, sampling deeper can potentially dilute (increase) pH measurements and the...

  15. Soil acidity affects distribution, behavior, and physiology of the salamander Plethodon cinereus

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, R.L.; Hawksley-Lescault, D.S.

    1987-12-01

    Censuses at two sites in Delaware County, New York from spring 1981 through spring 1985 indicated that the density and distribution of Plethodon cinereus were influenced by soil pH but not by soil temperature or moisture. Of 1044 1-m/sup 2/ quadrats of forest litter searched, 284 had a pH of 3.7 or less and only 25 of these (8.8%) contained salamanders. Of 760 quadrats with a pH 3.8 or more, 386 (50.8%) contained salamanders. Juvenile salamanders were never found on soils with a pH less than or equal to 3.7. Seasonal salamander density was correlated (r = -0.92) with the percentage of quadrats with a pH of 3.7 and less. Salamanders apparently were excluded from 27% of forest habitat because of low soil pH. In the laboratory, P. cinereus preferred to occupy substrates near neutral pH when given a choice among three levels of substrate acidity. The acutely lethal pH was between 2.5 and 3 and the 8-mo chronically lethal pH was between 3 and 4. Growth and respiration were reduced at low pHs. The influence of soil pH on salamander distribution might fundamentally change the forest floor decomposer food web of which P. cinereus is an upper-level consumer.

  16. Soil pH management without lime, a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Shahid; Bakken, Lars; Reent Köster, Jan; Tore Mørkved, Pål; Simon, Nina; Dörsch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    For decades, agricultural scientists have searched for methods to reduce the climate forcing of food production by increasing carbon sequestration in the soil and reducing the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). The outcome of this research is depressingly meagre and the two targets appear incompatible: efforts to increase carbon sequestration appear to enhance the emissions of N2O. Currently there is a need to find alternative management strategies which may effectively reduce both the CO2 and N2O footprints of food production. Soil pH is a master variable in soil productivity and plays an important role in controlling the chemical and biological activity in soil. Recent investigations of the physiology of denitrification have provided compelling evidence that the emission of N2O declines with increasing pH within the range 5-7. Thus, by managing the soil pH at a near neutral level appears to be a feasible way to reduce N2O emissions. Such pH management has been a target in conventional agriculture for a long time, since a near-neutral pH is optimal for a majority of cultivated plants. The traditional way to counteract acidification of agricultural soils is to apply lime, which inevitably leads to emission of CO2. An alternative way to increase the soil pH is the use of mafic rock powders, which have been shown to counteract soil acidification, albeit with a slower reaction than lime. Here we report a newly established field trail in Norway, in which we compare the effects of lime and different mafic mineral and rock powders (olivine, different types of plagioclase) on CO2 and N2O emissions under natural agricultural conditions. Soil pH is measured on a monthly basis from all treatment plots. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission measurements are carried out on a weekly basis using static chambers and an autonomous robot using fast box technique. Field results from the first winter (fallow) show immediate effect of lime on soil pH, and slower effects of the mafic rocks. The

  17. Crossing the pedogenetic threshold: Apparent phosphorus limitation by soil microorganisms in unglaciated acidic eastern hardwood forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deforest, J. L.; Smemo, K. A.; Burke, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The availability of soil phosphorus (P) can significantly influence microbial community composition and the ecosystem-level processes they mediate. However, the threshold at which soil microorganisms become functionally P-limited is unclear because of soil acidity effect on P availability. We reason that acidic temperate hardwood forest ecosystems are, in fact, functionally P-limited, but compensation occur via soil microbial production of phosphatase enzymes. We tested this hypothesis in glaciated and unglaciated mature mixed-mesophytic forests in eastern Ohio where both soil pH and P availability had been experientially manipulated. We measured the activity of two P acquiring soil enzymes, phosphomonoesterase (PMono) and phosphodiesterase (PDi), to understand how soil acidity and available P influence microbial function. Our experimental treatments elevated ambient soil pH from below 4.5 to around 5.5 and increased readily available phosphate from 3 to ~25 mg P/kg on glaciated soils and from 0.5 to ~5 mg P/kg on unglaciated soils. The P treatment decreased the activity of PDi by 82% relative to the control on unglaciated soils, but we observed no P treatment effect on glaciated soils. A similar result was observed for PMono. Soil pH, alone, did not significantly influence enzyme activities. Results suggest that soil microorganisms are more likely to be P-limited in older unglaciated soils. However, dramatically higher phosphatase activity in response to very low P availability suggests that an underlying ecosystem P limitation can be ameliorated by soil microbial community dynamics. This mechanism may be more important for older, unglaciated soils that have already crossed a pedogenic threshold where P availability influences ecosystem and microbial function.

  18. Effect of soil acidity, soil strength and macropores on root growth and morphology of perennial grass species differing in acid-soil resistance.

    PubMed

    Haling, Rebecca E; Simpson, Richard J; Culvenor, Richard A; Lambers, Hans; Richardson, Alan E

    2011-03-01

    It is unclear whether roots of acid-soil resistant plants have significant advantages, compared with acid-soil sensitive genotypes, when growing in high-strength, acid soils or in acid soils where macropores may allow the effects of soil acidity and strength to be avoided. The responses of root growth and morphology to soil acidity, soil strength and macropores by seedlings of five perennial grass genotypes differing in acid-soil resistance were determined, and the interaction of soil acidity and strength for growth and morphology of roots was investigated. Soil acidity and strength altered root length and architecture, root hair development, and deformed the root tip, especially in acid-soil sensitive genotypes. Root length was restricted to some extent by soil acidity in all genotypes, but the adverse impact of soil acidity on root growth by acid-soil resistant genotypes was greater at high levels of soil strength. Roots reacted to soil acidity when growing in macropores, but elongation through high-strength soil was improved. Soil strength can confound the effect of acidity on root growth, with the sensitivity of acid-resistant genotypes being greater in high-strength soils. This highlights the need to select for genotypes that resist both acidity and high soil strength.

  19. HONO (nitrous acid) emissions from acidic northern soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maljanen, Marja; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Martikainen, Pertti J.

    2015-04-01

    The photolysis of HONO (nitrous acid) is an important source of OH radical, the key oxidizing agent in the atmosphere, contributing also to removal of atmospheric methane (CH4), the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide (CO2). The emissions of HONO from soils have been recently reported in few studies. Soil HONO emissions are regarded as missing sources of HONO when considering the chemical reactions in the atmosphere. The soil-derived HONO has been connected to soil nitrite (NO2-) and also directly to the activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria, which has been studied with one pure culture. Our hypothesis was that boreal acidic soils with high nitrification activity could be also sources of HONO and the emissions of HONO are connected with nitrification. We selected a range of dominant northern acidic soils and showed in microcosm experiments that soils which have the highest nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions (drained peatlands) also have the highest HONO production rates. The emissions of HONO are thus linked to nitrogen cycle and also NO and N2O emissions. Natural peatlands and boreal coniferous forests on mineral soils had the lowest HONO emissions. It is known that in natural peatlands with high water table and in boreal coniferous forest soils, low nitrification activity (microbial production of nitrite and nitrate) limits their N2O production. Low availability of nitrite in these soils is the likely reason also for their low HONO production rates. We also studied the origin of HONO in one peat soil with acetylene and other nitrification inhibitors and we found that HONO production is not closely connected to ammonium oxidation (nitrification). Acetylene blocked NO emissions but did not affect HONO or N2O emissions, thus there is another source behind HONO emission from these soils than ammonium oxidation. It is still an open question if this process is microbial or chemical origin.

  20. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2016-03-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to ameliorate soil acidity in rice-cropped soil. The secondary objective was to study the effects of calcium silicate amendment on soil acidity, exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca, and Si content. The soil was treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 Mg ha-1 of calcium silicate under submerged conditions and the soil treatments were sampled every 30 days throughout an incubation period of 120 days. Application of calcium silicate induced a positive effect on soil pH and exchangeable Al; soil pH increased from 2.9 (initial) to 3.5, while exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 (initial) to 0.82 cmolc kg-1. Furthermore, the exchangeable Ca and Si contents increased from 1.68 (initial) to 4.94 cmolc kg-1 and from 21.21 (initial) to 81.71 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it was noted that calcium silicate was effective at alleviating Al toxicity in acid sulfate, rice-cropped soil, yielding values below the critical level of 2 cmolc kg-1. In addition, application of calcium silicate showed an ameliorative effect as it increased soil pH and supplied substantial amounts of Ca and Si.

  1. The combined effects of urea application and simulated acid rain on soil acidification and microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingmei; Zhou, Jian; Li, Wanlu; Xu, Jianming; Brookes, Philip C

    2014-05-01

    Our aim was to test the effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) at different pHs, when applied to fertilized and unfertilized soils, on the leaching of soil cations (K, Ca, Mg, Na) and Al. Their effects on soil pH, exchangeable H(+) and Al(3+) and microbial community structure were also determined. A Paleudalfs soil was incubated for 30 days, with and without an initial application of urea (200 mg N kg(-1)soil) as nitrogen (N) fertilizer. The soil was held in columns and leached with SAR at three pH levels. Six treatments were tested: SAR of pH 2.5, 4.0 and 5.6 leaching on unfertilized soil (T1, T2 and T3), and on soils fertilized with urea (T4, T5 and T6). Increasing acid inputs proportionally increased cation leaching in both unfertilized and fertilized soils. Urea application increased the initial Ca and Mg leaching, but had no effect on the total concentrations of Ca, Mg and K leached. There was no significant difference for the amount of Na leached between the different treatments. The SAR pH and urea application had significant effects on soil pH, exchangeable H(+) and Al(3+). Urea application, SAR treated with various pH, and the interactions between them all had significant impacts on total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). The highest concentration of total PLFAs occurred in fertilized soils with SAR pH5.6 and the lowest in soils leached with the lowest SAR pH. Soils pretreated with urea then leached with SARs of pH 4.0 and 5.6 had larger total PLFA concentrations than soil without urea. Bacterial, fungal, actinomycete, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial PLFAs had generally similar trends to total PLFAs.

  2. [Distribution characteristics of soil pH, CEC and organic matter in a small watershed of the Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-Rong; Shao, Ming-An

    2009-11-01

    Soil chemical properties play important roles in soil ecological functioning. In this study, 207 surface soil (0-20 cm) samples were collected from different representative landscape units in a gully watershed of the Loess Plateau to examine the distribution characteristics of soil pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and organic matter, and their relations to land use type, landform, and soil type. The soil pH, CEC and organic matter content ranged from 7.7 to 8.6, 11.9 to 28.7 cmol x kg(-1), and 3.0 to 27.9 g x kg(-1), and followed normal distribution, log-normal distribution, and negative binomial distribution, respectively. These three properties were significantly affected by land use type, landform, and soil type. Soil CEC and organic matter content were higher in forestland, grassland and farmland than in orchard land, and soil pH was lower in forestland than in other three land use types. Soil pH, CEC and organic matter content were higher in plateau land and sloping land than in gully bottom and terrace land. Soil CEC and organic matter content were higher in dark loessial soil and rebified soil, while soil pH was higher in yellow loessial soil. Across all the three landscape factors, soil CEC and organic matter content showed the similar distribution pattern, but an opposite distribution pattern was observed for soil pH.

  3. Cadmium Accumulation and Pathological Alterations in the Midgut Gland of Terrestrial Snail Helix pomatia L. from a Zinc Smelter Area: Role of Soil pH.

    PubMed

    Włostowski, Tadeusz; Kozłowski, Paweł; Łaszkiewicz-Tiszczenko, Barbara; Oleńska, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cadmium (Cd) accumulation and toxicity in the midgut gland of Helix pomatia snails living in a Cd-contaminated area were related to soil pH. Toxic responses in the midgut gland (i.e., increased vacuolization and lipid peroxidation) occurred in H. pomatia snails exhibiting the highest Cd levels in the gland (265-274 µg/g dry wt) and living on acidic soil (pH 5.3-5.5), while no toxicity was observed in snails accumulating less Cd (90 µg/g) and ranging on neutral soil (pH 7.0), despite the fact that total soil Cd was similar in the two cases. The accumulation of Cd in the gland was directly related to the water extractable Cd in soil, which in turn correlated inversely with soil pH, indicating that this factor had a significant effect on tissue Cd. It appeared further that the occurrence of Cd toxicity was associated with low levels of metallothionein in the gland of snails ranging on acidic soil.

  4. Influence of microsprinkler irrigation amount on water, soil, and pH profiles in a coastal saline soil.

    PubMed

    Chu, Linlin; Kang, Yaohu; Wan, Shuqin

    2014-01-01

    Microsprinkler irrigation is a potential method to alleviate soil salinization. After conducting a homogeneous, highly saline, clayey, and coastal soil from the Bohai Gulf in northern China in a column experiment, the results show that the depth of the wetting front increased as the water amount applied increased, low-salinity and low-SAR enlarged after irrigation and water redistribution, and the soil pH increased with an increase in irrigation amount. We concluded that a water amount of 207 mm could be used to reclaim the coastal saline soil in northern China.

  5. Influence of Microsprinkler Irrigation Amount on Water, Soil, and pH Profiles in a Coastal Saline Soil

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Linlin; Kang, Yaohu; Wan, Shuqin

    2014-01-01

    Microsprinkler irrigation is a potential method to alleviate soil salinization. After conducting a homogeneous, highly saline, clayey, and coastal soil from the Bohai Gulf in northern China in a column experiment, the results show that the depth of the wetting front increased as the water amount applied increased, low-salinity and low-SAR enlarged after irrigation and water redistribution, and the soil pH increased with an increase in irrigation amount. We concluded that a water amount of 207 mm could be used to reclaim the coastal saline soil in northern China. PMID:25147843

  6. Links between Ammonia Oxidizer Community Structure, Abundance, and Nitrification Potential in Acidic Soils ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Huaiying; Gao, Yangmei; Nicol, Graeme W.; Campbell, Colin D.; Prosser, James I.; Zhang, Limei; Han, Wenyan; Singh, Brajesh K.

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first and rate-limiting step of nitrification and is performed by both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB). However, the environmental drivers controlling the abundance, composition, and activity of AOA and AOB communities are not well characterized, and the relative importance of these two groups in soil nitrification is still debated. Chinese tea orchard soils provide an excellent system for investigating the long-term effects of low pH and nitrogen fertilization strategies. AOA and AOB abundance and community composition were therefore investigated in tea soils and adjacent pine forest soils, using quantitative PCR (qPCR), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and sequence analysis of respective ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes. There was strong evidence that soil pH was an important factor controlling AOB but not AOA abundance, and the ratio of AOA to AOB amoA gene abundance increased with decreasing soil pH in the tea orchard soils. In contrast, T-RFLP analysis suggested that soil pH was a key explanatory variable for both AOA and AOB community structure, but a significant relationship between community abundance and nitrification potential was observed only for AOA. High potential nitrification rates indicated that nitrification was mainly driven by AOA in these acidic soils. Dominant AOA amoA sequences in the highly acidic tea soils were all placed within a specific clade, and one AOA genotype appears to be well adapted to growth in highly acidic soils. Specific AOA and AOB populations dominated in soils at particular pH values and N content, suggesting adaptation to specific niches. PMID:21571885

  7. The effect of pH and natural microbial phosphatase activity on the speciation of uranium in subsurface soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beazley, Melanie J.; Martinez, Robert J.; Webb, Samuel M.; Sobecky, Patricia A.; Taillefert, Martial

    2011-10-01

    The biomineralization of U(VI) phosphate as a result of microbial phosphatase activity is a promising new bioremediation approach to immobilize uranium in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In contrast to reduced uranium minerals such as uraninite, uranium phosphate precipitates are not susceptible to changes in oxidation conditions and may represent a long-term sink for uranium in contaminated environments. So far, the biomineralization of U(VI) phosphate has been demonstrated with pure cultures only. In this study, two uranium contaminated soils from the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Research Center (ORFRC) were amended with glycerol phosphate as model organophosphate source in small flow-through columns under aerobic conditions to determine whether natural phosphatase activity of indigenous soil bacteria was able to promote the precipitation of uranium(VI) at pH 5.5 and 7.0. High concentrations of phosphate (1-3 mM) were detected in the effluent of these columns at both pH compared to control columns amended with U(VI) only, suggesting that phosphatase-liberating microorganisms were readily stimulated by the organophosphate substrate. Net phosphate production rates were higher in the low pH soil (0.73 ± 0.17 mM d -1) compared to the circumneutral pH soil (0.43 ± 0.31 mM d -1), suggesting that non-specific acid phosphatase activity was expressed constitutively in these soils. A sequential solid-phase extraction scheme and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements were combined to demonstrate that U(VI) was primarily precipitated as uranyl phosphate minerals at low pH, whereas it was mainly adsorbed to iron oxides and partially precipitated as uranyl phosphate at circumneutral pH. These findings suggest that, in the presence of organophosphates, microbial phosphatase activity can contribute to uranium immobilization in both low and circumneutral pH soils through the formation of stable uranyl phosphate minerals.

  8. Influence of soil pH in vegetative filter strips for reducing soluble nutrient transport.

    PubMed

    Rahmana, Atikur; Rahmana, Shafiqur; Cihacek, Larry

    2014-08-01

    Low efficacy of vegetative filter strips (VFS) in reducing soluble nutrients has been reported in research articles. Solubility of phosphorus and nitrogen compounds is largely affected by pH of soil. Changing soil pH may result in a decrease in soluble nutrient transportation through VFS. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pH levels of VFS soil on soluble nutrient transport reduction from manure-borne runoff. Soil (loamy sand texture; bulk density 1.3 g cm-3) was treated with calcium carbonate to change pH at different pH treatment levels (5.5-6.5, 6.5-7.5, and 7.5-8.5), soil was packed into galvanized metal boxes, and tall fescue grasses were established in the boxes to simulate VFS. Boxes were placed in an open environment, tilted to a 3.0% slope, and 44.0 L manure-amended water was applied through the VFS by a pump at a rate of 1.45 L min-1. Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet as well as from the leachate. Samples were analysed for ortho-phosphorus, ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and potassium. Highest transport reductions in ortho-phosphorus (42.4%) and potassium (20.5%) were observed at pH range 7.5-8.5. Ammonium nitrogen transport reduction was the highest at pH level of 6.5-7.5 and was 26.1%. Surface transport reduction in nitrate nitrogen was 100%, but leachate had the highest concentration of nitrate nitrogen. Mass transport reduction also suggested that higher pH in the VFS soil are effective in reducing some soluble nutrients transport.

  9. Impacts of simulated acid rain on recalcitrance of two different soils.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhongmin; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Jianjun; Xu, Jianming

    2013-06-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to estimate the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) on recalcitrance in a Plinthudult and a Paleudalfs soil in south China, which were a variable and a permanent charge soil, respectively. Simulated acid rains were prepared at pH 2.0, 3.5, 5.0, and 6.0, by additions of different volumes of H2SO4 plus HNO3 at a ratio of 6 to 1. The leaching period was designed to represent 5 years of local annual rainfall (1,200 mm) with a 33 % surface runoff loss. Both soils underwent both acidification stages of (1) cation exchange and (2) mineral weathering at SAR pH 2.0, whereas only cation exchange occurred above SAR pH 3.5, i.e., weathering did not commence. The cation exchange stage was more easily changed into that of mineral weathering in the Plinthudult than in the Paleudalfs soil, and there were some K(+) and Mg(2+) ions released on the stages of mineral weathering in the Paleudalfs soil. During the leaching, the release of exchangeable base cations followed the order Ca(2+) >K(+) >Mg(2+) >Na(+) for the Plinthudult and Ca(2+) >Mg(2+) >Na(+) >K(+) for the Paleudalfs soil. The SARs above pH 3.5 did not decrease soil pH or pH buffering capacity, while the SAR at pH 2.0 decreased soil pH and the buffering capacity significantly. We conclude that acid rain, which always has a pH from 3.5 to 5.6, only makes a small contribution to the acidification of agricultural soils of south China in the short term of 5 years. Also, Paleudalfs soils are more resistant to acid rain than Plinthudult soils. The different abilities to prevent leaching by acid rain depend upon the parent materials, types of clay minerals, and soil development degrees.

  10. Cytoplasmic pH mediates pH taxis and weak-acid repellent taxis of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kihara, M; Macnab, R M

    1981-03-01

    Bacteria migrate away from an acid pH and from a number of chemicals, including organic acids such as acetate; the basis for detection of these environmental cues has not been demonstrated. Membrane-permeant weak acids caused prolonged tumbling when added to Salmonella sp. or Escherichia coli cells at pH 5.5. Tethered Salmonella cells went from a prestimulus behavior of 14% clockwise rotation to 80% clockwise rotation when 40 mM acetate was added and remained this way for more than 30 min. A low external pH in the absence of weak acid did not markedly affect steady-state tumbling frequency. Among the weak acids tested, the rank for acidity (salicylate greater than benzoate greater than acetate greater than 5,5-dimethyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione) was the same as the rank for the ability to collapse the transmembrane pH gradient and to cause tumbling. At pH 7.0, the tumbling responses caused by the weak acids were much briefer. Indole, a non-weak-acid repellent, did not cause prolonged tumbling at low pH. Two chemotaxis mutants (a Salmonella mutant defective in the chemotaxis methylesterase and an E. coli mutant defective in the methyl-accepting protein in MCP I) showed inverse responses of enhanced counterclockwise rotation in the first 1 min after acetate addition. The latter mutant had been found previously to be defective in the sensing of gradients of extracellular pH and (at neutral pH) of acetate. We conclude (i) that taxes away from acid pH and membrane-permeant weak acids are both mediated by a pH-sensitive component located either in the cytoplasm or on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane, rather than by an external receptor (as in the case of the attractants), and (ii) that both of these taxes involve components of the chemotaxis methylation system, at least in the early phase of the response.

  11. Assessment of natural and calcined starfish for the amelioration of acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Yang, Jae E; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun; Lim, Kyoung Jae; Kim, Sung Chul; Kim, Rog-Young; Ok, Yong Sik

    2014-01-01

    Quality improvement of acidic soil (with an initial pH of approximately 4.5) with respect to soil pH, exchangeable cations, organic matter content, and maize growth was attempted using natural (NSF) and calcined starfish (CSF). Acidic soil was amended with NSF and CSF in the range of 1 to 10 wt.% to improve soil pH, organic matter content, and exchangeable cations. Following the treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, the maize growth experiment was performed with selected treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. The results show that 1 wt.% of NSF and CSF (700 and 900 °C) were required to increase the soil pH to a value higher than 7. In the case of CSF (900 °C), 1 wt.% was sufficient to increase the soil pH value to 9 due to the strong alkalinity in the treatment. No significant changes in soil pHs were observed after 7 days of curing and up to 3 months of curing. Upon treatment, the cation exchange capacity values significantly increased as compared to the untreated samples. The organic content of the samples increased upon NSF treatment, but it remains virtually unchanged upon CSF treatment. Maize growth was greater in the treated samples rather than the untreated samples, except for the samples treated with 1 and 3 wt.% CSF (900 °C), where maize growth was limited due to strong alkalinity. This indicates that the amelioration of acidic soil using natural and calcined starfish is beneficial for plant growth as long as the application rate does not produce alkaline conditions outside the optimal pH range for maize growth.

  12. Effect of systemic pH on pH sub i and lactic acid generation in exhaustive forearm exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, V.L.; Schubert, C.; Keller, U.; Mueller, S. Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington )

    1988-09-01

    To investigate whether changes in systemic pH affect intracellular pH (pH{sub i}), energy-rich phosphates, and lactic acid generation in muscle, eight normal volunteers performed exhaustive forearm exercise with arterial blood flow occluded for 2 min on three occasions. Subjects ingested 4 mmol/kg NH{sub 4}Cl (acidosis; A) or NaHCO{sub 3} (alkalosis; B) or nothing (control; C) 3 h before the exercise. Muscle pH{sub i} and phosphocreatine (PCr) content were measured with {sup 31}P-nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 31}P-NMR) spectroscopy during exercise and recovery. Lactate output during 0.5-7 min of recovery was calculated as deep venous-arterial concentration differences times forearm blood flow. Before exercise, blood pH and bicarbonate were lower in acidosis than alkalosis and intermediate in control. Lactic acid output during recovery was less with A than B and intermediate in C. PCr utilization and resynthesis were not affected by extracellular pH changes. pH{sub i} did not differ before exercise or at its end. Hence systemic acidosis inhibited and alkalosis stimulated lactic acid output. These findings suggest that systemic pH regulates cellular acid production, protecting muscle pH, at the expense of energy availability.

  13. The effect of organic acid on the spectral-induced polarization response of soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, N.; Shalem, T.; Furman, A.

    2014-04-01

    In spectral-induced polarization (SIP) studies of sites contaminated by organic hydrocarbons, it was shown that biodegradation by-products in general, and organic acids in particular, significantly alter the SIP signature of the subsurface. Still a systematic study that considers the effect of organic acid on the physicochemical and electrical (SIP) properties of the soil is missing. The goal of this work is to relate between the effect of organic acid on the physicochemical properties of the soil, and the soil electrical properties. To do so, we measured the temporal changes of the soil chemical (ion content) and electrical (low-frequency SIP) properties in response to influx of organic acid at different concentrations, gradually altering the soil pH. Our results show that organic acid reduces the soil pH, enhances mineral weathering and consequently reduces both the in-phase and quadrature conductivity. At the pH range where mineral weathering is most significant (pH 6-4.5) a negative linear relation between the soil pH and the soil formation factor was found, suggesting that mineral weathering changes the pore space geometry and hence affecting the in-phase electrical conductivity. In addition, we attribute the reduction in the quadrature conductivity to an exchange process between the natural cation adsorbed on the mineral surface and hydronium, and to changes in the width of the pore bottleneck that results from the mineral weathering. Overall, our results allow a better understanding of the SIP signature of soil undergoing acidification process in general and as biodegradation process in particular.

  14. Behavior of Engineered Nanomaterials in Unsaturated Soil: Transport, Effects on pH, and Interactions with Phosphorous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, J.; Keller, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Recent life cycle assessments have predicted that soils will be the primary non-landfill sink for many engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), and as their production and use increases annually it becomes increasingly relevant to understand their behavior in the unsaturated surface layers of soil. In this series of experiments, the transport and interactions of three common ENMs, TiO2, CeO2, and CuOH, were measured in an unsaturated potting soil with and without humic acid as a stabilizing agent. Transport was measured in loosely packed soil columns at two concentrations (10 and 100 ppm) with three exposure methods: through the application of contaminated biosolids to the top of the column with subsequent irrigation, by watering with an ENM suspension, and by mixing ENMs homogeneously into the soil and irrigating. Transport was also measured in soil containing intact root structures for the latter two exposure methods at 10 ppm ENM concentration. Soil columns were dried and 3 cm segments were acid digested and measured with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICS-AES). The effect of these ENMs on soil pH was tested after mixing ENM suspensions into soil at four concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg kg-1). The bioavailability of PO4 in the presence of ENMs was measured by quantifying the soluble, bioavailable (i.e., extractable by Bray No. 1 solution), and tightly bound fractions of P in 0, 1, 10, and 100 mg kg-1 spiked soils via ICP-AES. We found that these three ENMs exhibit limited transport in all exposure scenarios and so will likely remain near the source zone in an environmental exposure. Additionally, these ENMs were seen to decrease soil pH by up to 0.5 in the highest concentrations, which has consequences for plant growth and nutrient mobility. TiO2 and CeO2 also decreased the soluble and bioavailable fractions of P, and so could inhibit the uptake of this limiting nutrient by organisms.

  15. Phylogenetic and functional potential links pH and N2O emissions in pasture soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samad, M. D. Sainur; Biswas, Ambarish; Bakken, Lars R.; Clough, Timothy J.; de Klein, Cecile A. M.; Richards, Karl G.; Lanigan, Gary J.; Morales, Sergio E.

    2016-10-01

    Denitrification is mediated by microbial, and physicochemical, processes leading to nitrogen loss via N2O and N2 emissions. Soil pH regulates the reduction of N2O to N2, however, it can also affect microbial community composition and functional potential. Here we simultaneously test the link between pH, community composition, and the N2O emission ratio (N2O/(NO + N2O + N2)) in 13 temperate pasture soils. Physicochemical analysis, gas kinetics, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, metagenomic and quantitative PCR (of denitrifier genes: nirS, nirK, nosZI and nosZII) analysis were carried out to characterize each soil. We found strong evidence linking pH to both N2O emission ratio and community changes. Soil pH was negatively associated with N2O emission ratio, while being positively associated with both community diversity and total denitrification gene (nir & nos) abundance. Abundance of nosZII was positively linked to pH, and negatively linked to N2O emissions. Our results confirm that pH imposes a general selective pressure on the entire community and that this results in changes in emission potential. Our data also support the general model that with increased microbial diversity efficiency increases, demonstrated in this study with lowered N2O emission ratio through more efficient conversion of N2O to N2.

  16. Phylogenetic and functional potential links pH and N2O emissions in pasture soils

    PubMed Central

    Samad, M. d. Sainur; Biswas, Ambarish; Bakken, Lars R.; Clough, Timothy J.; de Klein, Cecile A. M.; Richards, Karl G.; Lanigan, Gary J.; Morales, Sergio E.

    2016-01-01

    Denitrification is mediated by microbial, and physicochemical, processes leading to nitrogen loss via N2O and N2 emissions. Soil pH regulates the reduction of N2O to N2, however, it can also affect microbial community composition and functional potential. Here we simultaneously test the link between pH, community composition, and the N2O emission ratio (N2O/(NO + N2O + N2)) in 13 temperate pasture soils. Physicochemical analysis, gas kinetics, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, metagenomic and quantitative PCR (of denitrifier genes: nirS, nirK, nosZI and nosZII) analysis were carried out to characterize each soil. We found strong evidence linking pH to both N2O emission ratio and community changes. Soil pH was negatively associated with N2O emission ratio, while being positively associated with both community diversity and total denitrification gene (nir & nos) abundance. Abundance of nosZII was positively linked to pH, and negatively linked to N2O emissions. Our results confirm that pH imposes a general selective pressure on the entire community and that this results in changes in emission potential. Our data also support the general model that with increased microbial diversity efficiency increases, demonstrated in this study with lowered N2O emission ratio through more efficient conversion of N2O to N2. PMID:27782174

  17. Soil pH Mapping with an On-The-Go Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Schirrmann, Michael; Gebbers, Robin; Kramer, Eckart; Seidel, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Soil pH is a key parameter for crop productivity, therefore, its spatial variation should be adequately addressed to improve precision management decisions. Recently, the Veris pH Manager™, a sensor for high-resolution mapping of soil pH at the field scale, has been made commercially available in the US. While driving over the field, soil pH is measured on-the-go directly within the soil by ion selective antimony electrodes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Veris pH Manager™ under farming conditions in Germany. Sensor readings were compared with data obtained by standard protocols of soil pH assessment. Experiments took place under different scenarios: (a) controlled tests in the lab, (b) semicontrolled test on transects in a stop-and-go mode, and (c) tests under practical conditions in the field with the sensor working in its typical on-the-go mode. Accuracy issues, problems, options, and potential benefits of the Veris pH Manager™ were addressed. The tests demonstrated a high degree of linearity between standard laboratory values and sensor readings. Under practical conditions in the field (scenario c), the measure of fit (r2) for the regression between the on-the-go measurements and the reference data was 0.71, 0.63, and 0.84, respectively. Field-specific calibration was necessary to reduce systematic errors. Accuracy of the on-the-go maps was considerably higher compared with the pH maps obtained by following the standard protocols, and the error in calculating lime requirements was reduced by about one half. However, the system showed some weaknesses due to blockage by residual straw and weed roots. If these problems were solved, the on-the-go sensor investigated here could be an efficient alternative to standard sampling protocols as a basis for liming in Germany. PMID:22346591

  18. Sorption and pH determine the long-term partitioning of cadmium in natural soils.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Masoud M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-09-01

    The bioavailability of metals in soil is a dynamic process. For a proper extrapolation to the field of laboratory studies on fate and effects, it is important to understand the dynamics of metal bioavailability and the way it is influenced by soil properties. The aim of this study was to assess the parallel (concurrent) effect of pH and aging time on the partitioning of cadmium in natural LUFA 2.2 soil. Cadmium nitrate-spiked pH-amended LUFA 2.2 soils were incubated under laboratory conditions for up to 30 weeks. Measured pHpw was lower after 3 weeks and decreased only slightly toward the end of the test. Cadmium concentrations in the pore water increased with time for all soil pH levels, while they decreased with increasing pH. Freundlich kf values ranged between 4.26 and 934 L kg(-1) (n = 0.79 to 1.36) and were highest at the highest pH tested (pH = 6.5). Multiple linear regression analysis, based on a soil ligand modeling approach, resulted in affinity constants of 2.61 for Ca(2+) (log KCa-SL) and 5.05 for H(+) (log KH-SL) for their binding to the active sites on the soil surface. The results showed that pH and aging time are two important factors which together affect cadmium partitioning and mobility in spiked natural soils.

  19. An acid-tolerant ammonia-oxidizing γ-proteobacterium from soil.

    PubMed

    Hayatsu, Masahito; Tago, Kanako; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Toyoda, Atsushi; Wang, Yong; Shimomura, Yumi; Okubo, Takashi; Kurisu, Futoshi; Hirono, Yuhei; Nonaka, Kunihiko; Akiyama, Hiroko; Itoh, Takehiko; Takami, Hideto

    2017-01-10

    Nitrification, the microbial oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, occurs in a wide range of acidic soils. However, the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) that have been isolated from soil to date are acid-sensitive. Here we report the isolation and characterization of an acid-adapted AOB from an acidic agricultural soil. The isolated AOB, strain TAO100, is classified within the Gammaproteobacteria based on phylogenetic characteristics. TAO100 can grow in the pH range of 5-7.5 and survive in highly acidic conditions until pH 2 by forming cell aggregates. Whereas all known gammaproteobacterial AOB (γ-AOB) species, which have been isolated from marine and saline aquatic environments, are halophiles, TAO100 is not phenotypically halophilic. Thus, TAO100 represents the first soil-originated and non-halophilic γ-AOB. The TAO100 genome is considerably smaller than those of other γ-AOB and lacks several genes associated with salt tolerance which are unnecessary for survival in soil. The ammonia monooxygenase subunit A gene of TAO100 and its transcript are higher in abundance than those of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and betaproteobacterial AOB in the strongly acidic soil. These results indicate that TAO100 plays an important role in the nitrification of acidic soils. Based on these results, we propose TAO100 as a novel species of a new genus, Candidatus Nitrosoglobus terrae.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 10 January 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2016.191.

  20. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on...

  1. Interpretation of pH, acidity, and alkalinity in fisheries and aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurements of pH, acidity, and alkalinity are commonly used to describe water quality. The three variables are interrelated and are sometimes confused. The pH of water is an intensity factor, while the acidity and alkalinity of waters are capacity factors. More precisely, acidity and alkalinity ar...

  2. [Effect of acetic acid on adsorption of acid phosphatase by some soil colloids and clay minerals].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenhua; Huang, Qiaoyun; Jiang, Xin; Yu, Guifen; Wang, Fang; Li, Xueyuan

    2004-03-01

    This paper studied the effect of acetic acid with different concentrations and pH values on the adsorption of acid phosphatase by some soil colloids and clay minerals (SCCM). The results showed that the pH values for the maximum adsorption of the enzyme were between the IEP of the enzyme and the PZC of SCCM. In the acetic acid systems, the amount of the enzyme adsorbed by SCCM was in the order of goethite > yellow brown soil > latosol > kaolinite > delta-MnO2. A remarkable influence of acetic acid concentration on the adsorption amount and the binding energy of the enzyme was observed. With the increase of the concentration from 0 to 200 mmol.L-1 in the system, acetic acid exhibited an enhanced effect, followed by an inhibition action on the adsorption of the enzyme on SCCM. The changes of the binding energy (K value) for the enzyme on SCCM were on the contrary to those of the maximum adsorption. The possible mechanisms for the influence of acetic acid on the adsorption of enzyme by SCCM were also discussed.

  3. Effects of surfactants on low-molecular-weight organic acids to wash soil zinc.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Zhang, Shirong; Xu, Xiaoxun; Yao, Ping; Li, Ting; Wang, Guiyin; Gong, Guoshu; Li, Yun; Deng, Ouping

    2016-03-01

    Soil washing is an effective approach to the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of the surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and non-ionic polyacrylamide (NPAM) on oxalic acid, tartaric acid, and citric acid used to remove zinc from contaminated soils were investigated. The Zn removal efficiencies of all washing solutions showed a logarithmic increase with acid concentrations from 0.5 to 10.0 g/L, while they decreased as pH increased from 4 to 9. Increasing the reaction time enhanced the effects of surfactants on Zn removal efficiencies by the acids during washing and significantly (P < 0.05) improved the removal under some mixed cases. Oxalic acid suffered antagonistic effects from the three surfactants and seriously damaged soil nutrients during the removal of soil Zn. Notably, the three surfactants caused synergistic effects on tartaric and citric acid during washing, with NPAM leading to an increase in Zn removal by 5.0 g/L citric acid of 10.60 % (P < 0.05) within 2 h. NPAM also alleviated the loss of cation exchange capacity of washed soils and obviously improved soil nitrogen concentrations. Overall, combining citric acid with NPAM offers a promising approach to the removal of zinc from contaminated soil.

  4. Deviation from niche optima affects the nature of plant-plant interactions along a soil acidity gradient.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Cheng, Lulu; Hu, Liangliang; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of niche optima in the shift of plant-plant interactions along environmental stress gradients. Here, we investigate whether deviation from niche optima would affect the outcome of plant-plant interactions along a soil acidity gradient (pH = 3.1, 4.1, 5.5 and 6.1) in a pot experiment. We used the acid-tolerant species Lespedeza formosa Koehne as the neighbouring plant and the acid-tolerant species Indigofera pseudotinctoria Mats. or acid-sensitive species Medicago sativa L. as the target plants. Biomass was used to determine the optimal pH and to calculate the relative interaction index (RII). We found that the relationships between RII and the deviation of soil pH from the target's optimal pH were linear for both target species. Both targets were increasingly promoted by the neighbour as pH values deviated from their optima; neighbours benefitted target plants by promoting soil symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, increasing soil organic matter or reducing soil exchangeable aluminium. Our results suggest that the shape of the curve describing the relationship between soil pH and facilitation/competition depends on the soil pH optima of the particular species.

  5. Increasing aridity, temperature and soil pH induce soil C-N-P imbalance in grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Feng; Shi, Xin-Rong; Han, Feng-Peng; Yuan, Zhi-You

    2016-01-01

    Due to the different degrees of controls exerted by biological and geochemical processes, climate changes are suggested to uncouple biogeochemical C, N and P cycles, influencing biomass accumulation, decomposition and storage in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the possible extent of such disruption in grassland ecosystems remains unclear, especially in China’s steppes which have undergone rapid climate changes with increasing drought and warming predicted moving forward in these dryland ecosystems. Here, we assess how soil C-N-P stoichiometry is affected by climatic change along a 3500-km temperate climate transect in Inner Mongolia, China. Our results reveal that the soil from more arid and warmer sites are associated with lower soil organic C, total N and P. The ratios of both soil C:P and N:P decrease, but soil C:N increases with increasing aridity and temperature, indicating the predicted decreases in precipitation and warming for most of the temperate grassland region could lead to a soil C-N-P decoupling that may reduce plant growth and production in arid ecosystems. Soil pH, mainly reflecting long-term climate change in our sites, also contributes to the changing soil C-N-P stoichiometry, indicating the collective influences of climate and soil type on the shape of soil C-N-P balance.

