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Sample records for acidic tumor microenvironment

  1. Acidity generated by the tumor microenvironment drives local invasion.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Veronica; Chen, Tingan; Lloyd, Mark; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan; Cornnell, Heather H; Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Bailey, Kate; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Rothberg, Jennifer M; Sloane, Bonnie F; Johnson, Joseph; Gatenby, Robert A; Gillies, Robert J

    2013-03-01

    The pH of solid tumors is acidic due to increased fermentative metabolism and poor perfusion. It has been hypothesized that acid pH promotes local invasive growth and metastasis. The hypothesis that acid mediates invasion proposes that H(+) diffuses from the proximal tumor microenvironment into adjacent normal tissues where it causes tissue remodeling that permits local invasion. In the current work, tumor invasion and peritumoral pH were monitored over time using intravital microscopy. In every case, the peritumoral pH was acidic and heterogeneous and the regions of highest tumor invasion corresponded to areas of lowest pH. Tumor invasion did not occur into regions with normal or near-normal extracellular pH. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that cells in the invasive edges expressed the glucose transporter-1 and the sodium-hydrogen exchanger-1, both of which were associated with peritumoral acidosis. In support of the functional importance of our findings, oral administration of sodium bicarbonate was sufficient to increase peritumoral pH and inhibit tumor growth and local invasion in a preclinical model, supporting the acid-mediated invasion hypothesis. Cancer Res; 73(5); 1524-35. ©2012 AACR. PMID:23288510

  2. Tumor microenvironment and nanotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Upreti, Meenakshi; Jyoti, Amar; Sethi, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies delineate a predominant role for the tumor microenvironment in tumor growth and progression. Improved knowledge of cancer biology and investigation of the complex functional interrelation between the cellular and noncellular compartments of the tumor microenvironment have provided an ideal platform for the evolution of novel cancer nanotherapies. In addition, multifunctional “smart” nanoparticles carrying imaging agents and delivering multiple drugs targeted preferentially to the tumor/tumor microenvironment will lead to early diagnosis and better treatment for patients with cancer. The emerging knowledge of the tumor microenvironment has enabled rational designing of nanoparticles for combinatorial treatment strategies that include radiotherapy, antiangiogenesis and chemotherapy. This multimodality approach is thus expected to achieve therapeutic efficacy and enhance the quality of life of cancer patients. This review highlights the unique characteristics of the tumor microenvironment that are exploited by nanotechnology to develop novel drug delivery systems aimed to target the tumor/tumor microenvironment. PMID:24634853

  3. Imaging the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    LeBleu, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a complex, heterogeneous, and dominant component of solid tumors. Cancer imaging strategies of a subset of characteristics of the tumor microenvironment are under active development and currently used modalities and novel approaches are summarized here. Understanding the dynamic and evolving functions of the tumor microenvironment is critical to accurately inform imaging and clinical care of cancer. Novel insights into distinct roles of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression urge careful interpretation of imaging data and impel the development of novel modalities. PMID:26049696

  4. Acidic tumor microenvironment and pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Justus, Calvin R; Dong, Lixue; Yang, Li V

    2013-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is acidic due to glycolytic cancer cell metabolism, hypoxia, and deficient blood perfusion. It is proposed that acidosis in the tumor microenvironment is an important stress factor and selection force for cancer cell somatic evolution. Acidic pH has pleiotropic effects on the proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis, and therapeutic response of cancer cells and the function of immune cells, vascular cells, and other stromal cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which cancer cells and stromal cells sense and respond to acidic pH in the tumor microenvironment are poorly understood. In this article the role of a family of pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in tumor biology is reviewed. Recent studies show that the pH-sensing GPCRs, including GPR4, GPR65 (TDAG8), GPR68 (OGR1), and GPR132 (G2A), regulate cancer cell metastasis and proliferation, immune cell function, inflammation, and blood vessel formation. Activation of the proton-sensing GPCRs by acidosis transduces multiple downstream G protein signaling pathways. Since GPCRs are major drug targets, small molecule modulators of the pH-sensing GPCRs are being actively developed and evaluated. Research on the pH-sensing GPCRs will continue to provide important insights into the molecular interaction between tumor and its acidic microenvironment and may identify new targets for cancer therapy and chemoprevention. PMID:24367336

  5. Acidic tumor microenvironment and pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Justus, Calvin R.; Dong, Lixue; Yang, Li V.

    2013-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is acidic due to glycolytic cancer cell metabolism, hypoxia, and deficient blood perfusion. It is proposed that acidosis in the tumor microenvironment is an important stress factor and selection force for cancer cell somatic evolution. Acidic pH has pleiotropic effects on the proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis, and therapeutic response of cancer cells and the function of immune cells, vascular cells, and other stromal cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which cancer cells and stromal cells sense and respond to acidic pH in the tumor microenvironment are poorly understood. In this article the role of a family of pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in tumor biology is reviewed. Recent studies show that the pH-sensing GPCRs, including GPR4, GPR65 (TDAG8), GPR68 (OGR1), and GPR132 (G2A), regulate cancer cell metastasis and proliferation, immune cell function, inflammation, and blood vessel formation. Activation of the proton-sensing GPCRs by acidosis transduces multiple downstream G protein signaling pathways. Since GPCRs are major drug targets, small molecule modulators of the pH-sensing GPCRs are being actively developed and evaluated. Research on the pH-sensing GPCRs will continue to provide important insights into the molecular interaction between tumor and its acidic microenvironment and may identify new targets for cancer therapy and chemoprevention. PMID:24367336

  6. Tumor microenvironment indoctrination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nastiness of cancer does not only reside in the corruption of cancer cells by genetic aberrations that drive their sustained proliferative power—the roots of malignancy—but also in its aptitude to reciprocally sculpt its surrounding environment and cellular stromal ecosystem, in such a way that the corrupted tumor microenvironment becomes a full pro-tumorigenic entity. Such a contribution had been appreciated three decades ago already, with the discovery of tumor angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Nevertheless, the recent emergence of the tumor microenvironment as the critical determinant in cancer biology is paralleled by the promising therapeutic potential it carries, opening alternate routes to fight cancer. The study of the tumor microenvironment recruited numerous lead-scientists over the years, with distinct perspectives, and some of them have kindly accepted to contribute to the elaboration of this special issue entitled Tumor microenvironment indoctrination: An emerging hallmark of cancer. PMID:22863738

  7. Chronic autophagy is a cellular adaptation to tumor acidic pH microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; Rothberg, Jennifer M; Kumar, Virendra; Schramm, Karla J; Haller, Edward; Proemsey, Joshua B; Lloyd, Mark C; Sloane, Bonnie F; Gillies, Robert J

    2012-08-15

    Tumor cell survival relies upon adaptation to the acidic conditions of the tumor microenvironment. To investigate potential acidosis survival mechanisms, we examined the effect of low pH (6.7) on human breast carcinoma cells. Acute low pH exposure reduced proliferation rate, induced a G1 cell cycle arrest, and increased cytoplasmic vacuolization. Gene expression analysis revealed elevated levels of ATG5 and BNIP3 in acid-conditioned cells, suggesting cells exposed to low pH may utilize autophagy as a survival mechanism. In support of this hypothesis, we found that acute low pH stimulated autophagy as defined by an increase in LC3-positive punctate vesicles, double-membrane vacuoles, and decreased phosphorylation of AKT and ribosomal protein S6. Notably, cells exposed to low pH for approximately 3 months restored their proliferative capacity while maintaining the cytoplasmic vacuolated phenotype. Although autophagy is typically transient, elevated autophagy markers were maintained chronically in low pH conditioned cells as visualized by increased protein expression of LC3-II and double-membrane vacuoles. Furthermore, these cells exhibited elevated sensitivity to PI3K-class III inhibition by 3-methyladenine. In mouse tumors, LC3 expression was reduced by systemic treatment with sodium bicarbonate, which raises intratumoral pH. Taken together, these results argue that acidic conditions in the tumor microenvironment promote autophagy, and that chronic autophagy occurs as a survival adaptation in this setting. PMID:22719070

  8. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Bournazou, Eirini; Bromberg, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Persistent JAK-STAT3 signaling is implicated in many aspects of tumorigenesis. Apart from its tumor-intrinsic effects, STAT3 also exerts tumor-extrinsic effects, supporting tumor survival and metastasis. These involve the regulation of paracrine cytokine signaling, alterations in metastatic sites rendering these permissive for the growth of cancer cells and subversion of host immune responses to create an immunosuppressive environment. Targeting this signaling pathway is considered a novel promising therapeutic approach, especially in the context of tumor immunity. In this article, we will review to what extent JAK-STAT3-targeted therapies affect the tumor microenvironment and whether the observed effects underlie responsiveness to therapy. PMID:24058812

  9. Smart Superstructures with Ultrahigh pH-Sensitivity for Targeting Acidic Tumor Microenvironment: Instantaneous Size Switching and Improved Tumor Penetration.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Jun; Du, Jin-Zhi; Liu, Jing; Du, Xiao-Jiao; Shen, Song; Zhu, Yan-Hua; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ye, Xiaodong; Nie, Shuming; Wang, Jun

    2016-07-26

    The currently low delivery efficiency and limited tumor penetration of nanoparticles remain two major challenges of cancer nanomedicine. Here, we report a class of pH-responsive nanoparticle superstructures with ultrasensitive size switching in the acidic tumor microenvironment for improved tumor penetration and effective in vivo drug delivery. The superstructures were constructed from amphiphilic polymer directed assembly of platinum-prodrug conjugated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers, in which the amphiphilic polymer contains ionizable tertiary amine groups for rapid pH-responsiveness. These superstructures had an initial size of ∼80 nm at neutral pH (e.g., in blood circulation), but once deposited in the slightly acidic tumor microenvironment (pH ∼6.5-7.0), they underwent a dramatic and sharp size transition within a very narrow range of acidity (less than 0.1-0.2 pH units) and dissociated instantaneously into the dendrimer building blocks (less than 10 nm in diameter). This rapid size-switching feature not only can facilitate nanoparticle extravasation and accumulation via the enhanced permeability and retention effect but also allows faster nanoparticle diffusion and more efficient tumor penetration. We have further carried out comparative studies of pH-sensitive and insensitive nanostructures with similar size, surface charge, and chemical composition in both multicellular spheroids and poorly permeable BxPC-3 pancreatic tumor models, whose results demonstrate that the pH-triggered size switching is a viable strategy for improving drug penetration and therapeutic efficacy. PMID:27244096

  10. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  11. Caged [(18)F]FDG Glycosylamines for Imaging Acidic Tumor Microenvironments Using Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Flavell, Robert R; Truillet, Charles; Regan, Melanie K; Ganguly, Tanushree; Blecha, Joseph E; Kurhanewicz, John; VanBrocklin, Henry F; Keshari, Kayvan R; Chang, Christopher J; Evans, Michael J; Wilson, David M

    2016-01-20

    Solid tumors are hypoxic with altered metabolism, resulting in secretion of acids into the extracellular matrix and lower relative pH, a feature associated with local invasion and metastasis. Therapeutic and diagnostic agents responsive to this microenvironment may improve tumor-specific delivery. Therefore, we pursued a general strategy whereby caged small-molecule drugs or imaging agents liberate their parent compounds in regions of low interstitial pH. In this manuscript, we present a new acid-labile prodrug method based on the glycosylamine linkage, and its application to a class of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging tracers, termed [(18)F]FDG amines. [(18)F]FDG amines operate via a proposed two-step mechanism, in which an acid-labile precursor decomposes to form the common radiotracer 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose, which is subsequently accumulated by glucose avid cells. The rate of decomposition of [(18)F]FDG amines is tunable in a systematic fashion, tracking the pKa of the parent amine. In vivo, a 4-phenylbenzylamine [(18)F]FDG amine congener showed greater relative accumulation in tumors over benign tissue, which could be attenuated upon tumor alkalinization using previously validated models, including sodium bicarbonate treatment, or overexpression of carbonic anhydrase. This new class of PET tracer represents a viable approach for imaging acidic interstitial pH with potential for clinical translation. PMID:26649808

  12. Metabolic exchanges within tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Chiarugi, Paola; Cirri, Paolo

    2016-09-28

    Tumor progression toward malignancy often requires a metabolic rewiring of cancer cells to meet changes in metabolic demand to forefront nutrient and oxygen withdrawal, together with strong anabolic requests to match high proliferation rate. Tumor microenvironment highly contributes to metabolic rewiring of cancer cells, fostering complete nutrient exploitation, favoring OXPHOS of lipids and glutamine at the expense of glycolysis and enhancing exchanges via extracellular microvesicles or exosomes of proteins, lipids and small RNAs among tumor and stromal cells. Noteworthy, the same molecular drivers of metabolic reprogramming within tumor and stroma are also able to elicit motility, survival and self-renewal on cancer cells, thereby sustaining successful escaping strategies to circumvent the hostile hypoxic, acidic and inflammatory environment. This review highlights the emerging role of nutrients and vesicle-mediated exchanges among tumor and stromal cells, defining their molecular pathways and offering new perspectives to develop treatments targeting this complex metabolic rewiring. PMID:26546872

  13. Tumor microenvironment promotes dicarboxylic acid carrier-mediated transport of succinate to fuel prostate cancer mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Zhunussova, Aigul; Sen, Bhaswati; Friedman, Leah; Tuleukhanov, Sultan; Brooks, Ari D; Sensenig, Richard; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer cells reprogram their metabolism, so that they support their elevated oxidative phosphorylation and promote a cancer friendly microenvironment. This work aimed to explore the mechanisms that cancer cells employ for fueling themselves with energy rich metabolites available in interstitial fluids. The mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation in metastatic prostate cancer DU145 cells and normal prostate epithelial PrEC cells were studied by high-resolution respirometry. An important finding was that prostate cancer cells at acidic pH 6.8 are capable of consuming exogenous succinate, while physiological pH 7.4 was not favorable for this process. Using specific inhibitors, it was demonstrated that succinate is transported in cancer cells by the mechanism of plasma membrane Na+-dependent dycarboxylic acid transporter NaDC3 (SLC13A3 gene). Although the level of expression of SLC13A3 was not significantly altered when maintaining cells in the medium with lower pH, the respirometric activity of cells under acidic condition was elevated in the presence of succinate. In contrast, normal prostate cells while expressing NaDC3 mRNA do not produce NaDC3 protein. The mechanism of succinate influx via NaDC3 in metastatic prostate cancer cells could yield a novel target for anti-cancer therapy and has the potential to be used for imaging-based diagnostics to detect non-glycolytic tumors. PMID:26175936

  14. pH Titratable Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide for Improved Nanoparticle Accumulation in Acidic Tumor Microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Crayton, Samuel H.; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of nanoparticle platforms are being developed for the diagnosis and treatment of malignancy. While many of these are passively targeted or rely on receptor-ligand interactions, metabolically directed nanoparticles provide a complementary approach. It is known that both primary and secondary events in tumorigensis alter the metabolic profile of developing and metastatic cancers. One highly conserved metabolic phenotype is a state of up-regulated glycolysis and reduced use of oxidative phosphorylation, even when oxygen tension is not limiting. This metabolic shift, termed the Warburg effect, creates a “hostile” tumor microenvironment with increased levels of lactic acid and low extracellular pH. In order to exploit this phenomenon and improve the delivery of nanoparticle platforms to a wide variety of tumors, a pH-responsive iron oxide nanoparticle was designed. Specifically, glycol chitosan (GC), a water-soluble polymer with pH titratable charge, was conjugated to the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) to generate a T2*-weighted MR contrast agent that responds to alterations in its surrounding pH. Compared to control nanoparticles that lack pH sensitivity, these GC-SPIO nanoparticles demonstrated potent pH-dependent cellular association and MR contrast in vitro. In murine tumor models GC-SPIO also generated robust T2*-weighted contrast, which correlated with increased delivery of the agent to the tumor site, measured quantitatively by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Importantly, the increased delivery of GC-SPIO nanoparticles cannot be solely attributed to the commonly observed enhanced permeability and retention effect, since these nanoparticles have similar physical properties and blood circulation times as control agents. PMID:22035454

  15. Chemopreventive agents targeting tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sharada H; Thulasingam, Senthilkumar; Nagarajan, Sangeetha

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have shown that tumor development and progression depend not only on the perturbed genes that govern cell proliferation, but is also highly determined by the non-tumor cells of the stromal compartment surrounding the tumor called tumor microenvironment (TME). These findings highlight the importance of targeting the microenvironment in combination with therapies aimed at tumor cells as a valuable approach. The innate and adaptive immune cells in the TME interact among themselves and also with the endothelial cells, pericytes and mast cells of the stromal compartment through various autocrine and paracrine manner to regulate abnormal cell proliferation. Direct cytotoxic killing of cancer cells and/or reversion of the immunosuppressive TME are to be considered as better strategies for chemoprevention and chemotherapy. With a growing emphasis on a "hallmark targeting" strategy for cancer therapy, the TME now appears as a promising target for cancer prevention using natural products. Clarification on the nontumor stromal cells, the mediators involved, interactions with immune response cells, and immune-evasive mechanisms are needed in order to manipulate the characteristics of the TME by natural pharmacological agents to design effective therapies. This review will provide a glimpse on the roles played by various non-tumor cells in tumor progression and their intervention by pharmacological agents. PMID:26679106

  16. Acidic extracellular microenvironment and cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Acidic extracellular pH is a major feature of tumor tissue, extracellular acidification being primarily considered to be due to lactate secretion from anaerobic glycolysis. Clinicopathological evidence shows that transporters and pumps contribute to H+ secretion, such as the Na+/H+ exchanger, the H+-lactate co-transporter, monocarboxylate transporters, and the proton pump (H+-ATPase); these may also be associated with tumor metastasis. An acidic extracellular pH not only activates secreted lysosomal enzymes that have an optimal pH in the acidic range, but induces the expression of certain genes of pro-metastatic factors through an intracellular signaling cascade that is different from hypoxia. In addition to lactate, CO2 from the pentose phosphate pathway is an alternative source of acidity, showing that hypoxia and extracellular acidity are, while being independent from each other, deeply associated with the cellular microenvironment. In this article, the importance of an acidic extracellular pH as a microenvironmental factor participating in tumor progression is reviewed. PMID:24004445

  17. Tumor microenvironment: Sanctuary of the devil.

    PubMed

    Hui, Lanlan; Chen, Ye

    2015-11-01

    Tumor cells constantly interact with the surrounding microenvironment. Increasing evidence indicates that targeting the tumor microenvironment could complement traditional treatment and improve therapeutic outcomes for these malignancies. In this paper, we review new insights into the tumor microenvironment, and summarize selected examples of the cross-talk between tumor cells and their microenvironment, which have enhanced our understanding of pathophysiology of the microenvironment. We believe that this rapidly moving field promises many more to come, and they will guide the rational design of combinational therapies for success in cancer eradication. PMID:26276713

  18. Commensal bacteria modulate the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Poutahidis, Theofilos; Erdman, Susan E

    2016-09-28

    It has been recently shown that gut microbes modulate whole host immune and hormonal factors impacting the fate of distant preneoplastic lesions toward malignancy or regression. This raises the possibility that the tumor microenvironment interacts with broader systemic microbial-immune networks. These accumulated findings suggest novel therapeutic opportunities for holobiont engineering in emerging tumor microenvironments. PMID:26739062

  19. Metastasis Suppressors and the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Leah M.; Hurst, Douglas R.; Welch, Danny R.

    2011-01-01

    The most lethal and debilitating attribute of cancer cells is their ability to metastasize. Throughout the process of metastasis, tumor cells interact with other tumor cells, host cells and a variety of molecules. Tumor cells are also faced with a number of insults, such as hemodynamic sheer pressure and immune selection. This brief review explores how metastasis suppressor proteins regulate interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironments in which tumor cells find themselves. PMID:21168504

  20. Interaction of tumor cells with the microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in tumor biology have revealed that a detailed analysis of the complex interactions of tumor cells with their adjacent microenvironment (tumor stroma) is mandatory in order to understand the various mechanisms involved in tumor growth and the development of metastasis. The mutual interactions between tumor cells and cellular and non-cellular components (extracellular matrix = ECM) of the tumor microenvironment will eventually lead to a loss of tissue homeostasis and promote tumor development and progression. Thus, interactions of genetically altered tumor cells and the ECM on the one hand and reactive non-neoplastic cells on the other hand essentially control most aspects of tumorigenesis such as epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), migration, invasion (i.e. migration through connective tissue), metastasis formation, neovascularisation, apoptosis and chemotherapeutic drug resistance. In this mini-review we will focus on these issues that were recently raised by two review articles in CCS. PMID:21914164

  1. Tumor microenvironment-specific nanoparticles activatable by stepwise transformation.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hyewon; Son, Soyoung; Jeon, Jueun; Thambi, Thavasyappan; Kwon, Seunglee; Chae, Yee Soo; Kang, Young Mo; Park, Jae Hyung

    2016-07-28

    In an attempt to develop the tumor-targeted nanocarrier which can surmount major challenges for in vivo application, we prepared tumor microenvironment-specific nanoparticles which can be sequentially activated at the extracellular and intracellular levels of tumor tissue by stepwise transformation. This polymeric nanoparticle has been prepared using an amphiphilic polyethyleneimine derivative with the pH-responsive charge-convertible moiety and the reduction-responsive crosslink. Once reaching the tumor tissue in vivo after systemic administration, the surface charge of this nanoparticle can be converted from negative to positive by recognizing the mildly acidic extracellular matrix of tumor, allowing for the enhanced cellular uptake. After the cellular uptake, the nanoparticle can selectively release the drug at the intracellular level since it has the chemically crosslinked core by the disulfide bond which is cleaved in intracellular reductive environment. The tumor microenvironment-specific nanoparticle shows the high tumor targetability and dramatically improves the antitumor efficacy of the drug. PMID:27164544

  2. Spatial Heterogeneity in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yinyin

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in studies of tumor heterogeneity have provoked new thoughts on cancer management. There is a desperate need to understand influence of the tumor microenvironment on cancer development and evolution. Applying principles and quantitative methods from ecology can suggest novel solutions to fulfil this need. We discuss spatial heterogeneity as a fundamental biological feature of the microenvironment, which has been largely ignored. Histological samples can provide spatial context of diverse cell types coexisting within the microenvironment. Advanced computer-vision techniques have been developed for spatial mapping of cells in histological samples. This has enabled the applications of experimental and analytical tools from ecology to cancer research, generating system-level knowledge of microenvironmental spatial heterogeneity. We focus on studies of immune infiltrate and tumor resource distribution, and highlight statistical approaches for addressing the emerging challenges based on these new approaches. PMID:27481837

  3. Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Neutrophils in Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaehong; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Distinct tumor microenvironment forms in each progression step of cancer and has diverse capacities to induce both adverse and beneficial consequences for tumorigenesis. It is now known that immune cells can be activated to favor tumor growth and progression, most probably influenced by the tumor microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils can exert protumoral functions, enhancing tumor cell invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling, while inhibiting the antitumoral immune surveillance. Considering that neutrophils in inflammatory environments recruit macrophages and that recruited macrophages affect neutrophil functions, there may be various degrees of interaction between tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. Platelets also play an important role in the recruitment and regulation of monocytic and granulocytic cells in the tumor tissues, suggesting that platelet function may be essential for generation of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. In this review, we will explore the biology of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils and their possible interactions in the tumor microenvironment. Special attention will be given to the recruitment and activation of these tumor-associated cells and to the roles they play in maintenance of the tumor microenvironment and progression of tumors. PMID:26966341

  4. Monitoring immune responses in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Wargo, Jennifer A; Reddy, Sangeetha M; Reuben, Alexandre; Sharma, Padmanee

    2016-08-01

    Immune monitoring in the tumor microenvironment allows for important insights into immune mechanisms of response and resistance to various cancer treatments; however clinical challenges exist using current strategies. Significant questions remain regarding monitoring of archival versus fresh tissue, assessment of static versus dynamic markers, evaluation of limited tissue samples, and the translation of insights gained from immunologically 'hot' tumors such as melanoma to other 'cold' tumor microenvironments prevalent in other cancer types. Current and emerging immune monitoring strategies will be examined herein, and genomic-based assays complementing these techniques will also be discussed. Finally, host genomic and external environmental factors influencing anti-tumor immune responses will be considered, including the role of the gut microbiome. Though optimal immune monitoring techniques are in evolution, great promise exists in recent advances that will help guide patient selection as far as type, sequence, and combination of therapeutic regimens to enhance anti-tumor immunity and clinical responses. PMID:27240055

  5. Digitally deconvolving the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Aran, Dvir; Butte, Atul J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding a tumor's complex cellular heterogeneity will be crucial for the development of better treatment strategies. A new study suggests a novel method for the in silico dissociation of solid tumors and presents novel insights that have implications for immunotherapy in cancer.Please see the related Research article: www.dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-016-1028-7 . PMID:27549319

  6. Analyzing the Tumor Microenvironment by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Young, Yoon Kow; Bolt, Alicia M; Ahn, Ryuhjin; Mann, Koren K

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry is an essential tool for studying the tumor microenvironment. It allows us to quickly quantify and identify multiple cell types in a heterogeneous sample. A brief overview of flow cytometry instrumentation and the appropriate considerations and steps in building a good flow cytometry staining panel are discussed. In addition, a lymphoid tissue and solid tumor leukocyte infiltrate flow cytometry staining protocol and an example of flow cytometry data analysis are presented. PMID:27581017

  7. Improving drug delivery to solid tumors: priming the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Khawar, Iftikhar Ali; Kim, Jung Ho; Kuh, Hyo-Jeong

    2015-03-10

    Malignant transformation and growth of the tumor mass tend to induce changes in the surrounding microenvironment. Abnormality of the tumor microenvironment provides a driving force leading not only to tumor progression, including invasion and metastasis, but also to acquisition of drug resistance, including pharmacokinetic (drug delivery-related) and pharmacodynamic (sensitivity-related) resistance. Drug delivery systems exploiting the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and active targeting moieties were expected to be able to cope with delivery-related drug resistance. However, recent evidence supports a considerable barrier role of tumors via various mechanisms, which results in imperfect or inefficient EPR and/or targeting effect. The components of the tumor microenvironment such as abnormal tumor vascular system, deregulated composition of the extracellular matrix, and interstitial hypertension (elevated interstitial fluid pressure) collectively or cooperatively hinder the drug distribution, which is prerequisite to the efficacy of nanoparticles and small-molecule drugs used in cancer medicine. Hence, the abnormal tumor microenvironment has recently been suggested to be a promising target for the improvement of drug delivery to improve therapeutic efficacy. Strategies to modulate the abnormal tumor microenvironment, referred to here as "solid tumor priming" (vascular normalization and/or solid stress alleviation leading to improvement in blood perfusion and convective molecular movement), have shown promising results in the enhancement of drug delivery and anticancer efficacy. These strategies may provide a novel avenue for the development of new chemotherapeutics and combination chemotherapeutic regimens as well as reassessment of previously ineffective agents. PMID:25526702

  8. Exosomic microRNAs in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Neviani, Paolo; Fabbri, Muller

    2015-01-01

    Dissecting the crosstalk between tumor cells and tumor microenvironment is quickly becoming the new frontier in cancer research. It is now widely accepted that cancer cells can exert a profound influence over their surroundings, by changing the microenvironment from a normal to a tumor-supportive state that allows for sustained tumor growth, invasion, and drug resistance. Extracellular vesicles, especially exosomes, are recognized as a new category of intercellular communicator, and they are emerging as of primary importance in controlling the interplay between the tumor and its environment. Exosomes derived from cancer cells or from cells of the tumor microenvironment allow for the horizontal transfer of information by virtue of their cargo, made of functional proteins and nucleic acids that are specifically sorted and loaded in exosomes during their biogenesis. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge regarding the role invested by microRNAs, a family of short non-coding RNAs frequently deregulated in malignancies and present in exosomes, in shaping the microenvironment in a cancer-dependent manner. PMID:26258125

  9. Effects of laser immunotherapy on tumor microenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaviva, Joseph T.; Wood, Ethan W.; Hasanjee, Aamr; Chen, Wei R.; Vaughan, Melville B.

    2014-02-01

    The microenvironments of tumors are involved in a complex and reciprocal dialog with surrounding cancer cells. Any novel treatment must consider the impact of the therapy on the microenvironment. Recently, clinical trials with laser immunotherapy (LIT) have proven to effectively treat patients with late-stage, metastatic breast cancer and melanoma. LIT is the synergistic combination of phototherapy (laser irradiation) and immunological stimulation. One prominent cell type found in the tumor stroma is the fibroblast. Fibroblast cells can secrete different growth factors and extracellular matrix modifying molecules. Furthermore, fibroblast cells found in the tumor stroma often express alpha smooth muscle actin. These particular fibroblasts are coined cancer-associated fibroblast cells (CAFs). CAFs are known to facilitate the malignant progression of tumors. A collagen lattice assay with human fibroblast cells is used to elucidate the effects LIT has on the microenvironment of tumors. Changes in the contraction of the lattice, the differentiation of the fibroblast cells, as well as the proliferation of the fibroblast cells will be determined.

  10. Probing the tumor microenvironment: collection and induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James K.; Padgen, Michael R.; Wang, Yarong; Entenberg, David; Gertler, Frank; Condeelis, John S.; Castracane, James

    2012-03-01

    The Nano Intravital Device, or NANIVID, is under development as an optically transparent, implantable tool to study the tumor microenvironment. Two etched glass substrates are sealed using a thin polymer membrane to create a reservoir with a single outlet. This reservoir is loaded with a hydrogel blend that contains growth factors or other chemicals to be delivered to the tumor microenvironment. When the device is implanted in the tumor, the hydrogel will swell and release these entrapped molecules, forming a gradient. Validation of the device has been performed in vitro using epidermal growth factor (EGF) and MenaINV, a highly invasive, rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell line. In both 2-D and 3-D environments, cells migrated toward the gradient of EGF released from the device. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of White Leghorn chicken eggs is being utilized to grow xenograft tumors that will be used for ex vivo cell collection. Device optimization is being performed for in vivo use as a tool to collect the invasive cell population. Preliminary cell collection experiments in vivo were performed using a mouse model of breast cancer. As a second application, the device is being explored as a delivery vehicle for chemicals that induce controlled changes in the tumor microenvironment. H2O2 was loaded in the device and generated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells near the device outlet. In the future, other induction targets will be explored, including hypoglycemia and the manipulation of extracellular matrix stiffness.

  11. Molecular imaging of tumor microenvironment: challenges and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, S; Zannetti, A; Iommelli, F; Lettieri, A; Brunetti, A; Salvatore, M

    2010-06-01

    Tumor microenvironment consists of a number of components including host resident stromal cells, infiltrating immune cells and extracellular matrix. The architecture surrounding tumor cells is not static but is subjected to a continuous remodeling in response to the dynamic interplay between tumor and stromal cells and to the production of extracellular proteases. In addition all these microenvironmental components along with cancer cells are exposed to abnormal physiologic conditions such as hypoxia and acidic extracellular pH that may induce both adaptive and constitutive changes in cancer and stromal cells. In this review, we will primarily focus on the possibility to visualize in vivo tumor microenvironment components and conditions as well as interactions with cancer cells. The major goal is to highlight the difficulties and the opportunities of this approach and how each imaging technology helps to overcome specific challenge. PMID:20639812

  12. Deregulation of PPARβ/δ target genes in tumor-associated macrophages by fatty acid ligands in the ovarian cancer microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Finkernagel, Florian; Lieber, Sonja; Schnitzer, Evelyn; Legrand, Nathalie; Schober, Yvonne; Nockher, W. Andreas; Toth, Philipp M.; Diederich, Wibke E.; Nist, Andrea; Stiewe, Thorsten; Wagner, Uwe; Reinartz, Silke; Müller-Brüsselbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) is a lipid ligand-inducible transcription factor associated with macrophage polarization. However, its function in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) has not been investigated to date. Here, we report the PPARβ/δ-regulated transcriptome and cistrome for TAMs from ovarian carcinoma patients. Comparison with monocyte-derived macrophages shows that the vast majority of direct PPARβ/δ target genes are upregulated in TAMs and largely refractory to synthetic agonists, but repressible by inverse agonists. Besides genes with metabolic functions, these include cell type-selective genes associated with immune regulation and tumor progression, e.g., LRP5, CD300A, MAP3K8 and ANGPTL4. This deregulation is not due to increased expression of PPARβ/δ or its enhanced recruitment to target genes. Instead, lipidomic analysis of malignancy-associated ascites revealed high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular linoleic acid, acting as potent PPARβ/δ agonists in macrophages. These fatty acid ligands accumulate in lipid droplets in TAMs, thereby providing a reservoir of PPARβ/δ ligands. These observations suggest that the deregulation of PPARβ/δ target genes by ligands of the tumor microenvironment contributes to the pro-tumorigenic polarization of ovarian carcinoma TAMs. This conclusion is supported by the association of high ANGPTL4 expression with a shorter relapse-free survival in serous ovarian carcinoma. PMID:25968567

  13. Stimuli-responsive nanoparticles for targeting the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Du, Jinzhi; Lane, Lucas A; Nie, Shuming

    2015-12-10

    One of the most challenging and clinically important goals in nanomedicine is to deliver imaging and therapeutic agents to solid tumors. Here we discuss the recent design and development of stimuli-responsive smart nanoparticles for targeting the common attributes of solid tumors such as their acidic and hypoxic microenvironments. This class of stimuli-responsive nanoparticles is inactive during blood circulation and under normal physiological conditions, but is activated by acidic pH, enzymatic up-regulation, or hypoxia once they extravasate into the tumor microenvironment. The nanoparticles are often designed to first "navigate" the body's vascular system, "dock" at the tumor sites, and then "activate" for action inside the tumor interstitial space. They combine the favorable biodistribution and pharmacokinetic properties of nanodelivery vehicles and the rapid diffusion and penetration properties of smaller drug cargos. By targeting the broad tumor habitats rather than tumor-specific receptors, this strategy has the potential to overcome the tumor heterogeneity problem and could be used to design diagnostic and therapeutic nanoparticles for a broad range of solid tumors. PMID:26341694

  14. Matrix Metalloproteinases: Regulators of the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kessenbrock, Kai; Plaks, Vicki; Werb, Zena

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular proteolysis mediates tissue homeostasis. In cancer, altered proteolysis leads to unregulated tumor growth, tissue remodeling, inflammation, tissue invasion, and metastasis. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) represent the most prominent family of proteinases associated with tumorigenesis. Recent technological developments have markedly advanced our understanding of MMPs as modulators of the tumor microenvironment. In addition to their role in extracellular matrix turnover and cancer cell migration, MMPs regulate signaling pathways that control cell growth, inflammation, or angiogenesis and may even work in a nonproteolytic manner. These aspects of MMP function are reorienting our approaches to cancer therapy. PMID:20371345

  15. Dysregulated pH in Tumor Microenvironment Checkmates Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Barar, Jaleh; Omidi, Yadollah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The dysregulation of pH by cancerous cells of solid tumors is able to create a unique milieu that is in favor of progression, invasion and metastasis as well as chemo-/immuno-resistance traits of solid tumors. Bioelements involved in pH dysregulation provide new set of oncotargets, inhibition of which may result in better clinical outcome. Methods: To study the impacts of pH dysregulation, we investigated the tumor development and progression in relation with Warburg effect, glycolysis and formation of aberrant tumor microenvironment. Results: The upregulation of glucose transporter GLUT-1 and several enzymes involve in glycolysis exacerbates this phenomenon. The accumulation of lactic acids in cancer cells provokes upregulation of several transport machineries (MCT-1, NHE-1, CA IX and H+ pump V-ATPase) resulting in reinforced efflux of proton into extracellular fluid. This deviant event makes pH to be settled at 7.4 and 6.6 respectively in cancer cells cytoplasm and extracellular fluid within the tumor microenvironment, which in return triggers secretion of lysosomal components (various enzymes in acidic milieu with pH 5) into cytoplasm. All these anomalous phenomena make tumor microenvironment (TME) to be exposed to cocktail of various enzymes with acidic pH, upon which extracellular matrix (ECM) can be remodeled and even deformed, resulting in emergence of a complex viscose TME with high interstitial fluid pressure. Conclusion: It seems that pH dysregulation is able to remodel various physiologic functions and make solid tumors to become much more invasive and metastatic. It also can cause undesired resistance to chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Hence, cancer therapy needs to be reinforced using specific inhibitors of bioelements involved in pH dysregulation of TME in solid tumors. PMID:24455478

  16. The Tumor Microenvironment in Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Peddareddigari, Vijay G.; Wang, Dingzhi

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Therapeutic developments in the past decade have extended life expectancy in patients with metastatic disease. However, metastatic colorectal cancers remain incurable. Numerous agents that were demonstrated to have significant antitumor activity in experimental models translated into disappointing results in extending patient survival. This has resulted in more attention being focused on the contribution of tumor microenvironment to the progression of a number of solid tumors including colorectal cancer. A more complete understanding of interactions between tumor epithelial cells and their stromal elements will enhance therapeutic options and improve clinical outcome. Here we will review the role of various stromal components in colorectal carcinogenesis and discuss the potential of targeting these components for the development of future therapeutic agents. PMID:21209781

  17. Targeting Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Acidic Microenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida; Roland, Christina L.; Deng, Defeng; Arumugam, Thiruvengadam; Moshnikova, Anna; Andreev, Oleg A.; Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Logsdon, Craig D.

    2014-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the USA, accounting for ~40,000 deaths annually. The dismal prognosis for PDAC is largely due to its late diagnosis. Currently, the most sensitive diagnosis of PDAC requires invasive procedures, such as endoscopic ultrasonography, which has inherent risks and accuracy that is highly operator dependent. Here we took advantage of a general characteristic of solid tumors, the acidic microenvironment that is generated as a by-product of metabolism, to develop a novel approach of using pH (Low) Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs) for imaging of PDAC. We show that fluorescently labeled pHLIPs can localize and specifically detect PDAC in human xenografts as well as PDAC and PanIN lesions in genetically engineered mouse models. This novel approach may improve detection, differential diagnosis and staging of PDAC.

  18. Tumor microenvironment and metabolism in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chiarugi, Paola; Paoli, Paolo; Cirri, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    Prostate cancer is no longer viewed mostly as a disease of abnormally proliferating epithelial cells, but rather as a disease affecting the complex interactions between the cells of the prostate epithelial compartment and the surrounding stromal compartment in which they live. Indeed, the microenvironment in which tumor cells evolve towards an aggressive phenotype is highly heterogeneous, as it is composed of different cell populations such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, and lymphocytes, either resident or trans-differentiated by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells recruited at the tumor site. Cancer-associated fibroblasts, the most abundant population within this microenvironment, exert a mandatory role in prostate cancer progression as they metabolically sustain cancer cell survival and growth, recruit inflammatory and immune cells, and promote cancer cells stemness and epithelial mesenchymal transition, thereby favoring metastatic dissemination of aggressive cancers. The interruption of this two-compartment crosstalk, together with the idea that stromal cells are mostly vulnerable, being drug-sensitive, could lead to the development of anticancer therapies that target tumor stromal elements. PMID:24787298

  19. Exploiting the tumor microenvironment for theranostic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Stasinopoulos, Ioannis; Penet, Marie-France; Chen, Zhihang; Kakkad, Samata; Glunde, Kristine; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

    2011-01-01

    The integration of chemistry and molecular biology with imaging is providing some of the most exciting opportunities in the treatment of cancer. The field of theranostic imaging, where diagnosis is combined with therapy, is particularly suitable for a disease as complex as cancer, especially now that genomic and proteomic profiling can provide an extensive `fingerprint' of each tumor. Using this information, theranostic agents can be shaped for personalized treatment to target specific compartments, such as the tumor microenvironment (TME), whilst minimizing damage to normal tissue. These theranostic agents can also be used to target multiple pathways or networks by incorporating multiple small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) within a single agent. A decade ago genetic alterations were the primary focus in cancer research. Now it is apparent that the tumor physiological microenvironment, interactions between cancer cells and stromal cells, such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts and macrophages, the extracellular matrix (ECM), and a host of secreted factors and cytokines, influence progression to metastatic disease, aggressiveness and the response of the disease to treatment. In this review, we outline some of the characteristics of the TME, describe the theranostic agents currently available to target the TME and discuss the unique opportunities the TME provides for the design of novel theranostic agents for cancer therapy. PMID:21793072

  20. Recreating the tumor microenvironment in a bilayer, hyaluronic acid hydrogel construct for the growth of prostate cancer spheroids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xian; Gurski, Lisa A; Zhang, Chu; Harrington, Daniel A; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Jia, Xinqiao

    2012-12-01

    Cancer cells cultured in physiologically relevant, three-dimensional (3D) matrices can recapture many essential features of native tumor tissues. In this study, a hyaluronic acid (HA)-based bilayer hydrogel system that not only supports the tumoroid formation from LNCaP prostate cancer (PCa) cells, but also simulates their reciprocal interactions with the tumor-associated stroma was developed and characterized. HA hydrogels were prepared by mixing solutions of HA precursors functionalized with acrylate groups (HA-AC) and reactive thiols (HA-SH) under physiological conditions. The resultant viscoelastic gels have an average elastic modulus of 234 ± 30 Pa and can be degraded readily by hyaluronidase. The orthogonal and cytocompatible nature of the crosslinking chemistry permits facile incorporation of cytokine-releasing particles and PCa cells. In our bilayer hydrogel construct, the top layer contains heparin (HP)-decorated, HA-based hydrogel particles (HGPs) capable of releasing heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in a sustained manner at a rate of 2.5 wt%/day cumulatively. LNCaP cells embedded in the bottom layer receive the growth factor signals from the top, and in response form enlarging tumoroids with an average diameter of 85 μm by day 7. Cells in 3D hydrogels assemble into spherical tumoroids, form close cellular contacts through E-cadherin, and show cortical organization of F-actin, whereas those plated as 2D monolayers adopt a spread-out morphology. Compared to cells cultured on 2D, the engineered tumoroids significantly increased the expression of two pro-angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF(165)) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), both at mRNA and protein levels. Overall, the HA model system provides a useful platform for the study of tumor cell responses to growth factors and for screening of anticancer drugs targeting these pathways. PMID:22999468

  1. Recreating the Tumor Microenvironment in a Bilayer, Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel Construct for the Growth of Prostate Cancer Spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xian; Gurski, Lisa A.; Zhang, Chu; Harrington, Daniel A.; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells cultured in physiologically relevant, three-dimensional (3D) matrices can recapture many essential features of native tumor tissues. In this study, a hyaluronic acid (HA)-based bilayer hydrogel system that not only supports the tumoroid formation from LNCaP prostate cancer (PCa) cells, but also simulates their reciprocal interactions with the tumor-associated stroma was developed and characterized. HA hydrogels were prepared by mixing solutions of HA precursors functionalized with acrylate groups (HA-AC) and reactive thiols (HA-SH) under physiological conditions. The resultant viscoelastic gels have an average elastic modulus of 234 ± 30 Pa and can be degraded readily by hyaluronidase. The orthogonal and cytocompatible nature of the crosslinking chemistry permits facile incorporation of cytokine-releasing particles and PCa cells. In our bilayer hydrogel construct, the top layer contains heparin (HP)-decorated, HA-based hydrogel particles (HGPs) capable of releasing heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in a sustained manner at a rate of 2.5wt%/day cumulatively. LNCaP cells embedded in the bottom layer receive the growth factor signals from the top, and in response form enlarging tumoroids with an average diameter of 85 μm by day 7. Cells in 3D hydrogels assemble into spherical tumoroids, form close cellular contacts through E-cadherin, and show cortical organization of F-actin, whereas those plated as 2D monolayers adopt a spread-out morphology. Compared to cells cultured on 2D, the engineered tumoroids significantly increased the expression of two pro-angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF165) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), both at mRNA and protein levels. Overall, the HA model system provides a useful platform for the study of tumor cell responses to growth factors and for screening of anticancer drugs targeting these pathways. PMID:22999468

  2. Targeting the Metabolic Microenvironment of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Kate M.; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W.; Hashim, Arig Ibrahim; Gillies, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The observation of aerobic glycolysis by tumor cells in 1924 by Otto Warburg, and subsequent innovation of imaging glucose uptake by tumors in patients with PET-CT has incited a renewed interest in the altered metabolism of tumors. As tumors grow in situ, a fraction of it is further away from their blood supply, leading to decreased oxygen concentrations (hypoxia), which induces the hypoxia response pathways of HIF1α, mTOR and UPR. In normal tissues, these responses mitigate hypoxic stress and induce neo-angiogenesis. In tumors, these pathways are dysregulated and lead to decreased perfusion and exacerbation of hypoxia as a result of immature and chaotic blood vessels. Hypoxia selects for a glycolytic phenotype and resultant acidification of the tumor microenvironment, facilitated by upregulation of proton transporters. Acidification selects for enhanced metastatic potential and reduced drug efficacy through ion trapping. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of pre-clinical and clinical drugs under development for targeting aerobic glycolysis, acidosis, hypoxia and hypoxia-response pathways. Hypoxia and acidosis can be manipulated, providing further therapeutic benefit for cancers that feature these common phenotypes. PMID:22959024

  3. Modeling the Spatiotemporal Evolution of the Melanoma Tumor Microenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signoriello, Alexandra; Bosenberg, Marcus; Shattuck, Mark; O'Hern, Corey

    The tumor microenvironment, which includes tumor cells, tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), cancer-associated fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, drives the formation and progression of melanoma tumors. Using quantitative analysis of in vivo confocal images of melanoma tumors in three spatial dimensions, we examine the physical properties of the melanoma tumor microenvironment, including the numbers of different cells types, cell size, and morphology. We also compute the nearest neighbor statistics and measure intermediate range spatial correlations between different cell types. We also calculate the step size distribution, mean-square displacement, and non-Gaussian parameter from the spatial trajectories of different cell types in the tumor microenvironment.

  4. Roles of Tumor Microenvironment in Hepatocelluar Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Haeng R.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most malignant human cancers, with a high mortality rate worldwide despite its early diagnosis in patients and improvement in therapeutic technology. Most cases of liver cancer show a strong resistance to anticancer therapy. Moreover, liver cancer patients generally have poor tolerance to chemotherapy due to liver dysfunction. In these situations, liver-targeting drugs with fewer side effects and a high efficacy are urgently needed during drug discovery for liver cancer. Researchers have aimed to derive target genes and drug candidates for HCC; however, the development of targeted drugs has not yet improved the outcome significantly. Recently, the role of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in HCC has been probed to combat this deadly disease. A deeper knowledge of the crosstalk between tumor cells and their TME is needed to fully understand tumor development, progression and chemo-resistance in HCC because this cancer develops from chronically damaged tissue that contains large amounts of inflammation and fibrosis. In this review, we summarize how distinct stromal cells of TME are involved in tumorigenesis and chemo-resistance in HCC and the significant challenge to recapitulate tumor complexity and heterogeneity enhancement.

  5. Remodeling Components of the Tumor Microenvironment to Enhance Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gkretsi, Vasiliki; Stylianou, Andreas; Papageorgis, Panagiotis; Polydorou, Christiana; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2015-01-01

    Solid tumor pathophysiology is characterized by an abnormal microenvironment that guides tumor progression and poses barriers to the efficacy of cancer therapies. Most common among tumor types are abnormalities in the structure of the tumor vasculature and stroma. Remodeling the tumor microenvironment with the aim to normalize any aberrant properties has the potential to improve therapy. In this review, we discuss structural abnormalities of the tumor microenvironment and summarize the therapeutic strategies that have been developed to normalize tumors as well as their potential to enhance therapy. Finally, we present different in vitro models that have been developed to analyze and better understand the effects of the tumor microenvironment on cancer cell behavior. PMID:26528429

  6. Regulation of prostate cancer progression by the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Shiao, Stephen L; Chu, Gina Chia-Yi; Chung, Leland W K

    2016-09-28

    Prostate cancer remains the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men in North America, and despite recent advances in treatment patients with metastatic disease continue to have poor five-year survival rates. Recent studies in prostate cancer have revealed the critical role of the tumor microenvironment in the initiation and progression to advanced disease. Experimental data have uncovered a reciprocal relationship between the cells in the microenvironment and malignant tumor cells in which early changes in normal tissue microenvironment can promote tumorigenesis and in turn tumor cells can promote further pro-tumor changes in the microenvironment. In the tumor microenvironment, the presence of persistent immune infiltrates contributes to the recruitment and reprogramming of other non-immune stromal cells including cancer-associated fibroblasts and a unique recently identified population of metastasis-initiating cells (MICs). These MICs, which can also be found as part of the circulating tumor cell (CTC) population in PC patients, promote cancer cell transformation, enhance metastatic potential and confer therapeutic resistance. MICs act can on other cells within the tumor microenvironment in part by secreting exosomes that reprogram adjacent stromal cells to create a more favorable tumor microenvironment to support continued cancer growth and progression. We review here the current data on the intricate relationship between inflammation, reactive stroma, tumor cells and disease progression in prostate cancer. PMID:26828013

  7. The effect of environmental chemicals on the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Stephanie C.; Vaccari, Monica; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Brown, Dustin G.; Chapellier, Marion; Christopher, Joseph; Curran, Colleen S.; Forte, Stefano; Hamid, Roslida A.; Heneberg, Petr; Koch, Daniel C.; Krishnakumar, P.K.; Laconi, Ezio; Maguer-Satta, Veronique; Marongiu, Fabio; Memeo, Lorenzo; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Roman, Jesse; Roy, Rabindra; Ryan, Elizabeth P.; Ryeom, Sandra; Salem, Hosni K.; Scovassi, A.Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Soucek, Laura; Vermeulen, Louis; Whitfield, Jonathan R.; Woodrick, Jordan; Colacci, Anna Maria; Bisson, William H.; Felsher, Dean W.

    2015-01-01

    Potentially carcinogenic compounds may cause cancer through direct DNA damage or through indirect cellular or physiological effects. To study possible carcinogens, the fields of endocrinology, genetics, epigenetics, medicine, environmental health, toxicology, pharmacology and oncology must be considered. Disruptive chemicals may also contribute to multiple stages of tumor development through effects on the tumor microenvironment. In turn, the tumor microenvironment consists of a complex interaction among blood vessels that feed the tumor, the extracellular matrix that provides structural and biochemical support, signaling molecules that send messages and soluble factors such as cytokines. The tumor microenvironment also consists of many host cellular effectors including multipotent stromal cells/mesenchymal stem cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cell precursors, antigen-presenting cells, lymphocytes and innate immune cells. Carcinogens can influence the tumor microenvironment through effects on epithelial cells, the most common origin of cancer, as well as on stromal cells, extracellular matrix components and immune cells. Here, we review how environmental exposures can perturb the tumor microenvironment. We suggest a role for disrupting chemicals such as nickel chloride, Bisphenol A, butyltins, methylmercury and paraquat as well as more traditional carcinogens, such as radiation, and pharmaceuticals, such as diabetes medications, in the disruption of the tumor microenvironment. Further studies interrogating the role of chemicals and their mixtures in dose-dependent effects on the tumor microenvironment could have important general mechanistic implications for the etiology and prevention of tumorigenesis. PMID:26106136

  8. The effect of environmental chemicals on the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Casey, Stephanie C; Vaccari, Monica; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Brown, Dustin G; Chapellier, Marion; Christopher, Joseph; Curran, Colleen S; Forte, Stefano; Hamid, Roslida A; Heneberg, Petr; Koch, Daniel C; Krishnakumar, P K; Laconi, Ezio; Maguer-Satta, Veronique; Marongiu, Fabio; Memeo, Lorenzo; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Roman, Jesse; Roy, Rabindra; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Ryeom, Sandra; Salem, Hosni K; Scovassi, A Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Soucek, Laura; Vermeulen, Louis; Whitfield, Jonathan R; Woodrick, Jordan; Colacci, Annamaria; Bisson, William H; Felsher, Dean W

    2015-06-01

    Potentially carcinogenic compounds may cause cancer through direct DNA damage or through indirect cellular or physiological effects. To study possible carcinogens, the fields of endocrinology, genetics, epigenetics, medicine, environmental health, toxicology, pharmacology and oncology must be considered. Disruptive chemicals may also contribute to multiple stages of tumor development through effects on the tumor microenvironment. In turn, the tumor microenvironment consists of a complex interaction among blood vessels that feed the tumor, the extracellular matrix that provides structural and biochemical support, signaling molecules that send messages and soluble factors such as cytokines. The tumor microenvironment also consists of many host cellular effectors including multipotent stromal cells/mesenchymal stem cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cell precursors, antigen-presenting cells, lymphocytes and innate immune cells. Carcinogens can influence the tumor microenvironment through effects on epithelial cells, the most common origin of cancer, as well as on stromal cells, extracellular matrix components and immune cells. Here, we review how environmental exposures can perturb the tumor microenvironment. We suggest a role for disrupting chemicals such as nickel chloride, Bisphenol A, butyltins, methylmercury and paraquat as well as more traditional carcinogens, such as radiation, and pharmaceuticals, such as diabetes medications, in the disruption of the tumor microenvironment. Further studies interrogating the role of chemicals and their mixtures in dose-dependent effects on the tumor microenvironment could have important general mechanistic implications for the etiology and prevention of tumorigenesis. PMID:26106136

  9. Modification of the tumor microenvironment to enhance immunity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Pei; Schaue, Dorthe; McBride, William H

    2007-01-01

    The growth and spread of cancer depends as much on the host response to tumor as on the biological characteristics of the tumor itself. This interaction is at its most intimate and dynamic within the tumor microenvironment. It is here that the battle is fought that leads to mutual evolution of tumor and host cell phenotypes. Contributing to this evolutionary process are physiological changes distinctive for the tumor microenvironment, such as hypoxia, low nutrient levels, low extracellular pH, and high interstitial fluid pressure. These largely result from the chaotic intratumoral vasculature but are impacted by the nature of the tumor and the inflammatory and wound healing responses that are generated. Numerous infiltrating immune cells, including macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer cells and dendritic cells infiltrate the tumor, contributing to high levels of growth factors, hormones, and cytokines. We suggest that the integrated interplay between host and tumor factors results in distinct phenotypes that determine the response to therapy as well as tumor behavior. Targeting the tumor microenvironment to awaken or reawaken immune cells, or to redirect it from a pro-tumor to an anti-tumor state, will require understanding of this phenotype. Current conventional therapies target tumors not tumor cells and clearly affect the host infiltrate and the physiological characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. This may an advantage that has yet to be effectively exploited due to lack of knowledge of existing phenotypes resulting from the tumor-host interactions. The same lack of knowledge impacts outcomes of clinical immunotherapy (IT) trials that have so far not broken through the ceiling of 10% success rate that seems to exist even in melanoma. It seems obvious that more could be achieved by combining therapies that tackle malignancies from multiple angles, with the tumor microenvironment conditioned to support a powerful effector arm generated by IT. The

  10. Therapeutic Lymphoid Organogenesis in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Aliyah M.; Storkus, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    The inflammatory status of the tumor microenvironment (TME) has been heavily investigated in recent years. Chemokine and cytokine signaling pathways such as CCR7, CXCR5, lymphotoxin, and IL-36, which are involved in the generation of secondary lymphoid organs and effector immune responses, are now recognized as having value both as prognostic factors and as immunomodulatory therapeutics in the context of cancer. Furthermore, when produced in the TME, these mediators have been shown to promote the recruitment of immune cells, including T cells, B cells, dendritic cells (DC), and other specialized immune cell subsets such as follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, in association with the formation of “tertiary” lymphoid structures (TLS) within or adjacent to sites of disease. Although TLS are composed of a heterogeneous collection of immune cell types, whose composition differs based on cancer subtype, the qualitative presence of TLS has been shown to represent a biomarker of good prognosis for cancer patients. A comprehensive understanding of the role each of these pathways plays within the TME may support the rational design of future immunotherapies to selectively promote/bolster TLS formation and function, leading to improved clinical outcomes across the vast range of solid cancer types. PMID:26216634

  11. Tumor microenvironment and cancer therapy resistance.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu

    2016-09-28

    Innate resistance to various therapeutic interventions is a hallmark of cancer. In recent years, however, acquired resistance has emerged as a daunting challenge to anticancer treatments including chemotherapy, radiation and targeted therapy, which abolishes the efficacy of otherwise successful regimens. Cancer cells gain resistance through a variety of mechanisms in both primary and metastatic sites, involving cell intrinsic and extrinsic factors, but the latter often remains overlooked. Mounting evidence suggests critical roles played by the tumor microenvironment (TME) in multiple aspects of cancer progression particularly therapeutic resistance. The TME decreases drug penetration, confers proliferative and antiapoptotic advantages to surviving cells, facilitates resistance without causing genetic mutations and epigenetic changes, collectively modifying disease modality and distorting clinical indices. Recent studies have set the baseline for future investigation on the intricate relationship between cancer resistance and the TME in pathological backgrounds. This review provides an updated outline of research advances in TME biology and highlights the prospect of targeting the TME as an essential strategy to overcome cancer resistance and improve therapeutic outcomes through precise intervention. In the long run, continued inputs into translational medicine remain highly desired to achieve durable responses in the current era of personalized clinical oncology. PMID:26272180

  12. Cellular microenvironment modulates the galvanotaxis of brain tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Ja; Hoffmann, Gwendolyn; Wheeler, Benjamin; Schiapparelli, Paula; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Searson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Galvanotaxis is a complex process that represents the collective outcome of various contributing mechanisms, including asymmetric ion influxes, preferential activation of voltage-gated channels, and electrophoretic redistribution of membrane components. While a large number of studies have focused on various up- and downstream signaling pathways, little is known about how the surrounding microenvironment may interact and contribute to the directional response. Using a customized galvanotaxis chip capable of carrying out experiments in both two- and three-dimensional microenvironments, we show that cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions modulate the galvanotaxis of brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs). Five different BTICs across three different glioblastoma subtypes were examined and shown to all migrate toward the anode in the presence of a direct-current electric field (dcEF) when cultured on a poly-L-ornithine/laminin coated surface, while the fetal-derived neural progenitor cells (fNPCs) migrated toward the cathode. Interestingly, when embedded in a 3D ECM composed of hyaluronic acid and collagen, BTICs exhibited opposite directional response and migrated toward the cathode. Pharmacological inhibition against a panel of key molecules involved in galvanotaxis further revealed the mechanistic differences between 2- and 3D galvanotaxis in BTICs. Both myosin II and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) were found to hold strikingly different roles in different microenvironments. PMID:26898606

  13. The First Tianjin, China Forum on Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Evan T.; Li, Lu-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Although it is well recognized that the tumor microenvironment plays a key role in regulating tumor progression the mechanisms through which this occurs need to be defined. Current international research activities towards defining the role of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression were the subject of the 1st Tianjin Forum on Tumor Microenvironment held at Nankai University in Tianjin, China, July 2 to 4, 2010. The importance of variety of processes, such as inflammation and angiogenesis, in the role of tumor progression were described for multiple tumor types including breast, prostate, and hepatic cancers as well as the process of bone metastasis. Identification of novel signaling pathways that impact both angiogenesis and bone remodeling were presented. Several themes emerged from this meeting including that (1) tumor cells modify the microenvironment to enhance their own survival and progression; (2) targeting host factors, in addition to targeting tumor cells, will have important therapeutic effects; and (3) host cells distribution within the tumor has both prognostic and therapeutic significance. Several priorities for future research were defined including use of a systems biology approach to define the role of host factors in tumor progression; defining the importance of targeting both arms of the bone remodeling process for therapy of bone metastasis and determining how different cell subsets contribute to microenvironment-mediated regulation of tumor progression. PMID:21224351

  14. The Tumor Microenvironment: A Pitch for Multiple Players

    PubMed Central

    Schiavoni, Giovanna; Gabriele, Lucia; Mattei, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    The cancer microenvironment may be conceptually regarded as a pitch where the main players are resident and non-resident cellular components, each covering a defined role and interconnected by a complex network of soluble mediators. The crosstalk between these cells and the tumor cells within this environment crucially determines the fate of tumor progression. Immune cells that infiltrate the tumor bed are transported there by blood circulation and exert a variety of effects, either counteracting or favoring tumor outgrowth. Here, we review and discuss the multiple populations composing the tumor bed, with special focus on immune cells subsets that positively or negatively dictate neoplastic progression. In this scenario, the contribution of cancer stem cells within the tumor microenvironment will also be discussed. Finally, we illustrate recent advances on new integrated approaches to investigate the tumor microenvironment in vitro. PMID:23616948

  15. Macrophages in Tumor Microenvironments and the Progression of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ning-Bo; Lü, Mu-Han; Fan, Ya-Han; Cao, Ya-Ling; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages are widely distributed innate immune cells that play indispensable roles in the innate and adaptive immune response to pathogens and in-tissue homeostasis. Macrophages can be activated by a variety of stimuli and polarized to functionally different phenotypes. Two distinct subsets of macrophages have been proposed, including classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. M1 macrophages express a series of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and effector molecules, such as IL-12, IL-23, TNF-α, iNOS and MHCI/II. In contrast, M2 macrophages express a wide array of anti-inflammatory molecules, such as IL-10, TGF-β, and arginase1. In most tumors, the infiltrated macrophages are considered to be of the M2 phenotype, which provides an immunosuppressive microenvironment for tumor growth. Furthermore, tumor-associated macrophages secrete many cytokines, chemokines, and proteases, which promote tumor angiogenesis, growth, metastasis, and immunosuppression. Recently, it was also found that tumor-associated macrophages interact with cancer stem cells. This interaction leads to tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. So mediating macrophage to resist tumors is considered to be potential therapy. PMID:22778768

  16. Hypoxic tumor microenvironment: Opportunities to develop targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Patel, Akhil; Sant, Shilpa

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been great progress in the understanding of tumor biology and its surrounding microenvironment. Solid tumors create regions with low oxygen levels, generally termed as hypoxic regions. These hypoxic areas offer a tremendous opportunity to develop targeted therapies. Hypoxia is not a random by-product of the cellular milieu due to uncontrolled tumor growth; rather it is a constantly evolving participant in overall tumor growth and fate. This article reviews current trends and recent advances in drug therapies and delivery systems targeting hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment. In the first part, we give an account of important physicochemical changes and signaling pathways activated in the hypoxic microenvironment. This is then followed by various treatment strategies including hypoxia-sensitive signaling pathways and approaches to develop hypoxia-targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:27143654

  17. Targeting SDF-1 in multiple myeloma tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Bouyssou, Juliette M C; Ghobrial, Irene M; Roccaro, Aldo M

    2016-09-28

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a type of B-cell malignancy that remains incurable to date. The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment plays a crucial role in MM progression. The chemokine SDF-1 (CXCL12) is an important actor of the BM microenvironment that has the ability to regulate numerous processes related to its malignant transformation during MM development. The activity of SDF-1 is mainly mediated by its specific receptor CXCR4, which is expressed at the surface of MM cells and various other BM cell types. Current treatments available for MM patients mainly target tumor cells but have limited effects on the BM microenvironment. In this context, SDF-1 and CXCR4 represent ideal targets for the normalization of the MM-supportive BM microenvironment. The present review focuses on the activity of SDF-1 in the MM BM microenvironment and the current efforts carried out to target the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis for treatment of MM. PMID:26655999

  18. Role of the tumor microenvironment in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian-Jun; Jiang, Ting-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Mao, Ai-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with proclivity for early metastasis, which accounts for its poor prognosis. The clinical problem of pancreatic cancer is its resistance to conventional therapies, such as chemotherapy or radiation. Based upon these challenges, the focus of research on pancreatic cancer has shifted gradually towards the tumor microenvironment. The cancer microenvironment consists of various components, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, immune cells, and endocrine cells, that interact with each other, and with the cancer cells in a complex fashion. Evidence is accumulating that the cancer microenvironment plays an active role in disease progression, and efforts are being made to target this interplay between cancer cells and host cells, to improve the prognosis of the disease. In the present review, we describe the cellular microenvironment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), the major type of pancreatic cancer. Our hope is that a better understanding of the cellular microenvironment of PDA will eventually lead to better treatments for this disease. PMID:26709759

  19. The microenvironment reprograms circuits in tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qingchun; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In the course of multistep oncogenesis, initially normal cells acquire several new functions that render them malignant. We have recently demonstrated that the peritoneal microenvironment promotes resistance to anoikis in ovarian cancer cells by reprogramming SRC/AKT/ERK signaling and metabolism. These findings have prognostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:27308400

  20. Intravital Microscopy for Imaging the Tumor Microenvironment in Live Mice.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Victor; Jenne, Craig; Mahoney, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    The development of intravital microscopy has provided unprecedented capacity to study the tumor microenvironment in live mice. The dynamic behavior of cancer, stromal, vascular, and immune cells can be monitored in real time, in situ, in both primary tumors and metastatic lesions, allowing treatment responses to be observed at single cell resolution and therapies tracked in vivo. These features provide a unique opportunity to elucidate the cellular mechanisms underlying the biology and treatment of cancer. We describe here a method for imaging the microenvironment of subcutaneous tumors grown in mice using intravital microscopy. PMID:27581025

  1. MicroRNA Targeting to Modulate Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kuninty, Praneeth R.; Schnittert, Jonas; Storm, Gert; Prakash, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Communication between stromal cells and tumor cells initiates tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Stromal cells include cancer-associated fibroblasts, tumor-associated macrophages, pericytes, endothelial cells, and infiltrating immune cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in the tumor microenvironment have emerged as key players involved in the development of cancer and its progression. miRNAs are small endogenous non-protein-coding RNAs that negatively regulate the expression of multiple target genes at post-transcriptional level and thereby control many cellular processes. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of miRNAs dysregulated in different stromal cells and their impact on the regulation of intercellular crosstalk in the tumor microenvironment. We also discuss the therapeutic significance potential of miRNAs to modulate the tumor microenvironment. Since miRNA delivery is quite challenging and the biggest hurdle for clinical translation of miRNA therapeutics, we review various non-viral miRNA delivery systems that can potentially be used for targeting miRNA to stromal cells within the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26835418

  2. Recapitulation of complex transport and action of drugs at the tumor microenvironment using tumor-microenvironment-on-chip.

    PubMed

    Han, Bumsoo; Qu, Chunjing; Park, Kinam; Konieczny, Stephen F; Korc, Murray

    2016-09-28

    Targeted delivery aims to selectively distribute drugs to targeted tumor tissues but not to healthy tissues. This can address many clinical challenges by maximizing the efficacy but minimizing the toxicity of anti-cancer drugs. However, a complex tumor microenvironment poses various barriers hindering the transport of drugs and drug delivery systems. New tumor models that allow for the systematic study of these complex environments are highly desired to provide reliable test beds to develop drug delivery systems for targeted delivery. Recently, research efforts have yielded new in vitro tumor models, the so called tumor-microenvironment-on-chip, that recapitulate certain characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. These new models show benefits over other conventional tumor models, and have the potential to accelerate drug discovery and enable precision medicine. However, further research is warranted to overcome their limitations and to properly interpret the data obtained from these models. In this article, key features of the in vivo tumor microenvironment that are relevant to drug transport processes for targeted delivery were discussed, and the current status and challenges for developing in vitro transport model systems were reviewed. PMID:26688098

  3. Impact of tumor microenvironment on oncolytic viral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wojton, Jeffrey; Kaur, Balveen

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between tumor cells and their microenvironment have been shown to play a very significant role in the initiation, progression, and invasiveness of cancer. These tumor-stromal interactions are capable of altering the delivery and effectiveness of therapeutics into the tumor and are also known to influence future resistance and re-growth after treatment. Here we review recent advances in the understanding of the tumor microenvironment and its response to oncolytic viral therapy. The multifaceted environmental response to viral therapy can influence viral infection, replication, and propagation within the tumor. Recent studies have unveiled the complicated temporal changes in the tumor vasculature post OV treatment, and their impact on tumor biology. Similarly, the secreted extracellular matrix in solid tumors can affect both infection and spread of the therapeutic virus. Together, these complex changes in the tumor microenvironment also modulate the activation of the innate antiviral host immune response, leading to quick and efficient viral clearance. In order to combat these detrimental responses, viruses have been combined with pharmacological adjuvants and “armed” with therapeutic genes in order to suppress the pernicious environmental conditions following therapy. In this review we will discuss the impact of the tumor environment on viral therapy and examine some of the recent literature investigating methods of modulating this environment to enhance oncolysis. PMID:20399700

  4. Tumor microenvironment derived exosomes pleiotropically modulate cancer cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongyun; Yang, Lifeng; Baddour, Joelle; Achreja, Abhinav; Bernard, Vincent; Moss, Tyler; Marini, Juan C; Tudawe, Thavisha; Seviour, Elena G; San Lucas, F Anthony; Alvarez, Hector; Gupta, Sonal; Maiti, Sourindra N; Cooper, Laurence; Peehl, Donna; Ram, Prahlad T; Maitra, Anirban; Nagrath, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major cellular component of tumor microenvironment in most solid cancers. Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, and much of the published literature has focused on neoplastic cell-autonomous processes for these adaptations. We demonstrate that exosomes secreted by patient-derived CAFs can strikingly reprogram the metabolic machinery following their uptake by cancer cells. We find that CAF-derived exosomes (CDEs) inhibit mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, thereby increasing glycolysis and glutamine-dependent reductive carboxylation in cancer cells. Through 13C-labeled isotope labeling experiments we elucidate that exosomes supply amino acids to nutrient-deprived cancer cells in a mechanism similar to macropinocytosis, albeit without the previously described dependence on oncogenic-Kras signaling. Using intra-exosomal metabolomics, we provide compelling evidence that CDEs contain intact metabolites, including amino acids, lipids, and TCA-cycle intermediates that are avidly utilized by cancer cells for central carbon metabolism and promoting tumor growth under nutrient deprivation or nutrient stressed conditions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10250.001 PMID:26920219

  5. The Bone Microenvironment: a Fertile Soil for Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Buenrostro, Denise; Mulcrone, Patrick L; Owens, Philip; Sterling, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    Bone metastatic disease remains a significant and frequent problem for cancer patients that can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, despite decades of research, bone metastases remain incurable. Current studies have demonstrated that many properties and cell types within the bone and bone marrow microenvironment contribute to tumor-induced bone disease. Furthermore, they have pointed to the importance of understanding how tumor cells interact with their microenvironment in order to help improve both the development of new therapeutics and the prediction of response to therapy. PMID:27255469

  6. The effects of CA IX catalysis products within tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Santi, Alice; Caselli, Anna; Paoli, Paolo; Corti, Denise; Camici, Guido; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Serni, Sergio; Chiarugi, Paola; Cirri, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Solid tumors are composed of both cancer cells and various types of accessory cells, mainly fibroblasts, that collectively compose the so called tumor-microenvironment. Cancer-associated fibroblasts have been described to actively participate in cancer progression by establishing a cytokine-mediated as well as metabolic crosstalk with cancer cells. In the present paper we show that activated human fibroblasts are able to boost tumor cells proliferation and that this effect is greatly dependent on stromal carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) activity. In fact fibroblasts show a strong upregulation of CA IX expression upon activation by cancer cells, while CA IX products, protons and bicarbonate, exert differential effects on cancer cells proliferation. While acidification of extracellular pH, a typical condition of rapidly growing solid tumors, is detrimental for tumor cells proliferation, bicarbonate, through its organication, supplies cancer cells with intermediates useful to sustain their high proliferation rate. Here we propose a new kind of fibroblasts/tumor cells crosstalk within tumor microenvironment, mediated by stromal CA IX products, aimed to favor cancer cells growth, opening new perspectives on CA IX role in tumor microenvironment. PMID:24168032

  7. Dependence of FDG uptake on tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Pugachev, Andrei . E-mail: pugachea@mskcc.org; Ruan, Shutian; Carlin, Sean; Larson, Steven M.; Campa, Jose; Ling, C. Clifton; Humm, John L.

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the factors affecting the {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) uptake in tumors at a microscopic level, by correlating it with tumor hypoxia, cellular proliferation, and blood perfusion. Methods and Materials: Nude mice bearing Dunning prostate tumors (R3327-AT) were injected with {sup 18}F-FDG and pimonidazole, bromodeoxyuridine, and, 1 min before sacrifice, with Hoechst 33342. Selected tumor sections were imaged by phosphor plate autoradiography, while adjacent sections were used to obtain the images of the spatial distribution of Hoechst 33342, pimonidazole, and bromodeoxyuridine. The images were co-registered and analyzed on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Results: Statistical analysis of the data obtained from these tumors demonstrated that {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was positively correlated with pimonidazole staining intensity in each data set studied. Correlation of FDG uptake with bromodeoxyuridine staining intensity was always negative. In addition, FDG uptake was always negatively correlated with the staining intensity of Hoechst 33342. Conclusions: For the Dunning prostate tumors studied, FDG uptake was always positively correlated with hypoxia and negatively correlated with both cellular proliferation and blood flow. Therefore, for the tumor model studied, higher FDG uptake is indicative of tumor hypoxia, but neither blood flow nor cellular proliferation.

  8. Chemokines and the microenvironment in neuroectodermal tumor-host interaction

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Rajasekharan; Herlyn, Dorothee

    2009-01-01

    Chemokines and chemokine receptors play an important role in immune homeostasis and surveillance. Altered or defective expression of chemokines and/or chemokine receptors could lead to a disease state including autoimmune disorder or cancer. Tumors from glioblastoma, melanoma, and neuroblastoma secrete high levels of chemokines that can promote tumor growth and progression or induce stromal cells present in the tumor microenvironment to produce cytokines or chemokines which, in turn, can regulate angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. On the other hand, chemokines secreted by tumor or stromal cells can also attract leukocytes such as dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes which may downmodulate tumor growth. New therapies that are aimed at limiting tumor growth and progression by attracting immune effector cells to the tumor site with chemokines may hold the key to the successful treatment of cancer, although this approach may be hampered by possible tumor growth-stimulating effects of chemokines. PMID:19049876

  9. Tumor microenvironment derived exosomes pleiotropically modulate cancer cell metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major cellular component of tumor microenvironment in most solid cancers. Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, and much of the published literature has focused on neoplastic cell-autonomous processes for these adaptations. We demonstrate tha...

  10. Molecular Connections between Cancer Cell Metabolism and the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Justus, Calvin R.; Sanderlin, Edward J.; Yang, Li V.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells preferentially utilize glycolysis, instead of oxidative phosphorylation, for metabolism even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon of aerobic glycolysis, referred to as the “Warburg effect”, commonly exists in a variety of tumors. Recent studies further demonstrate that both genetic factors such as oncogenes and tumor suppressors and microenvironmental factors such as spatial hypoxia and acidosis can regulate the glycolytic metabolism of cancer cells. Reciprocally, altered cancer cell metabolism can modulate the tumor microenvironment which plays important roles in cancer cell somatic evolution, metastasis, and therapeutic response. In this article, we review the progression of current understandings on the molecular interaction between cancer cell metabolism and the tumor microenvironment. In addition, we discuss the implications of these interactions in cancer therapy and chemoprevention. PMID:25988385

  11. Tumor Microenvironment as a New Target for Tumor Immunotherapy of Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liqiao; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-07-29

    Many researches show that polysaccharides derived from fungi and plants have strong pharmacological activities such as enhancing the organism immune and anti-tumor function, and have few toxic and side effects. So the polysaccharides show a wide application prospect in the prevention and therapy of tumor. The tumor microenvironment consists of tumor cells and tumor cells' surrounding environment. The tumor microenvironment not only plays a key role in the development of tumor, but also is a potential treasure for searching new ways to treat tumor. In this review, we summarized polysaccharides' regulation effects on tumor microenvironment progression and tried to give a new theoretical basis for the exploitation of polysaccharides with anti-tumor activity. PMID:26463881

  12. Tumor Microenvironment-Mediated Construction and Deconstruction of Extracellular Drug-Delivery Depots.

    PubMed

    Hu, Quanyin; Sun, Wujin; Lu, Yue; Bomba, Hunter N; Ye, Yanqi; Jiang, Tianyue; Isaacson, Ari J; Gu, Zhen

    2016-02-10

    Protein therapy has been considered the most direct and safe approach to treat cancer. Targeting delivery of extracellularly active protein without internalization barriers, such as membrane permeation and endosome escape, is efficient and holds vast promise for anticancer treatment. Herein, we describe a "transformable" core-shell based nanocarrier (designated CS-NG), which can enzymatically assemble into microsized extracellular depots at the tumor site with assistance of hyaluronidase (HAase), an overexpressed enzyme at the tumor microenvironment. Equipped with an acid-degradable modality, the resulting CS-NG can substantially release combinational anticancer drugs-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and antiangiogenic cilengitide toward the membrane of cancer cells and endothelial cells at the acidic tumor microenvironment, respectively. Enhanced cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-231 cells and improved antitumor efficacy were observed using CS-NG, which was attributed to the inhibition of cellular internalization and prolonged retention time in vivo. PMID:26785163

  13. Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles facilitated drug delivery via cascade pH stimuli in tumor microenvironment for tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junjie; Luo, Zhong; Zhang, Jixi; Luo, Tiantian; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, Xiaojing; Cai, Kaiyong

    2016-03-01

    To efficiently deliver anti-cancer drug to tumor site and reduce its toxic side effects on normal tissues, a polyethylene glycol (PEG) shielding and tumor microenvironment triggering cascade pH-responsive hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) drug delivery system was fabricated. 3-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (DHPA) functionalized beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was grafted onto the surfaces of HMSNs via boronic acid-catechol ester bonds. Then, PEG conjugated adamantane (Ada) was anchored on HMSNs-β-CD nanocarrier via host-gust interaction. Various techniques proved the successful fabrication of the system. The in vitro tests confirmed that the system was biocompatible. After the system permeating into tumor via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, the benzoic-imine bonds between the PEG and Ada were cleaved under weak acid condition in tumor microenvironment (pH 6.8), while the dissociated PEG protective layer facilitating cellular uptake of HMSNs system. Subsequently, the boronic acid-catechol ester bonds linkers further hydrolyzed under even low endosomal pH (4.5-6.5) condition for intracellular drug delivery, leading to efficient cell apoptosis. The in vivo results demonstrated that drug loaded HMSNs significantly inhibited tumor growth while only with minimal toxic side effects. The strategy provides new insight into the development of new generation of drug delivery carriers triggering by tumor microenvironment. PMID:26773665

  14. Metastasis genetics, epigenetics, and the tumor microenvironment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    KISS1 is a member of a family of genes known as metastasis suppressors, defined by their ability to block metastasis without blocking primary tumor development and growth. KISS1 re-expression in multiple metastatic cell lines of diverse cellular origin suppresses metastasis; yet, still allows comple...

  15. Tumor microenvironment: The culprit for ovarian cancer metastasis?

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhongyue; Wang, Qiu; Lau, Wayne Bond; Lau, Bonnie; Xu, Lian; Zhao, Linjie; Yang, Huiliang; Feng, Min; Xuan, Yu; Yang, Yanfei; Lei, Lingzi; Wang, Chenlu; Yi, Tao; Zhao, Xia; Wei, Yuquan; Zhou, Shengtao

    2016-07-28

    Despite chemotherapy and surgical debulking options, ovarian cancer recurs and disseminates frequently, with poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ovarian cancer metastasis still remain unelucidated. The tumor microenvironment, consisting of stromal cells (including fibroblasts, macrophages, regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, endothelial cells, pericytes and platelets), the extracellular matrix component (EMC) (including inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases, integrins, and other secreted molecules) and exosomes (small extracellular vesicles loaded with molecules), establishes an autocrine-paracrine communication circuit that reinforces invasion and cancer cell metastasis via reciprocal signaling. Recent evidences have unraveled the significant contribution of tumor microenvironment to ovarian cancer metastasis. In this review, we provide a comprehensive landscape of the reciprocity between tumor stroma and ovarian cancer cells upon metastasis, aiming to offer novel clues on the development of novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer in future clinical practice. PMID:27131957

  16. Mimicking biophysical stimuli within bone tumor microenvironment*

    PubMed Central

    Marturano-Kruik, A.; Yeager, K.; Bach, D.; Villasante, A.; Cimetta, E.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.

    2016-01-01

    In vivo, cells reside in a complex environment regulating their fate and function. Most of this complexity is lacking in standard in vitro models, leading to readouts falling short of predicting the actual in vivo situation. The use of engineering tools, combined with deep biological knowledge, leads to the development and use of bioreactors providing biologically sound niches. Such bioreactors offer new tools for biological research, and are now also entering the field of cancer research. Here we present the development and validation of a modular bioreactor system providing: (i) high throughput analyses, (ii) a range of biological conditions, (iii) high degree of control, and (iv) application of physiological stimuli to the cultured samples. The bioreactor was used to engineer a three-dimensional (3D) tissue model of cancer, where the effects of mechanical stimulation on the tumor phenotype were evaluated. Mechanical stimuli applied to the engineered tumor model activated the mechanotransduction machinery and resulted in measurable changes of mRNA levels towards a more aggressive tumor phenotype. PMID:26737062

  17. Targeting tumor microenvironment: the key role of immune system.

    PubMed

    Barar, Jaleh

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, huge investigations on cancer progression and invasion have led to under-stand the pivotal role of tumor microenvironment. The current era of cancer therapy is based on the concept of simply targeting precise mechanisms to kill or to suppress the growth and expansion of malignant cells. Clinical data clearly correlate with in-vitro re-sults, emphasizing the direct impact of cancer environment on disease progression. This provides the opportunity to advance cancer therapy by virtue of targeting cancerous cells and non-cancerous component of tumor in a combinatorial manner. This tailor-made strategy demands the profound knowledge of cross talk between the bio-factors of tumor environment and corresponding pharmacology of drug candidates. The neighborhood of tumor is critical for how cancer cells grow and invade surrounding tissues. It appears that the tumor microenvironment as a "co-op" includes malignant cells, blood vessels, im-mune/inflammatory factors and extracellular matrix. As a longstanding dilemma, it is well-proved that immune system plays a direct role in the existence and progression of such coop. In some cases, immune cells e.g. tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) infiltrate into tumor and instead of fighting cancer cells, support them to grow. As an important fact, this tumor complexity should not be taken as granted where it can be advantageous in cancer therapy as well as early detection and prevention. The central aim of this editorial article is to highlight the importance of tumor microenvironment for successful cancer therapy. PMID:23678436

  18. Exosome mediated communication within the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Milane, Lara; Singh, Amit; Mattheolabakis, George; Suresh, Megha; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2015-12-10

    It is clear that exosomes (endosome derived vesicles) serve important roles in cellular communication both locally and distally and that the exosomal process is abnormal in cancer. Cancer cells are not malicious cells; they are cells that represent 'survival of the fittest' at its finest. All of the mutations, abnormalities, and phenomenal adaptations to a hostile microenvironment, such as hypoxia and nutrient depletion, represent the astute ability of cancer cells to adapt to their environment and to intracellular changes to achieve a single goal - survival. The aberrant exosomal process in cancer represents yet another adaptation that promotes survival of cancer. Cancer cells can secrete more exosomes than healthy cells, but more importantly, the content of cancer cells is distinct. An illustrative distinction is that exosomes derived from cancer cells contain more microRNA than healthy cells and unlike exosomes released from healthy cells, this microRNA can be associated with the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) which is required for processing mature and biologically active microRNA. Cancer derived exosomes have the ability to transfer metastatic potential to a recipient cell and cancer exosomes function in the physical process of invasion. In this review we conceptualize the aberrant exosomal process (formation, content selection, loading, trafficking, and release) in cancer as being partially attributed to cancer specific differences in the endocytotic process of receptor recycling/degradation and plasma membrane remodeling and the function of the endosome as a signaling entity. We discuss this concept and, to advance comprehension of exosomal function in cancer as mediators of communication, we detail and discuss exosome biology, formation, and communication in health and cancer; exosomal content in cancer; exosomal biomarkers in cancer; exosome mediated communication in cancer metastasis, drug resistance, and interfacing with the immune system; and

  19. Combined Effects of Pericytes in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Aline Lopes; Okamoto, Oswaldo Keith

    2015-01-01

    Pericytes are multipotent perivascular cells whose involvement in vasculature development is well established. Evidences in the literature also suggest that pericytes display immune properties and that these cells may serve as an in vivo reservoir of stem cells, contributing to the regeneration of diverse tissues. Pericytes are also capable of tumor homing and are important cellular components of the tumor microenvironment (TME). In this review, we highlight the contribution of pericytes to some classical hallmarks of cancer, namely, tumor angiogenesis, growth, metastasis, and evasion of immune destruction, and discuss how collectively these hallmarks could be tackled by therapies targeting pericytes, providing a rationale for cancer drugs aiming at the TME. PMID:26000022

  20. Combined effects of pericytes in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Aline Lopes; Okamoto, Oswaldo Keith

    2015-01-01

    Pericytes are multipotent perivascular cells whose involvement in vasculature development is well established. Evidences in the literature also suggest that pericytes display immune properties and that these cells may serve as an in vivo reservoir of stem cells, contributing to the regeneration of diverse tissues. Pericytes are also capable of tumor homing and are important cellular components of the tumor microenvironment (TME). In this review, we highlight the contribution of pericytes to some classical hallmarks of cancer, namely, tumor angiogenesis, growth, metastasis, and evasion of immune destruction, and discuss how collectively these hallmarks could be tackled by therapies targeting pericytes, providing a rationale for cancer drugs aiming at the TME. PMID:26000022

  1. Endothelin-1 in the tumor microenvironment correlates with melanoma invasion.

    PubMed

    Chiriboga, Luis; Meehan, Shane; Osman, Iman; Glick, Michael; de la Cruz, Gelo; Howell, Brittny S; Friedman-Jiménez, George; Schneider, Robert J; Jamal, Sumayah

    2016-06-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a vasoactive peptide that also plays a role in the tanning response of the skin. Animal and cell culture studies have also implicated ET-1 in melanoma progression, but no association studies have been performed to link ET-1 expression and melanoma in humans. Here, we present the first in-vivo study of ET-1 expression in pigmented lesions in humans: an ET-1 immunohistochemical screen of melanocytic nevi, melanoma in situ lesions, invasive melanomas, metastatic melanomas, and blue nevi was performed. Twenty-six percent of melanocytic nevi and 44% of melanoma in situ lesions demonstrate ET-1 expression in the perilesional microenvironment, whereas expression in nevus or melanoma cells was rare to absent. In striking contrast, 100% of moderately to highly pigmented invasive melanomas contained numerous ET-1-positive cells in the tumor microenvironment, with 79% containing ET-1-positive melanoma cells, confirmed by co-staining with melanoma tumor marker HMB45. Hypopigmented invasive melanomas had reduced ET-1 expression, suggesting a correlation between ET-1 expression and pigmented melanomas. ET-1-positive perilesional cells were CD68-positive, indicating macrophage origin. Sixty-two percent of highly pigmented metastatic melanomas demonstrated ET-1 expression in melanoma cells, in contrast to 28.2% of hypopigmented specimens. Eighty-nine percent of benign nevi, known as blue nevi, which have a dermal localization, were associated with numerous ET-1-positive macrophages in the perilesional microenvironment, but no ET-1 expression was detected in the melanocytes. We conclude that ET-1 expression in the microenvironment increases with advancing stages of melanocyte transformation, implicating a critical role for ET-1 in melanoma progression, and the importance of the tumor microenvironment in the melanoma phenotype. PMID:26825037

  2. Intravital imaging of multicolor-labeled tumor immune microenvironment through skin-fold window chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Shuhong; Zhang, Zhihong

    2015-03-01

    Tumor immune microenvironment became very important for the tumor immunotherapy. There were several kinds of immune cells in tumor stromal, and they played very different roles in tumor growth. In order to observe the behaviors of multiple immune cells in tumor microenvironment and the interaction between immune cells and tumor cells at the same time, we generated a multicolor-labeled tumor immune microenvironment model. The tumor cells and immune cells were labeled by different fluorescent proteins. By using of skin-fold window chamber implanted into mice and intravital imaging technology, we could dynamically observe the different immune cells in tumor microenvironment. After data analysis from the video, we could know the behavior of TILs, DCs and Tregs in tumor immune microenvironment; furthermore, we could know these immune cells play different roles in the tumor microenvironment.

  3. Tumor targeting and microenvironment-responsive nanoparticles for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shixian; Shao, Kun; Kuang, Yuyang; Liu, Yang; Li, Jianfeng; An, Sai; Guo, Yubo; Ma, Haojun; He, Xi; Jiang, Chen

    2013-07-01

    A tumor targeting nanoparticle system has been successfully developed to response to the lowered tumor extracellular pH (pHe) and upregulated matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) in the tumor microenvironment. The nanoparticles are modified with activatable cell-penetrating peptide (designated as dtACPP) that's dual-triggered by the lowered pHe and MMP2. In dtACPP, the internalization function of cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) is quenched by a pH-sensitive masking peptide, linking by a MMP2 substrate. The masking peptide is negatively charged to quench the cationic CPP well after systemic administration. Hence, dtACPP-modified nanoparticles possesses passive tumor targetability via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Once reaching the tumor microenvironment, the pre-existing attraction would be eliminated due to the lowered pHe, accompanying the linker cleaved by MMP2, dtACPP would be activated to expose CPP to drive the nanoparticles' internalization into the intratumoral cells. The studies of plasmid DNA loading, toxicity assessment, cellular uptake, tumor targeting delivery, and gene transfection demonstrate that dtACPP-modified nanoparticle system is a potential candidate for tumor targeting gene delivery. PMID:23562171

  4. One cell, multiple roles: contribution of mesenchymal stem cells to tumor development in tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of tissue reparative and immunosuppressive abilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has drawn more attention to tumor microenvironment and its role in providing the soil for the tumor cell growth. MSCs are recruited to tumor which is referred as the never healing wound and altered by the inflammation environment, thereby helping to construct the tumor microenvironment. The environment orchestrated by MSCs and other factors can be associated with angiogenesis, immunosuppression, inhibition of apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), survival of cancer stem cells, which all contribute to tumor growth and progression. In this review, we will discuss how MSCs are recruited to the tumor microenvironment and what effects they have on tumor progression. PMID:23336752

  5. Impact of the physical microenvironment on tumor progression and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Spill, Fabian; Reynolds, Daniel S; Kamm, Roger D; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2016-08-01

    The tumor microenvironment is increasingly understood to contribute to cancer development and progression by affecting the complex interplay of genetic and epigenetic changes within the cells themselves. Moreover, recent research has highlighted that, besides biochemical cues from the microenvironment, physical cues can also greatly alter cellular behavior such as proliferation, cancer stem cell properties, and metastatic potential. Whereas initial assays have focused on basic ECM physical properties, such as stiffness, novel in vitro systems are becoming increasingly sophisticated in differentiating between distinct physical cues-ECM pore size, fiber alignment, and molecular composition-and elucidating the different roles these properties play in driving tumor progression and metastasis. Combined with advances in our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for how cells sense these properties, a new appreciation for the role of mechanics in cancer is emerging. PMID:26938687

  6. Stroma Cells in Tumor Microenvironment and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yan; Keller, Evan T.; Garfield, David H.; Shen, Kunwei; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a systemic disease, encompassing multiple components of both tumor cells themselves and host stromal cells. It is now clear that stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment play an important role in cancer development. Molecular events through which reactive stromal cells affect cancer cells can be defined so that biomarkers and therapeutic targets can be identified. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) make up the bulk of cancer stroma and affect the tumor microenvironment such that they promote cancer initiation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. In breast cancer, CAFs not only promote tumor progression, but also induce therapeutic resistances. Accordingly, targeting CAFs provides a novel way to control tumors with therapeutic resistances. This review summarizes the current understanding of tumor stroma in breast cancer with a particular emphasis on the role of CAFs and the therapeutic implications of CAFs. The effects of other stromal components such as endothelial cells, macrophages and adipocytes in breast cancer are also discussed. Finally, we describe the biologic markers to sort patients into a specific and confirmed subtype for personalized treatment. PMID:23114846

  7. Tumor Microenvironment Complexity: Emerging Roles in Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Melody A.; Iida, Noriho; Roberts, Edward W.; Sangaletti, Sabina; Wong, Melissa H.; Yull, Fiona E.; Coussens, Lisa M.; DeClerck, Yves A.

    2013-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) consists of cells, soluble factors, signaling molecules, extracellular matrix, and mechanical cues that can promote neoplastic transformation, support tumor growth and invasion, protect the tumor from host immunity, foster therapeutic resistance, and provide niches for dormant metastases to thrive. An American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) special conference held on November 3–6, 2011, addressed five emerging concepts in our understanding of the TME: its dynamic evolution, how it is educated by tumor cells, pathways of communication between stromal and tumor cells, immunomodulatory roles of the lymphatic system, and contribution of the intestinal microbiota. These discussions raised critical questions on how to include the analysis of the TME in personalized cancer diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22414581

  8. Tungsten targets the tumor microenvironment to enhance breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Alicia M; Sabourin, Valérie; Molina, Manuel Flores; Police, Alice M; Negro Silva, Luis Fernando; Plourde, Dany; Lemaire, Maryse; Ursini-Siegel, Josie; Mann, Koren K

    2015-01-01

    The number of individuals exposed to high levels of tungsten is increasing, yet there is limited knowledge of the potential human health risks. Recently, a cohort of breast cancer patients was left with tungsten in their breasts following testing of a tungsten-based shield during intraoperative radiotherapy. While monitoring tungsten levels in the blood and urine of these patients, we utilized the 66Cl4 cell model, in vitro and in mice to study the effects of tungsten exposure on mammary tumor growth and metastasis. We still detect tungsten in the urine of patients' years after surgery (mean urinary tungsten concentration at least 20 months post-surgery = 1.76 ng/ml), even in those who have opted for mastectomy, indicating that tungsten does not remain in the breast. In addition, standard chelation therapy was ineffective at mobilizing tungsten. In the mouse model, tungsten slightly delayed primary tumor growth, but significantly enhanced lung metastasis. In vitro, tungsten did not enhance 66Cl4 proliferation or invasion, suggesting that tungsten was not directly acting on 66Cl4 primary tumor cells to enhance invasion. In contrast, tungsten changed the tumor microenvironment, enhancing parameters known to be important for cell invasion and metastasis including activated fibroblasts, matrix metalloproteinases, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. We show, for the first time, that tungsten enhances metastasis in an animal model of breast cancer by targeting the microenvironment. Importantly, all these tumor microenvironmental changes are associated with a poor prognosis in humans. PMID:25324207

  9. Tungsten Targets the Tumor Microenvironment to Enhance Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Bolt, Alicia M.; Sabourin, Valérie; Molina, Manuel Flores; Police, Alice M.; Negro Silva, Luis Fernando; Plourde, Dany; Lemaire, Maryse; Ursini-Siegel, Josie; Mann, Koren K.

    2015-01-01

    The number of individuals exposed to high levels of tungsten is increasing, yet there is limited knowledge of the potential human health risks. Recently, a cohort of breast cancer patients was left with tungsten in their breasts following testing of a tungsten-based shield during intraoperative radiotherapy. While monitoring tungsten levels in the blood and urine of these patients, we utilized the 66Cl4 cell model, in vitro and in mice to study the effects of tungsten exposure on mammary tumor growth and metastasis. We still detect tungsten in the urine of patients’ years after surgery (mean urinary tungsten concentration at least 20 months post-surgery = 1.76 ng/ml), even in those who have opted for mastectomy, indicating that tungsten does not remain in the breast. In addition, standard chelation therapy was ineffective at mobilizing tungsten. In the mouse model, tungsten slightly delayed primary tumor growth, but significantly enhanced lung metastasis. In vitro, tungsten did not enhance 66Cl4 proliferation or invasion, suggesting that tungsten was not directly acting on 66Cl4 primary tumor cells to enhance invasion. In contrast, tungsten changed the tumor microenvironment, enhancing parameters known to be important for cell invasion and metastasis including activated fibroblasts, matrix metalloproteinases, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. We show, for the first time, that tungsten enhances metastasis in an animal model of breast cancer by targeting the microenvironment. Importantly, all these tumor microenvironmental changes are associated with a poor prognosis in humans. PMID:25324207

  10. Hedgehog signaling: networking to nurture a promalignant tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lillianne G; Samant, Rajeev S; Shevde, Lalita A

    2011-09-01

    In addition to its role in embryonic development, the Hedgehog pathway has been shown to be an active participant in cancer development, progression, and metastasis. Although this pathway is activated by autocrine signaling by Hedgehog ligands, it can also initiate paracrine signaling with cells in the microenvironment. This creates a network of Hedgehog signaling that determines the malignant behavior of the tumor cells. As a result of paracrine signal transmission, the effects of Hedgehog signaling most profoundly influence the stromal cells that constitute the tumor microenvironment. The stromal cells in turn produce factors that nurture the tumor. Thus, such a resonating cross-talk can amplify Hedgehog signaling, resulting in molecular chatter that overall promotes tumor progression. Inhibitors of Hedgehog signaling have been the subject of intense research. Several of these inhibitors are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Here, we review the role of the Hedgehog pathway in the signature characteristics of cancer cells that determine tumor development, progression, and metastasis. This review condenses the latest findings on the signaling pathways that are activated and/or regulated by molecules generated from Hedgehog signaling in cancer and cites promising clinical interventions. Finally, we discuss future directions for identifying the appropriate patients for therapy, developing reliable markers of efficacy of treatment, and combating resistance to Hedgehog pathway inhibitors. PMID:21775419

  11. Galectin 3 as a guardian of the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Ruvolo, Peter P

    2016-03-01

    Galectin 3 is a member of a family of β-galactoside binding proteins and has emerged as an important regulator of diverse functions critical in cancer biology including apoptosis, metastasis, immune surveillance, molecular trafficking, mRNA splicing, gene expression, and inflammation. Galectin 3's ability to support cancer cell survival by intra-cellular and extra-cellular mechanisms suggests this molecule is an important component of the tumor microenvironment that potentially could be targeted for therapy. Data is emerging that Galectin 3 is elevated in many cancers including solid tumors and the cancers of the blood. Galectin 3 also appears to be a key molecule produced by tumor microenvironment support cells including mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) to suppress immune surveillance by killing T cells and interfering with NK cell function and by supporting metastasis. Levels of Galectin 3 increase in the MSC of aging mice and perhaps this contributes to the development of cancer in the elderly. Galectin 3 modulates surface protein expression of a diverse set of glycoproteins including CD44 by regulating endocytosis of these proteins. In addition, Galectin 3 binding to receptor kinases such as CD45 and the T cell receptor is critical in the regulation of their function. In this review I will examine the various mechanisms how Galectin 3 supports chemoresistance and metastasis in solid tumors and in leukemia and lymphoma. I will also discuss possible therapeutic strategies to target this Galectin for cancer therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tumor Microenvironment Regulation of Cancer Cell Survival, Metastasis, Inflammation, and Immune Surveillance edited by Peter Ruvolo and Gregg L. Semenza. PMID:26264495

  12. The Role of Chemoattractant Receptors in Shaping the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yi; Yoshimura, Teizo; Chen, Keqiang; Gong, Wanghua; Huang, Jian; Zhou, Ye; Yao, Xiaohong; Bian, Xiuwu; Wang, Ji Ming

    2014-01-01

    Chemoattractant receptors are a family of seven transmembrane G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) initially found to mediate the chemotaxis and activation of immune cells. During the past decades, the functions of these GPCRs have been discovered to not only regulate leukocyte trafficking and promote immune responses, but also play important roles in homeostasis, development, angiogenesis, and tumor progression. Accumulating evidence indicates that chemoattractant GPCRs and their ligands promote the progression of malignant tumors based on their capacity to orchestrate the infiltration of the tumor microenvironment by immune cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and mesenchymal cells. This facilitates the interaction of tumor cells with host cells, tumor cells with tumor cells, and host cells with host cells to provide a basis for the expansion of established tumors and development of distant metastasis. In addition, many malignant tumors of the nonhematopoietic origin express multiple chemoattractant GPCRs that increase the invasiveness and metastasis of tumor cells. Therefore, GPCRs and their ligands constitute targets for the development of novel antitumor therapeutics. PMID:25110692

  13. Cathepsin D activity and selectivity in the acidic conditions of a tumor microenvironment: Utilization in the development of a novel Cathepsin D substrate for simultaneous cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Achour, Oussama; Bridiau, Nicolas; Kacem, Meriem; Delatouche, Régis; Bordenave-Juchereau, Stéphanie; Sannier, Frédéric; Thiéry, Valérie; Piot, Jean-Marie; Maugard, Thierry; Arnaudin, Ingrid

    2013-11-01

    Pro-Cathepsin D (pCD) is an aspartyl endopeptidase which is over expressed in many cancers. This over expression generally led to its secretion into the extracellular culture medium of cancer cells. Moreover, pCD can auto activate and cleave its substrates at an acidic pH compatible with that found in tumor microenvironments (TME). Thus, exploiting these two pathological characteristics of TME offers the opportunity to develop new protease-activated vector on the basis of their specific substrate structures. The aim of this study was to validate new pCD substrates in the extracellular pH conditions of TME. As a first step, we investigated the effect of pH on the catalytic activity and selectivity of mature Cathepsin D (CD). It was found that the increase in the pH of the media led to a decrease in the reaction rate. However, the specificity of mature CD was not affected by a variation in pH. In the second step, the effect of the substrate structure was studied. We demonstrated that the substrate structure had a significant effect on the catalytic activity of CD. In fact, some modifications in peptide structure induced a change in the catalytic behavior that involved a substrate activation phenomenon. We suggest that this activation may be related to the amphiphilic nature of the modified peptide that may induce an interfacial activation mechanism. Finally, pCD, which is the major form found in the extracellular culture medium of cancer cells, was used. We demonstrated that the proform of CD cleave the modified peptide 5 at pH 6.5 with the same cleavage selectivity obtained with the mature form of the protease. These data provide a better understanding of CD behavior in tumor microenvironment conditions and this knowledge can be used to develop more specific tools for diagnosis and drug delivery. PMID:23871913

  14. The role of the microenvironment in tumor growth and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yangjin; Stolarska, Magdalena A.; Othmer, Hans G.

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical modeling and computational analysis are essential for understanding the dynamics of the complex gene networks that control normal development and homeostasis, and can help to understand how circumvention of that control leads to abnormal outcomes such as cancer. Our objectives here are to discuss the different mechanisms by which the local biochemical and mechanical microenvironment, which is comprised of various signaling molecules, cell types and the extracellular matrix (ECM), affects the progression of potentially-cancerous cells, and to present new results on two aspects of these effects. We first deal with the major processes involved in the progression from a normal cell to a cancerous cell at a level accessible to a general scientific readership, and we then outline a number of mathematical and computational issues that arise in cancer modeling. In Section 2 we present results from a model that deals with the effects of the mechanical properties of the environment on tumor growth, and in Section 3 we report results from a model of the signaling pathways and the tumor microenvironment (TME), and how their interactions affect the development of breast cancer. The results emphasize anew the complexities of the interactions within the TME and their effect on tumor growth, and show that tumor progression is not solely determined by the presence of a clone of mutated immortal cells, but rather that it can be ‘community-controlled’. It Takes a Village – Hilary Clinton PMID:21736894

  15. Simulation of Complex Transport of Nanoparticles around a Tumor Using Tumor-Microenvironment-on-Chip

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Bongseop; Ozcelikkale, Altug; Shin, Crystal S.; Park, Kinam; Han, Bumsoo

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of therapeutic agents selectively to tumor tissue, which is referred as “targeted delivery,” is one of the most ardently pursued goals of cancer therapy. Recent advances in nanotechnology enable numerous types of nanoparticles (NPs) whose properties can be designed for targeted delivery to tumors. In spite of promising early results, the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of the majority of NPs are still quite limited. This is mainly attributed to the limitation of currently available tumor models to test these NPs and systematically study the effects of complex transport and pathophysiological barriers around the tumors. In this study, thus, we developed a new in vitro tumor model to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment determining the transport around tumors. This model, named tumor-microenvironment-on-chip (T-MOC), consists of 3-dimensional microfluidic channels where tumor cells and endothelial cells are cultured within extracellular matrix under perfusion of interstitial fluid. Using this T-MOC platform, the transport of NPs and its variation due to tumor microenvironmental parameters have been studied including cut-off pore size, interstitial fluid pressure, and tumor tissue microstructure. The results suggest that T-MOC is capable of simulating the complex transport around the tumor, and providing detailed information about NP transport behavior. This finding confirms that NPs should be designed considering their dynamic interactions with tumor microenvironment. PMID:25194778

  16. Reprogramming the tumor microenvironment: tumor-induced immunosuppressive factors paralyze T cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Annie A; Drake, Virginia; Huang, Huai-Shiuan; Chiu, ShihChi; Zheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    It has become evident that tumor-induced immuno-suppressive factors in the tumor microenvironment play a major role in suppressing normal functions of effector T cells. These factors serve as hurdles that limit the therapeutic potential of cancer immunotherapies. This review focuses on illustrating the molecular mechanisms of immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment, including evasion of T-cell recognition, interference with T-cell trafficking, metabolism, and functions, induction of resistance to T-cell killing, and apoptosis of T cells. A better understanding of these mechanisms may help in the development of strategies to enhance the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapies. PMID:26140242

  17. Orchestrating the Tumor Microenvironment to Improve Survival for Patients With Pancreatic Cancer Normalization, Not Destruction

    PubMed Central

    Whatcott, Clifford J.; Hanl, Haiyong; Von Hoff, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The microenvironment of pancreatic cancer could be one of the “perfect storms” that support the growth of a cancer. Indeed, pancreatic cancer may be the poster child of a problem with the microenvironment. In this article, we review the rationale and attempts to date on modifying or targeting structural proteins in the microenvironment including hyaluronan (HA) (in primary and metastases), collagen, and SPARC (secreted protein, acidic, and rich in cysteine). Indeed, working in this area has produced a regimen that improves survival for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (nab-paclitaxel + gemcitabine). In addition, in initial clinical trials, PEGylated hyaluronidase appears promising. We also review a new approach that is different than targeting/destroying the microenvironment and that is orchestrating, reengineering, reprogramming, or normalizing the microenvironment (including normalizing structural proteins, normalizing an immunologically tumor-friendly environment to a less friendly environment, reversing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and so on). We believe this will be most effectively done by agents that have global effects on transcription. There is initial evidence that this can be done by agents such as vitamin D derivatives and other new agents. There is no doubt these opportunities can now be tried in the clinic with hopefully beneficial effects. PMID:26222082

  18. Follicular Lymphoma: The Role of the Tumor Microenvironment in Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Takumi; Watanabe, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The microenvironment of follicular lymphoma (FL) is composed of tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells, follicular regulatory T cells, lymphoma-associated macrophages and mast cells, follicular helper T cells, follicular dendritic cells, and follicular reticular cells, all of which have been reported to have relevance in the prognosis of FL patients. In addition, some of these cells play a role in the histologic transformation of FL. Macrophages contribute to a poor prognosis in FL patients treated in the pre-rituximab era, but are associated with good prognosis in those treated in the rituximab era. T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein (TIM) 3 are markers of T-cell exhaustion, and T cells co-expressing programed death 1 (PD1) in peripheral blood and lymph nodes secrete interleukin (IL)-12 in the serum. Serum CXCL9, IL-2 receptor, and IL-1 receptor agonist are associated with shorter survival of FL patients. Agents for manipulation of the microenvironment surrounding FL cells include the immunomodulatory drug lenalidomide, immune check-point inhibitors, and cyclophosphamide prior to rituximab. To battle FL and to improve the outcomes of FL patients, understanding the relationship between neoplastic cells and the various microenvironmental cellular components is crucial for developing therapeutics against the microenvironment. PMID:27334853

  19. T-cell exhaustion in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Y; Li, Y; Zhu, B

    2015-01-01

    T-cell exhaustion was originally identified during chronic infection in mice, and was subsequently observed in humans with cancer. The exhausted T cells in the tumor microenvironment show overexpressed inhibitory receptors, decreased effector cytokine production and cytolytic activity, leading to the failure of cancer elimination. Restoring exhausted T cells represents an inspiring strategy for cancer treatment, which has yielded promising results and become a significant breakthrough in the cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we overview the updated understanding on the exhausted T cells in cancer and their potential regulatory mechanisms and discuss current therapeutic interventions targeting exhausted T cells in clinical trials. PMID:26086965

  20. Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Al-Nedawi, Khalid; Read, Jolene

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (ECV) are membrane compartments shed from all types of cells in various physiological and pathological states. In recent years, ECV have gained an increasing interest from the scientific community for their role as an intercellular communicator that plays important roles in modifying the tumor microenvironment. Multiple techniques have been established to collect ECV from conditioned media of cell culture or physiological fluids. The gold standard methodology is differential centrifugation. Although alternative techniques exist to collect ECV, these techniques have not proven suitable as a substitution for the ultracentrifugation procedure. PMID:27581023

  1. Methods to study the tumor microenvironment under controlled oxygen conditions

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Matthew B.; Leslie, Matthew T.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Kenis, Paul J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a complex heterogeneous assembly composed of a variety of cell types and physical features. One such feature, hypoxia, is associated with metabolic reprogramming, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and therapeutic resistance. Many questions remain regarding the effects of hypoxia on these outcomes, yet only few experimental methods enable both precise control over oxygen concentration and real-time imaging of cell behavior. Recent efforts with microfluidic platforms offer a promising solution to these limitations. We discuss conventional methods and tools used to control oxygen concentration for cell studies then highlight recent advances in microfluidic-based approaches for controlling oxygen in engineered platforms. PMID:25282035

  2. CEACAM1 creates a pro-angiogenic tumor microenvironment that supports tumor vessel maturation.

    PubMed

    Gerstel, D; Wegwitz, F; Jannasch, K; Ludewig, P; Scheike, K; Alves, F; Beauchemin, N; Deppert, W; Wagener, C; Horst, A K

    2011-10-13

    We have studied the effects of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) on tumor angiogenesis in murine ductal mammary adenocarcinomas. We crossed transgenic mice with whey acidic protein promoter-driven large T-antigen expression (WAP-T mice) with oncogene-induced mammary carcinogenesis with CEACAM1null mice, and with Tie2-Ceacam1 transgenics, in which the Tie2 promoter drives endothelial overexpression of CEACAM1 (WAP-T × CEACAM1(endo+) mice), and analyzed tumor vascularization, angiogenesis and vessel maturation in these mice. Using flat-panel volume computed tomography (fpVCT) and histology, we found that WAP-T × CEACAM1(endo+) mice exhibited enhanced tumoral vascularization owing to CEACAM1(+) vessels in the tumor periphery, and increased intratumoral angiogenesis compared with controls. In contrast, vascularization of CEACAM1null/WAP-T-derived tumors was poor, and tumor vessels were dilated, leaky and showed poor pericyte coverage. Consequently, the tumoral vasculature could not be visualized in CEACAM1null/WAP-T mice by fpVCT, and we observed poor organization of the perivascular extracellular matrix (ECM), accompanied by the accumulation of collagen IV-degrading matrix metalloproteinase 9(+) (MMP9(+)) leukocytes and stromal cells. Vascular instability and alterations in ECM structure were accompanied by a significant increase in pulmonary metastases in CEACAM1null/WAP-T mice, whereas only occasional metastases were observed in CEACAM1(+) hosts. In CEACAM1(+) hosts, intratumoral vessels did not express CEACAM1, but they were intact, extensively covered with pericytes and framed by a well-organized perivascular ECM. MMP9(+) accessory cells were largely absent. Orthotopic transplantation of primary WAP-T- and CEACAM1null/WAP-T tumors into all three mouse lines confirmed that a CEACAM1(+) host environment is a prerequisite for productive angiogenic remodeling of the tumor microenvironment. Hence, CEACAM1 expression in the tumor

  3. Fighting the force: potential of homeobox genes for tumor microenvironment regulation

    PubMed Central

    Northcott, Josette M.; Northey, Jason J.; Barnes, J. Matthew; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells exist in a constantly evolving stromal microenvironment composed of vasculature, immune cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts, all residing within a dynamic extracellular matrix. In this review, we examine the biochemical and biophysical interactions between these various stromal cells and their matrix microenvironment. While the stroma can alter tumor progression via multiple mechanisms, we emphasize the role of homeobox genes in detecting and modulating the mechanical changes in the microenvironment during tumor progression. PMID:25818365

  4. Tumor-Associated Macrophages as Major Players in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Chanmee, Theerawut; Ontong, Pawared; Konno, Kenjiro; Itano, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    During tumor progression, circulating monocytes and macrophages are actively recruited into tumors where they alter the tumor microenvironment to accelerate tumor progression. Macrophages shift their functional phenotypes in response to various microenvironmental signals generated from tumor and stromal cells. Based on their function, macrophages are divided broadly into two categories: classical M1 and alternative M2 macrophages. The M1 macrophage is involved in the inflammatory response, pathogen clearance, and antitumor immunity. In contrast, the M2 macrophage influences an anti-inflammatory response, wound healing, and pro-tumorigenic properties. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) closely resemble the M2-polarized macrophages and are critical modulators of the tumor microenvironment. Clinicopathological studies have suggested that TAM accumulation in tumors correlates with a poor clinical outcome. Consistent with that evidence, experimental and animal studies have supported the notion that TAMs can provide a favorable microenvironment to promote tumor development and progression. In this review article, we present an overview of mechanisms responsible for TAM recruitment and highlight the roles of TAMs in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, immunosuppression, and chemotherapeutic resistance. Finally, we discuss TAM-targeting therapy as a promising novel strategy for an indirect cancer therapy. PMID:25125485

  5. Tumor-associated macrophages as major players in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Chanmee, Theerawut; Ontong, Pawared; Konno, Kenjiro; Itano, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    During tumor progression, circulating monocytes and macrophages are actively recruited into tumors where they alter the tumor microenvironment to accelerate tumor progression. Macrophages shift their functional phenotypes in response to various microenvironmental signals generated from tumor and stromal cells. Based on their function, macrophages are divided broadly into two categories: classical M1 and alternative M2 macrophages. The M1 macrophage is involved in the inflammatory response, pathogen clearance, and antitumor immunity. In contrast, the M2 macrophage influences an anti-inflammatory response, wound healing, and pro-tumorigenic properties. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) closely resemble the M2-polarized macrophages and are critical modulators of the tumor microenvironment. Clinicopathological studies have suggested that TAM accumulation in tumors correlates with a poor clinical outcome. Consistent with that evidence, experimental and animal studies have supported the notion that TAMs can provide a favorable microenvironment to promote tumor development and progression. In this review article, we present an overview of mechanisms responsible for TAM recruitment and highlight the roles of TAMs in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, immunosuppression, and chemotherapeutic resistance. Finally, we discuss TAM-targeting therapy as a promising novel strategy for an indirect cancer therapy. PMID:25125485

  6. More than the genes, the tumor microenvironment in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Borriello, Lucia; Seeger, Robert C; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; DeClerck, Yves A

    2016-09-28

    Neuroblastoma is the second most common solid tumor in children. Since the seminal discovery of the role of amplification of the MYCN oncogene in the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma in the 1980s, much focus has been on the contribution of genetic alterations in the progression of this cancer. However it is now clear that not only genetic events play a role but that the tumor microenvironment (TME) substantially contributes to the biology of neuroblastoma. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of the literature on the contribution of the TME to the ten hallmarks of cancer in neuroblastoma and discuss the mechanisms of communication between neuroblastoma cells and the TME that underlie the influence of the TME on neuroblastoma progression. We end our review by discussing how the knowledge acquired over the last two decades in this field is now leading to new clinical trials targeting the TME. PMID:26597947

  7. Targeting CD73 in the tumor microenvironment with MEDI9447

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Carl M.; Sult, Erin; Huang, Qihui; Mulgrew, Kathy; Fuhrmann, Stacy R.; McGlinchey, Kelly A.; Hammond, Scott A.; Rothstein, Raymond; Rios-Doria, Jonathan; Poon, Edmund; Holoweckyj, Nick; Durham, Nicholas M.; Leow, Ching Ching; Diedrich, Gundo; Damschroder, Melissa; Herbst, Ronald; Hollingsworth, Robert E.; Sachsenmeier, Kris F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT MEDI9447 is a human monoclonal antibody that is specific for the ectoenzyme CD73 and currently undergoing Phase I clinical trials. Here we show that MEDI9447 is a potent inhibitor of CD73 ectonucleotidase activity, with wide ranging immune regulatory consequences. MEDI9447 results in relief from adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-mediated lymphocyte suppression in vitro and inhibition of mouse syngeneic tumor growth in vivo. In contrast with other cancer immunotherapy agents such as checkpoint inhibitors or T-cell agonists, MEDI9447 drives changes in both myeloid and lymphoid infiltrating leukocyte populations within the tumor microenvironment of mouse models. Changes include significant alterations in a number of tumor micro-environmental subpopulations including increases in CD8+ effector cells and activated macrophages. Furthermore, these changes correlate directly with responder and non-responder subpopulations within animal studies using syngeneic tumors. Combination data showing additive activity between MEDI9447 and anti-PD-1 antibodies using human cells in vitro and mouse tumor models further demonstrate the potential value of relieving adenosine-mediated immunosuppression. Based on these data, a Phase I study to test the safety, tolerability, and clinical activity of MEDI9447 in cancer patients was initiated (NCT02503774). PMID:27622077

  8. Targeting CD73 in the tumor microenvironment with MEDI9447.

    PubMed

    Hay, Carl M; Sult, Erin; Huang, Qihui; Mulgrew, Kathy; Fuhrmann, Stacy R; McGlinchey, Kelly A; Hammond, Scott A; Rothstein, Raymond; Rios-Doria, Jonathan; Poon, Edmund; Holoweckyj, Nick; Durham, Nicholas M; Leow, Ching Ching; Diedrich, Gundo; Damschroder, Melissa; Herbst, Ronald; Hollingsworth, Robert E; Sachsenmeier, Kris F

    2016-08-01

    MEDI9447 is a human monoclonal antibody that is specific for the ectoenzyme CD73 and currently undergoing Phase I clinical trials. Here we show that MEDI9447 is a potent inhibitor of CD73 ectonucleotidase activity, with wide ranging immune regulatory consequences. MEDI9447 results in relief from adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-mediated lymphocyte suppression in vitro and inhibition of mouse syngeneic tumor growth in vivo. In contrast with other cancer immunotherapy agents such as checkpoint inhibitors or T-cell agonists, MEDI9447 drives changes in both myeloid and lymphoid infiltrating leukocyte populations within the tumor microenvironment of mouse models. Changes include significant alterations in a number of tumor micro-environmental subpopulations including increases in CD8(+) effector cells and activated macrophages. Furthermore, these changes correlate directly with responder and non-responder subpopulations within animal studies using syngeneic tumors. Combination data showing additive activity between MEDI9447 and anti-PD-1 antibodies using human cells in vitro and mouse tumor models further demonstrate the potential value of relieving adenosine-mediated immunosuppression. Based on these data, a Phase I study to test the safety, tolerability, and clinical activity of MEDI9447 in cancer patients was initiated (NCT02503774). PMID:27622077

  9. Effects of Tumor Microenvironment Heterogeneity on Nanoparticle Disposition and Efficacy in Breast Cancer Tumor Models

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gina; Darr, David B.; Santos, Charlene M.; Ross, Mark; Valdivia, Alain; Jordan, Jamie L.; Midkiff, Bentley R.; Cohen, Stephanie; Feinberg, Nana Nikolaishvili; Miller, C. Ryan; Tarrant, Teresa K.; Rogers, Arlin B.; Dudley, Andrew C.; Perou, Charles M.; Zamboni, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Tumor cells are surrounded by a complex microenvironment. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment in the variability of nanoparticle (NP) delivery and efficacy. Experimental designs C3(1)-T-Antigen genetically engineered mouse model (C3-TAg) and T11/TP53Null orthotopic syngeneic murine transplant model (T11) representing human breast tumor subtypes basal-like and claudin-low, respectively, were evaluated. For the pharmacokinetic studies, non-liposomal doxorubicin (NL-doxo) or polyethylene glycol tagged (PEGylated) liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) was administered at 6 mg/kg intravenously (IV) x1. Area-under-the concentration versus time curve (AUC) of doxorubicin was calculated. Macrophages, collagen, and the amount of vasculature were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Chemokines and cytokines were measured by multiplex immunochemistry. NL-doxo or PLD was administered at 6 mg/kg IV weekly x6 in efficacy studies. Analyses of intermediary tumor response and overall survival were performed. Results Plasma AUC of NL-doxo and PLD encapsulated and released doxorubicin were similar between two models. However, tumor sum total AUC of PLD was 2-fold greater in C3-TAg compared with T11 (P<0.05). T11 tumors showed significantly higher expression of CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-a, greater vascular quantity, and decreased expression of VEGF-c compared to C3-TAg (P<0.05). PLD was more efficacious compared to NL-doxo in both models. Conclusion The tumor microenvironment and/or tumor cell features of breast cancer affected NP tumor delivery and efficacy, but not the small molecule drug. Our findings reveal the role of the tumor microenvironment in variability of NP delivery and therapeutic outcomes. PMID:25231403

  10. Synergistic Effect and Molecular Mechanisms of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Regulating Tumor Microenvironment and Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhuo; Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of tumor cells with the microenvironment is like a relationship between the “seeds” and “soil,” which is a hotspot in recent cancer research. Targeting at tumor microenvironment as well as tumor cells has become a new strategy for cancer treatment. Conventional cancer treatments mostly focused on single targets or single mechanism (the seeds or part of the soil); few researches intervened in the whole tumor microenvironment and achieved ideal therapeutic effect as expected. Traditional Chinese medicine displays a broad range of biological effects, and increasing evidence has shown that it may relate with synergistic effect on regulating tumor microenvironment and cancer cells. Based on literature review and our previous studies, we summarize the synergistic effect and the molecular mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine on regulating tumor microenvironment and cancer cells. PMID:27042656

  11. Neuropilin-1 stimulates tumor growth by increasing fibronectin fibril assembly in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Yaqoob, Usman; Cao, Sheng; Shergill, Uday; Jagavelu, Kumaravelu; Geng, Zhimin; Yin, Meng; de Assuncao, Thiago M; Cao, Ying; Szabolcs, Anna; Thorgeirsson, Snorri; Schwartz, Martin; Yang, Ju Dong; Ehman, Richard; Roberts, Lewis; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Shah, Vijay H.

    2012-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment, including stromal myofibroblasts and associated matrix proteins, regulates cancer cell invasion and proliferation. Here we report that neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) orchestrates communications between myofibroblasts and soluble fibronectin (FN) that promote α5β1 integrin-dependent FN fibril assembly, matrix stiffness, and tumor growth. Tumor growth and FN fibril assembly was reduced by genetic depletion or antibody neutralization of NRP-1 from stromal myofibroblasts in vivo. Mechanistically, the increase in FN fibril assembly required glycosylation of serine 612 of the extracellular domain of NRP-1, an intact intracellular NRP-1 SEA domain, and intracellular associations between NRP-1, the scaffold protein GIPC, and the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl, that augmented α5β1 FN fibril assembly activity. Analysis of human cancer specimens established an association between tumoral NRP-1 levels and clinical outcome. Our findings indicate that NRP-1 activates the tumor microenvironment, thereby promoting tumor growth. These results not only identify new molecular mechanisms of FN fibril assembly but also have important implications for therapeutic targeting of the myofibroblast in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:22738912

  12. Water permeation drives tumor cell migration in confined microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Stroka, Kimberly M; Jiang, Hongyuan; Chen, Shih-Hsun; Tong, Ziqiu; Wirtz, Denis; Sun, Sean X; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-04-24

    Cell migration is a critical process for diverse (patho)physiological phenomena. Intriguingly, cell migration through physically confined spaces can persist even when typical hallmarks of 2D planar migration, such as actin polymerization and myosin II-mediated contractility, are inhibited. Here, we present an integrated experimental and theoretical approach ("Osmotic Engine Model") and demonstrate that directed water permeation is a major mechanism of cell migration in confined microenvironments. Using microfluidic and imaging techniques along with mathematical modeling, we show that tumor cells confined in a narrow channel establish a polarized distribution of Na+/H+ pumps and aquaporins in the cell membrane, which creates a net inflow of water and ions at the cell leading edge and a net outflow of water and ions at the trailing edge, leading to net cell displacement. Collectively, this study presents an alternate mechanism of cell migration in confinement that depends on cell-volume regulation via water permeation. PMID:24726433

  13. Water Permeation Drives Tumor Cell Migration in Confined Microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Stroka, Kimberly M.; Jiang, Hongyuan; Chen, Shih-Hsun; Tong, Ziqiu; Wirtz, Denis; Sun, Sean X.; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Cell migration is a critical process for diverse (patho) physiological phenomena. Intriguingly, cell migration through physically confined spaces can persist even when typical hallmarks of 2D planar migration, such as actin polymerization and myosin II-mediated contractility, are inhibited. Here, we present an integrated experimental and theoretical approach (“Osmotic Engine Model”) and demonstrate that directed water permeation is a major mechanism of cell migration in confined microenvironments. Using microfluidic and imaging techniques along with mathematical modeling, we show that tumor cells confined in a narrow channel establish a polarized distribution of Na+/H+ pumps and aquaporins in the cell membrane, which creates a net inflow of water and ions at the cell leading edge and a net outflow of water and ions at the trailing edge, leading to net cell displacement. Collectively, this study presents an alternate mechanism of cell migration in confinement that depends on cell-volume regulation via water permeation. PMID:24726433

  14. Sunitinib impedes brain tumor progression and reduces tumor-induced neurodegeneration in the microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Hatipoglu, Gökçe; Hock, Stefan W; Weiss, Ruth; Fan, Zheng; Sehm, Tina; Ghoochani, Ali; Buchfelder, Michael; Savaskan, Nicolai E; Eyüpoglu, Ilker Y

    2015-01-01

    Malignant gliomas can be counted to the most devastating tumors in humans. Novel therapies do not achieve significant prolonged survival rates. The cancer cells have an impact on the surrounding vital tissue and form tumor zones, which make up the tumor microenvironment. We investigated the effects of sunitinib, a small molecule multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on constituents of the tumor microenvironment such as gliomas, astrocytes, endothelial cells, and neurons. Sunitinib has a known anti-angiogenic effect. We found that sunitinib normalizes the aberrant tumor-derived vasculature and reduces tumor vessel pathologies (i.e. auto-loops). Sunitinib has only minor effects on the normal, physiological, non-proliferating vasculature. We found that neurons and astrocytes are protected by sunitinib against glutamate-induced cell death, whereas sunitinib acts as a toxin towards proliferating endothelial cells and tumor vessels. Moreover, sunitinib is effective in inducing glioma cell death. We determined the underlying pathways by which sunitinib operates as a toxin on gliomas and found vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2, KDR/Flk1) as the main target to execute gliomatoxicity. The apoptosis-inducing effect of sunitinib can be mimicked by inhibition of VEGFR2. Knockdown of VEGFR2 can, in part, foster the resistance of glioma cells to receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, sunitinib alleviates tumor-induced neurodegeneration. Hence, we tested whether temozolomide treatment could be potentiated by sunitinib application. Here we show that sunitinib can amplify the effects of temozolomide in glioma cells. Thus, our data indicate that combined treatment with temozolomide does not abrogate the effects of sunitinib. In conclusion, we found that sunitinib acts as a gliomatoxic agent and at the same time carries out neuroprotective effects, reducing tumor-induced neurodegeneration. Thus, this report uncovered sunitinib's actions on

  15. Rapid dissolution of ZnO nanocrystals in acidic cancer microenvironment leading to preferential apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasidharan, Abhilash; Chandran, Parwathy; Menon, Deepthy; Raman, Sreerekha; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2011-09-01

    The microenvironment of cancer plays a very critical role in the survival, proliferation and drug resistance of solid tumors. Here, we report an interesting, acidic cancer microenvironment-mediated dissolution-induced preferential toxicity of ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) against cancer cells while leaving primary cells unaffected. Irrespective of the size-scale (5 and 200 nm) and surface chemistry differences (silica, starch or polyethylene glycol coating), ZnO NCs exhibited multiple stress mechanisms against cancer cell lines (IC50 ~150 μM) while normal human primary cells (human dermal fibroblast, lymphocytes, human umbilical vein endothelial cells) remain less affected. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that ZnO NCs undergo rapid preferential dissolution in acidic (pH ~5-6) cancer microenvironment causing elevated ROS stress, mitochondrial superoxide formation, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane, and cell cycle arrest at S/G2 phase leading to apoptosis. In effect, by elucidating the unique toxicity mechanism of ZnO NCs, we show that ZnO NCs can destabilize cancer cells by utilizing its own hostile acidic microenvironment, which is otherwise critical for its survival.The microenvironment of cancer plays a very critical role in the survival, proliferation and drug resistance of solid tumors. Here, we report an interesting, acidic cancer microenvironment-mediated dissolution-induced preferential toxicity of ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) against cancer cells while leaving primary cells unaffected. Irrespective of the size-scale (5 and 200 nm) and surface chemistry differences (silica, starch or polyethylene glycol coating), ZnO NCs exhibited multiple stress mechanisms against cancer cell lines (IC50 ~150 μM) while normal human primary cells (human dermal fibroblast, lymphocytes, human umbilical vein endothelial cells) remain less affected. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that ZnO NCs undergo rapid preferential dissolution in

  16. Regulation of Transport Pathways in Tumor Vessels: Role of Tumor Type and Microenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Susan K.; Monsky, Wayne L.; Yuan, Fan; Roberts, W. Gregory; Griffith, Linda; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    1998-04-01

    Novel anti-neoplastic agents such as gene targeting vectors and encapsulated carriers are quite large (approximately 100-300 nm in diameter). An understanding of the functional size and physiological regulation of transvascular pathways is necessary to optimize delivery of these agents. Here we analyze the functional limits of transvascular transport and its modulation by the microenvironment. One human and five murine tumors including mammary and colorectal carcinomas, hepatoma, glioma, and sarcoma were implanted in the dorsal skin-fold chamber or cranial window, and the pore cutoff size, a functional measure of transvascular gap size, was determined. The microenvironment was modulated: (i) spatially, by growing tumors in subcutaneous or cranial locations and (ii) temporally, by inducing vascular regression in hormone-dependent tumors. Tumors grown subcutaneously exhibited a characteristic pore cutoff size ranging from 200 nm to 1.2 μ m. This pore cutoff size was reduced in tumors grown in the cranium or in regressing tumors after hormone withdrawal. Vessels induced in basic fibroblast growth factor-containing gels had a pore cutoff size of 200 nm. Albumin permeability was independent of pore cutoff size. These results have three major implications for the delivery of therapeutic agents: (i) delivery may be less efficient in cranial tumors than in subcutaneous tumors, (ii) delivery may be reduced during tumor regression induced by hormonal ablation, and (iii) permeability to a molecule is independent of pore cutoff size as long as the diameter of the molecule is much less than the pore diameter.