  6. Increasing aridity, temperature and soil pH induce soil C-N-P imbalance in grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Feng; Shi, Xin-Rong; Han, Feng-Peng; Yuan, Zhi-You

    2016-01-01

    Due to the different degrees of controls exerted by biological and geochemical processes, climate changes are suggested to uncouple biogeochemical C, N and P cycles, influencing biomass accumulation, decomposition and storage in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the possible extent of such disruption in grassland ecosystems remains unclear, especially in China’s steppes which have undergone rapid climate changes with increasing drought and warming predicted moving forward in these dryland ecosystems. Here, we assess how soil C-N-P stoichiometry is affected by climatic change along a 3500-km temperate climate transect in Inner Mongolia, China. Our results reveal that the soil from more arid and warmer sites are associated with lower soil organic C, total N and P. The ratios of both soil C:P and N:P decrease, but soil C:N increases with increasing aridity and temperature, indicating the predicted decreases in precipitation and warming for most of the temperate grassland region could lead to a soil C-N-P decoupling that may reduce plant growth and production in arid ecosystems. Soil pH, mainly reflecting long-term climate change in our sites, also contributes to the changing soil C-N-P stoichiometry, indicating the collective influences of climate and soil type on the shape of soil C-N-P balance. PMID:26792069

  7. Effect of pH on bacteriophage transport through sandy soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinoshita, Takashi; Bales, Roger C.; Maguire, Kimberley M.; Gerba, Charles P.

    1993-01-01

    Effects of pH and hydrophobicity on attachment and detachment of PRD-1 and MS-2 in three different sandy soils were investigated in a series of laboratory-column experiments. Concentrations of the lipid-containing phage PRD-1 decreased 3–4 orders of magnitude during passage through the 10–15-cm-long columns. Attachment of the lipid-containing phage PRD-1 was insensitive to pH and was apparently controlled by hydrophobic interactions in soil media. The less-hydrophobic phage MS-2 acted conservatively; it was not removed in the columns at pH's 5.7–8.0. The sticking efficiency (α) in a colloid-filtration model was between 0.1 and 1 for PRD-1, indicating a relatively high removal efficiency. Phage attachment was reversible, but detachment under steady-state conditions was slow. An increase in pH had a moderate effect on enhancing detachment. Still, these soils should continue to release phage to virus-free water for days to weeks following exposure to virus-containing water. In sandy soils with a mass-fraction organic carbon as low as a few hundredths of a percent, pH changes in the range 5.7–8.0 should have little effect on retention of more-hydrophobic virus (e.g., PRD-1), in that retardation will be dominated by hydrophobic effects. Sharp increases in pH should enhance detachment and transport of virus previously deposited on soil grains. A more hydrophilic virus (e.g., MS-2) will transport as a conservative tracer in low-carbon sandy soil.

  8. Effects of pH and manure on transport of sulfonamide antibiotics in soil.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Claudia; Harter, Thomas; Radke, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are a commonly used group of compounds in animal husbandry. They are excreted with manure, which is collected in a storage lagoon in certain types of confined animal feeding operations. Flood irrigation of forage fields with this liquid manure creates the potential risk of groundwater contamination in areas with shallow groundwater levels. We tested the hypothesis that-in addition to the soil characteristics-manure as cosolute and manure pH are two major parameters influencing sulfonamide transport in soils. Solute displacement experiments in repacked, saturated soil columns were performed with soil (loamy sand) and manure from a dairy farm in California. Breakthrough of nonreactive tracer and sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine, and sulfamethoxazole at different solution pH (5, 6.5, 8.5) with and without manure was modeled using Hydrus-1D to infer transport and reaction parameters. Tracer and sulfonamide breakthrough curves were well explained by a model concept based on physical nonequilibrium transport, equilibrium sorption, and first-order dissipation kinetics. Sorption of the antibiotics was low ( K₄ ≤ 0.7 L kg) and only weakly influenced by pH and manure. However, sulfonamide attenuation was significantly affected by both pH and manure. The mass recovery of sulfonamides decreased with decreasing pH, e.g., for sulfamethoxazole from 77 (pH 8.5) to 56% (pH 5). The sulfonamides were highly mobile under the studied conditions, but manure application increased their attenuation substantially. The observed attenuation was most likely caused by a combination of microbial transformation and irreversible sorption to the soil matrix.

  9. Effects of solution pH and complexing reagents on the desorption of radionuclides in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yug-Yea; Yu, C.

    1992-05-01

    In contaminated soils, radionuclides such as uranium and/or thorium may be associated with different chemical species on soil surfaces or inside soil grains with consequent differences in leachability and mobility. Chemical species in contacting solutions can react with soil contaminants by dissolution, ion exchange, or complexation to release contaminants from the soil to the solution. It is important to understand the effect of chemical species in solution for investigating the distribution of uranium and thorium between the soil and the solution under desorption conditions. In this work, the effects of the solution pH and the complexing reagents on the desorption of uranium and thorium under saturated equilibrium conditions were investigated.

  10. Effects of solution pH and complexing reagents on the desorption of radionuclides in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yug-Yea; Yu, C.

    1992-01-01

    In contaminated soils, radionuclides such as uranium and/or thorium may be associated with different chemical species on soil surfaces or inside soil grains with consequent differences in leachability and mobility. Chemical species in contacting solutions can react with soil contaminants by dissolution, ion exchange, or complexation to release contaminants from the soil to the solution. It is important to understand the effect of chemical species in solution for investigating the distribution of uranium and thorium between the soil and the solution under desorption conditions. In this work, the effects of the solution pH and the complexing reagents on the desorption of uranium and thorium under saturated equilibrium conditions were investigated.

  11. Growing up or growing out? How soil pH and light affect seedling growth of a relictual rainforest tree

    PubMed Central

    Offord, Catherine A.; Meagher, Patricia F.; Zimmer, Heidi C.

    2014-01-01

    Seedling growth rates can have important long-term effects on forest dynamics. Environmental variables such as light availability and edaphic factors can exert a strong influence on seedling growth. In the wild, seedlings of Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis) grow on very acid soils (pH ∼4.3) in deeply shaded sites (∼3 % full sunlight). To examine the relative influences of these two factors on the growth of young W. nobilis seedlings, we conducted a glasshouse experiment growing seedlings at two soil pH levels (4.5 and 6.5) under three light levels: low (5 % full sun), medium (15 %) and high (50 %). Stem length and stem diameter were measured, stem number and branch number were counted, and chlorophyll and carotenoid content were analysed. In general, increased plant growth was associated with increased light, and with low pH irrespective of light treatment, and pigment content was higher at low pH. Maximum stem growth occurred in plants grown in the low pH/high light treatment combination. However, stem number was highest in low pH/medium light. We hypothesize that these differences in stem development of W. nobilis among light treatments were due to this species' different recruitment strategies in response to light: greater stem growth at high light and greater investment in multiple stem production at low light. The low light levels in the W. nobilis habitat may be a key limitation on stem growth and hence W. nobilis recruitment from seedling to adult. Light and soil pH are two key factors in the growth of this threatened relictual rainforest species. PMID:24790132

  12. Growing up or growing out? How soil pH and light affect seedling growth of a relictual rainforest tree.

    PubMed

    Offord, Catherine A; Meagher, Patricia F; Zimmer, Heidi C

    2014-01-01

    Seedling growth rates can have important long-term effects on forest dynamics. Environmental variables such as light availability and edaphic factors can exert a strong influence on seedling growth. In the wild, seedlings of Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis) grow on very acid soils (pH ∼4.3) in deeply shaded sites (∼3 % full sunlight). To examine the relative influences of these two factors on the growth of young W. nobilis seedlings, we conducted a glasshouse experiment growing seedlings at two soil pH levels (4.5 and 6.5) under three light levels: low (5 % full sun), medium (15 %) and high (50 %). Stem length and stem diameter were measured, stem number and branch number were counted, and chlorophyll and carotenoid content were analysed. In general, increased plant growth was associated with increased light, and with low pH irrespective of light treatment, and pigment content was higher at low pH. Maximum stem growth occurred in plants grown in the low pH/high light treatment combination. However, stem number was highest in low pH/medium light. We hypothesize that these differences in stem development of W. nobilis among light treatments were due to this species' different recruitment strategies in response to light: greater stem growth at high light and greater investment in multiple stem production at low light. The low light levels in the W. nobilis habitat may be a key limitation on stem growth and hence W. nobilis recruitment from seedling to adult. Light and soil pH are two key factors in the growth of this threatened relictual rainforest species.

  13. pH regulates ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in paddy soils in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Weng, Bo-Sen; Huang, Fu-Yi; Su, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Xiao-Ru

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) play important roles in nitrogen cycling. However, the effects of environmental factors on the activity, abundance, and diversity of AOA and AOB and the relative contributions of these two groups to nitrification in paddy soils are not well explained. In this study, potential nitrification activity (PNA), abundance, and diversity of amoA genes from 12 paddy soils in Southern China were determined by potential nitrification assay, quantitative PCR, and cloning. The results showed that PNA was highly variable between paddy soils, ranging from 4.05 ± 0.21 to 9.81 ± 1.09 mg NOx-N kg(-1) dry soil day(-1), and no significant correlation with soil parameters was found. The abundance of AOA was predominant over AOB, indicating that AOA may be the major members in aerobic ammonia oxidation in these paddy soils. Community compositions of AOA and AOB were highly variable among samples, but the variations were best explained by pH. AOA sequences were affiliated to the Nitrosopumilus cluster and Nitrososphaera cluster, and AOB were classified into the lineages of Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas, with Nitrosospira being predominant over Nitrosomonas, accounting for 83.6 % of the AOB community. Moreover, the majority of Nitrosomonas was determined in neutral soils. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) analysis further demonstrated that AOA and AOB community structures were significantly affected by pH, soil total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and C/N ratio, suggesting that these factors exert strong effects on the distribution of AOB and AOA in paddy soils in Southern China. In conclusion, our results imply that soil pH was a key explanatory variable for both AOA and AOB community structure and nitrification activity.

  14. Effect of Soil Temperature and pH on Resistance of Soybean to Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Anand, S. C.; Matson, K. W.; Sharma, S. B.

    1995-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, is a major pest of soybean, Glycine max L. Merr. Soybean cultivars resistant to SCN are commonly grown in nematode-infested fields. The objective of this study was to examine the stability of SCN resistance in soybean genotypes at different soil temperatures and pH levels. Reactions of five SCN-resistant genotypes, Peking, Plant Introduction (PI) 88788, Custer, Bedford, and Forrest, to SCN races 3, 5, and 14 were studied at 20, 26, and 32 C, and at soil pH's 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5. Soybean cultivar Essex was included as a susceptible check. Temperature, SCN race, soybean genotype, and their interactions significantly affected SCN reproduction. The effect of temperature on reproduction was quadratic with the three races producing significantly greater numbers of cysts at 26 C; however, reproduction on resistant genotypes remained at a low level. Higher numbers of females matured at the soil pH levels of 6.5 and 7.5 than at pH 5.5. Across the ranges of temperature and soil pH studied, resistance to SCN in the soybean genotypes remained stable. PMID:19277315

  15. The PH gene determines fruit acidity and contributes to the evolution of sweet melons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shahar; Itkin, Maxim; Yeselson, Yelena; Tzuri, Galil; Portnoy, Vitaly; Harel-Baja, Rotem; Lev, Shery; Sa'ar, Uzi; Davidovitz-Rikanati, Rachel; Baranes, Nadine; Bar, Einat; Wolf, Dalia; Petreikov, Marina; Shen, Shmuel; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Ast, Tslil; Schuldiner, Maya; Belausov, Eduard; Eshed, Ravit; Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Frei, Benedikt; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Xu, Yimin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, Jim; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Yaakov; Paris, Harry S; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A

    2014-06-05

    Taste has been the subject of human selection in the evolution of agricultural crops, and acidity is one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavour compounds. We identify a family of plant-specific genes with a major effect on fruit acidity by map-based cloning of C. melo PH gene (CmPH) from melon, Cucumis melo taking advantage of the novel natural genetic variation for both high and low fruit acidity in this species. Functional silencing of orthologous PH genes in two distantly related plant families, cucumber and tomato, produced low-acid, bland tasting fruit, showing that PH genes control fruit acidity across plant families. A four amino-acid duplication in CmPH distinguishes between primitive acidic varieties and modern dessert melons. This fortuitous mutation served as a preadaptive antecedent to the development of sweet melon cultigens in Central Asia over 1,000 years ago.

  16. [Changing characteristics of organic matter and pH of cultivated soils in Zhejiang province over the last 50 years].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Kui; Chang, Yue-Chang

    2013-11-01

    By comparing the current quality investigation data of cultivated soils in Zhejiang province with the past data, changing characteristics of organic matter and pH value of the soils in this province over last 50 years were analyzed. The results showed that content of organic matter and pH value of the cultivated soils changed greatly during past 50 years, and the changes varied with historical periods and soil types. From 1958 to 1980s, accumulation of soil organic matter was obvious, soil organic matter increased averagely by 40.34%, and the mean pH increased slightly by 0.05 of pH unit. From 1980s to 2008, the mean content of organic matter in paddy soils decreased by 5.58%. The changes of soil organic matter varied with distribution zones of the paddy soils. The mean content of organic matter of paddy soils in valley plain increased with time, and those in plain with water network, hilly area and coastal plain decreased with time. The mean contents of organic matter in fluvio-aquic soil and coastal saline soil in the year 2008 were 29.48% and 14.60% respectively higher than those in 1980s. As compared with those obtained at 1980s, the cultivated soil in this province have been significantly acidified in the past thirty years, the mean pH value declined by 0.25 of pH unit, and the decline of pH value of paddy soils was greater than those of fluvio-aquic soil and saline soil. Changes in fertilization structure and conversion of paddy fields to upland were thought as main causes of the changes in both soil organic matter and pH value.

  17. Wood ash application increases pH but does not harm the soil mesofauna.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiayi; Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Ekelund, Flemming; Rønn, Regin; Christensen, Søren; Groot, Gerard Arjen de; Mortensen, Louise Hindborg; Skov, Simon; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2017-05-01

    Application of bioash from biofuel combustion to soil supports nutrient recycling, but may have unwanted and detrimental ecotoxicological side-effects, as the ash is a complex mixture of compounds that could affect soil invertebrates directly or through changes in their food or habitat conditions. To examine this, we performed laboratory toxicity studies of the effects of wood-ash added to an agricultural soil and the organic horizon of a coniferous plantation soil with the detrivore soil collembolans Folsomia candida and Onychiurus yodai, the gamasid predaceous mite Hypoaspis aculeifer, and the enchytraeid worm Enchytraeus crypticus. We used ash concentrations spanning 0-75 g kg(-1) soil. As ash increases pH we compared bioash effects with effects of calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, the main liming component of ash. Only high ash concentrations above 15 g kg(-1) agricultural soil or 17 t ha(-1) had significant effects on the collembolans. The wood ash neither affected H. aculeifer nor E. crypticus. The estimated osmolalities of Ca(OH)2 and the wood ash were similar at the LC50 concentration level. We conclude that short-term chronic effects of wood ash differ among different soil types, and osmotic stress is the likely cause of effects while high pH and heavy metals is of minor importance.

  18. pH affects bacterial community composition in soils across the Huashan Watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui; Zhao, Dayong; Zeng, Jin; Shen, Feng; Cao, Xinyi; Jiang, Cuiling; Huang, Feng; Feng, Jingwei; Yu, Zhongbo; Wu, Qinglong L

    2016-09-01

    To investigate soil bacterial richness and diversity and to determine the correlations between bacterial communities and soil properties, 8 soil samples were collected from the Huashan watershed in Anhui, China. Subsequently, 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing and bioinformatics analyses were performed to examine the soil bacterial community compositions. The operational taxonomic unit richness of the bacterial community ranged from 3664 to 5899, and the diversity indices, including Chao1, Shannon-Wiener, and Faith's phylogenetic diversity ranged from 7751 to 15 204, 7.386 to 8.327, and 415.77 to 679.11, respectively. The 2 most dominant phyla in the soil samples were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. The richness and diversity of the bacterial community were positively correlated with soil pH. The Mantel test revealed that the soil pH was the dominant factor influencing the bacterial community. The positive modular structure of co-occurrence patterns at the genus level was discovered by network analysis. The results obtained in this study provide useful information that enhances our understanding of the effects of soil properties on the bacterial communities.

  19. Influences of pH, Temperature, and Moisture on Gaseous Tritium Uptake in Surface Soils

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, Robert D.

    1982-01-01

    In South Carolina surface soils, the uptake of gaseous tritium (T2, HT, or both) showed a broad optimal temperature response from about 20 to 50°C, with the highest rates at 35 to 45°C. The optimal pH was in the range of 4 to 7. Uptake rates declined at the wet and dry extremes in soil moisture content. Inhibition seen upon the addition of hydrogen or carbon monoxide to the soil atmosphere suggested that hydrogenase may be responsible for T2-HT uptake in soil. During the period of most rapid recovery in a 36-day incubation of reinoculated, sterilized soil, T2-HT uptake rates doubled every 2 to 4 days. Thus, T2-HT uptake appears to be biologically mediated. Soil uptake of T2-HT was not severely limited by pH, temperature, or moisture in the soils tested. Thus, rapid exchange of gaseous tritium into soil water must be expected and accounted for in modeling the isotope distributions around nuclear facilities. PMID:16346053

  20. Sulfamethazine Sorption to Soil: Vegetative Management, pH, and Dissolved Organic Matter Effects.

    PubMed

    Chu, Bei; Goyne, Keith W; Anderson, Stephen H; Lin, Chung-Ho; Lerch, Robert N

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating veterinary antibiotic interactions with soil is important for assessing and mitigating possible environmental hazards. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of vegetative management, soil properties, and >1000 Da dissolved organic matter (DOM) on sulfamethazine (SMZ) behavior in soil. Sorption experiments were performed over a range of SMZ concentrations (2.5-50 μmol L) using samples from three soils (Armstrong, Huntington, and Menfro), each planted to one of three vegetation treatments: agroforestry buffers strips (ABS), grass buffer strips (GBS), and row crops (RC). Our results show that SMZ sorption isotherms are well fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model (log = 0.44-0.93; Freundlich nonlinearity parameter = 0.59-0.79). Further investigation of solid-to-solution distribution coefficients () demonstrated that vegetative management significantly ( < 0.05) influences SMZ sorption (ABS > GBS > RC). Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that organic carbon (OC) content, pH, and initial SMZ concentration were important properties controlling SMZ sorption. Study of the two most contrasting soils in our sample set revealed that increasing solution pH (pH 6.0-7.5) reduced SMZ sorption to the Armstrong GBS soil, but little pH effect was observed for the Huntington GBS soil containing 50% kaolinite in the clay fraction. The presence of DOM (150 mg L OC) had little significant effect on the Freundlich nonlinearity parameter; however, DOM slightly reduced SMZ values overall. Our results support the use of vegetative buffers to mitigate veterinary antibiotic loss from agroecosystems, provide guidance for properly managing vegetative buffer strips to increase SMZ sorption, and enhance understanding of SMZ sorption to soil.

  1. Interactive Effects of Soil ph, Halosulfuron Rate, and Application Method on Carryover to Turnip Green and Cabbage.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in 2006 and 2007 to evaluate the tolerance of autumn-planted cabbage and turnip green to halosulfuron applied the previous spring to cantaloupe. Main plots were three levels of soil pH; maintained at a natural pH level, pH raised with Ca(OH)2, and pH lowered with Al2(SO...

  2. P Limitation and Microbial Biogeochemistry in Acidic Forest Soils of the Northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smemo, K. A.; Deforest, J. L.; Burke, D. J.; Elliot, H. L.; Kluber, L. A.; Carrino-Kyker, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    In forest ecosystems with acidic soils, such as many hardwood forests of the Northeastern United States, net primary productivity should be limited by phosphorus (P) because P is biologically less available at pH < 5 and nitrogen (N) has become more abundant in response to anthropogenic inputs. However, previous studies have failed to demonstrate widespread P limitation in temperate forests that have naturally acidic soil or are exposed to chronic acid deposition; such findings are contrary to biogeochemical expectations. We hypothesize that many eastern forests possess an underlying P limitation not realized at the ecosystem level. Instead, shifts in the composition, structure and function of soil microbial communities compensate by acquiring more P from organic sources and P limitation is therefore not manifested at the aboveground (plant) level. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated soil pH and P availability in 72 20 x 40 m mature hardwood forest plots across northeastern (glaciated) and southeastern (unglaciated) Ohio beginning in late summer 2009. Ten months after treatment initiation, soil pH has increased from 4.5 to 5.5 and soil P has increased from 3 to ~25 mg P/kg soil on glaciated soils and from 0.5 to ~5 mg P/kg soil on unglaciated soils. To quantify treatment responses, we measured the activity of soil extracellular enzymes associated with liberation of P, N, and C from organic matter, as well as pools of N and N cycling processes. We saw no significant effects of our treatments on pools of available ammonium or nitrate, nor did we see effects on net N mineralization and net nitrification rates. However, glaciated soils had significantly greater nitrate pools and higher N cycling rates than older unglaciated soils. Nitrogen and C cycling enzymes in treatment plots were not significantly different than control plots, but N-acetylglucosaminidase activity (N acquisition) was significantly greater in the unglaciated soils and β-glucosidase and

  3. Soil peroxidase-mediated chlorination of fulvic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, Gunilla; Borén, Hans; Carlsson, Uno; Grimvall, Anders

    Humic matter has recently been shown to contain considerable quantities of naturally produced organohalogens. The present study investigated the possibility of a non-specific, enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter in soil. The results showed that, in the presence of chloride and hydrogen peroxide, the enzyme chloroperoxidase (CPO) from the fungus Caldariomyces fumago catalyzes chlorination of fulvic acid. At pH 2.5 - 6.0, the chlorine to fulvic acid ratio in the tested sample was elevated from 12 mg/g to approximately 40-50 mg/g. It was also shown that this reaction can take place at chloride and hydrogen peroxide concentrations found in the environment. An extract from spruce forest soil was shown to have a measurable chlorinating capacity. The activity of an extract of 0.5 kg soil corresponded to approximately 0.3 enzyme units, measured as CPO activity. Enzymatically mediated halogenation of humic substances may be one of the mechanisms explaining the widespread occurrence of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) in soil and water.

  4. Response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests of different maturity in southern China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guohua; Liu, Xingzhao; Chen, Xiaomei; Qiu, Qingyan; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Juxiu; Liu, Shizhong; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF), a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF) and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF)] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0). Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types.

  5. Response of Soil Respiration to Acid Rain in Forests of Different Maturity in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaomei; Qiu, Qingyan; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Juxiu; Liu, Shizhong; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF), a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF) and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF)] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0). Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types. PMID:23626790

  6. Acidic pH promotes intervertebral disc degeneration: Acid-sensing ion channel -3 as a potential therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Hamish T. J.; Hodson, Nathan; Baird, Pauline; Richardson, Stephen M.; Hoyland, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    The aetiology of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration remains poorly understood. Painful IVD degeneration is associated with an acidic intradiscal pH but the response of NP cells to this aberrant microenvironmental factor remains to be fully characterised. The aim here was to address the hypothesis that acidic pH, similar to that found in degenerate IVDs, leads to the altered cell/functional phenotype observed during IVD degeneration, and to investigate the involvement of acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) -3 in the response. Human NP cells were treated with a range of pH, from that of a non-degenerate (pH 7.4 and 7.1) through to mildly degenerate (pH 6.8) and severely degenerate IVD (pH 6.5 and 6.2). Increasing acidity of pH caused a decrease in cell proliferation and viability, a shift towards matrix catabolism and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and pain-related factors. Acidic pH resulted in an increase in ASIC-3 expression. Importantly, inhibition of ASIC-3 prevented the acidic pH induced proinflammatory and pain-related phenotype in NP cells. Acidic pH causes a catabolic and degenerate phenotype in NP cells which is inhibited by blocking ASIC-3 activity, suggesting that this may be a useful therapeutic target for treatment of IVD degeneration. PMID:27853274

  7. Acid sulfate soils are an environmental hazard in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) create significant threats to the environment on coastal regions of the Baltic Sea in Finland. The sediments were deposited during the ancient Litorina Sea phase of the Baltic Sea about 7500-4500 years ago. Finland has larger spatial extent of the ASS than any other European country. Mostly based on anthropogenic reasons (cultivation, trenching etc.) ASS deposits are currently being exposed to oxygen which leads to chemical reaction creating sulfuric acid. The acidic waters then dissolve metals form the soil. Acidic surface run off including the metals are then leached into the water bodies weakening the water quality and killing fish or vegetation. In constructed areas acidic waters may corrode building materials. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is mapping ASS deposits in Finland. The goal is to map a total of 5 million hectares of the potentially ASS affected region. It has been estimated that the problematic Litorina Sea deposits, which are situated 0-100 m above the recent Baltic Sea shoreline, cover 500 000 hectares area. There are several phases in mapping. The work begins at the office with gathering the existing data, interpreting airborne geophysical data and compiling a field working plan. In the field, quality of the soil is studied and in uncertain cases samples are taken to laboratory analyses. Also electrical conductivity and pH of soil and water are measured in the field. Laboratory methods include multielemental determinations with ICP-OES, analyses of grain size and humus content (LOI), and incubation. So far, approximately 60 % of the potential ASS affected regions in Finland are mapped. Over 15 000 sites have been studied in the field and 4000 laboratory analyses are done. The spatial database presented in the scale of 1: 250 000 can be viewed at the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/hasu/index.html).

  8. Bioavailability of heavy metals in strongly acidic soils treated with exceptional quality biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Basta, N.T.; Sloan, J.J.

    1999-03-01

    New federal regulations may increase application of exceptional quality (EQ) biosolids to acidic soils, and information on the effect of this practice on bioavailability of heavy metal is limited. The objective of this study was to compare bioavailability of heavy metal in soil treated with nonalkaline or alkaline EQ biosolids with limestone-treated soils. Three acidic soils (pH 3.7--4.3) were treated with three amounts of lime-stabilized biosolids (LS), anaerobic-digested biosolids (AN), or agricultural limestone (L), and incubated at 25 C. Soil solution Cd, Zn, and other chemical constituents were measured at 1, 30, 90, and 180 d incubation. Soil solution Cd and Zn were AN > LS {ge} L, C. Soil solution Cd and Zn increased with AN applied but decreased wit h LS applied. The high application of LS had soil solution Zn dramatically decreased at soil pH > 5.5 and >5.1, respectively. Soil solution Cd and Zn increases were AN > LS with incubation time. Biosolids treatments increased heavy metal in Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and NaOAc fractions. Except for Cd, most metal from biosolids were in EDTA and HNO{sub 3} fractions. Heavy metal bioavailability, measured using lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), was AN > LS {ge} L, C. Although state regulations prohibiting application of nonalkaline EQ biosolids to acidic soil is a prudent practice, application of EQ alkaline biosolids that achieves soil pH > 5 minimizes risk from soil solution Cd and Zn and plant uptake of heavy metal.

  9. Influence of pH on wetting kinetics of a pine forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, Ahmad; Schaumann, Gabriele; Diehl, Dörte

    2014-05-01

    Water repellent properties of organic matter significantly alter soil water dynamics. Various environmental factors control appearance and breakup of repellency in soil. Beside water content and temperature also pH exerts an influence on soil water repellency although investigations achieved partly ambiguous results; some found increasing repellency with increasing pH (Terashima et al. 2004; Duval et al. 2005), other with decreasing pH (Karnok et al. 1993; Roper 2005) and some found repellency maxima at intermediate pH and an increase with decreasing and with increasing pH (Bayer and Schaumann 2007; Diehl et al. 2010). The breakup of repellency may be observed via the time dependent sessile drop contact angle (TISED). With water contact time, soil-water contact angle decreases until complete wetting is reached. Diehl and Schaumann (2007) calculated the activation energy of the wetting process from the rate of sessile drop wetting obtained at different temperatures and draw conclusions on chemical or physical nature of repellency. The present study aims at the influence of pH on the wetting kinetics of soil. Therefore, TISED of soil was determined as a function of pH and temperature. We used upper soil samples (0 - 10 cm) from a pine forest in the southwest of Germany (Rheinland-Pfalz). Samples were air-dried, sieved < 1.0 mm and pH was modified by NH3 and HCl gas (Diehl et al. 2010) and measured electrometrically in 0.01 M CaCl2 solution. TISED measurements (2007)were conducted at 10, 20 and 30 oC using OCA 15 Contact Angle Meter (Dataphysics, Germany) on three replications for each soil sample. Apparent work of adhesion was calculated, plotted vs. time and mathematically fitted using double exponential function. Rate constants of wetting were used to determine the activation energy by Arrhenius equation. First results indicated that despite comparable initial contact angles, pH alteration strongly changed the wetting rate suggesting maximum wetting resistance at

  10. Growth and survival of cowpea rhizobia in acid, aluminum-rich soils

    SciTech Connect

    Hartel, P.G.; Alexander, M.

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether Al-sensitive cowpea Rhizobium survives in acid, Al-rich soils. The lower pH limit for growth of 20 strains in a defined liquid medium varied from pH 4.2 to less than pH 3.6. The mean lower limit for growth was pH 3.9. Several of the strains clumped in this medium at pH 4.5. Of 11 strains that were tested for tolerance to high levels of Al in a defined liquid medium at pH 4.5, nine tolerated 75 ..mu..M Al, and the other two were sensitive to levels above 15 ..mu..M. Three strains, one Al-tolerant, one Al-sensitive, and one Al-tolerant or Al-sensitive depending on the presence of vitamins in the medium, were selected for studies in Al-rich sterile and nonsterile soils. These rhizobia did not survive in soils of less than pH 4.7 sterilized by /sup 60/Co irradiation. When inoculated into sterile soil at pH 4.7, the consistently sensitive strain initially failed to proliferate and then grew slowly, but populations of the other two rhizobia increased rapidly. No consistent relationship was found between the Al tolerance of these three rhizobia and their growth and survival in four acid, Al-rich soils. The data suggest that Al is of minor importance to growth and survival of cowpea Rhizobium strains in acid soils. 16 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  11. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil and soil solution chemistry in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qingyan; Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-05-01

    Acid rain is an environmental problem of increasing concern in China. In this study, a laboratory leaching column experiment with acid forest soil was set up to investigate the responses of soil and soil solution chemistry to simulated acid rain (SAR). Five pH levels of SAR were set: 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 (as a control, CK). The results showed that soil acidification would occur when the pH of SAR was ≤3.5. The concentrations of NO₃(-)and Ca(2+) in the soil increased significantly when the pH of SAR fell 3.5. The concentration of SO₄(2-) in the soil increased significantly when the pH of SAR was <4.0. The effects of SAR on soil solution chemistry became increasingly apparent as the experiment proceeded (except for Na(+) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)). The net exports of NO₃(-), SO₄(2-), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) increased about 42-86% under pH 2.5 treatment as compared to CK. The Ca(2+) was sensitive to SAR, and the soil could release Ca(2+) through mineral weathering to mitigate soil acidification. The concentration of exchangeable Al(3+) in the soil increased with increasing the acidity of SAR. The releases of soluble Al and Fe were SAR pH dependent, and their net exports under pH 2.5 treatment were 19.6 and 5.5 times, respectively, higher than that under CK. The net export of DOC was reduced by 12-29% under SAR treatments as compared to CK. Our results indicate the chemical constituents in the soil are more sensitive to SAR than those in the soil solution, and the effects of SAR on soil solution chemistry depend not only on the intensity of SAR but also on the duration of SAR addition. The soil and soil solution chemistry in this region may not be affected by current precipitation (pH≈4.5) in short term, but the soil and soil leachate chemistry may change dramatically if the pH of precipitation were below 3.5 and 3.0, respectively.

  12. Chloroacetic acids in European soils and vegetation.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ruud J B

    2003-04-01

    Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCA) are possible minor atmospheric degradation products of perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene, respectively. These acids may be wet- or dry-deposited from the atmosphere to land surfaces and hence possibly affect plant growth. However, the existing database on TCA levels in soil is limited to a few studies carried out in the late 1980's and the early to mid-1990's and it was concluded that there is a need for further measurements of concentrations of TCA and DCA in soils. In this study soil samples from 10 locations in 5 European countries, as well as vegetation samples, and a limited number of rainwater and air samples were collected and analysed for DCA and TCA to determine the concentrations of these compounds. An isotope dilution method using GC-MS was used for the determination of these acids in the samples. The method was briefly validated and the performance characteristics are presented. The results of the analysis of the soil samples show that the DCA and TCA concentrations in soil from different sites in Europe are more or less comparable, with the exception of Germany, especially Freudenstadt, where significantly higher TCA concentrations (up to 12 microg kg(-1) dw) were found. The average DCA and TCA concentrations in soil in this study were 0.25 +/- 0.12 and 0.64 +/- 1.40 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. Generally, the concentration in soils from forest areas are about twice those from open-land areas. The DCA and TCA concentrations in vegetation samples ranged from 2.1 to 73 microg kg(-1) dw for DCA and from 4.7 to 17 microg kg(-1) dw for TCA. Thus, the concentrations in vegetation samples are 10-20 times higher than the soil concentrations. DCA and TCA concentrations in wet deposition samples and air samples collected in The Netherlands were 0.14 and 0.15 microg l(-1) for wet deposition samples and <0.5 and 0.7 ng m(-3) for air samples respectively. For these samples taken in The Netherlands

  13. Persistence of spiromesifen in soil: influence of moisture, light, pH and organic amendment.

    PubMed

    Mate, Ch Jamkhokai; Mukherjee, Irani; Das, Shaon Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Persistence of spiromesifen in soil as affected by varying moisture, light, compost amendment, soil sterilization and pH in aqueous medium were studied. Degradation of spiromesifen in soil followed the first-order reaction kinetics. Effect of different moisture regimes indicated that spiromesifen dissipated faster in submerged soil (t 1/2 14.3-16.7 days) followed by field capacity (t 1/2 18.7-20.0 days), and dry soil (t 1/2 21.9-22.9 days). Dissipation was faster in sterilized submerged (t 1/2 17.7 days) than in sterilized dry (t 1/2 35.8 days). Photo spiromesifen metabolite was not detected under different moisture regimes. After 30 days, enol spiromesifen metabolite was detected under submerged condition and was below detectable limit (<0.001 μg g(-1)) after 90 days. Soil amendment compost (2.5 %) at field capacity enhanced dissipation of the insecticide, and half-life value was 14.3 against 22.4 days without compost amendment. Under different pH condition, residues persisted in water with half-life values 5.7 to 12.5 days. Dissipation in water was faster at pH 9.0 (t 1/2 5.7 days), followed by pH 4.0 (t 1/2 9.7 days) and pH 7.2 (t 1/2 12.5 days). Exposure of spiromesifen to different light conditions indicated that it was more prone to degradation under UV light (t 1/2 3-4 days) than sunlight exposure (t 1/2 5.2-8.1 days). Under sunlight exposure, photo spiromesifen metabolite was detected after 10 and 15 days as compared to 3 and 5 days under UV light exposure.

  14. [Aluminum dissolution and changes of pH in soil solution during sorption of copper by aggregates of paddy soil].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Dao-Yuan; Qin, Chao; Li, Yu-Jiao; Dong, Chang-Xun

    2014-01-01

    Size fractions of soil aggregates in Lake Tai region were collected by the low-energy ultrasonic dispersion and the freeze-desiccation methods. The dissolution of aluminum and changes of pH in soil solution during sorption of Cu2+ and changes of the dissolution of aluminum at different pH in the solution of Cu2+ by aggregates were studied by the equilibrium sorption method. The results showed that in the process of Cu2+ sorption by aggregates, the aluminum was dissoluted and the pH decreased. The elution amount of aluminum and the decrease of pH changed with the sorption of Cu2+, both increasing with the increase of Cu2+ sorption. Under the same conditions, the dissolution of aluminum and the decrease of pH were in the order of coarse silt fraction > silt fraction > sand fraction > clay fraction, which was negatively correlated with the amount of iron oxide, aluminum and organic matter. It suggested that iron oxide, aluminum and organic matters had inhibitory and buffering effect on the aluminum dissolution and the decrease of pH during the sorption of Cu2+.

  15. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in fish by-products is inactivated with inorganic acid (pH 1) and base (pH 12).

    PubMed

    Myrmel, M; Modahl, I; Nygaard, H; Lie, K M

    2014-04-01

    The aquaculture industry needs a simple, inexpensive and safe method for the treatment of fish waste without heat. Microbial inactivation by inorganic acid (HCl) or base (KOH) was determined using infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) as a model organism for fish pathogens. Salmonella and spores of Clostridium perfringens were general hygiene indicators in supplementary examinations. IPNV, which is considered to be among the most chemical- and heat-resistant fish pathogens, was reduced by more than 3 log in 4 h at pH 1.0 and pH 12.0. Salmonella was rapidly inactivated by the same treatment, whereas spores of C. perfringens were hardly affected. The results indicate that low and high pH treatment could be particularly suitable for fish waste destined for biogas production. pH treatment at aquaculture production sites could reduce the spread of fish pathogens during storage and transportation without disturbing the anaerobic digestion process. The treatment could also be an alternative to the current energy-intensive steam pressure sterilization of fish waste to be used by the bioenergy, fertilizer and soil improver industries.

  16. Declines in Soil pH due to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs Alter Buffering and Exchange Reactions in Tropical Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, K. A.

    2003-12-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs may alter tropical soil buffering and exchange reactions that have important implications for nutrient cycling, forest productivity, and downstream ecosystems. In contrast to relatively young temperate soils that are typically buffered from N inputs by base cation reactions, aluminum reactions may serve to buffer highly weathered tropical soils and result in immediate increases in aluminum mobility and toxicity. Increased nitrate losses due to chronic N inputs may also deplete residual base cations in already weathered base cation-poor soils, further acidify soils, and thereby reduce nitrate mobility through pH-dependent anion exchange reactions. To test these hypotheses, I determined soil pH and cation and anion exchange capacity (CEC and AEC) and measured base cation and aluminum soil solution losses following first-time and long-term experimental N additions from two Hawaiian tropical forest soils, a 300 year old Andisol and a 4.1 million year old Oxisol. I found that elevated base cation losses accompanied increased nitrate losses after first time N additions to the young Andisol whereas immediate and large aluminum losses were associated with increased nitrate losses from the Oxisol. In the long-term, base cation and aluminum losses increased in proportion to nitrate losses. Long-term N additions at both sites resulted in significant declines in soil pH, decreased CEC and increased AEC. These results suggest that even chronic N inputs resulting in small but elevated nitrate losses may deplete residual base cations, increase mobility and toxicity of aluminum, and potentially lead to declines in forest productivity and acidification of downstream ecosystems. These findings also suggest that AEC may provide a long-term mechanism to delay nitrate losses in tropical forests with significant variable charge that are experiencing chronic anthropogenic N inputs.