  17. Tumor-associated stromal cells as key contributors to the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Bussard, Karen M; Mutkus, Lysette; Stumpf, Kristina; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Marini, Frank C

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a heterogeneous population of cells consisting of the tumor bulk plus supporting cells. It is becoming increasingly evident that these supporting cells are recruited by cancer cells from nearby endogenous host stroma and promote events such as tumor angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, as well as mediate mechanisms of therapeutic resistance. In addition, recruited stromal cells range in type and include vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, adipocytes, fibroblasts, and bone-marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. During normal wound healing and inflammatory processes, local stromal cells change their phenotype to become that of reactive stroma. Under certain conditions, however, tumor cells can co-opt these reactive stromal cells and further transition them into tumor-associated stromal cells (TASCs). These TASCs express higher levels of proteins, including alpha-smooth muscle actin, fibroblast activating protein, and matrix metalloproteinases, compared with their normal, non-reactive counterparts. TASCs are also known to secrete many pro-tumorigenic factors, including IL-6, IL-8, stromal-derived factor-1 alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, tenascin-C, and matrix metalloproteinases, among others, which recruit additional tumor and pro-tumorigenic cells to the developing microenvironment. Here, we review the current literature pertaining to the origins of recruited host stroma, contributions toward tumor progression, tumor-associated stromal cells, and mechanisms of crosstalk between endogenous host stroma and tumor cells. PMID:27515302

  18. Cancer stem cells and the tumor microenvironment: interplay in tumor heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Albini, Adriana; Bruno, Antonino; Gallo, Cristina; Pajardi, Giorgio; Noonan, Douglas M.; Dallaglio, Katiuscia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tumor cells able to recapitulate tumor heterogeneity have been tracked, isolated and characterized in different tumor types, and are commonly named Cancer Stem Cells or Cancer Initiating Cells (CSC/CIC). CSC/CIC are disseminated in the tumor mass and are resistant to anti-cancer therapies and adverse conditions. They are able to divide into another stem cell and a “proliferating” cancer cell. They appear to be responsible for disease recurrence and metastatic dissemination even after apparent eradication of the primary tumor. The modulation of CSC/CIC activities by the tumor microenvironment (TUMIC) is still poorly known. CSC/CIC may mutually interact with the TUMIC in a special and unique manner depending on the TUMIC cells or proteins encountered. The TUMIC consists of extracellular matrix components as well as cellular players among which endothelial, stromal and immune cells, providing and responding to signals to/from the CSC/CIC. This interplay can contribute to the mechanisms through which CSC/CIC may reside in a dormant state in a tissue for years, later giving rise to tumor recurrence or metastasis in patients. Different TUMIC components, including the connective tissue, can differentially activate CIC/CSC in different areas of a tumor and contribute to the generation of cancer heterogeneity. Here, we review possible networking activities between the different components of the tumor microenvironment and CSC/CIC, with a focus on its role in tumor heterogeneity and progression. We also summarize novel therapeutic options that could target both CSC/CIC and the microenvironment to elude resistance mechanisms activated by CSC/CIC, responsible for disease recurrence and metastases. PMID:26291921

  19. Cancer stem cells and the tumor microenvironment: interplay in tumor heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Albini, Adriana; Bruno, Antonino; Gallo, Cristina; Pajardi, Giorgio; Noonan, Douglas M; Dallaglio, Katiuscia

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells able to recapitulate tumor heterogeneity have been tracked, isolated and characterized in different tumor types, and are commonly named Cancer Stem Cells or Cancer Initiating Cells (CSC/CIC). CSC/CIC are disseminated in the tumor mass and are resistant to anti-cancer therapies and adverse conditions. They are able to divide into another stem cell and a "proliferating" cancer cell. They appear to be responsible for disease recurrence and metastatic dissemination even after apparent eradication of the primary tumor. The modulation of CSC/CIC activities by the tumor microenvironment (TUMIC) is still poorly known. CSC/CIC may mutually interact with the TUMIC in a special and unique manner depending on the TUMIC cells or proteins encountered. The TUMIC consists of extracellular matrix components as well as cellular players among which endothelial, stromal and immune cells, providing and responding to signals to/from the CSC/CIC. This interplay can contribute to the mechanisms through which CSC/CIC may reside in a dormant state in a tissue for years, later giving rise to tumor recurrence or metastasis in patients. Different TUMIC components, including the connective tissue, can differentially activate CIC/CSC in different areas of a tumor and contribute to the generation of cancer heterogeneity. Here, we review possible networking activities between the different components of the tumor microenvironment and CSC/CIC, with a focus on its role in tumor heterogeneity and progression. We also summarize novel therapeutic options that could target both CSC/CIC and the microenvironment to elude resistance mechanisms activated by CSC/CIC, responsible for disease recurrence and metastases. PMID:26291921

  20. Studies on the Tumor Vasculature and Coagulant Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    D'Asti, Esterina; Meehan, Brian; Rak, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis represents one aspect in the complex process that leads to the generation of the vascular tumor stroma. The related functional constituents include responses of endothelial, mural, bone marrow-derived, and resident inflammatory cells as well as activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic systems in blood. Multiple molecular and cellular effectors participate in these events, often in a tumor-specific manner and with changes enforced through the microenvironment, genetic evolution, and responses to anticancer therapies. To capture various elements of these interactions several surrogate assays have been devised, which can be mechanistically useful and are amenable to quantification, but are individually insufficient to describe the underlying complexity and are best used in a targeted and combinatorial manner. Below, we present a survey of angiogenesis assays and experimental approaches to analyze vascular events in cancer. We also provided specific examples of validated protocols, which are less described, but enable the straightforward analysis of vascular structures and coagulant properties of cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. PMID:27581013

  1. Extracellular matrix, biotensegrity and tumor microenvironment. An update and overview.

    PubMed

    Noguera, R; Nieto, O A; Tadeo, I; Fariñas, F; Alvaro, T

    2012-06-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) constitutes a three-dimensional network that surrounds all cells, organs and tissues in the body. It forms a biophysical filter for protection, nutrition and cell innervation, as well as the medium for facilitating immune response, angiogenesis, fibrosis and tissue regeneration. It is the mechanism by which mechanical forces are transmitted to the basement membrane which, through the integrins, supports the tensegrity system and activates the epigenetic mechanisms of the cell. A review and update on current knowledge on this topic reveals how disturbance of the ECM leads to a loss of efficient filtering, nutrition, elimination, and cell denervation functions, in addition to loss of regeneration capacity and disorders in mechanotransduction. Furthermore, such disturbance results in a loss of substrate, and with it the ability to provide a proper immune response against tumor, toxic and infectious agents. Reciprocal communication between ECM stromal and parenchymatous cells directs gene expression. The oncogenic capacity of the stroma derives from the associated cells as well as from the tumor cells, the angiogenic microenvironment and from an alteration in tensegrity; all of which are dependent on the ECM. It has been shown that the malignant phenotype is reversible by correction of the altered cues of the ECM. PMID:22473691

  2. Bacterial Responses to a Simulated Colon Tumor Microenvironment*

    PubMed Central

    Boleij, Annemarie; Dutilh, Bas E.; Kortman, Guus A. M.; Roelofs, Rian; Laarakkers, Coby M.; Engelke, Udo F.; Tjalsma, Harold

    2012-01-01

    One of the few bacteria that have been consistently linked to colorectal cancer (CRC) is the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus gallolyticus. Infections with this bacterium are generally regarded as an indicator for colonic malignancy, while the carriage rate of this bacterium in the healthy large intestine is relatively low. We speculated that the physiological changes accompanying the development of CRC might favor the colonization of this bacterium. To investigate whether colon tumor cells can support the survival of S. gallolyticus, this bacterium was grown in spent medium of malignant colonocytes to simulate the altered metabolic conditions in the CRC microenvironment. These in vitro simulations indicated that S. gallolyticus had a significant growth advantage in these spent media, which was not observed for other intestinal bacteria. Under these conditions, bacterial responses were profiled by proteome analysis and metabolic shifts were analyzed by 1H-NMR-spectroscopy. In silico pathway analysis of the differentially expressed proteins and metabolite analysis indicated that this advantage resulted from the increased utilization of glucose, glucose derivates, and alanine. Together, these data suggest that tumor cell metabolites facilitate the survival of S. gallolyticus, favoring its local outgrowth and providing a possible explanation for the specific association of S. gallolyticus with colonic malignancy. PMID:22713208

  3. The Multifaceted Roles Neutrophils Play in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Sionov, Ronit Vogt; Fridlender, Zvi G; Granot, Zvi

    2015-12-01

    Neutrophils are myeloid cells that constitute 50-70 % of all white blood cells in the human circulation. Traditionally, neutrophils are viewed as the first line of defense against infections and as a major component of the inflammatory process. In addition, accumulating evidence suggest that neutrophils may also play a key role in multiple aspects of cancer biology. The possible involvement of neutrophils in cancer prevention and promotion was already suggested more than half a century ago, however, despite being the major component of the immune system, their contribution has often been overshadowed by other immune components such as lymphocytes and macrophages. Neutrophils seem to have conflicting functions in cancer and can be classified into anti-tumor (N1) and pro-tumor (N2) sub-populations. The aim of this review is to discuss the varying nature of neutrophil function in the cancer microenvironment with a specific emphasis on the mechanisms that regulate neutrophil mobilization, recruitment and activation. PMID:24895166

  4. Reactive Oxygen Species Regulate T Cell Immune Response in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinfeng; Song, Mengjia; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by cellular metabolism play an important role as signaling messengers in immune system. ROS elevated in the tumor microenvironment are associated with tumor-induced immunosuppression. T cell-based therapy has been recently approved to be effective for cancer treatment. However, T cells often become dysfunctional after reaching the tumor site. It has been reported that ROS participate extensively in T cells activation, apoptosis, and hyporesponsiveness. The sensitivity of T cells to ROS varies among different subsets. ROS can be regulated by cytokines, amino acid metabolism, and enzymatic activity. Immunosuppressive cells accumulate in the tumor microenvironment and induce apoptosis and functional suppression of T cells by producing ROS. Thus, modulating the level of ROS may be important to prolong survival of T cells and enhance their antitumor function. Combining T cell-based therapy with antioxidant treatment such as administration of ROS scavenger should be considered as a promising strategy in cancer treatment, aiming to improve antitumor T cells immunity. PMID:27547291

  5. Reactive Oxygen Species Regulate T Cell Immune Response in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinfeng; Song, Mengjia

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by cellular metabolism play an important role as signaling messengers in immune system. ROS elevated in the tumor microenvironment are associated with tumor-induced immunosuppression. T cell-based therapy has been recently approved to be effective for cancer treatment. However, T cells often become dysfunctional after reaching the tumor site. It has been reported that ROS participate extensively in T cells activation, apoptosis, and hyporesponsiveness. The sensitivity of T cells to ROS varies among different subsets. ROS can be regulated by cytokines, amino acid metabolism, and enzymatic activity. Immunosuppressive cells accumulate in the tumor microenvironment and induce apoptosis and functional suppression of T cells by producing ROS. Thus, modulating the level of ROS may be important to prolong survival of T cells and enhance their antitumor function. Combining T cell-based therapy with antioxidant treatment such as administration of ROS scavenger should be considered as a promising strategy in cancer treatment, aiming to improve antitumor T cells immunity. PMID:27547291

  6. Systemic oxidative profile after tumor removal and the tumor microenvironment in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Sara Santos; de Souza-Neto, Fernando Pinheiro; Ramalho, Leandra Náira Zambelli; Derossi, Daniela Rudgeri; Guarnier, Flávia Alessandra; da Silva, Cássio Fernando Nunes; Melo, Gabriella Pascoal; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Cecchini, Rubens; Cecchini, Alessandra Lourenço

    2015-06-01

    This study highlights the systemic oxidative changes in patients submitted to primary cutaneous melanoma removal. Cutaneous melanoma is highly aggressive and its incidence is increasing worldwide. We evaluated systemic oxidative stress (OS) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) expression in melanoma tissue in relation to the Breslow thickness in patients under surveillance. Forty-three patients with cutaneous melanoma and 50 healthy volunteers were recruited. Patients were divided into two groups according to the tumor's Breslow thickness: T1/T2 (<2 mm) and T3/T4 (≥2 mm). Systemic OS and inflammatory mediators were evaluated in plasma, and the 3-NT expression was analyzed via immunohistochemistry. Compared with the controls, the patients had lower blood levels of reduced glutathione, higher malondialdehyde and thiol levels, and a higher total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter to uric acid ratio. The C-reactive protein and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase were increased only in the T3/T4 group. High levels of 3-NT were present only in T3/T4 patients. Our data suggested that a correlation exists between the Breslow thickness and a systemic pro-oxidant status, and that oxidative changes induced by the melanoma remain in the microenvironment post-surgery, demonstrating a role for oxygen species in melanoma. PMID:25772650

  7. WE-E-BRE-12: Tumor Microenvironment Dynamics Following Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Campos, D; Niles, D; Adamson, E; Torres, A; Kissick, M; Eliceiri, K; Kimple, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: This work aims to understand the radiation-induced interplay between tumor oxygenation and metabolic activity. These dynamics can potentially serve as biomarkers in assessing treatment response allowing for patient-specific adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: Using patient-derived xenografts of head and neck cancer we assessed tumor oxygenation via fiber-optic probe monitored hemoglobin saturation and Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) MRI. Measurements were taken before and after a 10 Gy dose of radiation. Changes in metabolic activity were measured via Fluorescence Lifetime IMaging (FLIM) with the appropriate controls following a 10 Gy dose of radiation. FLIM can non-invasively monitor changes in fluorescence in response to the microenvironment including being able to detect free and bound states of the intrinsically fluorescent metabolite NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide). With this information FLIM can accurately quantify the metabolic state of cells that have been radiated. To model the observed changes, a two-compartment, source-sink simulation relating hemoglobin saturation and metabolic activity was performed using MATLAB. Results: Hemoglobin saturation as measured by interstitial probe and BOLD-MRI decreased by 30% within 15 minutes following radiation. FLIM demonstrated a decrease in the mean fluorescence lifetime of NADH by 100 ps following 10 Gy indicating a shift towards glycolytic pathways. Simulation of radiation-induced alterations in tumor oxygenation demonstrated that these changes can be the result of changes in either vasculature or metabolic activity. Conclusion: Radiation induces significant changes in hemoglobin saturation and metabolic activity. These alterations occur on time scales approximately the duration of common radiation treatments. Further understanding these dynamics has important implications with regard to improvement of therapy and biomarkers of treatment response.

  8. Cancer Stem Cells and Their Interaction with the Tumor Microenvironment in Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Evan F.; Beierle, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, a solid tumor arising from neural crest cells, accounts for over 15% of all pediatric cancer deaths. The interaction of neuroblastoma cancer-initiating cells with their microenvironment likely plays an integral role in the maintenance of resistant disease and tumor relapse. In this review, we discuss the interaction between neuroblastoma cancer-initiating cells and the elements of the tumor microenvironment and how these interactions may provide novel therapeutic targets for this difficult to treat disease. PMID:26729169

  9. The irradiated tumor microenvironment: role of tumor-associated macrophages in vascular recovery

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jeffery S.; Brown, J. Martin

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an important modality used in the treatment of more than 50% of cancer patients in the US. However, despite sophisticated techniques for radiation delivery as well as the combination of radiation with chemotherapy, tumors can recur. Thus, any method of improving the local control of the primary tumor by radiotherapy would produce a major improvement in the curability of cancer patients. One of the challenges in the field is to understand how the tumor vasculature can regrow after radiation in order to support tumor recurrence, as it is unlikely that any of the endothelial cells within the tumor could survive the doses given in a typical radiotherapy regimen. There is now considerable evidence from both preclinical and clinical studies that the tumor vasculature can be restored following radiotherapy from an influx of circulating cells consisting primarily of bone marrow derived monocytes and macrophages. The radiation-induced influx of bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) into tumors can be prevented through the blockade of various cytokine pathways and such strategies can inhibit tumor recurrence. However, the post-radiation interactions between surviving tumor cells, recruited immune cells, and the remaining stroma remain poorly defined. While prior studies have described the monocyte/macrophage inflammatory response within normal tissues and in the tumor microenvironment, less is known about this response with respect to a tumor after radiation therapy. The goal of this review is to summarize existing research studies to provide an understanding of how the myelomonocytic lineage may influence vascular recovery within the irradiated tumor microenvironment. PMID:23882218

  10. Acidic microenvironment and bone pain in cancer-colonized bone

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Hiasa, Masahiro; Nagata, Yuki; Okui, Tatsuo; White, Fletcher A

    2015-01-01

    Solid cancers and hematologic cancers frequently colonize bone and induce skeletal-related complications. Bone pain is one of the most common complications associated with cancer colonization in bone and a major cause of increased morbidity and diminished quality of life, leading to poor survival in cancer patients. Although the mechanisms responsible for cancer-associated bone pain (CABP) are poorly understood, it is likely that complex interactions among cancer cells, bone cells and peripheral nerve cells contribute to the pathophysiology of CABP. Clinical observations that specific inhibitors of osteoclasts reduce CABP indicate a critical role of osteoclasts. Osteoclasts are proton-secreting cells and acidify extracellular bone microenvironment. Cancer cell-colonized bone also releases proton/lactate to avoid intracellular acidification resulting from increased aerobic glycolysis known as the Warburg effect. Thus, extracellular microenvironment of cancer-colonized bone is acidic. Acidosis is algogenic for nociceptive sensory neurons. The bone is densely innervated by the sensory neurons that express acid-sensing nociceptors. Collectively, CABP is evoked by the activation of these nociceptors on the sensory neurons innervating bone by the acidic extracellular microenvironment created by bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-colonizing cancer cells. As current treatments do not satisfactorily control CABP and can elicit serious side effects, new therapeutic interventions are needed to manage CABP. Understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanism by which the acidic extracellular microenvironment is created in cancer-colonized bone and by which the expression and function of the acid-sensing nociceptors on the sensory neurons are regulated would facilitate to develop novel therapeutic approaches for the management of CABP. PMID:25987988

  11. MicroRNA silencing for cancer therapy targeted to the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Christopher J.; Bahal, Raman; Babar, Imran A.; Pincus, Zachary; Barrera, Francisco; Liu, Connie; Svoronos, Alexander; Braddock, Demetrios T.; Glazer, Peter M.; Engelman, Donald M.; Saltzman, W. Mark; Slack, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY PARAGRAPH MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs expressed in different tissue and cell types that suppress the expression of target genes. As such, miRNAs are critical cogs in numerous biological processes1,2, and dysregulated miRNA expression is correlated with many human diseases. Certain miRNAs, called oncomiRs, play a causal role in the onset and maintenance of cancer when overexpressed. Tumors that depend on these miRNAs are said to display oncomiR addiction3–5. Some of the most effective anticancer therapies target oncogenes like EGFR and HER2; similarly, inhibition of oncomiRs using antisense oligomers (i.e. antimiRs) is an evolving therapeutic strategy6,7. However, the in vivo efficacy of current antimiR technologies is hindered by physiological and cellular barriers to delivery into targeted cells8. Here we introduce a novel antimiR delivery platform that targets the acidic tumor microenvironment, evades systemic clearance by the liver, and facilitates cell entry via a non-endocytic pathway. We found that the attachment of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) antimiRs to a peptide with a low pH-induced transmembrane structure (pHLIP) produced a novel construct that could target the tumor microenvironment, transport antimiRs across plasma membranes under acidic conditions such as those found in solid tumors (pH ~6), and effectively inhibit the miR-155 oncomiR in a mouse model of lymphoma. This study introduces a new paradigm in the use of antimiRs as anti-cancer drugs, which can have broad impacts on the field of targeted drug delivery. PMID:25409146

  12. Can cancer be reversed by engineering the tumor microenvironment?

    PubMed Central

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    To advance cancer research in a transformative way, we must redefine the problem. Although epithelial cancers, such as breast cancer, may be caused by random somatic gene mutations, the reality is that this is only one of many ways to induce tumor formation. Cancers also can be produced in experimental systems in vitro and in vivo, for example, by inducing sustained alterations of extracellular matrix (ECM) structure. Moreover, certain epithelial cancers can be induced to ‘reboot’ and regenerate normal tissue morphology when combined with embryonic mesenchyme or exogenous ECM scaffolds that are produced through epithelial-stromal interactions. At the same time, work in the field of Mechanical Biology has revealed that many cell behaviors critical for cancer formation (e.g., growth, differentiation, motility, apoptosis) can be controlled by physical interactions between cells and their ECM adhesions that alter the mechanical force balance in the ECM, cell and cytoskeleton. Epithelial tumor progression also can be induced in vitro by changing ECM mechanics or altering cytoskeletal tension generation through manipulation of the Rho GTPase signaling pathway. Mechanical interactions between capillary cells and ECM that are mediated by Rho signaling similarly mediate control of capillary cell growth and angiogenesis, which are equally critical for cancer progression and metastasis. These findings question basic assumptions in the cancer field, and raise the intriguing possibility that cancer may be a reversible disease that results from progressive deregulation of tissue architecture, which leads to physical changes in cells and altered mechanical signaling. This perspective raises the possibility of developing a tissue engineering approach to cancer therapy in which biologically-inspired materials that mimic the embryonic microenvironment are used to induce cancers to revert into normal tissues. PMID:18472275

  13. Extended Time-lapse Intravital Imaging of Real-time Multicellular Dynamics in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Harney, Allison S.; Wang, Yarong; Condeelis, John S.; Entenberg, David

    2016-01-01

    In the tumor microenvironment, host stromal cells interact with tumor cells to promote tumor progression, angiogenesis, tumor cell dissemination and metastasis. Multicellular interactions in the tumor microenvironment can lead to transient events including directional tumor cell motility and vascular permeability. Quantification of tumor vascular permeability has frequently used end-point experiments to measure extravasation of vascular dyes. However, due to the transient nature of multicellular interactions and vascular permeability, the kinetics of these dynamic events cannot be discerned. By labeling cells and vasculature with injectable dyes or fluorescent proteins, high-resolution time-lapse intravital microscopy has allowed the direct, real-time visualization of transient events in the tumor microenvironment. Here we describe a method for using multiphoton microscopy to perform extended intravital imaging in live mice to directly visualize multicellular dynamics in the tumor microenvironment. This method details cellular labeling strategies, the surgical preparation of a mammary skin flap, the administration of injectable dyes or proteins by tail vein catheter and the acquisition of time-lapse images. The time-lapse sequences obtained from this method facilitate the visualization and quantitation of the kinetics of cellular events of motility and vascular permeability in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27341448

  14. Extended Time-lapse Intravital Imaging of Real-time Multicellular Dynamics in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Harney, Allison S; Wang, Yarong; Condeelis, John S; Entenberg, David

    2016-01-01

    In the tumor microenvironment, host stromal cells interact with tumor cells to promote tumor progression, angiogenesis, tumor cell dissemination and metastasis. Multicellular interactions in the tumor microenvironment can lead to transient events including directional tumor cell motility and vascular permeability. Quantification of tumor vascular permeability has frequently used end-point experiments to measure extravasation of vascular dyes. However, due to the transient nature of multicellular interactions and vascular permeability, the kinetics of these dynamic events cannot be discerned. By labeling cells and vasculature with injectable dyes or fluorescent proteins, high-resolution time-lapse intravital microscopy has allowed the direct, real-time visualization of transient events in the tumor microenvironment. Here we describe a method for using multiphoton microscopy to perform extended intravital imaging in live mice to directly visualize multicellular dynamics in the tumor microenvironment. This method details cellular labeling strategies, the surgical preparation of a mammary skin flap, the administration of injectable dyes or proteins by tail vein catheter and the acquisition of time-lapse images. The time-lapse sequences obtained from this method facilitate the visualization and quantitation of the kinetics of cellular events of motility and vascular permeability in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27341448

  15. Regulatory T Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment and Cancer Progression: Role and Therapeutic Targeting.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Belal; Elkord, Eyad

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen significant efforts in understanding and modulating the immune response in cancer. In this context, immunosuppressive cells, including regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), have come under intense investigation for their proposed roles in suppressing tumor-specific immune responses and establishing an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, thus enabling tumor immune evasion. Additionally, recent evidence indicates that Tregs comprise diverse and heterogeneous subsets; phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets of tumor-infiltrating Tregs could contribute differently to cancer prognosis and clinical outcomes. Understanding Treg biology in the setting of cancer, and specifically the tumor microenvironment, is important for designing effective cancer therapies. In this review, we critically examine the role of Tregs in the tumor microenvironment and in cancer progression focusing on human studies. We also discuss the impact of current therapeutic modalities on Treg biology and the therapeutic opportunities for targeting Tregs to enhance anti-tumor immune responses and clinical benefits. PMID:27509527

  16. DT-13 inhibits cancer cell migration by regulating NMIIA indirectly in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongzhi; Huang, Yue; Hou, Xiaoyin; Yu, Xiaowen; Lin, Sensen; Wei, Xiaohui; Li, Ruiming; Khan, Ghulam Jilany; Yuan, Shengtao; Sun, Li

    2016-08-01

    Tumor metastasis is one of the main causes of mortality among patients with malignant tumors. Previous studies concerning tumor metastasis have merely focused on the cancer cells in the tumor. However, an increasing number of studies show that the tumor microenvironment plays a vital role in the progression of cancer, particularly in tumor metastasis. Since fibroblasts and adipocytes are two of the most representative mesenchymal cells in the tumor microenvironment, we established a hypoxia-induced cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) model and a chemically induced adipocyte model to reveal the effect of the microenvironment on cancer development. In these models, the conditioned medium from the tumor microenvironment was found to significantly promote the migration of human lung cancer cell line 95D and regulate the expression of non-muscle myosin IIA (NMIIA), which is consistent with results in the published literature. Then, we confirmed the hypothesis that the tumor microenvironment can regulate NMIIA in cancer cells and facilitate migration by using the non-muscle myosin II inhibitor, blebbistatin. Thus, this is the first report that the tumor microenvironment can promote cancer cell migration by regulating the expression of NMIIA. Our present data also indicated that DT-13, the saponin monomer 13 of dwarf lilyturf tuber, inhibited cancer cell migration in the tumor microenvironment model. Further results showed that DT-13 exhibited anti-migratory effects by inhibiting the c-raf/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Consequently, our research confirmed that DT-13 significantly inhibited 95D cell migration in vitro, indicating the potential anti-metastatic effect of DT-13 on lung cancer and the scientific basis for drug development. PMID:27350172

  17. A Broad Nanoparticle-Based Strategy for Tumor Imaging by Nonlinear Amplification of Microenvironment Signals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiguang; Zhou, Kejin; Huang, Gang; Hensley, Chris; Huang, Xiaonan; Ma, Xinpeng; Zhao, Tian; Sumer, Baran D.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Gao, Jinming

    2013-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials are increasingly important in a variety of applications such as biosensing, molecular imaging, drug delivery and tissue engineering. For cancer detection, a paramount challenge still exists in search of methods that can illuminate tumors universally regardless of their genotypes and phenotypes. Here we capitalized on the acidic, angiogenic tumor microenvironment to achieve broad detection of tumor tissues in a wide variety of mouse cancer models. This was accomplished using ultra-pH sensitive fluorescent nanoprobes that have tunable, exponential fluorescence activation upon encountering subtle, physiologically relevant pH transitions. These nanoprobes were silent in the circulation, then dramatically activated (>300 fold) in response to neovasculature or to the low extracellular pH in tumors. Thus, we have established non-toxic, fluorescent nanoreporters that can non-linearly amplify tumor microenvironmental signals, permitting identification of tumor tissue independently of histological type or driver mutation, and detection of acute treatment responses much more rapidly than conventional imaging approaches. PMID:24317187

  18. Butyrate-rich colonic microenvironment is a relevant selection factor for metabolically adapted tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Serpa, Jacinta; Caiado, Francisco; Carvalho, Tânia; Torre, Cheila; Gonçalves, Luís G; Casalou, Cristina; Lamosa, Pedro; Rodrigues, Margarida; Zhu, Zhenping; Lam, Eric W F; Dias, Sérgio

    2010-12-10

    The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate is a product of colonic fermentation of dietary fibers. It is the main source of energy for normal colonocytes, but cannot be metabolized by most tumor cells. Butyrate also functions as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor to control cell proliferation and apoptosis. In consequence, butyrate and its derived drugs are used in cancer therapy. Here we show that aggressive tumor cells that retain the capacity of metabolizing butyrate are positively selected in their microenvironment. In the mouse xenograft model, butyrate-preselected human colon cancer cells gave rise to subcutaneous tumors that grew faster and were more angiogenic than those derived from untreated cells. Similarly, butyrate-preselected cells demonstrated a significant increase in rates of homing to the lung after intravenous injection. Our data showed that butyrate regulates the expression of VEGF and its receptor KDR at the transcriptional level potentially through FoxM1, resulting in the generation of a functional VEGF:KDR autocrine growth loop. Cells selected by chronic exposure to butyrate express higher levels of MMP2, MMP9, α2 and α3 integrins, and lower levels of E-cadherin, a marker for epithelial to mesenchymal transition. The orthotopic model of colon cancer showed that cells preselected by butyrate are able to colonize the animals locally and at distant organs, whereas control cells can only generate a local tumor in the cecum. Together our data shows that a butyrate-rich microenvironment may select for tumor cells that are able to metabolize butyrate, which are also phenotypically more aggressive. PMID:20926374

  19. Shaping of the tumor microenvironment: Stromal cells and vessels.

    PubMed

    Blonska, Marzenna; Agarwal, Nitin K; Vega, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    Lymphomas develop and progress in a specialized tissue microenvironment such as bone marrow as well as secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph node and spleen. The lymphoma microenvironment is characterized by a heterogeneous population of stromal cells, including fibroblastic reticular cells, nurse-like cells, mesenchymal stem cells, follicular dendritic cells, and inflammatory cells such as macrophages, T- and B-cells. These cell populations interact with the lymphoma cells to promote lymphoma growth, survival and drug resistance through multiple mechanisms. Angiogenesis is also recognized as an important factor associated with lymphoma progression. In recent years, we have learned that the interaction between the malignant and non-malignant cells is bidirectional and resembles, at least in part, the pattern seen between non-neoplastic lymphoid cells and the normal microenvironment of lymphoid organs. A summary of the current knowledge of lymphoma microenvironment focusing on the cellular components will be reviewed here. PMID:25794825

  20. Fibroblast activation protein α in tumor microenvironment: Recent progression and implications (Review)

    PubMed Central

    ZI, FUMING; HE, JINGSONG; HE, DONGHUA; LI, YI; YANG, LI; CAI, ZHEN

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated evidence has demonstrated that the microenvironment of a given tumor is important in determining its drug resistance, tumorigenesis, progression and metastasis. These microenvironments, like tumor cells, are vital targets for cancer therapy. The cross-talk between tumor cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs, alternatively termed activated fibroblasts) is crucial in regulating the drug resistance, tumorigenesis, neoplastic progression, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis of a tumor. Fibroblast activation protein α (FAPα) is a transmembrane serine protease and is highly expressed on CAFs present in >90% of human epithelial neoplasms. FAPα activity, alongside that of gelatinase and type I collagenase, has become increasingly important in cancer therapy due to its effectiveness in modulating tumor behavior. In this review, recent progression in the knowledge of the role of FAPα in tumor microenvironments is discussed. PMID:25593080

  1. Visualizing stromal cell dynamics in different tumor microenvironments by spinning disk confocal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Egeblad, Mikala; Ewald, Andrew J.; Askautrud, Hanne A.; Truitt, Morgan L.; Welm, Bryan E.; Bainbridge, Emma; Peeters, George; Krummel, Matthew F.; Werb, Zena

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The tumor microenvironment consists of stromal cells and extracellular factors that evolve in parallel with carcinoma cells. To gain insights into the activities of stromal cell populations, we developed and applied multicolor imaging techniques to analyze the behavior of these cells within different tumor microenvironments in the same live mouse. We found that regulatory T-lymphocytes (Tregs) migrated in proximity to blood vessels. Dendritic-like cells, myeloid cells and carcinoma-associated fibroblasts all exhibited higher motility in the microenvironment at the tumor periphery than within the tumor mass. Since oxygen levels differ between tumor microenvironments, we tested if acute hypoxia could account for the differences in cell migration. Direct visualization revealed that Tregs ceased migration under acute systemic hypoxia, whereas myeloid cells continued migrating. In the same mouse and microenvironment, we experimentally subdivided the myeloid cell population and revealed that uptake of fluorescent dextran defined a low-motility subpopulation expressing markers of tumor-promoting, alternatively activated macrophages. In contrast, fluorescent anti-Gr1 antibodies marked myeloid cells patrolling inside tumor vessels and in the stroma. Our techniques allow real-time combinatorial analysis of cell populations based on spatial location, gene expression, behavior and cell surface molecules within intact tumors. The techniques are not limited to investigations in cancer, but could give new insights into cell behavior more broadly in development and disease. PMID:19048079

  2. Critical Role of Tumor Microenvironment in Shaping NK Cell Functions: Implication of Hypoxic Stress.

    PubMed

    Hasmim, Meriem; Messai, Yosra; Ziani, Linda; Thiery, Jerome; Bouhris, Jean-Henri; Noman, Muhammad Zaeem; Chouaib, Salem

    2015-01-01

    Blurring the boundary between innate and adaptive immune system, natural killer (NK) cells, a key component of the innate immunity, are recognized as potent anticancer mediators. Extensive studies have been detailed on how NK cells get activated and recognize cancer cells. In contrast, few studies have been focused on how tumor microenvironment-mediated immunosubversion and immunoselection of tumor-resistant variants may impair NK cell function. Accumulating evidences indicate that several cell subsets (macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressive cells, T regulatory cells, dendritic cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, and tumor cells), their secreted factors, as well as metabolic components (i.e., hypoxia) have immunosuppressive roles in the tumor microenvironment and are able to condition NK cells to become anergic. In this review, we will describe how NK cells react with different stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. This will be followed by a discussion on the role of hypoxic stress in the regulation of NK cell functions. The aim of this review is to provide a better understanding of how the tumor microenvironment impairs NK cell functions, thereby limiting the use of NK cell-based therapy, and we will attempt to suggest more efficient tools to establish a more favorable tumor microenvironment to boost NK cell cytotoxicity and control tumor progression. PMID:26441986

  3. Critical Role of Tumor Microenvironment in Shaping NK Cell Functions: Implication of Hypoxic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hasmim, Meriem; Messai, Yosra; Ziani, Linda; Thiery, Jerome; Bouhris, Jean-Henri; Noman, Muhammad Zaeem; Chouaib, Salem

    2015-01-01

    Blurring the boundary between innate and adaptive immune system, natural killer (NK) cells, a key component of the innate immunity, are recognized as potent anticancer mediators. Extensive studies have been detailed on how NK cells get activated and recognize cancer cells. In contrast, few studies have been focused on how tumor microenvironment-mediated immunosubversion and immunoselection of tumor-resistant variants may impair NK cell function. Accumulating evidences indicate that several cell subsets (macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressive cells, T regulatory cells, dendritic cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, and tumor cells), their secreted factors, as well as metabolic components (i.e., hypoxia) have immunosuppressive roles in the tumor microenvironment and are able to condition NK cells to become anergic. In this review, we will describe how NK cells react with different stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. This will be followed by a discussion on the role of hypoxic stress in the regulation of NK cell functions. The aim of this review is to provide a better understanding of how the tumor microenvironment impairs NK cell functions, thereby limiting the use of NK cell-based therapy, and we will attempt to suggest more efficient tools to establish a more favorable tumor microenvironment to boost NK cell cytotoxicity and control tumor progression. PMID:26441986

  4. Inhibition of IL-17A in tumor microenvironment augments cytotoxicity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Hayata, Keiji; Iwahashi, Makoto; Ojima, Toshiyasu; Katsuda, Masahiro; Iida, Takeshi; Nakamori, Mikihito; Ueda, Kentaro; Nakamura, Masaki; Miyazawa, Motoki; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    It remains controversial whether IL-17A promotes or inhibits cancer progression. We hypothesized that IL-17A that is locally produced in the tumor microenvironment has an important role in angiogenesis and tumor immunity. We investigated the effect of inhibiting IL-17A at tumor sites on tumor growth and on local and systemic anti-tumor immunity. MC38 or B16 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into mice, and intratumoral injection of an adenovirus vector expressing siRNA against the mouse IL-17A gene (Ad-si-IL-17) significantly inhibited tumor growth in both tumor models compared with control mice. Inhibition of IL-17A at tumor sites significantly suppressed CD31, MMP9, and VEGF expression in tumor tissue. The cytotoxic activity of CD8(+) T cells from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in mice treated with Ad-si-IL-17 was significantly higher than in control mice; however, CD8(+) T cells from splenocytes had similar activity levels. Suppression of IL-17A at tumor sites led to a Th1-dominant environment, and moreover, eliminated myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells at tumor sites but not in splenocytes. In conclusion, blockade of IL-17A at tumor sites helped suppress tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis as well as cytotoxic T lymphocytes activation at tumor sites. PMID:23372655

  5. Expanding Applications of the Nano Intravital Device as a Platform for Exploring Tumor Microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgen, Michael R.

    The tumor microenvironment has been demonstrated to be a key determinant in the progression of cancer. Unfortunately, the mechanisms behind the different microenvironments (cytokine gradients, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, etc) have not been fully elucidated. Identifying these mechanisms can lead to targeted, individualized therapy to prevent metastasis. The Nano Intravital Device (NANIVID) is a microfabricated, implantable device designed to initiate specific microenvironments in vivo so that the time course of the effects can be observed. With both spatial and temporal control over the induced environments, the affected regions of the tumor can be compared to the rest of the tumor. The NANIVID was first used to establish cytokine gradients to monitor the migration of invasive cancer cells. The three projects that comprise this work expand the applications of the NANIVID to establish the device as a robust platform for investigating tumor microenvironment interactions. The first project released chemical mimics from the device to induce the cellular hypoxic response in tumors to determine how hypoxia affects the fate of disseminated tumor cells. The second project used the NANIVID in combination with an atomic force microscope to investigate the altered mechanics of migrating invasive cancer cells. The final project was to develop a cell counter to monitor the isolation of the invasive subpopulation of cells that were drawn into the device using a chemoattractant. These three projects demonstrate the potential of the NANIVID as a platform for investigating the tumor microenvironment.

  6. Regulation of osteoprotegerin pro- or anti-tumoral activity by bone tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Lamoureux, F; Moriceau, G; Picarda, G; Rousseau, J; Trichet, V; Rédini, F

    2010-01-01

    Tumor development in bone is often associated with fractures, bone loss and bone pain, and improvement is still needed in therapeutic approaches. Bone tumors are related to the existence of a vicious cycle between bone resorption and tumor proliferation in which the molecular triad osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL) plays a pivotal role. RANKL, a member of the TNF superfamily, is one of the main inducers of bone resorption. Its soluble receptor OPG represents a promising therapeutic candidate as it prevents bone lesions and inhibits associated tumor growth. However, its therapeutic use in bone tumors remains controversial due to its ability to bind and inhibit another member of the TNF superfamily, TNF related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), which is a potent inducer of tumor cell apoptosis. Through its heparin binding domain, OPG is also able to bind proteoglycans present in the bone matrix. This paper is an overview of the involvement of the micro-environment, as represented by the balance of RANKL/TRAIL and the presence of proteoglycans in the regulation of OPG biological activity in bone tumors. PMID:19733222

  7. T Cells and Stromal Fibroblasts in Human Tumor Microenvironments Represent Potential Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Barnas, Jennifer L.; Simpson-Abelson, Michelle R.; Yokota, Sandra J.; Kelleher, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    The immune system of cancer patients recognizes tumor-associated antigens expressed on solid tumors and these antigens are able to induce tumor-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Diverse immunotherapeutic strategies have been used in an attempt to enhance both antibody and T cell responses to tumors. While several tumor vaccination strategies significantly increase the number of tumor-specific lymphocytes in the blood of cancer patients, most vaccinated patients ultimately experience tumor progression. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with an effector memory phenotype infiltrate human tumor microenvironments, but most are hyporesponsive to stimulation via the T cell receptor (TCR) and CD28 under conditions that activate memory T cells derived from the peripheral blood of the cancer patients or normal donors. Attempts to identify cells and molecules responsible for the TCR signaling arrest of tumor-infiltrating T cells have focused largely upon the immunosuppressive effects of tumor cells, tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells. Here we review potential mechanisms by which human T cell function is arrested in the tumor microenvironment with a focus on the immunomodulatory effects of stromal fibroblasts. Determining in vivo which cells and molecules are responsible for the TCR arrest in human tumor-infiltrating T cells will be necessary to formulate and test strategies to prevent or reverse the signaling arrest of the human T cells in situ for a more effective design of tumor vaccines. These questions are now addressable using novel human xenograft models of tumor microenvironments. PMID:21209773

  8. CXM: a new tool for mapping breast cancer risk in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Flister, Michael J; Endres, Bradley T; Rudemiller, Nathan; Sarkis, Allison B; Santarriaga, Stephanie; Roy, Ishan; Lemke, Angela; Geurts, Aron M; Moreno, Carol; Ran, Sophia; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; De Pons, Jeffery; Carlson, Daniel F; Tan, Wenfang; Fahrenkrug, Scott C; Lazarova, Zelmira; Lazar, Jozef; North, Paula E; LaViolette, Peter S; Dwinell, Michael B; Shull, James D; Jacob, Howard J

    2014-11-15

    The majority of causative variants in familial breast cancer remain unknown. Of the known risk variants, most are tumor cell autonomous, and little attention has been paid yet to germline variants that may affect the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we developed a system called the Consomic Xenograft Model (CXM) to map germline variants that affect only the tumor microenvironment. In CXM, human breast cancer cells are orthotopically implanted into immunodeficient consomic strains and tumor metrics are quantified (e.g., growth, vasculogenesis, and metastasis). Because the strain backgrounds vary, whereas the malignant tumor cells do not, any observed changes in tumor progression are due to genetic differences in the nonmalignant microenvironment. Using CXM, we defined genetic variants on rat chromosome 3 that reduced relative tumor growth and hematogenous metastasis in the SS.BN3(IL2Rγ) consomic model compared with the SS(IL2Rγ) parental strain. Paradoxically, these effects occurred despite an increase in the density of tumor-associated blood vessels. In contrast, lymphatic vasculature and lymphogenous metastasis were unaffected by the SS.BN3(IL2Rγ) background. Through comparative mapping and whole-genome sequence analysis, we narrowed candidate variants on rat chromosome 3 to six genes with a priority for future analysis. Collectively, our results establish the utility of CXM to localize genetic variants affecting the tumor microenvironment that underlie differences in breast cancer risk. PMID:25172839

  9. Role of the tumor microenvironment in mature B-cell lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Nathan H.; Cheah, Chan Yoon; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Gribben, John; Neelapu, Sattva S.; Ghia, Paolo; Bollard, Catherine; Ansell, Stephen; Curran, Michael; Wilson, Wyndham H.; O’Brien, Susan; Grant, Cliona; Little, Richard; Zenz, Thorsten; Nastoupil, Loretta J.; Dunleavy, Kieron

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is the cellular and molecular environment in which the tumor exists and with which it continuously interacts. In B-cell lymphomas, this microenvironment is intriguing in that it plays critical roles in the regulation of tumor cell survival and proliferation, fostering immune escape as well as the development of treatment resistance. The purpose of this review is to summarize the proceedings of the Second Annual Summit on the Immune Microenvironment in Hematologic Malignancies that took place on September 11–12, 2014 in Dublin, Ireland. We provide a timely overview of the composition and biological relevance of the cellular and molecular microenvironment interface and discuss the role of interactions between the microenvironment and neoplastic cells in a variety of B-cell lymphomas. In addition, we focus on various novel therapeutic strategies that target the tumor microenvironment, including agents that modulate B-cell receptor pathways and immune-checkpoints, chimeric antigen receptor T cells and immunomodulatory agents. PMID:27132279

  10. The "Trojan Horse" approach to tumor immunotherapy: targeting the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Delia; Fisher, Scott; Robinson, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Most anticancer therapies including immunotherapies are given systemically; yet therapies given directly into tumors may be more effective, particularly those that overcome natural suppressive factors in the tumor microenvironment. The "Trojan Horse" approach of intratumoural delivery aims to promote immune-mediated destruction by inducing microenvironmental changes within the tumour at the same time as avoiding the systemic toxicity that is often associated with more "full frontal" treatments such as transfer of large numbers of laboratory-expanded tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes or large intravenous doses of cytokine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that intratumoural therapy has the capacity to minimizing local suppression, inducing sufficient "dangerous" tumor cell death to cross-prime strong immune responses, and rending tumor blood vessels amenable to immune cell traffic to induce effector cell changes in secondary lymphoid organs. However, the key to its success is the design of a sound rational approach based on evidence. There is compelling preclinical data for local immunotherapy approaches in tumor immunology. This review summarises how immune events within a tumour can be modified by local approaches, how this can affect systemic antitumor immunity such that distal sites are attacked, and what approaches have been proven most successful so far in animals and patients. PMID:24955376

  11. The “Trojan Horse” Approach to Tumor Immunotherapy: Targeting the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Delia; Fisher, Scott; Robinson, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Most anticancer therapies including immunotherapies are given systemically; yet therapies given directly into tumors may be more effective, particularly those that overcome natural suppressive factors in the tumor microenvironment. The “Trojan Horse” approach of intratumoural delivery aims to promote immune-mediated destruction by inducing microenvironmental changes within the tumour at the same time as avoiding the systemic toxicity that is often associated with more “full frontal” treatments such as transfer of large numbers of laboratory-expanded tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes or large intravenous doses of cytokine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that intratumoural therapy has the capacity to minimizing local suppression, inducing sufficient “dangerous” tumor cell death to cross-prime strong immune responses, and rending tumor blood vessels amenable to immune cell traffic to induce effector cell changes in secondary lymphoid organs. However, the key to its success is the design of a sound rational approach based on evidence. There is compelling preclinical data for local immunotherapy approaches in tumor immunology. This review summarises how immune events within a tumour can be modified by local approaches, how this can affect systemic antitumor immunity such that distal sites are attacked, and what approaches have been proven most successful so far in animals and patients. PMID:24955376

  12. Imaging angiogenesis, inflammation, and metastasis in the tumor microenvironment with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Serres, Sébastien; O'Brien, Emma R; Sibson, Nicola R

    2014-01-01

    With the development of new imaging techniques, the potential for probing the molecular, cellular, and structural components of the tumor microenvironment in situ has increased dramatically. A multitude of imaging modalities have been successfully employed to probe different aspects of the tumor microenvironment, including expression of molecules, cell motion, cellularity, vessel permeability, vascular perfusion, metabolic and physiological changes, apoptosis, and inflammation. This chapter focuses on the most recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging methods, which offer a number of advantages over other methodologies, including high spatial resolution and the use of nonionizing radiation, as well as the use of such methods in the context of primary and secondary brain tumors. It also highlights how they can be used to assess the molecular and cellular changes in the tumor microenvironment in response to therapy. PMID:24272363

  13. Starved and Asphyxiated: How Can CD8+ T Cells within a Tumor Microenvironment Prevent Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Ertl, Hildegund C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Although cancer immunotherapy has achieved significant breakthroughs in recent years, its overall efficacy remains limited in the majority of patients. One major barrier is exhaustion of tumor antigen-specific CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), which conventionally has been attributed to persistent stimulation with antigen within the tumor microenvironment (TME). A series of recent studies have highlighted that the TME poses significant metabolic challenges to TILs, which may contribute to their functional exhaustion. Hypoxia increases the expression of coinhibitors on activated CD8+ T cells, which in general reduces the T cells’ effector functions. It also impairs the cells’ ability to gain energy through oxidative phosphorylation. Glucose limitation increases the expression of programed cell death protein-1 and reduces functions of activated CD8+ T cells. A combination of hypoxia and hypoglycemia, as is common in solid tumors, places CD8+ TILs at dual metabolic jeopardy by affecting both major pathways of energy production. Recently, a number of studies addressed the effects of metabolic stress on modulating CD8+ T cell metabolism, differentiation, and functions. Here, we discuss recent findings on how different types of metabolic stress within the TME shape the tumor-killing capacity of CD8+ T cells. We propose that manipulating the metabolism of TILs to more efficiently utilize nutrients, especially during intermittent periods of hypoxia could maximize their performance, prolong their survival and improve the efficacy of active cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26904023

  14. Engineered three-dimensional microfluidic device for interrogating cell-cell interactions in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Hockemeyer, K.; Janetopoulos, C.; Terekhov, A.; Hofmeister, W.; Vilgelm, A.; Costa, Lino; Wikswo, J. P.; Richmond, A.

    2014-01-01

    Stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment play a key role in the metastatic properties of a tumor. It is recognized that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and endothelial cells secrete factors capable of influencing tumor cell migration into the blood or lymphatic vessels. We developed a microfluidic device that can be used to image the interactions between stromal cells and tumor cell spheroids in a three dimensional (3D) microenvironment while enabling external control of interstitial flow at an interface, which supports endothelial cells. The apparatus couples a 200-μm channel with a semicircular well to mimic the interface of a blood vessel with the stroma, and the design allows for visualization of the interactions of interstitial flow, endothelial cells, leukocytes, and fibroblasts with the tumor cells. We observed that normal tissue-associated fibroblasts (NAFs) contribute to the “single file” pattern of migration of tumor cells from the spheroid in the 3D microenvironment. In contrast, CAFs induce a rapid dispersion of tumor cells out of the spheroid with migration into the 3D matrix. Moreover, treatment of tumor spheroid cultures with the chemokine CXCL12 mimics the effect of the CAFs, resulting in similar patterns of dispersal of the tumor cells from the spheroid. Conversely, addition of CXCL12 to co-cultures of NAFs with tumor spheroids did not mimic the effects observed with CAF co-cultures, suggesting that NAFs produce factors that stabilize the tumor spheroids to reduce their migration in response to CXCL12. PMID:25379090

  15. The PTEN pathway in Tregs is a critical driver of the suppressive tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Madhav D.; Shinde, Rahul; McGaha, Tracy L.; Huang, Lei; Holmgaard, Rikke B.; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Mautino, Mario R.; Celis, Esteban; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Francisco, Loise M.; Powell, Jonathan D.; Yagita, Hideo; Mellor, Andrew L.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Munn, David H.

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is profoundly immunosuppressive. We show that multiple tumor types create intratumoral immune suppression driven by a specialized form of regulatory T cell (Treg) activation dependent on the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) lipid phosphatase. PTEN acted to stabilize Tregs in tumors, preventing them from reprogramming into inflammatory effector cells. In mice with a Treg-specific deletion of PTEN, tumors grew slowly, were inflamed, and could not create an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. In normal mice, exposure to apoptotic tumor cells rapidly elicited PTEN-expressing Tregs, and PTEN-deficient mice were unable to maintain tolerance to apoptotic cells. In wild-type mice with large established tumors, pharmacologic inhibition of PTEN after chemotherapy or immunotherapy profoundly reconfigured the tumor microenvironment, changing it from a suppressive to an inflammatory milieu, and tumors underwent rapid regression. Thus, the immunosuppressive milieu in tumors must be actively maintained, and tumors become susceptible to immune attack if the PTEN pathway in Tregs is disrupted. PMID:26601142

  16. Engineered three-dimensional microfluidic device for interrogating cell-cell interactions in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Hockemeyer, K; Janetopoulos, C; Terekhov, A; Hofmeister, W; Vilgelm, A; Costa, Lino; Wikswo, J P; Richmond, A

    2014-07-01

    Stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment play a key role in the metastatic properties of a tumor. It is recognized that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and endothelial cells secrete factors capable of influencing tumor cell migration into the blood or lymphatic vessels. We developed a microfluidic device that can be used to image the interactions between stromal cells and tumor cell spheroids in a three dimensional (3D) microenvironment while enabling external control of interstitial flow at an interface, which supports endothelial cells. The apparatus couples a 200-μm channel with a semicircular well to mimic the interface of a blood vessel with the stroma, and the design allows for visualization of the interactions of interstitial flow, endothelial cells, leukocytes, and fibroblasts with the tumor cells. We observed that normal tissue-associated fibroblasts (NAFs) contribute to the "single file" pattern of migration of tumor cells from the spheroid in the 3D microenvironment. In contrast, CAFs induce a rapid dispersion of tumor cells out of the spheroid with migration into the 3D matrix. Moreover, treatment of tumor spheroid cultures with the chemokine CXCL12 mimics the effect of the CAFs, resulting in similar patterns of dispersal of the tumor cells from the spheroid. Conversely, addition of CXCL12 to co-cultures of NAFs with tumor spheroids did not mimic the effects observed with CAF co-cultures, suggesting that NAFs produce factors that stabilize the tumor spheroids to reduce their migration in response to CXCL12. PMID:25379090

  17. Role of the tumor microenvironment in regulating apoptosis and cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Yaacoub, Katherine; Pedeux, Remy; Tarte, Karin; Guillaudeux, Thierry

    2016-08-10

    Apoptosis is a gene-directed program that is engaged to efficiently eliminate dysfunctional cells. Evasion of apoptosis may be an important gate to tumor initiation and therapy resistance. Like any other developmental program, apoptosis can be disrupted by several genetic aberrations driving malignant cells into an uncontrolled progression and survival. For its sustained growth, cancer develops in a complex environment, which provides survival signals and rescues malignant cells from apoptosis. Recent studies have clearly shown a wide interaction between tumor cells and their microenvironment, confirming the influence of the surrounding cells on tumor expansion and invasion. These non-malignant cells not only intensify tumor cells growth but also upgrade the process of metastasis. The strong crosstalk between malignant cells and a reactive microenvironment is mediated by soluble chemokines and cytokines, which act on tumor cells through surface receptors. Disturbing the microenvironment signaling might be an encouraging approach for patient's treatment. Therefore, the ultimate knowledge of "tumor-microenvironment" interactions facilitates the identification of novel therapeutic procedures that mobilize cancer cells from their supportive cells. This review focuses on cancer progression mediated by the dysfunction of apoptosis and by the fundamental relationship between tumor and reactive cells. New insights and valuable targets for cancer prevention and therapy are also presented. PMID:27224890

  18. IL-12 Delivered Intratumorally by Multilamellar Liposomes Reactivates Memory T Cells in Human Tumor Microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Simpson-Abelson, Michelle R.; Purohit, Vivek S.; Pang, Wing Man; Iyer, Vandana; Odunsi, Kunle; Demmy, Todd L; Yokota, Sandra J.; Loyall, Jenni L.; Kelleher, Raymond J.; Balu-Iyer, Sathy; Bankert, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Using a novel loading technique, IL-12 is reported here to be efficiently encapsulated within large multilamellar liposomes. The preclinical efficacy of the cytokine loaded liposomes to deliver IL-12 into human tumors and to reactive tumor-associated T cells in situ is tested using a human tumor xenograft model. IL-12 is released in vivo from these liposomes in a biologically active form when injected into tumor xenografts that are established by the subcutaneous implantation of non-disrupted pieces of human lung, breast or ovarian tumors into immunodeficient mice. The histological architecture of the original tumor tissue, including tumor-associated leukocytes, tumor cells and stromal cells is preserved anatomically and the cells remain functionally responsive to cytokines in these xenografts. The local and sustained release of IL-12 into the tumor microenvironment reactivates tumor-associated quiescent effector memory T cells to proliferate, produce and release IFN-γ resulting in the killing of tumor cells in situ. Very little IL-12 is detected in the serum of mice for up to 5 days after an intratumoral injection of the IL-12 liposomes. We conclude that IL-12 loaded large multilamellar liposomes provide a safe method for the local and sustained delivery of IL-12 to tumors and a therapeutically effective way of reactivating existing tumor-associated T cells in human solid tumor microenvironments. The potential of this local in situ T cell re-stimulation to induce a systemic anti-tumor immunity is discussed. PMID:19395317

  19. Galectin-3 Determines Tumor Cell Adaptive Strategies in Stressed Tumor Microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana Carolina Ferreira; Andrade, Luciana Nogueira de Sousa; Bustos, Silvina Odete; Chammas, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-3 is a member of the β-galactoside-binding lectin family, whose expression is often dysregulated in cancers. While galectin-3 is usually an intracellular protein found in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm, under certain conditions, galectin-3 can be secreted by an yet unknown mechanism. Under stressing conditions (e.g., hypoxia and nutrient deprivation) galectin-3 is upregulated, through the activity of transcription factors, such as HIF-1α and NF-κB. Here, we review evidence that indicates a positive role for galectin-3 in MAPK family signal transduction, leading to cell proliferation and cell survival. Galectin-3 serves as a scaffold protein, which favors the spatial organization of signaling proteins as K-RAS. Upon secretion, extracellular galectin-3 interacts with a variety of cell surface glycoproteins, such as growth factor receptors, integrins, cadherins, and members of the Notch family, among other glycoproteins, besides different extracellular matrix molecules. Through its ability to oligomerize, galectin-3 forms lectin lattices that act as scaffolds that sustain the spatial organization of signaling receptors on the cell surface, dictating its maintenance on the plasma membrane or their endocytosis. Galectin-3 induces tumor cell, endothelial cell, and leukocyte migration, favoring either the exit of tumor cells from a stressed microenvironment or the entry of endothelial cells and leukocytes, such as monocytes/macrophages into the tumor organoid. Therefore, galectin-3 plays homeostatic roles in tumors, as (i) it favors tumor cell adaptation for survival in stressed conditions; (ii) upon secretion, galectin-3 induces tumor cell detachment and migration; and (iii) it attracts monocyte/macrophage and endothelial cells to the tumor mass, inducing both directly and indirectly the process of angiogenesis. The two latter activities are potentially targetable, and specific interventions may be designed to counteract the protumoral role of extracellular

  20. Galectin-3 Determines Tumor Cell Adaptive Strategies in Stressed Tumor Microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Ana Carolina Ferreira; Andrade, Luciana Nogueira de Sousa; Bustos, Silvina Odete; Chammas, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-3 is a member of the β-galactoside-binding lectin family, whose expression is often dysregulated in cancers. While galectin-3 is usually an intracellular protein found in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm, under certain conditions, galectin-3 can be secreted by an yet unknown mechanism. Under stressing conditions (e.g., hypoxia and nutrient deprivation) galectin-3 is upregulated, through the activity of transcription factors, such as HIF-1α and NF-κB. Here, we review evidence that indicates a positive role for galectin-3 in MAPK family signal transduction, leading to cell proliferation and cell survival. Galectin-3 serves as a scaffold protein, which favors the spatial organization of signaling proteins as K-RAS. Upon secretion, extracellular galectin-3 interacts with a variety of cell surface glycoproteins, such as growth factor receptors, integrins, cadherins, and members of the Notch family, among other glycoproteins, besides different extracellular matrix molecules. Through its ability to oligomerize, galectin-3 forms lectin lattices that act as scaffolds that sustain the spatial organization of signaling receptors on the cell surface, dictating its maintenance on the plasma membrane or their endocytosis. Galectin-3 induces tumor cell, endothelial cell, and leukocyte migration, favoring either the exit of tumor cells from a stressed microenvironment or the entry of endothelial cells and leukocytes, such as monocytes/macrophages into the tumor organoid. Therefore, galectin-3 plays homeostatic roles in tumors, as (i) it favors tumor cell adaptation for survival in stressed conditions; (ii) upon secretion, galectin-3 induces tumor cell detachment and migration; and (iii) it attracts monocyte/macrophage and endothelial cells to the tumor mass, inducing both directly and indirectly the process of angiogenesis. The two latter activities are potentially targetable, and specific interventions may be designed to counteract the protumoral role of extracellular

  1. Analysis of dendritic cell subpopulations in follicular lymphoma with respect to the tumor immune microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Nina; Mueller, Michael; Mougiakakos, Dimitrios; Ihorst, Gabriele; Marks, Reinhard; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Veelken, Hendrik

    2016-09-01

    The immune cell composition of the follicular lymphoma (FL) tumor microenvironment is increasingly recognized as an important determinant for clinical outcome. Here, we explored frequency and distribution of dendritic cell (DC) subtypes in relation to regulatory T cells (Treg) by immunohistochemistry in lymph node biopsies from patients with de novo FL. We found that neoplastic follicles contained lower DC and higher Treg frequencies than hyperplastic follicles in control lymph nodes. Treg numbers particularly correlated with the subset of conventional CD11c(+ )DCs. Additionally, both a high intra- to interfollicular ratio of CD11c(+ )DCs and increased intrafollicular Treg frequencies were associated with decreased overall survival. This suggests that functional interactions between these cells may be relevant for FL progression/recurrence. The presence of CD11c(+ )DCs in the tumor microenvironment may assist tumor infiltration by Tregs, thus contributing to the suppression of an otherwise beneficial T-cell-dominated FL microenvironment. PMID:26757600

  2. Microenvironment-Driven Bioelimination of Magnetoplasmonic Nanoassemblies and Their Multimodal Imaging-Guided Tumor Photothermal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Linlin; Fu, Shiyan; Chen, Chuanfang; Wang, Xuandong; Fu, Changhui; Wang, Shu; Guo, Weibo; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Xiaodi; Liu, Zhirong; Qiu, Jichuan; Liu, Hong

    2016-07-26

    Biocompatibility and bioelimination are basic requirements for systematically administered nanomaterials for biomedical purposes. Gold-based plasmonic nanomaterials have shown potential applications in photothermal cancer therapy. However, their inability to biodegrade has impeded practical biomedical application. In this study, a kind of bioeliminable magnetoplasmonic nanoassembly (MPNA), assembled from an Fe3O4 nanocluster and gold nanoshell, was elaborately designed for computed tomography, photoacoustic tomography, and magnetic resonance trimodal imaging-guided tumor photothermal therapy. A single dose of photothermal therapy under near-infrared light induced a complete tumor regression in mice. Importantly, MPNAs could respond to the local microenvironment with acidic pH and enzymes where they accumulated including tumors, liver, spleen, etc., collapse into small molecules and discrete nanoparticles, and finally be cleared from the body. With the bioelimination ability from the body, a high dose of 400 mg kg(-1) MPNAs had good biocompatibility. The MPNAs for cancer theranostics pave a way toward biodegradable bio-nanomaterials for biomedical applications. PMID:27309678

  3. Visualizing the Tumor Microenvironment of Liver Metastasis by Spinning Disk Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Babes, Liane; Kubes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Intravital microscopy has evolved into an invaluable technique to study the complexity of tumors by visualizing individual cells in live organisms. Here, we describe a method for employing intravital spinning disk confocal microscopy to picture high-resolution tumor-stroma interactions in real time. We depict in detail the surgical procedures to image various tumor microenvironments and different cellular components in the liver. PMID:27581024

  4. Investigation of Tumor Cell Behaviors on a Vascular Microenvironment-Mimicking Microfluidic Chip

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rong; Zheng, Wenfu; Liu, Wenwen; Zhang, Wei; Long, Yunze; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    The extravasation of tumor cells is a key event in tumor metastasis. However, the mechanism underlying tumor cell extravasation remains unknown, mainly hindered by obstacles from the lack of complexity of biological tissues in conventional cell culture, and the costliness and ethical issues of in vivo experiments. Thus, a cheap, time and labor saving, and most of all, vascular microenvironment-mimicking research model is desirable. Herein, we report a microfluidic chip-based tumor extravasation research model which is capable of simultaneously simulating both mechanical and biochemical microenvironments of human vascular systems and analyzing their synergistic effects on the tumor extravasation. Under different mechanical conditions of the vascular system, the tumor cells (HeLa cells) had the highest viability and adhesion activity in the microenvironment of the capillary. The integrity of endothelial cells (ECs) monolayer was destroyed by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in a hemodynamic background, which facilitated the tumor cell adhesion, this situation was recovered by the administration of platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs). This model bridges the gap between cell culture and animal experiments and is a promising platform for studying tumor behaviors in the vascular system. PMID:26631692

  5. Oxygen microenvironment affects the uptake of nanoparticles in head and neck tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Eunice Y.; Hodge, Sasson; Tai, Katherine; Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Hoopes, P. Jack; Samkoe, Kimberley S.

    2013-02-01

    Survival of head and neck cancer patients has not improved in several decades despite advances in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Tumor hypoxia in head and neck cancers is a critical factor that leads to poor prognosis, resistance to radiation and chemotherapies, and increased metastatic potential. Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (mNPHT) is a promising therapy for hypoxic tumors because nanoparticles (NP) can be directly injected into, or targeted to, hypoxic tumor cells and exposed to alternating magnetic fields (AMF) to induce hyperthermia. Magnetic NPHT can improve therapeutic effectiveness by two modes of action: 1) direct killing of hypoxic tumor cells; and 2) increase in tumor oxygenation, which has the potential to make the tumor more susceptible to adjuvant therapies such as radiation and chemotherapy. Prior studies in breast cancer cells demonstrated that a hypoxic microenvironment diminished NP uptake in vitro; however, mNPHT with intratumoral NP injection in hypoxic tumors increased tumor oxygenation and delayed tumor growth. In this study, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines were incubated in normoxic, hypoxic, and hyperoxic conditions with iron oxide NP for 4-72 hours. After incubation, the cells were analyzed for iron uptake by mass spectrometry, Prussian blue staining, and electron microscopy. In contrast to breast cancer cells, uptake of NPs was increased in hypoxic microenvironments as compared to normoxic conditions in HNSCC cells. In future studies, we will confirm the effect of the oxygen microenvironment on NP uptake and efficacy of mNPHT both in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Oxygen microenvironment affects the uptake of nanoparticles in head and neck tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Eunice Y; Hodge, Sassan; Tai, Katherine; Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Hoopes, P Jack; Samkoe, Kimberley S

    2013-02-26

    Survival of head and neck cancer patients has not improved in several decades despite advances in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Tumor hypoxia in head and neck cancers is a critical factor that leads to poor prognosis, resistance to radiation and chemotherapies, and increased metastatic potential. Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (mNPHT) is a promising therapy for hypoxic tumors because nanoparticles (NP) can be directly injected into, or targeted to, hypoxic tumor cells and exposed to alternating magnetic fields (AMF) to induce hyperthermia. Magnetic NPHT can improve therapeutic effectiveness by two modes of action: 1) direct killing of hypoxic tumor cells; and 2) increase in tumor oxygenation, which has the potential to make the tumor more susceptible to adjuvant therapies such as radiation and chemotherapy. Prior studies in breast cancer cells demonstrated that a hypoxic microenvironment diminished NP uptake in vitro; however, mNPHT with intratumoral NP injection in hypoxic tumors increased tumor oxygenation and delayed tumor growth. In this study, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines were incubated in normoxic, hypoxic, and hyperoxic conditions with iron oxide NP for 4-72 hours. After incubation, the cells were analyzed for iron uptake by mass spectrometry, Prussian blue staining, and electron microscopy. In contrast to breast cancer cells, uptake of NPs was increased in hypoxic microenvironments as compared to normoxic conditions in HNSCC cells. In future studies, we will confirm the effect of the oxygen microenvironment on NP uptake and efficacy of mNPHT both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25301994

  7. Investigation of Tumor Cell Behaviors on a Vascular Microenvironment-Mimicking Microfluidic Chip.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong; Zheng, Wenfu; Liu, Wenwen; Zhang, Wei; Long, Yunze; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    The extravasation of tumor cells is a key event in tumor metastasis. However, the mechanism underlying tumor cell extravasation remains unknown, mainly hindered by obstacles from the lack of complexity of biological tissues in conventional cell culture, and the costliness and ethical issues of in vivo experiments. Thus, a cheap, time and labor saving, and most of all, vascular microenvironment-mimicking research model is desirable. Herein, we report a microfluidic chip-based tumor extravasation research model which is capable of simultaneously simulating both mechanical and biochemical microenvironments of human vascular systems and analyzing their synergistic effects on the tumor extravasation. Under different mechanical conditions of the vascular system, the tumor cells (HeLa cells) had the highest viability and adhesion activity in the microenvironment of the capillary. The integrity of endothelial cells (ECs) monolayer was destroyed by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in a hemodynamic background, which facilitated the tumor cell adhesion, this situation was recovered by the administration of platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs). This model bridges the gap between cell culture and animal experiments and is a promising platform for studying tumor behaviors in the vascular system. PMID:26631692

  8. Neutrophil-Derived Proteases in the Microenvironment of Pancreatic Cancer -Active Players in Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Klaus; Gaida, Matthias M.

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fibro-inflammatory microenvironment, consisting of activated pancreatic stellate cells, extracellular matrix proteins, and a variety of inflammatory cells, such as T cells, macrophages, or neutrophils. Tumor-infiltrating immune cells, which are found in nearly all cancers, including PDAC, often fail to eliminate the tumor, but conversely can promote its progression by altering the tumor microenvironment. Pancreatic cancer cells are able to attract polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) via tumor secreted chemokines and in human PDAC, PMN infiltrates can be observed in the vicinity of tumor cells and in the desmoplastic tumor stroma, which correlate with undifferentiated tumor growth and poor prognosis. The behavior of tumor-infiltrating neutrophils in the tumor micromilieu is not yet understood at a mechanistic level. It has been shown that PMN have the potential to kill tumor cells, either directly or by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, but on the other side various adverse effects of PMN, such as promotion of aggressive tumor growth with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and increased metastatic potential, have been described. Recent therapeutic approaches for PDAC focus not only the tumor cell itself, but also elements of the tumor microenvironment. Therefore, the role of PMN and their derived products (e.g. cytokines, proteases) as a new vein for a therapeutic target should be critically evaluated in this context. This review summarizes the current understanding of the interplay between proteases of tumor-infiltrating neutrophils and pancreatic tumor cells and elements of the desmoplastic stroma. PMID:26929737

  9. Gut macrophage phenotype is dependent on the tumor microenvironment in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Samuel E; Dunn, Elliott T J; McCall, John L; Munro, Fran; Kemp, Roslyn A

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to many cancers, a high infiltration of macrophages in colorectal cancer (CRC) has been associated with improved prognosis for patients. Cytokines and other stimuli from the tumor microenvironment affect monocyte to macrophage maturation and subsequent phenotype and function. Heterogeneous myeloid populations were identified using a novel flow cytometry panel in both tumor and paired non-tumor bowel (NTB) from CRC patients. The frequency of macrophage subsets with a gut-conditioned phenotype was lower in tumor compared with NTB. We used an in vitro system to show that two of the macrophage populations represented pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory phenotypes. Conditioned media that contained high levels of interleukin-6 promoted and maintained an anti-inflammatory phenotype in vitro. This study demonstrates the plasticity and heterogeneity of macrophage subtypes in human CRC, and the feasibility of studying complex populations. Ex vivo experiments demonstrate that macrophage subsets are influenced by the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27195119

  10. Tumoral expression of IL-33 inhibits tumor growth and modifies the tumor microenvironment through CD8+ T and NK cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Wang, Xuefeng; Yang, Qianting; Zhao, Xin; Wen, Wen; Li, Gang; Lu, Junfeng; Qin, Wenxin; Qi, Yuan; Xie, Fang; Jiang, Jingting; Wu, Changping; Zhang, Xueguang; Chen, Xinchun; Turnquist, Heth; Zhu, Yibei; Lu, Binfeng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has shown great promise as a new standard cancer therapeutic modality. However, the response rates are limited for current approach that depends on enhancing spontaneous antitumor immune responses. Therefore, increasing tumor immunogenicity by expressing appropriate cytokines should further improve the current immunotherapy. IL-33 is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines and is released by necrotic epithelial cells or activated innate immune cells and is thus considered a "danger" signal. The role of IL-33 in promoting type 2 immune responses and tissue inflammation has been well established. However, whether IL-33 drives antitumor immune responses is controversial. Our previous work established that IL-33 promoted the function of CD8(+) T cells. In this study, we showed that the expression of IL-33 in two types of cancer cells potently inhibited tumor growth and metastasis. Mechanistically, IL-33 increased numbers and IFN-γ production by CD8(+) T and NK cells in tumor tissues, thereby inducing a tumor microenvironment favoring tumor eradication. Importantly, IL-33 greatly increased tumor Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, both NK and CD8(+) T cells were required for the antitumor effect of IL-33. Moreover, depletion of regulatory T cells worked synergistically with IL-33 expression for tumor elimination. Our studies established "alarmin" IL-33 as a promising new cytokine for tumor immunotherapy through promoting cancer-eradicating type 1 immune responses. PMID:25429071

  11. Tumoral expression of IL-33 inhibits tumor growth and modifies the tumor microenvironment through CD8+ T and NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xin; Wang, Xuefeng; Yang, Qianting; Zhao, Xin; Wen, Wen; Li, Gang; Lu, Junfeng; Qin, Wenxin; Qi, Yuan; Xie, Fang; Jiang, Jingting; Wu, Changping; Zhang, Xueguang; Chen, Xinchun; Turnquist, Heth; Zhu, Yibei; Lu, Binfeng

    2014-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has shown great promise as a new standard cancer therapeutic modality. However, the response rates are limited for current approach that depends on enhancing spontaneous antitumor immune responses. Therefore, increasing tumor immunogenicity by expressing appropriate cytokines should further improve the current immunotherapy. Interleukin-33 is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines and is released by necrotic epithelial cells or activated innate immune cells and is thus considered a “danger” signal. The role of IL-33 in promoting type 2 immune responses and tissue inflammation has been well established. However, whether IL-33 drives antitumor immune responses is controversial. Our previous work established that IL-33 promoted the function of CD8+ T cells. Here, we showed that the expression of IL-33 in two types of cancer cells potently inhibited tumor growth and metastasis. Mechanistically, IL-33 increased numbers and IFNγ production by CD8+ T and NK cells in tumor tissues, thereby inducing a tumor microenvironment favoring tumor eradication. Importantly, IL-33 greatly increased tumor-antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, both NK and CD8+ T cells were required for the antitumor effect of IL-33. Moreover, depletion of regulatory T cells (Treg) worked synergistically with IL-33 expression for tumor elimination. Our studies established “alarmin” IL-33 as a promising new cytokine for tumor immunotherapy through promoting cancer-eradicating type 1 immune responses. PMID:25429071

  12. Gene expression profiling of the tumor microenvironment in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sulpice, Laurent; Desille, Mireille; Turlin, Bruno; Fautrel, Alain; Boudjema, Karim; Clément, Bruno; Coulouarn, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common type of malignant primary tumors in the liver. ICC is an aggressive cancer with a poor survival and limited therapeutic options. At the histological level, ICC is characterized by an abundant stroma (i.e. the tumor microenvironment that notably includes components of the extracellular matrix, stromal cells and soluble factors). Tumor microenvironment is known to play a key role in tumor onset and progression but it is poorly characterized at the molecular level. Thus, this study was specifically designed to identify genes that are significantly deregulated in the tumor microenvironment of human ICC. Here we provide a detailed description of the experimental design and methods used to acquire the genomic data deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) under the accession number GSE45001. Our genomic dataset provides insights on the molecular pathways altered in the microenvironment of ICC and allows the identification of novel ICC biomarkers, as exemplified previously in Hepatology (PMID: 23775819). PMID:26981414

  13. Gene expression profiling of the tumor microenvironment in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sulpice, Laurent; Desille, Mireille; Turlin, Bruno; Fautrel, Alain; Boudjema, Karim; Clément, Bruno; Coulouarn, Cédric

    2016-03-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common type of malignant primary tumors in the liver. ICC is an aggressive cancer with a poor survival and limited therapeutic options. At the histological level, ICC is characterized by an abundant stroma (i.e. the tumor microenvironment that notably includes components of the extracellular matrix, stromal cells and soluble factors). Tumor microenvironment is known to play a key role in tumor onset and progression but it is poorly characterized at the molecular level. Thus, this study was specifically designed to identify genes that are significantly deregulated in the tumor microenvironment of human ICC. Here we provide a detailed description of the experimental design and methods used to acquire the genomic data deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) under the accession number GSE45001. Our genomic dataset provides insights on the molecular pathways altered in the microenvironment of ICC and allows the identification of novel ICC biomarkers, as exemplified previously in Hepatology (PMID: 23775819). PMID:26981414

  14. Targeting the tumor microenvironment to enhance antitumor immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Van der Jeught, Kevin; Bialkowski, Lukasz; Daszkiewicz, Lidia; Broos, Katrijn; Goyvaerts, Cleo; Renmans, Dries; Van Lint, Sandra; Heirman, Carlo; Thielemans, Kris; Breckpot, Karine

    2015-01-01

    The identification of tumor-specific antigens and the immune responses directed against them has instigated the development of therapies to enhance antitumor immune responses. Most of these cancer immunotherapies are administered systemically rather than directly to tumors. Nonetheless, numerous studies have demonstrated that intratumoral therapy is an attractive approach, both for immunization and immunomodulation purposes. Injection, recruitment and/or activation of antigen-presenting cells in the tumor nest have been extensively studied as strategies to cross-prime immune responses. Moreover, delivery of stimulatory cytokines, blockade of inhibitory cytokines and immune checkpoint blockade have been explored to restore immunological fitness at the tumor site. These tumor-targeted therapies have the potential to induce systemic immunity without the toxicity that is often associated with systemic treatments. We review the most promising intratumoral immunotherapies, how these affect systemic antitumor immunity such that disseminated tumor cells are eliminated, and which approaches have been proven successful in animal models and patients. PMID:25682197

  15. Immune microenvironments in solid tumors: new targets for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shiao, Stephen L.; Ganesan, A. Preethi; Rugo, Hope S.; Coussens, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Leukocytes and their soluble mediators play important regulatory roles in all aspects of solid tumor development. While immunotherapeutic strategies have conceptually held clinical promise, with the exception of a small percentage of patients, they have failed to demonstrate effective, consistent, and durable anti-cancer responses. Several subtypes of leukocytes that commonly infiltrate solid tumors harbor immunosuppressive activity and undoubtedly restrict the effectiveness of these strategies. Several of these same immune cells also foster tumor development by expression of potent protumor mediators. Given recent evidence revealing that immune-based mechanisms regulate the response to conventional cytotoxic therapy, it seems reasonable to speculate that tumor progression could be effectively diminished by combining cytotoxic strategies with therapies that blunt protumor immune-based effectors and/or neutralize those that instead impede development of desired anti-tumor immunity, thus providing synergistic effects between traditional cytotoxic and immune-modulatory approaches. PMID:22190457

  16. Viscoelastic Imaging of Breast Tumor Microenvironment With Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Michael F.; Pellot-Barakat, Claire; Sridhar, Mallika; Lindfors, Karen K.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging systems are most effective for detection and classification when they exploit contrast mechanisms specific to particular disease processes. A common example is mammography, where the contrast depends on local changes in cell density and the presence of microcalcifications. Unfortunately the specificity for classifying malignant breast disease is relatively low for many current diagnostic techniques. This paper describes a new ultrasonic technique for imaging the viscoelastic properties of breast tissue. The mechanical properties of glandular breast tissue, like most biopolymers, react to mechanical stimuli in a manner specific to the microenvironment of the tissue. Elastic properties allow noninvasive imaging of desmoplasia while viscous properties describe metabolism-dependent features such as pH. These ultrasonic methods are providing new tools for studying disease mechanisms as well as improving diagnosis. PMID:15838608

  17. A Condensed Matter Physicist Looks at Cancer and the Tumor Microenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Clare

    2012-02-01

    We will discuss what physics can bring to cancer biology, and give an example by taking a closer look at the tumor microenvironment. Cancer cells do not act alone. They get their cues from the their environment which consists of the extracellular matrix and the cells (fibroblasts) that form it. These cues can be both chemical and mechanical in nature.

  18. Cancer prevention and therapy through the modulation of the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Casey, Stephanie C; Amedei, Amedeo; Aquilano, Katia; Azmi, Asfar S; Benencia, Fabian; Bhakta, Dipita; Bilsland, Alan E; Boosani, Chandra S; Chen, Sophie; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Crawford, Sarah; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Guha, Gunjan; Halicka, Dorota; Helferich, William G; Heneberg, Petr; Honoki, Kanya; Keith, W Nicol; Kerkar, Sid P; Mohammed, Sulma I; Niccolai, Elena; Nowsheen, Somaira; Vasantha Rupasinghe, H P; Samadi, Abbas; Singh, Neetu; Talib, Wamidh H; Venkateswaran, Vasundara; Whelan, Richard L; Yang, Xujuan; Felsher, Dean W

    2015-12-01

    Cancer arises in the context of an in vivo tumor microenvironment. This microenvironment is both a cause and consequence of tumorigenesis. Tumor and host cells co-evolve dynamically through indirect and direct cellular interactions, eliciting multiscale effects on many biological programs, including cellular proliferation, growth, and metabolism, as well as angiogenesis and hypoxia and innate and adaptive immunity. Here we highlight specific biological processes that could be exploited as targets for the prevention and therapy of cancer. Specifically, we describe how inhibition of targets such as cholesterol synthesis and metabolites, reactive oxygen species and hypoxia, macrophage activation and conversion, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase regulation of dendritic cells, vascular endothelial growth factor regulation of angiogenesis, fibrosis inhibition, endoglin, and Janus kinase signaling emerge as examples of important potential nexuses in the regulation of tumorigenesis and the tumor microenvironment that can be targeted. We have also identified therapeutic agents as approaches, in particular natural products such as berberine, resveratrol, onionin A, epigallocatechin gallate, genistein, curcumin, naringenin, desoxyrhapontigenin, piperine, and zerumbone, that may warrant further investigation to target the tumor microenvironment for the treatment and/or prevention of cancer. PMID:25865775

  19. Acidic microenvironments induce lymphangiogenesis and IL-8 production via TRPV1 activation in human lymphatic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Masako; Morita, Yoshihiro; Hata, Kenji; Muragaki, Yasuteru

    2016-07-15

    Local acidosis is one of the characteristic features of the cancer microenvironment. Many reports indicate that acidosis accelerates the proliferation and invasiveness of cancer cells. However, whether acidic conditions affect lymphatic metastasis is currently unknown. In the present study, we focused on the effects of acidosis on lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) to assess the relationship between acidic microenvironments and lymph node metastasis. We demonstrated that normal human LECs express various acid receptors by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Acidic stimulation with low pH medium induced morphological changes in LECs to a spindle shape, and significantly promoted cellular growth and tube formation. Moreover, real-time PCR revealed that acidic conditions increased the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-8. Acidic stimulation increased IL-8 production in LECs, whereas a selective transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) antagonist, 5'-iodoresiniferatoxin, decreased IL-8 production. IL-8 accelerated the proliferation of LECs, and inhibition of IL-8 diminished tube formation and cell migration. In addition, phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB was induced by acidic conditions, and inhibition of NF-κB activation reduced acid-induced IL-8 expression. These results suggest that acidic microenvironments in tumors induce lymphangiogenesis via TRPV1 activation in LECs, which in turn may promote lymphatic metastasis. PMID:27312995

  20. Enhancing T cell therapy by overcoming the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Arina, Ainhoa; Corrales, Leticia; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    Immune response to tumors can be successfully oriented for therapeutic purposes, as shown by the clinical efficacy of checkpoint blockade in extending the survival of patients with certain solid and hematologic neoplasms. Nonetheless, numerous patients do not benefit from these new treatments. Tumor-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes, either endogenously revived by checkpoint interference or adoptively transferred after in vitro expansion and retargeting, can be extremely efficient in controlling metastatic disease but have to overcome a number of restraints imposed by growing tumors. This immune escape relies on a profound modification of the tumor environment, which is rendered less permissive to lymphocyte arrival, persistence, and functional activity. We review here emerging findings on the main negative circuits limiting the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy, as well as novel and conventional approaches that can translate into rational combination therapies. PMID:26872631

  1. A Metabolic Immune Checkpoint: Adenosine in Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Within tumors, some areas are less oxygenated than others. Since their home ground is under chronic hypoxia, tumor cells adapt to this condition by activating aerobic glycolysis; however, this hypoxic environment is very harsh for incoming immune cells. Deprivation of oxygen limits availability of energy sources and induces accumulation of extracellular adenosine in tumors. Extracellular adenosine, upon binding with adenosine receptors on the surface of various immune cells, suppresses pro-inflammatory activities. In addition, signaling through adenosine receptors upregulates a number of anti-inflammatory molecules and immunoregulatory cells, leading to the establishment of a long-lasting immunosuppressive environment. Thus, due to hypoxia and adenosine, tumors can discourage antitumor immune responses no matter how the response was induced, whether it was spontaneous or artificially introduced with a therapeutic intention. Preclinical studies have shown the significance of adenosine in tumor survival strategy by demonstrating tumor regression after inactivation of adenosine receptors, inhibition of adenosine-producing enzymes, or reversal of tissue hypoxia. These promising results indicate a potential use of the inhibitors of the hypoxia–adenosine pathway for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27066002

  2. Targeting the tumor microenvironment: removing obstruction to anticancer immune responses and immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pitt, J M; Marabelle, A; Eggermont, A; Soria, J-C; Kroemer, G; Zitvogel, L

    2016-08-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) is an integral part of cancer. Recognition of the essential nature of the TME in cancer evolution has led to a shift from a tumor cell-centered view of cancer development to the concept of a complex tumor ecosystem that supports tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. Accordingly, novel targets within the TME have been uncovered that can help direct and improve the actions of various cancer therapies, notably immunotherapies that work by potentiating host antitumor immune responses. Here, we review the composition of the TME, how this attenuates immunosurveillance, and discuss existing and potential strategies aimed at targeting cellular and molecular TME components. PMID:27069014

  3. Rat Prostate Tumor Cells Progress in the Bone Microenvironment to a Highly Aggressive Phenotype1

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Sofia Halin; Rudolfsson, Stina H; Bergh, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer generally metastasizes to bone, and most patients have tumor cells in their bone marrow already at diagnosis. Tumor cells at the metastatic site may therefore progress in parallel with those in the primary tumor. Androgen deprivation therapy is often the first-line treatment for clinically detectable prostate cancer bone metastases. Although the treatment is effective, most metastases progress to a castration-resistant and lethal state. To examine metastatic progression in the bone microenvironment, we implanted androgen-sensitive, androgen receptor–positive, and relatively slow-growing Dunning G (G) rat prostate tumor cells into the tibial bone marrow of fully immune-competent Copenhagen rats. We show that tumor establishment in the bone marrow was reduced compared with the prostate, and whereas androgen deprivation did not affect tumor establishment or growth in the bone, this was markedly reduced in the prostate. Moreover, we found that, with time, G tumor cells in the bone microenvironment progress to a more aggressive phenotype with increased growth rate, reduced androgen sensitivity, and increased metastatic capacity. Tumor cells in the bone marrow encounter lower androgen levels and a higher degree of hypoxia than at the primary site, which may cause high selective pressures and eventually contribute to the development of a new and highly aggressive tumor cell phenotype. It is therefore important to specifically study progression in bone metastases. This tumor model could be used to increase our understanding of how tumor cells adapt in the bone microenvironment and may subsequently improve therapy strategies for prostate metastases in bone. PMID:26992916

  4. Pathophysiological Basis for the Formation of the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Horsman, Michael R.; Vaupel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Poor microenvironmental conditions are a characteristic feature of solid tumors. Such conditions occur because the tumor vascular supply, which develops from the normal host vasculature by the process of angiogenesis, is generally inadequate in meeting the oxygen and nutrient demands of the growing tumor mass. Regions of low oxygenation (hypoxia) is believed to be the most critical deficiency, since it has been well documented to play a significant role in influencing the response to conventional radiation and chemotherapy treatments, as well as influencing malignant progression in terms of aggressive growth and recurrence of the primary tumor and its metastatic spread. As a result, significant emphasis has been placed on finding clinically applicable approaches to identify those tumors that contain hypoxia and realistic methods to target this hypoxia. However, most studies consider hypoxia as a single entity, yet we now know that it is multifactorial. Furthermore, hypoxia is often associated with other microenvironmental parameters, such as elevated interstitial fluid pressure, glycolysis, low pH, and reduced bioenergetic status, and these can also influence the effects of hypoxia. Here, we review the various aspects of hypoxia, but also discuss the role of the other microenvironmental parameters associated with hypoxia. PMID:27148472

  5. Cycling hypoxia: A key feature of the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Michiels, Carine; Tellier, Céline; Feron, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    A compelling body of evidence indicates that most human solid tumors contain hypoxic areas. Hypoxia is the consequence not only of the chaotic proliferation of cancer cells that places them at distance from the nearest capillary but also of the abnormal structure of the new vasculature network resulting in transient blood flow. Hence two types of hypoxia are observed in tumors: chronic and cycling (intermittent) hypoxia. Most of the current work aims at understanding the role of chronic hypoxia in tumor growth, response to treatment and metastasis. Only recently, cycling hypoxia, with spatial and temporal fluctuations in oxygen levels, has emerged as another key feature of the tumor environment that triggers different responses in comparison to chronic hypoxia. Either type of hypoxia is associated with distinct effects not only in cancer cells but also in stromal cells. In particular, cycling hypoxia has been demonstrated to favor, to a higher extent than chronic hypoxia, angiogenesis, resistance to anti-cancer treatments, intratumoral inflammation and tumor metastasis. These review details these effects as well as the signaling pathway it triggers to switch on specific transcriptomic programs. Understanding the signaling pathways through which cycling hypoxia induces these processes that support the development of an aggressive cancer could convey to the emergence of promising new cancer treatments. PMID:27343712

  6. It takes a tissue to make a tumor: Epigenetics, cancer and the microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2001-01-19

    How do normal tissues limit the development of cancer? This review discusses the evidence that normal cells effectively restrict malignant behavior, and that such tissue forces must be subjugated to establish a tumor. The action of ionizing radiation will be specifically discussed regarding the disruption of the microenvironment that promotes the transition from preneoplastic to neoplastic growth. Unlike the highly unpredictable nature of genetic mutations, the response of normal cells to radiation damage follows an epigenetic program similar to wound healing and other damage responses. Our hypothesis is that the persistent disruption of the microenvironment in irradiated tissue compromises its ability to suppress carcinogenesis.

  7. It takes a tissue to make a tumor: epigenetics, cancer and the microenvironment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    How do normal tissues limit the development of cancer? This review discusses the evidence that normal cells effectively restrict malignant behavior, and that such tissue forces must be subjugated to establish a tumor. The action of ionizing radiation will be specifically discussed regarding the disruption of the microenvironment that promotes the transition from preneoplastic to neoplastic growth. Unlike the highly unpredictable nature of genetic mutations, the response of normal cells to radiation damage follows an epigenetic program similar to wound healing and other damage responses. Our hypothesis is that the persistent disruption of the microenvironment in irradiated tissue compromises its ability to suppress carcinogenesis.

  8. Translational Horizons in the Tumor Microenvironment: Harnessing Breakthroughs and Targeting Cures

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy and targeted therapy have opened new avenues in clinical oncology. However, there is a lack of response in a substantial percentage of cancer patients and diseases frequently relapse in those who even initially respond. Resistance is, at present, the major barrier to conquering cancer, the most lethal age-related pathology. Identification of mechanisms underlying resistance and development of effective strategies to circumvent treatment pitfalls thereby improving clinical outcomes remain overarching tasks for scientists and clinicians. Growing bodies of data indicate that stromal cells within the genetically stable but metabolically dynamic tumor microenvironment confer acquired resistance against anticancer therapies. Further, treatment itself activates the microenvironment by damaging a large population of benign cells, which can drastically exacerbate disease conditions in a cell nonautonomous manner, and such off-target effects should be well taken into account when establishing future therapeutic rationale. In this review, we highlight relevant biological mechanisms through which the tumor microenvironment drives development of resistance. We discuss some unsolved issues related to the preclinical and clinical trial paradigms that need to be carefully devised, and provide implications for personalized medicine. In the long run, an insightful and accurate understanding of the intricate signaling networks of the tumor microenvironment in pathological settings will guide the design of new clinical interventions particularly combinatorial therapies, and it might help overcome, or at least prevent, the onset of acquired resistance. PMID:25588753

  9. Liposomal doxorubicin extravasation controlled by phenotype-specific transport properties of tumor microenvironment and vascular barrier.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Kenji; Chan, Diana; Kojic, Milos; Milosevic, Miljan; Engler, David; Matsunami, Rise; Tanei, Tomonori; Saito, Yuki; Ferrari, Mauro; Ziemys, Arturas

    2015-11-10

    Although nanotherapeutics can be advantageous over free chemotherapy, the benefits of drug vectors can vary from patient to patient based on differences in tumor microenvironments. Although systemic pharmacokinetics (PK) of drugs is considered as the major determinant of its efficacy in clinics, recent clinical and basic research indicates that tumor-based PK can provide better representation of therapeutic efficacy. Here, we have studied the role of the tumor extravascular tissue in the extravasation kinetics of doxorubicin (DOX), delivered by pegylated liposomes (PLD), to murine lung (3LL) and breast (4T1) tumors. We found that phenotypically different 3LL and 4T1 tumors shared the similar systemic PK, but DOX extravasation in the tumor extravascular tissue was substantially different. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurements showed that DOX fluorescence imaged by fluorescence microscopy could be used as a marker to study tumor microenvironment PK, providing an excellent match to DOX kinetics in tumor tissues. Our results also suggest that therapeutic responses can be closely related to the interplay of concentration levels and exposure times in extravascular tissue of tumors. Finally, the computational model of capillary drug transport showed that internalization of drug vectors was critical and could lead to 2-3 orders of magnitude more efficient drug delivery into the extravascular tissue, compared to non-internalized localization of drug vectors, and explaining the differences in therapeutic efficacy between the 3LL and 4T1 tumors. These results show that drug transport and partitioning characteristics can be phenotype- and microenvironment-dependent and are highly important in drug delivery and therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26409121

  10. Eribulin mesylate reduces tumor microenvironment abnormality by vascular remodeling in preclinical human breast cancer models.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Yusuke; Semba, Taro; Uesugi, Mai; Ozawa, Yoichi; Tohyama, Osamu; Uehara, Taisuke; Kimura, Takayuki; Watanabe, Hideki; Asano, Makoto; Kawano, Satoshi; Tizon, Xavier; McCracken, Paul J; Matsui, Junji; Aoshima, Ken; Nomoto, Kenichi; Oda, Yoshiya

    2014-10-01

    Eribulin mesylate is a synthetic macrocyclic ketone analog of the marine sponge natural product halichondrin B and an inhibitor of microtubule dynamics. Some tubulin-binding drugs are known to have antivascular (antiangiogenesis or vascular-disrupting) activities that can target abnormal tumor vessels. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI analyses, here we show that eribulin induces remodeling of tumor vasculature through a novel antivascular activity in MX-1 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenograft models. Vascular remodeling associated with improved perfusion was shown by Hoechst 33342 staining and by increased microvessel density together with decreased mean vascular areas and fewer branched vessels in tumor tissues, as determined by immunohistochemical staining for endothelial marker CD31. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of normal host cells in the stroma of xenograft tumors showed that eribulin altered the expression of mouse (host) genes in angiogenesis signaling pathways controlling endothelial cell-pericyte interactions, and in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition pathway in the context of the tumor microenvironment. Eribulin also decreased hypoxia-associated protein expression of mouse (host) vascular endothelial growth factor by ELISA and human CA9 by immunohistochemical analysis. Prior treatment with eribulin enhanced the anti-tumor activity of capecitabine in the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. These findings suggest that eribulin-induced remodeling of abnormal tumor vasculature leads to a more functional microenvironment that may reduce the aggressiveness of tumors due to elimination of inner tumor hypoxia. Because abnormal tumor microenvironments enhance both drug resistance and metastasis, the apparent ability of eribulin to reverse these aggressive characteristics may contribute to its clinical benefits. PMID:25060424

  11. Eribulin mesylate reduces tumor microenvironment abnormality by vascular remodeling in preclinical human breast cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Yusuke; Semba, Taro; Uesugi, Mai; Ozawa, Yoichi; Tohyama, Osamu; Uehara, Taisuke; Kimura, Takayuki; Watanabe, Hideki; Asano, Makoto; Kawano, Satoshi; Tizon, Xavier; McCracken, Paul J; Matsui, Junji; Aoshima, Ken; Nomoto, Kenichi; Oda, Yoshiya

    2014-01-01

    Eribulin mesylate is a synthetic macrocyclic ketone analog of the marine sponge natural product halichondrin B and an inhibitor of microtubule dynamics. Some tubulin-binding drugs are known to have antivascular (antiangiogenesis or vascular-disrupting) activities that can target abnormal tumor vessels. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI analyses, here we show that eribulin induces remodeling of tumor vasculature through a novel antivascular activity in MX-1 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenograft models. Vascular remodeling associated with improved perfusion was shown by Hoechst 33342 staining and by increased microvessel density together with decreased mean vascular areas and fewer branched vessels in tumor tissues, as determined by immunohistochemical staining for endothelial marker CD31. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of normal host cells in the stroma of xenograft tumors showed that eribulin altered the expression of mouse (host) genes in angiogenesis signaling pathways controlling endothelial cell–pericyte interactions, and in the epithelial–mesenchymal transition pathway in the context of the tumor microenvironment. Eribulin also decreased hypoxia-associated protein expression of mouse (host) vascular endothelial growth factor by ELISA and human CA9 by immunohistochemical analysis. Prior treatment with eribulin enhanced the anti-tumor activity of capecitabine in the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. These findings suggest that eribulin-induced remodeling of abnormal tumor vasculature leads to a more functional microenvironment that may reduce the aggressiveness of tumors due to elimination of inner tumor hypoxia. Because abnormal tumor microenvironments enhance both drug resistance and metastasis, the apparent ability of eribulin to reverse these aggressive characteristics may contribute to its clinical benefits. PMID:25060424

  12. Tumor-induced pressure in the bone microenvironment causes osteocytes to promote the growth of prostate cancer bone metastases

    PubMed Central

    Sottnik, Joseph L.; Dai, Jinlu; Zhang, Honglai; Campbell, Brittany; Keller, Evan T.

    2015-01-01

    Crosstalk between tumor cells and their microenvironment is critical for malignant progression. Crosstalk mediators including soluble factors and direct cell contact have been identified, but roles for the interaction of physical forces between tumor cells and the bone microenvironment have not been described. Here we report preclinical evidence that tumor-generated pressure acts to modify the bone microenvironment to promote the growth of prostate cancer bone metastases. Tumors growing in mouse tibiae increased intraosseous pressure. Application of pressure to osteocytes, the main mechanotransducing cells in bone, induced PCa growth and invasion. Mechanistic investigations revealed that this process was mediated in part by upregulation of CCL5 and matrix metalloproteinases in osteocytes. Our results defined the critical contribution of physical forces to tumor cell growth in the tumor microenvironment, and they identified osteocytes as a critical mediator in the bone metastatic niche. PMID:25855383

  13. Tumor-induced pressure in the bone microenvironment causes osteocytes to promote the growth of prostate cancer bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Sottnik, Joseph L; Dai, Jinlu; Zhang, Honglai; Campbell, Brittany; Keller, Evan T

    2015-06-01

    Cross-talk between tumor cells and their microenvironment is critical for malignant progression. Cross-talk mediators, including soluble factors and direct cell contact, have been identified, but roles for the interaction of physical forces between tumor cells and the bone microenvironment have not been described. Here, we report preclinical evidence that tumor-generated pressure acts to modify the bone microenvironment to promote the growth of prostate cancer bone metastases. Tumors growing in mouse tibiae increased intraosseous pressure. Application of pressure to osteocytes, the main mechanotransducing cells in bone, induced prostate cancer growth and invasion. Mechanistic investigations revealed that this process was mediated in part by upregulation of CCL5 and matrix metalloproteinases in osteocytes. Our results defined the critical contribution of physical forces to tumor cell growth in the tumor microenvironment, and they identified osteocytes as a critical mediator in the bone metastatic niche. PMID:25855383

  14. Epigenetic silencing of CYP24 in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Candace S.; Chung, Ivy; Trump, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol) has significant antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo in a number of tumor model systems. We developed a system for isolation of fresh endothelial cells from tumors and Matrigel environments which demonstrate that CYP24, the catabolic enzyme involved in vitamin D signaling, is epigenetically silenced selectively in tumor-derived endothelial cells (TDEC). TDEC maintain phenotypic characteristics which are distinct from endothelial cells isolated from normal tissues and from Matrigel plugs (MDEC). In TDEC, calcitriol induces G0/G1 arrest, modulates p27 and p21, and induces apoptotic cell death and decreases P-Erk and P-Akt. In contrast, endothelial cells isolated from normal tissues and MDEC are unresponsive to calcitriol-mediated anti-proliferative effects despite intact signaling through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). In TDEC, which is sensitive to calcitriol, the CYP24 promoter is hypermethylated in two CpG island regions located at the 5′end; this hypermethylation may contribute to gene silencing of CYP24. The extent of methylation in these two regions is significantly less in MDEC. Lastly, treatment of TDEC with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor restores calcitriol-mediated induction of CYP24 and resistance to calcitriol. These data suggest that epigenetic silencing of CYP24 modulates cellular responses to calcitriol. PMID:20304059

  15. Neutrophils in the tumor microenvironment: trying to heal the wound that cannot heal.

    PubMed

    Singel, Kelly L; Segal, Brahm H

    2016-09-01

    Neutrophils are the first responders to infection and injury and are critical for antimicrobial host defense. Through the generation of reactive oxidants, activation of granular constituents and neutrophil extracellular traps, neutrophils target microbes and prevent their dissemination. While these pathways are beneficial in the context of trauma and infection, their off-target effects in the context of tumor are variable. Tumor-derived factors have been shown to reprogram the marrow, skewing toward the expansion of myelopoiesis. This can result in stimulation of both neutrophilic leukocytosis and the release of immature granulocytic populations that accumulate in circulation and in the tumor microenvironment. While activated neutrophils have been shown to kill tumor cells, there is growing evidence for neutrophil activation driving tumor progression and metastasis through a number of pathways, including stimulation of thrombosis and angiogenesis, stromal remodeling, and impairment of T cell-dependent anti-tumor immunity. There is also growing appreciation of neutrophil heterogeneity in cancer, with distinct neutrophil populations promoting cancer control or progression. In addition to the effects of tumor on neutrophil responses, anti-neoplastic treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy, and growth factors, can influence neutrophil responses. Future directions for research are expected to result in more mechanistic knowledge of neutrophil biology in the tumor microenvironment that may be exploited as prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:27558344

  16. Automated tracking of tumor-stroma morphology in microtissues identifies functional targets within the tumor microenvironment for therapeutic intervention.

    PubMed

    Åkerfelt, Malin; Bayramoglu, Neslihan; Robinson, Sean; Toriseva, Mervi; Schukov, Hannu-Pekka; Härmä, Ville; Virtanen, Johannes; Sormunen, Raija; Kaakinen, Mika; Kannala, Juho; Eklund, Lauri; Heikkilä, Janne; Nees, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) constitute an important part of the tumor microenvironment and promote invasion via paracrine functions and physical impact on the tumor. Although the importance of including CAFs into three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures has been acknowledged, computational support for quantitative live-cell measurements of complex cell cultures has been lacking. Here, we have developed a novel automated pipeline to model tumor-stroma interplay, track motility and quantify morphological changes of 3D co-cultures, in real-time live-cell settings. The platform consists of microtissues from prostate cancer cells, combined with CAFs in extracellular matrix that allows biochemical perturbation. Tracking of fibroblast dynamics revealed that CAFs guided the way for tumor cells to invade and increased the growth and invasiveness of tumor organoids. We utilized the platform to determine the efficacy of inhibitors in prostate cancer and the associated tumor microenvironment as a functional unit. Interestingly, certain inhibitors selectively disrupted tumor-CAF interactions, e.g. focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitors specifically blocked tumor growth and invasion concurrently with fibroblast spreading and motility. This complex phenotype was not detected in other standard in vitro models. These results highlight the advantage of our approach, which recapitulates tumor histology and can significantly improve cancer target validation in vitro. PMID:26375443

  17. Automated tracking of tumor-stroma morphology in microtissues identifies functional targets within the tumor microenvironment for therapeutic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Åkerfelt, Malin; Bayramoglu, Neslihan; Robinson, Sean; Toriseva, Mervi; Schukov, Hannu-Pekka; Härmä, Ville; Virtanen, Johannes; Sormunen, Raija; Kaakinen, Mika; Kannala, Juho; Eklund, Lauri; Heikkilä, Janne; Nees, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) constitute an important part of the tumor microenvironment and promote invasion via paracrine functions and physical impact on the tumor. Although the importance of including CAFs into three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures has been acknowledged, computational support for quantitative live-cell measurements of complex cell cultures has been lacking. Here, we have developed a novel automated pipeline to model tumor-stroma interplay, track motility and quantify morphological changes of 3D co-cultures, in real-time live-cell settings. The platform consists of microtissues from prostate cancer cells, combined with CAFs in extracellular matrix that allows biochemical perturbation. Tracking of fibroblast dynamics revealed that CAFs guided the way for tumor cells to invade and increased the growth and invasiveness of tumor organoids. We utilized the platform to determine the efficacy of inhibitors in prostate cancer and the associated tumor microenvironment as a functional unit. Interestingly, certain inhibitors selectively disrupted tumor-CAF interactions, e.g. focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitors specifically blocked tumor growth and invasion concurrently with fibroblast spreading and motility. This complex phenotype was not detected in other standard in vitro models. These results highlight the advantage of our approach, which recapitulates tumor histology and can significantly improve cancer target validation in vitro. PMID:26375443

  18. Potential role of tumor microenvironment in the progression of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa; Raj, Thirumal

    2015-03-01

    The stromal cells adjacent to the tumor including the fibroblasts, infammatory cells, lymphatic and vascular endothelial cells constitute the 'tumor microenvironment' (TM).(1) Recent in vivo and invitro studies have emphasized the role of stromal components on the growth, differentiation and invasiveness of the tumor cells. In addition, vascular, lymphatic or perineural invasion have proven to have independent prognostic value.(2) Despite the compelling evidence correlating the TM with the initiation and progression of cancer, our knowledge on the role of the genes mediating the various cellular interactions in the tumour stroma is limited.(2,3). PMID:26057928

  19. Serum biomarkers for personalization of nanotherapeutics-based therapy in different tumor and organ microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Kenji; Tanei, Tomonori; Godin, Biana; van de Ven, Anne L.; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Matsunoki, Aika; Alexander, Jenolyn; Ferrari, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect, the mechanism by which nanotherapeutics accumulate in tumors, varies in patients based on differences in the tumor and organ microenvironment. Surrogate biomarkers for the EPR effect will aid in selecting patients who will accumulate higher amounts of nanotherapeutics and show better therapeutic efficacy. Our data suggest that the differences in the vascular permeability and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) accumulation are tumor type as well as organ-specific and significantly correlated with the relative ratio of MMP-9 to TIMP-1 in the circulation, supporting development of these molecules as biomarkers for the personalization of nanoparticle-based therapy. PMID:24370567

  20. A top-down view of the tumor microenvironment: structure, cells and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bhome, Rahul; Bullock, Marc D.; Al Saihati, Hajir A.; Goh, Rebecca W.; Primrose, John N.; Sayan, A. Emre; Mirnezami, Alex H.

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the tumor microenvironment (TME) contributes to cancer progression. Stromal cells can be divided into mesenchymal, vascular, and immune. Signaling molecules secreted by the tumor corrupts these cells to create “activated” stroma. Equally, the extracellular matrix (ECM) contributes to tumor development and invasion by forming a biologically active scaffold. In this review we describe the key structural, cellular and signaling components of the TME with a perspective on stromal soluble factors and microRNAs (miRNAs). PMID:26075202

  1. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition, the tumor microenvironment, and metastatic behavior of epithelial malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Lindsay J; Bhattacharya, Syamal D; Kuo, Paul C

    2012-01-01

    Objective The mechanisms of cancer metastasis have been intensely studied recently and may provide vital therapeutic targets for metastasis prevention. We sought to review the contribution of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the tumor microenvironment to cancer metastasis. Summary Background Data Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is the process by which epithelial cells lose cell-cell junctions and baso-apical polarity and acquire plasticity, mobility, invasive capacity, stemlike characteristics, and resistance to apoptosis. This cell biology program is active in embryology, wound healing, and pathologically in cancer metastasis, and along with the mechanical and cellular components of the tumor microenvironment, provides critical impetus for epithelial malignancies to acquire metastatic capability. Methods A literature review was performed using PubMed for “epithelial-mesenchymal transition”, “tumor microenvironment”, “TGF-β and cancer”, “Wnt and epithelial-mesenchymal transition”, “Notch and epithelial-mesenchymal transition”, “Hedgehog and epithelial-mesenchymal transition” and “hypoxia and metastasis”. Relevant primary studies and review articles were assessed. Results Major signaling pathways involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition include TGF-β, Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog, and others. These pathways converge on several transcription factors, including zinc finger proteins Snail and Slug, Twist, ZEB 1/2, and Smads. These factors interact with one another and others to provide crosstalk between the relevant signaling pathways. MicroRNA suppression and epigenetic changes also influence the changes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Cellular and mechanical components of the tumor microenvironment are also critical in determining metastatic potential. Conclusions While the mechanisms promoting metastasis are extremely wide ranging and still under intense investigation, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition program and

  2. Investigating the Radioresistant Properties of Lung Cancer Stem Cells in the Context of the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ryan; Sethi, Pallavi; Jyoti, Amar; McGarry, Ronald; Upreti, Meenakshi

    2016-02-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for ~85% of all lung cancer. While recent research has shown that cancer stem cells (CSC) exhibit radioresistant and chemoresistant properties, current cancer therapy targets the bulk of the tumor burden without accounting for the CSC and the contribution of the tumor microenvironment. CSC interaction with the stroma enhances NSCLC survival, thus limiting the efficacy of treatment. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of CSC and the microenvironment in conferring radio- or chemoresistance in an in vitro tumor model for NSCLC. The novel in vitro three-dimensional (3D) NSCLC model of color-coded tumor tissue analogs (TTA) that we have developed is comprised of human lung adenocarcinoma cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and NSCLC cancer stem cells maintained in low oxygen conditions (5% O2) to recapitulate the physiologic conditions in tumors. Using this model, we demonstrate that a single 5 Gy radiation dose does not inhibit growth of TTA containing CSC and results in elevated expression of cytokines (TGF-α, RANTES, ENA-78) and factors (vimentin, MMP and TIMP), indicative of an invasive and aggressive phenotype. However, combined treatment of single dose or fractionated doses with cisplatin was found to either attenuate or decrease the proliferative effect that radiation exposure alone had on TTA containing CSC maintained in hypoxic conditions. In summary, we utilized a 3D NSCLC model, which had characteristics of the tumor microenvironment and tumor cell heterogeneity, to elucidate the multifactorial nature of radioresistance in tumors. PMID:26836231

  3. Modulation of the Tumor Microenvironment for Cancer Treatment: A Biomaterials Approach

    PubMed Central

    Adjei, Isaac M.; Blanka, Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Tumors are complex tissues that consist of stromal cells, such as fibroblasts, immune cells and mesenchymal stem cells, as well as non-cellular components, in addition to neoplastic cells. Increasingly, there is evidence to suggest that these non-neoplastic cell components support cancer initiation, progression and metastasis and that their ablation or reprogramming can inhibit tumor growth. Our understanding of the activities of different parts of the tumor stroma in advancing cancer has been improved by the use of scaffold and matrix-based 3D systems originally developed for regenerative medicine. Additionally, drug delivery systems made from synthetic and natural biomaterials deliver drugs to kill stromal cells or reprogram the microenvironment for tumor inhibition. In this article, we review the impact of 3D tumor models in increasing our understanding of tumorigenesis. We also discuss how different drug delivery systems aid in the reprogramming of tumor stroma for cancer treatment. PMID:25695337

  4. Facilitating T Cell Infiltration in Tumor Microenvironment Overcomes Resistance to PD-L1 Blockade.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haidong; Wang, Yang; Chlewicki, Lukasz K; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Jingya; Liang, Wei; Wang, Jieyi; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2016-03-14

    Immune checkpoint blockade therapies fail to induce responses in the majority of cancer patients, so how to increase the objective response rate becomes an urgent challenge. Here, we demonstrate that sufficient T cell infiltration in tumor tissues is a prerequisite for response to PD-L1 blockade. Targeting tumors with tumor necrosis factor superfamily member LIGHT activates lymphotoxin β-receptor signaling, leading to the production of chemokines that recruit massive numbers of T cells. Furthermore, targeting non-T cell-inflamed tumor tissues by antibody-guided LIGHT creates a T cell-inflamed microenvironment and overcomes tumor resistance to checkpoint blockade. Our data indicate that targeting LIGHT might be a potent strategy to increase the responses to checkpoint blockades and other immunotherapies in non-T cell-inflamed tumors. PMID:26977880

  5. Lactate Contribution to the Tumor Microenvironment: Mechanisms, Effects on Immune Cells and Therapeutic Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Garcia, Susana; Moreno-Altamirano, María Maximina B.; Prado-Garcia, Heriberto; Sánchez-García, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    Malignant transformation of cells leads to enhanced glucose uptake and the conversion of a larger fraction of pyruvate into lactate, even under normoxic conditions; this phenomenon of aerobic glycolysis is largely known as the Warburg effect. This metabolic reprograming serves to generate biosynthetic precursors, thus facilitating the survival of rapidly proliferating malignant cells. Extracellular lactate directs the metabolic reprograming of tumor cells, thereby serving as an additional selective pressure. Besides tumor cells, stromal cells are another source of lactate production in the tumor microenvironment, whose role in both tumor growth and the antitumor immune response is the subject of intense research. In this review, we provide an integral perspective of the relationship between lactate and the overall tumor microenvironment, from lactate structure to metabolic pathways for its synthesis, receptors, signaling pathways, lactate-producing cells, lactate-responding cells, and how all contribute to the tumor outcome. We discuss the role of lactate as an immunosuppressor molecule that contributes to tumor evasion and we explore the possibility of targeting lactate metabolism for cancer treatment, as well as of using lactate as a prognostic biomarker. PMID:26909082

  6. Live Imaging of Drug Responses in the Tumor Microenvironment in Mouse Models of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakasone, Elizabeth S.; Askautrud, Hanne A.; Egeblad, Mikala

    2013-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment plays a pivotal role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, and the response to anti-cancer therapies. Three-dimensional co-culture systems are frequently used to explicate tumor-stroma interactions, including their role in drug responses. However, many of the interactions that occur in vivo in the intact microenvironment cannot be completely replicated in these in vitro settings. Thus, direct visualization of these processes in real-time has become an important tool in understanding tumor responses to therapies and identifying the interactions between cancer cells and the stroma that can influence these responses. Here we provide a method for using spinning disk confocal microscopy of live, anesthetized mice to directly observe drug distribution, cancer cell responses and changes in tumor-stroma interactions following administration of systemic therapy in breast cancer models. We describe procedures for labeling different tumor components, treatment of animals for observing therapeutic responses, and the surgical procedure for exposing tumor tissues for imaging up to 40 hours. The results obtained from this protocol are time-lapse movies, in which such processes as drug infiltration, cancer cell death and stromal cell migration can be evaluated using image analysis software. PMID:23542634

  7. Targeting tumor acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Engelman, Donald M.; Andreev, Oleg A.

    2012-02-01

    One of the main features of solid tumors is extracellular acidity, which correlates with tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. We introduced novel approach in targeting of acidic tumors, and translocation of cell-impermeable cargo molecules across cellular membrane. Our approach is based on main principle of insertion and folding of a polypeptide in lipid bilayer of membrane. We have identified family of pH Low Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs), which are capable spontaneous insertion and folding in membrane at mild acidic conditions. The affinity of peptides of pHLIP family to membrane at low pH is several times higher than at neutral pH. The process of peptides folding occurs within milliseconds. The energy released in a result of folding (about 2 kcal/mol) could be used to move polar cargo across a membrane, which is a novel concept in drug delivery. pHLIP peptides could be considered as a pH-sensitive single peptide molecular transporters and conjugated with imaging probes for fluorescence, MR, PET and SPECT imaging, they represent a novel in vivo marker of acidity. The work is supported by NIH grants CA133890 and GM073857 to OAA, DME, YRK.

  8. The Inflammatory Microenvironment in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Pivotal Role for Tumor-Associated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Capece, Daria; Fischietti, Mariafausta; Verzella, Daniela; Gaggiano, Agata; Cicciarelli, Germana; Tessitore, Alessandra; Zazzeroni, Francesca; Alesse, Edoardo

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and aggressive human cancers worldwide. HCC is an example of inflammation-related cancer and represents a paradigm of the relation occurring between tumor microenvironment and tumor development. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a major component of leukocyte infiltrate of tumors and play a pivotal role in tumor progression of inflammation-related cancer, including HCC. Several studies indicate that, in the tumor microenvironment, TAMs acquire an M2-polarized phenotype and promote angiogenesis, metastasis, and suppression of adaptive immunity through the expression of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and matrix metalloproteases. Indeed, an established M2 macrophage population has been associated with poor prognosis in HCC. The molecular links that connect cancer cells and TAMs are not completely known, but recent studies have demonstrated that NF-κB, STAT-3, and HIF-1 signaling pathways play key roles in this crosstalk. In this paper, we discuss the current knowledge about the role of TAMs in HCC development, highlighting the role of TAM-derived cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in the initiation and progression of liver cancer and outlining the signaling pathways involved in the interplay between cancer cells and TAMs. PMID:23533994

  9. Identification of genetic loci that control mammary tumor susceptibility through the host microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengju; Lo, Alvin; Huang, Yurong; Huang, Ge; Liang, Guozhou; Mott, Joni; Karpen, Gary H.; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Snijders, Antoine M.; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2015-03-09

    The interplay between host genetics, tumor microenvironment and environmental exposure in cancer susceptibility remains poorly understood. Here we assessed the genetic control of stromal mediation of mammary tumor susceptibility to low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) using backcrossed F1 into BALB/c (F1Bx) between cancer susceptible (BALB/c) and resistant (SPRET/EiJ) mouse strains. Tumor formation was evaluated after transplantation of non-irradiated Trp53-/- BALB/c mammary gland fragments into cleared fat pads of F1Bx hosts. Genome-wide linkage analysis revealed 2 genetic loci that constitute the baseline susceptibility via host microenvironment. However, once challenged with LDIR, we discovered 13 additional loci that were enriched for genes involved in cytokines, including TGFβ1 signaling. Surprisingly, LDIR-treated F1Bx cohort significantly reduced incidence of mammary tumors from Trp53-/- fragments as well as prolonged tumor latency, compared to sham-treated controls. We demonstrated further that plasma levels of specific cytokines were significantly correlated with tumor latency. Using an ex vivo 3-D assay, we confirmed TGFβ1 as a strong candidate for reduced mammary invasion in SPRET/EiJ, which could explain resistance of this strain to mammary cancer risk following LDIR. Our results open possible new avenues to understand mechanisms of genes operating via the stroma that affect cancer risk from external environmental exposures.

  10. Identification of genetic loci that control mammary tumor susceptibility through the host microenvironment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Pengju; Lo, Alvin; Huang, Yurong; Huang, Ge; Liang, Guozhou; Mott, Joni; Karpen, Gary H.; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; et al

    2015-03-09

    The interplay between host genetics, tumor microenvironment and environmental exposure in cancer susceptibility remains poorly understood. Here we assessed the genetic control of stromal mediation of mammary tumor susceptibility to low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) using backcrossed F1 into BALB/c (F1Bx) between cancer susceptible (BALB/c) and resistant (SPRET/EiJ) mouse strains. Tumor formation was evaluated after transplantation of non-irradiated Trp53-/- BALB/c mammary gland fragments into cleared fat pads of F1Bx hosts. Genome-wide linkage analysis revealed 2 genetic loci that constitute the baseline susceptibility via host microenvironment. However, once challenged with LDIR, we discovered 13 additional loci that were enriched for genesmore » involved in cytokines, including TGFβ1 signaling. Surprisingly, LDIR-treated F1Bx cohort significantly reduced incidence of mammary tumors from Trp53-/- fragments as well as prolonged tumor latency, compared to sham-treated controls. We demonstrated further that plasma levels of specific cytokines were significantly correlated with tumor latency. Using an ex vivo 3-D assay, we confirmed TGFβ1 as a strong candidate for reduced mammary invasion in SPRET/EiJ, which could explain resistance of this strain to mammary cancer risk following LDIR. Our results open possible new avenues to understand mechanisms of genes operating via the stroma that affect cancer risk from external environmental exposures.« less

  11. Role of TGFβ in regulation of the tumor microenvironment and drug delivery (Review)

    PubMed Central

    PAPAGEORGIS, PANAGIOTIS; STYLIANOPOULOS, TRIANTAFYLLOS

    2015-01-01

    Deregulation of cell signaling homeostasis is a predominant feature of cancer initiation and progression. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is a pleiotropic cytokine, which regulates numerous biological processes of various tissues in an autocrine and paracrine manner. Aberrant activity of TGFβ signaling is well known to play dual roles in cancer, depending on tumor stage and cellular context. The crucial roles of TGFβ in modulating the tumor microenvironment, its contribution to the accumulation of mechanical forces within the solid constituents of a tumor and its effects on the effective delivery of drugs are also becoming increasingly clear. In this review, we discuss the latest advances in the efforts to unravel the effects of TGFβ signaling in various components of the tumor microenvironment and how these influence the generation of forces and the efficacy of drugs. We also report the implications of tumor mechanics in cancer therapy and the potential usage of anti-TGFβ agents to enhance drug delivery and augment existing therapeutic approaches. These findings provide new insights towards the significance of targeting TGFβ pathway to enhance personalized tumor treatment. PMID:25573346

  12. Galectin-3 in bone tumor microenvironment: a beacon for individual skeletal metastasis management.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kosei; Kho, Dong Hyo; Yanagawa, Takashi; Zimel, Melissa; Heath, Elisabeth; Hogan, Victor; Raz, Avraham

    2016-06-01

    The skeleton is frequently a secondary growth site of disseminated cancers, often leading to painful and devastating clinical outcomes. Metastatic cancer distorts bone marrow homeostasis through tumor-derived factors, which shapes different bone tumor microenvironments depending on the tumor cells' origin. Here, we propose a novel insight on tumor-secreted Galectin-3 (Gal-3) that controls the induction of an inflammatory cascade, differentiation of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and bone marrow cells, resulting in bone destruction and therapeutic failure. In the approaching era of personalized medicine, the current treatment modalities targeting bone metastatic environments are provided to the patient with limited consideration of the cancer cells' origin. Our new outlook suggests delivering individual tumor microenvironment treatments based on the expression level/activity/functionality of tumor-derived factors, rather than utilizing a commonly shared therapeutic umbrella. The notion of "Gal-3-associated bone remodeling" could be the first step toward a specific personalized therapy for each cancer type generating a different bone niche in patients afflicted with non-curable bone metastasis. PMID:27067726

  13. Interleukin-8 promotes canine hemangiosarcoma growth by regulating the tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Frantz, Aric M.; Anderson, Katie L.; Graef, Ashley J.; Scott, Milcah C.; Robinson, Sally; Sharkey, Leslie C.; O'Brien, Timothy D.; Dickerson, Erin B.; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2014-04-15

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression is highly up-regulated in canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA); however, its role in the pathogenesis of this disease is unknown. We investigated the expression of IL-8 in canine HSA tissues and cell lines, as well and the effects of IL-8 on canine HSA in vitro, and in vivo using a mouse xenograft model for the latter. Constitutive expression of IL-8 mRNA, IL-8 protein, and IL-8 receptor were variable among different tumor samples and cell lines, but they showed stable steady states in each cell line. Upon the addition of IL-8, HSA cells showed transient intracellular calcium fluxes, suggesting that their IL-8 receptors are functional and that IL-8 binding activates relevant signaling pathways. Yet, neither addition of exogenous IL-8 nor blockade of endogenous IL-8 by neutralizing anti-IL-8 antibody (α-IL-8 Ab) affected HSA cell proliferation or survival in vitro. To assess potential effects of IL-8 in other tumor constituents, we stratified HSA cell lines and whole tumor samples into “IL-8 high” and “IL-8 low” groups. Genome-wide gene expression profiling showed that samples in the “IL-8 high” tumor group were enriched for genes associated with a “reactive microenvironment,” including activation of coagulation, inflammation, and fibrosis networks. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the effects of IL-8 on these tumors were mostly indirect, regulating interactions with the microenvironment. This hypothesis was supported by in vivo xenograft experiments where survival and engraftment of tumor cells was inhibited by administration of neutralizing α-IL-8 Ab. Together, our results suggest that IL-8 contributes to establishing a permissive microenvironment during the early stages of tumorigenesis in HSA. - Highlights: • IL-8 is expressed in canine hemangiosarcoma tumor samples and cell lines. • IL-8 transduces a relevant biological signal in canine hemangiosarcoma cells. • IL-8 gene signature is associated

  14. HGF/Met Signaling in Head and Neck Cancer: Impact on the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Stefan; Bhola, Neil E; Grandis, Jennifer R

    2016-08-15

    Studies to date have revealed several major molecular alterations that contribute to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) initiation, progression, metastatic spread, and therapeutic failure. The EGFR is the only FDA-approved therapeutic target, yet responses to cetuximab have been limited. Activation and cross-talk of cellular receptors and consequent activation of different signaling pathways contribute to limited activity of blockade of a single pathway. The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor, Met, has been implicated in HNSCC tumorigenesis and EGFR inhibitor resistance. HGF, the sole ligand of Met, is overexpressed in the tumor microenvironment. The role of HGF/Met signaling in proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis has been investigated in HNSCC, leading to clinical trials with various Met inhibitors and HGF antibodies. However, the role of the HGF/Met signaling axis in mediating the tumor microenvironment has been relatively understudied in HNSCC. In this review, we discuss the functional roles of Met and HGF in HNSCC with a focus on the tumor microenvironment and the immune system. Clin Cancer Res; 22(16); 4005-13. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27370607

  15. TGF-β and immune cells: an important regulatory axis in the tumor microenvironment and progression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Pang, Yanli; Moses, Harold L.