  17. Contribution of ants in modifying of soil acidity and particle size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgun, Alexandra; Golichenkov, Maxim

    2015-04-01

    Being a natural body, formed by the influence of biota on the upper layers of the Earth's crust, the soil is the most striking example of biogenic-abiogenic interactions in the biosphere. Invertebrates (especially ants that build soil nests) are important agents that change soil properties in well developed terrestrial ecosystems. Impact of soil microorganisms on soil properties is particularly described in numerous literature and concerns mainly chemical properties and general indicators of soil biological activity. Influence of ants (as representatives of the soil mesofauna) mostly appears as mechanical movement of soil particles and aggregates, and chemical effects caused by concentration of organic matter within the ant's nest. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of ants on physical and chemical soil attributes such as particle size distribution and soil acidity. The samples were taken from aerial parts of Lasius niger nests, selected on different elements of the relief (summit position, slope, terrace and floodplain) in the Arkhangelsk region (north of the European part of Russia) and compared with the specimens of the upper horizons of the reference soils. Particle size distribution was determined by laser diffraction method using laser diffraction particle size analyzer «Analysette 22 comfort» (FRITSCH, Germany). The acidity (pH) was determined by potentiometry in water suspension. Particle size distribution of the samples from the nests is more variable as compared to the control samples. For example, the content of 5-10 μm fraction ranges from 9% to 12% in reference soils, while in the anthill samples the variation is from 8% to 15%. Similarly, for 50-250 μm fraction - it ranges from 15% to 18% in reference soils, whereas in anthills - from 6% to 29%. The results of particle size analysis showed that the reference sample on the terrace has silty loam texture and nests soil L. niger are medium loam. The reference soil on the slope is

  18. Hexavalent uranium diffusion into soils from concentrated acidic and alkaline solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Pena, Jasquelin; Sutton, Stephen R.; Newville, Matthew

    2004-03-29

    Uranium contamination of soils and sediments often originates from acidic or alkaline waste sources, with diffusion being a major transport mechanism. Measurements of U(VI) diffusion from initially pH 2 and pH 11 solutions into a slightly alkaline Altamont soil and a neutral Oak Ridge soil were obtained through monitoring uptake from boundary reservoirs and from U concentration profiles within soil columns. The soils provided pH buffering, resulting in diffusion at nearly constant pH. Micro x-ray absorption near edge structure spectra confirmed that U remained in U(VI) forms in all soils. Time trends of U(VI) depletion from reservoirs, and U(VI) concentration profiles within soil columns yielded K{sub d} values consistent with those determined in batch tests at similar concentrations ({approx} 1 mM), and much lower than values for sorption at much lower concentrations (nM to {mu}M). These results show that U(VI) transport at high concentrations can be relatively fast at non-neutral pH, with negligible surface diffusion, because of weak sorption.

  19. Effects of dicyandiamide and dolomite application on N2O emission from an acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Muhammad; Wu, Yupeng; Peng, Qi-an; Lin, Shan; Mo, Yongliang; Wu, Lei; Hu, Ronggui; Zhou, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Soil acidification is a major problem for sustainable agriculture since it limits productivity of several crops. Liming is usually adopted to ameliorate soil acidity that can trigger soil processes such as nitrification, denitrification, and loss of nitrogen (N) as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The loss of N following liming of acidic soils can be controlled by nitrification inhibitors (such as dicyandiamide). However, effects of nitrification inhibitors following liming of acidic soils are not well understood so far. Here, we conducted a laboratory study using an acidic soil to examine the effects of dolomite and dicyandiamide (DCD) application on N2O emissions. Three levels of DCD (0, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1); DCD0, DCD10, and DCD20, respectively) were applied to the acidic soil under two levels of dolomite (0 and 1 g kg(-1)) which were further treated with two levels of N fertilizer (0 and 200 mg N kg(-1)). Results showed that N2O emissions were highest at low soil pH levels in fertilizer-treated soil without application of DCD and dolomite. Application of DCD and dolomite significantly (P ≤ 0.001) reduced N2O emissions through decreasing rates of NH4 (+)-N oxidation and increasing soil pH, respectively. Total N2O emissions were reduced by 44 and 13% in DCD20 and dolomite alone treatments, respectively, while DCD20 + dolomite reduced N2O emissions by 54% when compared with DCD0 treatment. The present study suggests that application of DCD and dolomite to acidic soils can mitigate N2O emissions.

  20. Organic Acid Excretion in Penicillium ochrochloron Increases with Ambient pH

    PubMed Central

    Vrabl, Pamela; Fuchs, Viktoria; Pichler, Barbara; Schinagl, Christoph W.; Burgstaller, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Despite being of high biotechnological relevance, many aspects of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi like the influence of ambient pH are still insufficiently understood. While the excretion of an individual organic acid may peak at a certain pH value, the few available studies investigating a broader range of organic acids indicate that total organic acid excretion rises with increasing external pH. We hypothesized that this phenomenon might be a general response of filamentous fungi to increased ambient pH. If this is the case, the observation should be widely independent of the organism, growth conditions, or experimental design and might therefore be a crucial key point in understanding the function and mechanisms of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi. In this study we explored this hypothesis using ammonium-limited chemostat cultivations (pH 2–7), and ammonium or phosphate-limited bioreactor batch cultivations (pH 5 and 7). Two strains of Penicillium ochrochloron were investigated differing in the spectrum of excreted organic acids. Confirming our hypothesis, the main result demonstrated that organic acid excretion in P. ochrochloron was enhanced at high external pH levels compared to low pH levels independent of the tested strain, nutrient limitation, and cultivation method. We discuss these findings against the background of three hypotheses explaining organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi, i.e., overflow metabolism, charge balance, and aggressive acidification hypothesis. PMID:22493592

  1. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ash, Christopher; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Jehlička, Jan; Michon, Ninon; Borůvka, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Shredded card (SC) was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE) carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water). We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4). Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons) before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49) were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC). In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC). In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC). In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil), and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC). A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption). SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing.

  2. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Christopher; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Jehlička, Jan; Michon, Ninon; Borůvka, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Shredded card (SC) was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE) carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water). We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4). Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons) before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49) were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC). In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC). In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC). In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil), and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC). A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption). SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing. PMID:26900684

  3. Combined impact of pH and organic acids on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Salovaara, Susan; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Andlid, Thomas

    2003-12-17

    Previous studies have shown that organic acids have an impact on both Fe(II) and Fe(III) uptake in Caco-2 cell. However, to what extent this effect is correlated with the anion of organic acids per se, or with the resulting decrease in pH, has not yet been clarified. Therefore, we studied the effect of five organic acids (tartaric, succinic, citric, oxalic, and propionic acid) on the absorption of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in Caco-2 cells and compared this with sample solutions without organic acids but set to equivalent pH by HCl. The results showed that the mechanisms behind the enhancing effect of organic acids differed for the two forms of iron. For ferric iron the organic acids promoted uptake both by chelation and by lowering the pH, whereas for ferrous iron the promoting effect was caused only by the lowered pH.

  4. Quality improvement of acidic soils by biochar derived from renewable materials.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Hwang, Inseong; Chang, Yoon-Young; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Ji, Won Hyun; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2017-02-01

    Biochar derived from waste plant materials and agricultural residues was used to improve the quality of an acidic soil. The acidic soil was treated for 1 month with both soy bean stover-derived biochar and oak-derived biochar in the range of 1 to 5 wt% for pH improvement and exchangeable cation enhancement. Following 1 month of treatment, the soil pH was monitored and exchangeable cations were measured. Moreover, a maize growth experiment was performed for 14 days with selected treated soil samples to confirm the effectiveness of the treatment. The results showed that the pH of the treated acidic soil increased by more than 2 units, and the exchangeable cation values were greatly enhanced upon treatment with 5 wt% of both biochars, after 1 month of curing. Maize growth was superior in the 3 wt% biochar-treated samples compared to the control sample. The presented results demonstrate the effective use of biochar derived from renewable materials such as waste plant materials and agricultural residues for quality improvement of acidic soils.

  5. Porewater geochemistry of inland Acid sulfate soils with sulfuric horizons following postdrought reflooding with freshwater.

    PubMed

    Creeper, Nathan L; Shand, Paul; Hicks, Warren; Fitzpatrick, Rob W

    2015-05-01

    Following the break of a severe drought in the Murray-Darling Basin, rising water levels restored subaqueous conditions to dried inland acid sulfate soils with sulfuric horizons (pH <3.5). Equilibrium dialysis membrane samplers were used to investigate in situ changes to soil acidity and abundance of metals and metalloids following the first 24 mo of restored subaqueous conditions. The rewetted sulfuric horizons remained severely acidified (pH ∼4) or had retained acidity with jarosite visibly present after 5 mo of continuous subaqueous conditions. A further 19 mo of subaqueous conditions resulted in only small additional increases in pH (∼0.5-1 pH units), with the largest increases occurring within the uppermost 10 cm of the soil profile. Substantial decreases in concentrations of some metal(loid)s were observed with time most likely owing to lower solubility and sorption as a consequence of the increase in pH. In deeper parts of the profiles, porewater remained strongly buffered at low pH values (pH <4.5) and experienced little progression toward anoxic circumneutral pH conditions over the 24 mo of subaqueous conditions. It is proposed that low pH conditions inhibited the activity of SO-reducing bacteria and, in turn, the in situ generation of alkalinity through pyrite production. The limited supply of alkalinity in freshwater systems and the initial highly buffered low pH conditions were also thought to be slowing recovery. The timescales involved for a sulfuric horizon rewetted by a freshwater body to recover from acidic conditions could therefore be in the order of several years.

  6. Fate of cadmium at the soil-solution interface: a thermodynamic study as influenced by varying pH at South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Das, Sampa; Das, Dilip K; Dutta, Amrit Kumar; Boruah, Romesh K

    2015-11-01

    A study on the sorption kinetics of Cd from soil solution to soils was conducted to assess the persistence of Cd in soil solution as it is related to the leaching, bioavailability, and potential toxicity of Cd. The kinetics of Cd sorption on two non-contaminated alkaline soils from Canning (22° 18' 48.02″ N and 88° 39' 29.0″ E) and Lakshmikantapur (22° 06' 16.61″ N and 88° 19' 08.66″ E) of South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India, were studied using conventional batch experiment. The variable soil suspension parameters were pH (4.00, 6.00, 8.18, and 9.00), temperatures (308, 318, and 328 K) and Cd concentrations (5-100 mg L(-1)). The average rate coefficient (kavg) and half-life (t1/2) values indicate that the persistence of Cd in soil solution is influenced by both temperature and soil suspension pH. The concentration of Cd in soil solution decreases with increase of temperature; therefore, Cd sorption on the soil-solution interface is an endothermic one. Higher pH decreases the t 1/2 of Cd in soil solution, indicating that higher pH (alkaline) is not a serious concern in Cd toxicity than lower pH (acidic). Based on the energy of activation (Ea) values, Cd sorption in acidic pH (14.76±0.29 to 64.45±4.50 kJ mol(-1)) is a surface control phenomenon and in alkaline pH (9.33±0.09 to 44.60±2.01 kJ mol(-1)) is a diffusion control phenomenon The enthalpy of activation (ΔH∓) values were found to be between 7.28 and 61.73 kJ mol(-1). Additionally, higher positive energy of activation (ΔG∓) values (46.82±2.01 to 94.47±2.36 kJ mol(-1)) suggested that there is an energy barrier for product formation.

  7. Amino acids improve acid tolerance and internal pH maintenance in Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 strain.

    PubMed

    Senouci-Rezkallah, Khadidja; Schmitt, Philippe; Jobin, Michel P

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the involvement of glutamate-, arginine- and lysine-dependent systems in the Acid Tolerance Response (ATR) of Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 strain. Cells were grown in a chemostat at external pH (pH(e)) 7.0 and 5.5. Population reduction after acid shock at pH 4.0 was strongly limited in cells grown at pH 5.5 (acid-adapted) compared with cells grown at pH 7.0 (unadapted), indicating that B. cereus cells grown at low pH(e) were able to induce a marked ATR. Glutamate, arginine and lysine enhanced the resistance of unadapted cells to pH 4.0 acid shock of 1-log or 2-log populations, respectively. Amino acids had no detectable effect on acid resistance in acid-adapted cells. An acid shock at pH 4.0 resulted in a marked drop in internal pH (pH(i)) in unadapted cells compared with acid-adapted cells. When acid shock was achieved in the presence of glutamate, arginine or lysine, pH(i) was maintained at higher values (6.31, 6.69 or 6.99, respectively) compared with pH(i) in the absence of amino acids (4.88). Acid-adapted cells maintained their pH(i) at around 6.4 whatever the condition. Agmatine (a competitive inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase) had a negative effect on the ability of B. cereus cells to survive and maintain their pH(i) during acid shock. Our data demonstrate that B. cereus is able to induce an ATR during growth at low pH. This adaptation depends on pH(i) homeostasis and is enhanced in the presence of glutamate, arginine and lysine. Hence evaluations of the pathogenicity of B. cereus must take into account its ability to adapt to acid stress.

  8. Characterization of Growing Soil Bacterial Communities across a pH gradient Using H218O DNA-Stable Isotope Probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty-Bernard, A. T.; Schwartz, E.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have established consistent relationships between pH and bacterial diversity and community structure in soils from site-specific to landscape scales. However, these studies rely on DNA or PLFA extraction techniques from bulk soils that encompass metabolically active and inactive, or dormant, communities, and loose DNA. Dormant cells may comprise up to 80% of total live cells. If dormant cells dominate a particular environment, it is possible that previous interpretations of the soil variables assumed to drive communities could be profoundly affected. We used H218O stable isotope probing and bar-coded illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to monitor the response of actively growing communities to changes in soil pH in a soil microcosm over 14 days. This substrate-independent approach has several advantages over 13C or 15N-labelled molecules in that all growing bacteria should be able to make use of water, allowing characterization of whole communities. We hypothesized that Acidobacteria would increasingly dominate the growing community and that Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes would decline, given previously established responses by these taxa to soil pH. Instead, we observed the reverse. Actinobacteria abundance increased three-fold from 26 to 76% of the overall community as soil pH fell from pH 5.6 to pH 4.6. Shifts in community structure and decreases in diversity with declining soil pH were essentially driven by two families, Streptomyceaca and Microbacteracea, which collectively increased from 2 to 40% of the entire community. In contrast, Acidobacteria as a whole declined although numbers of subdivision 1 remained stable across all soil pH levels. We suggest that the brief incubation period in this SIP study selected for growth of acid-tolerant Actinobacteria over Acidobacteria. Taxa within Actinomycetales have been readily cultured over short time frames, suggesting rapid growth patterns. Conversely, taxa within Acidobacteria have been

  9. Weak-acid preservatives: pH and proton movements in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Malcolm; Nebe-von-Caron, Gerhard; Steels, Hazel; Novodvorska, Michaela; Ueckert, Joerg; Archer, David B

    2013-02-15

    Weak-acid preservatives commonly used to prevent fungal spoilage of low pH foods include sorbic and acetic acids. The "classical weak-acid theory" proposes that weak acids inhibit spoilage organisms by diffusion of undissociated acids through the membrane, dissociation within the cell to protons and anions, and consequent acidification of the cytoplasm. Results from 25 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed inhibition by acetic acid at a molar concentration 42 times higher than sorbic acid, in contradiction of the weak-acid theory where all acids of equal pK(a) should inhibit at equimolar concentrations. Flow cytometry showed that the intracellular pH fell to pH 4.7 at the growth-inhibitory concentration of acetic acid, whereas at the inhibitory concentration of sorbic acid, the pH only fell to pH 6.3. The plasma membrane H⁺-ATPase proton pump (Pma1p) was strongly inhibited by sorbic acid at the growth-inhibitory concentration, but was stimulated by acetic acid. The H⁺-ATPase was also inhibited by lower sorbic acid concentrations, but later showed recovery and elevated activity if the sorbic acid was removed. Levels of PMA1 transcripts increased briefly following sorbic acid addition, but soon returned to normal levels. It was concluded that acetic acid inhibition of S. cerevisiae was due to intracellular acidification, in accord with the "classical weak-acid theory". Sorbic acid, however, appeared to be a membrane-active antimicrobial compound, with the plasma membrane H⁺-ATPase proton pump being a primary target of inhibition. Understanding the mechanism of action of sorbic acid will hopefully lead to improved methods of food preservation.

  10. Lead forms in urban turfgrass and forest soils as related to organic matter content and pH.

    PubMed

    Yesilonis, Ian D; James, Bruce R; Pouyat, Richard V; Momen, Bahram

    2008-11-01

    Soil pH may influence speciation and extractability of Pb, depending on type of vegetation in urban soil environments. We investigated the relationship between soil pH and Pb extractability at forest and turf grass sites in Baltimore, Maryland. Our two hypotheses were: (1) due to lower pH values in forest soils, more Pb will be in exchangeable forms in forested than in turfgrass soils and (2) due to the greater lability of exchangeable Pb in equilibrium with soil solution in forest soils, concentrations of this form will increase with depth more so than in the turfgrass soils, as related to organic matter content and pH. Soil samples were collected from three forested and three turfgrass sites to depths of 20 cm. Lead forms were determined using a sequential extraction technique. Soils under turfgrass and forest vegetation differed in the extractability of soil Pb (P < 0.01) for the Mn(III, IV)- and Fe(III)(hydr) oxide fraction. A greater Pb concentration was bound to this fraction under turfgrass (211 mg kg(-1), 69% of total Pb) than forested soils (67 mg kg(-1), 61% of total Pb), perhaps due to soil pH differences of 5.9 and 5.0, respectively. In the forested soils, as depth increased, the ratio of exchangeable-to-total Pb increased and the ratio of organically bound Pb-to-total Pb decreased. The results suggest changes in pH and organic matter content with depth affect the extractability of Pb, and these soil properties are affected differentially by grass versus tree vegetation in the urban soils investigated.

  11. Is microbial community composition in boreal forest soils determined by pH, C-to-N ratio, the trees, or all three?

    PubMed

    Högberg, Mona N; Högberg, Peter; Myrold, David D

    2007-01-01

    In Fennoscandian boreal forests, soil pH and N supply generally increase downhill as a result of water transport of base cations and N, respectively. Simultaneously, forest productivity increases, the understory changes from ericaceous dwarf shrubs to tall herbs; in the soil, fungi decrease whereas bacteria increase. The composition of the soil microbial community is mainly thought to be controlled by the pH and C-to-N ratio of the substrate. However, the latter also determines the N supply to plants, the plant community composition, and should also affect plant allocation of C below ground to roots and a major functional group of microbes, mycorrhizal fungi. We used phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) to analyze the potential importance of mycorrhizal fungi by comparing the microbial community composition in a tree-girdling experiment, where tree belowground C allocation was terminated, and in a long-term (34 years) N loading experiment, with the shifts across a natural pH and N supply gradient. Both tree girdling and N loading caused a decline of ca. 45% of the fungal biomarker PLFA 18:2omega6,9, suggesting a common mechanism, i.e., that N loading caused a decrease in the C supply to ectomycorrhizal fungi just as tree girdling did. The total abundance of bacterial PLFAs did not respond to tree girdling or to N loading, in which cases the pH (of the mor layer) did not change appreciably, but bacterial PLFAs increased considerably when pH increased across the natural gradient. Fungal biomass was high only in acid soil (pH < 4.1) with a high C-to-N ratio (>38). According to a principal component analysis, the soil C-to-N ratio was as good as predictor of microbial community structure as pH. Our study thus indicated the soil C-to-N ratio, and the response of trees to this ratio, as important factors that together with soil pH influence soil microbial community composition.

  12. [Effects of root-knot nematodes on cucumber leaf N and P contents, soil pH, and soil enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua; Ruan, Wei-Bin; Gao, Yu-Bao; Song, Xiao-Yan; Wei, Yu-Kun

    2010-08-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of inoculation with root-knot nematodes on the cucumber leaf N and P contents, and the rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil pH and enzyme activities. The rhizospheric soil pH didn't have a significant decrease until the inoculation rate reached 6000 eggs per plant. With the increase of inoculation rate, the leaf N and P contents, rhizospheric soil peroxidase activity, and rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil polyphenol oxidase activity all decreased gradually, rhizospheric soil catalase activity was in adverse, non-rhizospheric soil pH decreased after an initial increase, and non-rhizospheric soil catalase activity had no regular change. After inoculation, rhizospheric soil urease activity decreased significantly, but rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil phosphatase activity and non-rhizospheric soil peroxidase activity only had a significant decrease under high inoculation rate. In most cases, there existed significant correlations between rhizospheric soil pH, enzyme activities, and leaf N and P contents; and in some cases, there existed significant correlations between non-rhizospheric soil pH, enzyme activities, and leaf N and P contents.

  13. Transport of two naphthoic acids and salicylic acid in soil: experimental study and empirical modeling.

    PubMed

    Hanna, K; Lassabatere, L; Bechet, B

    2012-09-15

    In contrast to the parent compounds, the mechanisms responsible for the transport of natural metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in contaminated soils have been scarcely investigated. In this study, the sorption of three aromatic acids (1-naphthoic acid (NA), 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNA) and salicylic acid (SA)) was examined on soil, in a batch equilibrium single-system, with varying pH and acid concentrations. Continuous flow experiments were also carried out under steady-state water flow. The adsorption behavior of naphthoic and benzoic acids was affected by ligand functionality and molecular structure. All modeling options (equilibrium, chemical nonequilibrium, i.e. chemical kinetics, physical nonequilibrium, i.e. surface sites in the immobile water fraction, and both chemical and physical nonequilibrium) were tested in order to describe the breakthrough behavior of organic compounds in homogeneously packed soil columns. Tracer experiments showed a small fractionation of flow into mobile and immobile compartments, and the related hydrodynamic parameters were used for the modeling of reactive transport. In all cases, the isotherm parameters obtained from column tests differed from those derived from the batch experiments. The best accurate modeling was obtained considering nonequilibrium for the three organic compounds. Both chemical and physical nonequilibrium led to appropriate modeling for HNA and NA, while chemical nonequilibrium was the sole option for SA. SA sorption occurs mainly in mobile water and results from the concomitancy of instantaneous and kinetically limited sites. For all organic compounds, retention is contact condition dependent and differs between batch and column experiments. Such results show that preponderant mechanisms are solute dependent and kinetically limited, which has important implications for the fate and transport of carboxylated aromatic compounds in contaminated soils.

  14. Hydraulic conductivity study of compacted clay soils used as landfill liners for an acidic waste.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Noureddine; Srasra, Ezzeddine

    2013-01-01

    Three natural clayey soils from Tunisia were studied to assess their suitability for use as a liner for an acid waste disposal site. An investigation of the effect of the mineral composition and mechanical compaction on the hydraulic conductivity and fluoride and phosphate removal of three different soils is presented. The hydraulic conductivity of these three natural soils are 8.5 × 10(-10), 2.08 × 10(-9) and 6.8 × 10(-10)m/s for soil-1, soil-2 and soil-3, respectively. Soil specimens were compacted under various compaction strains in order to obtain three wet densities (1850, 1950 and 2050 kg/m(3)). In this condition, the hydraulic conductivity (k) was reduced with increasing density of sample for all soils. The test results of hydraulic conductivity at long-term (>200 days) using acidic waste solution (pH=2.7, charged with fluoride and phosphate ions) shows a decrease in k with time only for natural soil-1 and soil-2. However, the specimens of soil-2 compressed to the two highest densities (1950 and 2050 kg/m(3)) are cracked after 60 and 20 days, respectively, of hydraulic conductivity testing. This damage is the result of a continued increase in the internal stress due to the swelling and to the effect of aggressive wastewater. The analysis of anions shows that the retention of fluoride is higher compared to phosphate and soil-1 has the highest sorption capacity.

  15. Reduction of Cr(VI) by malic acid in aqueous Fe-rich soil suspensions.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Laiyuan; Yang, Jiewen

    2012-03-01

    Detoxification of Cr(VI) through reduction by organic reductants has been regarded as an effective way for remediation of Cr(VI)-polluted soils. However, such remediation strategy would be limited in practical applications due to the low Cr(VI) reduction rate. In this study, the catalytic effect of two Fe-rich soils (Ultisol and Oxisol) on Cr(VI) reduction by malic acid was evaluated. As the results shown, the two soils could obviously accelerate the reduction of Cr(VI) by malic acid at low pH conditions, while such catalytic effect was gradually suppressed as the increase in pH. After reaction for 48 h at pH 3.2, Oxalic acid was found in the supernatant of Ultisol, suggesting the oxidization of hydroxyl in malic acid to carboxyl and breakage of the bond between C(2) and C(3). It was also found that the catalytic reactivity of Ultisol was more significant than that of Oxisol, which could be partly attributed to the fact that the amount of Fe(II) released from the reductive dissolution of Ultisol by malic acid was larger than that of Oxisol. With addition of Al(III), the catalytic effect from Ultisol was inhibited across the pH range examined. On the contrary, the presence of Cu(II) would increase the catalytic effect of Ultisol, which was more pronounced with the increase in pH. This study proposed a potential way for elimination of the environmental risks posed by the Cr(VI) contamination by use of the natural soil surfaces to catalyze Cr(VI) reduction by the organic reductant such as malic acid, a kind of organic reductant originating from soil organic decomposition process or plant excretion.

  16. Negative pH and extremely acidic mine waters from Iron Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D.K.; Alpers, C.N.; Ptacek, C.J.; Blowes, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    Extremely acidic mine waters with pH values as low as -3.6, total dissolved metal concentrations as high as 200 g/L, and sulfate concentrations as high as 760 g/L, have been encountered underground in the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, CA. These are the most acidic waters known. The pH measurements were obtained by using the Pitzer method to define pH for calibration of glass membrane electrodes. The calibration of pH below 0.5 with glass membrane electrodes becomes strongly nonlinear but is reproducible to a pH as low as -4. Numerous efflorescent minerals were found forming from these acid waters. These extreme acid waters were formed primarily by pyrite oxidation and concentration by evaporation with minor effects from aqueous ferrous iron oxidation and efflorescent mineral formation.

  17. Predominance of char sorption over substrate concentration and soil pH in influencing biodegradation of benzonitrile.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Sheng, Guangyao; Feng, Yucheng; Miller, David M

    2006-02-01

    Incomplete combustion of field crop residues results in the production of char, a material rich in charcoal-type substances. Consequently, char is an effective adsorbent of organic compounds and when incorporated into soil may adsorb soil-applied pesticides, thereby altering their susceptibility to biodegradation. We investigated the relative importance of char, soil pH and initial substrate concentration in biodegradation of pesticides in soils by measuring the biodegradation of benzonitrile in soil as a function of soil char content (0% and 1% by weight), initial benzonitrile concentration (0.1, 1.06, and 10.2 mg l(-1)) and soil pH (5.2, 6.9 and 8.5). Preliminary experiments revealed that wheat straw char had a much greater benzonitrile sorption capacity than did soil to which the char was added. The extent of benzonitrile degradation decreased as initial benzonitrile concentration increased in both buffer solution and soil slurry. In contrast, the degradation increased as initial benzonitrile concentration increased in char-amended slurry. In un-amended soil slurry, the benzonitrile degradation was lower at pH 5.2 than at pH 6.9 or 8.5, but in char-amended soil slurry the degradation was not affected by pH, again presumably due to adsorption of benzonitrile by the char. Adsorption by soil char appears to be more important than either initial substrate concentration or soil pH in controlling benzonitrile degradation in char-amended soil slurry. The presence of crop residue-derived chars may alter pesticide degradation patterns normally observed in soils and thus significantly affect their environmental fate.

  18. Impact of mitigation strategies on acid sulfate soil chemistry and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofen; Sten, Pekka; Engblom, Sten; Nowak, Pawel; Österholm, Peter; Dopson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Potential acid sulfate soils contain reduced iron sulfides that if oxidized, can cause significant environmental damage by releasing large amounts of acid and metals. This study examines metal and acid release as well as the microbial community capable of catalyzing metal sulfide oxidation after treating acid sulfate soil with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). Leaching tests of acid sulfate soil samples were carried out in the laboratory. The pH of the leachate during the initial flushing with water lay between 3.8 and 4.4 suggesting that the jarosite/schwertmannite equilibrium controls the solution chemistry. However, the pH increased to circa 6 after treatment with CaCO3 suspension and circa 12 after introducing Ca(OH)2 solution. 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from community DNA extracted from the untreated and both CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 treated acid sulfate soils were most similar to bacteria (69.1% to 85.7%) and archaea (95.4% to 100%) previously identified from acid and metal contaminated environments. These species included a Thiomonas cuprina-like and an Acidocella-like bacteria as well as a Ferroplasma acidiphilum-like archeon. Although the CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 treatments did not decrease the proportion of microorganisms capable of accelerating acid and metal release, the chemical effects of the treatments suggested their reduced activity.

  19. Red spruce germination and growth in soil-mediated regeneration microcosms under acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the past three decades, atmospheric pollution has caused substantial problems for the environment as well as for many biological processes. The objective of this study focuses on red spruce (Picea ruben Sarg.) regeneration potential and chemical change within the soil-water-plant continuum following simulated acid rain treatments. Inceptisols from three forests at 1735, 1920, and 2015 m at Mt. Mitchell, North Carolina had lower pH, bulk density, and higher organic matter, and base cations as altitude increased. Red spruce seeds were collected from two nearby standing trees at the 1735 m site. A strip-split-split plot experiment was constructed using soils from the two lower elevations, which support natural red spruce stands. Besides a control (pH 5.6, NO[sub 3]:SO[sub 4] ratio 0.10), eight treatments corresponding to two pHs (3.5 and 4.2) with four NO[sub 3]:SO[sub 4] ratios (0.20, 0.33, 0.40, and 0.67) each were used. Seedling emergence and growth, chemistry of soil. Soil leachate, and plant tissue were analyzed to test soil differences and treatment effects of acidity, nitrate, and sulfate. Temporal patterns of germination respond more to soil than to rain chemistry, but significant interactions were found. Besides higher survival, faster germinating seedlings in the 1735 m soil also produced more complex root system and more biomass. Lower root-to-shoot ratios at more acidic treatments suggest a negative effect of acidity on root growth. Canonical discriminant analysis revealed that factors controlling overall soil chemistry were dominated by soil origin, then by rain pH.

  20. A structural transition in class II major histocompatibility complex proteins at mildly acidic pH

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Peptide binding by class II major histocompatibility complex proteins is generally enhanced at low pH in the range of hydrogen ion concentrations found in the endosomal compartments of antigen- presenting cells. We and others have proposed that class II molecules undergo a reversible conformational change at low pH that is associated with enhanced peptide loading. However, no one has previously provided direct evidence for a structural change in class II proteins in the mildly acidic pH conditions in which enhanced peptide binding is observed. In this study, susceptibility to denaturation induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) detergent or heat was used to probe the conformation of class II at different hydrogen ion concentrations. Class II molecules became sensitive to denaturation at pH 5.5-6.5 depending on the allele and experimental conditions. The observed structural transition was fully reversible if acidic pH was neutralized before exposure to SDS or heat. Experiments with the environment- sensitive fluorescent probe ANS (8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonic acid) provided further evidence for a reversible structural transition at mildly acidic pH associated with an increase in exposed hydrophobicity in class II molecules. IAd conformation was found to change at a higher pH than IEd, IEk, or IAk, which correlates with the different pH optimal for peptide binding by these molecules. We conclude that pH regulates peptide binding by influencing the structure of class II molecules. PMID:8551215

  1. Continuous intra-arterial blood pH monitoring in rabbits with acid-base disorders.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weizhong; Jiang, Jinjun; Wang, Xun; Zhu, Xiaodan; Wang, Guifang; Song, Yuanlin; Bai, Chunxue

    2011-07-31

    The acid-base balance of arterial blood is important for the clinical management of seriously ill patients, especially patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. We developed a novel fluorosensor for continuous blood pH monitoring and evaluated its performance both in vitro and in vivo in rabbits with acid-base disorders. The pH sensor is made of N-allyl-4-piperazinyl-1, 8-napthalimide and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, which were bonded at the distal end of the optical fiber. The fluorescence intensity increased as the pH decreased with good reproducibility, selectivity and linearity in the pH range of 6-8. The pH measurement precision was 0.03 ± 0.03 pH units with a bias of -0.02 ± 0.04 (n = 105) and -0.00 ± 0.05 pH units (n=189) in rabbits with metabolic and respiratory acid-base orders, respectively. The optical pH sensor can accurately measure pH fluctuations with a fast response and is a promising candidate for continuous in-line measurements of blood pH in critical care patients.

  2. A novel acidic pH fluorescent probe based on a benzothiazole derivative.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiujuan; Li, Xian; Feng, Suxiang; Liang, Beibei; Zhou, Tiqiang; Xu, Min; Ma, Zhuoyi

    2017-04-15

    A novel acidic pH fluorescent probe 1 based on a benzothiazole derivative has been designed, synthesized and developed. The linear response range covers the acidic pH range from 3.44 to 6.46, which is valuable for pH researches in acidic environment. The evaluated pKa value of the probe 1 is 4.23. The fluorescence enhancement of the studied probe 1 with an increase in hydrogen ions concentration is based on the hindering of enhanced photo-induced electron transfer (PET) process. Moreover, the pH sensor possesses a highly selective response to H(+) in the presence of metal ions, anions and other bioactive small molecules which would be interfere with its fluorescent pH response. Furthermore, the probe 1 responds to acidic pH with short response time that was less than 1min. The probe 1 has been successfully applied to confocal fluorescence imaging in live HeLa cells and can selectively stain lysosomes. All of such good properties prove it can be used to monitoring pH fluctuations in acidic environment with high sensitivity, pH dependence and short response time.

  3. A novel acidic pH fluorescent probe based on a benzothiazole derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qiujuan; Li, Xian; Feng, Suxiang; Liang, Beibei; Zhou, Tiqiang; Xu, Min; Ma, Zhuoyi

    2017-04-01

    A novel acidic pH fluorescent probe 1 based on a benzothiazole derivative has been designed, synthesized and developed. The linear response range covers the acidic pH range from 3.44 to 6.46, which is valuable for pH researches in acidic environment. The evaluated pKa value of the probe 1 is 4.23. The fluorescence enhancement of the studied probe 1 with an increase in hydrogen ions concentration is based on the hindering of enhanced photo-induced electron transfer (PET) process. Moreover, the pH sensor possesses a highly selective response to H+ in the presence of metal ions, anions and other bioactive small molecules which would be interfere with its fluorescent pH response. Furthermore, the probe 1 responds to acidic pH with short response time that was less than 1 min. The probe 1 has been successfully applied to confocal fluorescence imaging in live HeLa cells and can selectively stain lysosomes. All of such good properties prove it can be used to monitoring pH fluctuations in acidic environment with high sensitivity, pH dependence and short response time.

  4. Soil pH effects on the interactions between dissolved zinc, non-nano- and nano-ZnO with soil bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Read, Daniel S; Matzke, Marianne; Gweon, Hyun S; Newbold, Lindsay K; Heggelund, Laura; Ortiz, Maria Diez; Lahive, Elma; Spurgeon, David; Svendsen, Claus

    2016-03-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are used in an array of products and processes, ranging from personal care products to antifouling paints, textiles, food additives, antibacterial agents and environmental remediation processes. Soils are an environment likely to be exposed to manmade nanoparticles due to the practice of applying sewage sludge as a fertiliser or as an organic soil improver. However, understanding on the interactions between soil properties, nanoparticles and the organisms that live within soil is lacking, especially with regards to soil bacterial communities. We studied the effects of nanoparticulate, non-nanoparticulate and ionic zinc (in the form of zinc chloride) on the composition of bacterial communities in soil with a modified pH range (from pH 4.5 to pH 7.2). We observed strong pH-dependent effects on the interaction between bacterial communities and all forms of zinc, with the largest changes in bacterial community composition occurring in soils with low and medium pH levels (pH 4.8 and 5.9). The high pH soil (pH 7.2) was less susceptible to the effects of zinc exposure. At the highest doses of zinc (2500 mg/kg dw soil), both nano and non-nano particulate zinc applications elicited a similar response in the soil bacterial community, and this differed significantly to the ionic zinc salt treatment. The results highlight the importance of considering soil pH in nanotoxicology studies, although further work is needed to determine the exact mechanisms controlling the toxicity and fate and interactions of nanoparticles with soil microbial communities.

  5. Crop uptake and extractability of cadmium in soils naturally high in metals at different pH levels

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.R.; Almas, A.; Narwal, R.P.; Jeng, A.S.

    1995-12-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted for three years to study the effect of different pH levels on metal concentrations in plants and the cadmium (Cd) extractability by DTPA and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}. The soils used were an alum shale (clay loam) and a moraine (loam), which were adjusted to pH levels of 5.5, 6.5, 7.0, and 7.5. Wheat (Triticum aestivum), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were grown as test crops. Crop yields were not consistently affected at increasing soil pH levels. The concentration of Cd in plant species decreased with increasing soil pH in both soils and in all three years. Significant concentration differences between soil pH levels were only seen in wheat and carrot crops. Increasing soil pH also decreased the nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in plants in the first year crop but the copper (Cu) concentration was not consistently affected by soil pH. The effect of pH was more pronounced in the moraine then the alum shale soil. The DTPA-and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-extractable Cd was decreased with the increasing soil pH and the pH effect was more pronounced with NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} extractable Cd. Both extractants were found equally effective in relation to the Cd concentration in plants in this study. 33 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Cut-off net acid generation pH in predicting acid-forming potential in mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Liao, B; Huang, L N; Ye, Z H; Lan, C Y; Shu, W S

    2007-01-01

    Acidification of mine wastes can lead to a series of environmental problems, such as acid drainage, heavy metal mobilization, and ecosystem degradation. Prediction of acid-forming potential is one of the key steps in management of sulfide-bearing mine wastes. In this paper, the acid-forming potential of 180 mine waste samples collected from 17 mine sites in China were studied using a net acid generation (NAG) method. The samples contained different contents of total sulfur (ranging from 0.6 to 200 g kg(-1)), pyritic sulfur (ranging from 0 to 100 g kg(-1)), and acid neutralization capacity (ANC, ranging from -41 to 274 kg H2SO4 t(-1)). Samples with high acid-forming potential are generally due to their high sulfur content or low acid neutralization capacity. After the samples were oxidized by H2O2, the amounts of acid generation and the final NAG pH were measured. Results indicated that the final NAG pH gave a well-defined demarcation between acid-forming and non-acid-forming materials. Samples with final NAG pH >or= 5 could be classified as non-acid-forming materials, while those with NAG pH acid-forming materials. Materials with NAG pH > 2.5, but < 5, had low risk of being acid-forming. The confirmation of cut-off NAG pH will be used as a rapid and cost-effective operational monitoring tool for the in-pit prediction of acid-forming potential of mine wastes and classification of waste types.

  7. Differential Soil Acidity Tolerance of Tropical Legume Cover Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In tropical regions, soil acidity and low soil fertility are the most important yield limiting factors for sustainable crop production. Using legume cover crops as mulch is an important strategy not only to protect the soil loss from erosion but also ameliorating soil fertility. Information is limit...

  8. Acidic pH of the lateral intercellular spaces of MDCK cells cultured on permeable supports.

    PubMed

    Chatton, J Y; Spring, K R

    1994-06-01

    The pH of the lateral intercellular space (LIS) of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayers grown on permeable supports was investigated by microspectrofluorimetry using BCECF (2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein). The permeability of the support was selectively reduced by growing Zn-Al-silicate crystals inside its pores. The diffusion of BCECF across the filter was sufficiently retarded to allow measurements of fluorescence in the LIS. The LIS pH and intracellular pH of the cells surrounding them were determined in HEPES-buffered solutions. When the perfusate pH was 7.4, the LIS pH was more acidic (7.06 +/- 0.02) and equaled the cytoplasmic pH (7.08 +/- 0.05). When perfusate was changed to pH 7.0 or 7.8, the LIS changed linearly by about half the magnitude of the perfusate pH. Intracellular pH followed LIS pH variations between perfusate pH 7.0 and 7.4 but was significantly higher when perfusate pH was 7.8. Tight junctional H+ permeability was undetectably low. The low steady-state pH in the LIS was not altered by inhibitors of acid transport or low temperature. Rapid perturbations of pH in the LIS showed that protons were not immobilized in the LIS. The acidic microenvironment within the LIS may be the result of buffering by the cell surface proteins.