    2010-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) plays an important role in tumor initiation and progression, functioning as both a suppressor and a promoter. The mechanisms underlying this dual role of TGF-β remain unclear. TGF-β exerts systemic immune suppression and inhibits host immunosurveillance. Neutralizing TGF-β enhances CD8+ T-cell- and NK-cell-mediated anti-tumor immune responses. It also increases neutrophil-attracting chemokines resulting in recruitment and activation of neutrophils with an antitumor phenotype. In addition to its systemic effects, TGF-β regulates infiltration of inflammatory/immune cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment causing direct changes in tumor cells. Understanding TGF-β regulation at the interface of tumor and host immunity should provide insights into developing effective TGF-β antagonists and biomarkers for patient selection and efficacy of TGF-β antagonist treatment. PMID:20538542

  16. The tumor microenvironment underlies acquired resistance to CSF-1R inhibition in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Quail, Daniela F; Bowman, Robert L; Akkari, Leila; Quick, Marsha L; Schuhmacher, Alberto J; Huse, Jason T; Holland, Eric C; Sutton, James C; Joyce, Johanna A

    2016-05-20

    Macrophages accumulate with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) progression and can be targeted via inhibition of colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) to regress high-grade tumors in animal models of this cancer. However, whether and how resistance emerges in response to sustained CSF-1R blockade is unknown. We show that although overall survival is significantly prolonged, tumors recur in >50% of mice. Gliomas reestablish sensitivity to CSF-1R inhibition upon transplantation, indicating that resistance is tumor microenvironment-driven. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activity was elevated in recurrent GBM, driven by macrophage-derived insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and tumor cell IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Combining IGF-1R or PI3K blockade with CSF-1R inhibition in recurrent tumors significantly prolonged overall survival. Our findings thus reveal a potential therapeutic approach for treating resistance to CSF-1R inhibitors. PMID:27199435

  17. The tumor microenvironment shapes lineage, transcriptional, and functional diversity of infiltrating myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Elpek, Kutlu G; Cremasco, Viviana; Shen, Hua; Harvey, Christopher J; Wucherpfennig, Kai W; Goldstein, Daniel R; Monach, Paul A; Turley, Shannon J

    2014-07-01

    Myeloid cells play important regulatory roles within the tumor environment by directly promoting tumor progression and modulating the function of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and as such, they represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer. Although distinct subsets of tumor-associated myeloid cells have been identified, a broader analysis of the complete myeloid cell landscape within individual tumors and also across different tumor types has been lacking. By establishing the developmental and transcriptomic signatures of infiltrating myeloid cells from multiple primary tumors, we found that tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and tumor-associated neutrophils (TAN), while present within all tumors analyzed, exhibited strikingly different frequencies, gene expression profiles, and functions across cancer types. We also evaluated the impact of anatomic location and circulating factors on the myeloid cell composition of tumors. The makeup of the myeloid compartment was determined by the tumor microenvironment rather than the anatomic location of tumor development or tumor-derived circulating factors. Protumorigenic and hypoxia-associated genes were enriched in TAMs and TANs compared with splenic myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Although all TANs had an altered expression pattern of secretory effector molecules, in each tumor type they exhibited a unique cytokine, chemokine, and associated receptor expression profile. One such molecule, haptoglobin, was uniquely expressed by 4T1 TANs and identified as a possible diagnostic biomarker for tumors characterized by the accumulation of myeloid cells. Thus, we have identified considerable cancer-specific diversity in the lineage, gene expression, and function of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells. PMID:24801837

  18. Myeloid cell signatures in tumor microenvironment predicts therapeutic response in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Achyut, Bhagelu R; Arbab, Ali S

    2016-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment (TME) consists of several immune and nonimmune cell populations including tumor cells. For many decades, experimental studies have depicted profound contribution of TME toward cancer progression and metastasis development. Several therapeutic strategies have been tested against TME through preclinical studies and clinical trials. Unfortunately, most of them have shown transient effect, and have largely failed due to aggressive tumor growth and without improving survival. Solid tumors are known to have a strong myeloid component (eg, tumor-associated macrophages) in tumor development. Recent data suggest that therapeutic responses in tumor are characterized by alterations in immune cell signatures, including tumor-associated myeloid cells. Polarized tumor-associated myeloid cells (M1–M2) are critical in impairing therapeutic effect and promoting tumor growth. The present review is intended to compile all the literatures related to the emerging contribution of different populations of myeloid cells in the development of tumor and therapeutic failures. Finally, we have discussed targeting of myeloid cell populations as a combination therapy with chemo-, targeted-, or radiation therapies. PMID:27042097

  19. MUC1-specific CTLs are non-functional within a pancreatic tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, P; Ginardi, A R; Madsen, C S; Tinder, T L; Jacobs, F; Parker, J; Agrawal, B; Longenecker, B M; Gendler, S J

    2001-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive, treatment refractory disease and is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. In humans, 90% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas over-express altered forms of a tumor-associated antigen, MUC1 (an epithelial mucin glycoprotein), which is a target for immunotherapy. Using a clinically relevant mouse model of pancreas cancer that demonstrates peripheral and central tolerance to human MUC1 and develops spontaneous tumors of the pancreas, we have previously reported the presence of functionally active, low affinity, MUC1-specific precursor cytotoxic T cells (pCTLs). Hypothesis for this study is that MUC1-based immunization may enhance the low level MUC1-specific immunity that may lead to an effective anti-tumor response. Data demonstrate that MUC1 peptide-based immunization elicits mature MUC1-specific CTLs in the peripheral lymphoid organs. The mature CTLs secrete IFN-gamma and are cytolytic against MUC1-expressing tumor cells in vitro. However, active CTLs that infiltrate the pancreas tumor microenvironment become cytolytically anergic and are tolerized to MUC1 antigen, allowing the tumor to grow. We demonstrate that the CTL tolerance could be reversed at least in vitro with the use of anti-CD40 co-stimulation. The pancreas tumor cells secrete immunosuppressive cytokines, including IL-10 and TGF-beta that are partly responsible for the down-regulation of CTL activity. In addition, they down-regulate their MHC class I molecules to avoid immune recognition. CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells, which secrete IL-10, were also found in the tumor environment. Together these data indicate the use of several immune evasion mechanisms by tumor cells to evade CTL killing. Thus altering the tumor microenvironment to make it more conducive to CTL killing may be key in developing a successful anti-cancer immunotherapy. PMID:12820727

  20. Interleukin-8 Promotes Canine Hemangiosarcoma Growth by Regulating the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Frantz, Aric M.; Anderson, Katie L.; Graef, Ashley J.; Scott, Milcah C.; Robinson, Sally; Sharkey, Leslie C.; O’Brien, Timothy D.; Dickerson, Erin B.; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression is highly up-regulated in canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA); however, its role in the pathogenesis of this disease is unknown. We investigated the expression of IL-8 in canine HSA tissues and cell lines, as well and the effects of IL-8 on canine HSA in vitro, and in vivo using a mouse xenograft model for the latter. Constitutive expression of IL-8 mRNA, IL-8 protein, and IL-8 receptor were variable among different tumor samples and cell lines, but they showed stable steady states in each cell line. Upon the addition of IL-8, HSA cells showed transient intracellular calcium fluxes, suggesting that their IL-8 receptors are functional and that IL-8 binding activates relevant signaling pathways. Yet, neither addition of exogenous IL-8 nor blockade of endogenous IL-8 by neutralizing anti-IL-8 antibody (α-IL-8 Ab) affected HSA cell proliferation or survival in vitro. To assess potential effects of IL-8 in other tumor constituents, we stratified HSA cell lines and whole tumor samples into “IL-8 high” and “IL-8 low” groups. Genome-wide gene expression profiling showed that samples in the “IL-8 high” tumor group were enriched for genes associated with a “reactive microenvironment,” including activation of coagulation, inflammation, and fibrosis networks. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the effects of IL-8 on these tumors were mostly indirect, regulating interactions with the microenvironment. This hypothesis was supported by in vivo xenograft experiments where survival and engraftment of tumor cells was inhibited by administration of neutralizing α-IL-8 Ab. Together, our results suggest that IL-8 contributes to establishing a permissive microenvironment during the early stages of tumorigenesis in HSA. PMID:24582862

  1. Interleukin-8 promotes canine hemangiosarcoma growth by regulating the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Frantz, Aric M; Anderson, Katie L; Graef, Ashley J; Scott, Milcah C; Robinson, Sally; Sharkey, Leslie C; O'Brien, Timothy D; Dickerson, Erin B; Modiano, Jaime F

    2014-04-15

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression is highly up-regulated in canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA); however, its role in the pathogenesis of this disease is unknown. We investigated the expression of IL-8 in canine HSA tissues and cell lines, as well and the effects of IL-8 on canine HSA in vitro, and in vivo using a mouse xenograft model for the latter. Constitutive expression of IL-8 mRNA, IL-8 protein, and IL-8 receptor were variable among different tumor samples and cell lines, but they showed stable steady states in each cell line. Upon the addition of IL-8, HSA cells showed transient intracellular calcium fluxes, suggesting that their IL-8 receptors are functional and that IL-8 binding activates relevant signaling pathways. Yet, neither addition of exogenous IL-8 nor blockade of endogenous IL-8 by neutralizing anti-IL-8 antibody (α-IL-8 Ab) affected HSA cell proliferation or survival in vitro. To assess potential effects of IL-8 in other tumor constituents, we stratified HSA cell lines and whole tumor samples into "IL-8 high" and "IL-8 low" groups. Genome-wide gene expression profiling showed that samples in the "IL-8 high" tumor group were enriched for genes associated with a "reactive microenvironment," including activation of coagulation, inflammation, and fibrosis networks. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the effects of IL-8 on these tumors were mostly indirect, regulating interactions with the microenvironment. This hypothesis was supported by in vivo xenograft experiments where survival and engraftment of tumor cells was inhibited by administration of neutralizing α-IL-8 Ab. Together, our results suggest that IL-8 contributes to establishing a permissive microenvironment during the early stages of tumorigenesis in HSA. PMID:24582862

  2. Classical and non-classical proangiogenic factors as a target of antiangiogenic therapy in tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Marech, Ilaria; Leporini, Christian; Ammendola, Michele; Porcelli, Mariangela; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Ranieri, Girolamo

    2016-09-28

    Angiogenesis is sustained by classical and non-classical proangiogenic factors (PFs) acting in tumor microenvironment and these factors are also potential targets of antiangiogenic therapies. All PFs induce the overexpression of several signaling pathways that lead to migration and proliferation of endothelial cells contributing to tumor angiogenesis and survival of cancer cells. In this review, we have analyzed each PF with its specific receptor/s and we have summarized the available antiangiogenic drugs (e.g. monoclonal antibodies) targeting these PFs, some of these agents have already been approved, others are currently in development for the treatment of several human malignancies. PMID:26238184

  3. Bone mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into myofibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JING; SUN, DINGQI; FU, QIANG; CAO, QINGWEI; ZHANG, HUI; ZHANG, KEQIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the tropism of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to the tumor microenvironment, and to evaluate the feasibility of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiating into myofibroblasts in vitro. A total of 1 ml bone marrow was extracted from the greater trochanter of one male New Zealand rabbit, and MSCs were obtained by density gradient centrifugation and cultured routinely. The surface markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. A VX2 tumor was aseptically excised from another male New Zealand rabbit and primary cultured. The tropism of MSCs for 30% and 50% VX2 conditioned medium was determined by using Transwell migration assays. MSCs were incubated in 30% VX2 conditioned medium for 7 or 14 days. The messenger (m)RNA levels and protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. MSCs were observed to have a spindle shape. The cultured MSCs were cluster of differentiation (CD)44+, CD105+, CD106+ and CD34−. VX2 cells demonstrated a spindle or polygon shape. In the Transwell assay, it was observed that the migrated cells appeared more frequently in the 30% VX2 conditioned medium group compared with the other groups when microscopically examined, which was additionally confirmed by the results of a colorimetric assay. The mRNA levels and protein expression of α-SMA and vimentin significantly increased in the test group compared with the control group at 7 days (P<0.01), and further increased in the test group at 14 days (P<0.01). The results of the present study demonstrated that MSCs have tropism for the tumor microenvironment and furthermore, may differentiate into myofibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment in vitro. The present study suggested that MSCs may migrate to the tumor and subsequently differentiate into myofibroblasts due to the tumor microenvironment, which may lead to promotion of the growth of the tumor

  4. Interrogating Tumor Metabolism and Tumor Microenvironments Using Molecular Positron Emission Tomography Imaging. Theranostic Approaches to Improve Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Orit

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive molecular imaging technology that is becoming increasingly important for the measurement of physiologic, biochemical, and pharmacological functions at cellular and molecular levels in patients with cancer. Formation, development, and aggressiveness of tumor involve a number of molecular pathways, including intrinsic tumor cell mutations and extrinsic interaction between tumor cells and the microenvironment. Currently, evaluation of these processes is mainly through biopsy, which is invasive and limited to the site of biopsy. Ongoing research on specific target molecules of the tumor and its microenvironment for PET imaging is showing great potential. To date, the use of PET for diagnosing local recurrence and metastatic sites of various cancers and evaluation of treatment response is mainly based on [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG), which measures glucose metabolism. However, [18F]FDG is not a target-specific PET tracer and does not give enough insight into tumor biology and/or its vulnerability to potential treatments. Hence, there is an increasing need for the development of selective biologic radiotracers that will yield specific biochemical information and allow for noninvasive molecular imaging. The possibility of cancer-associated targets for imaging will provide the opportunity to use PET for diagnosis and therapy response monitoring (theranostics) and thus personalized medicine. This article will focus on the review of non-[18F]FDG PET tracers for specific tumor biology processes and their preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:24064460

  5. The Roles of Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells in Tumor Microenvironment Associated with Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Krstić, Jelena; Djordjević, Ivana Okić; Jauković, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    State of tumor microenvironment (TME) is closely linked to regulation of tumor growth and progression affecting the final outcome, refractoriness, and relapse of disease. Interactions of tumor, immune, and mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have been recognized as crucial for understanding tumorigenesis. Due to their outstanding features, stem cell-like properties, capacity to regulate immune response, and dynamic functional phenotype dependent on microenvironmental stimuli, MSCs have been perceived as important players in TME. Signals provided by tumor-associated chronic inflammation educate MSCs to alter their phenotype and immunomodulatory potential in favor of tumor-biased state of MSCs. Adjustment of phenotype to TME and acquisition of tumor-promoting ability by MSCs help tumor cells in maintenance of permissive TME and suppression of antitumor immune response. Potential utilization of MSCs in treatment of tumor is based on their inherent ability to home tumor tissue that makes them suitable delivery vehicles for immune-stimulating factors and vectors for targeted antitumor therapy. Here, we review data regarding intrusive effects of inflammatory TME on MSCs capacity to affect tumor development through modification of their phenotype and interactions with immune system.

  6. Until Death Do Us Part: Necrosis and Oxidation Promote the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Ramin; Kaltenmeier, Christof; Lotze, Michael T.; Bergmann, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Summary Tumor proliferation is concomitant with autophagy, limited apoptosis, and resultant necrosis. Necrosis is associated with the release of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), which act as ‘danger signals’, recruiting inflammatory cells, inducing immune responses, and promoting wound healing. Most of the current treatment strategies for cancer (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy) promote DAMP release following therapy-induced tumor death by necroptosis and necrosis. Myeloid cells (monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), and granulocytes), as well as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) belong to the early immigrants in response to unscheduled cell death, initiating and modulating the subsequent inflammatory response. Responding to DAMPs, MSCs, and DCs promote an immunosuppressive milieu, while eosinophils induce oxidative conditions limiting the biologic activity of DAMPs over time and distance. Regulatory T cells are strongly affected by pattern recognition receptor signaling in the tumor microenvironment and limit immune reactivity coordinately with myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Means to ‘aerobically’ oxidize DAMPs provide a novel strategy for limiting tumor progression. The present article summarizes our current understanding of the impact of necrosis on the tumor microenvironment and the influence of oxidative conditions found within this setting. PMID:27226794

  7. The Next Hurdle in Cancer Immunotherapy: Overcoming the Non-T-Cell-Inflamed Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Thomas F

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that a major subset of patients with advanced solid tumors shows evidence for a T-cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment. This phenotype has positive prognostic value for several types of early stage cancer, suggesting that the attempt by the host to generate an anti-tumor immune response reflects a biologic process associated with improved patient outcomes. In metastatic disease, the presence of this phenotype appears to be associated with clinical response to several immunotherapies, including cancer vaccines, checkpoint blockade, and adoptive T-cell transfer. With the high rate of clinical response to several of these therapies, along with early data indicating that combination immunotherapies may be even more potent, it seems likely that effective immune-based therapies will become a reality for patients with a range of different cancers that physiologically support the T-cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment in a subset of individuals. Therefore, one of the next significant hurdles will be to develop new therapeutic interventions that will enable these immunotherapies to be effective in patients with the non-T-cell-inflamed phenotype. Rational development of such interventions will benefit from a detailed molecular understanding of the mechanisms that explain the presence or absence of the T-cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment, which in turn will benefit from focused interrogation of patient samples. This iterative "reverse-translational" research strategy has already identified new candidate therapeutic targets and approaches. It is envisioned that the end result of these investigations will be an expanded array of interventions that will broaden the fraction of patients benefitting from immunotherapies in the clinic. PMID:26320069

  8. GSH-dependent antioxidant defense contributes to the acclimation of colon cancer cells to acidic microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minnan; Liu, Qiao; Gong, Yanchao; Xu, Xiuhua; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Caibo; Guo, Haiyang; Zhang, Xiyu; Gong, Yaoqin; Shao, Changshun

    2016-04-17

    Due to increased glycolysis and poor local perfusion, solid tumors are usually immersed in an acidic microenvironment. While extracellular acidosis is cytotoxic, cancer cells eventually become acclimated to it. While previous studies have addressed the acute effect of acidosis on cancer cells, little is known about how cancer cells survive chronic acidosis. In this study we exposed colorectal cancer (CRC) cells (HCT15, HCT116 and LoVo) to acidic pH (pH 6.5) continuously for over three months and obtained CRC cells that become acclimated to acidic pH, designated as CRC-acidosis-acclimated or CRC-AA. We unexpectedly found that while acute exposure to low pH resulted in an increase in the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), CRC-AA cells exhibited a significantly reduced level of ROS when compared to ancestor cells. CRC-AA cells were found to maintain a higher level of reduced glutathione, via the upregulation of CD44 and glutathione reductase (GSR), among others, than their ancestor cells. Importantly, CRC-AA cells were more sensitive to agents that deplete GSH. Moreover, downregulation of GSR by RNA interference was more deleterious to CRC-AA cells than to control cells. Together, our results demonstrate a critical role of glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense in acclimation of CRC cells to acidic extracellular pH. PMID:26950675

  9. GSH-dependent antioxidant defense contributes to the acclimation of colon cancer cells to acidic microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Minnan; Liu, Qiao; Gong, Yanchao; Xu, Xiuhua; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Caibo; Guo, Haiyang; Zhang, Xiyu; Gong, Yaoqin; Shao, Changshun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to increased glycolysis and poor local perfusion, solid tumors are usually immersed in an acidic microenvironment. While extracellular acidosis is cytotoxic, cancer cells eventually become acclimated to it. While previous studies have addressed the acute effect of acidosis on cancer cells, little is known about how cancer cells survive chronic acidosis. In this study we exposed colorectal cancer (CRC) cells (HCT15, HCT116 and LoVo) to acidic pH (pH 6.5) continuously for over three months and obtained CRC cells that become acclimated to acidic pH, designated as CRC-acidosis-acclimated or CRC-AA. We unexpectedly found that while acute exposure to low pH resulted in an increase in the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), CRC-AA cells exhibited a significantly reduced level of ROS when compared to ancestor cells. CRC-AA cells were found to maintain a higher level of reduced glutathione, via the upregulation of CD44 and glutathione reductase (GSR), among others, than their ancestor cells. Importantly, CRC-AA cells were more sensitive to agents that deplete GSH. Moreover, downregulation of GSR by RNA interference was more deleterious to CRC-AA cells than to control cells. Together, our results demonstrate a critical role of glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense in acclimation of CRC cells to acidic extracellular pH. PMID:26950675

  10. Targeting cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment: opportunities and challenges in combinatorial nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Linton, Samuel S; Sherwood, Samantha G; Drews, Kelly C; Kester, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Cancer therapies of the future will rely on synergy between drugs delivered in combination to achieve both maximum efficacy and decreased toxicity. Nanoscale drug delivery vehicles composed of highly tunable nanomaterials ('nanocarriers') represent the most promising approach to achieve simultaneous, cell-selective delivery of synergistic ratios of combinations of drugs within solid tumors. Nanocarriers are currently being used to co-encapsulate and deliver synergistic ratios of multiple anticancer drugs to target cells within solid tumors. Investigators exploit the unique environment associated with solid tumors, termed the tumor microenvironment (TME), to make 'smart' nanocarriers. These sophisticated nanocarriers exploit the pathological conditions in the TME, thereby creating highly targeted nanocarriers that release their drug payload in a spatially and temporally controlled manner. The translational and commercial potential of nanocarrier-based combinatorial nanomedicines in cancer therapy is now a reality as several companies have initiated human clinical trials. PMID:26153136

  11. Effect and Molecular Mechanisms of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Regulating Tumor Immunosuppressive Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiujun; Li, Jie; Lin, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important complementary strategy for treating cancer in China. The mechanism is related to regulating the internal environment and remodeling the tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment (TIM). Herein we illustrate how TIM is reformed and its protumor activity on promoting tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, tumor invasion, and the oncogenicity of cancer stem cells. Furthermore we summarize the effects and mechanism of TCM on regulating TIM via enhancing antitumor immune responses (e.g., regulating the expression of MHC molecules and Fas/FasL, attenuating cancerigenic ability of cancer stem cells) and remolding immunosuppressive cells (e.g., reversing immune phenotypes of T lymphocytes and tumor associated macrophages, promoting dendritic cells mature, restraining myeloid derived suppressor cells function, and regulating Th1/Th2 factors). We also reveal the bidirectional and multitargeting functions of TCM on regulating TIM. Hopefully, it provides new theoretical basis for TCM clinical practice in cancer treatment and prevention. PMID:26161392

  12. Chitosan-Based Thermoreversible Hydrogel as an in Vitro Tumor Microenvironment for Testing Breast Cancer Therapies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a major health problem for women worldwide. Although in vitro culture of established breast cancer cell lines is the most widely used model for preclinical assessment, it poorly represents the behavior of breast cancers in vivo. Acceleration of the development of effective therapeutic strategies requires a cost-efficient in vitro model that can more accurately resemble the in vivo tumor microenvironment. Here, we report the use of a thermoreversible poly(ethylene glycol)-g-chitosan hydrogel (PCgel) as an in vitro breast cancer model. We hypothesized that PCgel could provide a tumor microenvironment that promotes cultured cancer cells to a more malignant phenotype with drug and immune resistance. Traditional tissue culture plates and Matrigel were applied as controls in our studies. In vitro cellular proliferation and morphology, the secretion of angiogenesis-related growth factors and cytokines, and drug and immune resistance were assessed. Our results show that PCgel cultures promoted tumor aggregate formation, increased secretion of various angiogenesis- and metastasis-related growth factors and cytokines, and increased tumor cell resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and immunotherapeutic T cells. This PCgel platform may offer a valuable strategy to bridge the gap between standard in vitro and costly animal studies for a wide variety of experimental designs. PMID:24779767

  13. Chitosan-based thermoreversible hydrogel as an in vitro tumor microenvironment for testing breast cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Ching-Ting; Kievit, Forrest M; Wang, Kui; Erickson, Ariane E; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Zhang, Miqin

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer is a major health problem for women worldwide. Although in vitro culture of established breast cancer cell lines is the most widely used model for preclinical assessment, it poorly represents the behavior of breast cancers in vivo. Acceleration of the development of effective therapeutic strategies requires a cost-efficient in vitro model that can more accurately resemble the in vivo tumor microenvironment. Here, we report the use of a thermoreversible poly(ethylene glycol)-g-chitosan hydrogel (PCgel) as an in vitro breast cancer model. We hypothesized that PCgel could provide a tumor microenvironment that promotes cultured cancer cells to a more malignant phenotype with drug and immune resistance. Traditional tissue culture plates and Matrigel were applied as controls in our studies. In vitro cellular proliferation and morphology, the secretion of angiogenesis-related growth factors and cytokines, and drug and immune resistance were assessed. Our results show that PCgel cultures promoted tumor aggregate formation, increased secretion of various angiogenesis- and metastasis-related growth factors and cytokines, and increased tumor cell resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and immunotherapeutic T cells. This PCgel platform may offer a valuable strategy to bridge the gap between standard in vitro and costly animal studies for a wide variety of experimental designs. PMID:24779767

  14. Resistance to Antiangiogenic Therapy Is Associated with an Immunosuppressive Tumor Microenvironment in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xian-De; Hoang, Anh; Zhou, Lijun; Kalra, Sarathi; Yetil, Alper; Sun, Mianen; Ding, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xuesong; Bai, Shanshan; German, Peter; Tamboli, Pheroze; Rao, Priya; Karam, Jose A; Wood, Christopher; Matin, Surena; Zurita, Amado; Bex, Axel; Griffioen, Arjan W; Gao, Jianjun; Sharma, Padmanee; Tannir, Nizar; Sircar, Kanishka; Jonasch, Eric

    2015-09-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an immunogenic and proangiogenic cancer, and antiangiogenic therapy is the current mainstay of treatment. Patients with RCC develop innate or adaptive resistance to antiangiogenic therapy. There is a need to identify biomarkers that predict therapeutic resistance and guide combination therapy. We assessed the interaction between antiangiogenic therapy and the tumor immune microenvironment and determined their impact on clinical outcome. We found that antiangiogenic therapy-treated RCC primary tumors showed increased infiltration of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes, which was inversely related to patient overall survival and progression-free survival. Furthermore, specimens from patients treated with antiangiogenic therapy showed higher infiltration of CD4(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells and enhanced expression of checkpoint ligand programed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). Both immunosuppressive features were correlated with T-lymphocyte infiltration and were negatively related to patient survival. Treatment of RCC cell lines and RCC xenografts in immunodeficient mice with sunitinib also increased tumor PD-L1 expression. Results from this study indicate that antiangiogenic treatment may both positively and negatively regulate the tumor immune microenvironment. These findings generate hypotheses on resistance mechanisms to antiangiogenic therapy and will guide the development of combination therapy with PD-1/PD-L1-blocking agents. PMID:26014097

  15. Targeting Angiogenesis and Tumor Microenvironment in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Role of Aflibercept

    PubMed Central

    Febbraro, Antonio; Venditti, Michele; Campidoglio, Serena; Olivieri, Nunzio; Raieta, Katia; Imbriani, Giusy Carmen; Remo, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, we have progressively observed an improvement in therapeutic options for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treatment with a progressive prolongation of survival. mCRC prognosis still remains poor with low percentage of 5-year survival. Targeted agents have improved results obtained with standard chemotherapy. Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in colorectal cancer growth, proliferation, and metastasization and it has been investigated as a potential target for mCRC treatment. Accordingly, novel antiangiogenic targeted agents bevacizumab, regorafenib, and aflibercept have been approved for mCRC treatment as the result of several phase III randomized trials. The development of a tumor permissive microenvironment via the aberrant expression by tumor cells of paracrine factors alters the tumor-stroma interactions inducing an expansion of proangiogenic signals. Recently, the VELOUR study showed that addition of aflibercept to FOLFIRI regimen as a second-line therapy for mCRC improved significantly OS, PFS, and RR. This molecule represents a valid second-line therapeutic option and its peculiar ability to interfere with placental growth factor (PlGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) axis makes it effective in targeting angiogenesis, inflammatory cells and in overcoming resistances to anti-angiogenic first-line treatment. Here, we discuss about Aflibercept peculiar ability to interfere with tumor microenvironment and angiogenic pathway. PMID:25136356

  16. Metabolic Competition in the Tumor Microenvironment Is a Driver of Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Qiu, Jing; O'Sullivan, David; Buck, Michael D; Noguchi, Takuro; Curtis, Jonathan D; Chen, Qiongyu; Gindin, Mariel; Gubin, Matthew M; van der Windt, Gerritje J W; Tonc, Elena; Schreiber, Robert D; Pearce, Edward J; Pearce, Erika L

    2015-09-10

    Failure of T cells to protect against cancer is thought to result from lack of antigen recognition, chronic activation, and/or suppression by other cells. Using a mouse sarcoma model, we show that glucose consumption by tumors metabolically restricts T cells, leading to their dampened mTOR activity, glycolytic capacity, and IFN-γ production, thereby allowing tumor progression. We show that enhancing glycolysis in an antigenic "regressor" tumor is sufficient to override the protective ability of T cells to control tumor growth. We also show that checkpoint blockade antibodies against CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1, which are used clinically, restore glucose in tumor microenvironment, permitting T cell glycolysis and IFN-γ production. Furthermore, we found that blocking PD-L1 directly on tumors dampens glycolysis by inhibiting mTOR activity and decreasing expression of glycolysis enzymes, reflecting a role for PD-L1 in tumor glucose utilization. Our results establish that tumor-imposed metabolic restrictions can mediate T cell hyporesponsiveness during cancer. PMID:26321679

  17. Low doses of gamma irradiation potentially modifies immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment by retuning tumor-associated macrophages: lesson from insulinoma.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Hridayesh; Klug, Felix; Nadella, Vinod; Mazumdar, Varadendra; Schmitz-Winnenthal, Hubertus; Umansky, Liudmila

    2016-03-01

    Tumor infiltrating iNOS+ macrophages under the influence of immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment gets polarized to tumor-promoting and immunosuppressive macrophages, known as tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). Their recruitment and increased density in the plethora of tumors has been associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. Therefore, retuning of TAM to M1 phenotype would be a key for effective immunotherapy. Radiotherapy has been a potential non-invasive strategy to improve cancer immunotherapy and tumor immune rejection. Irradiation of late-stage tumor-bearing Rip1-Tag5 mice twice with 2 Gy dose resulted in profound changes in the inflammatory tumor micromilieu, characterized by induction of M1-associated effecter cytokines as well as reduction in protumorigenic and M2-associated effecter cytokines. Similarly, in vitro irradiation of macrophages with 2 Gy dose-induced expression of iNOS, NO, NFκBpp65, pSTAT3 and proinflammatory cytokines secretion while downregulating p38MAPK which are involved in iNOS translation and acquisition of an M1-like phenotype. Enhancement of various M2 effecter cytokines and angiogenic reprogramming in iNOs+ macrophage depleted tumors and their subsequent reduction by 2 Gy dose in Rip1-Tag5 transgenic mice furthermore demonstrated a critical role of peritumoral macrophages in the course of gamma irradiation mediated M1 retuning of insulinoma. PMID:26785731

  18. Trial Watch-Small molecules targeting the immunological tumor microenvironment for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Buqué, Aitziber; Bloy, Norma; Aranda, Fernando; Cremer, Isabelle; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Fucikova, Jitka; Galon, Jérôme; Spisek, Radek; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    Progressing malignancies establish robust immunosuppressive networks that operate both systemically and locally. In particular, as tumors escape immunosurveillance, they recruit increasing amounts of myeloid and lymphoid cells that exert pronounced immunosuppressive effects. These cells not only prevent the natural recognition of growing neoplasms by the immune system, but also inhibit anticancer immune responses elicited by chemo-, radio- and immuno therapeutic interventions. Throughout the past decade, multiple strategies have been devised to counteract the accumulation or activation of tumor-infiltrating immunosuppressive cells for therapeutic purposes. Here, we review recent preclinical and clinical advances on the use of small molecules that target the immunological tumor microenvironment for cancer therapy. These agents include inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxigenase 1 (IDO1), prostaglandin E2, and specific cytokine receptors, as well as modulators of intratumoral purinergic signaling and arginine metabolism. PMID:27471617

  19. The hypoxic tumor microenvironment: A driving force for breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Gregg L

    2016-03-01

    Intratumoral hypoxia is a common finding in breast cancer and is associated with a significantly increased risk of metastasis and patient mortality. Hypoxia-inducible factors activate the transcription of a large battery of genes encoding proteins that promote primary tumor vascularization and growth, stromal cell recruitment, extracellular matrix remodeling, premetastatic niche formation, cell motility, local tissue invasion, extravasation at sites of metastasis, and maintenance of the cancer stem cell phenotype that is required to generate secondary tumors. Recent preclinical studies suggest that the combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy with drugs that inhibit hypoxia-inducible factors may improve outcome for women with triple-negative breast cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tumor Microenvironment Regulation of Cancer Cell Survival, Metastasis, Inflammation, and Immune Surveillance edited by Peter Ruvolo and Gregg L. Semenza. PMID:26079100

  20. Definition of Prostaglandin E2-EP2 Signals in the Colon Tumor Microenvironment That Amplify Inflammation and Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojun; Aoki, Tomohiro; Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Narumiya, Shuh

    2015-07-15

    Inflammation in the colon contributes significantly to colorectal cancer development. While aspirin reduces the colorectal cancer risk, its action mechanism, especially in inflammation in tumor microenvironment, still remains obscure. Here, we examined this issue by subjecting mice deficient in each prostaglandin (PG) receptor to colitis-associated cancer model. Deficiency of PGE receptor subtype EP2 selectively reduced, and deficiency of EP1 and EP3 enhanced, the tumor formation. EP2 is expressed in infiltrating neutrophils and tumor-associated fibroblasts in stroma, where it regulates expression of inflammation- and growth-related genes in a self-amplification manner. Notably, expression of cytokines such as TNFα and IL6, a chemokine, CXCL1, a PG-producing enzyme, COX-2, and Wnt5A was significantly elevated in tumor lesions of wild-type mice but this elevation was significantly suppressed in EP2-deficient mice. Intriguingly, EP2 stimulation in cultured neutrophils amplified expression of TNFα, IL6, CXCL1, COX-2, and other proinflammatory genes synergistically with TNFα, and EP2 stimulation in cultured fibroblasts induced expression of EP2 itself, COX-2, IL6, and Wnt genes. EP2 expression in infiltrating neutrophils and tumor-associated fibroblasts was also found in clinical specimen of ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Bone marrow transfer experiments suggest that EP2 in both cell populations is critical for tumorigenesis. Finally, administration of a selective EP2 antagonist potently suppressed tumorigenesis in this model. Our study has thus revealed that EP2 in neutrophils and tumor-associated fibroblasts promotes colon tumorigenesis by amplifying inflammation and shaping tumor microenvironment, and suggests that EP2 antagonists are promising candidates of aspirin-alternative for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer. PMID:26018088

  1. Impact of the tumor microenvironment on prognosis in follicular lymphoma is dependent on specific treatment protocols

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Daphne; Koster, Ad; Hagenbeek, Anton; Raemaekers, John; Veldhuizen, Dennis; Heisterkamp, Sabien; de Boer, Jan Paul; van Glabbeke, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Background The clinical behavior of follicular lymphoma is largely determined by properties of the non-malignant tumor microenvironment. The precise nature of the cell populations is still unclear and published data on their prognostic significance are highly conflicting. This may be partly due to heterogeneous composition and treatments. Design and Methods Pre-treatment biopsy samples of patients with follicular lymphoma treated in an EORTC/BNLI trial comparing fludarabine to cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone (CVP) chemotherapy could be retrieved for 61 patients in five European countries. Immunohistochemical investigations were performed evaluate tumor cell characteristics, T-cell subsets, follicular dendritic cells and macrophages and associations with clinical outcome were studied. Results Some markers showed a homogeneous prognostic impact, while others had a different nd sometimes opposite effect in the treatment arms. CD69 expression on tumor cells was a poor prognostic sign and an interfollicular infiltrate of FoxP3-positive T cells was a good prognostic sign irrespective of the treatment arm. It is suggestive that a dense infiltrate of FoxP3-positive T cells, dense and interfollicular infiltrate of CD68-positive macrophages and complete follicular dendritic meshworks were associated with a favorable time to progression in CVP-treated patients, while being poor prognostic sign in fludarabine-treated patients. Conclusions Our results suggest that characteristic properties of the microenvironment in follicular lymphoma determines the responses to essentially different chemotherapeutic approaches. These data may provide an explanation for the highly conflicting results on immunohistochemical markers and the prognostic role of the microenvironment in follicular lymphoma reported thus far and lay the basis for the development of predictive assays to tailor treatment in patients with follicular lymphoma. PMID:19059937

  2. VEGFR-2 Expression in Glioblastoma Multiforme Depends on Inflammatory Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Jaal, Jana; Kase, Marju; Minajeva, Ave; Saretok, Mikk; Adamson, Aidi; Junninen, Jelizaveta; Metsaots, Tõnis; Jõgi, Tõnu; Joonsalu, Madis; Vardja, Markus; Asser, Toomas

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most angiogenic tumors. However, antiangiogenic therapy has not shown significant clinical efficacy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of inflammatory tumor microenvironment on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). Surgically excised primary GBM tissues were histologically examined for overall extent of inflammation (score 1–3). After immunohistochemistry, the tissue expression of ICAM-1 (optical density), the number of VEGFR-2 positive (VEGFR-2+) blood vessels (per microscopic field), and the endothelial staining intensity of VEGFR-2 (score 0–3) were determined. In GBM, the extent of inflammation was 1.9 ± 0.7 (group mean ± SD). Mean optical density of inflammatory mediator ICAM-1 was 57.0 ± 27.1 (pixel values). The number of VEGFR-2+ blood vessels and endothelial VEGFR-2 staining intensity were 6.2 ± 2.4 and 1.2 ± 0.8, respectively. A positive association was found between endothelial VEGFR-2 staining intensity and the extent of inflammation (p = 0.005). Moreover, VEGFR-2 staining intensity correlated with the expression level of ICAM-1 (p = 0.026). The expression of VEGFR-2, one of the main targets of antiangiogenic therapy, depends on GBM microenvironment. Higher endothelial VEGFR-2 levels were seen in the presence of more pronounced inflammation. Target dependence on inflammatory tumor microenvironment has to be taken into consideration when treatment approaches that block VEGFR-2 signaling are designed. PMID:26798546

  3. Device for in-vivo study of the tumor micro-environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Waseem Khan; Gligorijevic, Bojana; Padgen, Michael R.; Eggers, Douglas; Condeelis, John; Castracane, James

    2010-02-01

    In-vivo cancer cells create a unique microenvironment which enables their spread to other organs. To understand the tumor microenvironment, special tools and devices are required to monitor the interaction among different cell types as well as the effects of particular chemical gradients. We are reporting on the status of a new device (the NANIVID: NANoIntraVItal Device) that will collect chemotactic cells from the tumor environment. Due to the transparency of this implantable device, direct in-vivo cell imaging both inside and outside the device is possible. The cell collection chamber of the device consists of a micro-electrode system based on patterning of transparent, conducting films that deliver real time data including cell density and dynamics. The current development and testing status of the device will be presented. This will include the modeling of ligand gradient profile results produced from the device and the cell migration in the EGF (epidermal growth factor) gradient created by the device. Further, prototype electrode arrays were designed, fabricated and cells were cultured on the arrays at selected degrees of confluence to measure the device sensitivity. The development path of the NANIVID will be integrated with an existing animal model protocol for in-vivo testing. This will result in a clearer understanding of the dynamics of a tumor's metastatic progression.

  4. The tumor microenvironment and Immunoscore are critical determinants of dissemination to distant metastasis.

    PubMed

    Mlecnik, Bernhard; Bindea, Gabriela; Kirilovsky, Amos; Angell, Helen K; Obenauf, Anna C; Tosolini, Marie; Church, Sarah E; Maby, Pauline; Vasaturo, Angela; Angelova, Mihaela; Fredriksen, Tessa; Mauger, Stéphanie; Waldner, Maximilian; Berger, Anne; Speicher, Michael R; Pagès, Franck; Valge-Archer, Viia; Galon, Jérôme

    2016-02-24

    Although distant metastases account for most of the deaths in cancer patients, fundamental questions regarding mechanisms that promote or inhibit metastasis remain unanswered. We show the impact of mutations, genomic instability, lymphatic and blood vascularization, and the immune contexture of the tumor microenvironment on synchronous metastases in large cohorts of colorectal cancer patients. We observed large genetic heterogeneity among primary tumors, but no major differences in chromosomal instability or key cancer-associated mutations. Similar patterns of cancer-related gene expression levels were observed between patients. No cancer-associated genes or pathways were associated with M stage. Instead, mutations of FBXW7 were associated with the absence of metastasis and correlated with increased expression of T cell proliferation and antigen presentation functions. Analyzing the tumor microenvironment, we observed two hallmarks of the metastatic process: decreased presence of lymphatic vessels and reduced immune cytotoxicity. These events could be the initiating factors driving both synchronous and metachronous metastases. Our data demonstrate the protective impact of the Immunoscore, a cytotoxic immune signature, and increased marginal lymphatic vessels, against the generation of distant metastases, regardless of genomic instability. PMID:26912905

  5. Capillary collagen as the physical transport barrier in drug delivery to tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Ziemys, Arturas; Yokoi, Kenji; Kojic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    The capillary wall is among the most important barriers that controls mass exchange between tumor microenvironment and systemic circulation. There are numerous studies on endothelial cells role in this mass exchange, but the role of capillary collagen of Type-IV in transport of small molecules and nanotherapeutics is less known. Our recent study revealed that the capillary wall collagen modulates the drug transport across the wall, and that it can be taken as a biophysical marker for drug transport. In our in vivo investigations with the 3LL and 4T1 tumors we noticed the differences in the collagen content in capillary walls. The imaging analysis and transport computational model of the capillary microenvironment showed that the penetration of doxorubicin (DOX) and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) is substantially reduced by larger collagen content in the capillaries of the 3LL tumors. The results pointed to the importance of transport oncophysics, which opens a new avenue with respect to classical biology in understanding and improving drug delivery by nanotherapeutics, and aims to better explain the therapeutic resistance. PMID:26451342

  6. Capillary collagen as the physical transport barrier in drug delivery to tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Ziemys, Arturas; Yokoi, Kenji; Kojic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    The capillary wall is among the most important barriers that controls mass exchange between tumor microenvironment and systemic circulation. There are numerous studies on endothelial cells role in this mass exchange, but the role of capillary collagen of Type-IV in transport of small molecules and nanotherapeutics is less known. Our recent study revealed that the capillary wall collagen modulates the drug transport across the wall, and that it can be taken as a biophysical marker for drug transport. In our in vivo investigations with the 3LL and 4T1 tumors we noticed the differences in the collagen content in capillary walls. The imaging analysis and transport computational model of the capillary microenvironment showed that the penetration of doxorubicin (DOX) and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) is substantially reduced by larger collagen content in the capillaries of the 3LL tumors. The results pointed to the importance of transport oncophysics, which opens a new avenue with respect to classical biology in understanding and improving drug delivery by nanotherapeutics, and aims to better explain the therapeutic resistance. PMID:26451342

  7. TGFβ Signaling in the Pancreatic Tumor Microenvironment Promotes Fibrosis and Immune Evasion to Facilitate Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Principe, Daniel R; DeCant, Brian; Mascariñas, Emman; Wayne, Elizabeth A; Diaz, Andrew M; Akagi, Naomi; Hwang, Rosa; Pasche, Boris; Dawson, David W; Fang, Deyu; Bentrem, David J; Munshi, Hidayatullah G; Jung, Barbara; Grippo, Paul J

    2016-05-01

    In early pancreatic carcinogenesis, TGFβ acts as a tumor suppressor due to its growth-inhibitory effects in epithelial cells. However, in advanced disease, TGFβ appears to promote tumor progression. Therefore, to better understand the contributions of TGFβ signaling to pancreatic carcinogenesis, we generated mouse models of pancreatic cancer with either epithelial or systemic TGFBR deficiency. We found that epithelial suppression of TGFβ signals facilitated pancreatic tumorigenesis, whereas global loss of TGFβ signaling protected against tumor development via inhibition of tumor-associated fibrosis, stromal TGFβ1 production, and the resultant restoration of antitumor immune function. Similarly, TGFBR-deficient T cells resisted TGFβ-induced inactivation ex vivo, and adoptive transfer of TGFBR-deficient CD8(+) T cells led to enhanced infiltration and granzyme B-mediated destruction of developing tumors. These findings paralleled our observations in human patients, where TGFβ expression correlated with increased fibrosis and associated negatively with expression of granzyme B. Collectively, our findings suggest that, despite opposing the proliferation of some epithelial cells, TGFβ may promote pancreatic cancer development by affecting stromal and hematopoietic cell function. Therefore, the use of TGFBR inhibition to target components of the tumor microenvironment warrants consideration as a potential therapy for pancreatic cancer, particularly in patients who have already lost tumor-suppressive TGFβ signals in the epithelium. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2525-39. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26980767

  8. Improving cancer therapies by targeting the physical and chemical hallmarks of the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Jill W; Bonakdar, Mohammad; Kanitkar, Akanksha; Davalos, Rafael V; Verbridge, Scott S

    2016-09-28

    Tumors are highly heterogeneous at the patient, tissue, cellular, and molecular levels. This multi-scale heterogeneity poses significant challenges for effective therapies, which ideally must not only distinguish between tumorous and healthy tissue, but also fully address the wide variety of tumorous sub-clones. Commonly used therapies either leverage a biological phenotype of cancer cells (e.g. high rate of proliferation) or indiscriminately kill all the cells present in a targeted volume. Tumor microenvironment (TME) targeting represents a promising therapeutic direction, because a number of TME hallmarks are conserved across different tumor types, despite the underlying genetic heterogeneity. Historically, TME targeting has largely focused on the cells that support tumor growth (e.g. vascular endothelial cells). However, by viewing the intrinsic physical and chemical alterations in the TME as additional therapeutic opportunities rather than barriers, a new class of TME-inspired treatments has great promise to complement or replace existing therapeutic strategies. In this review we summarize the physical and chemical hallmarks of the TME, and discuss how these tumor characteristics either currently are, or may ultimately be targeted to improve cancer therapies. PMID:26724680

  9. Bimodal Tumor-Targeting from Microenvironment Responsive Hyaluronan Layer-by-Layer (LbL) Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Active targeting of nanoscale drug carriers can improve tumor-specific delivery; however, cellular heterogeneity both within and among tumor sites is a fundamental barrier to their success. Here, we describe a tumor microenvironment-responsive layer-by-layer (LbL) polymer drug carrier that actively targets tumors based on two independent mechanisms: pH-dependent cellular uptake at hypoxic tumor pH and hyaluronan-directed targeting of cell-surface CD44 receptor, a well-characterized biomarker for breast and ovarian cancer stem cells. Hypoxic pH-induced structural reorganization of hyaluronan-LbL nanoparticles was a direct result of the nature of the LbL electrostatic complex, and led to targeted cellular delivery in vitro and in vivo, with effective tumor penetration and uptake. The nanoscale drug carriers selectively bound CD44 and diminished cancer cell migration in vitro, while co-localizing with the CD44 receptor in vivo. Multimodal targeting of LbL nanoparticles is a powerful strategy for tumor-specific cancer diagnostics and therapy that can be accomplished using a single bilayer of polyamine and hyaluronan that, when assembled, produce a dynamic and responsive cell–particle interface. PMID:25100313

  10. Tumor-Infiltrating γδ T Lymphocytes: Pathogenic Role, Clinical Significance, and Differential Programing in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Lo Presti, Elena; Dieli, Franceso; Meraviglia, Serena

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing clinical evidence indicating that the immune system may either promote or inhibit tumor progression. Several studies have demonstrated that tumors undergoing remission are largely infiltrated by T lymphocytes [tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs)], but on the other hand, several studies have shown that tumors may be infiltrated by TILs endowed with suppressive features, suggesting that TILs are rather associated with tumor progression and unfavorable prognosis. γδ T lymphocytes are an important component of TILs that may contribute to tumor immunosurveillance, as also suggested by promising reports from several small phase-I clinical trials. Typically, γδ T lymphocytes perform effector functions involved in anti-tumor immune responses (cytotoxicity, production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and dendritic cell maturation), but under appropriate conditions they may divert from the typical Th1-like phenotype and polarize to Th2, Th17, and Treg cells thus acquiring the capability to inhibit anti-tumor immune responses and promote tumor growth. Recent studies have shown a high frequency of γδ T lymphocytes infiltrating different types of cancer, but the nature of this association and the exact mechanisms underlying it remain uncertain and whether or not the presence of tumor-infiltrating γδ T lymphocytes is a definite prognostic factor remains controversial. In this paper, we will review studies of tumor-infiltrating γδ T lymphocytes from patients with different types of cancer, and we will discuss their clinical relevance. Moreover, we will also discuss on the complex interplay between cancer, tumor stroma, and γδ T lymphocytes as a major determinant of the final outcome of the γδ T lymphocyte response. Finally, we propose that targeting γδ T lymphocyte polarization and skewing their phenotype to adapt to the microenvironment might hold great promise for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25505472

  11. Role of curcumin-dependent modulation of tumor microenvironment of a murine T cell lymphoma in altered regulation of tumor cell survival

    SciTech Connect

    Vishvakarma, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Anjani; Singh, Sukh Mahendra

    2011-05-01

    Using a murine model of a T cell lymphoma, in the present study, we report that tumor growth retarding action of curcumin involves modulation of some crucial parameters of tumor microenvironment regulating tumor progression. Curcumin-administration to tumor-bearing host caused an altered pH regulation in tumor cells associated with alteration in expression of cell survival and apoptosis regulatory proteins and genes. Nevertheless, an alteration was also observed in biophysical parameters of tumor microenvironment responsible for modulation of tumor growth pertaining to hypoxia, tumor acidosis, and glucose metabolism. The study thus sheds new light with respect to the antineoplastic action of curcumin against a tumor-bearing host with progressively growing tumor of hematological origin. This will help in optimizing application of the drug and anticancer research and therapy. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted

  12. Lung tumor microenvironment induces specific gene expression signature in intratumoral NK cells.

    PubMed

    Gillard-Bocquet, Mélanie; Caer, Charles; Cagnard, Nicolas; Crozet, Lucile; Perez, Mikael; Fridman, Wolf Herman; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Cremer, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are able to recognize and kill tumor cells, however whether they contribute to tumor immunosurveillance is still debated. Our previous studies demonstrated the presence of NK cells in human lung tumors. Their comparison with NK cells from non-tumoral lung tissues and with blood NK cells from the same individuals revealed a decreased expression of some NK receptors and impaired ex vivo cytotoxic functions occurring specifically in NK cells isolated from the tumor microenvironment. The aim of the present study was to characterize the transcriptional profile of such intratumoral NK cells, by comparative microarray analysis of sorted NK cells isolated from non-tumoral (Non-Tum-NK) and tumoral (Tum-NK) lung tissues of 12 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer patients. Our results reveal a specific gene expression signature of Tum-NK cells particularly in activation processes and cytotoxicity, confirming that tumor environment induces modifications in NK cells biology. Indeed, intratumoral NK cells display higher expression levels of NKp44, NKG2A, Granzymes A and K, and Fas mRNA. A particular pattern of receptors involved in chemotaxis was also observed, with an overexpression of CXCR5 and CXCR6, and a lower expression of CX3CR1 and S1PR1 genes in Tum-NK as compared to Non-Tum-NK cells. The precise identification of the molecular pathways modulated in the tumor environment will help to decipher the role of NK cells in tumor immunosurveillance and will open future investigations to manipulate their antitumoral functions. PMID:23382731

  13. Molecular Drivers of the Non-T-cell-Inflamed Tumor Microenvironment in Urothelial Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sweis, Randy F; Spranger, Stefani; Bao, Riyue; Paner, Gladell P; Stadler, Walter M; Steinberg, Gary; Gajewski, Thomas F

    2016-07-01

    Muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer is a common malignancy with poor outcomes for which immune checkpoint blockade is now showing promise. Despite clinical activity of PD-1/PD-L1-targeted therapy in this disease, most patients do not benefit and resistance mechanisms remain unknown. The non-T-cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment correlates with poor prognosis and resistance to immunotherapies. In this study, we determined tumor-oncogenic pathways correlating with T-cell exclusion. We first establish in this report that T-cell-inflamed bladder tumors can be identified by immune gene expression profiling with concordance with CD8(+) T-cell infiltration. Upregulation of genes encoding immune checkpoint proteins PD-L1, IDO, FOXP3, TIM3, and LAG3 was associated with T-cell-inflamed tumors, suggesting potential for sensitivity to checkpoint blockade. β-Catenin, PPAR-γ, and FGFR3 pathways were activated in non-T-cell-inflamed tumors. No difference was seen in overall somatic mutational density between groups. The three pathways identified represent targetable potential pathways of tumor-intrinsic immunotherapy resistance. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(7); 563-8. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197067

  14. The tumor microenvironment shapes hallmarks of mature B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Shain, K H; Dalton, W S; Tao, J

    2015-09-01

    B-cell tumorigenesis results from a host of known and unknown genetic anomalies, including non-random translocations of genes that normally function as determinants of cell proliferation or cell survival to regions juxtaposed to active immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer elements, chromosomal aneuploidy, somatic mutations that further affect oncogenic signaling and loss of heterozygosity of tumor-suppressor genes. However, it is critical to recognize that even in the setting of a genetic disease, the B-cell/plasma cell tumor microenvironment (TME) contributes significantly to malignant transformation and pathogenesis. Over a decade ago, we proposed the concept of cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance to delineate a form of TME-mediated drug resistance that protects hematopoietic tumor cells from the initial effect of diverse therapies. In the interim, it has been increasingly appreciated that TME also contributes to tumor initiation and progression through sustained growth/proliferation, self-renewal capacity, immune evasion, migration and invasion as well as resistance to cell death in a host of B-cell malignancies, including mantle cell lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Waldenstroms macroglobulinemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma. Within this review, we propose that TME and the tumor co-evolve as a consequence of bidirectional signaling networks. As such, TME represents an important target and should be considered integral to tumor progression and drug response. PMID:25639873

  15. Well plate-based perfusion culture device for tissue and tumor microenvironment replication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Gu, Y; Hao, Y; Sun, Q; Konior, K; Wang, H; Zilberberg, J; Lee, W Y

    2015-07-01

    There are significant challenges in developing in vitro human tissue and tumor models that can be used to support new drug development and evaluate personalized therapeutics. The challenges include: (1) working with primary cells which are often difficult to maintain ex vivo, (2) mimicking native microenvironments from which primary cells are harvested, and (3) the lack of culture devices that can support these microenvironments to evaluate drug responses in a high-throughput manner. Here we report a versatile well plate-based perfusion culture device that was designed, fabricated and used to: (1) ascertain the role of perfusion in facilitating the expansion of human multiple myeloma cells and evaluate drug response of the cells, (2) preserve the physiological phenotype of primary murine osteocytes by reconstructing the 3D cellular network of osteocytes, and (3) circulate primary murine T cells through a layer of primary murine intestine epithelial cells to recapitulate the interaction of the immune cells with the epithelial cells. Through these diverse case studies, we demonstrate the device's design features to support: (1) the convenient and spatiotemporal placement of cells and biomaterials into the culture wells of the device; (2) the replication of tissues and tumor microenvironments using perfusion, stromal cells, and/or biomaterials; (3) the circulation of non-adherent cells through the culture chambers; and (4) conventional tissue and cell characterization by plate reading, histology, and flow cytometry. Future challenges are identified and discussed from the perspective of manufacturing the device and making its operation for routine and wide use. PMID:26021852

  16. Validating antimetastatic effects of natural products in an engineered microfluidic platform mimicking tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yiming; Bai, Jing; Kamm, Roger D; Wang, Yitao; Wang, Chunming

    2014-07-01

    Development of new, antimetastatic drugs from natural products has been substantially constrained by the lack of a reliable in vitro screening system. Such a system should ideally mimic the native, three-dimensional (3D) tumor microenvironment involving different cell types and allow quantitative analysis of cell behavior critical for metastasis. These requirements are largely unmet in the current model systems, leading to poor predictability of the in vitro collected data for in vivo trials, as well as prevailing inconsistency among different in vitro tests. In the present study, we report application of a 3D, microfluidic device for validation of the antimetastatic effects of 12 natural compounds. This system supports co-culture of endothelial and cancer cells in their native 3D morphology as in the tumor microenvironment and provides real-time monitoring of the cells treated with each compound. We found that three compounds, namely sanguinarine, nitidine, and resveratrol, exhibited significant antimetastatic or antiangiogenic effects. Each compound was further examined for its respective activity with separate conventional biological assays, and the outcomes were in agreement with the findings collected from the microfluidic system. In summary, we recommend use of this biomimetic model system as a new engineering tool for high-throughput evaluation of more diverse natural compounds with varying anticancer potentials. PMID:24533867

  17. Periostin in tumor microenvironment is associated with poor prognosis and platinum resistance in epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Pi-Lin; Jan, Yi-Hua; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Lin, Hao; Wen, Kuo-Chang; Chao, Kuan-Chong; Lai, Chiung-Ru; Wang, Peng-Hui; Chuang, Chi-Mu; Wu, Hua-Hsi; Twu, Nae-Fang; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Hsiao, Michael; Huang, Chi-Ying F.

    2016-01-01

    The interplay between tumor microenvironment and cancer that causes chemoresistance remains unclear. By analyzing public available microarray datasets, we identified that periostin (POSTN) was overexpressed in cancer stroma in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed overexpression of stromal POSTN is a powerful independent poor prognostic predictor for EOC patients. Furthermore, patients with high levels of stromal POSTN tend to have higher percentage of cisplatin resistance compared to those with low levels of stromal POSTN. Moreover, we found POSTN treatment can induce cisplatin resistant and activate AKT pathway in A2780 cells in vitro. Inhibition of AKT activity by AKT inhibitor MK-2206 abolished POSTN-induced AKT activation and cisplatin resistance in vitro. Taken together, we found high POSTN expression in cancer microenvironment is correlated with poor prognosis in EOC patients and associated with platinum resistance. The effect of POSTN in cancer stroma cells may activate AKT pathway in tumor and AKT inhibitor can be beneficial to augment the efficacy of existing cancer therapeutics. PMID:26716408

  18. Phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of cancer-associated fibroblast within the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Genichiro; Ochiai, Atsushi; Neri, Shinya

    2016-04-01

    Cancer microenvironment is created not only by malignant epithelial cells, but also by several kinds of stromal cells. Since Paget proposed the "seed and soil" hypothesis, the biological importance of the cancer microenvironment has come to be widely accepted. The main compartment of host stromal cells are fibroblasts (Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts; CAFs), which are the main source of the collagen-producing cells. CAFs directly communicate with the cancer cells and other types of stromal cells to acquire a specific biological phenotype. CAFs play important roles in several aspects of the tumor progression process and the chemotherapeutic process. However, CAFs have heterogeneous origins, phenotypes, and functions under these conditions. A crucial challenge is to understand how much of this heterogeneity serves different biological responses to cancer cells. In this review, we highlight the issue of how diverse and heterogeneous functions given by CAFs can exert potent influences on tumor progression and therapeutic response. Furthermore, we also discuss the current advances in the development of novel therapeutic strategies against CAFs. PMID:26278673

  19. Periostin in tumor microenvironment is associated with poor prognosis and platinum resistance in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sung, Pi-Lin; Jan, Yi-Hua; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Lin, Hao; Wen, Kuo-Chang; Chao, Kuan-Chong; Lai, Chiung-Ru; Wang, Peng-Hui; Chuang, Chi-Mu; Wu, Hua-Hsi; Twu, Nae-Fang; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Hsiao, Michael; Huang, Chi-Ying F

    2016-01-26

    The interplay between tumor microenvironment and cancer that causes chemoresistance remains unclear. By analyzing public available microarray datasets, we identified that periostin (POSTN) was overexpressed in cancer stroma in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed overexpression of stromal POSTN is a powerful independent poor prognostic predictor for EOC patients. Furthermore, patients with high levels of stromal POSTN tend to have higher percentage of cisplatin resistance compared to those with low levels of stromal POSTN. Moreover, we found POSTN treatment can induce cisplatin resistant and activate AKT pathway in A2780 cells in vitro. Inhibition of AKT activity by AKT inhibitor MK-2206 abolished POSTN-induced AKT activation and cisplatin resistance in vitro. Taken together, we found high POSTN expression in cancer microenvironment is correlated with poor prognosis in EOC patients and associated with platinum resistance. The effect of POSTN in cancer stroma cells may activate AKT pathway in tumor and AKT inhibitor can be beneficial to augment the efficacy of existing cancer therapeutics. PMID:26716408

  20. A Nervous Tumor Microenvironment: The Impact of Adrenergic Stress on Cancer Cells, Immunosuppression, and Immunotherapeutic Response

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Jason W.-L.; Kokolus, Kathleen M.; Reed, Chelsey B.; Hylander, Bonnie L.; Ma, Wen W.; Repasky, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Long conserved mechanisms maintain homeostasis in living creatures in response to a variety of stresses. However, continuous exposure to stress can result in unabated production of stress hormones, especially catecholamines, which can have detrimental health effects. While the long-term effects of chronic stress have well known physiological consequences, recent discoveries have revealed that stress may affect therapeutic efficacy in cancer. Growing epidemiological evidence reveals strong correlations between long term survival and cancer progression and β-blocker usage in patients. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of how the catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine, affect cancer cell survival and tumor progression. We also highlight new data exploring the potential contributions of stress on immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment and the implications of these findings for the efficacy of immunotherapies. PMID:25307152

  1. Interleukin 2 expression by tumor cells alters both the immune response and the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Fenton, B M; Koch, C J; Frelinger, J G; Lord, E M

    1998-04-01

    Microenvironmental conditions within solid tumors can have marked effects on the growth of the tumors and their response to therapies. The disorganized growth of tumors and their attendant vascular systems tends to result in areas of the tumors that are deficient in oxygen (hypoxic). Cells within these hypoxic areas are more resistant to conventional therapies such as radiation and chemotherapy. Here, we examine the hypoxic state of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors and the location of host cells within the different areas of the tumors to determine whether such microenvironmental conditions might also affect their ability to be recognized by the immune system. Hypoxia within tumors was quantified by flow cytometry and visualized by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody (ELK3-51) against cellular adducts of 2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl)acetam ide (EF5), a nitroimidazole compound that binds selectively to hypoxic cells. Thy-1+ cells, quantified using a monoclonal antibody, were found only in the well-oxygenated areas. The location of these Thy-1+ cells was also examined in EMT6 tumors that had been transfected with the gene for interleukin-2 (IL-2) because these tumors contain greatly increased numbers of host cells. Surprisingly, we found that IL-2-transfected tumors had significantly decreased hypoxia compared to parental tumors. Furthermore, using the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342, an in vivo marker of perfused vessels, combined with immunochemical staining of PECAM-1 (CD31) as a marker of tumor vasculature, we found increased vascularization in the IL-2-transfected tumors. Thus, expression of IL-2 at the site of tumor growth may enhance tumor immunity not only by inducing the generation of tumor-reactive CTLs but also by allowing increased infiltration of activated T cells into the tumors. PMID:9537251

  2. Modulation of chemokines in the tumor microenvironment enhances oncolytic virotherapy for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zuqiang; Ravindranathan, Roshni; Urban, Julie A.; Sathaiah, Magesh; Magge, Deepa; Kalinski, Pawel; Bartlett, David L.

    2016-01-01

    An oncolytic poxvirus such as vvDD-CXCL11 can generate potent systemic antitumor immunity as well as targeted oncolysis, yet the antitumor effect is limited probably due to limited homing to and suppressed activity of tumor-specific adaptive immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). We reasoned that a chemokine modulating (CKM) drug cocktail, consisting of IFN-α, poly I:C, and a COX-2 inhibitor, may skew the chemokine (CK) and cytokine profile into a favorable one in the TME, and this pharmaceutical modulation would enhance both the trafficking into and function of antitumor immune cells in the TME, thus increasing therapeutic efficacy of the oncolytic virus. In this study we show for the first time in vivo that the CKM modulates the CK microenvironment but it does not modulate antitumor immunity by itself in a MC38 colon cancer model. Sequential treatment with the virus and then CKM results in the upregulation of Th1-attracting CKs and reduction of Treg-attracting CKs (CCL22 and CXCL12), concurrent with enhanced trafficking of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells and NK cells into the TME, thus resulting in the most significant antitumor activity and long term survival of tumor-bearing mice. This novel combined regimen, with the oncolytic virus (vvDD-CXCL11) inducing direct oncolysis and eliciting potent antitumor immunity, and the CKM inducing a favorable chemokine profile in the TME that promotes the trafficking and function of antitumor Tc1/Th1 and NK cells, may have great utility for oncolytic immunotherapy for cancer. PMID:26956047

  3. Modulation of chemokines in the tumor microenvironment enhances oncolytic virotherapy for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Francis, Lily; Guo, Zong Sheng; Liu, Zuqiang; Ravindranathan, Roshni; Urban, Julie A; Sathaiah, Magesh; Magge, Deepa; Kalinski, Pawel; Bartlett, David L

    2016-04-19

    An oncolytic poxvirus such as vvDD-CXCL11 can generate potent systemic antitumor immunity as well as targeted oncolysis, yet the antitumor effect is limited probably due to limited homing to and suppressed activity of tumor-specific adaptive immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). We reasoned that a chemokine modulating (CKM) drug cocktail, consisting of IFN-α, poly I:C, and a COX-2 inhibitor, may skew the chemokine (CK) and cytokine profile into a favorable one in the TME, and this pharmaceutical modulation would enhance both the trafficking into and function of antitumor immune cells in the TME, thus increasing therapeutic efficacy of the oncolytic virus. In this study we show for the first time in vivo that the CKM modulates the CK microenvironment but it does not modulate antitumor immunity by itself in a MC38 colon cancer model. Sequential treatment with the virus and then CKM results in the upregulation of Th1-attracting CKs and reduction of Treg-attracting CKs (CCL22 and CXCL12), concurrent with enhanced trafficking of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells and NK cells into the TME, thus resulting in the most significant antitumor activity and long term survival of tumor-bearing mice. This novel combined regimen, with the oncolytic virus (vvDD-CXCL11) inducing direct oncolysis and eliciting potent antitumor immunity, and the CKM inducing a favorable chemokine profile in the TME that promotes the trafficking and function of antitumor Tc1/Th1 and NK cells, may have great utility for oncolytic immunotherapy for cancer. PMID:26956047

  4. Lactate is a mediator of metabolic cooperation between stromal carcinoma associated fibroblasts and glycolytic tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Rattigan, Yanique I.; Patel, Brijesh B.; Ackerstaff, Ellen; Sukenick, George; Koutcher, Jason A.; Glod, John W.; and others

    2012-02-15

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are bone marrow-derived stromal cells, which play a role in tumor progression. We have shown earlier that breast cancer cells secrete higher levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) under hypoxia, leading to the recruitment of hMSCs towards hypoxic tumor cells. We found that (i) MDA-MB-231 cells secrete significantly higher levels of lactate (3-fold more) under hypoxia (1% O{sub 2}) than under 20% O{sub 2} and (ii) lactate recruits hMSCs towards tumor cells by activating signaling pathways to enhance migration. The mRNA and protein expression of functional MCT1 in hMSCs is increased in response to lactate exposure. Thus, we hypothesized that hMSCs and stromal carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the tumor microenvironment have the capacity to take up lactate expelled from tumor cells and use it as a source of energy. Our {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic measurements indicate that {sup 13}C-lactate is converted to {sup 13}C-alpha ketoglutarate in hMSCs and CAFs supporting this hypothesis. To our knowledge this is the first in vitro model system demonstrating that hMSCs and CAFs can utilize lactate produced by tumor cells.

  5. Video-rate resonant scanning multiphoton microscopy: An emerging technique for intravital imaging of the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D; Chung, Euiheon; Cook, Daniel C; Han, Xiaoxing; Gruionu, Gabriel; Liao, Shan; Munn, Lance L; Padera, Timothy P; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K

    2012-01-01

    The abnormal tumor microenvironment fuels tumor progression, metastasis, immune suppression, and treatment resistance. Over last several decades, developments in and applications of intravital microscopy have provided unprecedented insights into the dynamics of the tumor microenvironment. In particular, intravital multiphoton microscopy has revealed the abnormal structure and function of tumor-associated blood and lymphatic vessels, the role of aberrant tumor matrix in drug delivery, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells, the dynamics of immune cell trafficking to and within tumors, and gene expression in tumors. However, traditional multiphoton microscopy suffers from inherently slow imaging rates-only a few frames per second, thus unable to capture more rapid events such as blood flow, lymphatic flow, and cell movement within vessels. Here, we report the development and implementation of a video-rate multiphoton microscope (VR-MPLSM) based on resonant galvanometer mirror scanning that is capable of recording at 30 frames per second and acquiring intravital multispectral images. We show that the design of the system can be readily implemented and is adaptable to various experimental models. As examples, we demonstrate the utility of the system to directly measure flow within tumors, capture metastatic cancer cells moving within the brain vasculature and cells in lymphatic vessels, and image acute responses to changes in a vascular network. VR-MPLSM thus has the potential to further advance intravital imaging and provide new insight into the biology of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24353926

  6. Tracking miRNAs’ Footprints in Tumor-Microenvironment Interactions: Insights and Implications for Targeted Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nouraee, Nazila; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Calin, George A.

    2015-01-01

    In past decades, cancer medicine studies have mainly focused on tumor cell biology as the main promoter of solid tumor progression. However, tumor biology does not explain the intertwinement and ambiguity of the tumors’ territory. Recently, the approach of understanding cancer has shifted from investigating the biology of tumor cells to studying the microenvironment surrounding them. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which play a role in exploiting indigenous stromal cells and are components that cooperate and produce a favorable microenvironment for progressive tumor formation, have been implicated in numerous processes essential for tumor initiation and growth. Understanding the mechanisms underlying interactions between tumor cells and their adjacent environment holds many promises for the future of cancer targeted therapies. Herein, we provide a step-by-step account of miRNA involvement in tumor-microenvironment interactions as the micro-mediators of tumor cell and stroma communications. We also focus on the clinical challenges in using miRNAs to overcome therapy resistance mechanisms and tumor heterogeneity bias in cancer therapy. PMID:25832733

  7. Chemokine axes in breast cancer: factors of the tumor microenvironment reshape the CCR7-driven metastatic spread of luminal-A breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Weitzenfeld, Polina; Kossover, Olga; Körner, Cindy; Meshel, Tsipi; Wiemann, Stefan; Seliktar, Dror; Legler, Daniel F; Ben-Baruch, Adit

    2016-06-01

    Chemokine axes have been shown to mediate site-specific metastasis in breast cancer, but their relevance to different subtypes has been hardly addressed. Here, with the focus on the CCR7-CCL21 axis, patient datasets demonstrated that luminal-A tumors express relatively low CCR7 levels compared with more aggressive disease subtypes. Furthermore, lymph node metastasis was not associated with high CCR7 levels in luminal-A patients. The metastatic pattern of luminal-A breast tumors may be influenced by the way luminal-A tumor cells interpret signals provided by factors of the primary tumor microenvironment. Thus, CCR7-expressing human luminal-A cells were stimulated simultaneously by factors representing 3 tumor microenvironment arms typical of luminal-A tumors, hormonal, inflammatory, and growth stimulating: estrogen + TNF-α + epidermal growth factor. Such tumor microenvironment stimulation down-regulated the migration of CCR7-expressing tumor cells toward CCL21 and inhibited the formation of directional protrusions toward CCL21 in a novel 3-dimensional hydrogel system. CCL21-induced migration of CCR7-expressing tumor cells depended on PI3K and MAPK activation; however, when CCR7-expressing cancer cells were prestimulated by tumor microenvironment factors, CCL21 could not effectively activate these signaling pathways. In vivo, pre-exposure of the tumor cells to tumor microenvironment factors has put restraints on CCL21-mediated lymph node-homing cues and shifted the metastatic pattern of CCR7-expressing cells to the aggressive phenotype of dissemination to bones. Several of the aspects were also studied in the CXCR4-CXCL12 system, demonstrating similar patient and in vitro findings. Thus, we provide novel evidence to subtype-specific regulation of the CCR7-CCL21 axis, with more general implications to chemokine-dependent patterns of metastatic spread, revealing differential regulation in the luminal-A subtype. PMID:26936935

  8. Visualizing the antivascular effect of bortezomib on the hypoxic tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaorong; Ackerstaff, Ellen; He, Fuqiu; Xing, Ligang; Hsiao, Hung Tsung; Koutcher, Jason A.; Ling, C. Clifton; Li, Gloria C.

    2015-01-01

    Bortezomib, a novel proteasome inhibitor, has been approved for treating multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma and studied pre-clinically and clinically for solid tumors. Preferential cytotoxicity of bortezomib was found toward hypoxic tumor cells and endothelial cells in vitro. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of a pretreatment hypoxic tumor microenvironment on the effects of bortezomib in vitro and ex vivo, and explore the feasibility of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) to noninvasively evaluate the biological effects of bortezomib. It was shown in vitro by Western blot, flow cytometry, and ELISA that bortezomib accumulated HIF-1α in non-functional forms and blocks its hypoxia response in human colorectal cancer cell lines. Ex vivo experiments were performed with fluorescent immunohistochemical staining techniques using multiple endogenous and exogenous markers to identify hypoxia (pimonidazole, HRE-TKeGFP), blood flow/permeability (Hoechst 33342), micro-vessels (CD31 and SMA), apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3) and hypoxia response (CA9). After bortezomib administration, overall apoptosis index was significantly increased and blood perfusion was dramatically decreased in tumor xenografts. More importantly, apoptosis signals were found preferentially located in moderate and severe pretreatment hypoxic regions in both tumor and endothelial cells. Meanwhile, DCE MRI examinations showed that the tumor blood flow and permeability decreased significantly after bortezomib administration. The present study revealed that bortezomib reduces tumor hypoxia response and blood perfusion, thus, presenting antivascular properties. It will be important to determine the hypoxic/perfusion status pre- and during treatment at further translational studies. PMID:26416246

  9. Dual-Responsive Carbon Dots for Tumor Extracellular Microenvironment Triggered Targeting and Enhanced Anticancer Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tao; Ai, Xiangzhao; Ong, Huimin; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-07-27

    In this work, pH/redox dual-responsive carbon dots (CDs-RGD-Pt(IV)-PEG) were fabricated for tumor extracellular microenvironment triggered targeting and enhanced anticancer drug delivery. The system consists of fluorescent carbon dots as imaging-guided drug nanocarriers, cisplatin(IV) as prodrug, and RGD peptide as active targeting ligand, which is covered by monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) through tumor extracellular pH (6.5-6.8) responsive benzoic-imine bond. The drug nanocarriers could be tracked by multicolor fluorescence of carbon dots. After the hydrolysis of benzoic-imine bond at the tumor extracellular pH to expose the inner targeting RGD peptide, the drug nanocarriers showed effective uptake by cancer cells through RGD-integrin αvβ3 (ligand-receptor) interaction. Upon the internalization, the loaded cisplatin(IV) prodrug was reduced to cytotoxic cisplatin in reductive cytosol of cancer cells to exhibit therapeutic effects. Confocal imaging, flow cytometry, and cell viability assays using CDs-RGD-Pt(IV)-PEG were performed to reveal the enhanced uptake and better therapeutic efficiency to cancer cells with high integrin αvβ3 expression at tumor extracellular pH than that in physiological condition. The developed CDs-RGD-Pt(IV)-PEG offers a new strategy to provide safe and effective therapeutic agents based on carbon dots for promising cancer therapy. PMID:27367152

  10. A synthetic modular approach for modeling the role of the 3D microenvironment in tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Schwartz, M P; Tokuda, E Y; Luo, Y; Rogers, R E; Fujita, M; Ahn, N G; Anseth, K S

    2015-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate the flexibility of peptide-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels for modeling tumor progression. The PEG hydrogels were formed using thiol-ene chemistry to incorporate a matrix metalloproteinase-degradable peptide crosslinker (KKCGGPQG↓IWGQGCKK) permissive to proteolytic remodeling and the adhesive CRGDS peptide ligand. Tumor cell function was investigated by culturing WM239A melanoma cells on PEG hydrogel surfaces or encapsulating cells within the hydrogels, and either as monocultures or indirect (non-contact) cocultures with primary human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs). WM239A cluster size and proliferation rate depended on the shear elastic modulus for cells cultured on PEG hydrogels, while growth was inhibited by coculture with hDFs regardless of hydrogel stiffness. Cluster size was also suppressed by hDFs for WM239A cells encapsulated in PEG hydrogels, which is consistent with cells seeded on top of hydrogels. Notably, encapsulated WM239A clusters and single cells adopted invasive phenotypes in the hDF coculture model, which included single cell and collective migration modes that resembled invasion from human melanoma patient-derived xenograft tumors encapsulated in equivalent PEG hydrogels. Our combined results demonstrate that peptide-functionalized PEG hydrogels provide a useful platform for investigating aspects of tumor progression in 2D and 3D microenvironments, including single cell migration, cluster growth and invasion. PMID:26638791

  11. A synthetic modular approach for modeling the role of the 3D microenvironment in tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S. P.; Schwartz, M. P.; Tokuda, E. Y.; Luo, Y.; Rogers, R. E.; Fujita, M.; Ahn, N. G.; Anseth, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate the flexibility of peptide-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels for modeling tumor progression. The PEG hydrogels were formed using thiol-ene chemistry to incorporate a matrix metalloproteinase-degradable peptide crosslinker (KKCGGPQG↓IWGQGCKK) permissive to proteolytic remodeling and the adhesive CRGDS peptide ligand. Tumor cell function was investigated by culturing WM239A melanoma cells on PEG hydrogel surfaces or encapsulating cells within the hydrogels, and either as monocultures or indirect (non-contact) cocultures with primary human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs). WM239A cluster size and proliferation rate depended on the shear elastic modulus for cells cultured on PEG hydrogels, while growth was inhibited by coculture with hDFs regardless of hydrogel stiffness. Cluster size was also suppressed by hDFs for WM239A cells encapsulated in PEG hydrogels, which is consistent with cells seeded on top of hydrogels. Notably, encapsulated WM239A clusters and single cells adopted invasive phenotypes in the hDF coculture model, which included single cell and collective migration modes that resembled invasion from human melanoma patient-derived xenograft tumors encapsulated in equivalent PEG hydrogels. Our combined results demonstrate that peptide-functionalized PEG hydrogels provide a useful platform for investigating aspects of tumor progression in 2D and 3D microenvironments, including single cell migration, cluster growth and invasion. PMID:26638791

  12. Epithelial Tumors Originate in Tumor Hotspots, a Tissue-Intrinsic Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Tamori, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Emiko; Deng, Wu-Min

    2016-09-01

    Malignant tumors are caused by uncontrolled proliferation of transformed mutant cells that have lost the ability to maintain tissue integrity. Although a number of causative genetic backgrounds for tumor development have been discovered, the initial steps mutant cells take to escape tissue integrity and trigger tumorigenesis remain elusive. Here, we show through analysis of conserved neoplastic tumor-suppressor genes (nTSGs) in Drosophila wing imaginal disc epithelia that tumor initiation depends on tissue-intrinsic local cytoarchitectures, causing tumors to consistently originate in a specific region of the tissue. In this "tumor hotspot" where cells constitute a network of robust structures on their basal side, nTSG-deficient cells delaminate from the apical side of the epithelium and begin tumorigenic overgrowth by exploiting endogenous Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling activity. Conversely, in other regions, the "tumor coldspot" nTSG-deficient cells are extruded toward the basal side and undergo apoptosis. When the direction of delamination is reversed through suppression of RhoGEF2, an activator of the Rho family small GTPases, and JAK/STAT is activated ectopically in these coldspot nTSG-deficient cells, tumorigenesis is induced. These data indicate that two independent processes, apical delamination and JAK/STAT activation, are concurrently required for the initiation of nTSG-deficient-induced tumorigenesis. Given the conservation of the epithelial cytoarchitecture, tumorigenesis may be generally initiated from tumor hotspots by a similar mechanism. PMID:27584724

  13. HIF-1α regulates the interaction of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Valsecchi, Roberta; Coltella, Nadia; Belloni, Daniela; Ponente, Manfredi; ten Hacken, Elisa; Scielzo, Cristina; Scarfò, Lydia; Bertilaccio, Maria Teresa Sabrina; Brambilla, Paola; Lenti, Elisa; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Brendolan, Andrea; Ferrero, Elisabetta; Ferrarini, Marina; Ghia, Paolo; Tonon, Giovanni; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) regulate a wide array of adaptive responses to hypoxia and are often activated in solid tumors and hematologic malignancies due to intratumoral hypoxia and emerging new layers of regulation. We found that in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), HIF-1α is a novel regulator of the interaction of CLL cells with protective leukemia microenvironments and, in turn, is regulated by this interaction in a positive feedback loop that promotes leukemia survival and propagation. Through unbiased microarray analysis, we found that in CLL cells, HIF-1α regulates the expression of important chemokine receptors and cell adhesion molecules that control the interaction of leukemic cells with bone marrow and spleen microenvironments. Inactivation of HIF-1α impairs chemotaxis and cell adhesion to stroma, reduces bone marrow and spleen colonization in xenograft and allograft CLL mouse models, and prolongs survival in mice. Of interest, we found that in CLL cells, HIF-1α is transcriptionally regulated after coculture with stromal cells. Furthermore, HIF-1α messenger RNA levels vary significantly within CLL patients and correlate with the expression of HIF-1α target genes, including CXCR4, thus further emphasizing the relevance of HIF-1α expression to CLL pathogenesis. PMID:26825709

  14. Complementary approaches to investigating cancer cell dynamics in the tumor microenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgen, Michael R.; Raja, Waseem Khan; Gligorijevic, Bojana; Williams, James K.; Condeelis, John S.; Castracane, James

    2011-02-01

    Metastatic cancer cells respond to chemical and mechanical stimuli in their microenvironment that guide invasion into the surrounding tissue and eventually the circulatory/lymph systems. The NANIVID is designed to be an in vivo device used to collect metastatic cancer cells by providing a gradient of epidermal growth factor through the controlled release from a customized hydrogel. The model cells, MTLn3 and MenaInv, both derived from a rat mammary adenocarcinoma, will migrate toward the device and be collected in the chamber. A set of electrodes inside the chamber will provide real-time data on the density of cells collected in the device. The characterization and optimization of the electrodes in vitro will be reported, as will the development of an equivalent circuit model used to describe electrode behavior. The ultimate goal of this work is for the NANIVID to be used for in vivo investigations of a rat model of mammary cancer. Furthermore, since the morphology, mechanical properties, and movement of cells are influenced by the microenvironment, a combined scanning confocal laser microscope and atomic force microscope will be used to study these relationships. This work will further the understanding of the dynamics and mechanics of metastatic cancer cells as they leave the primary tumor and metastasize.

  15. GLI2 Transcription Factor Mediates Cytokine Cross-talk in the Tumor Microenvironment*

    PubMed Central

    Elsawa, Sherine F.; Almada, Luciana L.; Ziesmer, Steven C.; Novak, Anne J.; Witzig, Thomas E.; Ansell, Stephen M.; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.

    2011-01-01

    Tumor cells interact with their surrounding microenvironment to survive and persist within the host. Cytokines play a key role in regulating this crosstalk between malignant cells and surrounding cells in the microenvironment. Although this phenomenon is clearly established, the molecular mechanisms mediating this cellular event remain elusive. Here, using as a model bone marrow stromal cells, we describe a novel signaling mechanism initiated by CCL5 in these cells leading to up-regulation of immunoglobulin secretion by malignant B cells. CCL5 increases IL-6 expression and secretion in bone marrow stromal cells. IL-6 in turn induces Ig secretion by malignant B cells. Analysis of the mechanism reveals that CCL5 signaling induces GLI2 through a PI3K-AKT-IκBα-p65 pathway and requires GLI2 transcriptional activity to modulate IL-6 expression and Ig secretion in vitro and in vivo. Together, these results identify a novel signaling pathway mediating the stromal-cancer cell interactions, leading to increased Ig production by malignant cells. PMID:21454528

  16. HIF-1α regulates the interaction of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Roberta; Coltella, Nadia; Belloni, Daniela; Ponente, Manfredi; Ten Hacken, Elisa; Scielzo, Cristina; Scarfò, Lydia; Bertilaccio, Maria Teresa Sabrina; Brambilla, Paola; Lenti, Elisa; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Brendolan, Andrea; Ferrero, Elisabetta; Ferrarini, Marina; Ghia, Paolo; Tonon, Giovanni; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Bernardi, Rosa

    2016-04-21

    Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) regulate a wide array of adaptive responses to hypoxia and are often activated in solid tumors and hematologic malignancies due to intratumoral hypoxia and emerging new layers of regulation. We found that in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), HIF-1α is a novel regulator of the interaction of CLL cells with protective leukemia microenvironments and, in turn, is regulated by this interaction in a positive feedback loop that promotes leukemia survival and propagation. Through unbiased microarray analysis, we found that in CLL cells, HIF-1α regulates the expression of important chemokine receptors and cell adhesion molecules that control the interaction of leukemic cells with bone marrow and spleen microenvironments. Inactivation of HIF-1α impairs chemotaxis and cell adhesion to stroma, reduces bone marrow and spleen colonization in xenograft and allograft CLL mouse models, and prolongs survival in mice. Of interest, we found that in CLL cells, HIF-1α is transcriptionally regulated after coculture with stromal cells. Furthermore, HIF-1α messenger RNA levels vary significantly within CLL patients and correlate with the expression of HIF-1α target genes, including CXCR4, thus further emphasizing the relevance of HIF-1α expression to CLL pathogenesis. PMID:26825709

  17. Registered report: Biomechanical remodeling of the microenvironment by stromal caveolin-1 favors tumor invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Fiering, Steven; Ang, Lay-Hong; Lacoste, Judith; Smith, Tim D; Griner, Erin

    2015-01-01

    The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replicating selected results from a number of high-profile papers in the field of cancer biology. The papers, which were published between 2010 and 2012 were selected on the basis of citations and Altimetric scores (Errington et al., 2014). This Registered report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from 'Biomechanical remodeling of the microenvironment by stromal caveolin-1 favors tumor invasion and metastasis' by Goetz and colleagues, published in Cell in 2011 (Goetz et al., 2011). The key experiments being replicated are those reported in Figures 7C (a-d), Supplemental Figure S2A, and Supplemental Figure S7C (a-c) (Goetz et al., 2011). In these experiments, which are a subset of all the experiments reported in the original publication, Goetz and colleagues show in a subcutaneous xenograft model that stromal caveolin-1 remodels the intratumoral microenvironment, which is correlated with increased metastasis formation. The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange and the results of the replications will be published in eLife. PMID:26179155

  18. Impact of the Tumor Microenvironment on the Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Riemann, A; Ihling, A; Reime, S; Gekle, M; Thews, O

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia and extracellular acidosis are common features of solid malignant tumors. The aim of the study was to analyze whether these pathophysiological parameters affect the expression of inflammatory mediators in tumor cells. Therefore the mRNA expression of MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1), iNOS and osteopontin was measured under hypoxic (pO2 1 mmHg) and acidotic (pH 6.6) conditions by qPCR in AT1 R-3327 prostate cancer cells. In addition, the underlying signaling cascades were analyzed by using inhibitors of the p38 and ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathways.Hypoxia led to a significant decrease of the expression of MCP-1 and osteopontin over the complete observation period of 24 h, whereas the iNOS expression after an initial reduction slightly increased. Acidotic conditions for up to 6 h increased the iNOS expression significantly which was functional as indicated by an elevated level of nitrate/nitrite formation by 30 %. Acidosis had almost no impact on the MCP-1 expression of tumor cells, whereas the osteopontin level tended to increase leading to a significantly elevated level after 24 h at pH 6.6. Inhibiting the p38 and ERK1/2 under control conditions revealed that the MAPKs play a significant role for the regulation of the expression of inflammatory mediators. MCP-1 expression could be lowered by inhibiting ERK1/2 whereas iNOS expression was dependent on both p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK. These results indicate that the adverse tumor microenvironment affects the expression of inflammatory mediators by tumors cells and may therefore modulate the immune response within the tumor tissue. PMID:27526131

  19. Leukocyte populations and IL-6 in the tumor microenvironment of an orthotopic colorectal cancer model.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sarah; Senior, Paul V; Prakash, Monica; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Sakkal, Samy; Nurgali, Kulmira

    2016-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem worldwide. It is often diagnosed late due to its asymptomatic nature. As with all cancers, an immune reaction is involved; however, in CRC, it is unknown if this immune response is favorable or unfavorable for disease progression. In this study, the immune response in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and Peyer's patches was investigated during development of CRC in an orthotopic mouse model. CRC was induced by injecting CT26 cells into the cecum wall of BALB/c mice. Flow cytometry was used to analyze leukocyte populations involved in tumor immunity in MLNs and Peyer's patches. Cryostat sections for immunohistochemistry were prepared from the caecum and colon from CRC-induced and sham-operated animals. Cytokines produced by mouse CT26 cell line were measuredin vitroandin vivo Significant increases in the number of CD8(+)/TCR(+)and CD49b(+)/TCR(-)(natural killer) cells were found in MLNs and Peyer's patches in the CRC group. In addition, γδT cells were present in the lamina propria of the colon tissues from sham-operated mice, but absent in the colon tissues from mice with CRC. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumorous tissues showed eosinophil, CD69(+)T cell, and CD11b(+)cell infiltration. Bothin vitroandin vivoCT26 tumor cells were interleukin (IL)-6 positive. In addition, tumor-infiltrating CD45(+)cells were also IL-6 positive. In summary, the kinetics of the immune response to CRC and the key effector lymphocytes that are implicated in tumor immunity are demonstrated. Furthermore, IL-6 is a key cytokine present within the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26893144

  20. F18 Fluoromisonidazole for Imaging Tumor Hypoxia: Imaging the Microenvironment for Personalized Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, JG; Krohn, KA

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia in solid tumors is one of the seminal mechanisms for developing aggressive trait and treatment resistsance in solid tumors. This evolutionarily conserved biological mechanism along with de-repression of cellular functions in cancer, although resulting in many challenges, provide us with opportunities to use these adversities to our advantage. Our ability to use molecular imaging to characterize therapeutic targets such as hypoxia and apply this information for therapeutic interventions is growing rapidly. Evaluation of hypoxia and its biological ramifications to effectively plan appropriate therapy that can overcome the cure-limiting effects of hypoxia provides an objective means for treatment selection and planning. FMISO PET imaging of tumor hypoxia continues to be the lead radiopharmaceutical for the evaluation, prognostication and quantification of hypoxia, one of the key elements of the tumor microenvironment. FMISO is less confounded by blood flow and, although the images have less contrast than FDG PET, its uptake after 2 hours is an accurate reflection of inadequate regional Po2 at the time of radiopharmaceutical administration. By virtue of extensive clinical utilization, FMISO remains the lead candidate for imaging and quantifying hypoxia. The past decade has seen significant technological advances in investigating hypoxia imaging in radiation treatment planning and in providing us with the ability to individualize radiation delivery and target volume coverage. The presence of widespread hypoxia in the tumor can be effectively targeted with a systemic hypoxic cell cytotoxin or other agents that are more effective with diminished PO2, either alone or in combination. Molecular imaging in general and hypoxia imaging in particular will likely become an important in vivo imaging biomarker of the future, complementing the traditional direct tissue sampling methods by providing a snap shot of a primary tumor and metastatic disease and in following

  1. F-18 fluoromisonidazole for imaging tumor hypoxia: imaging the microenvironment for personalized cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Joseph G; Krohn, Kenneth A

    2015-03-01

    Hypoxia in solid tumors is one of the seminal mechanisms for developing aggressive trait and treatment resistance in solid tumors. This evolutionarily conserved biological mechanism along with derepression of cellular functions in cancer, although resulting in many challenges, provide us with opportunities to use these adversities to our advantage. Our ability to use molecular imaging to characterize therapeutic targets such as hypoxia and apply this information for therapeutic interventions is growing rapidly. Evaluation of hypoxia and its biological ramifications to effectively plan appropriate therapy that can overcome the cure-limiting effects of hypoxia provides an objective means for treatment selection and planning. Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) continues to be the lead radiopharmaceutical in PET imaging for the evaluation, prognostication, and quantification of tumor hypoxia, one of the key elements of the tumor microenvironment. FMISO is less confounded by blood flow, and although the images have less contrast than FDG-PET, its uptake after 2 hours is an accurate reflection of inadequate regional oxygen partial pressure at the time of radiopharmaceutical administration. By virtue of extensive clinical utilization, FMISO remains the lead candidate for imaging and quantifying hypoxia. The past decade has seen significant technological advances in investigating hypoxia imaging in radiation treatment planning and in providing us with the ability to individualize radiation delivery and target volume coverage. The presence of widespread hypoxia in the tumor can be effectively targeted with a systemic hypoxic cell cytotoxin or other agents that are more effective with diminished oxygen partial pressure, either alone or in combination. Molecular imaging in general and hypoxia imaging in particular will likely become an important in vivo imaging biomarker of the future, complementing the traditional direct tissue sampling methods by providing a snap shot of a primary

  2. Chemokine signaling in cancer: Implications on the tumor microenvironment and therapeutic targeting

    PubMed Central

    Hembruff, Stacey L.; Cheng, Nikki

    2010-01-01

    Summary Chemokines are soluble factors shown to play important roles in regulating immune cell recruitment during inflammatory responses and defense against foreign pathogens. De-regulated expression and activity of several chemokine signaling pathways have been implicated in cancer progression, including: CCL2, CCL5, CXCL1 and CXCL12. While studies in the past have focused the role of these chemokine signaling pathways in regulating immune responses, emerging studies show that these molecules regulate diverse cellular processes including angiogenesis, and regulation of epithelial cell growth and survival. New evidence indicates that chemokines are critical for cancer progression and indicate complex and diverse functions in the tumor microenvironment. This review will focus on the contributions of chemokine signaling in regulating cancer microvironment and discuss the utility of targeting or delivering chemokines in cancer therapeutics. PMID:20651940

  3. Toward an integrative analysis of the tumor microenvironment in ovarian epithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Serio, Ryan N

    2012-08-01

    Ovarian epithelial carcinomas are heterogeneous malignancies exhibiting great diversity in histological phenotypes as well as genetic and epigenetic aberrations. A general early event in tumorigenesis is regional dissemination into the peritoneal cavity. Initial spread to the peritoneum is made possible by cooperative signaling between a wide array of molecules constituting the tissue microenvironment in the coelomic epithelium. Changes in the activity of key microenvironmental components not constitutively expressed in normal tissue, including several disclosed adhesion molecules, growth factors, proteases, and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), coordinate the transition. Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and subsequent cell surface interactions enable transformation by promoting chromosomal instability (CIN) and stimulating several common signal transduction cascades to prepare the tissue for harboring and facilitating growth, angiogenesis and metastasis of the developing tumor. PMID:22109660

  4. Essential role of miRNAs in orchestrating the biology of the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Frediani, Jamie N; Fabbri, Muller

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as central players in shaping the biology of the Tumor Microenvironment (TME). They do so both by modulating their expression levels within the different cells of the TME and by being shuttled among different cell populations within exosomes and other extracellular vesicles. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art knowledge of the role of miRNAs in the complexity of the TME and highlights limitations and challenges in the field. A better understanding of the mechanisms of action of these fascinating micro molecules will lead to the development of new therapeutic weapons and most importantly, to an improvement in the clinical outcome of cancer patients. PMID:27231010

  5. Impacts of Ionizing Radiation on the Different Compartments of the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Leroi, Natacha; Lallemand, François; Coucke, Philippe; Noel, Agnès; Martinive, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is one of the most important modalities for cancer treatment. For many years, the impact of RT on cancer cells has been extensively studied. Recently, the tumor microenvironment (TME) emerged as one of the key factors in therapy resistance. RT is known to influence and modify diverse components of the TME. Hence, we intent to review data from the literature on the impact of low and high single dose, as well as fractionated RT on host cells (endothelial cells, fibroblasts, immune and inflammatory cells) and the extracellular matrix. Optimizing the schedule of RT (i.e., dose per fraction) and other treatment modalities is a current challenge. A better understanding of the cascade of events and TME remodeling following RT would be helpful to design optimal treatment combination. PMID:27064581

  6. Preferential action of arsenic trioxide in solid-tumor microenvironment enhances radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Robert J. . E-mail: griff007@umn.edu; Williams, Brent W.; Park, Heon Joo; Song, Chang W.

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of arsenic trioxide, Trisenox (TNX), on primary cultures of endothelial cells and tumor tissue under varying pH and pO{sub 2} environments and the effects of combined TNX and radiation therapy on experimental tumors. Methods and Materials: Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells were cultured in vitro and exposed to TNX under various combinations of aerobic, hypoxic, neutral, or acidic conditions, and levels of activated JNK MAP kinase were assessed by Western blotting. FSaII fibrosarcoma cells grown in the hind limb of female C3H mice were used to study the effect of TNX on tumor blood perfusion and oxygenation. The tumor-growth delay after a single or fractionated irradiation with or without TNX treatment was assessed. Results: A single intraperitoneal injection of 8 mg/kg TNX reduced the blood perfusion in FSaII tumors by 53% at 2 hours after injection. To increase the oxygenation of the tumor vasculature during TNX treatment, some animals were allowed to breathe carbogen (95% O{sub 2}/5% CO{sub 2}). Carbogen breathing alone for 2 hours reduced tumor perfusion by 33%. When carbogen breathing was begun immediately after TNX injection, no further reduction occurred in tumor blood perfusion at 2 hours after injection. In vitro, TNX exposure increased activity JNK MAP kinase preferentially in endothelial cells cultured in an acidic or hypoxic environment. In vivo, the median oxygenation in FSaII tumors measured at 3 or 5 days after TNX injection was found to be significantly elevated compared with control tumors. Subsequently, radiation-induced tumor-growth delay was synergistically increased when radiation and TNX injection were fractionated at 3-day or 5-day intervals. Conclusions: Trisenox has novel vascular-damaging properties, preferentially against endothelium in regions of low pH or pO{sub 2}, which leads to tumor cell death and enhancement of the response of tumors to radiotherapy.

  7. Exosomes from the tumor microenvironment as reciprocal regulators that enhance prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Che-Ming; Hsieh, Chia-Ling; Shen, Chia-Ning; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Shigemura, Katsumi; Sung, Shian-Ying

    2016-09-01

    Distant organ metastasis of prostate cancer is a puzzle, and various theories have successively arisen to explain the mechanism of lethal cancer progression. While perhaps agreeable to many cancer biologists, the very statement of "seed and soil" proposed by Stephan Paget in 1881 is arguably still the major statement for organ-specific cancer metastasis. Since recent studies showed important correlations of regulation of cancer cells and the microenvironment, exosomes from cancer and stromal cells seem to create another important niche for metastasis. Stromal cells pretreated with exosomes from metastatic cancer cells increase the potential of change stromal cells. The poorly metastatic cancer cells could also enhance malignancy through transfer of proteins, microribonucleic acid and messenger ribonucleic acid to recipient cancer cells. Herein, we reviewed extracellular exosomes as a factor involved in cross-talk between stromal and prostate cancer epithelial cells. PMID:27397852

  8. Neem Leaf Glycoprotein Prophylaxis Transduces Immune Dependent Stop Signal for Tumor Angiogenic Switch within Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Saptak; Ghosh, Tithi; Barik, Subhasis; Das, Arnab; Ghosh, Sarbari; Bhuniya, Avishek

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that prophylactic as well as therapeutic administration of neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP) induces significant restriction of solid tumor growth in mice. Here, we investigate whether the effect of such pretreatment (25µg/mice; weekly, 4 times) benefits regulation of tumor angiogenesis, an obligate factor for tumor progression. We show that NLGP pretreatment results in vascular normalization in melanoma and carcinoma bearing mice along with downregulation of CD31, VEGF and VEGFR2. NLGP pretreatment facilitates profound infiltration of CD8+ T cells within tumor parenchyma, which subsequently regulates VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling in CD31+ vascular endothelial cells to prevent aberrant neovascularization. Pericyte stabilization, VEGF dependent inhibition of VEC proliferation and subsequent vascular normalization are also experienced. Studies in immune compromised mice confirmed that these vascular and intratumoral changes in angiogenic profile are dependent upon active adoptive immunity particularly those mediated by CD8+ T cells. Accumulated evidences suggest that NLGP regulated immunomodulation is active in tumor growth restriction and normalization of tumor angiogenesis as well, thereby, signifying its clinical translation. PMID:25391149

  9. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells: Critical Cells Driving Immune Suppression in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Katherine H.; Beury, Daniel W.; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that suppress innate and adaptive immunity. MDSCs are present in many disease settings; however, in cancer, they are a major obstacle for both natural antitumor immunity and immunotherapy. Tumor and host cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) produce a myriad of pro-inflammatory mediators that activate MDSCs and drive their accumulation and suppressive activity. MDSCs utilize a variety of mechanisms to suppress T cell activation, induce other immune-suppressive cell populations, regulate inflammation in the TME, and promote the switching of the immune system to one that tolerates and enhances tumor growth. Because MDSCs are present in most cancer patients and are potent immune-suppressive cells, MDSCs have been the focus of intense research in recent years. This review describes the history and identification of MDSCs, the role of inflammation and intracellular signaling events governing MDSC accumulation and suppressive activity, immune-suppressive mechanisms utilized by MDSCs, and recent therapeutics that target MDSCs to enhance antitumor immunity. PMID:26216631

  10. Cancer-induced heterogeneous immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments and their personalized modulation.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Tomonori; Kawakami, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Although recent cancer immunotherapy strategies, including immune-checkpoint blockade (i.e. blocking PD-1, PD-L1 or CTLA-4), have shown durable clinical effects in some (but not all) patients with various advanced cancers, further understanding of human immunopathology, particularly in tumor microenvironments, is essential to improve this type of therapy. The major hurdle for immunotherapy is the immunosuppression that is found in cancer patients. There are two types of immunosuppression: one is induced by gene alterations in cancer; the other is local adaptive immunosuppression, triggered by tumor-specific T cells in tumors. The former is caused by multiple mechanisms via various immunosuppressive molecules and via cells triggered by gene alterations, including activated oncogenes, in cancer cells. The various immunosuppressive mechanisms involve signaling cascades that vary among cancer types, subsets within cancer types and individual cancers. Therefore, personalized immune-interventions are necessary to appropriately target oncogene-induced signaling that modulates anti-cancer immune responses, on the basis of genetic and immunological analysis of each patient. Further understanding of human cancer immunopathology may lead to real improvement of current cancer immunotherapies. PMID:27401477

  11. Palladin Mediates Stiffness-Induced Fibroblast Activation in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    McLane, Joshua S.; Ligon, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical properties of the tumor microenvironment have emerged as key factors in tumor progression. It has been proposed that increased tissue stiffness can transform stromal fibroblasts into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts. However, it is unclear whether the three to five times increase in stiffness seen in tumor-adjacent stroma is sufficient for fibroblast activation. In this study we developed a three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel model with precisely tunable stiffness and show that a physiologically relevant increase in stiffness is sufficient to lead to fibroblast activation. We found that soluble factors including CC-motif chemokine ligand (CCL) chemokines and fibronectin are necessary for this activation, and the combination of C-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CCR4) chemokine receptors and β1 and β3 integrins are necessary to transduce these chemomechanical signals. We then show that these chemomechanical signals lead to the gene expression changes associated with fibroblast activation via a network of intracellular signaling pathways that include focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Finally, we identify the actin-associated protein palladin as a key node in these signaling pathways that result in fibroblast activation. PMID:26200861

  12. Norepinephrine promotes tumor microenvironment reactivity through β3-adrenoreceptors during melanoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Calvani, Maura; Pelon, Floriane; Comito, Giuseppina; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Moretti, Silvia; Innocenti, Stefania; Nassini, Romina; Gerlini, Gianni; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Bambi, Franco; Giannoni, Elisa; Filippi, Luca; Chiarugi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Stress has an emerging role in cancer and targeting stress-related β-adrenergic receptors (AR) has been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach in melanoma. Here we report that β3-AR expression correlates with melanoma aggressiveness. In addition, we highlight that β3-AR expression is not only restricted to cancer cells, but it is also expressed in vivo in stromal, inflammatory and vascular cells of the melanoma microenvironment. Particularly, we demonstrated that β3-AR can (i) instruct melanoma cells to respond to environmental stimuli, (ii) enhance melanoma cells response to stromal fibroblasts and macrophages, (iii) increase melanoma cell motility and (iv) induce stem-like traits. Noteworthy, β3-AR activation in melanoma accessory cells drives stromal reactivity by inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion and de novo angiogenesis, sustaining tumor growth and melanoma aggressiveness. β3-ARs also play a mandatory role in the recruitment to tumor sites of circulating stromal cells precursors, in the differentiation of these cells towards different lineages, further favoring tumor inflammation, angiogenesis and ultimately melanoma malignancy. Our findings validate selective β3-AR antagonists as potential promising anti-metastatic agents. These could be used to complement current therapeutic approaches for melanoma patients (e.g. propranolol) by targeting non-neoplastic stromal cells, hence reducing therapy resistance of melanoma. PMID:25474135

  13. Whom to blame for metastasis, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition or the tumor microenvironment?

    PubMed

    Pietilä, M; Ivaska, J; Mani, S A

    2016-09-28

    Changes in the tumor microenvironment (TME) can trigger the activation of otherwise non-malignant cells to become highly aggressive and motile. This is evident during initial tumor growth when the poor vascularization in tumors generates hypoxic regions that trigger the latent embryonic program, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in epithelial carcinoma cells (e-cars) leading to highly motile mesenchymal-like carcinoma cells (m-cars), which also acquire cancer stem cell properties. After that, specific bidirectional interactions take place between m-cars and the cellular components of TME at different stages of metastasis. These interactions include several vicious positive feedback loops in which m-cars trigger a phenotypic switch, causing normal stromal cells to become pro-tumorigenic, which then further promote the survival, motility, and proliferation of m-cars. Accordingly, there is not a single culprit accounting for metastasis. Instead both m-cars and the TME dynamically interact, evolve and promote metastasis. In this review, we discuss the current status of the known interactions between m-cars and the TME during different stages of metastasis and how these interactions promote the metastatic activity of highly malignant m-cars by promoting their invasive mesenchymal phenotype and CSC properties. PMID:26791236

  14. Targeting the Tumor Microenvironment: The Protumor Effects of IL-17 Related to Cancer Type.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Joseph; Giustiniani, Jerome; Garbar, Christian; Antonicelli, Frank; Merrouche, Yacine; Bensussan, Armand; Bagot, Martine; Al-Dacak, Reem

    2016-01-01

    The inflammatory process contributes to immune tolerance as well as to tumor progression and metastasis. By releasing extracellular signals, cancerous cells constantly shape their surrounding microenvironment through their interactions with infiltrating immune cells, stromal cells and components of extracellular matrix. Recently, the pro-inflammatory interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing T helper lymphocytes, the Th17 cells, and the IL-17/IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) axis gained special attention. The IL-17 family comprises at least six members, IL-17A, IL-17B, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17E (also called IL-25), and IL-17F. Secreted as disulfide-linked homo- or heterodimers, the IL-17 bind to the IL-17R, a type I cell surface receptor, of which there are five variants, IL-17RA to IL-17RE. This review focuses on the current advances identifying the promoting role of IL-17 in carcinogenesis, tumor metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy of diverse solid cancers. While underscoring the IL-17/IL-17R axis as promising immunotherapeutic target in the context of cancer managing, this knowledge calls upon further in vitro and in vivo studies that would allow the development and implementation of novel strategies to combat tumors. PMID:27589729

  15. Immune infiltration and PD-L1 expression in the tumor microenvironment are prognostic in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Koirala, Pratistha; Roth, Michael E; Gill, Jonathan; Piperdi, Sajida; Chinai, Jordan M; Geller, David S; Hoang, Bang H; Park, Amy; Fremed, Michael A; Zang, Xingxing; Gorlick, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma patient survival has remained stagnant for 30 years. Novel therapeutic approaches are needed to improve outcomes. We examined the expression of Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) and defined the tumor immune microenvironment to assess the prognostic utility in osteosarcoma. PD-L1 expression in osteosarcoma was examined in two patient cohorts using immunohistochemistry (IHC) (n = 48, n = 59) and expression was validated using quantitative real time PCR (n = 21) and western blotting (n = 9). IHC was used to determine the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the tumor. Expression of PD-L1 was correlated with immune cell infiltration and event-free-survival (EFS). The 25% of primary osteosarcoma tumors that express PD-L1 were more likely to contain cells that express PD-1 than PD-L1 negative tumors (91.7% vs 47.2%, p = 0.002). Expression of PD-L1 was significantly associated with the presence of T cells, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells. Although all immune cell types examined were present in osteosarcoma samples, only infiltration by dendritic cells (28.3% vs. 83.9%, p = 0.001) and macrophages (45.5% vs. 84.4%, p = 0.031) were associated with worse five-year-EFS. PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with poorer five-year-EFS (25.0%. vs. 69.4%, p = 0.014). Further studies in osteosarcoma are needed to determine if targeting the PD-L1:PD-1 axis improves survival. PMID:27456063

  16. Enhanced shedding of extracellular vesicles from amoeboid prostate cancer cells: potential effects on the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jayoung; Morley, Samantha; Le, Minh; Bedoret, Denis; Umetsu, Dale T; Di Vizio, Dolores; Freeman, Michael R

    2014-04-01

    The gene encoding the cytoskeletal regulator DIAPH3 is lost at high frequency in metastatic prostate cancer, and DIAPH3 silencing evokes a transition to an amoeboid tumor phenotype in multiple cell backgrounds. This amoeboid transformation is accompanied by increased tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. DIAPH3 silencing also promotes the formation of atypically large (> 1 μm) membrane blebs that can be shed as extracellular vesicles (EV) containing bioactive cargo. Whether loss of DIAPH3 also stimulates the release of nano-sized EV (e.g., exosomes) is not established. Here we examined the mechanism of release and potential biological functions of EV shed from DIAPH3-silenced and other prostate cancer cells. We observed that stimulation of LNCaP cells with the prostate stroma-derived growth factor heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), combined with p38MAPK inhibition caused EV shedding, a process mediated by ERK1/2 hyperactivation. DIAPH3 silencing in DU145 cells also increased rates of EV production. EV isolated from DIAPH3-silenced cells activated AKT1 and androgen signaling, increased proliferation of recipient tumor cells, and suppressed proliferation of human macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. DU145 EV contained miR-125a, which suppressed AKT1 expression and proliferation in recipient human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages. Our findings suggest that EV produced as a result of DIAPH3 loss or growth factor stimulation may condition the tumor microenvironment through multiple mechanisms, including the proliferation of cancer cells and suppression of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. PMID:24423651

  17. Immune infiltration and PD-L1 expression in the tumor microenvironment are prognostic in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Koirala, Pratistha; Roth, Michael E.; Gill, Jonathan; Piperdi, Sajida; Chinai, Jordan M.; Geller, David S.; Hoang, Bang H.; Park, Amy; Fremed, Michael A.; Zang, Xingxing; Gorlick, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma patient survival has remained stagnant for 30 years. Novel therapeutic approaches are needed to improve outcomes. We examined the expression of Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) and defined the tumor immune microenvironment to assess the prognostic utility in osteosarcoma. PD-L1 expression in osteosarcoma was examined in two patient cohorts using immunohistochemistry (IHC) (n = 48, n = 59) and expression was validated using quantitative real time PCR (n = 21) and western blotting (n = 9). IHC was used to determine the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the tumor. Expression of PD-L1 was correlated with immune cell infiltration and event-free-survival (EFS). The 25% of primary osteosarcoma tumors that express PD-L1 were more likely to contain cells that express PD-1 than PD-L1 negative tumors (91.7% vs 47.2%, p = 0.002). Expression of PD-L1 was significantly associated with the presence of T cells, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells. Although all immune cell types examined were present in osteosarcoma samples, only infiltration by dendritic cells (28.3% vs. 83.9%, p = 0.001) and macrophages (45.5% vs. 84.4%, p = 0.031) were associated with worse five-year-EFS. PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with poorer five-year-EFS (25.0%. vs. 69.4%, p = 0.014). Further studies in osteosarcoma are needed to determine if targeting the PD-L1:PD-1 axis improves survival. PMID:27456063

  18. FGFR inhibitors: Effects on cancer cells, tumor microenvironment and whole-body homeostasis (Review)

    PubMed Central

    KATOH, MASARU

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2, FGF4, FGF7 and FGF20 are representative paracrine FGFs binding to heparan-sulfate proteoglycan and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), whereas FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23 are endocrine FGFs binding to Klotho and FGFRs. FGFR1 is relatively frequently amplified and overexpressed in breast and lung cancer, and FGFR2 in gastric cancer. BCR-FGFR1, CNTRL-FGFR1, CUX1-FGFR1, FGFR1OP-FGFR1, MYO18A-FGFR1 and ZMYM2-FGFR1 fusions in myeloproliferative neoplasms are non-receptor-type FGFR kinases, whereas FGFR1-TACC1, FGFR2-AFF3, FGFR2-BICC1, FGFR2-PPHLN1, FGFR3-BAIAP2L1 and FGFR3-TACC3 fusions in solid tumors are transmembrane-type FGFRs with C-terminal alterations. AZD4547, BGJ398 (infigratinib), Debio-1347 and dovitinib are FGFR1/2/3 inhibitors; BLU9931 is a selective FGFR4 inhibitor; FIIN-2, JNJ-42756493, LY2874455 and ponatinib are pan-FGFR inhibitors. AZD4547, dovitinib and ponatinib are multi-kinase inhibitors targeting FGFRs, colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)R2, and others. The tumor microenvironment consists of cancer cells and stromal/immune cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), endothelial cells, M2-type tumor-associating macrophages (M2-TAMs), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T cells. FGFR inhibitors elicit antitumor effects directly on cancer cells, as well as indirectly through the blockade of paracrine signaling. The dual inhibition of FGF and CSF1 or VEGF signaling is expected to enhance the antitumor effects through the targeting of immune evasion and angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment. Combination therapy using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (FGFR or CSF1R inhibitors) and immune checkpoint blockers (anti-PD-1 or anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies) may be a promising choice for cancer patients. The inhibition of FGF19-FGFR4 signaling is associated with a risk of liver toxicity, whereas the activation of FGF23-FGFR4 signaling is

  19. Simulation of acid-base condition and copper speciation in the fish gill microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Tao, S; Wen, Y; Long, A; Dawson, R; Cao, J; Xu, F

    2001-05-01

    pH, alkalinity, and mucus content in the fish gill microenvironment of carp (Cyprinus carpio) were measured by exposing fish to copper at various water pH levels using an apparatus which separates inspired and expired water. The relationship between pH levels inside and outside of the gill microenvironment, between pH and alkalinity, and between mucus secretion, pH, and copper exposure concentration were modeled. Copper speciation in the surrounding water and in the fish gill microenvironment was simulated using MINTEQA2 chemical equilibrium calculation software. The results of the modeling for pH, alkalinity, and mucus calculation were then adopted as inputs for purposes of parameter identification in the speciation modeling. The differences observed in the copper species distribution between that of the fish gill microenvironment and the surrounding water were based on the speciation modeling. The change in copper bioavailability for fish uptake was also examined. The results indicate the presence of an experimental pH balance point at 6.9, where the pH in the fish gill microenvironment is identical to that of the surrounding water. The observed deviation range in pH levels between that found at the gills and that of the surrounding water varied from -0.4 to 0.8 units. A sinusoidal model was developed for calculation of gill pH based on the pH of the surrounding water. Models calculating alkalinity either in the gill microenvironment or in the surrounding water and for estimating mucus secretion were also developed. The results of the chemical equilibrium calculations demonstrate that, within a pH range of 6-9, the dominant species of copper in bulk solution shifted from free ions to that of the hydroxo complex. With respect to the fish gill microenvironment, the dominant species found under acidic conditions were the mucus copper complex and free ions. Because of the influence of mucus complexation and pH change, bioavailable copper species in the fish gill

  20. Inhibition of vacuolar ATPase subunit in tumor cells delays tumor growth by decreasing the essential macrophage population in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Katara, G K; Kulshrestha, A; Jaiswal, M K; Pamarthy, S; Gilman-Sachs, A; Beaman, K D

    2016-02-25

    In cancer cells, vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multi-subunit enzyme, is expressed on the plasma as well as vesicular membranes and critically influences metastatic behavior. The soluble, cleaved N-terminal domain of V-ATPase a2 isoform is associated with in vitro induction of tumorigenic characteristics in macrophages. This activity led us to further investigate its in vivo role in cancer progression by inhibition of a2 isoform (a2V) in tumor cells and the concomitant effect on tumor microenvironment in the mouse 4T-1 breast cancer model. Results showed that macrophages cocultivated with a2V knockdown (sh-a2) 4T-1 cells produce lower amounts of tumorigenic factors in vitro and have reduced ability to suppress T-cell activation and proliferation compared with control 4T-1 cells. Data analysis showed a delayed mammary tumor growth in Balb/c mice inoculated with sh-a2 4T-1 cells compared with control. The purified CD11b(+) macrophages from sh-a2 tumors showed a reduced expression of mannose receptor-1 (CD206), interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-β, arginase-1, matrix metalloproteinase and vascular endothelial growth factor. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor-infiltrated macrophages showed a significantly low number of F4/80(+)CD11c(+)CD206(+) macrophages in sh-a2 tumors compared with control. In sh-a2 tumors, most of the macrophages were F4/80(+)CD11c(+) (antitumor M1 macrophages) suggesting it to be the reason behind delayed tumor growth. Additionally, tumor-infiltrating macrophages from sh-a2 tumors showed a reduced expression of CD206 compared with control whereas CD11c expression was unaffected. These findings demonstrate that in the absence of a2V in tumor cells, the resident macrophage population in the tumor microenvironment is altered which affects in vivo tumor growth. We suggest that by involving the host immune system, tumor growth can be controlled through targeting of a2V on tumor cells. PMID:25961933

  1. SFRP2 augments WNT16B signaling to promote therapeutic resistance in the damaged tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Zhu, D; Chen, F; Qian, M; Wei, H; Chen, W; Xu, J

    2016-08-18

    Most tumors initially respond to cytotoxic treatments, but acquired resistance often follows. The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a major barrier to clinical success by compromising therapeutic efficacy, and pathological relevance of multiple soluble factors released by a therapeutically remodeled TME remains largely unexplored. Here we show that the secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), a Wnt pathway modulator, is produced by human primary fibroblasts after genotoxic treatments. SFRP2 induction is remarkable in tumor stroma, with transcription mainly modulated by the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) complex, a property shared by several effectors of the DNA damage secretory program. Instead of directly altering canonical Wnt signaling, SFRP2 augments β-catenin activities initiated by WNT16B, another soluble factor from DNA-damaged stroma. WNT16B recognizes cancer cell surface receptors including frizzled (FZD) 3/4/6, a process enhanced by SFRP2, coordinated by the co-receptor LRP6 but subject to abrogation by DKK1. Importantly, we found WNT16B plays a central role in promoting advanced malignancies particularly acquired resistance by counteracting cell death, an effect that can be minimized by a neutralizing antibody co-administered with classical chemotherapy. Furthermore, DNA damage-triggered expression of WNT16B is systemic, imaged by significant induction among diverse solid organs and circulation in peripheral blood, thereby holding promise as not only a TME-derived anticancer target but also a novel biomarker for clinical evaluation of treatment efficacy. Overall, our study substantiates the biological complexity and pathological implication of a therapy-activated TME, and provides the proof of principle of co-targeting tumor and the TME to prevent acquired resistance, with the aim of improving intervention outcome in an era of precision medicine. PMID:26751775

  2. SFRP2 augments WNT16B signaling to promote therapeutic resistance in the damaged tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Y; Zhu, D; Chen, F; Qian, M; Wei, H; Chen, W; Xu, J

    2016-01-01

    Most tumors initially respond to cytotoxic treatments, but acquired resistance often follows. The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a major barrier to clinical success by compromising therapeutic efficacy, and pathological relevance of multiple soluble factors released by a therapeutically remodeled TME remains largely unexplored. Here we show that the secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), a Wnt pathway modulator, is produced by human primary fibroblasts after genotoxic treatments. SFRP2 induction is remarkable in tumor stroma, with transcription mainly modulated by the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) complex, a property shared by several effectors of the DNA damage secretory program. Instead of directly altering canonical Wnt signaling, SFRP2 augments β-catenin activities initiated by WNT16B, another soluble factor from DNA-damaged stroma. WNT16B recognizes cancer cell surface receptors including frizzled (FZD) 3/4/6, a process enhanced by SFRP2, coordinated by the co-receptor LRP6 but subject to abrogation by DKK1. Importantly, we found WNT16B plays a central role in promoting advanced malignancies particularly acquired resistance by counteracting cell death, an effect that can be minimized by a neutralizing antibody co-administered with classical chemotherapy. Furthermore, DNA damage-triggered expression of WNT16B is systemic, imaged by significant induction among diverse solid organs and circulation in peripheral blood, thereby holding promise as not only a TME-derived anticancer target but also a novel biomarker for clinical evaluation of treatment efficacy. Overall, our study substantiates the biological complexity and pathological implication of a therapy-activated TME, and provides the proof of principle of co-targeting tumor and the TME to prevent acquired resistance, with the aim of improving intervention outcome in an era of precision medicine. PMID:26751775

  3. Berberine may rescue Fusobacterium nucleatum-induced colorectal tumorigenesis by modulating the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui-Jun; Sun, Tian-Tian; Chen, Hui-Min; Chen, Hao-Yan; An, Hui-Fang; Weng, Yu-Rong; Yu, Jun; Li, Min; Qin, Wen-Xin; Ma, Xiong; Shen, Nan; Hong, Jie; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence links colorectal cancer (CRC) with the intestinal microbiota. However, the disturbance of intestinal microbiota and the role of Fusobacterium nucleatum during the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence have not yet been evaluated. Methods 454 FLX pyrosequencing was used to evaluate the disturbance of intestinal microbiota during the adenoma-carcinoma sequence pathway of CRC. Intestinal microbiota and mucosa tumor-immune cytokines were detected in mice after introducing 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), F. nucleatum or Berberine (BBR), using pyrosequencing and Bio-Plex Pro™ cytokine assays, respectively. Protein expressions were detected by western blotting. Results The levels of opportunistic pathogens, such as Fusobacterium, Streptococcus and Enterococcus spp. gradually increased during the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence in human fecal and mucosal samples. F. nucleatum treatment significantly altered lumen microbial structures, with increased Tenericutes and Verrucomicrobia (opportunistic pathogens) (P < 0.05 = in wild-type C57BL/6 and mice with DMH treatment). BBR intervention reversed the F. nucleatum-mediated increase in opportunistic pathogens, and the secretion of IL-21/22/31, CD40L and the expression of p-STAT3, p-STAT5 and p-ERK1/2 in mice, compared with mice fed with F. nucleatum alone. Conclusions F. nucleatum colonization in the intestine may prompt colorectal tumorigenesis. BBR could rescue F. nucleatum-induced colorectal tumorigenesis by modulating the tumor microenvironment and blocking the activation of tumorigenesis-related pathways. PMID:26397137

  4. An Implantable Device for Manipulation of the in vivo Tumor Microenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James K.