  9. Effect of initial solution pH on photo-induced reductive decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yan; Zhang, Chao-Jie; Chen, Pei; Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Wei-Xian

    2014-07-01

    The effects of initial solution pH on the decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) with hydrated electrons as reductant were investigated. The reductive decomposition of PFOA depends strongly on the solution pH. In the pH range of 5.0-10.0, the decomposition and defluorination rates of PFOA increased with the increase of the initial solution pH. The rate constant was 0.0295 min(-1) at pH 10.0, which was more than 49.0 times higher than that at pH 5.0. Higher pH also inhibits the generation of toxic intermediates during the PFOA decomposition. For example, the short-chain PFCAs reached a lower maximum concentration in shorter reaction time as pH increasing. The peak areas of accumulated fluorinated and iodinated hydrocarbons detected by GC/MS under acidic conditions were nearly 10-100 times more than those under alkaline conditions. In short, alkaline conditions were more favorable for photo-induced reduction of PFOA as high pH promoted the decomposition of PFOA and inhibited the accumulation of intermediate products. The concentration of hydrated electron, detected by laser flash photolysis, increased with the increase of the initial pH. This was the main reason why the decomposition of PFOA in the UV-KI system depended strongly on the initial pH.

  10. Identifying sources of acidity and spatial distribution of acid sulfate soils in the Anglesea River catchment, southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Vanessa; Yau, Chin; Kennedy, David

    2015-04-01

    Globally, coastal and estuarine floodplains are frequently underlain by sulfidic sediments. When exposed to oxygen, sulfidic sediments oxidise to form acid sulfate soils, adversely impacting on floodplain health and adjacent aquatic ecoystems. In eastern Australia, our understanding of the formation of these coastal and estuarine floodplains, and hence, spatial distribution of acid sulfate soils, is relatively well established. These soils have largely formed as a result of sedimentation of coastal river valleys approximately 6000 years BP when sea levels were one to two metres higher. However, our understanding of the evolution of estuarine systems and acid sulfate soil formation, and hence, distribution, in southern Australia remains limited. The Anglesea River, in southern Australia, is subjected to frequent episodes of poor water quality and low pH resulting in closure of the river and, in extreme cases, large fish kill events. This region is heavily reliant on tourism and host to a number of iconic features, including the Great Ocean Road and Twelve Apostles. Poor water quality has been linked to acid leakage from mining activities and Tertiary-aged coal seams, peat swamps and acid sulfate soils in the region. However, our understanding of the sources of acidity and distribution of acid sulfate soils in this region remains poor. In this study, four sites on the Anglesea River floodplain were sampled, representative of the main vegetation communities. Peat swamps and intertidal marshes were both significant sources of acidity on the floodplain in the lower catchment. However, acid neutralising capacity provided by carbonate sands suggests that there are additional sources of acidity higher in the catchment. This pilot study has highlighted the complexity in the links between the floodplain, upper catchment and waterways with further research required to understand these links for targeted acid management strategies.

  11. Cadmium and Zn availability as affected by pH manipulation and its assessment by soil extraction, DGT and indicator plants.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Iqbal; Puschenreiter, Markus; Wenzel, Walter W

    2012-02-01

    Manipulation of soil pH by soil additives and / or rhizosphere processes may enhance the efficiency of metal phytoextraction. Here we report on the effect of nitric acid additions to four polluted soils on Cd and Zn concentrations in soil solution (C(soln)) and 0.005M Ca(NO(3))(2) extracts, and related changes in the diffusive fluxes and resupply of the metals as assessed by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). The responses of these chemical indicators of bioavailability were compared to metal uptake in two indicator plant species, common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg) and narrow leaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) grown for 75days in a pot experiment. Lowering soil pH increased C(soln), the 0.005M Ca(NO(3))(2)-soluble fractions and the DGT-measured Cd and Zn concentrations (C(DGT)) in the experimental soils. This was associated with enhanced uptake of Cd and Zn on soils acidified to pH 4.5 whereas plants did not survive at pH 3.5. Toxicity along with decreased kinetics of metal resupply (calculated by the 2D DIFS model) in the strong acidification treatment suggests that moderate acidification is more appropriate to enhance the phytoextraction process. Each of the chemical indicators of bioavailability predicted well (R(2)>0.70) the Cd and Zn concentrations in plantain shoots but due to metal toxicity not for dandelion. Concentration factors, i.e. the ratio between metal concentrations in shoots and in soil solution (CF) indicate that Cd and Zn uptake in plantain was not limited by diffusion which may explain that DGT did not perform better than C(soln). However, DGT is expected to predict plant uptake better in diffusion-limited conditions such as in the rhizosphere of metal-accumulating phytoextraction crops.

  12. Primordial soup or vinaigrette: did the RNA world evolve at acidic pH?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The RNA world concept has wide, though certainly not unanimous, support within the origin-of-life scientific community. One view is that life may have emerged as early as the Hadean Eon 4.3-3.8 billion years ago with an atmosphere of high CO2 producing an acidic ocean of the order of pH 3.5-6. Compatible with this scenario is the intriguing proposal that life arose within alkaline (pH 9-11) deep-sea hydrothermal vents like those of the 'Lost City', with the interface with the acidic ocean creating a proton gradient sufficient to drive the first metabolism. However, RNA is most stable at pH 4-5 and is unstable at alkaline pH, raising the possibility that RNA may have first arisen in the acidic ocean itself (possibly near an acidic hydrothermal vent), acidic volcanic lake or comet pond. As the Hadean Eon progressed, the ocean pH is inferred to have gradually risen to near neutral as atmospheric CO2 levels decreased. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that RNA is well suited for a world evolving at acidic pH. This is supported by the enhanced stability at acidic pH of not only the RNA phosphodiester bond but also of the aminoacyl-(t)RNA and peptide bonds. Examples of in vitro-selected ribozymes with activities at acid pH have recently been documented. The subsequent transition to a DNA genome could have been partly driven by the gradual rise in ocean pH, since DNA has greater stability than RNA at alkaline pH, but not at acidic pH. Testing the hypothesis We have proposed mechanisms for two key RNA world activities that are compatible with an acidic milieu: (i) non-enzymatic RNA replication of a hemi-protonated cytosine-rich oligonucleotide, and (ii) specific aminoacylation of tRNA/hairpins through triple helix interactions between the helical aminoacyl stem and a single-stranded aminoacylating ribozyme. Implications of the hypothesis Our hypothesis casts doubt on the hypothesis that RNA evolved in the vicinity of alkaline hydrothermal vents. The

  13. Soluble organic carbon and pH of organic amendments affect metal mobility and chemical speciation in mine soils.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Esteban, Javier; Escolástico, Consuelo; Masaguer, Alberto; Vargas, Carmen; Moliner, Ana

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of pH and soluble organic carbon affected by organic amendments on metal mobility to find out the optimal conditions for their application in the stabilization of metals in mine soils. Soil samples (pH 5.5-6.2) were mixed with 0, 30 and 60 th a(-1) of sheep-horse manure (pH 9.4) and pine bark compost (pH 5.7). A single-step extraction procedure was performed using 0.005 M CaCl2 adjusted to pH 4.0-7.0 and metal speciation in soil solution was simulated using NICA-Donnan model. Sheep-horse manure reduced exchangeable metal concentrations (up to 71% Cu, 75% Zn) due to its high pH and degree of maturity, whereas pine bark increased them (32% Cu, 33% Zn). However, at increasing dose and hence pH, sheep-horse manure increased soluble Cu because of higher soluble organic carbon, whereas soluble Cu and organic carbon increased at increasing dose and correspondingly decreasing pH in pine bark and non-amended treatments. Near the native pH of these soils (at pH 5.8-6.3), with small doses of amendments, there was minimum soluble Cu and organic carbon. Pine bark also increased Zn solubility, whereas sheep-horse manure reduced it as soluble Zn always decreased with increasing pH. Sheep-horse manure also reduced the proportion of free metals in soil solution (from 41% to 4% Cu, from 97% to 94% Zn), which are considered to be more bioavailable than organic species. Sheep-horse manure amendment could be efficiently used for the stabilization of metals with low risk of leaching to groundwater at low doses and at relatively low pH, such as the native pH of mine soils.

  14. H-binding groups in lignite vs. soil humic acids: NICA-Donnan and spectroscopic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Drosos, M.; Jerzykiewicz, M.; Deligiannakis, Y.

    2009-04-15

    A comparative study has been carried out for two sets of humic acids isolated from lignites and soils. H-binding data were analyzed using the NICA-Donnan model, for three Greek lignite humic acids (HA) plus IHSS Leonardite reference HA, and five Greek soil HAs plus a commercial peat HA. {sup 13}C-CP-MAS NMR and H-binding data provide quantitative estimates for functional groups, showing that lignite HAs of diverse origin have strikingly homogeneous properties, while the H-binding structural units of soil HAs are characterized by a large degree of variability. Consistent differences between soil HA vs. lignite HA are revealed at the level of functional groups' concentrations. In the pH range 4 to 10, soil HA showed a charge variation < 3 (equiv kg{sup -1}) while lignite HAs showed a higher charge variation > 3.5 (equiv kg{sup -1}).

  15. Impacts of simulated acid rain on soil enzyme activities in a latosol.

    PubMed

    Ling, Da-Jiong; Huang, Qian-Chun; Ouyang, Ying

    2010-11-01

    Acid rain pollution is a serious environmental problem in the world. This study investigated impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon four types of soil enzymes, namely the catalase, acid phosphatase, urease, and amylase, in a latosol. Latosol is an acidic red soil and forms in the tropical rainforest biome. Laboratory experiments were performed by spraying the soil columns with the SAR at pH levels of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5., 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 7.0 (control) over a 20-day period. Mixed results were obtained in enzyme activities for different kinds of enzymes under the influences of the SAR. The catalase activities increased rapidly from day 0 to 5, then decreased slightly from day 5 to 15, and finally decreased sharply to the end of the experiments, whereas the acid phosphatase activities decreased rapidly from day 0 to 5, then increased slightly from day 5 to 15, and finally decreased dramatically to the end of the experiments. A decrease in urease activities was observed at all of the SAR pH levels for the entire experimental period, while an increase from day 0 to 5 and then a decrease from day 5 to 20 in amylase activities were observed at all of the SAR pH levels. In general, the catalase, acid phosphatase, and urease activities increased with the SAR pH levels. However, the maximum amylase activity was found at pH 4.0 and decreased as the SAR pH increased from 4.0 to 5.0 or decreased from 4.0 to 2.5. It is apparent that acid rain had adverse environmental impacts on soil enzyme activities in the latosol. Our study further revealed that impacts of the SAR upon soil enzyme activities were in the following order: amylase>catalase>acid phosphatase>urease. These findings provide useful information on better understanding and managing soil biological processes in the nature under the influence of acid rains.

  16. Concentration of copper and a copper-EDTA complex at the pH junction formed in soil by an electrokinetic remediation process.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tomoyuki; Takase, Ken-Ichi; Tanaka, Shunitz

    2007-05-17

    The formation and stability of a pH junction was investigated, and the precipitation and accumulation of a metal hydroxide at the pH junction was confirmed. Moreover, the possibility that metal ions could be accumulated as a Me-EDTA complex at the pH junction was demonstrated. As a result, the pH junction where the acidic and alkali fronts of soil meet and the pH of soil changes rapidly, appeared at the 0.6 position in the EK process for 6-12 h. Copper ions accumulated in the form of copper hydroxide. EDTA was also concentrated in the position, in general agreement with the position of the pH junction. In addition to copper hydroxide, a copper-EDTA complex was concentrated at the 0.6 position from the anode after EK treatment for 12 h. The copper-EDTA complex was retained in 0.7 position from the anode after 12 h and, after 24 h, the position shifted to 0.8-0.9 from the anode. The possibility of accumulating metal ions within a narrow area, such as a pH junction was demonstrated.

  17. A neutral ceramidase homologue from Dictyostelium discoideum exhibits an acidic pH optimum.

    PubMed Central

    Monjusho, Hatsumi; Okino, Nozomu; Tani, Motohiro; Maeda, Mineko; Yoshida, Motonobu; Ito, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence reported for the Dictyostelium discoideum ceramidase is available on the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ). Ceramidases (CDases) are currently classified into three categories (acid, neutral and alkaline) based on their optimal pHs and primary structures. Here, we report the first exception to this rule. We cloned the CDase cDNA, consisting of 2142 nucleotides encoding 714 amino-acid residues, from the slime mould, Dictyostelium discoideum. The putative amino-acid sequence indicates 32-42% identity with various neutral CDases, but does not show any similarity to the acid and alkaline CDases, indicating the enzyme should be classified as a neutral CDase. However, overexpression of the cDNA in D. discoideum resulted in increased CDase activity at an acidic, but not a neutral pH range. Knockout of the gene in slime mould eliminated CDase activity at acidic pH. The recombinant enzyme expressed in the slime mould was purified and then characterized. Consequently, the purified CDase was found to exhibit the maximal activity at approx. pH 3.0. The singular pH dependency of slime mould CDase is not derived from the specific post-translational modification in the slime mould, because the enzyme showed an acidic pH optimum even when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, whereas rat neutral-CDase exhibited a neutral pH optimum when expressed in slime mould. PMID:12943537

  18. Short-column anion-exchange chromatography for soil and peat humic substances profiling by step-wise gradient of high pH aqueous sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

    PubMed

    Hutta, Milan; Ráczová, Janka; Góra, Róbert; Pessl, Juraj

    2015-08-21

    Novel anion-exchange liquid chromatographic method with step gradient of aqueous EDTA(4-) based mobile phase elution has been developed to profile available Slovak soil humic substances and alkaline extracts of various soils. The method utilize short glass column (30mm×3mm) filled in with hydrolytically stable particles (60μm diameter) Separon HEMA-BIO 1000 having (diethylamino)ethyl functional groups. Step gradient was programmed by mixing mobile phase composed of aqueous solution of sodium EDTA (pH 12.0; 5mmolL(-1)) and mobile phase constituted of aqueous solution of sodium EDTA (pH 12.0, 500mmolL(-1)). The FLD of HSs was set to excitation wavelength 480nm and emission wavelength 530nm (λem). Separation mechanism was studied by use of selected aromatic acids related to humic acids with the aid of UV spectrophotometric detection at 280nm. The proposed method benefits from high ionic strength (I=5molL(-1)) of the end mobile phase buffer and provides high recovery of humic acids (98%). Accurate and reproducible profiling of studied humic substances, alkaline extracts of various types of soils enables straightforward characterization and differentiation of HSs in arable and forest soils. Selected model aromatic acids were used for separation mechanism elucidation.

  19. Formation of elastic whey protein gels at low pH by acid equilibration.

    PubMed

    Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh; Khayankan, Worarat; Foegeding, E Allen

    2010-06-01

    Whey protein gels have a weak/brittle texture when formed at pH pH is required to produce a high-protein, shelf-stable product. We investigated if gels could be made under conditions that produced strong/elastic textural properties then adjusted to pH pH 7.5). Equilibration in acid solutions caused gel swelling and lowered pH because of the diffusion of water and H(+) into the gels. The type and concentration of acid, and presence of other ions, in the equilibrating solutions influenced pH, swelling ratio, and fracture properties of the gels. Swelling of gels decreased fracture stress (because of decreased protein network density) but caused little change to fracture strain, thus maintaining a desirable strong/elastic fracture pattern. We have shown that whey protein isolate gels can be made at pH acid type, acid concentration, pH of equilibrating solution, and equilibrating time.

  20. Extreme soil acidity from biodegradable trap and skeet targets increases severity of pollution at shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    McTee, Michael R; Mummey, Daniel L; Ramsey, Philip W; Hinman, Nancy W

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution at shooting ranges overshadows the potential for contamination issues from trap and skeet targets. We studied the environmental influence of targets sold as biodegradable by determining the components of the targets and sampling soils at a former sporting clay range. Targets comprised approximately 53% CaCO3, 41% S(0), and 6% modifiers, and on a molar basis, there was 2.3 times more S(0) than CaCO3. We observed a positive correlation between target cover and SO4(2-) (ρ=0.82, P<0.001), which indicated the oxidation of S(0) to H2SO4. Sulfate was negatively correlated with pH (ρ=-0.93, P<0.001) because insufficient CaCO3 existed in the targets to neutralize all the acid produced from S(0) oxidation. Plant cover decreased with decreasing soil pH (ρ=0.62, P=0.006). For sites that had pH values below 3, 24tons of lime per 1000tons of soil would be required to raise soil pH to 6.5. Lime-facilitated pH increases would be transitory because S(0) would continue to oxidize to H2SO4 until the S(0) is depleted. This study demonstrates that biodegradable trap and skeet targets can acidify soil, which has implications for increasing the mobility of Pb from shotgun pellets.

  1. Dolomite application to acidic soils: a promising option for mitigating N2O emissions.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Muhammad; Peng, Qi-An; Hu, Ronggui; Wu, Yupeng; Lin, Shan; Zhao, Jinsong

    2015-12-01

    Soil acidification is one of the main problems to crop productivity as well as a potent source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). Liming practice is usually performed for the amelioration of acidic soils, but the effects of dolomite application on N2O emissions from acidic soils are still not well understood. Therefore, a laboratory study was conducted to examine N2O emissions from an acidic soil following application of dolomite. Dolomite was applied to acidic soil in a factorial design under different levels of moisture and nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Treatments were as follows: dolomite was applied as 0, 1, and 2 g kg(-1) soil (named as CK, L, and H, respectively) under two levels of moisture [i.e., 55 and 90 % water-filled pore space (WFPS)]. All treatments of dolomite and moisture were further amended with 0 and 200 mg N kg(-1) soil as (NH4)2SO4. Soil properties such as soil pH, mineral N (NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soil N2O emissions were analyzed throughout the study period. Application of N fertilizer rapidly increased soil N2O emissions and peaked at 0.59 μg N2O-N kg(-1) h(-1) under 90 % WFPS without dolomite application. The highest cumulative N2O flux was 246.32 μg N2O-N kg(-1) under 90 % WFPS without dolomite addition in fertilized soil. Addition of dolomite significantly (p ≤ 0.01) mitigated N2O emissions as soil pH increased, and H treatment was more effective for mitigating N2O emissions as compared to L treatment. The H treatment decreased the cumulative N2O emissions by up to 73 and 67 % under 55 and 90 % WFPS, respectively, in fertilized soil, and 60 and 68 % under 55 and 90 % WFPS, respectively, in unfertilized soil when compared to those without dolomite addition. Results demonstrated that application of dolomite to acidic soils is a promising option for mitigating N2O emissions.

  2. Changes in pH and organic acids in mucilage of Eriophorum angustifolium roots after exposure to elevated concentrations of toxic elements.

    PubMed

    Javed, M Tariq; Stoltz, Eva; Lindberg, Sylvia; Greger, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The presence of Eriophorum angustifolium in mine tailings of pyrite maintains a neutral pH, despite weathering, thus lowering the release of toxic elements into acid mine drainage water. We investigated if the presence of slightly elevated levels of free toxic elements triggers the plant rhizosphere to change the pH towards neutral by increasing organic acid contents. Plants were treated with a combination of As, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn at different concentrations in nutrient medium and in soil in a rhizobox-like system for 48-120 h. The pH and organic acids were detected in the mucilage dissolved from root surface, reflecting the rhizospheric solution. Also the pH of root-cell apoplasm was investigated. Both apoplasmic and mucilage pH increased and the concentrations of organic acids enhanced in the mucilage with slightly elevated levels of toxic elements. When organic acids concentration was high, also the pH was high. Thus, efflux of organic acids from the roots of E. angustifolium may induce rhizosphere basification.

  3. [Effects of long-term fertilization on pH buffer system of sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Dong; Qi, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Chun; Zhang, Ai-Jun; Ning, Yun-Wang; Xu, Xian-Ju; Zhang, Hui; Ma, Hong-Bo

    2012-04-01

    Soil samples (0-80 cm) were collected from a 30-year fertilization experimental site in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province of East China to study the variations of the pH, calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents, and pH buffer capacity of sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil under different fertilization treatments. Thirty-year continuous application of different fertilizers accelerated the acidification of topsoil (0-20 cm), with the soil pH decreased by 0.41-0.70. Under different fertilization, the soil pH buffer capacity (pHBC) varied from 15.82 to 21.96 cmol x kg(-1). As compared with no fertilization, single N fertilization decreased the pHBC significantly, but N fertilization combined with organic fertilization could significantly increase the pHBC. The soil pHBC had significant positive correlations with soil calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents, but less correlation with soil organic matter content and soil cation exchange capacity, suggesting that after a long-term fertilization, the sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil was still of an elementary calcium carbonate buffer system, and soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity contributed little to the buffer system. The soil calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents were greater in 0-40 cm than in 40-80 cm soil layer. Comparing with soil calcium carbonate, soil active calcium carbonate was more sensitive to reflect the changes of soil physical and chemical properties, suggesting that the calcium carbonate buffer system could be further classified as soil active calcium carbonate buffer system.

  4. Acidification of soil-water in low base-saturated sand soils of the superior uplands under acid and normal precipitation.

    PubMed

    Harris, A R

    1989-04-01

    Lakes and streams are acidified by direct precipitation and water channeled through nearby soils, but water in low base-saturation soils can produce highly acidic percolate after prolonged contact and subsequent degassing in surface waters. Theories advanced by Reuss (1983), Reuss and Johnson (1985), and Seip and Rustad (1984) suggest that soils with less than 15% base saturation are susceptible to soil-water pH depression of up to 0.4 unit, which is sufficient to cause negative alkalinity in soil solutions. High concentrations of mobile anions (notably sulfate) are responsible for the negative alkalinity and these solutions on CO2 degassing in surface waters can retain acidities equivalent to a pH value of 5.0 or less. This mechanism purports to explain why some lakes acidify when they are surrounded by acid soils and cation leaching is not required.Ambient precipitation set to pH 5.4 and pH 4.2 was applied to columns of low base-saturated, sand, soils, starting in 1985. The columns (15 cm diameter and 150 cm long) were collected from soils with base saturations falling into one of three groups (0-10, 10-20, and 20-40%) from national forests in the Superior Uplands area (includes Boundary Waters Canoe Area, Rainbow Lakes, Sylvania, Moquah Barrens, and other Wilderness and Natural areas). The soils were Haplorthods and Udipsamments mainly from outwash plains.The soil columns were instrumented and reburied around a subterranean structure used to collect leachate water and to maintain natural temperature, air, and light conditions. Three humus treatments were applied to soil column (none, northern hardwood, and jack pine) to measure the effect of natural acidification compared to acidification by acid precipitation. The cores were treated with precipitation buffered to pH 5.4 to simulate natural rain and pH 4.2 to simulate acid rain.Columns were treated in 1985 and 1986 with approximately 200 cm of buffered precipitation each year over the frost-free season. Data is

  5. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the acidity and salinity of greenhouse soils.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiangpei; Shi, Jiachun; Zeng, Lingzao; Xu, Jianming; Wu, Laosheng

    2015-02-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of conventional nitrogen fertilization on soil acidity and salinity. Three N rates (urea; N0, 0 kg N ha(-1); N1, 600 kg N ha(-1); and N2, 1,200 kg N ha(-1)) were applied in five soils with different greenhouse cultivation years to evaluate soil acidification and salinization rate induced by nitrogen fertilizer in lettuce production. Both soil acidity and salinity increased significantly as N input increased after one season, with pH decrease ranging from 0.45 to 1.06 units and electrolytic conductivity increase from 0.24 to 0.68 mS cm(-1). An estimated 0.92 mol H(+) was produced for 1 mol (NO2 (-) + NO3 (-))-N accumulation in soil. The proton loading from nitrification was 14.3-27.3 and 12.1-58.2 kmol H(+) ha(-1) in the center of Shandong Province under N1 and N2 rate, respectively. However, the proton loading from the uptake of excess bases by lettuces was only 0.3-4.5 % of that from nitrification. Moreover, the release of protons induced the direct release of base cations and accelerated soil salinization. The increase of soil acidity and salinity was attributed to the nitrification of excess N fertilizer. Compared to the proton loading by lettuce, nitrification contributed more to soil acidification in greenhouse soils.

  6. Early indications of soil recovery from acidic deposition in U.S. red spruce forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Shortle, Walter C.; David, Mark B.; Smith, Kevin T.; Warby, Richard A.F.; Lapenis, Andrei G.

    2012-01-01

    Forty to fifty percent decreases in acidic deposition through the 1980s and 1990s led to partial recovery of acidified surface waters in the northeastern United States; however, the limited number of studies that have assessed soil change found increased soil acidification during this period. From existing data, it's not clear whether soils continued to worsen in the 1990s or if recovery had begun. To evaluate possible changes in soils through the 1990s, soils in six red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) stands in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, first sampled in 1992 to 1993, were resampled in 2003 to 2004. The Oa-horizon pH increased (P 42−, which decreased the mobility of Al throughout the upper soil profile. Results indicate a nascent recovery driven largely by vegetation processes.

  7. Effects of Fe oxide on N transformations in subtropical acid soils

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xianjun; Xin, Xiaoping; Li, Shiwei; Zhou, Junchao; Zhu, Tongbin; Müller, Christopher; Cai, Zucong; Wright, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    Subtropical ecosystems are often characterized by high N cycling rates, but net nitrification rates are often low in subtropical acid soils. NO3−-N immobilization into organic N may be a contributing factor to understand the observed low net nitrification rates in these acid soils. The effects of Fe oxide and organic matter on soil N transformations were evaluated using a 15N tracing study. Soil net nitrification was low for highly acidic yellow soil (Ferralsols), but gross ammonia oxidation was 7 times higher than net nitrification. In weakly acidic purple soil (Cambisols), net nitrification was 8 times higher than in Ferralsols. The addition of 5% Fe oxide to Cambisols, reduced the net nitrification rate to a negative rate, while NO3−-N immobilization rate increased 8 fold. NO3−-N immobilization was also observed in Ferralsols which contained high Fe oxides levels. A possible mechanism for these reactions could be stimulation of NO3−-N immobilization by Fe oxide which promoted the abiotic formation of nitrogenous polymers, suggesting that the absence of net nitrification in some highly acid soils may be due to high rates of NO3−-N immobilization caused by high Fe oxide content rather than a low pH. PMID:25722059

  8. Composition of exchangeable bases and acidity in soils of the Crimean Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostenko, I. V.

    2015-08-01

    Acid forest and mountainous meadow soils of the Crimean Mountains were studied. The amount of hydrogen and aluminum ions extracted from these soils depended on the pH of extracting agents. The maximum values of the soil acidity were obtained upon the extraction with a strongly alkaline solution of sodium acetate in 0.05 N NaOH. The application of this extractant made it possible to determine the total exchange acidity, the total amount of extractable aluminum, and the total cation exchange capacity of the soils after the extraction of all the acidic components from them. The values of these characteristics were significantly higher than the values of the potential acidity and cation exchange capacity obtained by the routine analytical methods. Hydrogen predominated among the acidic components of the exchange acidity in the humus horizons, whereas aluminum predominated among them in the underlying mineral horizons. Hydrothermic conditions and the character of vegetation and parent materials were the major factors affecting the relationships between bases and acidic components in the soil adsorption complex.

  9. Volatile fatty acids distribution during acidogenesis of algal residues with pH control.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Hua, Dongliang; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yuxiao; Xu, Haipeng; Liang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2013-06-01

    The anaerobic acidification of protein-rich algal residues with pH control (4, 6, 8, 10) was studied in batch reactors, which was operated at mesophilic(35 °C) condition. The distribution of major volatile fatty acids (VFAs) during acidogenesis was emphasized in this paper. The results showed that the acidification efficiency and VFAs distribution in the acid reactor strongly depended on the pH. The main product for all the runs involved acetic acid except that the proportion of butyric acid acidified at pH 6 was relatively higher. The other organic acids remained at lower levels. The VFAs yield reached the maximum value with about 0.6 g VFAs/g volatile solid (VS) added as pH was 8, and also the content of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) reached the highest values of 9,629 mg/l. Low acidification degrees were obtained under the conditions at pH 4 and 10, which was not suitable for the metabolism of acidogens. Hydralic retention time (HRT) required for different conditions varied. As a consequence, it was indicated that pH was crucial to the acidification efficiency and products distribution. The investigation of acidogenesis process, which was producing the major substrates, short-chain fatty acids, would play the primary role in the efficient operation of methanogenesis.

  10. Stability and mobility of cerium oxide nanoparticles in soils: effects of humic substances, pH and ionic strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yirui; Mu, Linlin; Li, Chunyan; Bai, Lingyun; Jacobson, Astrid; Darnault, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Among the large number of types of nanomaterials used in the field of nanotechnology, cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are among the top five most commonly utilized by industry, agriculture and nanomedicine for their unique physico-chemical properties. They are used, for example, in the production of catalysts, as fuel additives, and as polishing agents. Therefore, the release and encounter of CeO2 NPs in the environment following their application, waste disposal, life-cycle and accidents is inevitable. It is critical to examine the behavior of CeO2 NPs released in the environment to assess the risk they pose to the environmental and public health. In particular, little is known about the fate and transport of CeO2 NPs in soils and groundwater. To assess the behavior of CeO2 NPs, it is important to investigate the factors that affect their stability and mobility. Humic substances are a major component of soils and have been shown to have the potential to impact the transport and retention of nanoparticles in soils. Consequently, our study characterizes the impacts of humic and fulvic acids on the stability and mobility of cerium oxides in model porous media under various pH and ionic strength conditions. Batch experiments conducted at various concentrations of humic and fulvic acids coupled with a wide range of pHs and ionic strengths were investigated. Selected parameters from these batch studies were then used as experimental conditions representative of environmental systems to perform column transport experiments to assess of the mobility of CeO2 NPs in saturated porous media, which is the first step in simulating their behavior in soil and groundwater systems.

  11. Understanding the mechanism behind the nitrous acid (HONO) emissions from the northern soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Hem Raj; Siljanen, Henri MP; Biasi, Christina; Maljanen, Marja

    2016-04-01

    The interest of the flux of nitrous acid (HONO) from soils has recently increased. HONO is an important source of the oxidant OH- radical in the troposphere and thus results a reduction of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the atmosphere. Soils have been recently found to be potential sources of HONO as these emissions are linked to other nitrogen cycle processes, especially presence of nitrite in soils. Ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have been suggested as possible yet substantial sources of HONO. Along with soil pH, other physical properties such as C:N, nitrogen availability, soil moisture and temperature may effect HONO emissions. Our preliminary results demonstrate that drained acidic peatlands with a low C:N produces higher NO, N2O and HONO emissions compared to those in pristine peatlands and upland forest soils. This study will identify the hotspots and the process involved in HONO emissions in northern ecosystems. Along with HONO, we will examine the emissions of NO and N2O to quantify the related N-gases emitted. These results will add a new piece of information in our knowledge of the nitrogen cycle. Soil samples will be collected from several boreal and arctic sites in Finland, Sweden and Russia. In the laboratory, soil samples will be manipulated based on previously described soil physical properties. This will be followed by labelling experiment coupled with selective nitrification inhibitor experiment in the soils. Our first hypothesis is that northern ecosystems are sources of HONO. Second, is that the soil properties (C:N ratio, moisture, N-availability, pH) regulate the magnitude of HONO emissions from northern soils. Third is that the first step of nitrification (ammonium oxidation) is the main pathway to produce HONO. This study will show that the northern ecosystems could be sources of HONO and therefore increasing the oxidizing capacity of the lower atmosphere.

  12. Removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil by electrodialytic remediation enhanced with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Merdoud, Ouarda; Cameselle, Claudio; Boulakradeche, Mohamed Oualid; Akretche, Djamal Eddine

    2016-11-09

    The soil from an industrial area in Algeria was contaminated with Cr (8370 mg kg(-1)), Ni (1135 mg kg(-1)) and zinc (1200 mg kg(-1)). The electrodialytic remediation of this soil was studied using citric acid and EDTA as facilitating agents. 0.1 M citric acid or EDTA was added directly to the soil before it was introduced in an electrodialytic cell in an attempt to enhance the heavy metal solubility in the interstitial fluid. The more acidic pH in the soil when citric acid was used as the facilitating agent was not enough to mobilize and remove the metals from the soil. Only 7.2% of Ni and 6.7% of Zn were removed from the soil in the test with citric acid. The best results were found with EDTA, which was able to solubilize and complex Zn and Ni forming negatively charged complexes that were transported and accumulated in the anolyte. Complete removal was observed for Ni and Zn in the electrodialytic treatment with EDTA. Minor amounts of Cr were removed with both EDTA and citric acid.

  13. An assessment of the association between soil pH and ovine Johne's disease using Australian abattoir surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Cowled, Brendan D; Stevenson, Mark A; Madin, Ben

    2016-04-01

    There has long been discussion in the literature about the role of soil on ovine Johnes disease (OJD). This is especially true of soil pH, however there is very little research to support an association between pH and OJD prevalence. The primary objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that there is an association between soil pH and OJD. Several additional hypotheses were also assessed. Sheep properties that were surveyed by the Australian National Sheep Health Monitoring Project where classified as OJD reactor positive or otherwise. A variety of explanatory variables such as soil (especially soil pH), environmental and management factors were examined. Spatial regression models were assessed using information theory to examine support for various hypotheses and to examine associations; especially that soil pH is associated with OJD. A total of 1213 properties from 10,578 were classified as OJD positive (11.5%, 95% CI: 10.9-12.1). Within the limitations of the study, only modest support was found for an association between soil pH and the presence or absence of OJD. Instead, OJD prevalence was affected by several factors concurrently, a so called multi-factorial model (hypothesis). In this supported multifactorial hypothesis soil pH was marginally associated with OJD (p=0.04) and had a relatively weak effect (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.00). OJD was strongly associated with a number of biosecurity and environmental factors such as the time since infection arrived in a region, absence of biosecurity programs (such as regional biosecurity programs or state based programs) and, to a lesser extent, solar irradiation. Soil pH may play a relatively small role in explaining OJD prevalence when evaluated as part of a multifactorial model. Biosecurity and other environmental factors appear to be more strongly associated with the presence of OJD in Australia.

  14. Change of pH during excess sludge fermentation under alkaline, acidic and neutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yue; Peng, Yongzhen; Liu, Ye; Jin, Baodan; Wang, Bo; Wang, Shuying

    2014-12-01

    The change in pH during excess sludge (ES) fermentation of varying sludge concentrations was investigated in a series of reactors at alkaline, acidic, and neutral pHs. The results showed that the changes were significantly affected by fermentative conditions. Under different conditions, pH exhibited changing profiles. When ES was fermented under alkaline conditions, pH decreased in a range of (10±1). At the beginning of alkaline fermentation, pH dropped significantly, at intervals of 4h, 4h, and 5h with sludge concentrations of 8665.6mg/L, 6498.8mg/L, and 4332.5mg/L, then it would become moderate. However, under acidic conditions, pH increased from 4 to 5. Finally, under neutral conditions pH exhibited a decrease then an increase throughout entire fermentation process. Further study showed short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), ammonia nitrogen and cations contributed to pH change under various fermentation conditions. This study presents a novel strategy based on pH change to predict whether SCFAs reach their stable stage.

  15. Nitrogen saturation, soil acidification, and ecological effects in a subtropical pine forest on acid soil in southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongmei; Kang, Ronghua; Mulder, Jan; Zhang, Ting; Duan, Lei

    2015-11-01

    Elevated anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition has caused nitrate (NO3-) leaching, an indication of N saturation, in several temperate and boreal forests across the Northern Hemisphere. So far, the occurrence of N saturation in subtropical forests and its effects on the chemistry of the typically highly weathered soils, forest growth, and biodiversity have received little attention. Here we investigated N saturation and the effects of chronically high N inputs on soil and vegetation in a typical, subtropical Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest at Tieshanping, southwest China. Seven years of N flux data obtained in ambient conditions and in response to field manipulation, including a doubling of N input either as ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) or as sodium nitrate (NaNO3) solution, resulted in a unique set of N balance data. Our data showed extreme N saturation with near-quantitative leaching of NO3-, by far the dominant form of dissolved inorganic N in soil water. Even after 7 years, NH4+, added as NH4NO3, was nearly fully converted to NO3-, thus giving rise to a major acid input into the soil. Despite the large acid input, the decrease in soil pH was insignificant, due to pH buffering caused by Al3+ mobilization and enhanced SO42- adsorption. In response to the NH4NO3-induced increase in soil acidification and N availability, ground vegetation showed significant reduction of abundance and diversity, while Masson pine growth further declined. By contrast, addition of NaNO3 did not cause soil acidification. The comparison of NH4NO3 treatment and NaNO3 treatment indicated that pine growth decline was mainly attributed to acidification-induced nutrient imbalance, while the loss in abundance of major ground species was the combining effect of N saturation and acidification. Therefore, N emission control is of primary importance to curb further acidification and eutrophication of forest soils in much of subtropical south China.

  16. Rhizosheaths on wheat grown in acid soils: phosphorus acquisition efficiency and genetic control

    PubMed Central

    James, Richard A.; Weligama, Chandrakumara; Verbyla, Klara; Ryan, Peter R.; Rebetzke, Gregory J.; Rattey, Allan; Richardson, Alan E.; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Rhizosheaths comprise soil bound to roots, and in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rhizosheath size correlates with root hair length. The aims of this study were to determine the effect that a large rhizosheath has on the phosphorus (P) acquisition by wheat and to investigate the genetic control of rhizosheath size in wheat grown on acid soil. Near-isogenic wheat lines differing in rhizosheath size were evaluated on two acid soils. The soils were fertilized with mineral nutrients and included treatments with either low or high P. The same soils were treated with CaCO3 to raise the pH and detoxify Al3+. Genotypic differences in rhizosheath size were apparent only when soil pH was low and Al3+ was present. On acid soils, a large rhizosheath increased shoot biomass compared with a small rhizosheath regardless of P supply. At low P supply, increased shoot biomass could be attributed to a greater uptake of soil P, but at high P supply the increased biomass was due to some other factor. Generation means analysis indicated that rhizosheath size on acid soil was controlled by multiple, additive loci. Subsequently, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of an F6 population of recombinant inbred lines identified five major loci contributing to the phenotype together accounting for over 60% of the total genetic variance. One locus on chromosome 1D accounted for 34% of the genotypic variation. Genetic control of rhizosheath size appears to be relatively simple and markers based on the QTL provide valuable tools for marker assisted breeding. PMID:26873980

  17. Effect of pH on fecal recovery of energy derived from volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kien, C L; Liechty, E A

    1987-01-01

    We assessed the effect of pH on volatilization of short-chain fatty acids during lyophilization. Acetic, propionic, valeric, and butyric acids were added to a fecal homogenate in amounts sufficient to raise the energy density by 18-27%. Fecal homogenate samples were either acidified (pH 2.8-3.2), alkalinized (pH 7.9-8.7), or left unchanged (4.0-4.8) prior to lyophilization and subsequent bomb calorimetry. Alkalinizing the fecal samples prevented the 20% loss of energy derived from each of these volatile fatty acids observed in samples either acidified or without pH adjustment. These data suggest that in energy balance studies involving subjects with active colonic fermentation, fecal samples should be alkalinized prior to lyophilization and bomb calorimetry.

  18. Alpine pasture soils accumulate a large fraction of labile carbon due to combined effects of low temperature, low pH, and poor litter quality on decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budge, Karen; Leifeld, Jens; Hiltbrunner, Erika; Fuhrer, Jürg

    2010-05-01

    Alpine soils are expected to contain large amounts of labile carbon (C) which may result in a further increase in atmospheric CO2 levels in response to global warming. However, there is little data available on these soils and limited understanding of the influence environmental factors have on soil organic matter (SOM) turnover. We extracted 30 cm deep soil cores from 5 sites along an elevation gradient of an alpine pasture in the central Swiss Alps. Soil fractions obtained by size and density fractionation revealed a high proportion of labile particulate organic carbon (POC), particularly in the uppermost soil layers. POC values in the top 20 cm across the gradient of 2285-2653 m above sea level (a.s.l.) ranged from 39.6-57.6 % in comparison to 7.2-29.6 reported in lower elevation soils of 810-1960 m a.s.l. in previous studies. While soil at all elevations was found to be relatively acidic, C mean residence times (MRTs) were considerably shorter and phytomass was slightly higher at the single site found to have a comparatively less acidic soil pH, although SOC content did not vary from those sites of similar root/litter and stone contents. At all elevations, MRTs increased between fractions of increasing stability from free POM (fPOM) → occluded POM (oPOM) → mineral-associated material (mOM); e.g. at 2653 m MRTs increased in years from 90 in fPOM → 117 in oPOM → 534 in mOM. Depending on elevation and pH, plant community data indicated considerable variation in the source of litter input. The lowest site was dominated by sedges whereas the highest site by lichens and dwarf shrubs, this variation in litter source may be reflected in the dynamics of soil C. While temperature is likely to be a major influence in the low turnover rate observed, other factors such as litter quality and soil pH as well as the combination of these factors are likely to play an important role on the response of SOM in the event of soil warming and require consideration in model

  19. Monitoring and assessment of surface water acidification following rewetting of oxidised acid sulfate soils.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Luke M; Zammit, Benjamin; Jolley, Ann-Marie; Barnett, Liz; Fitzpatrick, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale exposure of acid sulfate soils during a hydrological drought in the Lower Lakes of South Australia resulted in acidification of surface water in several locations. Our aim was to describe the techniques used to monitor, assess and manage these acidification events using a field and laboratory dataset (n = 1,208) of acidic to circum-neutral pH water samples. The median pH of the acidified (pH < 6.5) samples was 3.8. Significant (p < 0.05) increases in soluble metals (Al, Co, Mn, Ni and Zn above guidelines for ecosystem protection), SO4 (from pyrite oxidation), Si (from aluminosilicate dissolution) and Ca (from carbonate dissolution and limestone addition), were observed under the acidic conditions. The log of the soluble metal concentrations, acidity and SO4/Cl ratio increased linearly with pH. The pH, alkalinity and acidity measurements were used to inform aerial limestone dosing events to neutralise acidic water. Field measurements correlated strongly with laboratory measurements for pH, alkalinity and conductivity (r (2) ≥ 0.97) but only moderately with acidity (r (2) = 0.54), which could be due to difficulties in determining the indicator-based field titration endpoint. Laboratory measured acidity correlated well with calculated acidity (r (2) = 0.87, acidity present as Al(III) > H(+) ≈ Mn(II) > Fe(II/III)) but was about 20 % higher on average. Geochemical speciation calculations and XRD measurements indicated that solid phase minerals (schwertmannite and jarosite for Fe and jurbanite for Al) were likely controlling dissolved metal concentrations and influencing measured acidity between pH 2 and 5.

  20. N{sub 2}O production pathways in the subtropical acid forest soils in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jinbo; Cai Zucong; Zhu Tongbin

    2011-07-15

    To date, N{sub 2}O production pathways are poorly understood in the humid subtropical and tropical forest soils. A {sup 15}N-tracing experiment was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions to investigate the processes responsible for N{sub 2}O production in four subtropical acid forest soils (pH<4.5) in China. The results showed that denitrification was the main source of N{sub 2}O emission in the subtropical acid forest soils, being responsible for 56.1%, 53.5%, 54.4%, and 55.2% of N{sub 2}O production, in the GC, GS, GB, and TC soils, respectively, under aerobic conditions (40%-52%WFPS). The heterotrophic nitrification (recalcitrant organic N oxidation) accounted for 27.3%-41.8% of N{sub 2}O production, while the contribution of autotrophic nitrification was little in the studied subtropical acid forest soils. The ratios of N{sub 2}O-N emission from total nitrification (heterotrophic+autotrophic nitrification) were higher than those in most previous references. The soil with the lowest pH and highest organic-C content (GB) had the highest ratio (1.63%), suggesting that soil pH-organic matter interactions may exist and affect N{sub 2}O product ratios from nitrification. The ratio of N{sub 2}O-N emission from heterotrophic nitrification varied from 0.02% to 25.4% due to soil pH and organic matter. Results are valuable in the accurate modeling of N2O production in the subtropical acid forest soils and global budget. - Highlights: {yields} We studied N{sub 2}O production pathways in subtropical acid forest soil under aerobic conditions. {yields} Denitrification was the main source of N{sub 2}O production in subtropical acid forest soils. {yields} Heterotrophic nitrification accounted for 27.3%-41.8% of N{sub 2}O production. {yields} While, contribution of autotrophic nitrification to N{sub 2}O production was little. {yields} Ratios of N{sub 2}O-N emission from nitrification were higher than those in most previous references.

  1. Influence of phosphate ions on buffer capacity of soil humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguta, P.; Sokołowska, Z.

    2012-02-01

    The object of this study was to determine change of natural buffer capacity of humic acids by strong buffering agents, which were phosphate ions. Studies were carried out on the humic acids extracted from peat soils. Additional information was obtained by determination of water holding capacity, density, ash and pH for peats and optical parameter Q4/6 for humic acids. Humic acid suspensions exhibited the highest buffer properties at low pH and reached maximum at pH ~ 4. Phosphates possessed buffer properties in the pH range from 4.5 to 8.0. The maximum of buffering was at pH~6.8 and increased proportionally with an increase in the concentration of phosphate ions. The study indicated that the presence of phosphate ions may strongly change natural buffer capacity of humic acids by shifting buffering maximum toward higher pH values. Significant correlations were found for the degree of the secondary transformation with both the buffer capacity and the titrant volume used during titration.

  2. An evaluation of remote sensing derived soil pH and average spring groundwater table for ecological assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelofsen, Hans D.; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Kooistra, Lammert; van Amerongen, Jorg J.; Witte, Jan-Philip M.

    2015-12-01

    Ecological assessments such as species distribution modelling and benchmarking site quality towards regulations often rely on full spatial coverage information of site factors such as soil acidity, moisture regime or nutrient availability. To determine if remote sensing (RS) is a viable alternative to traditional data sources of site factor estimates, we analysed the accuracy (using ground truth validation measurements) of traditional and RS sources of pH and mean spring groundwater level (MSL, in m) estimates. Traditional sources were a soil map and hydrological model. RS estimates were obtained using vegetation indicator values (IVs) from a Dutch national system as an intermediate between site factors and spectral response. IVs relate to those site factors that dictate vegetation occurrence, whilst also providing a robust link to canopy spectra. For pH, the soil map and the RS estimate were nearly as accurate. For MSL, the RS estimates were much closer to the observed groundwater levels than the hydrological model, but the error margin of the estimates still exceeded the tolerance range of moisture sensitive vegetation. The relatively high accuracy of the RS estimates was made possible by the availability of local calibration points and large environmental gradients in the study site. In addition, the error composition of the RS estimates could be analysed step-by-step, whereas the traditional sources had to be accepted 'as-is'. Also considering that RS offers high spatial and temporal resolution at low costs, RS offered advantages over traditional sources. This will likely hold true for any other situation where prerequisites of accurate RS estimates have been met.

  3. Using a toxicokinetics approach to explain the effect of soil pH on cadmium bioavailability to Folsomia candida.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Masoud M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of metal bioavailability in soil by linking the biotic ligand approach with toxicokinetics modelling. We determined cadmium bioaccumulation kinetics in Folsomia candida (Collembola) as a function of soil pH. Animals were exposed for 21 days to LUFA 2.2 soil at 5 or 20 μg Cd g(-1) dry soil followed by 21 days elimination in clean soil. Internal cadmium concentrations were modelled using a first-order one-compartment model, relating uptake rate constants (k1) to total soil, water or 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable and porewater concentrations. Based on total soil concentrations, k1 was independent of soil pH while it strongly increased with increasing pH based on porewater concentrations explaining the reduced competition of H(+) ions making cadmium more bioavailable in pore water at high pH. This shows that the principles of biotic ligand modelling are applicable to predict cadmium accumulation kinetics in soil-living invertebrates.

  4. [Responses of rhizosphere nitrogen and phosphorus transformations to different acid rain intensities in a hilly red soil tea plantation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Fu-sheng; Ye, Su-qiong; Yu, Su-qin; Fang, Xiang-min; Hu, Xiao-fei

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) plantation in hilly red soil region has been long impacted by acid deposition, however its effects on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transformations in rhizosphere soils remain unclear. A 25-year old tea plantation in a typical hilly red soil region was selected for an in situ simulation experiment treated by pH 4.5, pH 3.5, pH 2.5 and control. Rhizosihere and bulk soils were collected in the third year from the simulated acid deposition experiment. Soil mineral N, available P contents and major enzyme activities were analyzed using the chemical extraction and biochemical methods, and N and P mineralization rates were estimated using the indoor aerobic incubation methods. Our results showed that compared to the control, the treatments of pH 4.5, pH 3.5 and pH 2.5, respectively decreased 7.1%, 42.1% and 49.9% NO3(-)-N, 6.4%, 35.9% and 40.3% mineral N, 10.5%, 41.1% and 46.9% available P, 18.7%, 30.1% and 44.7% ammonification rate, 3.6%, 12.7% and 38.8% net N-mineralization rate, and 31.5%, 41.8% and 63.0% P mineralization rate in rhizosphere soils; however, among the 4 treatments, rhizosphere soil nitrification rate was not significantly different, the rhizosphere soil urease and acid phosphatase activities generally increased with the increasing intensity of acid rain (P<0.05). In bulk soil, compared with the control, the treatments of pH 4.5, pH 3.5 and pH 2.5 did not cause significant changes in NO3(-)-N, mineral N, available P as well as in the rates of nitrification, ammonification, net N-mineralization and P mineralization. With increasing the acid intensity, the rhizosphere effects of NH4+-N, NO3(-)-N, mineral N, ammonification and net N-mineralization rates were altered from positive to negative effects, those of urease and acid phosphatease showed the opposite trends, those of available P and P mineralization were negative and that of nitrification was positive. In sum, prolonged elevated acid rain could reduce N and P transformation

  5. Interaction forces and membrane charge tunability: Oleic acid containing membranes in different pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, James; Suga, Keishi; Kuhl, Tonya L

    2017-02-01

    Oleic acid is known to interact with saturated lipid molecules and increase the fluidity of gel phase lipid membranes. In this work, the thermodynamic properties of mixed monolayers of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and oleic acid at the air-water interface were determined using Langmuir isotherms. The isotherm study revealed an attractive interaction between oleic acid and DPPC. The incorporation of oleic acid also monotonically decreased the elastic modulus of the monolayer indicative of higher fluidity with increasing oleic acid content. Using the surface force apparatus, intermembrane force-distance profiles were obtained for substrate supported DPPC membranes containing 30mol% oleic acid at pH5.8 and 7.4. Three different preparation conditions resulted in distinct force profiles. Membranes prepared in pH5.8 subphase had a low number of nanoscopic defects ≤1% and an adhesion magnitude of ~0.6mN/m. A slightly higher defect density of 1-4% was found for membranes prepared in a physiological pH7.4 subphase. The presence of the exposed hydrophobic moieties resulted in a higher adhesion magnitude of 2.9mN/m. Importantly, at pH7.4, some oleic acid deprotonates resulting in a long-range electrostatic repulsion. Even though oleic acid increased the DPPC bilayer fluidity and the number of defects, no membrane restructuring was observed indicating that the system maintained a stable configuration.

  6. Humic Acid Complexation of Th, Hf and Zr in Ligand Competition Experiments: Metal Loading and Ph Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Jennifer C.; Foustoukos, Dionysis I.; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Salters, Vincent J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The mobility of metals in soils and subsurface aquifers is strongly affected by sorption and complexation with dissolved organic matter, oxyhydroxides, clay minerals, and inorganic ligands. Humic substances (HS) are organic macromolecules with functional groups that have a strong affinity for binding metals, such as actinides. Thorium, often studied as an analog for tetravalent actinides, has also been shown to strongly associate with dissolved and colloidal HS in natural waters. The effects of HS on the mobilization dynamics of actinides are of particular interest in risk assessment of nuclear waste repositories. Here, we present conditional equilibrium binding constants (Kc, MHA) of thorium, hafnium, and zirconium-humic acid complexes from ligand competition experiments using capillary electrophoresis coupled with ICP-MS (CE- ICP-MS). Equilibrium dialysis ligand exchange (EDLE) experiments using size exclusion via a 1000 Damembrane were also performed to validate the CE-ICP-MS analysis. Experiments were performed at pH 3.5-7 with solutions containing one tetravalent metal (Th, Hf, or Zr), Elliot soil humic acid (EHA) or Pahokee peat humic acid (PHA), and EDTA. CE-ICP-MS and EDLE experiments yielded nearly identical binding constants for the metal- humic acid complexes, indicating that both methods are appropriate for examining metal speciation at conditions lower than neutral pH. We find that tetravalent metals form strong complexes with humic acids, with Kc, MHA several orders of magnitude above REE-humic complexes. Experiments were conducted at a range of dissolved HA concentrations to examine the effect of [HA]/[Th] molar ratio on Kc, MHA. At low metal loading conditions (i.e. elevated [HA]/[Th] ratios) the ThHA binding constant reached values that were not affected by the relative abundance of humic acid and thorium. The importance of [HA]/[Th] molar ratios on constraining the equilibrium of MHA complexation is apparent when our estimated Kc, MHA values

  7. [Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on speciation of exogenous Cu in an acid soil].

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Yong; Fu, Qing-Ling; Zhu, Jun; Wan, Tian-Ying; Hu, Hong-Qing

    2014-08-01

    In order to ascertain the effect of LMWOA (citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid) on Cu-contaminated soils and to investigate the change of Cu species, a red soil derived from quartz sandstone deposit was added by Cu (copper) in the form of CuSO4 x 5H2O so as to simulate soil Cu pollution, keeping the additional Cu concentrations were 0, 100, 200, 400 mg x kg(-1) respectively. After 9 months, different LMWOA was also added into the simulated soil, keeping the additional LMWOAs in soil were 0, 5, 10, 20 mmol x kg(-1) respectively. After 2 weeks incubation, the modified sequential extraction method on BCR (European Communities Bureau of Reference) was used to evaluate the effects of these LMWOAs on the changes of copper forms in soil. The result showed that the percentage of weak acid dissolved Cu, the most effective form in the soil increased with three organic acids increase in quantity in the simulated polluted soil. And there was a good activation effect on Cu in the soil when organic acid added. Activation effects on Cu increased with concentration of citric acid increasing, but it showed a rise trend before they are basically remained unchanged in the case of tartaric acid and oxalic acid added in the soil. On the contrary, the state of the reduction of copper which was regarded as a complement for effective state decreased with the increased concentration of organic acid in the soil, especially with citric acid. When 20 mmol x kg(-1) oxalic acid and citric acid were added into the soil, the activation effect was the best; whereas for tartaric, the concentration was 10 mmol x kg(-1). In general, the effect on the changes of Cu forms in the soil is citric acid > tartaric acid > oxalic acid.

  8. Insulin Fibrillization at Acidic and Physiological pH Values is Controlled by Different Molecular Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Noormägi, Andra; Valmsen, Karin; Tõugu, Vello; Palumaa, Peep

    2015-12-01

    Formation of amyloid-like fibrils by insulin was studied at different insulin concentrations, pH and temperatures. At low pH (pH 2.5) the insulin fibrillization occurred only at high ([10 lM) peptide concentrations, whereas at physiological pH values the fibril formation is inhibited at higher insulin concentrations. The enthalpy of activation Ea of the fibril growth at pH 2.5 equals to 33 kJ/mol, which is considerably lower than 84 kJ/mol at physiological pH. The fibrillization rate of insulin decreases with increasing pH at high, 250 lM concentration, which was opposite to the pH effect observed in 2.5 lM insulin solutions. The latter effect indicates that protonation of histidine residues seems to be important for the fibrillization of monomeric insulin, whereas the pH effect at high concentration may result from off-pathway oligomerization propensity. Together, the different effect of environmental factors on the insulin fibrillization suggest that the reaction rate is controlled by different molecular events in acidic conditions and at physiological pH values.

  9. Multivariate curve resolution of synchronous fluorescence spectra matrices of fulvic acids obtained as a function of pH.

    PubMed

    Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G; Tauler, Romá

    2006-11-01

    Synchronous fluorescence spectra (excitation wavelength range between 280 and 510 nm and wavelength interval of 25 nm) of three samples of fulvic acids (FA) were obtained as a function of the pH, in the range from 2.0 to 10.5, and as a function of the FA concentration, in the range from 20 to 180 mg/L. FA were obtained from composted livestock materials (lsFA), composted sewage sludge (csFA), and Laurentian soil (laFA). Three-dimensional spectral matrices were obtained (wavelength, pH, and FA concentration) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) was used to calculate spectra and fluorescence intensity profiles for the detected components. Cluster analysis of the calculated spectra showed the existence of similar and unique fluorescent properties in the three FA samples. Some of the calculated fluorescence intensity profiles have a shape compatible with acid-base species distribution diagrams, which allowed pKa values to be estimated, namely, a well-defined acid-base equilibrium with pKa 5.7 +/- 0.2 (lsFA), 6.9 +/- 0.4 (csFA), and 5.5 +/- 0.2 (laFA); and other acid-base systems not well defined with pKa at about 3.0 and 8.6. Other spectral variations revealed the existence of inner-filter effects or self-quenching as the concentration of FA increases.

  10. Spatial variability of soil carbon, pH, available phosphorous and potassium in organic farm located in Mediterranean Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogunović, Igor; Pereira, Paulo; Šeput, Miranda

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), pH, available phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are some of the most important factors to soil fertility. These soil parameters are highly variable in space and time, with implications to crop production. The aim of this work is study the spatial variability of SOC, pH, P and K in an organic farm located in river Rasa valley (Croatia). A regular grid (100 x 100 m) was designed and 182 samples were collected on Silty Clay Loam soil. P, K and SOC showed moderate heterogeneity with coefficient of variation (CV) of 21.6%, 32.8% and 51.9%, respectively. Soil pH record low spatial variability with CV of 1.5%. Soil pH, P and SOC did not follow normal distribution. Only after a Box-Cox transformation, data respected the normality requirements. Directional exponential models were the best fitted and used to describe spatial autocorrelation. Soil pH, P and SOC showed strong spatial dependence with nugget to sill ratio with 13.78%, 0.00% and 20.29%, respectively. Only K recorded moderate spatial dependence. Semivariogram ranges indicate that future sampling interval could be 150 - 200 m in order to reduce sampling costs. Fourteen different interpolation models for mapping soil properties were tested. The method with lowest Root Mean Square Error was the most appropriated to map the variable. The results showed that radial basis function models (Spline with Tension and Completely Regularized Spline) for P and K were the best predictors, while Thin Plate Spline and inverse distance weighting models were the least accurate. The best interpolator for pH and SOC was the local polynomial with the power of 1, while the least accurate were Thin Plate Spline. According to soil nutrient maps investigated area record very rich supply with K while P supply was insufficient on largest part of area. Soil pH maps showed mostly neutral reaction while individual parts of alkaline soil indicate the possibility of penetration of seawater and salt accumulation in the

  11. The pH ruler: a Java applet for developing interactive exercises on acids and bases.

    PubMed

    Barrette-Ng, Isabelle H

    2011-07-01

    In introductory biochemistry courses, it is often a struggle to teach the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry in a manner that is relevant to biological systems. To help students gain a more intuitive and visual understanding of abstract acid-base concepts, a simple graphical construct called the pH ruler Java applet was developed. The applet allows students to visualize the abundance of different protonation states of diprotic and triprotic amino acids at different pH values. Using the applet, the student can drag a widget on a slider bar to change the pH and observe in real time changes in the abundance of different ionization states of this amino acid. This tool provides a means for developing more complex inquiry-based, active-learning exercises to teach more advanced topics of biochemistry, such as protein purification, protein structure and enzyme mechanism.

  12. Influence of soil pH on the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Lofts, Stephen; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-12-01

    The effects of soil pH on the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus were evaluated. Isopods were exposed to a natural soil amended with CaCO3 to reach 3 different pH(CaCl2) levels (4.5, 6.2, and 7.3) and to standard LUFA 2.2 soil (pH 5.5) spiked with ZnO NPs (30 nm), non-nano ZnO (200 nm), and ionic Zn as ZnCl₂. Toxicity was expressed based on total Zn concentration in soil, as well as total Zn and free Zn²⁺ ion concentrations in porewater. Compared with ZnO-spiked soils, the ZnCl₂-spiked soils had lower pH and higher porewater Ca²⁺ and Zn levels. Isopod survival did not differ between Zn forms and soils, but survival was higher for isopods exposed to ZnO NPs at pH 4.5. Median effect concentrations (EC50s) for biomass change showed similar trends for all Zn forms in all soils, with higher values at intermediate pH. Median lethal concentration (LC50) and EC50 values based on porewater Zn or free Zn ion concentrations were much lower for ZnO than for ionic zinc. Zn body concentrations increased in a dose-related manner, but no effect of soil pH was found. It is suggested not only that dissolved or free Zn in porewater contributed to uptake and toxicity, but also that oral uptake (i.e., ingestion of soil particles) could be an important additional route of exposure.

  13. Sensitivity of acid-adapted and acid-shocked Shigella flexneri to reduced pH achieved with acetic, lactic, and propionic acids.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, G L; Beuchat, L R

    2001-07-01

    Survival and growth characteristics of unadapted, acid-adapted, and acid-shocked Shigella flexneri 2a cells in acidified (pH 3.5 to 5.5) tryptic soy broth with 0.25% glucose (TSB) and tryptic soy agar (TSA) were determined. S. flexneri was grown at 37 degrees C for 18 h in tryptic soy broth without glucose (TSBNG) (unadapted) and TSBNG supplemented with 1% glucose (TSBG) (acid-adapted). Cells grown in TSBNG were acid shocked by adjusting 16-h cultures to pH 5.05 +/- 0.05 with lactic acid. Cells were then inoculated into TSB acidified with acetic, lactic, or propionic acids to pH 5.5, 4.5, or 3.5 and incubated at 37 degrees C for 6 h. The order of lethality at a given pH was lactic acid < acetic acid < propionic acid. Significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher numbers of acid-adapted cells, compared to acid-shocked and unadapted cells, were recovered from TSB acidified (pH 3.5) with lactic or acetic acids. None of the cells survived a 30-min exposure in TSB acidified with propionic acid to pH 3.5. When the three cell types were plated on TSA acidified with lactic, acetic, or propionic acids at pH < or = 4.5, < or = 5.5, and < or = 5.5, respectively, visible colonies were not detected. Viable unadapted, acid-adapted, and acid-shocked cells were, however, recovered from TSA acidified with all three acids at pH > or = 4.5. Acid-adapted and, to a lesser extent, acid-shocked cells survived at lower pH than did unadapted cells, indicating that prior exposure to mild acidic environment results in increased acid resistance. Survival of S. flexneri at a given pH was influenced by the type of acidulant used, a response characteristic exhibited by other gram-negative enteric pathogens.

  14. Remediation of Pb-contaminated soils by washing with hydrochloric acid and subsequent immobilization with calcite and allophanic soil.

    PubMed

    Isoyama, Masahiro; Wada, Shin-Ichiro

    2007-05-17

    Removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil is not popular because of its high cost. Reducing the bioaccessible heavy metals content to an allowable level by washing with inorganic acids and subsequent immobilization of remained metals may be a low cost option for soil remediation. The applicability of this combined treatment was investigated using three different types of soil, a kaolinitic, a smectitic and an allophanic soil, which were artificially contaminated with Pb. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated using two main criteria: (i) reduction of the HCl extractable Pb (bioaccessible Pb) below 150 mg kg(-1), reduction of water extractable Pb below the concentration of 0.01 mg L(-1). These values correspond to allowable levels suggested by the Japanese Ministry of Environment. The soils were washed batch-wise at a solution to soil ratio of 5 L kg(-1) successively with 1 mol L(-1) HCl and 0.1 mol L(-1) CaCl(2) solutions. The two solutions were separated by filtration from one batch and reused for washing the next batch of soil without processing. The Pb concentration in the solutions increased after repeated use and removal efficiency gradually declined. The efficiency of the treatment was highly dependent on the type of soil. In the kaolinitic soil, HCl extractable Pb content of the soil from the first batch was about 50 mg kg(-1) and it exceeded 150 mg kg(-1) in that from sixth batch. But the combined soils from 1st to 10th batches gave bioaccessible Pb content barely below 150 mg kg(-1). For the smectitic soil having higher cation exchange capacity, the acceptable number of times of reuse was estimated to be 4. For the allophanic soil, treatment with the HCl solution was efficient only for the first batch of the soil, and the reuse of the acid solution was found to be ineffective. The application of 50 g kg(-1) of calcite or slacked lime was effective for reducing the water extractable Pb content. To keep soil pH near neutral and secure long

  15. Effect of pH on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) formation of linolenic acid biohydrogenation by ruminal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yongjae

    2013-08-01

    Conventional beliefs surrounding the linolenic acid (LNA; cis-9 cis-12 cis-15 C18:3) biohydrogenation (BH) pathway propose that it converts to stearic acid (SA) without the formation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as intermediate isomers. However, an advanced study (Lee and Jenkins, 2011) verified that LNA BH yields multiple CLAs. This study utilized the stable isotope tracer to investigate the BH intermediates of (13)C-LNA with different pH conditions (5.5 and 6.5). The (13)C enrichment was calculated as a (13)C/(12)C ratio of labeled minus unlabeled. After 24 h, eight CLA isomers were significantly enriched on both pH treatment, this result verifies that these CLAs originated from (13)C-LNA BH which supports the results of Lee and Jenkins (2011). The enrichment of cis-cis double bond CLAs (cis-9 cis-11 and cis-10 cis-12 CLA) were significantly higher at low pH conditions. Furthermore, the concentration of cis-10 cis-12 CLA at low pH was four times higher than at high pH conditions after a 3 h incubation. These differences support the LNA BH pathways partial switch under different pH conditions, with a strong influence on the cis-cis CLA at low pH. Several mono-, di-, and tri-enoic fatty acid isomers were enriched during 24 h of incubation, but the enrichment was decreased or restricted at low pH treatment. Based on these results, it is proposed that low pH conditions may cause a changed or limited capacity of the isomerization and reduction steps in BH.

  16. Soil pH is a Key Determinant of Soil Fungal Community Composition in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Neng-Fei; Liu, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the fungal community composition and its relationships with properties of surface soils in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic). A total of thirteen soil samples were collected and soil fungal community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing with fungi-specific primers targeting the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The following eight soil properties were analyzed: pH, organic carbon (C), organic nitrogen (N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), silicate silicon (SiO4 (2-)-Si), nitrite nitrogen (NO2 (-)-N), phosphate phosphorus (PO4 (3-)-P), and nitrate nitrogen (NO3 (-)-N). A total of 57,952 reads belonging to 541 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found. of these OTUs, 343 belonged to Ascomycota, 100 to Basidiomycota, 31 to Chytridiomycota, 22 to Glomeromycota, 11 to Zygomycota, 10 to Rozellomycota, whereas 24 belonged to unknown fungi. The dominant orders were Helotiales, Verrucariales, Agaricales, Lecanorales, Chaetothyriales, Lecideales, and Capnodiales. The common genera (>eight soil samples) were Tetracladium, Mortierella, Fusarium, Cortinarius, and Atla. Distance-based redundancy analysis (db-rda) and analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) revealed that soil pH (p = 0.001) was the most significant factor in determining the soil fungal community composition. Members of Verrucariales were found to predominate in soils of pH 8-9, whereas Sordariales predominated in soils of pH 7-8 and Coniochaetales predominated in soils of pH 6-7. The results suggest the presence and distribution of diverse soil fungal communities in the High Arctic, which can provide reliable data for studying the ecological responses of soil fungal communities to climate changes in the Arctic.

  17. Soil pH is a Key Determinant of Soil Fungal Community Composition in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Neng-Fei; Liu, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the fungal community composition and its relationships with properties of surface soils in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic). A total of thirteen soil samples were collected and soil fungal community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing with fungi-specific primers targeting the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The following eight soil properties were analyzed: pH, organic carbon (C), organic nitrogen (N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), silicate silicon (SiO42--Si), nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N), phosphate phosphorus (PO43--P), and nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N). A total of 57,952 reads belonging to 541 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found. of these OTUs, 343 belonged to Ascomycota, 100 to Basidiomycota, 31 to Chytridiomycota, 22 to Glomeromycota, 11 to Zygomycota, 10 to Rozellomycota, whereas 24 belonged to unknown fungi. The dominant orders were Helotiales, Verrucariales, Agaricales, Lecanorales, Chaetothyriales, Lecideales, and Capnodiales. The common genera (>eight soil samples) were Tetracladium, Mortierella, Fusarium, Cortinarius, and Atla. Distance-based redundancy analysis (db-rda) and analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) revealed that soil pH (p = 0.001) was the most significant factor in determining the soil fungal community composition. Members of Verrucariales were found to predominate in soils of pH 8–9, whereas Sordariales predominated in soils of pH 7–8 and Coniochaetales predominated in soils of pH 6–7. The results suggest the presence and distribution of diverse soil fungal communities in the High Arctic, which can provide reliable data for studying the ecological responses of soil fungal communities to climate changes in the Arctic. PMID:26955371

  18. Effects of SOM, surfactant and pH on the sorption-desorption and mobility of prometryne in soils.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jun; Guo, Hua; Zhu, Hong Mei; Jiang, Lei; Yang, Hong

    2008-02-01

    Sorption and desorption of the herbicide prometryne in two types of soil subjected to the changes of pH and soil organic matter and surfactant were investigated. The sorption and desorption isotherms were expressed by the Freundlich equation. Freundlich K(f) and n values indicate that soil organic matter was the major factor affecting prometryne behavior in the test soils. We also quantified the prometryne sorption and desorption behavior in soils, which arose from the application of Triton X-100 (TX100), a nonionic surfactant and change in pH. Application of TX100 led to a general decrease in prometryne sorption to the soils and an increase in desorption from the soils when applied in dosages of the critical micella concentration (CMC) 0.5, 1 and 2. At the concentration below the CMC, the non-ionic surfactant showed a tendency to decrease prometryne sorption and desorption. It appeared that TX100 dosages above CMC were required to effectively mobilize prometryne. Results indicate that the maximum prometryne sorption and minimum prometryne desorption in soils were achieved when the solution pH was near its pK(a). Finally, the influence of TX100 on the mobility of prometryne in soils using soil thin-layer chromatography was examined.

  19. Acidic Food pH Increases Palatability and Consumption and Extends Drosophila Lifespan12

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sonali A; Yamada, Ryuichi; Mak, Christine M; Hunter, Brooke; Obando, Alina Soto; Hoxha, Sany; Ja, William W

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the prevalent use of Drosophila as a model in studies of nutrition, the effects of fundamental food properties, such as pH, on animal health and behavior are not well known. Objectives: We examined the effect of food pH on adult Drosophila lifespan, feeding behavior, and microbiota composition and tested the hypothesis that pH-mediated changes in palatability and total consumption are required for modulating longevity. Methods: We measured the effect of buffered food (pH 5, 7, or 9) on male gustatory responses (proboscis extension), total food intake, and male and female lifespan. The effect of food pH on germfree male lifespan was also assessed. Changes in fly-associated microbial composition as a result of food pH were determined by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Male gustatory responses, total consumption, and male and female longevity were additionally measured in the taste-defective Pox neuro (Poxn) mutant and its transgenic rescue control. Results: An acidic diet increased Drosophila gustatory responses (40–230%) and food intake (5–50%) and extended survival (10–160% longer median lifespan) compared with flies on either neutral or alkaline pH food. Alkaline food pH shifted the composition of fly-associated bacteria and resulted in greater lifespan extension (260% longer median survival) after microbes were eliminated compared with flies on an acidic (50%) or neutral (130%) diet. However, germfree flies lived longer on an acidic diet (5–20% longer median lifespan) compared with those on either neutral or alkaline pH food. Gustatory responses, total consumption, and longevity were unaffected by food pH in Poxn mutant flies. Conclusions: Food pH can directly influence palatability and feeding behavior and affect parameters such as microbial growth to ultimately affect Drosophila lifespan. Fundamental food properties altered by dietary or drug interventions may therefore contribute to changes in animal physiology, metabolism, and

  20. Properties of acid whey as a function of pH and temperature.

    PubMed

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Duke, Mikel C; Gray, Stephen R; Zisu, Bogdan; Weeks, Mike; Palmer, Martin; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2015-07-01

    Compositional differences of acid whey (AW) in comparison with other whey types limit its processability and application of conventional membrane processing. Hence, the present study aimed to identify chemical and physical properties of AW solutions as a function of pH (3 to 10.5) at 4 different temperatures (15, 25, 40, or 90°C) to propose appropriate membrane-processing conditions for efficient use of AW streams. The concentration of minerals, mainly calcium and phosphate, and proteins in centrifuged supernatants was significantly lowered with increase in either pH or temperature. Lactic acid content decreased with pH decline and rose at higher temperatures. Calcium appeared to form complexes with phosphates and lactates mainly, which in turn may have induced molecular attractions with the proteins. An increase in pH led to more soluble protein aggregates with large particle sizes. Surface hydrophobicity of these particles increased significantly with temperature up to 40°C and decreased with further heating to 90°C. Surface charge was clearly pH dependent. High lactic acid concentrations appeared to hinder protein aggregation by hydrophobic interactions and may also indirectly influence protein denaturation. Processing conditions such as pH and temperature need to be optimized to manipulate composition, state, and surface characteristics of components of AW systems to achieve an efficient separation and concentration of lactic acid and lactose.

  1. Insights into the effect of soil pH on N(2)O and N(2) emissions and denitrifier community size and activity.

    PubMed

    Cuhel, Jirí; Simek, Miloslav; Laughlin, Ronnie J; Bru, David; Chèneby, Dominique; Watson, Catherine J; Philippot, Laurent

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how changes in soil pH affect the N(2)O and N(2) emissions, denitrification activity, and size of a denitrifier community. We established a field experiment, situated in a grassland area, which consisted of three treatments which were repeatedly amended with a KOH solution (alkaline soil), an H(2)SO(4) solution (acidic soil), or water (natural pH soil) over 10 months. At the site, we determined field N(2)O and N(2) emissions using the (15)N gas flux method and collected soil samples for the measurement of potential denitrification activity and quantification of the size of the denitrifying community by quantitative PCR of the narG, napA, nirS, nirK, and nosZ denitrification genes. Overall, our results indicate that soil pH is of importance in determining the nature of denitrification end products. Thus, we found that the N(2)O/(N(2)O + N(2)) ratio increased with decreasing pH due to changes in the total denitrification activity, while no changes in N(2)O production were observed. Denitrification activity and N(2)O emissions measured under laboratory conditions were correlated with N fluxes in situ and therefore reflected treatment differences in the field. The size of the denitrifying community was uncoupled from in situ N fluxes, but potential denitrification was correlated with the count of NirS denitrifiers. Significant relationships were observed between nirS, napA, and narG gene copy numbers and the N(2)O/(N(2)O + N(2)) ratio, which are difficult to explain. However, this highlights the need for further studies combining analysis of denitrifier ecology and quantification of denitrification end products for a comprehensive understanding of the regulation of N fluxes by denitrification.

  2. Regional trends in soil acidification and exchangeable metal concentrations in relation to acid deposition rates.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Carly J; Dise, Nancy B; Gowing, David J

    2009-01-01

    The deposition of high levels of reactive nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S), or the legacy of that deposition, remain among the world's most important environmental problems. Although regional impacts of acid deposition in aquatic ecosystems have been well documented, quantitative evidence of wide-scale impacts on terrestrial ecosystems is not common. In this study we analysed surface and subsoil chemistry of 68 acid grassland sites across the UK along a gradient of acid deposition, and statistically related the concentrations of exchangeable soil metals (1 M KCl extraction) to a range of potential drivers. The deposition of N, S or acid deposition was the primary correlate for 8 of 13 exchangeable metals measured in the topsoil and 5 of 14 exchangeable metals in the subsoil. In particular, exchangeable aluminium and lead both show increased levels above a soil pH threshold of about 4.5, strongly related to the deposition flux of acid compounds.

  3. Enhanced-electrokinetic remediation of copper-pyrene co-contaminated soil with different oxidants and pH control.

    PubMed

    Cang, Long; Fan, Guang-Ping; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Wang, Quan-Ying

    2013-02-01

    Electrokinetic (EK) remediation has potential to simultaneously remove heavy metals and organic compounds from soil, but the removal percent of these pollutants is very low in general if no enhancing treatment is applied. This study developed a new enhanced-EK remediation technology to decontaminate a heavy metal-organic compound co-contaminated soil by applying different oxidants and pH control. A red soil was used as a model clayed soil, and was spiked with pyrene and Cu at about 500 mg kg(-1) for both to simulate real situation. Bench-scale EK experiments were performed using four oxidants (H(2)O(2), NaClO, KMnO(4), and Na(2)S(2)O(8)) and controlling electrolyte pH at 3.5 or 10. After the treatments with 1.0 V cm(-1) of voltage gradient for 335 h, soil pH, electrical conductivity, and the concentrations and chemical fractionations of soil pyrene and Cu were analyzed. The results showed that there was significant migration of pyrene and Cu from the soil, and the removal percent of soil pyrene and Cu varied in the range of 30-52% and 8-94%, respectively. Low pH favoured the migration of soil Cu, while KMnO(4) was the best one for the degradation of pyrene among the tested oxidants, although it unfortunately prevented the migration of soil Cu by forming Cu oxide. Application of Na(2)S(2)O(8) and to control the catholyte pH at 3.5 were found to be the best operation conditions for decontaminating the Cu-pyrene co-contaminated soil.

  4. Role of acid pH and deficient efflux of pyrazinoic acid in unique susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to pyrazinamide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Scorpio, A; Nikaido, H; Sun, Z

    1999-04-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important antituberculosis drug. Unlike most antibacterial agents, PZA, despite its remarkable in vivo activity, has no activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro except at an acidic pH. M. tuberculosis is uniquely susceptible to PZA, but other mycobacteria as well as nonmycobacteria are intrinsically resistant. The role of acidic pH in PZA action and the basis for the unique PZA susceptibility of M. tuberculosis are unknown. We found that in M. tuberculosis, acidic pH enhanced the intracellular accumulation of pyrazinoic acid (POA), the active derivative of PZA, after conversion of PZA by pyrazinamidase. In contrast, at neutral or alkaline pH, POA was mainly found outside M. tuberculosis cells. PZA-resistant M. tuberculosis complex organisms did not convert PZA into POA. Unlike M. tuberculosis, intrinsically PZA-resistant M. smegmatis converted PZA into POA, but it did not accumulate POA even at an acidic pH, due to a very active POA efflux mechanism. We propose that a deficient POA efflux mechanism underlies the unique susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to PZA and that the natural PZA resistance of M. smegmatis is due to a highly active efflux pump. These findings may have implications with regard to the design of new antimycobacterial drugs.