    In the past decade, it has become increasingly recognized that interactions between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) regulate metastasis. One such interaction is the paracrine loop between macrophages and cancer cells which drives metastatic invasion in mammary tumors. Tumor associated macrophages release epidermal growth factor (EGF), a chemoattractant which induces the migration of cancer cells toward the blood vessels. The cancer cells reciprocate by releasing a macrophage chemoattractant, colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), resulting in the co-migration of both cell types and subsequent intravasation. In this work, a new technology has been developed for studying the mechanisms by which invasive tumor cells migrate in vivo toward gradients of EGF. Conventional in vitro methods used for studying tumor cell migration lack the complexity found in the TME and are therefore of limited relevance to in vivo metastasis. The Nano Intravital Device (NANIVID) has been designed as an implantable tool to manipulate the TME through the generation of soluble factor gradients. The NANIVID consists of two etched glass substrates, loaded with a hydrogel containing EGF, and sealed together using a polymer membrane. When implanted in vivo, the hydrogel will swell and release the entrapped EGF, forming a diffusion gradient in the tumor over many hours. The NANIVID design has been optimized for use with multiphoton-based intravital imaging, to monitor migration toward the device at single-cell resolution. Stabilization techniques have been developed to minimize imaging artifacts caused by breathing and specimen movement over the course of the experiment. The NANIVID has been validated in vivo using a mouse model of metastasis. When implanted in MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumors grown in SCID mice, chemotaxis of tumor cells was induced by the EGF gradient generated by the device. Cell motility parameters including velocity, directionality, and chemotactic index were

  5. Mast cells mobilize myeloid-derived suppressor cells and Treg cells in tumor microenvironment via IL-17 pathway in murine hepatocarcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhuoshun; Zhang, Biao; Li, Dapeng; Lv, Meng; Huang, Chunmei; Shen, Guan-Xin; Huang, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Tumor immunosuppression is commonly braided with chronic inflammation during tumor development. However, the relationship between immunosuppression and inflammation in tumor microenvironment is still unclear. We have demonstrated that mast cells are accumulated and exacerbate the inflammation and immunosuppression in tumor microenvironment via SCF/c-kit signaling pathway. Here, we further elucidate the underlying mechanism, which involves both myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Our data showed that mast cells mobilized the infiltration of MDSCs to tumor and induced the production of IL-17 by MDSCs; MDSCs-derived IL-17 indirectly attracted Treg cells, enhanced their suppressor function, and induced the IL-9 production by Treg cells; in turn, IL-9 strengthened the survival and protumor effect of mast cells in tumor microenvironment. Our findings disclose a closed loop among mast cells, MDSCs and Treg cells in tumor microenvironment, which provides a new insight into the paralleled developments of inflammation and immunosuppression in tumor microenvironment. Based on these findings, we propose that targeting tumor inflammation might be a potential strategy to reverse the immunosuppression of tumor microenvironment, thus facilitating cancer immunotherapy. PMID:20111717

  6. Lymphoma Microenvironment and Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mina L; Fedoriw, Yuri

    2016-03-01

    Understanding of the lymphoma tumor microenvironment is poised to expand in the era of next-generation sequencing studies of the tumor cells themselves. Successful therapies of the future will rely on deeper appreciation of the interactions between elements of the microenvironment. Although the phenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization of tumor cells in lymphomas has progressed faster than most other solid organ tumors, concrete advancements in understanding the lymphoma microenvironment have been fewer. This article explores the composition of the lymphoma tumor microenvironment; its role in immune surveillance, evasion, and drug resistance; and its potential role in the development of targeted therapies. PMID:26940270

  7. The multilayer nanoparticles for deep penetration of docetaxel into tumor parenchyma to overcome tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Nisar Ul; Park, Dal Yong; Lee, Jae Young; Joo, Yeonhee; Oh, Keun Sang; Kim, Jung Seok; Kim, Jin-Seok; Kim, In-San; Kwon, Ick Chan; Yuk, Soon Hong

    2016-10-01

    Deep penetration of the anticancer drug, docetaxel (DTX), into tumor parenchyma was demonstrated to achieve improved chemotherapy. For this purpose, a multistage nanostructure was designed and characterized using the multilayer nanoparticles (NPs). The multilayer NPs had a core/shell structure. The core was composed of the DTX-loaded Pluronic NPs (diameter: 12nm) that were transferred into the inner side of vesicles to form the vesicle NPs. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in the NPs was observed to verify the incorporation of the DTX-loaded Pluronic NPs into the inner side of the vesicles during the formation of the vesicle NPs. Subsequently, the vesicle NPs were stabilized through Pluronic-lipid bilayer interaction to form the multilayer NPs. To examine the morphology and size distribution of the multilayer NPs, transmittance electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering were used. In vitro release behavior and toxicity were observed to verify the functionality of the multilayer NPs as nanocarriers for cancer therapy. Multistage functionality was evaluated by cellular uptake and tissue distribution behaviors of the multilayer NPs. The biodistribution of the multilayer NPs and their antitumor efficacy were also observed to understand the role of multistage functionality for improved chemotherapy. PMID:27451372

  8. Modulation of IL-1β reprogrammes the tumor microenvironment to interrupt oral carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tong; Hong, Yun; Jia, Lihua; Wu, Jie; Xia, Juan; Wang, Juan; Hu, Qinchao; Cheng, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) development is a multistage process includes the normal, dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) stages. Recently, increasing evidence has suggested that the tumor microenvironment (TME) is an integral part of malignant transformation. Exploring certain key node genes in TME for future intervention in dysplasia to interrupt oral carcinogenesis was the primary goal of this research. To achieve this goal, systems biology approaches were first applied to the epithelia and fibroblasts collected at sequential stages in a 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) - induced rat oral carcinogenesis model. Through bioinformatics network construction, IL-1β was identified as one of the key node genes in TME during carcinogenesis. Immunohistochemical staining of human and rat samples demonstrated that IL-1β expression patterns were parallel to the stages of malignant transformation. Silencing IL-1β with lentivirus-delivered shRNA significantly inhibited oral squamous cell carcinoma cell growth both in vivo and in vitro. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that IL-1β may be a chemoprevention target in TME during oral carcinogenesis. Therefore, we targeted IL-1 in the TME by oral mucosal injection of an IL-1 receptor antagonist in 4NQO rats. The results demonstrated that targeting IL-1 could interrupt oral carcinogenesis by reprogramming the TME. PMID:26831400

  9. Co-Culture of Tumor Spheroids and Fibroblasts in a Collagen Matrix-Incorporated Microfluidic Chip Mimics Reciprocal Activation in Solid Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Su-Yeong; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Yoojin; Chung, Seok; Kuh, Hyo-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular 3D culture and interaction with stromal components are considered essential elements in establishing a ‘more clinically relevant’ tumor model. Matrix-embedded 3D cultures using a microfluidic chip platform can recapitulate the microscale interaction within tumor microenvironments. As a major component of tumor microenvironment, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a role in cancer progression and drug resistance. Here, we present a microfluidic chip-based tumor tissue culture model that integrates 3D tumor spheroids (TSs) with CAF in proximity within a hydrogel scaffold. HT-29 human colorectal carcinoma cells grew into 3D TSs and the growth was stimulated when co-cultured with fibroblasts as shown by 1.5-folds increase of % changes in diameter over 5 days. TS cultured for 6 days showed a reduced expression of Ki-67 along with increased expression of fibronectin when co-cultured with fibroblasts compared to mono-cultured TSs. Fibroblasts were activated under co-culture conditions, as demonstrated by increases in α-SMA expression and migratory activity. When exposed to paclitaxel, a survival advantage was observed in TSs co-cultured with activated fibroblasts. Overall, we demonstrated the reciprocal interaction between TSs and fibroblasts in our 7-channel microfluidic chip. The co-culture of 3D TS-CAF in a collagen matrix-incorporated microfluidic chip may be useful to study the tumor microenvironment and for evaluation of drug screening and evaluation. PMID:27391808

  10. Co-Culture of Tumor Spheroids and Fibroblasts in a Collagen Matrix-Incorporated Microfluidic Chip Mimics Reciprocal Activation in Solid Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Su-Yeong; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Yoojin; Chung, Seok; Kuh, Hyo-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular 3D culture and interaction with stromal components are considered essential elements in establishing a 'more clinically relevant' tumor model. Matrix-embedded 3D cultures using a microfluidic chip platform can recapitulate the microscale interaction within tumor microenvironments. As a major component of tumor microenvironment, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a role in cancer progression and drug resistance. Here, we present a microfluidic chip-based tumor tissue culture model that integrates 3D tumor spheroids (TSs) with CAF in proximity within a hydrogel scaffold. HT-29 human colorectal carcinoma cells grew into 3D TSs and the growth was stimulated when co-cultured with fibroblasts as shown by 1.5-folds increase of % changes in diameter over 5 days. TS cultured for 6 days showed a reduced expression of Ki-67 along with increased expression of fibronectin when co-cultured with fibroblasts compared to mono-cultured TSs. Fibroblasts were activated under co-culture conditions, as demonstrated by increases in α-SMA expression and migratory activity. When exposed to paclitaxel, a survival advantage was observed in TSs co-cultured with activated fibroblasts. Overall, we demonstrated the reciprocal interaction between TSs and fibroblasts in our 7-channel microfluidic chip. The co-culture of 3D TS-CAF in a collagen matrix-incorporated microfluidic chip may be useful to study the tumor microenvironment and for evaluation of drug screening and evaluation. PMID:27391808

  11. FGFR inhibitors: Effects on cancer cells, tumor microenvironment and whole-body homeostasis (Review).

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masaru

    2016-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2, FGF4, FGF7 and FGF20 are representative paracrine FGFs binding to heparan-sulfate proteoglycan and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), whereas FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23 are endocrine FGFs binding to Klotho and FGFRs. FGFR1 is relatively frequently amplified and overexpressed in breast and lung cancer, and FGFR2 in gastric cancer. BCR-FGFR1, CNTRL-FGFR1, CUX1-FGFR1, FGFR1OP-FGFR1, MYO18A-FGFR1 and ZMYM2-FGFR1 fusions in myeloproliferative neoplasms are non-receptor-type FGFR kinases, whereas FGFR1-TACC1, FGFR2-AFF3, FGFR2-BICC1, FGFR2-PPHLN1, FGFR3-BAIAP2L1 and FGFR3-TACC3 fusions in solid tumors are transmembrane-type FGFRs with C-terminal alterations. AZD4547, BGJ398 (infigratinib), Debio-1347 and dovitinib are FGFR1/2/3 inhibitors; BLU9931 is a selective FGFR4 inhibitor; FIIN-2, JNJ-42756493, LY2874455 and ponatinib are pan-FGFR inhibitors. AZD4547, dovitinib and ponatinib are multi-kinase inhibitors targeting FGFRs, colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)R2, and others. The tumor microenvironment consists of cancer cells and stromal/immune cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), endothelial cells, M2-type tumor-associating macrophages (M2-TAMs), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T cells. FGFR inhibitors elicit antitumor effects directly on cancer cells, as well as indirectly through the blockade of paracrine signaling. The dual inhibition of FGF and CSF1 or VEGF signaling is expected to enhance the antitumor effects through the targeting of immune evasion and angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment. Combination therapy using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (FGFR or CSF1R inhibitors) and immune checkpoint blockers (anti-PD-1 or anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies) may be a promising choice for cancer patients. The inhibition of FGF19-FGFR4 signaling is associated with a risk of liver toxicity, whereas the activation of FGF23-FGFR4 signaling

  12. Transcriptional control of melanoma metastasis: the importance of the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Braeuer, Russell R; Zigler, Maya; Villares, Gabriel J; Dobroff, Andrey S; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2011-04-01

    The molecular changes associated with the transition of melanoma cells from radial growth phase (RGP) to vertical growth phase (VGP) and the metastatic phenotype are not very well defined. However, some of the genes involved in this process and their transcriptional regulation are beginning to be elucidated. For example, the switch from RGP to VGP and the metastatic phenotype is associated with loss of the AP-2α transcription factor. AP-2α regulates the expression of c-KIT, MMP-2, VEGF, and the adhesion molecule MCAM/MUC18. Recently, we reported that AP-2α also regulates two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) PAR-1 and PAFR. In turn, the thrombin receptor, PAR-1, regulates the expression of the gap junction protein Connexin-43 and the tumor suppressor gene Maspin. Activation of PAR-1 also leads to overexpression and secretion of proangiogenic factors such as IL-8, uPA, VEGF, PDGF, as well certain integrins. PAR-1 also cooperates with PAFR to regulate the expression of the MCAM/MUC18 via phosphorylation of CREB. The ligands for these GPCRs, thrombin and PAF, are secreted by stromal cells, emphasizing the importance of the tumor microenvironment in melanoma metastasis. The metastatic phenotype of melanoma is also associated with overexpression and function of CREB/ATF-1. Loss of AP-2α and overexpression of CREB/ATF-1 results in the overexpression of MCAM/MUC18 which by itself contributes to melanoma metastasis by regulating the inhibitor of DNA binding-1 (Id-1). CREB/ATF-1 also regulates the angiogenic factor CYR-61. Our recent data indicate that CREB/ATF-1 regulates the expression of AP-2α, thus, supporting the notion that CREB is an important "master switch" in melanoma progression. PMID:21147226

  13. Transcriptional Control of Melanoma Metastasis: The Importance of the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Braeuer, Russell R.; Zigler, Maya; Villares, Gabriel J.; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2010-01-01

    The molecular changes associated with the transition of melanoma cells from radial growth phase (RGP) to vertical growth phase (VGP) and the metastatic phenotype are not very well defined. However, some of the genes involved in this process and their transcriptional regulation are beginning to be elucidated. For example, the switch from RGP to VGP and the metastatic phenotype is associated with loss of the AP-2α transcription factor. AP-2α regulates the expression of c-KIT, MMP-2, VEGF, and the adhesion molecule MCAM/MUC18. Recently, we reported that AP-2α also regulates two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) PAR-1 and PAFR. In turn, the thrombin receptor, PAR-1, regulates the expression of the gap junction protein Connexin-43 and the tumor suppressor gene Maspin. Activation of PAR-1 also leads to overexpression and secretion of proangiogenic factors such as IL-8, uPA, VEGF, PDGF, as well certain integrins. PAR-1 also cooperates with PAFR to regulate the expression of the MCAM/MUC18 via phosphorylation of CREB. The ligands for these GPCRs, thrombin and PAF, are secreted by stromal cells, emphasizing the importance of the tumor microenvironment in melanoma metastasis. The metastatic phenotype of melanoma is also associated with overexpression and function of CREB/ATF-1. Loss of AP-2α and overexpression of CREB/ATF-1 results in the overexpression of MCAM/MUC18 which by itself contributes to melanoma metastasis by regulating the inhibitor of DNA binding-1 (Id-1). CREB/ATF-1 also regulates the angiogenic factor CYR-61. Our recent data indicate that CREB/ATF-1 regulates the expression of AP-2α, thus, supporting the notion that CREB is an important “master switch” in melanoma progression. PMID:21147226

  14. NF-κB functions as a molecular link between tumor cells and Th1/Tc1 T cells in the tumor microenvironment to exert radiation-mediated tumor suppression.

    PubMed

    Simon, Priscilla S; Bardhan, Kankana; Chen, May R; Paschall, Amy V; Lu, Chunwan; Bollag, Roni J; Kong, Feng-Chong; Jin, JianYue; Kong, Feng-Ming; Waller, Jennifer L; Pollock, Raphael E; Liu, Kebin

    2016-04-26

    Radiation modulates both tumor cells and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment to exert its anti-tumor activity; however, the molecular connection between tumor cells and immune cells that mediates radiation-exerted tumor suppression activity in the tumor microenvironment is largely unknown. We report here that radiation induces rapid activation of the p65/p50 and p50/p50 NF-κB complexes in human soft tissue sarcoma (STS) cells. Radiation-activated p65/p50 and p50/p50 bind to the TNFα promoter to activate its transcription in STS cells. Radiation-induced TNFα induces tumor cell death in an autocrine manner. A sublethal dose of Smac mimetic BV6 induces cIAP1 and cIAP2 degradation to increase tumor cell sensitivity to radiation-induced cell death in vitro and to enhance radiation-mediated suppression of STS xenografts in vivo. Inhibition of caspases, RIP1, or RIP3 blocks radiation/TNFα-induced cell death, whereas inhibition of RIP1 blocks TNFα-induced caspase activation, suggesting that caspases and RIP1 act sequentially to mediate the non-compensatory cell death pathways. Furthermore, we determined in a syngeneic sarcoma mouse model that radiation up-regulates IRF3, IFNβ, and the T cell chemokines CCL2 and CCL5 in the tumor microenvironment, which are associated with activation and increased infiltration of Th1/Tc1 T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, tumor-infiltrating T cells are in their active form since both the perforin and FasL pathways are activated in irradiated tumor tissues. Consequently, combined BV6 and radiation completely suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Therefore, radiation-induced NF-κB functions as a molecular link between tumor cells and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment for radiation-mediated tumor suppression. PMID:27014915

  15. The second annual conference of International ovarian cancer consortium and the symposium on tumor microenvironment and therapeutic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Isidoro, Ciro; Song, Yong Sang; Surh, Young-Joon; Dhanasekaran, Danny N.

    2016-01-01

    The second Annual Meeting of the International Ovarian Cancer Consortium (IOCC) was held in conjunction with the Symposium on Tumor Microenvironment and Therapeutic Resistance at the Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and USA. A brief welcoming event along with the banquet on Aug 16th was followed by the eight thematic scientific sessions from August 16 to 18, 2015. Forty-three lectures, organized in eight sessions, were discussed in front of an audience of more than hundred attendees. Emphasis was put on oncogene signaling in cancer genesis and progression, new approaches in Precision Medicine and therapy of ovarian cancer, the role of tumor microenvironment in carcinogenesis, and preventive/curative potential of natural products. In this meeting-report, we highlight the findings and the perspectives in cancer biology and therapeutic strategies that emerged during the conference.

  16. CCL5/CCR5 axis induces vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated tumor angiogenesis in human osteosarcoma microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Wei; Liu, Shih-Chia; Sun, Hui-Lung; Huang, Te-Yang; Chan, Chia-Han; Yang, Chen-Yu; Yeh, Hung-I; Huang, Yuan-Li; Chou, Wen-Yi; Lin, Yu-Min; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines modulate angiogenesis and metastasis that dictate cancer development in tumor microenvironment. Osteosarcoma is the most frequent bone tumor and is characterized by a high metastatic potential. Chemokine CCL5 (previously called RANTES) has been reported to facilitate tumor progression and metastasis. However, the crosstalk between chemokine CCL5 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as tumor angiogenesis in human osteosarcoma microenvironment has not been well explored. In this study, we found that CCL5 increased VEGF expression and production in human osteosarcoma cells. The conditioned medium (CM) from CCL5-treated osteosarcoma cells significantly induced tube formation and migration of human endothelial progenitor cells. Pretreatment of cells with CCR5 antibody or transfection with CCR5 specific siRNA blocked CCL5-induced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. CCL5/CCR5 axis demonstrably activated protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), c-Src and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) signaling cascades to induce VEGF-dependent angiogenesis. Furthermore, knockdown of CCL5 suppressed VEGF expression and attenuated osteosarcoma CM-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. CCL5 knockdown dramatically abolished tumor growth and angiogenesis in the osteosarcoma xenograft animal model. Importantly, we demonstrated that the expression of CCL5 and VEGF were correlated with tumor stage according the immunohistochemistry analysis of human osteosarcoma tissues. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that CCL5/CCR5 axis promotes VEGF-dependent tumor angiogenesis in human osteosarcoma microenvironment through PKCδ/c-Src/HIF-1α signaling pathway. CCL5 may represent a potential therapeutic target against human osteosarcoma. PMID:25330803

  17. An Osteoblast-Derived Proteinase Controls Tumor Cell Survival via TGF-beta Activation in the Bone Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Thiolloy, Sophie; Edwards, James R.; Fingleton, Barbara; Rifkin, Daniel B.; Matrisian, Lynn M.; Lynch, Conor C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast to bone metastases frequently induce a “vicious cycle” in which osteoclast mediated bone resorption and proteolysis results in the release of bone matrix sequestered factors that drive tumor growth. While osteoclasts express numerous proteinases, analysis of human breast to bone metastases unexpectedly revealed that bone forming osteoblasts were consistently positive for the proteinase, MMP-2. Given the role of MMP-2 in extracellular matrix degradation and growth factor/cytokine processing, we tested whether osteoblast derived MMP-2 contributed to the vicious cycle of tumor progression in the bone microenvironment. Methodology/Principal Findings To test our hypothesis, we utilized murine models of the osteolytic tumor-bone microenvironment in immunocompetent wild type and MMP-2 null mice. In longitudinal studies, we found that host MMP-2 significantly contributed to tumor progression in bone by protecting against apoptosis and promoting cancer cell survival (caspase-3; immunohistochemistry). Our data also indicate that host MMP-2 contributes to tumor induced osteolysis (μCT, histomorphometry). Further ex vivo/in vitro experiments with wild type and MMP-2 null osteoclast and osteoblast cultures identified that 1) the absence of MMP-2 did not have a deleterious effect on osteoclast function (cd11B isolation, osteoclast differentiation, transwell migration and dentin resorption assay); and 2) that osteoblast derived MMP-2 promoted tumor survival by regulating the bioavailability of TGFβ, a factor critical for cell-cell communication in the bone (ELISA, immunoblot assay, clonal and soft agar assays). Conclusion/Significance Collectively, these studies identify a novel “mini-vicious cycle” between the osteoblast and metastatic cancer cells that is key for initial tumor survival in the bone microenvironment. In conclusion, the findings of our study suggest that the targeted inhibition of MMP-2 and/or TGFβ would be beneficial for the treatment

  18. Improved Methods to Generate Spheroid Cultures from Tumor Cells, Tumor Cells & Fibroblasts or Tumor-Fragments: Microenvironment, Microvesicles and MiRNA

    PubMed Central

    Lao, Zheng; Kelly, Catherine J.; Yang, Xiang-Yang; Jenkins, W. Timothy; Toorens, Erik; Ganguly, Tapan; Evans, Sydney M.; Koch, Cameron J.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic and prognostic indicators are key components to achieve the goal of personalized cancer therapy. Two distinct approaches to this goal include predicting response by genetic analysis and direct testing of possible therapies using cultures derived from biopsy specimens. Optimally, the latter method requires a rapid assessment, but growing xenograft tumors or developing patient-derived cell lines can involve a great deal of time and expense. Furthermore, tumor cells have much different responses when grown in 2D versus 3D tissue environments. Using a modification of existing methods, we show that it is possible to make tumor-fragment (TF) spheroids in only 2–3 days. TF spheroids appear to closely model characteristics of the original tumor and may be used to assess critical therapy-modulating features of the microenvironment such as hypoxia. A similar method allows the reproducible development of spheroids from mixed tumor cells and fibroblasts (mixed-cell spheroids). Prior literature reports have shown highly variable development and properties of mixed-cell spheroids and this has hampered the detailed study of how individual tumor-cell components interact. In this study, we illustrate this approach and describe similarities and differences using two tumor models (U87 glioma and SQ20B squamous-cell carcinoma) with supporting data from additional cell lines. We show that U87 and SQ20B spheroids predict a key microenvironmental factor in tumors (hypoxia) and that SQ20B cells and spheroids generate similar numbers of microvesicles. We also present pilot data for miRNA expression under conditions of cells, tumors, and TF spheroids. PMID:26208323

  19. DNA damage induces GDNF secretion in the tumor microenvironment with paracrine effects promoting prostate cancer treatment resistance

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Roland M.; Lucas, Jared M.; Gomez-Sarosi, Luis A.; Coleman, Ilsa; Zhao, Song; Coleman, Roger; Nelson, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Though metastatic cancers often initially respond to genotoxic therapeutics, acquired resistance is common. In addition to cytotoxic effects on tumor cells, DNA damaging agents such as ionizing radiation and chemotherapy induce injury in benign cells of the tumor microenvironment resulting in the production of paracrine-acting factors capable of promoting tumor resistance phenotypes. In studies designed to characterize the responses of prostate and bone stromal cells to genotoxic stress, we found that transcripts encoding glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) increased several fold following exposures to cytotoxic agents including radiation, the topoisomerase inhibitor mitoxantrone and the microtubule poison docetaxel. Fibroblast GDNF exerted paracrine effects toward prostate cancer cells resulting in enhanced tumor cell proliferation and invasion, and these effects were concordant with the expression of known GDNF receptors GFRA1 and RET. Exposure to GDNF also induced tumor cell resistance to mitoxantrone and docetaxel chemotherapy. Together, these findings support an important role for tumor microenvironment damage responses in modulating treatment resistance and identify the GDNF signaling pathway as a potential target for improving responses to conventional genotoxic therapeutics. PMID:25575823

  20. Oncogenes and inflammation rewire host energy metabolism in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Curry, Joseph M; Ko, Ying-Hui; Lin, Zhao; Tuluc, Madalina; Cognetti, David; Birbe, Ruth C; Pribitkin, Edmund; Bombonati, Alessandro; Pestell, Richard G; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Here, we developed a model system to evaluate the metabolic effects of oncogene(s) on the host microenvironment. A matched set of “normal” and oncogenically transformed epithelial cell lines were co-cultured with human fibroblasts, to determine the “bystander” effects of oncogenes on stromal cells. ROS production and glucose uptake were measured by FACS analysis. In addition, expression of a panel of metabolic protein biomarkers (Caveolin-1, MCT1, and MCT4) was analyzed in parallel. Interestingly, oncogene activation in cancer cells was sufficient to induce the metabolic reprogramming of cancer-associated fibroblasts toward glycolysis, via oxidative stress. Evidence for “metabolic symbiosis” between oxidative cancer cells and glycolytic fibroblasts was provided by MCT1/4 immunostaining. As such, oncogenes drive the establishment of a stromal-epithelial “lactate-shuttle”, to fuel the anabolic growth of cancer cells. Similar results were obtained with two divergent oncogenes (RAS and NFκB), indicating that ROS production and inflammation metabolically converge on the tumor stroma, driving glycolysis and upregulation of MCT4. These findings make stromal MCT4 an attractive target for new drug discovery, as MCT4 is a shared endpoint for the metabolic effects of many oncogenic stimuli. Thus, diverse oncogenes stimulate a common metabolic response in the tumor stroma. Conversely, we also show that fibroblasts protect cancer cells against oncogenic stress and senescence by reducing ROS production in tumor cells. Ras-transformed cells were also able to metabolically reprogram normal adjacent epithelia, indicating that cancer cells can use either fibroblasts or epithelial cells as “partners” for metabolic symbiosis. The antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) selectively halted mitochondrial biogenesis in Ras-transformed cells, but not in normal epithelia. NAC also blocked stromal induction of MCT4, indicating that NAC effectively functions as an “MCT4

  1. Fumaric acid microenvironment tablet formulation and process development for crystalline cenicriviroc mesylate, a BCS IV compound.

    PubMed

    Menning, Mark M; Dalziel, Sean M

    2013-11-01

    Cenicriviroc mesylate (CVC) is a potent dual antagonist of C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) in phase 2b development as an entry inhibitor for HIV-1 infection treatment.1,2 CVC is a weak base exhibiting BCS IV characteristics with a highly pH dependent solubility profile (>100 mg/mL for pH < 2 and <0.2 μg/mL for pH > 4) and low Caco-2 cell line permeability. Previous tablet formulations of CVC, including spray-dried dispersion and a wet granulation with citric acid, had been found unacceptable for commercial use due to chemical and physical instability or unacceptably high excipient loading precluding fixed-dose combinability. A high drug loading, 26% (w/w), acidic microenvironment tablet formulation with fumaric acid solubilizer (1:1 CVC/fumaric acid) and a dry granulation process was developed iteratively through a sequence of prototypes characterized by beagle dog absorption studies, focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), and accelerated stability testing. The fumaric acid based dry granulated product demonstrated a mean bioavailability comparable to an oral solution dose in a dog model. Stability and moisture sensitivity of the formulation were improved via the dry granulation process technique and the use of fumaric acid. It is hypothesized that the observed slow dissolution kinetics of fumaric acid prolongs an acidic microenvironment around the agglomerated CVC crystals and excipients leading to increased CVC dissolution and thereby absorption. The fumaric acid formulation also demonstrated absorption resilience to gastric pH extremes in a dog model. This optimized formulation and process enables CVC to be a viable candidate for current HIV treatment paradigms of single once daily fixed-dose combination products. PMID:23941629

  2. Ovarian Tumor Attachment, Invasion, and Vascularization Reflect Unique Microenvironments in the Peritoneum: Insights from Xenograft and Mathematical Models

    PubMed Central

    Steinkamp, Mara P.; Winner, Kimberly Kanigel; Davies, Suzy; Muller, Carolyn; Zhang, Yong; Hoffman, Robert M.; Shirinifard, Abbas; Moses, Melanie; Jiang, Yi; Wilson, Bridget S.

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer relapse is often characterized by metastatic spread throughout the peritoneal cavity with tumors attached to multiple organs. In this study, interaction of ovarian cancer cells with the peritoneal tumor microenvironment was evaluated in a xenograft model based on intraperitoneal injection of fluorescent SKOV3.ip1 ovarian cancer cells. Intra-vital microscopy of mixed GFP-red fluorescent protein (RFP) cell populations injected into the peritoneum demonstrated that cancer cells aggregate and attach as mixed spheroids, emphasizing the importance of homotypic adhesion in tumor formation. Electron microscopy provided high resolution structural information about local attachment sites. Experimental measurements from the mouse model were used to build a three-dimensional cellular Potts ovarian tumor model (OvTM) that examines ovarian cancer cell attachment, chemotaxis, growth, and vascularization. OvTM simulations provide insight into the relative influence of cancer cell–cell adhesion, oxygen availability, and local architecture on tumor growth and morphology. Notably, tumors on the mesentery, omentum, or spleen readily invade the “open” architecture, while tumors attached to the gut encounter barriers that restrict invasion and instead rapidly expand into the peritoneal space. Simulations suggest that rapid neovascularization of SKOV3.ip1 tumors is triggered by constitutive release of angiogenic factors in the absence of hypoxia. This research highlights the importance of cellular adhesion and tumor microenvironment in the seeding of secondary ovarian tumors on diverse organs within the peritoneal cavity. Results of the OvTM simulations indicate that invasion is strongly influenced by features underlying the mesothelial lining at different sites, but is also affected by local production of chemotactic factors. The integrated in vivo mouse model and computer simulations provide a unique platform for evaluating targeted therapies for ovarian cancer

  3. Modulation of Acid Sphingomyelinase in Melanoma Reprogrammes the Tumour Immune Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Assi, Emma; Cervia, Davide; Bizzozero, Laura; Capobianco, Annalisa; Pambianco, Sarah; Morisi, Federica; De Palma, Clara; Moscheni, Claudia; Pellegrino, Paolo; Clementi, Emilio; Perrotta, Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory microenvironment induces tumours to acquire an aggressive and immunosuppressive behaviour. Since acid sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) downregulation in melanoma was shown to determine a malignant phenotype, we aimed here to elucidate the role of A-SMase in the regulation of tumour immunogenic microenvironment using in vivo melanoma models in which A-SMase was either downregulated or maintained at constitutively high levels. We found high levels of inflammatory factors in low A-SMase expressing tumours, which also displayed an immunosuppressive/protumoural microenvironment: high levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs), as well as low levels of dendritic cells (DCs). In contrast, the restoration of A-SMase in melanoma cells not only reduced tumour growth and immunosuppression, but also induced a high recruitment at tumour site of effector immune cells with an antitumoural function. Indeed, we observed a poor homing of MDSCs and Tregs and the increased recruitment of CD8(+) and CD4(+) T lymphocytes as well as the infiltration of DCs and CD8(+)/CD44(high) T lymphocytes. This study demonstrates that change of A-SMase expression in cancer cells is sufficient per se to tune in vivo melanoma growth and that A-SMase levels modulate immune cells at tumour site. This may be taken into consideration in the setting of therapeutic strategies. PMID:26101462

  4. Reciprocal cellular cross-talk within the tumor microenvironment promotes oncolytic virus activity.

    PubMed

    Ilkow, Carolina S; Marguerie, Monique; Batenchuk, Cory; Mayer, Justin; Ben Neriah, Daniela; Cousineau, Sophie; Falls, Theresa; Jennings, Victoria A; Boileau, Meaghan; Bellamy, David; Bastin, Donald; de Souza, Christiano Tanese; Alkayyal, Almohanad; Zhang, Jiqing; Le Boeuf, Fabrice; Arulanandam, Rozanne; Stubbert, Lawton; Sampath, Padma; Thorne, Steve H; Paramanthan, Piriya; Chatterjee, Avijit; Strieter, Robert M; Burdick, Marie; Addison, Christina L; Stojdl, David F; Atkins, Harold L; Auer, Rebecca C; Diallo, Jean-Simon; Lichty, Brian D; Bell, John C

    2015-05-01

    Tumors are complex ecosystems composed of networks of interacting 'normal' and malignant cells. It is well recognized that cytokine-mediated cross-talk between normal stromal cells, including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), vascular endothelial cells, immune cells, and cancer cells, influences all aspects of tumor biology. Here we demonstrate that the cross-talk between CAFs and cancer cells leads to enhanced growth of oncolytic virus (OV)-based therapeutics. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) produced by tumor cells reprogrammed CAFs, dampened their steady-state level of antiviral transcripts and rendered them sensitive to virus infection. In turn, CAFs produced high levels of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), initiating a signaling cascade in cancer cells that reduced retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) expression and impeded the ability of malignant cells to detect and respond to virus. In xenografts derived from individuals with pancreatic cancer, the expression of FGF2 correlated with the susceptibility of the cancer cells to OV infection, and local application of FGF2 to resistant tumor samples sensitized them to virotherapy both in vitro and in vivo. An OV engineered to express FGF2 was safe in tumor-bearing mice, showed improved therapeutic efficacy compared to parental virus and merits consideration for clinical testing. PMID:25894825

  5. HIF-1α inhibition blocks the cross talk between multiple myeloma plasma cells and tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Borsi, Enrica; Perrone, Giulia; Terragna, Carolina; Martello, Marina; Zamagni, Elena; Tacchetti, Paola; Pantani, Lucia; Brioli, Annamaria; Dico, Angela Flores; Zannetti, Beatrice Anna; Rocchi, Serena; Cavo, Michele

    2014-11-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant disorder of post-germinal center B cells, characterized by the clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells (PCs) within the bone marrow (BM). The reciprocal and complex interactions that take place between the different compartments of BM and the MM cells result in tumor growth, angiogenesis, bone disease, and drug resistance. Given the importance of the BM microenvironment in MM pathogenesis, we investigated the possible involvement of Hypoxia-Inducible transcription Factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) in the PCs-bone marrow stromal cells interplay. To test this hypothesis, we used EZN-2968, a 3rd generation antisense oligonucleotide against HIF-1α, to inhibit HIF-1α functions. Herein, we provide evidence that the interaction between MM cells and BM stromal cells is drastically reduced upon HIF-1α down-modulation. Notably, we showed that upon exposure to HIF-1α inhibitor, neither the incubation with IL-6 nor the co-culture with BM stromal cells were able to revert the anti-proliferative effect induced by EZN-2968. Moreover, we observed a down-modulation of cytokine-induced signaling cascades and a reduction of MM cells adhesion capability to the extracellular matrix proteins in EZN-2968-treated samples. Taken together, these results strongly support the concept that HIF-1α plays a critical role in the interactions between bone BM cells and PCs in Multiple Myeloma. - Highlights: • HIF-1α inhibition induces a mild apoptotic cell death. • Down-modulation of cytokine-induced signaling cascades upon HIF-1α inhibition. • Reduced interaction between MM cells and BMSCs upon HIF-1α down-modulation. • Reduced PCs adhesion to the extracellular matrix protein induced by EZN-2968. • HIF-1α inhibition may be an attractive therapeutic strategy for Multiple Myeloma.

  6. Co-culture with podoplanin+ cells protects leukemic blast cells with leukemia-associated antigens in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    LEE, JI YOON; HAN, A-REUM; LEE, SUNG-EUN; MIN, WOO-SUNG; KIM, HEE-JE

    2016-01-01

    Podoplanin+ cells are indispensable in the tumor microenvironment. Increasing evidence suggests that podoplanin may support the growth and metastasis of solid tumors; however, to the best of our knowledge no studies have determined whether or not podoplanin serves a supportive role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The effects of co-culture with podoplanin+ cells on the cellular activities of the leukemic cells, such as apoptosis and cell proliferation, in addition to the expression of podoplanin in leukemic cells, were investigated. Due to the fact that genetic abnormalities are the primary cause of leukemogenesis, the overexpression of the fibromyalgia-like tyrosine kinase-3 gene in colony forming units was also examined following cell sorting. Podoplanin+ cells were found to play a protective role against apoptosis in leukemic cells and to promote cell proliferation. Tumor-associated antigens, including Wilms' tumor gene 1 and survivin, were increased when leukemic cells were co-cultured with podoplanin+ cells. In combination, the present results also suggest that podoplanin+ cells can function as stromal cells for blast cell retention in the AML tumor microenvironment. PMID:27035421

  7. Pomalidomide Shows Significant Therapeutic Activity against CNS Lymphoma with a Major Impact on the Tumor Microenvironment in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhimin; Qiu, Yushi; Personett, David; Huang, Peng; Edenfield, Brandy; Katz, Jason; Babusis, Darius; Tang, Yang; Shirely, Michael A.; Moghaddam, Mehran F.; Copland, John A.; Tun, Han W.

    2013-01-01

    Primary CNS lymphoma carries a poor prognosis. Novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Pomalidomide (POM) is a novel immunomodulatory drug with anti-lymphoma activity. CNS pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in rats to assess the CNS penetration of POM. Preclinical evaluation of POM was performed in two murine models to assess its therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma. The impact of POM on the CNS lymphoma immune microenvironment was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. In vitro cell culture experiments were carried out to further investigate the impact of POM on the biology of macrophages. POM crosses the blood brain barrier with CNS penetration of ~ 39%. Preclinical evaluations showed that it had significant therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma with significant reduction in tumor growth rate and prolongation of survival, that it had a major impact on the tumor microenvironment with an increase in macrophages and natural killer cells, and that it decreased M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages and increased M1-polarized macrophages when macrophages were evaluated based on polarization status. In vitro studies using various macrophage models showed that POM converted the polarization status of IL4-stimulated macrophages from M2 to M1, that M2 to M1 conversion by POM in the polarization status of lymphoma-associated macrophages is dependent on the presence of NK cells, that POM induced M2 to M1 conversion in the polarization of macrophages by inactivating STAT6 signaling and activating STAT1 signaling, and that POM functionally increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Based on our findings, POM is a promising therapeutic agent for CNS lymphoma with excellent CNS penetration, significant preclinical therapeutic activity, and a major impact on the tumor microenvironment. It can induce significant biological changes in tumor-associated macrophages, which likely play a major role in its therapeutic activity against CNS

  8. Deletion of 5-Lipoxygenase in the Tumor Microenvironment Promotes Lung Cancer Progression and Metastasis through Regulating T Cell Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Poczobutt, Joanna M; Nguyen, Teresa T; Hanson, Dwight; Li, Howard; Sippel, Trisha R; Weiser-Evans, Mary C M; Gijon, Miguel; Murphy, Robert C; Nemenoff, Raphael A

    2016-01-15

    Eicosanoids, including PGs, produced by cyclooxygenases (COX), and leukotrienes, produced by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) have been implicated in cancer progression. These molecules are produced by both cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME). We previously reported that both COX and 5-LO metabolites increase during progression in an orthotopic immunocompetent model of lung cancer. Although PGs in the TME have been well studied, less is known regarding 5-LO products produced by the TME. We examined the role of 5-LO in the TME using a model in which Lewis lung carcinoma cells are directly implanted into the lungs of syngeneic WT mice or mice globally deficient in 5-LO (5-LO-KO). Unexpectedly, primary tumor volume and liver metastases were increased in 5-LO-KO mice. This was associated with an ablation of leukotriene (LT) production, consistent with production mainly mediated by the microenvironment. Increased tumor progression was partially reproduced in global LTC4 synthase KO or mice transplanted with LTA4 hydrolase-deficient bone marrow. Tumor-bearing lungs of 5-LO-KO had decreased numbers of CD4 and CD8 T cells compared with WT controls, as well as fewer dendritic cells. This was associated with lower levels of CCL20 and CXL9, which have been implicated in dendritic and T cell recruitment. Depletion of CD8 cells increased tumor growth and eliminated the differences between WT and 5-LO mice. These data reveal an antitumorigenic role for 5-LO products in the microenvironment during lung cancer progression through regulation of T cells and suggest that caution should be used in targeting this pathway in lung cancer. PMID:26663781

  9. Deletion of 5-Lipoxygenase in the Tumor Microenvironment Promotes Lung Cancer Progression and Metastasis through Regulating T Cell Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Poczobutt, Joanna M.; Nguyen, Teresa T.; Hanson, Dwight; Li, Howard; Sippel, Trisha R.; Weiser-Evans, Mary C. M.; Gijon, Miguel; Murphy, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids, including PGs, produced by cyclooxygenases (COX), and leukotrienes, produced by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) have been implicated in cancer progression. These molecules are produced by both cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME). We previously reported that both COX and 5-LO metabolites increase during progression in an orthotopic immunocompetent model of lung cancer. Although PGs in the TME have been well studied, less is known regarding 5-LO products produced by the TME. We examined the role of 5-LO in the TME using a model in which Lewis lung carcinoma cells are directly implanted into the lungs of syngeneic WT mice or mice globally deficient in 5-LO (5-LO-KO). Unexpectedly, primary tumor volume and liver metastases were increased in 5-LO-KO mice. This was associated with an ablation of leukotriene (LT) production, consistent with production mainly mediated by the microenvironment. Increased tumor progression was partially reproduced in global LTC4 synthase KO or mice transplanted with LTA4 hydrolase-deficient bone marrow. Tumor-bearing lungs of 5-LO-KO had decreased numbers of CD4 and CD8 T cells compared with WT controls, as well as fewer dendritic cells. This was associated with lower levels of CCL20 and CXL9, which have been implicated in dendritic and T cell recruitment. Depletion of CD8 cells increased tumor growth and eliminated the differences between WT and 5-LO mice. These data reveal an antitumorigenic role for 5-LO products in the microenvironment during lung cancer progression through regulation of T cells and suggest that caution should be used in targeting this pathway in lung cancer. PMID:26663781

  10. Inhibition of A20 expression in tumor microenvironment exerts anti-tumor effect through inducing myeloid-derived suppressor cells apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Bin; Wei, Xiawei; Luo, Min; Yu, Jiayun; Tong, Aiping; Ma, Xuelei; Ye, Tinghong; Deng, Hongxin; Sang, Yaxiong; Liang, Xiao; Ma, Yu; Wu, Qinjie; Du, Wei; Du, Jing; Gao, Xiang; Wen, Yi; Fu, Ping; Shi, Huashan; Luo, Shuntao; Wei, Yuquan

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are known to play important roles in the development of immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. A20 is a zinc-finger protein which could negatively regulate apoptosis in several cell types. However, the role of A20 in tumor microenvironment remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that A20 was over-expressed in MDSCs. The treatment of tumor-bearing mice with small interfering RNA targeting A20 (si-A20) inhibited the growth of tumors. The infiltration of MDSCs was dramatically reduced after si-A20 treatment, as compared to control groups, whereas the numbers of dendritic cells and macrophages were not affected. Also, injection of si-A20 improved T cell mediated tumor-specific immune response. Depletion of MDSCs with anti-Gr1 antibody showed similar antitumor effect and improved T cell response. TNF-α was highly expressed after si-A20 injection. Furthermore, si-A20 induced apoptosis of MDSCs in the presence of TNF-α both in vivo and in vitro. Cleaved Caspase-3 and Caspase-8 were elevated with the activation of JNK pathway after the induction of MDSC apoptosis by si-A20. Thus, our findings suggested that knockdown of A20 in tumor site inhibited tumor growth at least through inducing the apoptosis of MDSCs. A20 might be a potential target in anticancer therapy. PMID:26561336

  11. STAT3 Establishes an Immunosuppressive Microenvironment during the Early Stages of Breast Carcinogenesis to Promote Tumor Growth and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Laura M; Broz, Miranda L; Ranger, Jill J; Ozcelik, John; Ahn, Ryuhjin; Zuo, Dongmei; Ursini-Siegel, Josie; Hallett, Michael T; Krummel, Matthew; Muller, William J

    2016-03-15

    Immunosurveillance constitutes the first step of cancer immunoediting in which developing malignant lesions are eliminated by antitumorigenic immune cells. However, the mechanisms by which neoplastic cells induce an immunosuppressive state to evade the immune response are still unclear. The transcription factor STAT3 has been implicated in breast carcinogenesis and tumor immunosuppression in advanced disease, but its involvement in early disease development has not been established. Here, we genetically ablated Stat3 in the tumor epithelia of the inducible PyVmT mammary tumor model and found that Stat3-deficient mice recapitulated the three phases of immunoediting: elimination, equilibrium, and escape. Pathologic analyses revealed that Stat3-deficient mice initially formed hyperplastic and early adenoma-like lesions that later completely regressed, thereby preventing the emergence of mammary tumors in the majority of animals. Furthermore, tumor regression was correlated with massive immune infiltration into the Stat3-deficient lesions, leading to their elimination. In a minority of animals, focal, nonmetastatic Stat3-deficient mammary tumors escaped immune surveillance after a long latency or equilibrium period. Taken together, our findings suggest that tumor epithelial expression of Stat3 plays a critical role in promoting an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment during breast tumor initiation and progression, and prompt further investigation of Stat3-inhibitory strategies that may reactivate the immunosurveillance program. PMID:26719528

  12. Hypoxic Tumor Cell Modulates Its Microenvironment to Enhance Angiogenic and Metastatic Potential by Secretion of Proteins and Exosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Eun; Tan, Hon Sen; Datta, Arnab; Lai, Ruenn Chai; Zhang, Huoming; Meng, Wei; Lim, Sai Kiang; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2010-01-01

    Under hypoxia, tumor cells produce a secretion that modulates their microenvironment to facilitate tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Here, we observed that hypoxic or reoxygenated A431 carcinoma cells exhibited enhanced angiogenic and metastatic potential such as reduced cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, increased invasiveness, and production of a secretion with increased chorioallantoic membrane angiogenic activity. Consistent with these observations, quantitative proteomics revealed that under hypoxia the tumor cells secreted proteins involved in angiogenesis, focal adhesion, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, and immune cell recruitment. Unexpectedly, the secreted proteins were predominantly cytoplasmic and membrane proteins. Ultracentrifugation at 100,000 × g precipitated 54% of the secreted proteins and enriched for many exosome-associated proteins such as the tetraspanins and Alix and also proteins with the potential to facilitate angiogenesis and metastasis. Two tetraspanins, CD9 and CD81, co-immunoprecipitated. Together, these data suggested that tumor cells secrete proteins and exosomes with the potential to modulate their microenvironment and facilitate angiogenesis and metastasis. PMID:20124223

  13. Tumor Microenvironment Remodeling by 4-Methylumbelliferone Boosts the Antitumor Effect of Combined Immunotherapy in Murine Colorectal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Malvicini, Mariana; Fiore, Esteban; Ghiaccio, Valentina; Piccioni, Flavia; Rizzo, Miguel; Olmedo Bonadeo, Lucila; García, Mariana; Rodríguez, Marcelo; Bayo, Juan; Peixoto, Estanislao; Atorrasagasti, Catalina; Alaniz, Laura; Aquino, Jorge; Matar, Pablo; Mazzolini, Guillermo

    2015-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated that a low dose of cyclophosphamide (Cy) combined with gene therapy of interleukin-12 (AdIL-12) has a synergistic, although limited, antitumoral effect in mice with colorectal carcinoma. The main mechanism involved in the efficacy of Cy+AdIL-12 was the induction of a specific immune response mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Our current aims were to evaluate the effects of 4-methylumbelliferone (4Mu), a selective inhibitor of hyaluronan (HA) synthesis, on tumor microenvironment (TME) and to investigate how 4Mu affects the therapeutic efficacy of Cy+AdIL-12. The results showed that 4Mu significantly reduced the amount of tumoral HA leading to a significant decrease in tumor interstitial pressure (TIP). As a consequence, tumor perfusion was improved allowing an increased adenoviral transgene expression. In addition, treatment with 4Mu boosted the number of cytotoxic T lymphocytes that reach the tumor after adoptive transfer resulting in a potent inhibition of tumor growth. Importantly, we observed complete tumor regression in 75% of mice when 4Mu was administrated in combination with Cy+AdIL-12. The triple combination 4Mu+Cy+AdIL-12 also induced a shift toward antiangiogenic factors production in tumor milieu. Our results showed that TME remodeling is an interesting strategy to increase the efficacy of anticancer immunotherapies based on gene and/or cell therapy. PMID:26105158

  14. Inorganic Arsenic–Related Changes in the Stromal Tumor Microenvironment in a Prostate Cancer Cell–Conditioned Media Model

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Joseph J.; Wold, Eric A.; Umbaugh, Charles S.; Lichti, Cheryl F.; Nilsson, Carol L.; Figueiredo, Marxa L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in the progression of cancer by mediating stromal–epithelial paracrine signaling, which can aberrantly modulate cellular proliferation and tumorigenesis. Exposure to environmental toxicants, such as inorganic arsenic (iAs), has also been implicated in the progression of prostate cancer. Objective: The role of iAs exposure in stromal signaling in the tumor microenvironment has been largely unexplored. Our objective was to elucidate molecular mechanisms of iAs-induced changes to stromal signaling by an enriched prostate tumor microenvironment cell population, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (ASCs). Results: ASC-conditioned media (CM) collected after 1 week of iAs exposure increased prostate cancer cell viability, whereas CM from ASCs that received no iAs exposure decreased cell viability. Cytokine array analysis suggested changes to cytokine signaling associated with iAs exposure. Subsequent proteomic analysis suggested a concentration-dependent alteration to the HMOX1/THBS1/TGFβ signaling pathway by iAs. These results were validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, confirming a concentration-dependent increase in HMOX1 and a decrease in THBS1 expression in ASC following iAs exposure. Subsequently, we used a TGFβ pathway reporter construct to confirm a decrease in stromal TGFβ signaling in ASC following iAs exposure. Conclusions: Our results suggest a concentration-dependent alteration of stromal signaling: specifically, attenuation of stromal-mediated TGFβ signaling following exposure to iAs. Our results indicate iAs may enhance prostate cancer cell viability through a previously unreported stromal-based mechanism. These findings indicate that the stroma may mediate the effects of iAs in tumor progression, which may have future therapeutic implications. Citation: Shearer JJ, Wold EA, Umbaugh CS, Lichti CF, Nilsson CL

  15. Systemic Inflammation, Nutritional Status and Tumor Immune Microenvironment Determine Outcome of Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alifano, Marco; Mansuet-Lupo, Audrey; Lococo, Filippo; Roche, Nicolas; Bobbio, Antonio; Canny, Emelyne; Schussler, Olivier; Dermine, Hervé; Régnard, Jean-François; Burroni, Barbara; Goc, Jérémy; Biton, Jérôme; Ouakrim, Hanane; Cremer, Isabelle; Dieu-Nosjean, Marie-Caroline; Damotte, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypothesizing that nutritional status, systemic inflammation and tumoral immune microenvironment play a role as determinants of lung cancer evolution, the purpose of this study was to assess their respective impact on long-term survival in resected non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Methods and Findings Clinical, pathological and laboratory data of 303 patients surgically treated for NSCLC were retrospectively analyzed. C-reactive protein (CRP) and prealbumin levels were recorded, and tumoral infiltration by CD8+ lymphocytes and mature dendritic cells was assessed. We observed that factors related to nutritional status, systemic inflammation and tumoral immune microenvironment were correlated; significant correlations were also found between these factors and other relevant clinical-pathological parameters. With respect to outcome, at univariate analysis we found statistically significant associations between survival and the following variables: Karnofsky index, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, CRP levels, prealbumin concentrations, extent of resection, pathologic stage, pT and pN parameters, presence of vascular emboli, and tumoral infiltration by either CD8+ lymphocytes or mature dendritic cells and, among adenocarcinoma type, tumor grade (all p<0.05). In multivariate analysis, prealbumin levels (Relative Risk (RR): 0.34 [0.16–0.73], p = 0.0056), CD8+ cell count in tumor tissue (RR = 0.37 [0.16–0.83], p = 0.0162), and disease stage (RR 1.73 [1.03–2.89]; 2.99[1.07–8.37], p = 0.0374- stage I vs II vs III-IV) were independent prognostic markers. When taken together, parameters related to systemic inflammation, nutrition and tumoral immune microenvironment allowed robust prognostic discrimination; indeed patients with undetectable CRP, high (>285 mg/L) prealbumin levels and high (>96/mm2) CD8+ cell count had a 5-year survival rate of 80% [60.9–91.1] as compared to 18% [7.9–35.6] in patients with an opposite

  16. Protonation and Trapping of a Small pH-Sensitive Near-Infrared Fluorescent Molecule in the Acidic Tumor Environment Delineate Diverse Tumors in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Rebecca C; Tang, Rui; Som, Avik; Klajer, Chloe; Sarder, Pinaki; Sudlow, Gail P; Akers, Walter J; Achilefu, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Enhanced glycolysis and poor perfusion in most solid malignant tumors create an acidic extracellular environment, which enhances tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Complex molecular systems have been explored for imaging and treating these tumors. Here, we report the development of a small molecule, LS662, that emits near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence upon protonation by the extracellular acidic pH environment of diverse solid tumors. Protonation of LS662 induces selective internalization into tumor cells and retention in the tumor microenvironment. Noninvasive NIR imaging demonstrates selective retention of the pH sensor in diverse tumors, and two-photon microscopy of ex vivo tumors reveals significant retention of LS662 in tumor cells and the acid tumor microenvironment. Passive and active internalization processes combine to enhance NIR fluorescence in tumors over time. The low background fluorescence allows tumors to be detected with high sensitivity, as well as dead or dying cells to be delineated from healthy cells. In addition to demonstrating the feasibility of using small molecule pH sensors to image multiple aggressive solid tumor types via a protonation-induced internalization and retention pathway, the study reveals the potential of using LS662 to monitor treatment response and tumor-targeted drug delivery. PMID:26488921

  17. Loss of Stromal Caveolin-1 Expression: A Novel Tumor Microenvironment Biomarker That Can Predict Poor Clinical Outcomes for Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Tao; Lu, Hongwei; Ji, Hong; Li, Yiming; Guo, Jian; Chen, Xi; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Aims Cancer development and progression is not only associated with the tumor cell proliferation but also depends on the interaction between tumor cells and the stromal microenvironment. A new understanding of the role of the tumor microenvironment suggests that the loss of stromal caveolin-1 (Cav-1) as a key regulator may become a potential therapy target. This study aims to elucidate whether stromal Cav-1 expression in pancreatic cancer can be a strong prognosis biomarker. Methods Tissue samples from 45 pancreatic cancer patients were studied. Parenchyma and stroma were separated and purified using laser capture microdissection. Stromal Cav-1 expression was measured from pancreatic cancer, paraneoplastic, and normal tissue using immunohistochemistry. We analyzed the correlation of stromal Cav-1 expression with clinicopathologic features and prognostic indicators, such as tumor marker HER-2/neu gene. Results Specimens from six patients (13.3%) showed high levels of stromal Cav-1 staining, those from eight patients (17.8%) showed a lower, intermediate level of staining, whereas those from 31 patients (68.9%) showed an absence of staining. Cav-1 expression in cancer-associated fibroblasts was lower than that in paracancer-associated and in normal fibroblasts. Stromal Cav-1 loss was associated with TNM stage (P = 0.018), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.014), distant metastasis (P = 0.027), and HER-2/neu amplification (P = 0.007). The relationships of age, sex, histological grade, and tumor size with stromal Cav-1 expression were not significant (P>0.05). A negative correlation was found between circulating tumor cells and stromal Cav-1 expression (P<0.05). Conclusion The loss of stromal Cav-1 in pancreatic cancer was an independent prognostic indicator, thus suggesting that stromal Cav-1 may be an effective therapeutic target for patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:24949874

  18. The Addition of Recombinant Vaccinia HER2/neu to Oncolytic Vaccinia-GMCSF Given into the Tumor Microenvironment Overcomes MDSC-Mediated Immune Escape and Systemic Anergy

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Christiaan R.; Monken, Claude E.; Lattime, Edmund C.

    2015-01-01

    Effective immunotherapeutic strategies require the ability to generate a systemic antigen-specific response capable of impacting both primary and metastatic disease. We have built on our oncolytic vaccinia GM-CSF strategy by adding recombinant tumor antigen to increase the response in the tumor microenvironment and systemically. In the present study, orthotopic growth of a syngeneic HER2/neu-overexpressing mammary carcinoma in FVB/N mice (NBT1) was associated with increased Gr1+CD11b+ myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) both systemically and in the tumor microenvironment. This MDSC population had inhibitory effects on the HER2/neu specific Th1 immune response. VVneu and VVGMCSF are recombinant oncolytic vaccinia viruses that encode HER2/neu and GM-CSF, respectively. Naïve FVB mice vaccinated with combined VVneu and VVGMCSF given systemically developed systemic HER2/neu-specific immunity. NBT1 bearing mice became anergic to systemic immunization with combined VVneu and VVGMCSF. Intratumoral VVGMCSF failed to result in systemic antitumor immunity until combined with intratumoral VVneu. Infection/transfection of the tumor microenvironment with combined VVGMCSF and VVneu resulted in development of systemic tumor-specific immunity, reduction in splenic and tumor MDSC, and therapeutic efficacy against tumor. These studies demonstrate the enhanced efficacy of oncolytic vaccinia virus recombinants encoding combined tumor antigen and GM-CSF in modulating the microenvironment of MDSC-rich tumors. PMID:25633483

  19. Targeting of MCT1 and PFKFB3 influences cell proliferation and apoptosis in bladder cancer by altering the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ke Yao; Wang, De Gui; Liu, Peng Fei; Cao, Yan Wei; Wang, Yong Hua; Yang, Xue Cheng; Hu, Cheng Xia; Sun, Li Jiang; Niu, Hai Tao

    2016-08-01

    Phosphofructokinase-2/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) and monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) play important roles in tumor endothelial cells (ECs) and several biological processes. The present study was conducted to study the effects of PFKFB3 and MCT1 on cell proliferation and apoptosis in the tumor microenvironment by co-culture of HUVECs and T24, a bladder cancer (BC) cell line, using a microfluidic device. Immunofluorescence assay showed that HUVEC activity was significantly enhanced under co-culture with T24 cells, according to the stronger fluorescence intensity of CD31 and CD105 than that in the signal‑cultured cells. Quercetin treatment inhibited MCT1 expression but did not affect PFKFB3 expression. Knockdown of MCT1 or/and PFKFB3 increased the apoptosis rate of the HUVECs under single-culture and co-culture situations by staining with calcein and propidium iodide. Meanwhile, cell proliferation and lactic concentration were significantly decreased after the blocking of MCT1 or/and PFKFB3, as compared with that in the control group. No obvious differences in the effects on apoptosis, proliferation and lactic concentration were found between cells treated with quercetin and siMCT1. Thus, we concluded that the targeting of MCT1 and PFKFB3 regulated cell proliferation and apoptosis in BC cells by altering the tumor microenvironment, and quercetin exhibited a potential antitumor effect by targeting MCT1. PMID:27373212

  20. Accumulation of Extracellular Hyaluronan by Hyaluronan Synthase 3 Promotes Tumor Growth and Modulates the Pancreatic Cancer Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunmei; Singha, Netai C.; Osgood, Ryan J.; Symons, Rebecca; Jiang, Ping; Li, Xiaoming; Thompson, Curtis B.; Infante, Jeffrey R.; Jacobetz, Michael A.; Tuveson, David A.; Frost, Gregory I.; Shepard, H. Michael; Huang, Zhongdong

    2014-01-01

    Extensive accumulation of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan is found in pancreatic cancer. The role of hyaluronan synthases 2 and 3 (HAS2, 3) was investigated in pancreatic cancer growth and the tumor microenvironment. Overexpression of HAS3 increased hyaluronan synthesis in BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells. In vivo, overexpression of HAS3 led to faster growing xenograft tumors with abundant extracellular hyaluronan accumulation. Treatment with pegylated human recombinant hyaluronidase (PEGPH20) removed extracellular hyaluronan and dramatically decreased the growth rate of BxPC-3 HAS3 tumors compared to parental tumors. PEGPH20 had a weaker effect on HAS2-overexpressing tumors which grew more slowly and contained both extracellular and intracellular hyaluronan. Accumulation of hyaluronan was associated with loss of plasma membrane E-cadherin and accumulation of cytoplasmic β-catenin, suggesting disruption of adherens junctions. PEGPH20 decreased the amount of nuclear hypoxia-related proteins and induced translocation of E-cadherin and β-catenin to the plasma membrane. Translocation of E-cadherin was also seen in tumors from a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic cancer and in a human non-small cell lung cancer sample from a patient treated with PEGPH20. In conclusion, hyaluronan accumulation by HAS3 favors pancreatic cancer growth, at least in part by decreasing epithelial cell adhesion, and PEGPH20 inhibits these changes and suppresses tumor growth. PMID:25147816

  1. Accumulation of extracellular hyaluronan by hyaluronan synthase 3 promotes tumor growth and modulates the pancreatic cancer microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Kultti, Anne; Zhao, Chunmei; Singha, Netai C; Zimmerman, Susan; Osgood, Ryan J; Symons, Rebecca; Jiang, Ping; Li, Xiaoming; Thompson, Curtis B; Infante, Jeffrey R; Jacobetz, Michael A; Tuveson, David A; Frost, Gregory I; Shepard, H Michael; Huang, Zhongdong

    2014-01-01

    Extensive accumulation of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan is found in pancreatic cancer. The role of hyaluronan synthases 2 and 3 (HAS2, 3) was investigated in pancreatic cancer growth and the tumor microenvironment. Overexpression of HAS3 increased hyaluronan synthesis in BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells. In vivo, overexpression of HAS3 led to faster growing xenograft tumors with abundant extracellular hyaluronan accumulation. Treatment with pegylated human recombinant hyaluronidase (PEGPH20) removed extracellular hyaluronan and dramatically decreased the growth rate of BxPC-3 HAS3 tumors compared to parental tumors. PEGPH20 had a weaker effect on HAS2-overexpressing tumors which grew more slowly and contained both extracellular and intracellular hyaluronan. Accumulation of hyaluronan was associated with loss of plasma membrane E-cadherin and accumulation of cytoplasmic β-catenin, suggesting disruption of adherens junctions. PEGPH20 decreased the amount of nuclear hypoxia-related proteins and induced translocation of E-cadherin and β-catenin to the plasma membrane. Translocation of E-cadherin was also seen in tumors from a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic cancer and in a human non-small cell lung cancer sample from a patient treated with PEGPH20. In conclusion, hyaluronan accumulation by HAS3 favors pancreatic cancer growth, at least in part by decreasing epithelial cell adhesion, and PEGPH20 inhibits these changes and suppresses tumor growth. PMID:25147816

  2. Mechanisms of tumor escape in the context of the T-cell-inflamed and the non-T-cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Spranger, Stefani

    2016-08-01

    Checkpoint blockade therapy has been proven to be highly active across many cancer types but emerging evidence indicates that the therapeutic benefit is limited to a subset of patients in each cancer entity. The presence of CD8(+) T cells within the tumor microenvironment or the invasive margin of the tumor, as well as the up-regulation of PD-L1, have emerged to be the most predictive biomarkers for clinical benefit in response to checkpoint inhibition. Although the up-regulation of immune inhibitory mechanisms is one mechanism of immune escape, commonly used by T-cell-inflamed tumors, exclusion of an anti-tumor specific T-cell infiltrate displays another even more potent mechanism of immune escape. This review will contrast the mechanisms of immunogenic, T-cell-inflamed, and the novel concept of non-immunogenic, non-T-cell-inflamed, adaptive immune escape. PMID:26989092

  3. Resorbing bone stimulates tumor cell growth. A role for the host microenvironment in bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Manishen, W J; Sivananthan, K; Orr, F W

    1986-04-01

    Demineralized extracts of bone matrix and conditioned media from cultured fetal rat calvaria have been reported to contain growth stimulatory activity for bone cells. To investigate the potential role of these local bone growth factors in the development of bone metastases, we chose the Walker 256 carcinosarcoma, a rat mammary tumor which causes osteolytic bone metastases and hypercalcemia. 45Ca-labeled, 19-day fetal Sprague-Dawley rat calvaria were cultured for 96 hours in BGJb medium. Walker cells from ascites tumors or cultures were grown in unconditioned media or in conditioned media harvested from the bone cultures, in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum. Media were changed every 2 days, cells were counted daily for 5 days, and 3H-thymidine uptake into acid insoluble residues was measured. The growth of tumor cells was 5-6-fold greater in conditioned media than in unconditioned media and the effect was dose dependent. Cells cultured in conditioned media demonstrated a approximately 3-fold enhancement of 3H-thymidine incorporation. Generation of growth stimulatory activity correlated with the extent of bone resorption, measured by release of 45Ca from the fetal parietal bones (r = 0.85; P less than 0.001). Conditioned media from bones cultured with 10(-7) M prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) contained greater amounts of growth stimulatory activity than untreated conditioned media, but PGE2 itself did not stimulate tumor cell growth. Addition of 3.5 mM PO4 to bone cultures blocked bone resorption and the generation of growth factors. Growth stimulatory activity was stable to heat (56 C for 30 minutes) and trypsin digestion, with an apparent molecular weight of less than 17,000 daltons by high-performance liquid chromatography. Conditioned medium also stimulated the growth of 13762 rat mammary adenocarcinoma cells, MB-MDA-231 human breast carcinoma cells, TE-85 osteosarcoma cells, a murine fibrosarcoma and rat embryonic fibroblasts, with the most potent effects noted for

  4. Intra-adrenal murine TH-MYCN neuroblastoma tumors grow more aggressive and exhibit a distinct tumor microenvironment relative to their subcutaneous equivalents.