  5. Amelioration of acidic soil increases the toxicity of the weak base carbendazim to the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kailin; Wang, Shaoyun; Luo, Kun; Liu, Xiangying; Yu, Yunlong

    2013-12-01

    Ameliorating acidic soils is a common practice and may affect the bioavailability of an ionizable organic pollutant to organisms. The toxicity of the weak base carbendazim to the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) was studied in an acidic soil (pH-H₂O, 4.6) and in the ameliorated soil (pH-H₂O, 7.5). The results indicated that the median lethal concentration of carbendazim for E. fetida decreased from 21.8 mg/kg in acidic soil to 7.35 mg/kg in the ameliorated soil. To understand why the amelioration increased carbendazim toxicity to the earthworm, the authors measured the carbendazim concentrations in the soil porewater. The authors found increased carbendazim concentrations in porewater, resulting in increased toxicity of carbendazim to earthworms. The increased pore concentrations result from decreased adsorption because of the effects of pH and calcium ions.

  6. Differential soil acidity tolerance of dry bean genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil acidity is a major yield limiting factors for bean production in the tropical regions. Using soil acidity tolerant genotypes is an important strategy in improving bean yields and reducing cost of production. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating 20 dry bean geno...

  7. Natively unfolded human prothymosin alpha adopts partially folded collapsed conformation at acidic pH.

    PubMed

    Uversky, V N; Gillespie, J R; Millett, I S; Khodyakova, A V; Vasiliev, A M; Chernovskaya, T V; Vasilenko, R N; Kozlovskaya, G D; Dolgikh, D A; Fink, A L; Doniach, S; Abramov, V M

    1999-11-09

    Prothymosin alpha has previously been shown to be unfolded at neutral pH, thus belonging to a growing family of "natively unfolded" proteins. The structural properties and conformational stability of recombinant human prothymosin alpha were characterized at neutral and acidic pH by gel filtration, SAXS, circular dichroism, ANS fluorescence, (1)H NMR, and resistance to urea-induced unfolding. Interestingly, prothymosin alpha underwent a cooperative transition from the unfolded state into a partially folded conformation on lowering the pH. This conformation of prothymosin alpha is a compact denatured state, with structural properties different from those of the molten globule. The formation of alpha-helical structure by the glutamic acid-rich elements of the protein accompanied by the partial hydrophobic collapse is expected at lower pH due to the neutralization of the negatively charged residues. It is possible that such conformational changes may be associated with the protein function.

  8. Impact of acid effluent from Kawah Ijen crater lake on irrigated agricultural soils: Soil chemical processes and plant uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rotterdam-Los, A. M. D.; Heikens, A.; Vriend, S. P.; van Bergen, M. J.; van Gaans, P. F. M.

    2008-12-01

    Volcanogenic contamination of irrigation water, caused by effluent from the hyperacid Ijen crater lake, has severely affected the properties of agricultural soils in East Java, Indonesia. From a comparison of acidified topsoil with subsoil and with top- and subsoil in a reference area, we identified processes responsible for changes in soil and soil solution chemistry induced by acid irrigation water, with emphasis on the nutrients Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn, and on Al, which may become phytotoxic under acid conditions in soils. Compositional data for bulk soil composition and selective extractions with 1 M KCl and 0.2 M acid ammonium oxalate are used in a mass balance approach to specify element fluxes, including uptake by rice plants. The results show that input via irrigation water has produced an increase in the total aluminum content in the affected topsoil, which is of the same order of magnitude as the increase in labile Al. High bioavailability of Al, as reflected by concentrations in KCl extracts, is consistent with elevated concentrations observed in rice plants. In contrast, and despite the high input via irrigation water, Ca and Mg concentrations have decreased in all measured soil fractions through dissolution of amorphous phases and minerals, and through competition of Al for adsorption sites on the exchange complex and plant roots. Strong leaching is also evident for Fe and especially Mn. In terms of the overall mass balance of the topsoil, plant uptake of Al, Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn is negligible. If the use of acid irrigation would be stopped and the soil pH were to increase to values above 4.5, the observed phytotoxicity of Al will be halted. However, crops may then become fully dependent on the input from irrigation water or fertilizer for essential elements, due to the previous removal from the topsoil through leaching.

  9. Cadmium availability in rice paddy fields from a mining area: The effects of soil properties highlighting iron fractions and pH value.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Liu, Chuanping; Zhu, Jishu; Li, Fangbai; Deng, Dong-Mei; Wang, Qi; Liu, Chengshuai

    2016-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) availability can be significantly affected by soil properties. The effect of pH value on Cd availability has been confirmed. Paddy soils in South China generally contain high contents of iron (Fe). Thus, it is hypothesized that Fe fractions, in addition to pH value, may play an important role in the Cd bioavailability in paddy soil and this requires further investigation. In this study, 73 paired soil and rice plant samples were collected from paddy fields those were contaminated by acid mine drainage containing Cd. The contents of Fe in the amorphous and DCB-extractable Fe oxides were significantly and negatively correlated with the Cd content in rice grain or straw (excluding DCB-extractable Fe vs Cd in straw). In addition, the concentration of HCl-extractable Fe(II) derived from Fe(III) reduction was positively correlated with the Cd content in rice grain or straw. These results suggest that soil Fe redox could affect the availability of Cd in rice plant. Contribution assessment of soil properties to Cd accumulation in rice grain based on random forest (RF) and stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) showed that pH value should be the most important factor and the content of Fe in the amorphous Fe oxides should be the second most important factor in affecting Cd content in rice grain. Overall, compared with the studies from temperate regions, such as Europe and northern China, Fe oxide exhibited its unique role in the bioavailability of Cd in the reddish paddy soil from our study area. The exploration of practical remediation strategies for Cd from the perspective of Fe oxide may be promising.

  10. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Neta, E R D; Johanningsmeier, S D; Drake, M A; McFeeters, R F

    2009-01-01

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on sour taste of equimolar protonated organic acid solutions and to investigate the potential roles of organic anions and sodium ions on sour taste perception. Despite equal concentrations of protonated acid species, sour taste intensity decreased significantly with increased pH for acetic, lactic, malic, and citric acids (P < 0.05). Total organic anion concentration did not explain the suppression of sour taste in solutions containing a blend of 3 organic acids with constant concentration of protonated organic acid species and hydrogen ions and variable organic anion concentrations (R(2)= 0.480, P = 0.12). Sour taste suppression in these solutions seemed to be more closely related to sodium ions added in the form of NaOH (R(2)= 0.861, P = 0.007). Addition of 20 mM NaCl to acid solutions resulted in significant suppression of sour taste (P = 0.016). However, sour taste did not decrease with further addition of NaCl up to 80 mM. Presence of sodium ions was clearly shown to decrease sour taste of organic acid solutions. Nonetheless, suppression of sour taste in pH adjusted single acid solutions was greater than what would be expected based on the sodium ion concentration alone, indicating an additional suppression mechanism may be involved.

  11. Influence of various concentrations of selenic acid (IV) on the activity of soil enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nowak, J; Kaklewski, K; Klódka, D

    2002-05-27

    The aim of this experiment was the assessment of the influence of various concentrations of H2SeO3 (0.05, 0.5 and 5 mM) on the activity of soil enzymes over 112 days. The lab experiment was performed using soil samples (dust-silt black soil of 1.92% organic C content, pH 7.7), 60% maximal water capacity. The soil samples were treated with a selenic acid water solution at the concentrations mentioned above. As a reference, natural soil was used (without the selenic acid). The activity of the following enzymes was tested: beta-glucosidase, nitrate reductase, urease, dehydrogenase, acid and alkaline phosphatases. The soil was sampled at days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 112. The results of the study have shown that the selenic acid had no effect on the activity of the beta-glucosidase in soil. In the course of the whole experiment, the applied selenic acid inhibited activity of the nitrate reductase up to 70% at 5 mM, and the activity of dehydrogenase was also decreased--by up to 85% at 5 mM, similarly to urease (with the exception of days 14 and 28), and acid phosphatase (until day 56). The activity of alkaline phosphatase was increased by the lowest concentration of selenic acid and decreased by the highest, which was found in the course of the whole experiment. The 5-mM concentration of selenic acid inhibited the activity of all the enzymes tested in this experiment.

  12. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Leandro M.; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M.; Soares, Cláudio R.F.S.; de Lima, José M.; Olivares, Fabio L.; Moreira, Fatima M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization. PMID:26273251

  13. Interactions of aluminum with forest soils and vegetation: Implications for acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that an important ecological consequence of acidic deposition is increased aluminum mobilization. There is concern that increased aluminum activity may produce toxic effects in forested ecosystems. My studies were concerned with the behavior of pedogenic and added aluminum in soils derived from chemically different parent material. Soil aluminum was related to the aluminum content of the vegetation found growing in the soils. In addition, aluminum levels of forest litter was compared to levels determined 40 years ago. Field, greenhouse, and laboratory investigations were conducted in which the effects of aluminum concentration on germination and early growth was determined. Soils were then used in greenhouse and laboratory studies to establish patterns of soil and plant aluminum behavior with implications to acid deposition. Results show that the amount of aluminum extracted was related to the pH value of the extracting solution and to the chemical characteristics of the soil. Some acid rain solutions extracted measurable amounts of aluminum from selected primary minerals. Germination and early growth of Pinus radiata was controlled by levels of aluminum in the soil or in solution. Field studies indicated that most forest species were sensitive to rising levels of aluminum in the soil. In general, ferns and fern allies were less sensitive to very high levels of aluminum in the soil, continuing to grow when more advanced dicots have disappeared. Aluminum tissue levels of all species were related to the concentration of aluminum in the soil as was the reappearance of species. Aluminum levels in leaf litter have risen at least 50% in the last 40 years. These values were consistent over 3 years. The implications to acid deposition were discussed.

  14. Acidic duodenal pH alters gene expression in the cystic fibrosis mouse pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Simran; Norkina, Oxana; Ziemer, Donna; Samuelson, Linda C; De Lisle, Robert C

    2004-08-01

    The duodenum is abnormally acidic in cystic fibrosis (CF) due to decreased bicarbonate ion secretion that is dependent on the CF gene product CFTR. In the CFTR null mouse, the acidic duodenum results in increased signaling from the intestine to the exocrine pancreas in an attempt to stimulate pancreatic bicarbonate ion secretion. Excess stimulation is proposed to add to the stress/inflammation of the pancreas in CF. DNA microarray analysis of the CF mouse revealed altered pancreatic gene expression characteristic of stress/inflammation. When the duodenal pH was corrected genetically (crossing CFTR null with gastrin null mice) or pharmacologically (use of the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole), expression levels of genes measured by quantitative RT-PCR were significantly normalized. It is concluded that the acidic duodenal pH in CF contributes to the stress on the exocrine pancreas and that normalizing duodenal pH reduces this stress.

  15. Carbon stabilization and microbial growth in acidic mine soils after addition of different amendments for soil reclamation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Acosta, Jose; Ángeles Muñoz, María; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Faz, Ángel; Bååth, Erland

    2016-04-01

    The extreme soil conditions in metalliferous mine soils have a negative influence on soil biological activity and therefore on soil carbon estabilization. Therefore, amendments are used to increase organic carbon content and activate microbial communities. In order to elucidate some of the factors controlling soil organic carbon stabilization in reclaimed acidic mine soils and its interrelationship with microbial growth and community structure, we performed an incubation experiment with four amendments: pig slurry (PS), pig manure (PM) and biochar (BC), applied with and without marble waste (MW; CaCO3). Results showed that PM and BC (alone or together with MW) contributed to an important increment in recalcitrant organic C, C/N ratio and aggregate stability. Bacterial and fungal growths were highly dependent on pH and labile organic C. PS supported the highest microbial growth; applied alone it stimulated fungal growth, and applied with MW it stimulated bacterial growth. BC promoted the lowest microbial growth, especially for fungi, with no significant increase in fungal biomass. MW+BC increased bacterial growth up to values similar to PM and MW+PM, suggesting that part of the biochar was degraded, at least in short-term mainly by bacteria rather than fungi. PM, MW+PS and MW+PM supported the highest microbial biomass and a similar community structure, related with the presence of high organic C and high pH, with immobilization of metals and increased soil quality. BC contributed to improved soil structure, increased recalcitrant organic C, and decreased metal mobility, with low stimulation of microbial growth.

  16. Utility of bioassays (lettuce, red clover, red fescue, Microtox, MetSTICK, Hyalella, bait lamina) in ecological risk screening of acid metal (Zn) contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Chapman, E Emily V; Hedrei Helmer, Stephanie; Dave, Göran; Murimboh, John D

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess selected bioassays and ecological screening tools for their suitability in a weight of evidence risk screening process of acidic metal contaminated soil. Intact soil cores were used for the tests, which minimizes changes in pH and metal bioavailability that may result from homogenization and drying of the soil. Soil cores were spiked with ZnCl(2) or CaCl(2). Leachate collected from the soil cores was used to account for the exposure pathways through pore water and groundwater. Tests assessed included MetSTICK in soil cores and Microtox in soil leachate, lettuce (Lactuca sativa), red fescue (Festuca rubra) and red clover (Trifolium pratense) in the soil cores and lettuce and red clover in soil leachate, Hyallella azteca in soil leachate, and an ecological soil function test using Bait Lamina in soil cores. Microtox, H. azteca, lettuce and red fescue showed higher sensitivity to low pH than to Zn concentrations and are therefore not recommended as tests on intact acidic soil cores and soil leachate. The Bait Lamina test appeared sensitive to pH levels below 3.7 but should be investigated further as a screening tool in less acidic soils. Among the bioassays, the MetSTICK and the T. pratense bioassays in soil cores were the most sensitive to Zn, with the lowest nominal NOEC of 200 and 400mg Zn/kg d.w., respectively. These bioassays were also tolerant of low pH, which make them suitable for assessing hazards of metal contaminated acid soils.

  17. Assessment of bioavailable organic phosphorus in tropical forest soils by organic acid extraction and phosphatase hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Darch, Tegan; Blackwell, Martin S A; Chadwick, David; Haygarth, Philip M; Hawkins, Jane M B; Turner, Benjamin L

    2016-12-15

    Soil organic phosphorus contributes to the nutrition of tropical trees, but is not accounted for in standard soil phosphorus tests. Plants and microbes can release organic anions to solubilize organic phosphorus from soil surfaces, and synthesize phosphatases to release inorganic phosphate from the solubilized compounds. We developed a procedure to estimate bioavailable organic phosphorus in tropical forest soils by simulating the secretion processes of organic acids and phosphatases. Five lowland tropical forest soils with contrasting properties (pH 4.4-6.1, total P 86-429 mg P kg(- 1)) were extracted with 2 mM citric acid (i.e., 10 μmol g(- 1), approximating rhizosphere concentrations) adjusted to soil pH in a 4:1 solution to soil ratio for 1 h. Three phosphatase enzymes were then added to the soil extract to determine the forms of hydrolysable organic phosphorus. Total phosphorus extracted by the procedure ranged between 3.22 and 8.06 mg P kg(- 1) (mean 5.55 ± 0.42 mg P kg(- 1)), of which on average three quarters was unreactive phosphorus (i.e., organic phosphorus plus inorganic polyphosphate). Of the enzyme-hydrolysable unreactive phosphorus, 28% was simple phosphomonoesters hydrolyzed by phosphomonoesterase from bovine intestinal mucosa, a further 18% was phosphodiesters hydrolyzed by a combination of nuclease from Penicillium citrinum and phosphomonoesterase, and the remaining 51% was hydrolyzed by a broad-spectrum phytase from wheat. We conclude that soil organic phosphorus can be solubilized and hydrolyzed by a combination of organic acids and phosphatase enzymes in lowland tropical forest soils, indicating that this pathway could make a significant contribution to biological phosphorus acquisition in tropical forests. Furthermore, we have developed a method that can be used to assess the bioavailability of this soil organic phosphorus.

  18. Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an electrosynthetic microbiome

    DOE PAGES

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; ...

    2014-10-15

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (~5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at -600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ~5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ~6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at -765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at -800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominatedmore » community. Supplying -800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (≈2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured).« less

  19. Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an electrosynthetic microbiome

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.; Battista, John R.

    2014-10-15

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (~5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at -600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ~5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ~6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at -765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at -800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominated community. Supplying -800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (≈2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured).

  20. Influence of Acidic pH on Hydrogen and Acetate Production by an Electrosynthetic Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.

    2014-01-01

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (∼5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at −600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ∼5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ∼6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at −765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at −800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominated community. Supplying −800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (≈2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured). PMID:25333313

  1. Transcriptome Profiling of Shewanella oneidensis Gene Expressionfollowing Exposure to Acidic and Alkaline pH

    SciTech Connect

    Leaphart, Adam B.; Thompson, Dorothea K.; Huang, Katherine; Alm,Eric; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Arkin, Adam P.; Brown, Steven D.; Wu, Liyou; Yan,Tingfen; Liu, Xueduan; Wickham, Gene S.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2007-04-02

    The molecular response of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 tovariations in extracellular pH was investigated based on genomewide geneexpression profiling. Microarray analysis revealed that cells elicitedboth general and specific transcriptome responses when challenged withenvironmental acid (pH 4) or base (pH 10) conditions over a 60-minperiod. Global responses included the differential expression of genesfunctionally linked to amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulationand signal transduction, transport, cell membrane structure, andoxidative stress protection. Response to acid stress included theelevated expression of genes encoding glycogen biosynthetic enzymes,phosphate transporters, and the RNA polymerase sigma-38 factor (rpoS),whereas the molecular response to alkaline pH was characterized byupregulation of nhaA and nhaR, which are predicted to encode an Na+/H+antiporter and transcriptional activator, respectively, as well assulfate transport and sulfur metabolism genes. Collectively, theseresults suggest that S. oneidensis modulates multiple transporters, cellenvelope components, and pathways of amino acid consumption and centralintermediary metabolism as part of its transcriptome response to changingexternal pH conditions.

  2. Adsorption of tetracycline on soil and sediment: effects of pH and the presence of Cu(II).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheyun; Sun, Ke; Gao, Bo; Zhang, Guixiang; Liu, Xitao; Zhao, Ye

    2011-06-15

    Tetracycline (TC) is frequently detected in the environment, however, knowledge on the environmental fate and transport of TC is still limited. Batch adsorption experiments of TC by soil and sediment samples were conducted. The distribution of charge and electrostatic potential of individual atoms of various TC species in the aqueous solution were determined using MOPAC version 0.034 W program in ChemBio3D Ultra software. Most of the adsorption isotherms on the soil, river and marine sediments were well fitted with the Freundlich and Polanyi-Manes (PMM) models. The single point organic carbon (OC)-normalized adsorption distribution coefficients (K(OC)) and PMM saturated adsorption capacity (Q(OC)(0)) values of TC were associated with the mesopore volume and clay content to a greater extent, indicating the mesopore volume of the soil and sediments and their clay content possibly influenced the fate and transport of TC in the natural environment. The adsorption of TC on soil and sediments strongly depended on the pH and presence of Cu(II). The presence of Cu(II) facilitated TC adsorption on soil and sediments at low pH (pH<5), possibly due to the metallic complexation and surface-bridging mechanism by Cu(II) adsorption on soil and sediments. The cation exchange interaction, metallic complexation and Coulombic interaction of mechanisms for adsorption of TC to soils and sediments were further supported by quantum chemical calculation of various TC species in different pH.

  3. Influence of pH on organic acid production by Clostridium sporogenes in test tube and fermentor cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Montville, T J; Parris, N; Conway, L K

    1985-01-01

    The influence of pH on the growth parameters of and the organic acids produced by Clostridium sporogenes 3121 cultured in test tubes and fermentors at 35 degrees C was examined. Specific growth rates in the fermentor maintained at a constant pH ranged from 0.20 h-1 at pH 5.00 to 0.86 h-1 at pH 6.50. Acetic acid was the primary organic acid in supernatants of 24-h cultures; total organic acid levels were 2.0 to 22.0 mumol/ml. Supernatants from pH 5.00 and 5.50 cultures had total organic acid levels less than one-third of those found at pH 6.00 to 7.00. The specific growth rates of the test tube cultures ranged from 0.51 h-1 at pH 5.00 to 0.95 h-1 at pH 6.50. The pH of the medium did not affect the average total organic acid content (51.5 mumol/ml) but did affect the distribution of the organic acids, which included formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic, and 3-phenylpropionic acids. Butyric acid levels were lower, but formic and propionic acid levels were higher, at pH 5.00 than at other pHs. PMID:4004207

  4. Improved analyses for soil carbohydrates, amino acids, and phenols: Tools for understanding soil processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A process-level understanding of soil carbon(C) and nitrogen (N) cycling will be facilitated by precise measurement of biochemical compounds in soil organic matter. This review summarizes some recent developments in analyses for soil carbohydrates, amino compounds (amino acids and amino sugars), and...

  5. Understory vegetation leads to changes in soil acidity and in microbial communities 27 years after reforestation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoli; Yang, Fengting; Wang, Jianlei; Di, Yuebao; Dai, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Experiments with potted plants and removed understories have indicated that understory vegetation often affects the chemical and microbial properties of soil. In this study, we examined the mechanism and extent of the influence of understory vegetation on the chemical and microbial properties of soil in plantation forests. The relationships between the vegetational structure (diversity for different functional layers, aboveground biomass of understory vegetation, and species number) and soil properties (pH, microbial community structure, and levels of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and inorganic nitrogen) were analyzed across six reforestation types (three pure needleleaf forests, a needle-broadleaf mixed forest, a broadleaf forest, and a shrubland). Twenty-seven years after reforestation, soil pH significantly decreased by an average of 0.95 across reforestation types. Soil pH was positively correlated with the aboveground biomass of the understory. The levels of total, bacterial, and fungal phospholipid fatty acids, and the fungal:bacterial ratios were similar in the shrubland and the broadleaf forest. Both the aboveground biomass of the understory and the diversity of the tree layer positively influenced the fungal:bacterial ratio. Improving the aboveground biomass of the understory could alleviate soil acidification. An increase in the aboveground biomass of the understory, rather than in understory diversity, enhanced the functional traits of the soil microbial communities. The replacement of pure plantations with mixed-species stands, as well as the enhancement of understory recruitment, can improve the ecological functions of a plantation, as measured by the alleviation of soil acidification and increased fungal dominance.

  6. Effects of saliva on starch-thickened drinks with acidic and neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Ben; Cox, Ben; Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Smith, Christina H

    2012-09-01

    Powdered maize starch thickeners are used to modify drink consistency in the clinical management of dysphagia. Amylase is a digestive enzyme found in saliva which breaks down starch. This action is dependent on pH, which varies in practice depending on the particular drink. This study measured the effects of human saliva on the viscosity of drinks thickened with a widely used starch-based thickener. Experiments simulated a possible clinical scenario whereby saliva enters a cup and contaminates a drink. Citric acid (E330) was added to water to produce a controlled range of pH from 3.0 to 7.0, and several commercially available drinks with naturally low pH were investigated. When saliva was added to thickened water, viscosity was reduced to less than 1% of its original value after 10-15 min. However, lowering pH systematically slowed the reduction in viscosity attributable to saliva. At pH 3.5 and below, saliva was found to have no significant effect on viscosity. The pH of drinks in this study ranged from 2.6 for Coca Cola to 6.2 for black coffee. Again, low pH slowed the effect of saliva. For many popular drinks, having pH of 3.6 or less, viscosity was not significantly affected by the addition of saliva.

  7. Ion activity and distribution of heavy metals in acid mine drainage polluted subtropical soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Tao; Becquer, Thierry; Dai, Jun; Quantin, Cécile; Benedetti, Marc F

    2009-04-01

    The oxidative dissolution of mine wastes gives rise to acidic, metal-enriched mine drainage (AMD) and has typically posed an additional risk to the environment. The poly-metallic mine Dabaoshan in South China is an excellent test site to understand the processes affecting the surrounding polluted agricultural fields. Our objectives were firstly to investigate metal ion activity in soil solution, distribution in solid constituents, and spatial distribution in samples, secondly to determine dominant environment factors controlling metal activity in the long-term AMD-polluted subtropical soils. Soil Column Donnan Membrane Technology (SC-DMT) combined with sequential extraction shows that unusually large proportion of the metal ions are present as free ion in the soil solutions. The narrow range of low pH values prevents any pH effects during the binding onto oxides or organic matter. The differences in speciation of the soil solutions may explain the different soil degradation observed between paddy and non-paddy soils.

  8. Irreversibility of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Sorption onto a Volcanic Ash Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mon, E.; Kawamoto, K.; Komatsu, T.; Moldrup, P.

    2008-12-01

    Pesticide sorption and desorption in soils are key processes governing fate and transport of pesticides in the soil environment. The irreversibility (or hysteresis) in the processes of pesticide sorption and desorption needs to be known to accurately predict behavior of pesticides in soil systems. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a widely used pesticide in agriculture fields. However, only few studies of 2,4-D adsorption onto Andosols (volcanic ash soils) have been published, and the knowledge of 2,4-D desorption onto Andosols is very limited. In this study, a volcanic ash soil sampled from a pasture site in Nishi-Tokyo, Japan was used as a sorbent in order to investigate the irreversibility of 2,4-D sorption. For comparison, a pure clay mineral (kaolinite) obtained from Clay Science Society of Japan (CSSJ) was also used. 2,4-D solutions with three concentrations (0.011, 0.022 and 0.045 mmol/L) were prepared in artificial rain water (ARW= 0.085mM NaCl + 0.015mM CaCl2) to simulate field conditions. To prepare the sample solutions, the solid mass/liquid volume ratio of 1:10 was used for both sorbents (volcanic ash soil and kaolinite). The experiments were conducted in triplicate using a batch method under different pH conditions to examine the effect of pH. Desorption was measured during a equilibration procedure: After removal of 7 mL of supernatant in the sorption step, 7 mL of ARW excluding 2,4-D was added to the sample solution after which, it was equilibrated and centrifuged. The procedure was performed sequentially three or four times to obtain a desorption isotherm. Sorption and desorption generally followed Freundlich isotherms. The results showed markedly effects of pH on 2,4-D sorption and desorption in both the soil and kaolinite, with the percentage of sorption increasing with decreasing pH whereas the percentage of desorption decreased. There was a larger adsorption-desorption hysteresis in the volcanic ash soil as compared to kaolinite

  9. Development of Online Spectroscopic pH Monitoring for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants: Weak Acid Schemes.

    PubMed

    Casella, Amanda J; Ahlers, Laura R H; Campbell, Emily L; Levitskaia, Tatiana G; Peterson, James M; Smith, Frances N; Bryan, Samuel A

    2015-05-19

    In nuclear fuel reprocessing, separating trivalent minor actinides and lanthanide fission products is extremely challenging and often necessitates tight pH control in TALSPEAK (Trivalent Actinide-Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorus reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes) separations. In TALSPEAK and similar advanced processes, aqueous pH is one of the most important factors governing the partitioning of lanthanides and actinides between an aqueous phase containing a polyaminopolycarboxylate complexing agent and a weak carboxylic acid buffer and an organic phase containing an acidic organophosphorus extractant. Real-time pH monitoring would significantly increase confidence in the separation performance. Our research is focused on developing a general method for online determination of the pH of aqueous solutions through chemometric analysis of Raman spectra. Spectroscopic process-monitoring capabilities, incorporated in a counter-current centrifugal contactor bank, provide a pathway for online, real-time measurement of solution pH. The spectroscopic techniques are process-friendly and can be easily configured for online applications, whereas classic potentiometric pH measurements require frequent calibration/maintenance and have poor long-term stability in aggressive chemical and radiation environments. Raman spectroscopy discriminates between the protonated and deprotonated forms of the carboxylic acid buffer, and the chemometric processing of the Raman spectral data with PLS (partial least-squares) regression provides a means to quantify their respective abundances and therefore determine the solution pH. Interpretive quantitative models have been developed and validated under a range of chemical composition and pH conditions using a lactic acid/lactate buffer system. The developed model was applied to new spectra obtained from online spectral measurements during a solvent extraction experiment using a counter-current centrifugal contactor bank. The model

  10. Optimization of pH values to formulate the bireagent kit for serum uric acid assay.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya; Chen, Yuanxiang; Yang, Xiaolan; Zhao, Hua; Hu, Xiaolei; Pu, Jun; Liao, Juan; Long, Gaobo; Liao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    A new formulation of the bireagent kit for serum uric acid assay was developed based on the effects of pH on enzyme stability. At 4 °C, half-lives of uricases from Bacillus fastidious and Arthrobacter globiforms were longer than 15 months at pH 9.2, but became shorter at pH below 8.0; half-lives of ascorbate oxidase and peroxidase were comparable at pH 6.5 and 7.0, but became much shorter at pH higher than 7.4. In the new formulation of the bireagent kit, Reagent A contained peroxidase, 4-aminoantipyrine, and ascorbate oxidase in 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 6.5; Reagent B contained B. fastidious or A. globiforms uricase in 50 mM sodium borate buffer at pH 9.2; Reagents A and B were mixed at 4:1 to produce a final pH from 7.2 to 7.6 for developing a stable color. The new bireagent kit consumed smaller quantities of three enzymes for the same shelf life. With the new bireagent kit, there were linear responses of absorbance at 546 nm to uric acid up to 34 mM in reaction mixtures and a good correlation of uric acid levels in clinical sera with those by a commercial kit, but stronger resistance to ascorbate. Therefore, the new formulation was advantageous.

  11. Vaginal pH and Microbicidal Lactic Acid When Lactobacilli Dominate the Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    O’Hanlon, Deirdre E.; Moench, Thomas R.; Cone, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Lactic acid at sufficiently acidic pH is a potent microbicide, and lactic acid produced by vaginal lactobacilli may help protect against reproductive tract infections. However, previous observations likely underestimated healthy vaginal acidity and total lactate concentration since they failed to exclude women without a lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota, and also did not account for the high carbon dioxide, low oxygen environment of the vagina. Fifty-six women with low (0-3) Nugent scores (indicating a lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota) and no symptoms of reproductive tract disease or infection, provided a total of 64 cervicovaginal fluid samples using a collection method that avoided the need for sample dilution and rigorously minimized aerobic exposure. The pH of samples was measured by microelectrode immediately after collection and under a physiological vaginal concentration of CO2. Commercial enzymatic assays of total lactate and total acetate concentrations were validated for use in CVF, and compared to the more usual HPLC method. The average pH of the CVF samples was 3.5 ± 0.3 (mean ± SD), range 2.8-4.2, and the average total lactate was 1.0% ± 0.2% w/v; this is a five-fold higher average hydrogen ion concentration (lower pH) and a fivefold higher total lactate concentration than in the prior literature. The microbicidal form of lactic acid (protonated lactic acid) was therefore eleven-fold more concentrated, and a markedly more potent microbicide, than indicated by prior research. This suggests that when lactobacilli dominate the vaginal microbiota, women have significantly more lactic acid-mediated protection against infections than currently believed. Our results invite further evaluations of the prophylactic and therapeutic actions of vaginal lactic acid, whether provided in situ by endogenous lactobacilli, by probiotic lactobacilli, or by products that reinforce vaginal lactic acid. PMID:24223212

  12. Vaginal pH and microbicidal lactic acid when lactobacilli dominate the microbiota.

    PubMed

    O'Hanlon, Deirdre E; Moench, Thomas R; Cone, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Lactic acid at sufficiently acidic pH is a potent microbicide, and lactic acid produced by vaginal lactobacilli may help protect against reproductive tract infections. However, previous observations likely underestimated healthy vaginal acidity and total lactate concentration since they failed to exclude women without a lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota, and also did not account for the high carbon dioxide, low oxygen environment of the vagina. Fifty-six women with low (0-3) Nugent scores (indicating a lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota) and no symptoms of reproductive tract disease or infection, provided a total of 64 cervicovaginal fluid samples using a collection method that avoided the need for sample dilution and rigorously minimized aerobic exposure. The pH of samples was measured by microelectrode immediately after collection and under a physiological vaginal concentration of CO2. Commercial enzymatic assays of total lactate and total acetate concentrations were validated for use in CVF, and compared to the more usual HPLC method. The average pH of the CVF samples was 3.5 ± 0.3 (mean ± SD), range 2.8-4.2, and the average total lactate was 1.0% ± 0.2% w/v; this is a five-fold higher average hydrogen ion concentration (lower pH) and a fivefold higher total lactate concentration than in the prior literature. The microbicidal form of lactic acid (protonated lactic acid) was therefore eleven-fold more concentrated, and a markedly more potent microbicide, than indicated by prior research. This suggests that when lactobacilli dominate the vaginal microbiota, women have significantly more lactic acid-mediated protection against infections than currently believed. Our results invite further evaluations of the prophylactic and therapeutic actions of vaginal lactic acid, whether provided in situ by endogenous lactobacilli, by probiotic lactobacilli, or by products that reinforce vaginal lactic acid.

  13. Uric acid plasma level and urine pH in rats treated with ambroxol.

    PubMed

    Drewa, Tomasz; Wolski, Zbigniew; Gruszka, Marzena; Misterek, Bartosz; Lysik, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    It was a chance discovery that ambroxol parenteral administration led to urinary bladder stone formation in rats. This study was undertaken to examine the serum uric acid levels and urine pH in rats after ambroxol parenteral treatment. Ambroxol influence on the uric acid level was measured in 5 rats (Rattus sp.) treated with 60 mg/kg (dissolved in injection water, sc, daily) during 2 weeks. Ambroxol influence on urine pH was examined on 45 rats divided into 3 groups. Rats from the 1st and 2nd group received 30 and 60 mg/kg/24h ambroxol, respectively. Urine was collected once daily and measured with strip kit. All values were presented as the means with standard deviations. The Student t test was used to compare the means, p < 0.05 was considered as significant. Dynamics of pH changes was measured in 4 rats treated with 60 mg/kg/24h of ambroxol. Controls received 1 mL of injection water sc. Serum uric acid level increased up to 8.7 +/- 1.0 mg/dL vs. 5.7 +/- 1.0 mg/dL in control (p < 0.002). In the 1st and 2nd group urine pH increased up to 7.5 +/- 0.5 and 7.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 6.7 +/- 0.4 (p < 0.05). Ambroxol withdrawal resulted in sequential urine pH decrease. 11 days after interruption of ambroxol therapy pH reached the starting value. Urine pH changes and possible disturbances in uric acid metabolic pathway may influence on the stone formation in rats after ambroxol parenteral treatment. The influence of ambroxol on urinary tract GAG layer and the balance between xanthine and CaOx in the urine should be checked.

  14. Accumulation of different sulfur fractions in Chinese forest soil under acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyi; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Zhangwei; Mulder, Jan

    2011-09-01

    Atmogenic sulfur (S) deposition loading by acid rain is one of the biggest environmental problems in China. It is important to know the accumulated S stored in soil, because eventually the size (and also the "desorption" rate) determines how rapidly the soil water pH responds to decrease in S deposition. The S fractions and the ratio of total carbon/total sulfur (C/S) of forest soil in 9 catchments were investigated by comparing soils at the rural and urban sites in China. The S fractions included water-soluble sulfate-S (SO(4)-S), adsorbed SO(4)-S, insoluble SO(4)-S and organic S. The ratio of C/S in soil at the rural site was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than that at the urban site. C/S of soil in the A horizon was significantly (p < 0.05) and negatively correlated with the wet S-deposition rate. The ratio of C/S presents a better indicator for atmogenic S loading. Organic S was the dominant form in soils at rural sites; contributing more than 69% of the total S in the uppermost 30 cm soil. Organic S and adsorbed SO(4)-S were the main forms of S in soil at urban sites. High contents of water-soluble SO(4)-S and adsorbed SO(4)-S were found in uppermost 30 cm soils at urban sites but not at rural sites. Decades of acid rain have caused accumulation of inorganic SO(4)-S in Chinese forest soil especially at the urban sites. The soil at urban sites had been firstly acidified, and the impacts on the forest ecosystem in these areas should be noticed.

  15. Acid drainage from coal mining: Effect on paddy soil and productivity of rice.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Burhan U; Malang, Akbar; Webster, Richard; Mohapatra, Kamal P; Verma, Bibhash C; Kumar, Manoj; Das, Anup; Islam, Mokidul; Hazarika, Samarendra

    2017-04-01

    Overburden and acid drainage from coal mining is transforming productive agricultural lands to unproductive wasteland in some parts of Northeast India. We have investigated the adverse effects of acid mine drainage on the soil of rice paddy and productivity by comparing them with non-mined land and abandoned paddy fields of Jaintia Hills in Northeast India. Pot experiments with a local rice cultivar (Myngoi) as test crop evaluated biological productivity of the contaminated soil. Contamination from overburden and acid mine drainage acidified the soil by 0.5 pH units, increased the exchangeable Al(3+) content 2-fold and its saturation on clay complexes by 53%. Available sulfur and extractable heavy metals, namely Fe, Mn and Cu increased several-fold in excess of critical limits, while the availability of phosphorus, potassium and zinc contents diminished by 32-62%. The grain yield of rice was 62% less from fields contaminated with acid mine drainage than from fields that have not suffered. Similarly, the amounts of vegetation, i.e. shoots and roots, in pots filled with soil from fields that received acid mine drainage were 59-68% less than from uncontaminated land (average shoot weight: 7.9±2.12gpot(-1); average root weight: 3.40±1.15gpot(-1)). Paddy fields recovered some of their productivity 4years after mining ceased. Step-wise multiple regression analysis affirmed that shoot weight in the pots and grain yield in field were significantly (p<0.01) and positively influenced by the soil's pH and its contents of K, N and Zn, while concentration of S in excess of threshold limits in contaminated soil significantly (p<0.01) reduced the weight of shoots in the pots and grain yield in the field.

  16. Exchangeable and secondary mineral reactive pools of aluminium in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils.

    PubMed

    Yvanes-Giuliani, Yliane A M; Waite, T David; Collins, Richard N

    2014-07-01

    The use of coastal floodplain sulfidic sediments for agricultural activities has resulted in the environmental degradation of many areas worldwide. The generation of acidity and transport of aluminium (Al) and other metals to adjacent aquatic systems are the main causes of adverse effects. Here, a five-step sequential extraction procedure (SEP) was applied to 30 coastal lowland acid sulfate soils (CLASS) from north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. This enabled quantification of the proportion of aluminium present in 'water-soluble', 'exchangeable', 'organically-complexed', 'reducible iron(III) (oxyhydr)oxide/hydroxysulfate-incorporated' and 'amorphous Al mineral' fractions. The first three extractions represented an average of 5% of 'aqua regia' extractable Al and their cumulative concentrations were extremely high, reaching up to 4000 mg·kg(-1). Comparison of Al concentrations in the final two extractions indicated that 'amorphous Al minerals' are quantitatively a much more important sink for the removal of aqueous Al derived from the acidic weathering of these soils than reducible Fe(III) minerals. Correlations were observed between soil pH, dissolved and total organic carbon (DOC and TOC) and Al concentrations in organic carbon-rich CLASS soil horizons. These results suggest that complexation of Al by dissolved organic matter significantly increases soluble Al concentrations at pH values >5.0. As such, present land management practices would benefit with redefinition of an 'optimal' soil from pH ≥5.5 to ~4.8 for the preservation of aquatic environments adjacent to organic-rich CLASS where Al is the sole or principle inorganic contaminant of concern. Furthermore, it was observed that currently-accepted standard procedures (i.e. 1 M KCl extraction) to measure exchangeable Al concentrations in these types of soils severely underestimate exchangeable Al and a more accurate representation may be obtained through the use of 0.2 M CuCl2.

  17. Tree species affect cation exchange capacity (CEC) and cation binding properties of organic matter in acid forest soils.

    PubMed

    Gruba, Piotr; Mulder, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) in forest soil is of major importance for cation binding and acid buffering, but its characteristics may differ among soils under different tree species. We investigated acidity, cation exchange properties and Al bonding to SOM in stands of Scots pine, pedunculate oak, Norway spruce, European beech and common hornbeam in southern Poland. The content of total carbon (Ct) was by far the major contributor to total cation exchange capacity (CECt) even in loamy soils and a strong relationship between Ct and CECt was found. The slope of the regression of CECt to Ct increased in the order hornbeam≈oakacid pH range was smallest for hornbeam and oak, and largest for spruce and pine soils. This was supported by the apparent dissociation constant (pKapp) values of SOM, which were largest in soils under oak. The maximum values of Al saturation were similar between the stands. However, maximum Al bonding to SOM occurred at higher pH values in soils under pine and spruce than under oak. Therefore, at any value in the acid pH range, the SOM in pine soil has less Al complexed and more adsorbed H+ than SOM from oak soils. Such differences in Al and H bonding are not only important for pH buffering and metal solubility controls, but also for stabilization of SOM via saturation of functional groups by Al and H.

  18. Chemical equilibrium modeling of organic acids, pH, aluminum, and iron in Swedish surface waters.

    PubMed

    Sjöstedt, Carin S; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Köhler, Stephan J

    2010-11-15

    A consistent chemical equilibrium model that calculates pH from charge balance constraints and aluminum and iron speciation in the presence of natural organic matter is presented. The model requires input data for total aluminum, iron, organic carbon, fluoride, sulfate, and charge balance ANC. The model is calibrated to pH measurements (n = 322) by adjusting the fraction of active organic matter only, which results in an error of pH prediction on average below 0.2 pH units. The small systematic discrepancy between the analytical results for the monomeric aluminum fractionation and the model results is corrected for separately for two different fractionation techniques (n = 499) and validated on a large number (n = 3419) of geographically widely spread samples all over Sweden. The resulting average error for inorganic monomeric aluminum is around 1 µM. In its present form the model is the first internally consistent modeling approach for Sweden and may now be used as a tool for environmental quality management. Soil gibbsite with a log *Ks of 8.29 at 25°C together with a pH dependent loading function that uses molar Al/C ratios describes the amount of aluminum in solution in the presence of organic matter if the pH is roughly above 6.0.

  19. A new boronic acid fluorescent sensor based on fluorene for monosaccharides at physiological pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Rahman; Mohadjerani, Maryam; Pooryousef, Mona; Eslami, Abbas; Emami, Saeed

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescent boronic acids are very useful fluorescent sensor for detection of biologically important saccharides. Herein we synthesized a new fluorene-based fluorescent boronic acid that shows significant fluorescence changes upon addition of saccharides at physiological pH. Upon addition of fructose, sorbitol, glucose, galactose, ribose, and maltose at different concentration to the solution of 7-(dimethylamino)-9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl-2-boronic acid (7-DMAFBA, 1), significant decreases in fluorescent intensity were observed. It was found that this boronic acid has high affinity (Ka = 3582.88 M-1) and selectivity for fructose over glucose at pH = 7.4. The sensor 1 showed a linear response toward D-fructose in the concentrations ranging from 2.5 × 10-5 to 4 × 10-4 mol L-1 with the detection limit of 1.3 × 10-5 mol L-1.

  20. Kinetic study for copper adsorption onto soil minerals in the absence and presence of humic acid.

    PubMed

    Komy, Zanaty R; Shaker, Ali M; Heggy, Said E M; El-Sayed, Mohamed E A

    2014-03-01

    Equilibrium and kinetics of Cu(2+) adsorption onto soil minerals (kaolinite and hematite) in the absence and presence of humic acid have been investigated under various conditions. The influences of ionic strength, pH and solution cations on the rate of the adsorption have been studied. The rate and the amount of adsorbed Cu(2+) onto soil minerals in the absence or the presence of humic acid increased with decreasing ionic strength, increasing pH and in the presence of the background electrolyte K(+) rather than Ca(2+). Humic acid enhanced the rate and the amount of adsorbed Cu(2+) onto soil minerals. The adsorption equilibrium data showed that adsorption behavior of Cu(2+) could be described more reasonably by Langmiur adsorption isotherm than Freundlich isotherm in the absence or presence of humic acid. Pseudo first and pseudo second order models were used to evaluate the kinetic data and the rate constants. The results indicated that the adsorption of Cu(2+) onto hematite and kaolinite in the absence and presence of humic acid is more conforming to pseudo second order kinetics.

  1. Hydraulic conductivity study of compacted clay soils used as landfill liners for an acidic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdi, Noureddine; Srasra, Ezzeddine

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examined the hydraulic conductivity evolution as function of dry density of Tunisian clay soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Follow the hydraulic conductivity evolution at long-term of three clay materials using the waste solution (pH=2.7). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determined how compaction affects the hydraulic conductivity of clay soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analyzed the concentration of F and P and examined the retention of each soil. - Abstract: Three natural clayey soils from Tunisia were studied to assess their suitability for use as a liner for an acid waste disposal site. An investigation of the effect of the mineral composition and mechanical compaction on the hydraulic conductivity and fluoride and phosphate removal of three different soils is presented. The hydraulic conductivity of these three natural soils are 8.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}, 2.08 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} and 6.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} m/s for soil-1, soil-2 and soil-3, respectively. Soil specimens were compacted under various compaction strains in order to obtain three wet densities (1850, 1950 and 2050 kg/m{sup 3}). In this condition, the hydraulic conductivity (k) was reduced with increasing density of sample for all soils. The test results of hydraulic conductivity at long-term (>200 days) using acidic waste solution (pH = 2.7, charged with fluoride and phosphate ions) shows a decrease in k with time only for natural soil-1 and soil-2. However, the specimens of soil-2 compressed to the two highest densities (1950 and 2050 kg/m{sup 3}) are cracked after 60 and 20 days, respectively, of hydraulic conductivity testing. This damage is the result of a continued increase in the internal stress due to the swelling and to the effect of aggressive wastewater. The analysis of anions shows that the retention of fluoride is higher compared to phosphate and soil-1 has the highest sorption capacity.

  2. Iron biofortification of wheat grains through integrated use of organic and chemical fertilizers in pH affected calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Ramzani, Pia Muhammad Adnan; Khalid, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rashid; Shahid, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Incidence of iron (Fe) deficiency in human populations is an emerging global challenge. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of iron sulphate combined with biochar and poultry manure for Fe biofortification of wheat grains in pH affected calcareous soil. In first two incubation studies, rates of sulfur (S) and Fe combined with various organic amendments for lowering pH and Fe availability in calcareous soil were optimized. In pot experiment, best rate of Fe along with biochar (BC) and poultry manure (PM) was evaluated for Fe biofortification of wheat in normal and S treated low pH calcareous soil. Fe applied with BC provided fair increase in root-shoot biomass and photosynthesis up to 79, 53 and 67%, respectively in S treated low pH soil than control. Grain Fe and ferritin concentration was increased up to 1.4 and 1.2 fold, respectively while phytate and polyphenol was decreased 35 and 44%, respectively than control in treatment where Fe was applied with BC and S. In conclusion, combined use of Fe and BC could be an effective approach to improve growth and grain Fe biofortification of wheat in pH affected calcareous soil.

  3. Polyamine/salt-assembled microspheres coated with hyaluronic acid for targeting and pH sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pan; Yang, Hui; Wang, Guojun; Tong, Weijun; Gao, Changyou

    2016-06-01

    The poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/trisodium citrate aggregates were fabricated and further covalently crosslinked via the coupling reaction of carboxylic sites on trisodium citrate with the amine groups on polyamine, onto which poly-L-lysine and hyaluronic acid were sequentially assembled, forming stable microspheres. The pH sensitive dye and pH insensitive dye were further labeled to enable the microspheres with pH sensing property. Moreover, these microspheres could be specifically targeted to HeLa tumor cells, since hyaluronic acid can specifically recognize and bind to CD44, a receptor overexpressed on many tumor cells. Quantitative pH measurement by confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the microspheres were internalized into HeLa cells, and accumulated in acidic compartments. By contrast, only a few microspheres were adhered on the NIH 3T3 cells surface. The microspheres with combined pH sensing property and targeting ability can enhance the insight understanding of the targeted drug vehicles trafficking after cellular internalization.

  4. Dissolved Divalent Metal and pH Effects on Amino Acid Polymerization: A Thermodynamic Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kitadai, Norio

    2017-03-01

    Polymerization of amino acids is a fundamentally important step for the chemical evolution of life. Nevertheless, its response to changing environmental conditions has not yet been well understood because of the lack of reliable quantitative information. For thermodynamics, detailed prediction over diverse combinations of temperature and pH has been made only for a few amino acid-peptide systems. This study used recently reported thermodynamic dataset for the polymerization of the simplest amino acid "glycine (Gly)" to its short peptides (di-glycine and tri-glycine) to examine chemical and structural characteristics of amino acids and peptides that control the temperature and pH dependence of polymerization. Results showed that the dependency is strongly controlled by the intramolecular distance between the amino and carboxyl groups in an amino acid structure, although the side-chain group role is minor. The polymerization behavior of Gly reported earlier in the literature is therefore expected to be a typical feature for those of α-amino acids. Equilibrium calculations were conducted to examine effects of dissolved metals as a function of pH on the monomer-polymer equilibria of Gly. Results showed that metals shift the equilibria toward the monomer side, particularly at neutral and alkaline pH. Metals that form weak interaction with Gly (e.g., Mg(2+)) have no noticeable influence on the polymerization, although strong interaction engenders significant decrease of the equilibrium concentrations of Gly peptides. Considering chemical and structural characteristics of Gly and Gly peptides that control their interactions with metals, it can be expected that similar responses to the addition of metals are applicable in the polymerization of neutral α-amino acids. Neutral and alkaline aqueous environments with dissolved metals having high affinity with neutral α-amino acids (e.g., Cu(2+)) are therefore not beneficial places for peptide bond formation on the primitive

  5. Dissolved Divalent Metal and pH Effects on Amino Acid Polymerization: A Thermodynamic Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadai, Norio

    2017-03-01

    Polymerization of amino acids is a fundamentally important step for the chemical evolution of life. Nevertheless, its response to changing environmental conditions has not yet been well understood because of the lack of reliable quantitative information. For thermodynamics, detailed prediction over diverse combinations of temperature and pH has been made only for a few amino acid-peptide systems. This study used recently reported thermodynamic dataset for the polymerization of the simplest amino acid "glycine (Gly)" to its short peptides (di-glycine and tri-glycine) to examine chemical and structural characteristics of amino acids and peptides that control the temperature and pH dependence of polymerization. Results showed that the dependency is strongly controlled by the intramolecular distance between the amino and carboxyl groups in an amino acid structure, although the side-chain group role is minor. The polymerization behavior of Gly reported earlier in the literature is therefore expected to be a typical feature for those of α-amino acids. Equilibrium calculations were conducted to examine effects of dissolved metals as a function of pH on the monomer-polymer equilibria of Gly. Results showed that metals shift the equilibria toward the monomer side, particularly at neutral and alkaline pH. Metals that form weak interaction with Gly (e.g., Mg2+) have no noticeable influence on the polymerization, although strong interaction engenders significant decrease of the equilibrium concentrations of Gly peptides. Considering chemical and structural characteristics of Gly and Gly peptides that control their interactions with metals, it can be expected that similar responses to the addition of metals are applicable in the polymerization of neutral α-amino acids. Neutral and alkaline aqueous environments with dissolved metals having high affinity with neutral α-amino acids (e.g., Cu2+) are therefore not beneficial places for peptide bond formation on the primitive

  6. Modeling the influence of organic acids on soil weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Corey R.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Maher, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Biological inputs and organic matter cycling have long been regarded as important factors in the physical and chemical development of soils. In particular, the extent to which low molecular weight organic acids, such as oxalate, influence geochemical reactions has been widely studied. Although the effects of organic acids are diverse, there is strong evidence that organic acids accelerate the dissolution of some minerals. However, the influence of organic acids at the field-scale and over the timescales of soil development has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, a reactive-transport model of soil chemical weathering and pedogenic development was used to quantify the extent to which organic acid cycling controls mineral dissolution rates and long-term patterns of chemical weathering. Specifically, oxalic acid was added to simulations of soil development to investigate a well-studied chronosequence of soils near Santa Cruz, CA. The model formulation includes organic acid input, transport, decomposition, organic-metal aqueous complexation and mineral surface complexation in various combinations. Results suggest that although organic acid reactions accelerate mineral dissolution rates near the soil surface, the net response is an overall decrease in chemical weathering. Model results demonstrate the importance of organic acid input concentrations, fluid flow, decomposition and secondary mineral precipitation rates on the evolution of mineral weathering fronts. In particular, model soil profile evolution is sensitive to kaolinite precipitation and oxalate decomposition rates. The soil profile-scale modeling presented here provides insights into the influence of organic carbon cycling on soil weathering and pedogenesis and supports the need for further field-scale measurements of the flux and speciation of reactive organic compounds.

  7. Soil classification predicts differences in prokaryotic communities across a range of geographically distant soils once pH is accounted for

    PubMed Central

    Kaminsky, Rachel; Trouche, Blandine; Morales, Sergio E.

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural land is typically managed based on visible plant life at the expense of the belowground majority. However, microorganisms mediate processes sustaining plant life and the soil environment. To understand the role of microbes we first must understand what controls soil microbial community assembly. We assessed the distribution and composition of prokaryotic communities from soils representing four geographic regions on the South Island of New Zealand. These soils are under three different uses (dairy, sheep and beef, and high country farming) and are representative of major soil classification groups (brown, pallic, gley and recent). We hypothesized that pH would account for major community patterns based on 16S profiles, but that land use and location would be secondary modifiers. Community diversity and structure was linked to pH, coinciding with land use. Soil classification correlated with microbial community structure and evenness, but not richness in high country and sheep and beef communities. The impact of land use and pH remained significant at the regional scale, but soil classification provided support for community variability not explained by either of those factors. These results suggest that several edaphic properties must be examined at multiple spatial scales to robustly examine soil prokaryotic communities. PMID:28349950

  8. pH responsive poly amino-acid hydrogels formed via silk sericin templating.

    PubMed

    Kurland, Nicholas E; Ragland, Robert B; Zhang, Aolin; Moustafa, Mahmoud E; Kundu, Subhas C; Yadavalli, Vamsi K

    2014-09-01

    Poly(amino acid) hydrogels have attracted a great deal of attention as biodegradable biomaterials that can limit products of synthetic polymer degradation. Here we report on a stimuli-responsive, porous, composite biomaterial based on the protein templating of the poly(amino acid) hydrogel from poly(aspartic acid) with the silk protein sericin. This low-cost, biocompatible and biodegradable hydrogel demonstrates a greatly increased porosity and improvement in volumetric swelling over networks formed from pure poly(aspartic acid). The swelling capacity measured over a range of pH values surrounding physiological pH 7.0 demonstrates a linear profile, in which hydrogel volume and mass increase to a maximum, with an increase as a function of higher sericin content. In comparison to pure poly(aspartic acid), this demonstrates a nearly 3-fold increase in retention volume at basic pH. The increase in swelling is also demonstrated by the increase in porosity and internal micro-architecture of the hydrogel networks. The biomaterial is then shown to perform well as a scaffold for cells with high mechanical strength and integrity. This protein- and homo poly(amino acid)-based super-swelling hydrogel has applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering as an economical and environmentally friendly biomaterial, in addition to ensuring the species incorporated maintain their biocompatibility during processing.

  9. Effective treatment of PAH contaminated Superfund site soil with the peroxy-acid process.

    PubMed

    Scott Alderman, N; N'Guessan, Adeola L; Nyman, Marianne C

    2007-07-31

    Peroxy-organic acids are formed by the chemical reaction between organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. The peroxy-acid process was applied to two Superfund site soils provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Initial small-scale experiments applied ratios of 3:5:7 (v/v/v) or 3:3:9 (v/v/v) hydrogen peroxide:acetic acid:deionized (DI) water solution to 5g of Superfund site soil. The experiment using 3:5:7 (v/v/v) ratio resulted in an almost complete degradation of the 14 EPA regulated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Bedford LT soil during a 24-h reaction period, while the 3:3:9 (v/v/v) ratio resulted in no applicable degradation in Bedford LT lot 10 soil over the same reaction period. Specific Superfund site soil characteristics (e.g., pH, total organic carbon content and particle size distribution) were found to play an important role in the availability of the PAHs and the efficiency of the transformation during the peroxy-acid process. A scaled-up experiment followed treating 150g of Bedford LT lot 10 soil with and without mixing. The scaled-up processes applied a 3:3:9 (v/v/v) solution resulting in significant decrease in PAH contamination. These findings demonstrate the peroxy-acid process as a viable option for the treatment of PAH contaminated soils. Further work is necessary in order to elucidate the mechanisms of this process.

  10. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial ins...

  11. Similar bacterial community composition in acidic mining lakes with different pH and lake chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kampe, Heike; Dziallas, Claudia; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Kamjunke, Norbert

    2010-10-01

    As extreme environmental conditions strongly affect bacterial community composition (BCC), we examined whether differences in pH-even at low pH-and in iron and sulfate concentrations lead to changes in BCC of acidic mining lakes. Thereby, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) diversity of the bacterial community in acidic lakes decreases with reducing pH, (2) BCC differs between epilimnion and hypolimnion, and (3) BCC in extremely acidic environments does not vary much over time. Therefore, we investigated the BCC of three acidic lakes with different pH values (2.3, 2.7, and 3.2) by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and subsequent sequencing of DGGE bands as well as catalyzed reporter deposition-FISH (CARD-FISH). BCC did not significantly vary among the studied lakes nor differ much between water layers. In contrast, BCC significantly changed over time, which is contradictory to our hypotheses. Bacterial communities were dominated by Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, whereas Actino- and Acidobacteria rarely occurred. Cell numbers of both free and attached bacteria were positively related to DOC concentration. Overall, low pH and extreme chemical conditions of the studied lakes led to similar assemblages of bacteria with pronounced temporal differences. This notion indicates that temporal changes in environmental conditions including food web structure also affect unique communities of bacteria thriving at low pH.

  12. A colorimetric pH indicators and boronic acids ensemble array for quantitative sugar analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Krishna Kanta; Yap, Eunice; Kim, Hanjo; Lee, Jun-Seok; Chang, Young-Tae

    2011-04-07

    The colorimetric response patterns of pH indicators and boronic acids ensemble array were used to analyze serial concentrations of mono-, disaccharides quantitatively. Furthermore, this ensemble array was successfully applied to quantify the sugar content in clinically used saline solutions.

  13. Glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid chronic risk assessment for soil biota.

    PubMed

    von Mérey, Georg; Manson, Philip S; Mehrsheikh, Akbar; Sutton, Peter; Levine, Steven L

    2016-11-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide used widely in agriculture, horticulture, private gardens, and public infrastructure, where it is applied to areas such as roadsides, railway tracks, and parks to control the growth of weeds. The exposure risk from glyphosate and the primary soil metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on representative species of earthworms, springtails, and predatory soil mites and the effects on nitrogen-transformation processes by soil microorganisms were assessed under laboratory conditions based on internationally recognized guidelines. For earthworms, the reproductive no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was 472.8 mg glyphosate acid equivalent (a.e.)/kg dry soil, which was the highest concentration tested, and 198.1 mg/kg dry soil for AMPA. For predatory mites, the reproductive NOEC was 472.8 mg a.e./kg dry soil for glyphosate and 320 mg/kg dry soil for AMPA, the highest concentrations tested. For springtails, the reproductive NOEC was 472.8 mg a.e./kg dry soil for glyphosate and 315 mg/kg dry soil for AMPA, the highest concentrations tested. Soil nitrogen-transformation processes were unaffected by glyphosate and AMPA at 33.1 mg a.e./kg soil and 160 mg/kg soil, respectively. Comparison of these endpoints with worst-case soil concentrations expected for glyphosate (6.62 mg a.e./kg dry soil) and AMPA (6.18 mg/kg dry soil) for annual applications at the highest annual rate of 4.32 kg a.e./ha indicate very low likelihood of adverse effects on soil biota. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2742-2752. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  14. Water-soluble organic acids in cryomorphic peat soils of the southeastern Bol'shezemel'skaya tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamrikova, E. V.; Kaverin, D. A.; Pastukhov, A. V.; Lapteva, E. M.; Kubik, O. S.; Punegov, V. V.

    2015-03-01

    The composition of the water extracts, the pH, and the weight concentrations of the total organic carbon and low-molecular-weight organic acids in seasonally thawed and perennially frozen horizons of cryomorphic peat soils have been determined. The quantitative analysis of the acids converted to trimethylsilyl derivatives has been performed by gas chromatography and chromato-mass spectroscopy. Hydroxypropanoic, propanoic, and hydroxyethanoic acids are the prevailing acids (30-50, 10-20, and 10% of the total acids, respectively). Malic, glyceric, hexadionic, trihydroxybutanoic, ribonic, and other acids have also been detected. It has been shown that the differences in the genesis of the peat deposits significantly affect the composition and content of water-soluble organic compounds in soils on the soil-profile and landscape levels.

  15. Autoinducer-2 detection among commensal oral streptococci is dependent on pH and boric acid.

    PubMed

    Cuadra, Giancarlo A; Frantellizzi, Ashley J; Gaesser, Kimberly M; Tammariello, Steven P; Ahmed, Anika

    2016-07-01

    Autoinducer-2, considered a universal signaling molecule, is produced by many species of bacteria; including oral strains. Structurally, autoinducer-2 can exist bound to boron (borated autoinducer-2). Functionally, autoinducer-2 has been linked to important bacterial processes such as virulence and biofilm formation. In order to test production of autoinducer-2 by a given bacterial strain, a bioassay using marine bioluminescent bacteria Vibrio harveyi as a reporter for autoinducer-2 has been designed. We hypothesize that pH adjustment and addition of boron are required for optimal bioluminescence and accurate autoinducer-2 detection. Using this reporter strain we tested autoinducer-2 activity from two oral commensal species, Streptococcus gordonii DL1 and Streptococcus oralis 34. Spent broth was collected and adjusted to pH 7.5 and supplemented with boric acid prior to measuring autoinducer- 2 activity. Results show that low pH inhibits bioluminescence of the reporter strain, but pH 7.5 allows for bioluminescence induction and proper readings of autoinducer-2 activity. Addition of boric acid also has a positive effect on bioluminescence allowing for a more sensitive detection of autoinducer-2 activity. Our data suggests that although autoinducer-2 is present in spent broth, low pH and/or low levels of boric acid become an obstacle for proper autoinducer-2 detection. For proper autoinducer-2 detection, we propose a protocol using this bioassay to include pH adjustment and boric acid addition to spent broth. Studies on autoinducer-2 activity in several bacteria species represent an important area of study as this universal signaling molecule is involved in critical bacterial phenotypes such as virulence and biofilm formation.

  16. [Effect of pH and fermentation time on yield and optical purity of lactic acid from kitchen wastes fermentation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming

    2007-04-01

    Batch experiments were carried out to analyze the effect of pH and fermentation time on the yield of total lactic acid and the distribution of L- and D-lactic acid among total lactic acid during the non-sterilized fermentation of kitchen wastes. The results show that the concentration of reduced sugar (calculated as organic carbon) is low, and its concentration was higher at neutral and alkali conditions (pH 6 - 8) than at acidic conditions (non-controlled pH and pH = 5). The maximum total lactic acid production rate and yield is 0.59 g x (L x h)(-1) and 0.62 g per gram VS at pH 7, respectively. The proportion of lactic acid (calculated as organic carbon) among the TOC reaches 78% and 89% at controlled pH 7 and 8, respectively. The L-lactic acid is the predominant isomer form at pH 8. Lactic acid concentration depends on pH, fermentation time and interaction from the response surface analysis. pH and fermentation time have a significant effect on the optical purity of lactic acid. At acidic conditions, the ratio of L-lactic acid to the total lactic acid increases with the fermentation time before 120 h, and the ratio reaches 0.9 at 120 h. At alkaline conditions, the ratio keeps at above 0.86 in the whole experimental fermentation time and reachs the maximum value (0.93) at 48 h. It decreases with fermentation time at pH 7. To obtain high lactic acid yield and optical purity simultaneously, it is suggested that pH should be contralled at 8.

  17. The pH Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes a game that can be used to teach students about the acidity of liquids and substances around their school and enable them to understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students collect samples and measure the pH of water, soil, plants, and other natural material. (DDR)

  18. Removal of pollutants by enhanced coagulation combined PAC with variable charge soils: flocs' properties and effect of pH.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Jie; Wu, Chun-De; Duan, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Lin

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the properties of flocs and effects of the solution pH on removal of representative pollutants by enhanced coagulation with variable charge soils of South China and polyaluminum chloride (PAC). The results demonstrated that the removal efficiency of turbidity was larger and the aggregated flocs had a faster growth rate, bigger size, denser structure and faster settling rate than those generated by PAC alone, when variable charge soil was used in conjunction with PAC. Additionally, initial solutions pH had meaningful effects on removal of pollutants. With the increase in the pH of the solution, the removal efficiencies of turbidity, algae and heavy metal ions significantly increased. Besides, charge neutralization together with physical entrapment of colloids was the dominant mechanism in enhanced coagulation, and variable charge soil displayed a great adsorption effect.

  19. Influence of humic acid applications on soil physicochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gümüş, İ.; Şeker, C.

    2015-09-01

    Soil structure is often said to be the key to soil productivity since a fertile soil, with desirable soil structure and adequate moisture supply, constitutes a productive soil. Soil structure influences soil water movement and retention, erosion, crusting, nutrient recycling, root penetration and crop yield. The objective of this work is to study, humic acid (HA) application on some physical and chemical properties in weak structured soils investigated. The approach involved establishing a plot experiment in the laboratory conditions. Different rates of HA (control, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 %) were applied to soil at three incubation periods (21, 42 and 62 days). At the end of the each incubation period, the changes in physicochemical properties were measured. Generally, HA addition increased EC values at the all incubation periods. HA applications decreased soil modulus of rupture. Application of HA at the rate of 4 % was significantly increased soil organic carbon contents. HA applications at the rate of 4 % significantly increased both mean soil total nitrogen content and aggregate stability after at three incubation periods (p < 0.05). Therefore, HA was potential to improve structure of soil in short term.

  20. Biogenic arsenic volatilisation from an acidic wetland soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgen, Gunter; Huang, Jen-How; Lu, Shipeng; Tian, Liyan; Alewell, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic arsenic (As) volatilisation was budgeted at 26000 t yr-1as the largest input of the global As release into the atmosphere, thereby playing an important role in the biogeochemical cycle of As in the surface environment. In order to quantify As volatilisation from wetland soils and to elucidate the geochemical and microbiological factors governing As volatilisation, a series of incubations with an acidic wetland soil collected in NE-Bavaria in Germany were performed at 15oC for 4 months with addition of NaN3, arsenite (As(III)), FeCl3, NaSO4 and NaOAc with N2 and air in the headspace. Speciation of gaseous As in the headspace using GC-ICP-MS/ ESI-MS coupling showed the predominance of either arsine (AsH3) or trimethylarsine ((CH3)3As) in all treatments during the time course of incubation. Monomethylarsine ((CH3)AsH2) and dimethylarsine ((CH3)2AsH) could be only detected in trace amounts. Arsenic speciation in porewater with HPLC-ICP-MS revealed the predominance of As(III) and methylated As was never detectable. Arsenic volatilisation summed to 2.3 ng As (88% as AsH3) in the control incubations, which accounted for ~0.25 % of the total As storage in the wetland soil. Treatments with 10 mM NaN3 resulted in emission of only 0.03 ng As. In contrast, addition of 10 mM NaOAc stimulated microbial activities in wetland soils and subsequently rose As volatilisation to 8.5 ng As. It could be therefore concluded that As volatilisation from the wetland soils was mainly biological. Spiking 67 μM As(III) increased 10 times of As volatilisation and the proportion of methylated arsines increased to 66%, which is supposed to be caused by the largely enhanced As availability in porewater for microbes (480 ppb, ~65 times higher than those in the controls). Adding 10 mM FeCl3 stimulated microbial Fe(III) reducing activities but suppressed other microbial activities by lowering soil pH from 5 to 3.6, decreasing consequently As volatilisation to 0.3 ng As. The much lower redox

  1. Reutilization of granite powder as an amendment and fertilizer for acid soils.

    PubMed

    Barral Silva, M T; Silva Hermo, B; García-Rodeja, E; Vázquez Freire, N

    2005-11-01

    The properties of granite powders--a granite manufacturing waste product-were analyzed to assess their potential use as amendments and fertilizers on acid soils. Two types of powders were characterized: one produced during cutting of granite with a diamond-edged disc saw, comprising only rock powder, the other produced during cutting with a multi-blade bandsaw, containing calcium hydroxide and metal filings added during the cutting procedure. The acid neutralizing capacity of the granite powders was assessed in short- (2-3 h) and medium-term (1-30 d) experiments. The powders showed a buffering capacity at around pH 8, which corresponded to the rapid dissolution of basic cations, and another buffering effect at pH<4.5, attributable to the dissolution of Fe and Al. The acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) determined in the short-term experiments, to a final pH of 4.5, varied between 5 and 61 cmol H+kg(-1) powder. The ANC to pH 4.5 obtained in the medium-term experiments was much higher than that obtained in the short-term experiments, reaching a maximum ANC value of 200 cmol H+kg(-1) powder. There was no great difference in the neutralizing capacity determined at between 1 and 30 d. The most abundant elements in acid solutions obtained at the end of medium-term experiments were Mg and Ca for disc saw powders, whereas Ca and Fe (at pH<5) were the most soluble elements in the bandsaw powders. The rapid release of these cations suggests the possible effective use of the granite powders as a source of nutrients on being added to acid soils.

  2. Decreased N2O reduction by low soil pH causes high N2O emissions in a riparian ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Van den Heuvel, R N; Bakker, S E; Jetten, M S M; Hefting, M M

    2011-05-01

    Quantification of harmful nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from soils is essential for mitigation measures. An important N(2)O producing and reducing process in soils is denitrification, which shows deceased rates at low pH. No clear relationship between N(2)O emissions and soil pH has yet been established because also the relative contribution of N(2)O as the denitrification end product decreases with pH. Our aim was to show the net effect of soil pH on N(2)O production and emission. Therefore, experiments were designed to investigate the effects of pH on NO(3)(-) reduction, N(2)O production and reduction and N(2) production in incubations with pH values set between 4 and 7. Furthermore, field measurements of soil pH and N(2)O emissions were carried out. In incubations, NO(3)(-) reduction and N(2) production rates increased with pH and net N(2)O production rate was highest at pH 5. N(2)O reduction to N(2) was halted until NO(3)(-) was depleted at low pH values, resulting in a built up of N(2)O. As a consequence, N(2)O:N(2) production ratio decreased exponentially with pH. N(2)O reduction appeared therefore more important than N(2)O production in explaining net N(2)O production rates. In the field, a negative exponential relationship for soil pH against N(2)O emissions was observed. Soil pH could therefore be used as a predictive tool for average N(2)O emissions in the studied ecosystem. The occurrence of low pH spots may explain N(2)O emission hotspot occurrence. Future studies should focus on the mechanism behind small scale soil pH variability and the effect of manipulating the pH of soils.

  3. LEAD IMMOBILIZATION TECHNOLOGY UTILIZING POTASSIUM DEHYDROGEN PHOSPHATE AND ORGANIC ACID IN AN ACTUAL SHOOTING RANGE LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takatoshi; Katoh, Masahiko; Sato, Takeshi

    This paper addressed potassium dehydrogen phosphate (KP) and acetic acid (OAc) amendments of neutral pH soil sampled from the lead contaminated soil in a shooting range to promote immobilization by modification of Pb speciation in solid and liquid phases. This study evaluated the amount of antimony leachability in the so il. The single KP application increased Pb and Sb leachabilitie s due to soil pH increase, wheres combined KP and OAc amendments decreased them in compar ison with the control. Sequential extraction analysis reveal ed that Pb residual fraction in KP amended soil increased to 72% than that in the control (5%). Th e residual fraction (82%) in KP an d OAc amended soil was higher than the single application of KP. This st udy indicated that combined appli catons of KP and OAc promoted Pb immobilization and suppressed Pb leachabilities.

  4. Recovery of carboxylic acids at pH greater than pKa

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, Lisa A.

    1993-08-01

    Economics of producing carboxylic acids by fermentation is often dominated, not by the fermentation cost, but by the cost of recovering and purifying the acids from dilute aqueous solutions. Experiments were performed to measure uptakes of lactic and succinic acids as functions of pH by basic polymeric sorbents; sorbent regeneration was also tested. Performance at pH > pKa and regenerability depend on sorbent basicity; apparent pKa and monomer pK{sub a} can be used to predict sorbent performance. Two basic amine extractants, Alamine 336 and Amberlite LA-2, in were also studied; they are able to sustain capacity to higher pH in diluents that stabilize the acid-amine complex through H bonding. Secondary amines perform better than tert-amines in diluents that solvate the additional proton. Competitive sulfate and phosphate, an interference in fermentation, are taken up by sorbents more strongly than by extractants. The third step in the proposed fermentation process, the cracking of the trimethylammonium (TMA) carboxylate, was also examined. Because lactic acid is more soluble and tends to self-esterify, simple thermal cracking does not remove all TMA; a more promising approach is to esterify the TMA lactate by reaction with an alcohol.

  5. Nodulation of cowpeas and survival of cowpeas Rhizobia in acid, aluminum-rich soils. [Vigna unguiculata; Rhizobium

    SciTech Connect

    Hartel, P.G.; Whelan, A.M.; Alexander, M.

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether the reduced nodulation of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) grown in certain acid, Alrich soils resulted from the poor survival of the potentially infective rhizobia. Two strains of Rhizobium capable of nodulating cowpeas were used. The lowest pH for growth in defined liquid medium was 4.2 for one strain and 3.9 for the other. Only the latter was Al tolerant and could grow in a defined liquid medium containing 50 ..mu..M KAl(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/. The survival of the bacteria and their ability to nodulate cowpeas in three soils were measured after the soils were amended with Ca or Al salts to give pH values ranging from 5.7 to 4.1 and extractable-Al concentrations from < 0.1 to 3.7 cmol(p/sup +/)/kg of soil. Only small differences in survival in 7 or 8 weeks were noted between the two strains. Plants inoculated with the Al-sensitive strain bore significantly fewer nodules in the more acid, Al-rich soils than in the same soils with higher pH values and less extractable Al. No significant reduction in nodule number was evident for plants inoculated with the Al-tolerant strain and grown in the more acid, Al-rich soils compared to cowpeas grown in the same soils with higher pH values and less extractable Al. It is suggested that the Al content of soil is not a major factor in the survival of cowpea rhizobia but that it does have a significant effect on nodulation. 24 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Evaluation of net acid generation pH as a single indicator for acid forming potential of rocks using geochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chamteut; Ji, Sangwoo; Yim, Giljae; Cheong, Youngwook

    2017-04-01

    The main purpose of this research was to evaluate the geochemical properties of rocks for a single indicator of acid-forming potential. The indicators, such as net acid generation (NAG), NAG pH and total S, were applied to 312 rock samples of various geological characteristics. Additional indicators, such as a Modified NAG pH, paste pH and available acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), were applied to 22 selected samples. Among them, NAG pH was considered the most plausible single indicator in evaluating acid-forming potential, as it is simple to measure, widely applicable to various samples and can be used to estimate the NAG value. The acid-forming potential of 287 samples (92% of samples examined in this research) was classified as either non-acid forming (NAF) or potentially acid forming (PAF) by NAG pH, with an NAF criteria of <3.21 and PAF of >4.52. The NAG pH was also a good estimate of the risk of short-term acid release when combined with paste pH information. However, application of NAG pH to coal mine wastes, with high organic carbon contents, produced erroneous results due to the generation of organic acid during the NAG test. In this research, a Modified NAG pH was assessed as an alternative to NAG pH in such situations.

  7. [Amelioration effects of wastewater sludge biochars on red soil acidity and their environmental risk].

    PubMed

    Lu, Zai-Liang; Li, Jiu-Yu; Jiang, Jun; Xu, Ren-Kou

    2012-10-01

    Biochars were prepared from wastewater sludge from two wastewater treatment plants in Nanjing using a pyrolysis method at 300, 500 and 700 degrees C. The properties of the biochars were measured, and their amelioration effects on the acidity of a red soil and environmental risk of application of sludge biochars were examined to evaluate the possibility of agricultural application of wastewater sludge biochars in red soils. Results indicated that incorporation of both sludge and sludge biochar increased soil pH due to the alkalinity of sludge and sludge biochar, and the mineralization of organic N and nitrification of ammonium N from wastewater sludge induced soil pH fluctuated during incubation. The amelioration effects of biochars generated at 500 and 700 degrees C on the soil were significantly greater than that of sludge significantly. Sludge and sludge biochar contain ample base cations of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+ and thus incorporation of sludge and sludge biochar increased the contents of soil exchangeable base cations and decreased soil exchangeable aluminum and H+. Contents of heavy metals in sludge biochars were greater than these in their feedstock sludge, while the contents of Cu, Pb, Ni and As in sludge biochars were lower than the standard values of heavy metals were wastewater sludge for agricultural use in acid soils in China except for Zn and Cd. The contents of available forms of heavy metals in the biochars generated from sludge from Chengdong wastewater treatment plant was lower than these in the corresponding sludge, suggesting that pyrolysis proceed decreased the activity of heavy metals in wastewater sludge. After 90-day incubation of the soil with sludge and sludge biochar, the differences in the contents of soil available heavy metals were not significant between the biochars and their feedstock sludge from Jiangxizhou wastewater treatment plant, and the contents in the treatments with biochars added was lower than these in the treatments with

  8. Influence of phosphorus sources and rates on soil pH, extractable phosphorus, and DTPA-extractable micronutrients

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Showk, A.M.; Westerman, R.L.; Weeks, D.L.

    1987-07-01

    Two soils (McLain sicl-fine, mixed, thermic, Pachic Argiustoll and Quinlan cl-loamy, mixed, thermic, shallow Typic Ustocrept) that differed in micronutrient content and chemical characteristics were collected from western Oklahoma. Soils were passed through a 2-mm screen and placed in plastic Petri dishes, and five P levels (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg ha/sup -1/) were applied using monocalcium phosphate (MCP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and ammonium polyphosphate (APP); the soils were then mixed uniformly. Soils were moistened to approximately 0.33 MPa and incubated for 2 mo at room temperature. Application of P decreased soil pH in both soils, and MAP and APP had a greater effect than MCP, which was attributed to the nitrification of the added ammonium. Bray and Kurtz no. 1 P increased with P application in both soils. Monocalcium phosphate and MAP decreased DTPA-Fe, -Mn, and -Cu in McLain soil. However, high levels of P applied as APP increased DTPA-Fe, -Mn, and -Cu. Phosphorus application, regardless of source, had no effect on DTPA-Zn in McLain soil. Monocalcium phosphate and MAP decreased DTPA-Mn in the Quinlan soil; however; high levels of P applied as APP increased DTPA-Fe. Phosphorus application, regardless of source, had no effect on DTPA-Zn and -Cu in Quinlan soil.

  9. Algal and bacterial activities in acidic (pH 3) strip mine lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Gyure, R.A.; Konopka, A.; Brooks, A.; Doemel, W.

    1987-09-01

    Reservoir 29 and Lake B are extremely acid lakes (epilimnion pHs of 2.7 and 3.2, respectively), because they receive acidic discharges from coal refuse piles. They differ in that the pH of profundal sediments in Reservoir 29 increased from 2.7 to 3.8 during the period of thermal stratification, whereas permanently anoxic sediments in Lake B had a pH of 6.2. The pH rise in Reservoir 29 sediments was correlated with a temporal increase in H/sub 2/S concentration in the anaerobic hypolimnion from 0 to >1 mM. The chlorophyll a levels in the epilimnion of Reservoir 29 were low, and the rate of primary production was typical of an oligotrophic system. However, there was a dense 10-cm layer of algal biomass at the bottom of the metalimnion. Production by this layer was low owing to light limitation and possibly H/sub 2/S toxicity. The specific photosynthetic rates of epilimnetic algae were low, which suggests that nutrient availability is more important than pH in limiting production. The highest photosynthetic rates were obtained in water samples incubated at pH 2.7 to 4. Heterotrophic bacterial activity (measured by (/sup 14/C)glucose metabolism) was greatest at the sediment/water interface. Bacterial production (assayed by thymidine incorporation) was as high in Reservoir 29 as in a nonacid mesotrophic Indiana lake.

  10. Algal and Bacterial Activities in Acidic (pH 3) Strip Mine Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Gyure, Ruth A.; Konopka, Allan; Brooks, Austin; Doemel, William

    1987-01-01

    Reservoir 29 and Lake B are extremely acid lakes (epilimnion pHs of 2.7 and 3.2, respectively), because they receive acidic discharges from coal refuse piles. They differ in that the pH of profundal sediments in Reservoir 29 increased from 2.7 to 3.8 during the period of thermal stratification, whereas permanently anoxic sediments in Lake B had a pH of 6.2. The pH rise in Reservoir 29 sediments was correlated with a temporal increase in H2S concentration in the anaerobic hypolimnion from 0 to >1 mM. The chlorophyll a levels in the epilimnion of Reservoir 29 were low, and the rate of primary production was typical of an oligotrophic system. However, there was a dense 10-cm layer of algal biomass at the bottom of the metalimnion. Production by this layer was low owing to light limitation and possibly H2S toxicity. The specific photosynthetic rates of epilimnetic algae were low, which suggests that nutrient availability is more important than pH in limiting production. The highest photosynthetic rates were obtained in water samples incubated at pH 2.7 to 4. Heterotrophic bacterial activity (measured by [14C]glucose metabolism) was greatest at the sediment/water interface. Bacterial production (assayed by thymidine incorporation) was as high in Reservoir 29 as in a nonacid mesotrophic Indiana lake. PMID:16347430

  11. Comparison of classic with novel in situ extraction of soil amino acids from grassland soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Williams, D. G.

    2012-12-01

    Characterization of organic and inorganic soil nitrogen availability is important for determining ecosystem response to global change, as nitrogen limitation is often a major constraint on ecosystem productivity. Classic methods of soil nitrogen extraction involve field collection of soil samples and disturbance of soil aggregates during processing. A novel method of soil amino acid extraction is described that allows the collection of semi-sterile soil water extracts in situ with minimal disturbance to soils. Comparison of samples collected using this novel method to samples collected in parallel using classic methods developed by Brookes et al. 1985 and Kielland 1994 revealed different detectable amino acid N pools relative to ammonium. Glutamate and arginine comprised the highest amino acid N pools from extracts collected from a semiarid grassland site using this new method of extraction. In contrast, samples collected and extracted using the classic method contained higher relative levels of serine, glycine and glutamate. The amounts of dominant amino acids relative to ammonium were significantly greater using the classic method compared to the new method. These observed higher ratios of amino acids to ammonium are likely the result of additional amino acid inputs by lysis of microorganisms which are not removed when filtering in the classic method. Disturbance associated with classic methods of soil N determination may have led to alterations in the quantity and distribution of ammonium and amino acids in extracts. Minimizing disturbance of soil aggregates when sampling nitrogen pools and selection of an appropriate filter for collecting free amino acids may be important for accurately determining nitrogen availability to plant roots and soil microbes.

  12. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study.

  13. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study. PMID:27835687

  14. The gamma dose assessment and pH correlation for various soil types at Batu Pahat and Kluang districts, Johor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johar, Saffuwan Mohamed; Embong, Zaidi; Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of absorbed dose and radiation hazard index as well as its relationship with soil pH was performed in this study. The area was chosen due to its variety of soil types from the Alluvial and the Sedentary group. The radioactivity concentration levels and the soil acidity were measured using the Canberra GC3518 high pure germanium with a relative efficiency of 35% at 1.3 MeV and the Takemura Soil pH and Moisture Tester (DM15), respectively. Overall results show the Holyrood-Lunas soil of Alluvial group recorded the highest external terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate (TGRD) of 286.4±37.9 nGy h-1 and radioactivity concentrations of 78.1±8.9 Bq kg-1 (226Ra), 410.5±55.4 Bq kg-1 (232Th) and 56.4±8.8 Bq kg-1 (40K), respectively, while the Peat soil of Alluvial group recorded the lowest TGRD of 4.4±2.7 nGy h-1 and radioactivity concentrations of 4.8±1.7 Bq kg-1 (226Ra), 3.1±1.1 Bq kg-1 (232Th) and 6.1±2.0 Bq kg-1 (40K), respectively. The estimated mean outdoor annual effective dose, the mean radium equivalent activity (Req) and the mean external (Hext) and internal hazard index (Hint) associated with the alluvial and sedentary soil group were evaluated at 0.15 and 0.20 mSv, 280 and 364 Bq kg-1, Hext = 0.78 and 1.01, and Hint = 0.93 and 1.26, respectively. Correlation analysis between 238U, 232Th and 40K with soil pH level for alluvial group was r = +0.68, +0.48 and 0, respectively, while for sedentary soil, the Pearson's, r = -0.30, -0.90 and +0.14, respectively.

  15. The gamma dose assessment and pH correlation for various soil types at Batu Pahat and Kluang districts, Johor, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Johar, Saffuwan Mohamed; Embong, Zaidi; Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad

    2016-01-22

    An assessment of absorbed dose and radiation hazard index as well as its relationship with soil pH was performed in this study. The area was chosen due to its variety of soil types from the Alluvial and the Sedentary group. The radioactivity concentration levels and the soil acidity were measured using the Canberra GC3518 high pure germanium with a relative efficiency of 35% at 1.3 MeV and the Takemura Soil pH and Moisture Tester (DM15), respectively. Overall results show the Holyrood-Lunas soil of Alluvial group recorded the highest external terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate (TGRD) of 286.4±37.9 nGy h{sup −1} and radioactivity concentrations of 78.1±8.9 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 226}Ra), 410.5±55.4 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 232}Th) and 56.4±8.8 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 40}K), respectively, while the Peat soil of Alluvial group recorded the lowest TGRD of 4.4±2.7 nGy h{sup −1} and radioactivity concentrations of 4.8±1.7 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 226}Ra), 3.1±1.1 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 232}Th) and 6.1±2.0 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 40}K), respectively. The estimated mean outdoor annual effective dose, the mean radium equivalent activity (R{sub eq}) and the mean external (H{sub ext}) and internal hazard index (H{sub int}) associated with the alluvial and sedentary soil group were evaluated at 0.15 and 0.20 mSv, 280 and 364 Bq kg{sup −1}, H{sub ext} = 0.78 and 1.01, and H{sub int} = 0.93 and 1.26, respectively. Correlation analysis between 238U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K with soil pH level for alluvial group was r = +0.68, +0.48 and 0, respectively, while for sedentary soil, the Pearson’s, r = −0.30, −0.90 and +0.14, respectively.

  16. The influence of soil pH and humus content on received by Mehlich 3 method nutrients analysis results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonutare, Tonu; Krebstein, Kadri; Rodima, Ako; Kõlli, Raimo; Künnapas, Allan; Rebane, Jaanus; Penu, Priit; Vennik, Kersti; Soobik, Liina

    2015-04-01

    Soils provide vital ecosystem functions, playing an important role in our economy and in healthy living environment. However, soils are increasingly degrading in Europe and at the global level. Knowledge about the content of major plant available nutrients, i.e. calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus, plays an important role in the sustainable soil management. Mobility of nutrients depends directly on the environmental conditions, two of the most important factors are the pH and organic matter content. Therefore it is essential to have correct information about the content and behaviour of the above named elements in soil, both from the environmental and agronomical viewpoint. During the last decades several extracting solutions which are suitable for the evaluation of nutrient status of soils have been developed for this purpose. One of them is called Mehlich 3 which is widely used in USA, Canada and some European countries (e.g. Estonia, Czech Republic) because of its suitability to extract several major plant nutrients from the soil simultaneously. There are several different instrumental methods used for the analysis of nutrient elements in the soil extract. Potassium, magnesium and calcium are widely analysed by the AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopic) method or by the ICP (inductively coupled plasma) spectroscopic methods. Molecular spectroscopy and ICP spectroscopy were used for the phosphorus determination. In 2011 a new multielemental instrumental method MP-AES (microwave plasma atomic emission spectroscopy) was added to them. Due to its lower detection limits and multielemental character, compared with AAS, and lower exploitation costs, compared with ICP, the MP-AES has a good potential to achieve a leading position in soil nutrient analysis in the future. The objective of this study was to investigate: (i) the impact of soil pH and humus content and (ii) applicability of MP-AES instrumental method for the determination of soil nutrients extracted

  17. Composts with and without wood ash admixture for the management of tropical acid soils: chemical, physical and microbiological effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougnom, B. P.; Insam, H.; Etoa, F. X.

    2009-04-01

    Acid soils generally found in the tropics have a low pH, are poor in organic matter, deficient in Ca2+, Mg+, P, or Mo ; limited in mineralization, nitrification, nodulation, and mycorrhizal infection , suffer from Al or Mn toxicity. Within the framework aiming at using organic wastes and wood ash to overcome soil infertility in tropical acidic soils, a green house experiment was conducted with two acid soils collected from Cameroon (Ferralsol and Acrisol) and amended with three types of compost 3:1(W/W) containing 0 (K0), 8(K8) and 16% (K16) wood ash admixture respectively for two consecutive cycles of 100 days, during which soybean (Glycine max) was grown on the first, the second cycle was left as fallow. Generally the same trends of variation of the physico-chemical parameters were observed in both soils. Addition of organic wastes increased the pH electrical conductivity, soil organic matter, water holding capacity, total Carbone and total nitrogen as compared to the controls. The rate of nitrification highly increased posing the problem of possible leaching of nitrates in the ground water. The cations and micronutrients content followed the same trends. These changes leaded to an increase of the P availability and a decrease of Al toxicity. At the end of the second cycle, generally most of the different parameters slightly decreased except for the electrical conductivity. All composts passed a toxicity test, and the amended soils had significant better fresh and dried plant biomass, the Total nitrogen also significantly increased. Amended soils with K0 generally performed better than those amended with K8 and K16, thinking that their pH (closer to the neutrality) was responsible of these performances, all the parameters were significantly correlated to the pH. K8 and K16 performances could be performed by reducing the added quantities. The study of PCR-DGGE have shown a shift in the fungal and bacterial communities, Ammonia oxidizing bacteria community were

  18. Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid using a donnan potential model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marinsky, J.A.; Mathuthu, A.; Ephraim, J.H.; Reddy, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid (Armadale Bh Horizon) was evaluated over a range of calcium ion concentrations, from pH 3.8 to 7.3, using potentiometric titrations and calcium ion electrode measurements. Fulvic acid concentration was constant (100 milligrams per liter) and calcium ion concentration varied up to 8 X 10-4 moles per liter. Experiments discussed here included: (1) titrations of fulvic acid-calcium ion containing solutions with sodium hydroxide; and (2) titrations of fully neutralized fulvic acid with calcium chloride solutions. Apparent binding constants (expressed as the logarithm of the value, log ??app) vary with solution pH, calcium ion concentration, degree of acid dissociation, and ionic strength (from log ??app = 2.5 to 3.9) and are similar to those reported by others. Fulvic acid charge, and the associated Donnan Potential, influences calcium ion-fulvic acid ion pair formation. A Donnan Potential corrrection term allowed calculation of intrinsic calcium ion-fulvic acid binding constants. Intrinsic binding constants vary from 1.2 to 2.5 (the average value is about log??= 1.6) and are similar to, but somewhat higher than, stability constants for calcium ion-carboxylic acid monodentate complexes. ?? by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Mu??nchen.

  19. Effectiveness of amendments on re-acidification and heavy metal immobilization in an extremely acidic mine soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, S X; Li, J T; Yang, B; Liao, B; Zhang, J T; Shu, W S

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that the application of soil amendments is efficient in reducing acidity and heavy metal bioavailability in mine soils. However, it remains a challenge for environmentalists to predict accurately and control economically the re-acidification in re-vegetated mine soils. In this study, net acid generation (NAG) test and bioassay technique were employed to assess the effectiveness of the amendments [including lime, N-P-K (nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium) fertilizer, phosphate and river sediment] on re-acidification and heavy metal immobilization in an extremely acid (pH < 3) mine soil. Our results suggested that NAG test was a rapid and accurate approach to assess the effectiveness of the amendments on re-acidification potential of the mine soil. Interestingly, it was found that phosphate and river sediment played quite specific roles in preventing the re-acidification in the mine soil. In addition, the results also indicated that the addition of 25 t ha(-1) lime combined with river sediment (30%) might be an economical method to successfully control the acidification and re-acidification in the extremely acid mine soil, allowing the re-establishment of the plants. Collectively, our results implied that the combined use of NAG test and bioassay assessment was effective in evaluating a reclamation strategy for extremely acidic mine soils.

  20. Anoxic Biodegradation of Isosaccharinic Acids at Alkaline pH by Natural Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Simon P.; Charles, Christopher J.; Doulgeris, Charalampos; McCarthy, Alan J.; Rooks, Dave J.; Loughnane, J. Paul; Laws, Andrew P.; Humphreys, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    One design concept for the long-term management of the UK’s intermediate level radioactive wastes (ILW) is disposal to a cementitious geological disposal facility (GDF). Under the alkaline (10.0<pH>13.0) anoxic conditions expected within a GDF, cellulosic wastes will undergo chemical hydrolysis. The resulting cellulose degradation products (CDP) are dominated by α- and β-isosaccharinic acids (ISA), which present an organic carbon source that may enable subsequent microbial colonisation of a GDF. Microcosms established from neutral, near-surface sediments demonstrated complete ISA degradation under methanogenic conditions up to pH 10.0. Degradation decreased as pH increased, with β-ISA fermentation more heavily influenced than α-ISA. This reduction in degradation rate was accompanied by a shift in microbial population away from organisms related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides to a more diverse Clostridial community. The increase in pH to 10.0 saw an increase in detection of Alcaligenes aquatilis and a dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens within the Archaeal population. Methane was generated up to pH 10.0 with acetate accumulation at higher pH values reflecting a reduced detection of acetoclastic methanogens. An increase in pH to 11.0 resulted in the accumulation of ISA, the absence of methanogenesis and the loss of biomass from the system. This study is the first to demonstrate methanogenesis from ISA by near surface microbial communities not previously exposed to these compounds up to and including pH 10.0. PMID:26367005

  1. Sorption of vanadium (V) onto natural soil colloids under various solution pH and ionic strength conditions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiuhua; Yu, Lin; Wang, Changzhao; Yin, Xianqiang; Mosa, Ahmed; Lv, Jialong; Sun, Huimin

    2017-02-01

    Batch sorption kinetics and isothermal characteristics of V(V) were investigated on three natural soil colloids (manual loessial soil colloid (MSC), aeolian sandy soil colloid (ASC), and cultivated loessial soil colloid (CSC)) under various solution pH and ionic strength (IS) conditions. Colloids were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). AFM micrographs showed CSC with an aggregated shape with larger particle diameter as compared with ASC and MSC. XRD spectra revealed the presence of different minerals in natural soil colloids including biotite, kaolinite, calcite and quartz, which might contribute to sorption process. The sorption ability decreased with increase of colloidal particle size. The sorption was mainly attributed to complexation by active carboxylate and alcohol groups of colloidal components. Sorption kinetics and isotherms of V(V) onto natural soil colloids were best fitted with Pseudo-second-order and Freundlich models. Langmuir model indicated that sorption capacity of MSC and ASC was comparable (285.7 and 238.1 mg g(-1)); however, CSC exhibited the lowest sorption capacity (41.5 mg g(-1)) due to its larger particle diameter and aggregated shape. The maximum V(V) sorption capacity reached plateau values at a solution pH ranged between 5.0 and 9.0 for MSC and ASC, and 6.0-8.0 for CSC. Sorption capacity of V(V) onto natural soil colloids decreased with increasing IS. Based on result of this study we can conclude that sorption of V(V) onto natural soil colloids is pH- and IS-dependent. These findings provide insights on the remediation of vanadium-contaminated soils.

  2. Effects of Soil pH on the Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos and Isolation of a Chlorpyrifos-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brajesh K.; Walker, Allan; Morgan, J. Alun W.; Wright, Denis J.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the role of microorganisms in the degradation of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in soils from the United Kingdom and Australia. The kinetics of degradation in five United Kingdom soils varying in pH from 4.7 to 8.4 suggested that dissipation of chlorpyrifos was mediated by the cometabolic activities of the soil microorganisms. Repeated application of chlorpyrifos to these soils did not result in the development of a microbial population with an enhanced ability to degrade the pesticide. A robust bacterial population that utilized chlorpyrifos as a source of carbon was detected in an Australian soil. The enhanced ability to degrade chlorpyrifos in the Australian soil was successfully transferred to the five United Kingdom soils. Only soils with a pH of ≥6.7 were able to maintain this degrading ability 90 days after inoculation. Transfer and proliferation of degrading microorganisms from the Australian soil to the United Kingdom soils was monitored by molecular fingerprinting of bacterial 16S rRNA genes by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Two bands were found to be associated with enhanced degradation of chlorpyrifos. Band 1 had sequence similarity to enterics and their relatives, while band 2 had sequence similarity to strains of Pseudomonas. Liquid enrichment culture using the Australian soil as the source of the inoculum led to the isolation of a chlorpyrifos-degrading bacterium. This strain had a 16S rRNA gene with a sequence identical to that of band 1 in the DGGE profile of the Australian soil. DNA probing indicated that genes similar to known organophosphate-degrading (opd) genes were present in the United Kingdom soils. However, no DNA hybridization signal was detected for the Australian soil or the isolated degrader. This indicates that unrelated genes were present in both the Australian soil and the chlorpyrifos-degrading isolate. These results are consistent with our observations that degradation of

  3. Sorption, desorption, and speciation of Cd, Ni, and Fe by four calcareous soils as affected by pH.

    PubMed

    Tahervand, Samaneh; Jalali, Mohsen

    2016-06-01

    The sorption, desorption, and speciation of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and iron (Fe) in four calcareous soils were investigated at the pH range of 2-9. The results indicated that sorption of Fe by four soils was higher than 80 % at pH 2, while in the case of Cd and Ni was less than 30 %. The most common sequence of metal sorption at pH 2-9 for four soils was in the order of Fe ≫ Ni > Cd. Cadmium and Ni sorption as a function of pH showed the predictable trend of increasing metal sorption with increase in equilibrium pH, while the Fe sorption trend was different and characterized by three phases. With regard to the order of Cd, Ni, and Fe sorption on soils, Cd and Ni showed high affinity for organic matter (OM), whereas Fe had high tendency for calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Results of metal desorption using 0.01 M NaCl demonstrated that metal sorption on soils containing high amounts of CaCO3 was less reversible in comparison to soils containing high OM. In general, Cd and Ni desorption curves were characterized by three phases; (1) the greatest desorption at pH 2, (2) the low desorption at pH 3-7, and (3) the least desorption at pH > 7. The MINTEQ speciation solubility program showed that the percentage of free metals declined markedly with increase of pH, while the percentage of carbonate and hydroxyl species increased. Furthermore, MINTEQ predicted that saturation index (SI) of metals increased with increasing pH.

  4. Soil Bacteria Take Up D-Amino Acids, Protect Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H. J.; Zhang, G.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, many groups reported D-amino acid uptake by plant roots, raising the question of whether soil D-amino acids represent a source of nitrogen or a source of toxicity. The discussion needs to be placed in the context of competition with rhizosphere bacteria. To provide this context, we followed the concentrations of D- and L-enantiomers of alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and leucine after they were added to soils in the laboratory. In all cases, the uptake of L-enantiomer began immediately and proceeded rapidly until exhausted. In contrast, the uptake of D-enantiomer required induction: an initial period of inactivity followed by rapid consumption comparable in rate to L-enantiomer. The induced nature of the D activity was confirmed by the addition of rifampicin, an mRNA synthesis inhibitor. Preventing the synthesis of new enzymes abolished soil flora's ability to consume D-amino acids, but not L-amino acids. These results suggest that inducible special racemase enzymes, which can convert D-amino acids back to their native L-forms, are widespread among soil microorganisms. This finding does not rule out the possibility that some plants may out-compete microorganisms and be able to access D-amino acids. It does suggest, however, that rhizosphere bacteria can shield plants from the toxic effect of D-amino acids.

  5. Microenvironmental pH measurement during sodium naproxenate dissolution in acidic medium by UV/vis imaging.

    PubMed

    Ostergaard, Jesper; Jensen, Henrik; Larsen, Susan W; Larsen, Claus; Lenke, Jim

    2014-11-01

    Variable dissolution from sodium salts of drugs containing a carboxylic acid group after passing the acidic environment of the stomach may affect oral bioavailability. The aim of the present proof of concept study was to investigate pH effects in relation to the dissolution of sodium naproxenate in 0.01M hydrochloric acid. For this purpose a UV/vis imaging-based approach capable of measuring microenvironmental pH in the vicinity of the solid drug compact as well as monitoring drug dissolution was developed. Using a pH indicating dye real-time spatially resolved measurement of pH was achieved. Sodium naproxenate, can significantly alter the local pH of the dissolution medium, is eventually neutralized and precipitates as the acidic species naproxen. The developed approach is considered useful for detailed studies of pH dependent dissolution phenomena in dissolution testing.

  6. Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments.

  7. Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

  8. pH : a key control of the nature and distribution of dissolved organic matter and associated trace metals in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pédrot, M.; Dia, A.; Davranche, M.

    2009-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter is ubiquitous at the Earth's surface and plays a prominent role in controlling metal speciation and mobility from soils to hydrosystems. Humic substances (HS) are usually considered to be the most reactive fraction of organic matter. Humic substances are relatively small and formed by chemically diverse organic molecules, bearing different functional groups that act as binding sites for cations and mineral surfaces. Among the different environmental physicochemical parameters controlling the metal speciation, pH is likely to be the most important one. Indeed, pH affect the dissociation of functional groups, and thus can influence the HS structure, their ability to complex metals, their solubility degree allowing the formation of aggregates at the mineral surface. In this context, soil/water interactions conducted through batch system experiments, were carried out with a wetland organic-rich soil to investigate the effect of pH on the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated trace elements. The pH was regulated between 4 and 7.5 using an automatic pH stat titrator. Ultrafiltration experiments were performed to separate the dissolved organic pool following decreasing pore sizes (30 kDa, 5 kDa and 2 kDa with 1 Da = 1 g.mol-1). The pH increase induced a significant DOC release, especially in heavy organic molecules (size >5 kDa) with a high aromaticity (>30 %). These were probably humic acids (HA). This HA release influenced (i) directly the trace element concentrations in soil solution since HA were enriched in several trace elements such as Th, REE, Y, U, Cr and Cu; and (ii) indirectly by the breaking of clay-humic complexes releasing Fe- and Al-rich nanoparticles associated with V, Pb and Ti. By contrast, at acid pH, most HS were complexed onto mineral surfaces. They also sequestered iron nanoparticles. Therefore, at low pH, most part of DOC molecules had a size < 5 kDa and lower aromaticity. Thus, the DOC was mostly composed

  9. Reactive transport controls on sandy acid sulfate soils and impacts on shallow groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, S. Ursula; Rate, Andrew W.; Rengel, Zed; Appleyard, Steven; Prommer, Henning; Hinz, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Disturbance or drainage of potential acid sulfate soils (PASS) can result in the release of acidity and degradation of infrastructure, water resources, and the environment. Soil processes affecting shallow groundwater quality have been investigated using a numerical code that integrates (bio)geochemical processes with water, solute, and gas transport. The patterns of severe and persistent acidification (pH < 4) in the sandy, carbonate-depleted podzols of a coastal plain could be reproduced without calibration, based on oxidation of microcrystalline pyrite after groundwater level decrease and/or residual groundwater acidity, due to slow vertical solute transport rates. The rate of acidification was limited by gas phase diffusion of oxygen and hence was sensitive to soil water retention properties and in some cases also to oxygen consumption by organic matter mineralization. Despite diffusion limitation, the rate of oxidation in sandy soils was rapid once pyrite-bearing horizons were exposed, even to a depth of 7.5 m. Groundwater level movement was thus identified as an important control on acidification, as well as the initial pyrite content. Increase in the rate of Fe(II) oxidation lead to slightly lower pH and greater accumulation of Fe(III) phases, but had little effect on the overall amount of pyrite oxidized. Aluminosilicate (kaolinite) dissolution had a small pH-buffering effect but lead to the release of Al and associated acidity. Simulated dewatering scenarios highlighted the potential of the model for risk assessment of (bio)geochemical impacts on soil and groundwater over a range of temporal and spatial scales.

  10. Robust analysis of underivatized free amino acids in soil by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiajia; Helmus, Rick; Cerli, Chiara; Jansen, Boris; Wang, Xiang; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2016-06-03

    Amino acids are an important and highly dynamic fraction of organic N in soils and their determination in soil without derivatization is challenging due to the difficulties in separation and detection of trace amounts of these polar analytes. In the present work, we developed an analytical method to quantify 20 free amino acids in aqueous soil extracts without derivatization. The method employed hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) technique combined with a cation exchange solid phase extraction (SPE). Four stable isotope labelled amino acids were used as internal standards to improve the method performance. Good separation of 20 underivatized amino acids was achieved within 12min. The limit of detection (LODs) and limit of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 13-384ngg(-1) and 43-1267ngg(-1) (dry soil basis), respectively. The results showed that overall recoveries with high precision were obtained for the extracted free amino acids from ten different soils. The overall recoveries of 18 amino acids were similar for the ten soils used, which differed substantially in organic C content and in other properties as soil texture and pH. For most of the amino acids, the average recoveries from soil extracts were between 74% and 117%, with the exception of Met (31%), Pro (52%) and Arg (68%). Variability was within acceptable limits (relative standard deviations were between 4% and 13%), with the exception of Met (relative standard deviation=90%) and Arg (relative standard deviation=53%). Thus the proposed method with high throughout and high analyte specificity shows great promise for consistent analysis of free amino acids extracted from soils and offers new horizons for the analysis of amino acids in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem.

  11. Monomeric banana lectin at acidic pH overrules conformational stability of its native dimeric form.

    PubMed

    Khan, Javed M; Qadeer, Atiyatul; Ahmad, Ejaz; Ashraf, Raghib; Bhushan, Bharat; Chaturvedi, Sumit K; Rabbani, Gulam; Khan, Rizwan H

    2013-01-01

    Banana lectin (BL) is a homodimeric protein categorized among jacalin-related family of lectins. The effect of acidic pH was examined on conformational stability of BL by using circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence, 1-anilino-8-napthalene sulfonate (ANS) binding, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). During acid denaturation of BL, the monomerization of native dimeric protein was found at pH 2.0. The elution profile from SEC showed two different peaks (59.65 ml & 87.98 ml) at pH 2.0 while single peak (61.45 ml) at pH 7.4. The hydrodynamic radii (R h) of native BL was 2.9 nm while at pH 2.0 two species were found with R h of 1.7 and 3.7 nm. Furthermore at, pH 2.0 the secondary structures of BL remained unaltered while tertiary structure was significantly disrupted with the exposure of hydrophobic clusters confirming the existence of molten globule like state. The unfolding of BL with different subunit status was further evaluated by urea and temperature mediated denaturation to check their stability. As inferred from high Cm and ΔG values, the monomeric form of BL offers more resistance towards chemical denaturation than the native dimeric form. Besides, dimeric BL exhibited a Tm of 77°C while no loss in secondary structures was observed in monomers even up to 95°C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on monomeric subunit of lectins showing more stability against denaturants than its native dimeric state.

  12. Active Ammonia Oxidizers in an Acidic Soil Are Phylogenetically Closely Related to Neutrophilic Archaeon

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baozhan; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Xue; Wang, Dongmei; He, Yuanqiu

    2014-01-01

    All cultivated ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) within the Nitrososphaera cluster (former soil group 1.1b) are neutrophilic. Molecular surveys also indicate the existence of Nitrososphaera-like phylotypes in acidic soil, but their ecological roles are poorly understood. In this study, we present molecular evidence for the chemolithoautotrophic growth of Nitrososphaera-like AOA in an acidic soil with pH 4.92 using DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP). Soil microcosm incubations demonstrated that nitrification was stimulated by urea fertilization and accompanied by a significant increase in the abundance of AOA rather than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Real-time PCR analysis of amoA genes as a function of the buoyant density of the DNA gradient following the ultracentrifugation of the total DNA extracted from SIP microcosms indicated a substantial growth of soil AOA during nitrification. Pyrosequencing of the total 16S rRNA genes in the “heavy” DNA fractions suggested that archaeal communities were labeled to a much greater extent than soil AOB. Acetylene inhibition further showed that 13CO2 assimilation by nitrifying communities depended solely on ammonia oxidation activity, suggesting a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle. Phylogenetic analysis of both 13C-labeled amoA and 16S rRNA genes revealed that most of the active AOA were phylogenetically closely related to the neutrophilic strains Nitrososphaera viennensis EN76 and JG1 within the Nitrososphaera cluster. Our results provide strong evidence for the adaptive growth of Nitrososphaera-like AOA in acidic soil, suggesting a greater metabolic versatility of soil AOA than previously appreciated. PMID:24375137

  13. Arsenic removal from contaminated soil using phosphoric acid and phosphate.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Min; Liao, Bohan; Lei, Ming; Zhang, Yong; Zeng, Qingru; Ouyang, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory batch experiments were conducted to study arsenic (As) removal from a naturally contaminated soil using phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4). Both H3PO4 and KH2PO4 proved to reduce toxicity of the soil in terms of soil As content, attaining more than 20% As removal at a concentration of 200 mmol/L. At the same time, acidification of soil and dissolution of soil components (Ca, Mg, and Si) resulted from using these two extractants, especially H3PO4. The effectiveness of these two extractants could be attributed to the replacement of As by phosphate ions (PO4(3-)). The function of H3PO4 as an acid to dissolve soil components had little effects on As removal. KH2PO4 almost removed as much As as H3PO4, but it did not result in serious damage to soils, indicating that it was a more promising extractant. The results of a kinetic study showed that As removal reached equilibrium after incubation for 360 min, but dissolution of soil components, especially Mg and Ca, was very rapid. Therefore dissolution of soil components would be inevitable if As was further removed. Elovich model best described the kinetic data of As removal among the four models used in the kinetic study.

  14. Acidic pH increases airway surface liquid viscosity in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiao Xiao; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Hoegger, Mark J.; Moninger, Thomas O.; Karp, Philip H.; McMenimen, James D.; Choudhury, Biswa; Varki, Ajit; Stoltz, David A.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) disrupts respiratory host defenses, allowing bacterial infection, inflammation, and mucus accumulation to progressively destroy the lungs. Our previous studies revealed that mucus with abnormal behavior impaired mucociliary transport in newborn CF piglets prior to the onset of secondary manifestations. To further investigate mucus abnormalities, here we studied airway surface liquid (ASL) collected from newborn piglets and ASL on cultured airway epithelia. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that the viscosity of CF ASL was increased relative to that of non-CF ASL. CF ASL had a reduced pH, which was necessary and sufficient for genotype-dependent viscosity differences. The increased viscosity of CF ASL was not explained by pH-independent changes in HCO3– concentration, altered glycosylation, additional pH-induced disulfide bond formation, increased percentage of nonvolatile material, or increased sulfation. Treating acidic ASL with hypertonic saline or heparin largely reversed the increased viscosity, suggesting that acidic pH influences mucin electrostatic interactions. These findings link loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator–dependent alkalinization to abnormal CF ASL. In addition, we found that increasing Ca2+ concentrations elevated ASL viscosity, in part, independently of pH. The results suggest that increasing pH, reducing Ca2+ concentration, and/or altering electrostatic interactions in ASL might benefit early CF. PMID:26808501

  15. Acidic pH increases airway surface liquid viscosity in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao Xiao; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Hoegger, Mark J; Moninger, Thomas O; Karp, Philip H; McMenimen, James D; Choudhury, Biswa; Varki, Ajit; Stoltz, David A; Welsh, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) disrupts respiratory host defenses, allowing bacterial infection, inflammation, and mucus accumulation to progressively destroy the lungs. Our previous studies revealed that mucus with abnormal behavior impaired mucociliary transport in newborn CF piglets prior to the onset of secondary manifestations. To further investigate mucus abnormalities, here we studied airway surface liquid (ASL) collected from newborn piglets and ASL on cultured airway epithelia. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that the viscosity of CF ASL was increased relative to that of non-CF ASL. CF ASL had a reduced pH, which was necessary and sufficient for genotype-dependent viscosity differences. The increased viscosity of CF ASL was not explained by pH-independent changes in HCO3- concentration, altered glycosylation, additional pH-induced disulfide bond formation, increased percentage of nonvolatile material, or increased sulfation. Treating acidic ASL with hypertonic saline or heparin largely reversed the increased viscosity, suggesting that acidic pH influences mucin electrostatic interactions. These findings link loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-dependent alkalinization to abnormal CF ASL. In addition, we found that increasing Ca2+ concentrations elevated ASL viscosity, in part, independently of pH. The results suggest that increasing pH, reducing Ca2+ concentration, and/or altering electrostatic interactions in ASL might benefit early CF.

  16. A partly folded state of acidic fibroblast growth factor at low pH.

    PubMed

    Sanz, J M; Giménez-Gallego, G

    1997-06-01

    Acid denaturation of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) at low ionic strength was monitored by far-ultraviolet circular dichroism and intrinsic fluorescence. The two spectroscopic probes displayed non-coincident transitions, which suggested the accumulation of partly folded species around pH 4.0. Although under these conditions the fluorescence of aFGF resembled that of the unfolded form of the protein, far-ultraviolet circular dichroism and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra indicated the presence of persistent secondary and tertiary structure. Moreover, at pH 4.0, aFGF showed cooperative thermal denaturation and interacted weakly with the hydrophobic probe N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine, showing a relatively high level of structure that did not fit into the classical molten globule category. This intermediate is also capable of interacting with liposomes and might represent a membrane translocation-competent form.

  17. A laboratory evaluation of the sorption of oil sands naphthenic acids on organic rich soils.

    PubMed

    Janfada, Arash; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Barbour, S L

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of oil sands tailings pond water (OSTPW)-derived naphthenic acids on soils was determined using a batch partitioning method. The adsorption isotherms were found to be linear in all cases. All tests were conducted at 4 degrees C, and at a pH of 8.0 +/- 0.4, which reflects the pH of a tailings settling facility near Fort McMurray, AB. The adsorption characteristics of the naphthenic acids in a synthetic groundwater (SGW) solution was compared to that of the mixture in Milli-Q water. In the presence of SGW, the adsorption coefficient (K(d)) of the mixture of naphthenic acids on soil 1 with a higher organic carbon fraction (f(oc)) was an order of magnitude higher than that observed with the same soil and the Milli-Q water mixture, increasing from 1.9 +/- 0.2 (mL/g) to 17.8 +/- 1.5 (mL/g). The adsorption coefficient of the mixture of naphthenic acids on soil 2, with a lower f(oc), was also observably higher in the SGW mixture, increasing from 1.3 +/- 0.15 (mL/g) to 3.7 +/- 0.2 (mL/g). The relative fractional abundance of the individual naphthenic acids was plotted in order to determine the presence of preferential sorption between individual species within the mixture. It was found that for all Z families (where Z is a measure of the number of rings), naphthenic acids within the carbon number range of 13 to 17 showed preferential sorption. The mixture in SGW showed more pronounced sorption relative to naphthenic acid mixture in Milli-Q water. The results indicate that mixtures of naphthenic acids sorb strongly to soils and that adsorption would be an important attenuating mechanism in groundwater transport. Furthermore, preferential sorption of the individual naphthenic acids is important from a toxicity stand point since different naphthenic acid species have varying degrees of toxicity.

  18. Impacts of Steel-Slag-Based Silicate Fertilizer on Soil Acidity and Silicon Availability and Metals-Immobilization in a Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Dongfeng; Liang, Yongchao; Liu, Zhandong; Xiao, Junfu; Duan, Aiwang

    2016-01-01

    Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. Our results show that application of slag at a rate above higher or equal to 1 600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil increased soil pH, dry weight of rice straw and grain, plant-available Si concentration and Si concentration in rice shoots compared with the control treatment. No significant accumulation of total cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) was noted in soil; rather, the exchangeable fraction of Cd significantly decreased. The cadmium concentrations in rice grains decreased significantly compared with the control treatment. In conclusion, application of steel slag reduced soil acidity, increased plant–availability of silicon, promoted rice growth and inhibited Cd transport to rice grain in the soil-plant system. PMID:27973585

  19. Impacts of Steel-Slag-Based Silicate Fertilizer on Soil Acidity and Silicon Availability and Metals-Immobilization in a Paddy Soil.

    PubMed

    Ning, Dongfeng; Liang, Yongchao; Liu, Zhandong; Xiao, Junfu; Duan, Aiwang

    2016-01-01

    Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. Our results show that application of slag at a rate above higher or equal to 1 600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil increased soil pH, dry weight of rice straw and grain, plant-available Si concentration and Si concentration in rice shoots compared with the control treatment. No significant accumulation of total cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) was noted in soil; rather, the exchangeable fraction of Cd significantly decreased. The cadmium concentrations in rice grains decreased significantly compared with the control treatment. In conclusion, application of steel slag reduced soil acidity, increased plant-availability of silicon, promoted rice growth and inhibited Cd transport to rice grain in the soil-plant system.

  20. What can legacy datasets tell us about soil quality trends? Soil acidity in Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, B. P.; Crawford, D. M.; Robinson, N. J.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose-built soil monitoring networks have been established in many countries to identify where soil functionality is threatened and to target remediation initiatives. An alternative to purpose-built soil monitoring networks is to use legacy soils information. Such information yields almost instant assessments of soil change but the results should be interpreted with caution since the information was not collected with monitoring in mind. We assess the threat of soil acidification in Victoria using two legacy datasets: (i) the Victorian Soils Information System (VSIS) which is a repository of the results of soil analyses conducted for scientific purposes since the 1950s and (ii) a database of 75 000 routine soil test results requested by farmers between 1973 and 1993. We find that the VSIS measurements are clustered in space and time and are therefore suitable for local rather than broad-scale assessments of soil change. The farmers’ results have better spatial and temporal coverage and space-time models can be used to quantify the spatial and temporal trends in the pH measurements. However, careful validation of these findings is required since we do not completely understand how the measured paddocks were selected and we cannot be certain that sampling or laboratory protocols have not changed with time.