    PubMed

    Kroesen, Michiel; Brok, Ingrid C; Reijnen, Daphne; van Hout-Kuijer, Maaike A; Zeelenberg, Ingrid S; Den Brok, Martijn H; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; Adema, Gosse J

    2015-05-01

    In around half of the patients with neuroblastoma (NBL), the primary tumor is located in one of the adrenal glands. We have previously reported on a transplantable TH-MYCN model of subcutaneous (SC) growing NBL in C57Bl/6 mice for immunological studies. In this report, we describe an orthotopic TH-MYCN transplantable model where the tumor cells were injected intra-adrenally (IA) by microsurgery. Strikingly, 9464D cells grew out much faster in IA tumors compared to the subcutis. Tumors were infiltrated by equal numbers of lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Within the myeloid cell population, however, tumor-infiltrating macrophages were more abundant in IA tumors compared to SC tumors and expressed lower levels of MHC class II, indicative of a more immunosuppressive phenotype. Using 9464D cells stably expressing firefly luciferase, enhanced IA tumor growth could be confirmed using bioluminescence. Collectively, these data show that the orthotopic IA localization of TH-MYCN cells impacts the NBL tumor microenvironment, resulting in a more stringent NBL model to study novel immunotherapeutic approaches for NBL. PMID:25687736

  5. PHY906(KD018), an adjuvant based on a 1800-year-old Chinese medicine, enhanced the anti-tumor activity of Sorafenib by changing the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Wing; Jiang, Zaoli; Guan, Fulan; Huang, Xiu; Hu, Rong; Wang, Jing; Bussom, Scott; Liu, Shwu-Huey; Zhao, Hongyu; Yen, Yun; Cheng, Yung-Chi

    2015-01-01

    PHY906 (KD018) is a four-herb Chinese Medicine Formula. It has been shown to potentially enhance the therapeutic indices of different class anticancer agents in vivo. Here, PHY906 is reported to enhance the anti-tumor activity of Sorafenib in nude mice bearing HepG2 xenografts. Among the four herbal ingredients of PHY906, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (S) and Paeonia lactiflora Pall (P) are required; however, S plays a more important role than P in increasing tumor apoptosis induced by Sorafenib with an increase of mouse(m)FasL and human(h)FasR expression. PHY906 may potentiate Sorafenib action by increasing hMCP1 expression and enhancing infiltration of macrophages into tumors with a higher M1/M2 (tumor rejection) signature expression pattern, as well as affect autophagy by increasing AMPKα-P and ULK1-S555-P of tumors. Depletion of macrophage could counteract PHY906 to potentiate the anti-tumor activity of Sorafenib. It was reported that tumor cells with higher levels of ERK1/2-P are more susceptible to Sorafenib, and the S component of PHY906 may increase ERK1/2-P via inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphatase in HepG2 tumors. PHY906 may potentiate the anti-hepatoma activity of Sorafenib by multiple mechanisms targeting on the inflammatory state of microenvironment of tumor tissue through two major ingredients (P and S) of PHY906. PMID:25819872

  6. Toward a siRNA-containing nanoparticle targeted to breast cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Gomes-da-Silva, Lígia C; Santos, Adriana O; Bimbo, Luís M; Moura, Vera; Ramalho, José S; Pedroso de Lima, Maria C; Simões, Sérgio; Moreira, João N

    2012-09-15

    The present work aimed at designing a lipid-based nanocarrier for siRNA delivery toward two cell sub-populations within breast tumors, the cancer and the endothelial cells from angiogenic tumor blood vessels. To achieve such goal, the F3 peptide, which is specifically internalized by nucleolin overexpressed on both those sub-populations, was used as a targeting moiety. The developed F3-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles presented adequate features for systemic administration. In addition, the attachment of the F3 peptide onto the liposomal surface enabled an internalization by both cancer and endothelial cells from angiogenic blood vessels that was significantly higher than the one observed with non-cancer cells. Sequence-specific downregulation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in eGFP-overexpressing human cancer cell lines, both at the protein and mRNA levels, was further observed upon delivery of anti-eGFP siRNA by F3-targeted liposomes, in contrast with the non-targeted counterpart. This effect was highly dependent on the content of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), as evidenced by the co-localization studies between the siRNA and the lysosomes. Overall, the present work represents an important contribution toward a nanoparticle with multi-targeting capabilities in breast cancer, both at the cellular and molecular level. PMID:22617794

  7. Targeting of cancer-associated fibroblasts enhances the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy by regulating the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    LI, MINMIN; LI, MEI; YIN, TAO; SHI, HUASHAN; WEN, YUAN; ZHANG, BINGLAN; CHEN, MEIHUA; XU, GUANGCHAO; REN, KEXIN; WEI, YUQUAN

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), key components of the tumor stroma, can regulate tumorigenesis by altering the tumor microenvironment in variety of ways to promote angiogenesis, recruit inflammatory immune cells and remodel the extracellular matrix. Using a murine xenograft model of colon carcinoma, the present study observed that oxaliplatin increased the accumulation of CAFs and stimulated the production of cytokines associated with CAFs. When oxaliplatin was combined with the small-molecule dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitor PT-100, which inhibits CAFs by targeting fibroblast activation protein (FAP), the accumulation of CAFs was markedly reduced, xenograft tumor growth was significantly suppressed and the survival of the mice increased, compared to those of mice treated with oxaliplatin or PT-100 alone. Furthermore, the xenograft tumor tissues of mice treated with oxaliplatin and PT-100 contained lower numbers of tumor-associated macrophages and dendritic cells, expressed lower levels of cytokines associated with CAFs and had a lower density of CD31+ endothelial cells. The present study demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of CAFs improved the response to chemotherapy, reduced the recruitment of immune tumor-promoting cells and inhibited angiogenesis. Combining chemotherapy with agents which target CAFs may represent a novel strategy for improving the efficacy of chemotherapy and reducing chemoresistance. PMID:26846566

  8. Targeting amino acid metabolism in cancer growth and anti-tumor immune response

    PubMed Central

    Ananieva, Elitsa

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in amino acid metabolism have revealed that targeting amino acid metabolic enzymes in cancer therapy is a promising strategy for the development of novel therapeutic agents. There are currently several drugs in clinical trials that specifically target amino acid metabolic pathways in tumor cells. In the context of the tumor microenvironment, however, tumor cells form metabolic relationships with immune cells, and they often compete for common nutrients. Many tumors evolved to escape immune surveillance by taking advantage of their metabolic flexibility and redirecting nutrients for their own advantage. This review outlines the most recent advances in targeting amino acid metabolic pathways in cancer therapy while giving consideration to the impact these pathways may have on the anti-tumor immune response. PMID:26629311

  9. Understanding the Warburg effect and the prognostic value of stromal caveolin-1 as a marker of a lethal tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cancer cells show a broad spectrum of bioenergetic states, with some cells using aerobic glycolysis while others rely on oxidative phosphorylation as their main source of energy. In addition, there is mounting evidence that metabolic coupling occurs in aggressive tumors, between epithelial cancer cells and the stromal compartment, and between well-oxygenated and hypoxic compartments. We recently showed that oxidative stress in the tumor stroma, due to aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial dysfunction, is important for cancer cell mutagenesis and tumor progression. More specifically , increased autophagy/mitophagy in the tumor stroma drives a form of parasitic epithelial-stromal metabolic coupling. These findings explain why it is effective to treat tumors with either inducers or inhibitors of autophagy, as both would disrupt this energetic coupling. We also discuss evidence that glutamine addiction in cancer cells produces ammonia via oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. Ammonia production in cancer cells, in turn, could then help maintain autophagy in the tumor stromal compartment. In this vicious cycle, the initial glutamine provided to cancer cells would be produced by autophagy in the tumor stroma. Thus, we believe that parasitic epithelial-stromal metabolic coupling has important implications for cancer diagnosis and therapy, for example, in designing novel metabolic imaging techniques and establishing new targeted therapies. In direct support of this notion, we identified a loss of stromal caveolin-1 as a marker of oxidative stress, hypoxia, and autophagy in the tumor microenvironment, explaining its powerful predictive value. Loss of stromal caveolin-1 in breast cancers is associated with early tumor recurrence, metastasis, and drug resistance, leading to poor clinical outcome. PMID:21867571

  10. PD-L1 (B7-H1) expression and the immune tumor microenvironment in primary and metastatic breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Thompson, Elizabeth; Taube, Janis M; Ye, Xiaobu; Lu, Yao; Meeker, Alan; Xu, Haiying; Sharma, Rajni; Lecksell, Kristen; Cornish, Toby C; Cuka, Nathan; Argani, Pedram; Emens, Leisha A

    2016-01-01

    Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and tumor cells in breast cancer has been reported, but the relationships between PD-L1 expression by TIL, carcinoma cells, and other immunologic features of the breast tumor microenvironment remain unclear. We therefore evaluated the interrelationships between tumor cell surface and TIL PD-L1 expression, lymphocyte subpopulations, and patterns of immune cell infiltration in cohorts of treatment-naive, primary breast cancers (PBCs) (n = 45) and matched PBC and metastatic breast cancers (MBC) (n = 26). Seventy-eight percent of untreated PBCs contained PD-L1(+) TILs, but only 21% had PD-L1(+) carcinoma cells. Carcinoma PD-L1 expression localized to the tumor invasive front and was associated with high tumor grade (P = .04). Eighty-nine percent of PD-L1(+) carcinomas contained brisk TIL infiltrates, compared to only 24% of PD-L1(-) carcinomas; this included CD3(+) (P = .02), CD4(+) (P = .04), CD8(+) (P = .002), and FoxP3(+) T cells (P = .02). PD-L1(+) PBCs were more likely to contain PD-L1(+) TIL than PD-L1(-) PBCs (P = .04). Peripheral lymphoid aggregates were present in 100% of PD-L1(+) compared to 41% of PD-L1(-) PBC (P < .001). No patient with PD-L1(+) PBC developed distant recurrence, compared to 15% of patients with PD-L1(-) PBC. For the matched PBC and MBC cohort, 2 patients (8%) had PD-L1(+) tumors, with 1 case concordant and 1 case discordant for carcinoma PD-L1 expression in the PBC and MBC. Our data support PD-L1 expression by tumor cells as a biomarker of active breast tumor immunity and programmed death 1 blockade as a therapeutic strategy for breast cancer. PMID:26527522

  11. Tumor microenvironment B cells increase bladder cancer metastasis via modulation of the IL-8/androgen receptor (AR)/MMPs signals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Longfei; Li, Lei; Yeh, Shuyuan; Qi, Lin; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-01-01

    While B cells in the tumor microenvironment may play important roles in cancer progression, their impacts on the bladder cancer (BCa) metastasis remain unclear. Here we found from human clinical BCa samples that BCa tissues could recruit more B cells than the surrounding normal bladder tissues and the in vitro co-culture assay also demonstrated that B cells could be recruited more easily towards BCa cells compared to normal bladder cells. Chamber invasion and 3D invasion assays showed the recruited B cells could then significantly increase the BCa cell invasion. Mechanism dissection found that recruited B cells could increase IL-8/androgen receptor (AR) signals in BCa cells that could then promote the expression of metastasis genes including MMP1 and MMP13. Blocking the IL-8/AR/MMPs signals either by anti-IL-8 neutralizing antibody, AR-siRNA, or MMPs inhibitors all partially reversed the infiltrating B cells capacity to increase the BCa cell invasion. The in vivo data from orthotopically xenografted BCa mouse model also confirmed that infiltrating B cells could increase BCa cell invasion via increasing AR signals. Together, these results demonstrate the key roles of B cells within the bladder tumor microenvironment that increase the BCa metastasis and may help us to develop the potential therapies via targeting these newly identified IL-8/AR/MMPs signals to better battle the BCa progression. PMID:26305549

  12. Cell shape and the microenvironment regulate nuclear translocation of NF-κB in breast epithelial and tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Sero, Julia E; Sailem, Heba Zuhair; Ardy, Rico Chandra; Almuttaqi, Hannah; Zhang, Tongli; Bakal, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Although a great deal is known about the signaling events that promote nuclear translocation of NF-κB, how cellular biophysics and the microenvironment might regulate the dynamics of this pathway is poorly understood. In this study, we used high-content image analysis and Bayesian network modeling to ask whether cell shape and context features influence NF-κB activation using the inherent variability present in unperturbed populations of breast tumor and non-tumor cell lines. Cell–cell contact, cell and nuclear area, and protrusiveness all contributed to variability in NF-κB localization in the absence and presence of TNFα. Higher levels of nuclear NF-κB were associated with mesenchymal-like versus epithelial-like morphologies, and RhoA-ROCK-myosin II signaling was critical for mediating shape-based differences in NF-κB localization and oscillations. Thus, mechanical factors such as cell shape and the microenvironment can influence NF-κB signaling and may in part explain how different phenotypic outcomes can arise from the same chemical cues. PMID:25735303

  13. Cell shape and the microenvironment regulate nuclear translocation of NF-κB in breast epithelial and tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Sero, Julia E; Sailem, Heba Zuhair; Ardy, Rico Chandra; Almuttaqi, Hannah; Zhang, Tongli; Bakal, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Although a great deal is known about the signaling events that promote nuclear translocation of NF-κB, how cellular biophysics and the microenvironment might regulate the dynamics of this pathway is poorly understood. In this study, we used high-content image analysis and Bayesian network modeling to ask whether cell shape and context features influence NF-κB activation using the inherent variability present in unperturbed populations of breast tumor and non-tumor cell lines. Cell-cell contact, cell and nuclear area, and protrusiveness all contributed to variability in NF-κB localization in the absence and presence of TNFα. Higher levels of nuclear NF-κB were associated with mesenchymal-like versus epithelial-like morphologies, and RhoA-ROCK-myosin II signaling was critical for mediating shape-based differences in NF-κB localization and oscillations. Thus, mechanical factors such as cell shape and the microenvironment can influence NF-κB signaling and may in part explain how different phenotypic outcomes can arise from the same chemical cues. PMID:25735303

  14. Cell shape and the microenvironment regulate nuclear translocation of NF-κB in breast epithelial and tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Sero, Julia E; Sailem, Heba Zuhair; Ardy, Rico Chandra; Almuttaqi, Hannah; Zhang, Tongli; Bakal, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Although a great deal is known about the signaling events that promote nuclear translocation of NF-κB, how cellular biophysics and the microenvironment might regulate the dynamics of this pathway is poorly understood. In this study, we used high-content image analysis and Bayesian network modeling to ask whether cell shape and context features influence NF-κB activation using the inherent variability present in unperturbed populations of breast tumor and non-tumor cell lines. Cell–cell contact, cell and nuclear area, and protrusiveness all contributed to variability in NF-κB localization in the absence and presence of TNFα. Higher levels of nuclear NF-κB were associated with mesenchymal-like versus epithelial-like morphologies, and RhoA-ROCK-myosin II signaling was critical for mediating shape-based differences in NF-κB localization and oscillations. Thus, mechanical factors such as cell shape and the microenvironment can influence NF-κB signaling and may in part explain how different phenotypic outcomes can arise from the same chemical cues. PMID:26148352

  15. MicroRNA modulators of epigenetic regulation, the tumor microenvironment and the immune system in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rusek, Anna Maria; Abba, Mohammed; Eljaszewicz, Andrzej; Moniuszko, Marcin; Niklinski, Jacek; Allgayer, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is an exceedingly complex disease that is orchestrated and driven by a combination of multiple aberrantly regulated processes. The nature and depth of involvement of individual events vary between cancer types, and in lung cancer, the deregulation of the epigenetic machinery, the tumor microenvironment and the immune system appear to be especially relevant. The contribution of microRNAs to carcinogenesis and cancer progression is well established with many reports and investigations describing the involvement of microRNAs in lung cancer, however most of these studies have concentrated on single microRNA-target relations and have not adequately addressed the complexity of their interactions. In this review, we focus, in part, on the role of microRNAs in the epigenetic regulation of lung cancer where they act as active molecules modulating enzymes that take part in methylation-mediated silencing and chromatin remodeling. Additionally, we highlight their contribution in controlling and modulating the tumor microenvironment and finally, we describe their role in the critical alteration of essential molecules that influence the immune system in lung cancer development and progression. PMID:25743773

  16. Expansion and functions of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Qu, Peng; Wang, Li-Zhen; Lin, P Charles

    2016-09-28

    Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a group of immature myeloid cells accumulated in most cancer patients and mouse tumor models. MDSCs suppress host immune response and concurrently promote tumor angiogenesis, thereby promote tumor growth and progression. In this review, we discuss recent progresses in expansion and activity of tumor MDSCs, and describe new findings about immunosuppressive function of different subtypes of MDSCs in cancer. We also discussed tumor angiogenic activities and pro-tumor invasion/metastatic roles of MDSCs in tumor progression. PMID:26519756

  17. Microenvironment Promotes Tumor Cell Reprogramming in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    D’Anselmi, Fabrizio; Masiello, Maria Grazia; Cucina, Alessandra; Proietti, Sara; Dinicola, Simona; Pasqualato, Alessia; Ricci, Giulia; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Catizone, Angela; Palombo, Alessandro; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The microenvironment drives mammary gland development and function, and may influence significantly both malignant behavior and cell growth of mammary cancer cells. By restoring context, and forcing cells to properly interpret native signals from the microenvironment, the cancer cell aberrant behavior can be quelled, and organization re-established. In order to restore functional and morphological differentiation, human mammary MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells were allowed to grow in a culture medium filled with a 10% of the albumen (EW, Egg White) from unfertilized chicken egg. That unique microenvironment behaves akin a 3D culture and induces MCF-7 cells to produce acini and branching duct-like structures, distinctive of mammary gland differentiation. EW-treated MDA-MB-231 cells developed buds of acini and duct-like structures. Both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells produced β-casein, a key milk component. Furthermore, E-cadherin expression was reactivated in MDA-MB-231 cells, as a consequence of the increased cdh1 expression; meanwhile β-catenin – a key cytoskeleton component – was displaced behind the inner cell membrane. Such modification hinders the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in MDA-MB-231 cells. This differentiating pathway is supported by the contemporary down-regulation of canonical pluripotency markers (Klf4, Nanog). Given that egg-conditioned medium behaves as a 3D-medium, it is likely that cancer phenotype reversion could be ascribed to the changed interactions between cells and their microenvironment. PMID:24386275

  18. Endostatin induces proliferation of oral carcinoma cells but its effect on invasion is modified by the tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Alahuhta, Ilkka; Aikio, Mari; Väyrynen, Otto; Nurmenniemi, Sini; Suojanen, Juho; Teppo, Susanna; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Salo, Tuula; Nyberg, Pia

    2015-08-01

    The turnover of extracellular matrix liberates various cryptic molecules with novel biological activities. Endostatin is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor that is derived from the non-collagenous domain of collagen XVIII. Although there are a large number of studies on its anti-tumor effects, the molecular mechanisms are not yet completely understood, and the reasons why endostatin has not been successful in clinical trials are unclear. Research has mostly focused on its anti-angiogenic effect in tumors. Here, we aimed to elucidate how endostatin affects the behavior of aggressive tongue HSC-3 carcinoma cells that were transfected to overproduce endostatin. Endostatin inhibited the invasion of HSC-3 cells in a 3D collagen–fibroblast model. However, it had no effect on invasion in a human myoma organotypic model, which lacks vital fibroblasts. Recombinant endostatin was able to reduce the Transwell migration of normal fibroblasts, but had no effect on carcinoma associated fibroblasts. Surprisingly, endostatin increased the proliferation and decreased the apoptosis of cancer cells in organotypic models. Also subcutaneous tumors overproducing endostatin grew bigger, but showed less local invasion in nude mice xenografts. We conclude that endostatin affects directly to HSC-3 cells increasing their proliferation, but its net effect on cancer invasion seem to depend on the cellular composition and interactions of tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • Endostatin affects not only angiogenesis, but also carcinoma cells and fibroblasts. • Endostatin increased carcinoma cell proliferation, but decreased 3D invasion. • The invasion inhibitory effect was sensitive to the microenvironment composition. • Fibroblasts may be a factor regulating the fluctuating roles of endostatin.

  19. Phosphorescence Monitoring of Hypoxic Microenvironment in Solid-Tumors to Evaluate Chemotherapeutic Effects Using the Hypoxia-Sensitive Iridium (III) Coordination Compound

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jin; Ma, Jingwen; Wang, Rong; Deng, Lei; Guo, Youmin; Zhong, Fan; Bai, Mingfeng; Zhang, Shaojuan; Wu, Daocheng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To utilize phosphorescence to monitor hypoxic microenvironment in solid-tumors and investigate cancer chemotherapeutic effects in vivo. Methods A hypoxia-sensitive probe named BTP was used to monitor hypoxic microenvironment in solid-tumors. The low-dose metronomic treatment with cisplatin was used in anti-angiogenetic chemotherapeutic programs. The phosphorescence properties of BTP were detected by a spectrofluorometer. BTP cytotoxicity utilized cell necrosis and apoptosis, which were evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion and Hoechst33342 plus propidium iodide assays. Tumor-bearing mouse models of colon adenocarcinoma were used for tumor imaging in vivo. Monitoring of the hypoxic microenvironment in tumors was performed with a Maestro 2 fluorescence imaging system. Tumor tissues in each group were harvested regularly and treated with pathological hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining to confirm imaging results. Results BTP did not feature obvious cytotoxicity for cells, and tumor growth in low-dose metronomic cisplatin treated mice was significantly inhibited by chemotherapy. Hypoxic levels significantly increased due to cisplatin, as proven by the expression level of related proteins. Phosphorescence intensity in the tumors of mice in the cisplatin group was stronger and showed higher contrast than that in tumors of saline treated mice. Conclusions We develop a useful phosphorescence method to evaluate the chemotherapeutic effects of cisplatin. The proposed method shows potential as a phosphorescence imaging approach for evaluating chemotherapeutic effects in vivo, especially anti-angiogenesis. PMID:25786221

  20. Differences in the Tumor Microenvironment between African-American and European-American Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Damali N.; Boersma, Brenda J.; Yi, Ming; Reimers, Mark; Howe, Tiffany M.; Yfantis, Harry G.; Tsai, Yien Che; Williams, Erica H.; Lee, Dong H.; Stephens, Robert M.; Weissman, Allan M.; Ambs, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Background African-American breast cancer patients experience higher mortality rates than European-American patients despite having a lower incidence of the disease. We tested the hypothesis that intrinsic differences in the tumor biology may contribute to this cancer health disparity. Methods and Results Using laser capture microdissection, we examined genome-wide mRNA expression specific to tumor epithelium and tumor stroma in 18 African-American and 17 European-American patients. Numerous genes were differentially expressed between these two patient groups and a two-gene signature in the tumor epithelium distinguished between them. To identify the biological processes in tumors that are different by race/ethnicity, Gene Ontology and disease association analyses were performed. Several biological processes were identified which may contribute to enhanced disease aggressiveness in African-American patients, including angiogenesis and chemotaxis. African-American tumors also contained a prominent interferon signature. The role of angiogenesis in the tumor biology of African-Americans was further investigated by examining the extent of vascularization and macrophage infiltration in an expanded set of 248 breast tumors. Immunohistochemistry revealed that microvessel density and macrophage infiltration is higher in tumors of African-Americans than in tumors of European-Americans. Lastly, using an in silico approach, we explored the potential of tailored treatment options for African-American patients based on their gene expression profile. This exploratory approach generated lists of therapeutics that may have specific antagonistic activity against tumors of African-American patients, e.g., sirolimus, resveratrol, and chlorpromazine in estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Conclusions The gene expression profiles of breast tumors indicate that differences in tumor biology may exist between African-American and European-American patients beyond the knowledge of current

  1. Targeting of cancer‑associated fibroblasts enhances the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy by regulating the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Li, Minmin; Li, Mei; Yin, Tao; Shi, Huashan; Wen, Yuan; Zhang, Binglan; Chen, Meihua; Xu, Guangchao; Ren, Kexin; Wei, Yuquan

    2016-03-01

    Cancer‑associated fibroblasts (CAFs), key components of the tumor stroma, can regulate tumorigenesis by altering the tumor microenvironment in variety of ways to promote angiogenesis, recruit inflammatory immune cells and remodel the extracellular matrix. Using a murine xenograft model of colon carcinoma, the present study observed that oxaliplatin increased the accumulation of CAFs and stimulated the production of cytokines associated with CAFs. When oxaliplatin was combined with the small‑molecule dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitor PT‑100, which inhibits CAFs by targeting fibroblast activation protein (FAP), the accumulation of CAFs was markedly reduced, xenograft tumor growth was significantly suppressed and the survival of the mice increased, compared to those of mice treated with oxaliplatin or PT‑100 alone. Furthermore, the xenograft tumor tissues of mice treated with oxaliplatin and PT‑100 contained lower numbers of tumor‑associated macrophages and dendritic cells, expressed lower levels of cytokines associated with CAFs and had a lower density of CD31+ endothelial cells. The present study demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of CAFs improved the response to chemotherapy, reduced the recruitment of immune tumor‑promoting cells and inhibited angiogenesis. Combining chemotherapy with agents which target CAFs may represent a novel strategy for improving the efficacy of chemotherapy and reducing chemoresistance. PMID:26846566

  2. Antitumor activity of a novel small molecule TLR7 agonist via immune response induction and tumor microenvironment modulation.

    PubMed

    Diao, Yuwen; Wang, Xiaodong; Wan, Yanyan; Zhong, Jingjing; Gao, Dong; Liu, Yu; Gao, Ningning; Li, Wang; Liu, Bing; Huang, Xinping; Jin, Zhenchao; Peng, Boya; Wang, Zhulin; Fu, Li; Chen, Siping; Jin, Guangyi

    2016-02-01

    Immunotherapy is emerging as a powerful and active tumor-specific approach against cancer via triggering the immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are fundamental elements of the immune system, which facilitate our understanding of the innate and adaptive immune pathways. TLR agonists used as single agents can effectively eradicate tumors due to their potent stimulation of innate and adaptive immunity. We examined the effects of a novel adenine type of TLR7 agonists on both innate and adaptive immune activation in vitro and in vivo. We established the local and distant tumor‑bearing mice derived from murine mammary carcinoma cell line (4T1) to model metastatic disease. Our data demonstrated that SZU101 was able to stimulate innate immune cells to release cytokines at the very high level compared with LPS at the same or lower concentration. Locally intratumoral SZU101 injection can elicit a systemic antitumor effect on murine breast tumor model. SZU101 affected the frequency of intratumoral immune cell infiltration, including the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ increase, and the ratio of Tregs decrease. Our data reveal that the antitumor effect of SZU101 is associated with multiple mechanisms, inducing tumor‑specific immune response, activation of innate immune cells and modulation of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26718332

  3. Loss of Cdh1 and Trp53 in the uterus induces chronic inflammation with modification of tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Stodden, Genna R.; Lindberg, Mallory E.; King, Mandy L.; Paquet, Marilène; MacLean, James A.; Mann, Jordan L.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.; Hayashi, Kanako

    2015-01-01

    Type II endometrial carcinomas are estrogen independent, poorly differentiated tumors that behave in an aggressive manner. Since TP53 mutation and CDH1 inactivation occur in 80% of human endometrial type II carcinomas, we hypothesized that mouse uteri lacking both Trp53 and Cdh1 would exhibit a phenotype indicative of neoplastic transformation. Mice with conditional ablation of Cdh1 and Trp53 (Cdh1d/dTrp53d/d) clearly demonstrate architectural features characteristic of type II endometrial carcinomas, including focal areas of papillary differentiation, protruding cytoplasm into the lumen (hobnailing) and severe nuclear atypia at 6-mo of age. Further, Cdh1d/dTrp53d/d tumors in 12-mo old mice were highly aggressive, and metastasized to nearby and distant organs within the peritoneal cavity, such as abdominal lymph nodes, mesentery and peri-intestinal adipose tissues, demonstrating that tumorigenesis in this model proceeds through the universally recognized morphologic intermediates associated with type II endometrial neoplasia. We also observed abundant cell proliferation and complex angiogenesis in the uteri of Cdh1d/dTrp53d/d mice. Our microarray analysis found that most of the genes differentially regulated in the uteri of Cdh1d/dTrp53d/d mice were involved in inflammatory responses. CD163 and Arg1, markers for tumor-associated macrophages, were also detected and increased in the uteri of Cdh1d/dTrp53d/d mice, suggesting that an inflammatory tumor microenvironment with immune cell recruitment is augmenting tumor development in Cdh1d/dTrp53d/d uteri. Further, inflammatory mediators secreted from CDH1 negative, TP53 mutant endometrial cancer cells induced normal macrophages to express inflammatory related genes through activation of NFκB signaling. These results indicate that absence of CDH1 and TP53 in endometrial cells initiates chronic inflammation, promotes tumor microenvironment development following the recruitment of macrophages, and promotes aggressive

  4. Loss of Cdh1 and Trp53 in the uterus induces chronic inflammation with modification of tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Stodden, G R; Lindberg, M E; King, M L; Paquet, M; MacLean, J A; Mann, J L; DeMayo, F J; Lydon, J P; Hayashi, K

    2015-05-01

    Type II endometrial carcinomas (ECs) are estrogen independent, poorly differentiated tumors that behave in an aggressive manner. As TP53 mutation and CDH1 inactivation occur in 80% of human endometrial type II carcinomas, we hypothesized that mouse uteri lacking both Trp53 and Cdh1 would exhibit a phenotype indicative of neoplastic transformation. Mice with conditional ablation of Cdh1 and Trp53 (Cdh1(d/d)Trp53(d/d)) clearly demonstrate architectural features characteristic of type II ECs, including focal areas of papillary differentiation, protruding cytoplasm into the lumen (hobnailing) and severe nuclear atypia at 6 months of age. Further, Cdh1(d/d)Trp53(d/d) tumors in 12-month-old mice were highly aggressive, and metastasized to nearby and distant organs within the peritoneal cavity, such as abdominal lymph nodes, mesentery and peri-intestinal adipose tissues, demonstrating that tumorigenesis in this model proceeds through the universally recognized morphological intermediates associated with type II endometrial neoplasia. We also observed abundant cell proliferation and complex angiogenesis in the uteri of Cdh1(d/d)Trp53(d/d) mice. Our microarray analysis found that most of the genes differentially regulated in the uteri of Cdh1(d/d)Trp53(d/d) mice were involved in inflammatory responses. CD163 and Arg1, markers for tumor-associated macrophages, were also detected and increased in the uteri of Cdh1(d/d)Trp53(d/d) mice, suggesting that an inflammatory tumor microenvironment with immune cell recruitment is augmenting tumor development in Cdh1(d/d)Trp53(d/d) uteri. Further, inflammatory mediators secreted from CDH1-negative, TP53 mutant endometrial cancer cells induced normal macrophages to express inflammatory-related genes through activation of nuclear factor-κB signaling. These results indicate that absence of CDH1 and TP53 in endometrial cells initiates chronic inflammation, promotes tumor microenvironment development following the recruitment of macrophages

  5. Modeling the Pro-inflammatory Tumor Microenvironment in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Predicts a Breakdown of Hematopoietic-Mesenchymal Communication Networks

    PubMed Central

    Enciso, Jennifer; Mayani, Hector; Mendoza, Luis; Pelayo, Rosana

    2016-01-01

    Lineage fate decisions of hematopoietic cells depend on intrinsic factors and extrinsic signals provided by the bone marrow microenvironment, where they reside. Abnormalities in composition and function of hematopoietic niches have been proposed as key contributors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) progression. Our previous experimental findings strongly suggest that pro-inflammatory cues contribute to mesenchymal niche abnormalities that result in maintenance of ALL precursor cells at the expense of normal hematopoiesis. Here, we propose a molecular regulatory network interconnecting the major communication pathways between hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) within the BM. Dynamical analysis of the network as a Boolean model reveals two stationary states that can be interpreted as the intercellular contact status. Furthermore, simulations describe the molecular patterns observed during experimental proliferation and activation. Importantly, our model predicts instability in the CXCR4/CXCL12 and VLA4/VCAM1 interactions following microenvironmental perturbation due by temporal signaling from Toll like receptors (TLRs) ligation. Therefore, aberrant expression of NF-κB induced by intrinsic or extrinsic factors may contribute to create a tumor microenvironment where a negative feedback loop inhibiting CXCR4/CXCL12 and VLA4/VCAM1 cellular communication axes allows for the maintenance of malignant cells. PMID:27594840

  6. Modeling the Pro-inflammatory Tumor Microenvironment in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Predicts a Breakdown of Hematopoietic-Mesenchymal Communication Networks.

    PubMed

    Enciso, Jennifer; Mayani, Hector; Mendoza, Luis; Pelayo, Rosana

    2016-01-01

    Lineage fate decisions of hematopoietic cells depend on intrinsic factors and extrinsic signals provided by the bone marrow microenvironment, where they reside. Abnormalities in composition and function of hematopoietic niches have been proposed as key contributors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) progression. Our previous experimental findings strongly suggest that pro-inflammatory cues contribute to mesenchymal niche abnormalities that result in maintenance of ALL precursor cells at the expense of normal hematopoiesis. Here, we propose a molecular regulatory network interconnecting the major communication pathways between hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) within the BM. Dynamical analysis of the network as a Boolean model reveals two stationary states that can be interpreted as the intercellular contact status. Furthermore, simulations describe the molecular patterns observed during experimental proliferation and activation. Importantly, our model predicts instability in the CXCR4/CXCL12 and VLA4/VCAM1 interactions following microenvironmental perturbation due by temporal signaling from Toll like receptors (TLRs) ligation. Therefore, aberrant expression of NF-κB induced by intrinsic or extrinsic factors may contribute to create a tumor microenvironment where a negative feedback loop inhibiting CXCR4/CXCL12 and VLA4/VCAM1 cellular communication axes allows for the maintenance of malignant cells. PMID:27594840

  7. Autophagy is involved in TGF-β1-induced protective mechanisms and formation of cancer-associated fibroblasts phenotype in tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang-Lan; Mo, En-Pan; Yang, Liu; Du, Jun; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Huan; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Xu, Jun; Cai, Shao-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) present in tumor microenvironment acts in a coordinated fashion to either suppress or promote tumor development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of TGF-β1 on tumor microenvironment are not well understood. Our clinical data showed a positive association between TGF-β1 expression and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in tumor microenvironment of breast cancer patients. Thus we employed starved NIH3T3 fibroblasts in vitro and 4T1 cells mixed with NIH3T3 fibroblasts xenograft model in vivo to simulate nutritional deprivation of tumor microenvironment to explore the effects of TGF-β1. We demonstrated that TGF-β1 protected NIH3T3 fibroblasts from Star-induced growth inhibition, mitochondrial damage and cell apoptosis. Interestingly, TGF-β1 induced the formation of CAFs phenotype in starvation (Star)-treated NIH3T3 fibroblasts and xenografted Balb/c mice, which promoted breast cancer tumor growth. In both models, autophagy agonist rapamycin increased TGF-β1-induced protective effects and formation of CAFs phenotypes, while autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, Atg5 knockdown or TGF-β type I receptor kinase inhibitor LY-2157299 blocked TGF-β1 induced these effects. Taken together, our results indicated that TGF-β/Smad autophagy was involved in TGF-β1-induced protective effects and formation of CAFs phenotype in tumor microenvironment, which may be used as therapy targets in breast cancer. PMID:26716641

  8. Autophagy is involved in TGF-β1-induced protective mechanisms and formation of cancer-associated fibroblasts phenotype in tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang-Lan; Mo, En-Pan; Yang, Liu; Du, Jun; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Huan; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Xu, Jun; Cai, Shao-Hui

    2016-01-26

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) present in tumor microenvironment acts in a coordinated fashion to either suppress or promote tumor development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of TGF-β1 on tumor microenvironment are not well understood. Our clinical data showed a positive association between TGF-β1 expression and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in tumor microenvironment of breast cancer patients. Thus we employed starved NIH3T3 fibroblasts in vitro and 4T1 cells mixed with NIH3T3 fibroblasts xenograft model in vivo to simulate nutritional deprivation of tumor microenvironment to explore the effects of TGF-β1. We demonstrated that TGF-β1 protected NIH3T3 fibroblasts from Star-induced growth inhibition, mitochondrial damage and cell apoptosis. Interestingly, TGF-β1 induced the formation of CAFs phenotype in starvation (Star)-treated NIH3T3 fibroblasts and xenografted Balb/c mice, which promoted breast cancer tumor growth. In both models, autophagy agonist rapamycin increased TGF-β1-induced protective effects and formation of CAFs phenotypes, while autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, Atg5 knockdown or TGF-β type I receptor kinase inhibitor LY-2157299 blocked TGF-β1 induced these effects. Taken together, our results indicated that TGF-β/Smad autophagy was involved in TGF-β1-induced protective effects and formation of CAFs phenotype in tumor microenvironment, which may be used as therapy targets in breast cancer. PMID:26716641

  9. Immune modulation by ER stress and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Rodvold, Jeffrey J; Mahadevan, Navin R; Zanetti, Maurizio

    2016-09-28

    It is now increasingly evident that the immune system represents a barrier to tumor emergence, growth, and recurrence. Although this idea was originally proposed almost 50 years ago as the "immune surveillance hypothesis", it is commonly recognized that, with few rare exceptions, tumor cells always prevail. Thus, one of the central unsolved paradoxes of tumor immunology is how a tumor escapes immune control, which is reflected in the lack of effective autochthonous or vaccine-induced anti-tumor T cell responses. In this review, we discuss the role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response/unfolded protein response (UPR) in the immunomodulation of myeloid cells and T cells. Specifically, we will discuss how the tumor cell UPR polarizes myeloid cells in a cell-extrinsic manner, and how in turn, thus polarized myeloid cells negatively affect T cell activation and clonal expansion. PMID:26525580

  10. Dynamic cross-talk between tumor and immune cells in orchestrating the immunosuppressive network at the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Croci, Diego O; Zacarías Fluck, Mariano F; Rico, María J; Matar, Pablo; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Scharovsky, O Graciela

    2007-11-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that a dynamic cross-talk between tumors and the immune system can regulate tumor growth and metastasis. Increased understanding of the biochemical nature of tumor antigens and the molecular mechanisms responsible for innate and adaptive immune cell activation has revolutionized the fields of tumor immunology and immunotherapy. Both the protective effects of the immune system against tumor cells (immunosurveillance) and the evasion of tumor cells from immune attack (tumor-immune escape) have led to the concept of cancer immunoediting, a proposal which infers that a bidirectional interaction between tumor and inflammatory/regulatory cells is ultimately responsible for orchestrating the immunosuppressive network at the tumor site. In this context, a major challenge is the potentiation or redirection of tumor antigen-specific immune responses. The success in reaching this goal is highly dependent on an improved understanding of the interactions and mechanisms operating during the different phases of the cancer immunoediting process. In this review, we discuss the multiple defense and counterattack strategies that tumors have devised in order to evade immune attack and to thwart the effectiveness of several immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:17571260

  11. STK11/LKB1 Deficiency Promotes Neutrophil Recruitment and Proinflammatory Cytokine Production to Suppress T-cell Activity in the Lung Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shohei; Akbay, Esra A; Li, Yvonne Y; Aref, Amir R; Skoulidis, Ferdinandos; Herter-Sprie, Grit S; Buczkowski, Kevin A; Liu, Yan; Awad, Mark M; Denning, Warren L; Diao, Lixia; Wang, Jing; Parra-Cuentas, Edwin R; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Soucheray, Margaret; Thai, Tran; Asahina, Hajime; Kitajima, Shunsuke; Altabef, Abigail; Cavanaugh, Jillian D; Rhee, Kevin; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Haikuo; Fecci, Peter E; Shimamura, Takeshi; Hellmann, Matthew D; Heymach, John V; Hodi, F Stephen; Freeman, Gordon J; Barbie, David A; Dranoff, Glenn; Hammerman, Peter S; Wong, Kwok-Kin

    2016-03-01

    STK11/LKB1 is among the most commonly inactivated tumor suppressors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially in tumors harboring KRAS mutations. Many oncogenes promote immune escape, undermining the effectiveness of immunotherapies, but it is unclear whether the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, such as STK11/LKB1, exerts similar effects. In this study, we investigated the consequences of STK11/LKB1 loss on the immune microenvironment in a mouse model of KRAS-driven NSCLC. Genetic ablation of STK11/LKB1 resulted in accumulation of neutrophils with T-cell-suppressive effects, along with a corresponding increase in the expression of T-cell exhaustion markers and tumor-promoting cytokines. The number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was also reduced in LKB1-deficient mouse and human tumors. Furthermore, STK11/LKB1-inactivating mutations were associated with reduced expression of PD-1 ligand PD-L1 in mouse and patient tumors as well as in tumor-derived cell lines. Consistent with these results, PD-1-targeting antibodies were ineffective against Lkb1-deficient tumors. In contrast, treating Lkb1-deficient mice with an IL6-neutralizing antibody or a neutrophil-depleting antibody yielded therapeutic benefits associated with reduced neutrophil accumulation and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Our findings illustrate how tumor suppressor mutations can modulate the immune milieu of the tumor microenvironment, and they offer specific implications for addressing STK11/LKB1-mutated tumors with PD-1-targeting antibody therapies. PMID:26833127

  12. Intracellular Signal Transduction and Modification of the Tumor Microenvironment Induced by RET/PTCs in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Menicali, Elisa; Moretti, Sonia; Voce, Pasquale; Romagnoli, Serena; Avenia, Nicola; Puxeddu, Efisio

    2012-01-01

    RET gene rearrangements (RET/PTCs) represent together with BRAF point mutations the two major groups of mutations involved in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) initiation and progression. In this review, we will examine the mechanisms involved in RET/PTC-induced thyroid cell transformation. In detail, we will summarize the data on the molecular mechanisms involved in RET/PTC formation and in its function as a dominant oncogene, on the activated signal transduction pathways and on the induced gene expression modifications. Moreover, we will report on the effects of RET/PTCs on the tumor microenvironment. Finally, a short review of the literature on RET/PTC prognostic significance will be presented. PMID:22661970

  13. Modification of the Tumor Microenvironment in KRAS or c-MYC-Induced Ovarian Cancer-Associated Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Kawana, Kei; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Kawata, Akira; Ogishima, Juri; Nakamura, Hiroe; Fujimoto, Asaha; Sato, Masakazu; Inoue, Tomoko; Nishida, Haruka; Furuya, Hitomi; Tomio, Kensuke; Arimoto, Takahide; Koga, Kaori; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Oda, Katsutoshi; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Kiyono, Tohru; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    The most common properties of oncogenes are cell proliferation and the prevention of apoptosis in malignant cells, which, as a consequence, induce tumor formation and dissemination. However, the effects of oncogenes on the tumor microenvironment (TME) have not yet been examined in detail. The accumulation of ascites accompanied by chronic inflammation and elevated concentrations of VEGF is a hallmark of the progression of ovarian cancer. We herein demonstrated the mechanisms by which oncogenes contribute to modulating the ovarian cancer microenvironment. c-MYC and KRAS were transduced into the mouse ovarian cancer cell line ID8. ID8, ID8-c-MYC, or ID8-KRAS cells were then injected into the peritoneal cavities of C57/BL6 mice and the production of ascites was assessed. ID8-c-MYC and ID8-KRAS both markedly accelerated ovarian cancer progression in vivo, whereas no significant differences were observed in proliferative activity in vitro. ID8-KRAS in particular induced the production of ascites, which accumulated between approximately two to three weeks after the injection, more rapidly than ID8 and ID8-c-MYC (between nine and ten weeks and between six and seven weeks, respectively). VEGF concentrations in ascites significantly increased in c-MYC-induced ovarian cancer, whereas the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in ascites were significantly high in KRAS-induced ovarian cancer and were accompanied by an increased number of neutrophils in ascites. A cytokine array revealed that KRAS markedly induced the expression of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in ID8 cells. These results suggest that oncogenes promote cancer progression by modulating the TME in favor of cancer progression. PMID:27483433

  14. Modification of the Tumor Microenvironment in KRAS or c-MYC-Induced Ovarian Cancer-Associated Peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Mitsuyo; Taguchi, Ayumi; Kawana, Kei; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Kawata, Akira; Ogishima, Juri; Nakamura, Hiroe; Fujimoto, Asaha; Sato, Masakazu; Inoue, Tomoko; Nishida, Haruka; Furuya, Hitomi; Tomio, Kensuke; Arimoto, Takahide; Koga, Kaori; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Oda, Katsutoshi; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Kiyono, Tohru; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    The most common properties of oncogenes are cell proliferation and the prevention of apoptosis in malignant cells, which, as a consequence, induce tumor formation and dissemination. However, the effects of oncogenes on the tumor microenvironment (TME) have not yet been examined in detail. The accumulation of ascites accompanied by chronic inflammation and elevated concentrations of VEGF is a hallmark of the progression of ovarian cancer. We herein demonstrated the mechanisms by which oncogenes contribute to modulating the ovarian cancer microenvironment. c-MYC and KRAS were transduced into the mouse ovarian cancer cell line ID8. ID8, ID8-c-MYC, or ID8-KRAS cells were then injected into the peritoneal cavities of C57/BL6 mice and the production of ascites was assessed. ID8-c-MYC and ID8-KRAS both markedly accelerated ovarian cancer progression in vivo, whereas no significant differences were observed in proliferative activity in vitro. ID8-KRAS in particular induced the production of ascites, which accumulated between approximately two to three weeks after the injection, more rapidly than ID8 and ID8-c-MYC (between nine and ten weeks and between six and seven weeks, respectively). VEGF concentrations in ascites significantly increased in c-MYC-induced ovarian cancer, whereas the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in ascites were significantly high in KRAS-induced ovarian cancer and were accompanied by an increased number of neutrophils in ascites. A cytokine array revealed that KRAS markedly induced the expression of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in ID8 cells. These results suggest that oncogenes promote cancer progression by modulating the TME in favor of cancer progression. PMID:27483433

  15. Mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit murine syngeneic anti-tumor immune responses by attenuating inflammation and reorganizing the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Modiano, Jaime F; Lindborg, Beth A; McElmurry, Ron T; Lewellen, Mitzi; Forster, Colleen L; Zamora, Edward A; Schaack, Jerome; Bellgrau, Donald; O'Brien, Timothy D; Tolar, Jakub

    2015-11-01

    The potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to inhibit anti-tumor immunity is becoming increasingly well recognized, but the precise steps affected by these cells during the development of an anti-tumor immune response remain incompletely understood. Here, we examined how MSCs affect the steps required to mount an effective anti-tumor immune response following administration of adenovirus Fas ligand (Ad-FasL) in the Lewis lung carcinoma (LL3) model. Administration of bone marrow-derived MSCs with LL3 cells accelerated tumor growth significantly. MSCs inhibited the inflammation induced by Ad-FasL in the primary tumors, precluding their rejection; MSCs also reduced the consequent expansion of tumor-specific T cells in the treated hosts. When immune T cells were transferred to adoptive recipients, MSCs impaired, but did not completely abrogate the ability of these T cells to promote elimination of secondary tumors. This impairment was associated with a modest reduction in tumor-infiltrating T cells, with a significant reduction in tumor-infiltrating macrophages, and with a reorganization of the stromal environment. Our data indicate that MSCs in the tumor environment reduce the efficacy of immunotherapy by creating a functional and anatomic barrier that impairs inflammation, T cell priming and expansion, and T cell function-including recruitment of effector cells. PMID:26250807

  16. A Microfluidic Method to Mimic Luminal Structures in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Torres, José A; Beebe, David J; Sung, Kyung E

    2016-01-01

    Microscale 3D in vitro systems have attracted significant interest as tools for cancer research because the microscale systems offer better organization of the cellular microenvironment and enhance throughput of the systems by lowering costs and reducing the amount of reagents and cells. Lumens (i.e., tubular structures) are ubiquitous in vivo being present in blood vessels, mammary ducts, prostate ducts, and the lymphatic system. Lumen structures of varying size and geometry are involved in key normal and disease processes including morphogenesis, angiogenesis, cancer development, and drug delivery. Therefore, there is a need for practical methods that create various lumen structures having different size and geometries to investigate how cells in the lumen structure respond to certain microenvironmental conditions during cancer development and progression. Here, we present a method to create multiple three-dimensional (3D) luminal structures, where parameters, such as size, geometry, and distance, can easily be controlled using simple poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro-molds. PMID:27581014

  17. Targeting Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α in a New Orthotopic Model of Glioblastoma Recapitulating the Hypoxic Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Nigim, Fares; Cavanaugh, Jill; Patel, Anoop P; Curry, William T; Esaki, Shin-ichi; Kasper, Ekkehard M; Chi, Andrew S; Louis, David N; Martuza, Robert L; Rabkin, Samuel D; Wakimoto, Hiroaki

    2015-07-01

    Tissue hypoxia and necrosis represent pathophysiologic and histologic hallmarks of glioblastoma (GBM). Although hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) plays crucial roles in the malignant phenotypes of GBM, developing HIF-1α-targeted agents has been hampered by the lack of a suitable preclinical model that recapitulates the complex biology of clinical GBM. We present a new GBM model, MGG123, which was established from a recurrent human GBM. Orthotopic xenografting of stem-like MGG123 cells reproducibly generated lethal tumors that were characterized by foci of palisading necrosis, hypervascularity, and robust stem cell marker expression. Perinecrotic neoplastic cells distinctively express HIF-1α and are proliferative in both xenografts and the patient tissue. The xenografts contain scattered hypoxic foci that were consistently greater than 50 μm distant from blood vessels, indicating intratumoral heterogeneity of oxygenation. Hypoxia enhanced HIF-1α expression in cultured MGG123 cells, which was abrogated by the HIF-1α inhibitors digoxin or ouabain. In vivo, treatment of orthotopic MGG123 xenografts with digoxin decreased HIF-1α expression, vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels, and CD34-positive vasculature within the tumors, and extended survival of mice bearing the aggressive MGG123 GBM. This preclinical tumor model faithfully recapitulates the GBM-relevant hypoxic microenvironment and stemness and is a suitable platform for studying disease biology and developing hypoxia-targeted agents. PMID:26083570

  18. SHMT2 drives glioma cell survival in the tumor microenvironment but imposes a dependence on glycine clearance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dohoon; Fiske, Brian P.; Birsoy, Kivanc; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Kami, Kenjiro; Possemato, Richard; Chudnovsky, Yakov; Pacold, Michael E.; Chen, Walter W.; Cantor, Jason R.; Shelton, Laura M.; Gui, Dan Y.; Kwon, Manjae; Ramkissoon, Shakti H.; Ligon, Keith L.; Kang, Seong Woo; Snuderl, Matija; Heiden, Matthew G. Vander; Sabatini, David M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cancer cells adapt their metabolic processes to support rapid proliferation, but less is known about how cancer cells alter metabolism to promote cell survival in a poorly vascularized tumor microenvironment1–3. Here, we identify a key role for serine and glycine metabolism in the survival of brain cancer cells within the ischemic zones of gliomas. In human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT2) and glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) are highly expressed in the pseudopalisading cells that surround necrotic foci. We find that SHMT2 activity limits that of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) and reduces oxygen consumption, eliciting a metabolic state that confers a profound survival advantage to cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions. GLDC inhibition impairs cells with high SHMT2 levels as the excess glycine not metabolized by GLDC can be converted to the toxic molecules aminoacetone and methylglyoxal. Thus, SHMT2 is required for cancer cells to adapt to the tumor environment, but also renders these cells sensitive to glycine cleavage system inhibition. PMID:25855294

  19. Targeting Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1α in a New Orthotopic Model of Glioblastoma Recapitulating the Hypoxic Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Nigim, Fares; Cavanaugh, Jill; Patel, Anoop P.; Curry, William T.; Esaki, Shin-ichi; Kasper, Ekkehard M.; Chi, Andrew S.; Louis, David N.; Martuza, Robert L.; Rabkin, Samuel D.; Wakimoto, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Tissue hypoxia and necrosis represent pathophysiological and histological hallmarks of glioblastoma (GBM). Although hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) plays crucial roles in the malignant phenotypes of GBM, developing HIF-1α-targeted agents has been hampered by the lack of a suitable preclinical model that recapitulates the complex biology of clinical GBM. We present a new GBM model, MGG123, which was established from a recurrent human GBM. Orthotopic xenografting of stem-like MGG123 cells reproducibly generated lethal tumors that were characterized by foci of palisading necrosis, hypervascularity, and robust stem cell marker expression. Perinecrotic neoplastic cells distinctively express HIF-1α and are proliferative in both xenografts and the patient tissue. The xenografts contain scattered hypoxic foci that were consistently >50 μm distant from blood vessels, indicating intratumoral heterogeneity of oxygenation. Hypoxia enhanced HIF-1α expression in cultured MGG123 cells, which was abrogated by the HIF-1α inhibitors digoxin or ouabain. In vivo, treatment of orthotopic MGG123 xenografts with digoxin decreased HIF-1α expression, vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels and CD34-positive vasculature within the tumors, and extended survival of mice bearing the aggressive MGG123 GBM. This preclinical tumor model faithfully recapitulates the GBM-relevant hypoxic microenvironment and stemness, and is a suitable platform for studying disease biology and developing hypoxia-targeted agents. PMID:26083570

  20. Cytotoxicity of Ferulic Acid on T24 Cell Line Differentiated by Different Microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chiung-Chi; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Wang, Hui-Er; Chang, Chi-Huang; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Chou, Kuang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) (FA) is a ubiquitous health beneficial phenolic acid. Although FA has shown a diversity of biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antihypercholesterolemic and anticancer bioactivities, studies revealing its adverse effects are accumulating. Recently, 3D-cultures are shown to exhibit uniquely biological behaviors different from that of 2D cultures. To understand whether the cytotoxicity of FA against the T24 cell line (a bladder cancer cell line) in 2D-culture could consistently retain similar bioactivity if cultured in the 3D-systems, we conducted this experiment with 2 mM FA. Much higher cytotoxicity was found for 3D- than 2D-culture, showing (2D vs. 3D): apoptotic rates, 64% and 76%; cell killing rates, 3.00 × 105 cells mmol−1·h−1 and 2.63 × 106 cells mmol−1·h−1, attaining a 8.77-fold. FA upregulated the activities at 72 h (2D vs. 3D in folds that of control): SOD, 1.73-folds (P < 0.05) versus 3.18 folds (P < 0.001); and catalase, 2.58 versus 1.33-folds. Comparing to the control (without FA), Bcl-2 was prominently downregulated while Bax, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 were more upregulated in 3D-cultures (P < 0.05). Conclusively, different microenvironments could elicit different biological significance which in part can be ascribed to different mass transport rate. PMID:23738328

  1. Control of CD8 T-cell Infiltration into Tumors by Vasculature and Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Peske, J. David; Woods, Amber B.; Engelhard, Victor H.

    2015-01-01

    CD8 T-cells are a critical brake on the initial development of tumors. In established tumors, the presence of CD8 T-cells is correlated with a positive patient prognosis, although immunosuppressive mechanisms limit their effectiveness and they are rarely curative without manipulation. Cancer immunotherapies aim to shift the balance back to dominant anti-tumor immunity through antibody blockade of immunosuppressive signaling pathways, vaccination, and adoptive transfer of activated or engineered T-cells. These approaches have yielded striking responses in small subsets of patients with solid tumors, most notably those with melanoma. Importantly, the subset of patients who respond to vaccination or immunosuppression blockade therapies are those with CD8 T-cells present in the tumor prior to initiating therapy. While current adoptive cell therapy approaches can be dramatically effective, they require infusion of extremely large numbers of T-cells, but the number that actually infiltrate the tumor is very small. Thus, poor representation of CD8 T-cells in tumors is a fundamental hurdle to successful immunotherapy, over and above the well-established barrier of immunosuppression. In this review, we discuss the factors that determine whether immune cells are present in tumors, with a focus on the representation of cytotoxic CD8 T-cells. We emphasize the critically important role of tumor-associated vasculature as a gateway that enables the active infiltration of both effector and naïve CD8 T-cells that exert anti-tumor activity. We also discuss strategies to enhance the gateway function and extend the effectiveness of immunotherapies to a broader set of cancer patients. PMID:26216636

  2. Reduction-responsive core-shell-corona micelles based on triblock copolymers: novel synthetic strategy, characterization, and application as a tumor microenvironment-responsive drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xubo; Liu, Peng

    2015-01-14

    A facile and effective approach was established for fabricating core-shell-corona micelles by self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(acrylic acid-co-tert-butyl acrylate)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG43-b-P(AA30-co-tBA18)-b-PCL53) triblock copolymer, synthesized via a combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), click chemistry, and hydrolyzation. The prenanovehicles with three different hydrolysis degrees from PEG43-b-PtBA48-b-PCL53 were developed to evaluate the drug loading capacity (DLC) and drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE). After cross-linking with a disulfide bond to regulate the drug release kinetics, the spherical core-shell-corona micelles with average diameter of 52 ± 4 nm were obtained in aqueous solution. The reduction-responsive cross-linked micelles showed a slow sustained release in normal physiological conditions and a rapid release upon exposure to simulated tumor intracellular conditions. In addition, the cytotoxic analysis and HepG2 cell growth inhibition assays demonstrated their remarkable biocompatibility and similar excellent anticancer activity as the free doxorubicin (DOX), which has also been revealed by the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) analysis. So the reduction-sensitive core-shell-corona micelles are expected to be promising tumor microenvironment-responsive nanovehicles for hydrophobic drugs by glutathione (GSH) triggering. PMID:25394962

  3. Nonlinear stability of a heterogeneous state in a PDE-ODE model for acid-mediated tumor invasion.

    PubMed

    Tao, Youshan; Tello, J Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    This work studies a general reaction-diffusion model for acid-mediated tumor invasion, where tumor cells produce excess acid that primarily kills healthy cells, and thereby invade the microenvironment. The acid diffuses and could be cleared by vasculature, and the healthy and tumor cells are viewed as two species following logistic growth with mutual competition. A key feature of this model is the density-limited diffusion for tumor cells, reflecting that a healthy tissue will spatially constrain a tumor unless shrunk. Under appropriate assumptions on model parameters and on initial data, it is shown that the unique heterogeneous state is nonlinearly stable, which implies a long-term coexistence of the healthy and tumor cells in certain parameter space. Our theoretical result suggests that acidity may play a significant role in heterogeneous tumor progression. PMID:26776259

  4. Insights into the role of components of the tumor microenvironment in oral carcinoma call for new therapeutic approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Salo, Tuula; Vered, Marilena; Bello, Ibrahim O.; Nyberg, Pia; Bitu, Carolina Cavalcante; Zlotogorski Hurvitz, Ayelet; Dayan, Dan

    2014-07-15

    The research on oral cancer has focused mainly on the cancer cells, their genetic changes and consequent phenotypic modifications. However, it is increasingly clear that the tumor microenvironment (TME) has been shown to be in a dynamic state of inter-relations with the cancer cells. The TME contains a variety of components including the non-cancerous cells (i.e., immune cells, resident fibroblasts and angiogenic vascular cells) and the ECM milieu [including fibers (mainly collagen and fibronectin) and soluble factors (i.e., enzymes, growth factors, cytokines and chemokines)]. Thus, it is currently assumed that TME is considered a part of the cancerous tissue and the functionality of its key components constitutes the setting on which the hallmarks of the cancer cells can evolve. Therefore, in terms of controlling a malignancy, one should control the growth, invasion and spread of the cancer cells through modifications in the TME components. This mini review focuses on the TME as a diagnostic approach and reports the recent insights into the role of different TME key components [such as carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and inflammation (CAI) cells, angiogenesis, stromal matrix molecules and proteases] in the molecular biology of oral carcinoma. Furthermore, the impact of TME components on clinical outcomes and the concomitant need for development of new therapeutic approaches will be discussed. - Highlights: • Tumor depth and budding, hypoxia and TME cells associate with worse prognosis. • Pro-tumoral CAFs and CAI cells aid proliferation, invasion and spread hypoxia. • Some ECM-bound factors exert pro-angiogenic or pro-tumor activities. • Tumor spread is greatly dependent on ECM proteolysis, mediated by TME cells. • Direct targeting of TME components for treatment is still experimental.

  5. Melanoma cell-derived exosomes promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition in primary melanocytes through paracrine/autocrine signaling in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Deyi; Barry, Samantha; Kmetz, Daniel; Egger, Michael; Pan, Jianmin; Rai, Shesh N; Qu, Jifu; McMasters, Kelly M; Hao, Hongying

    2016-07-01

    The tumor microenvironment is abundant with exosomes that are secreted by the cancer cells themselves. Exosomes are nanosized, organelle-like membranous structures that are increasingly being recognized as major contributors in the progression of malignant neoplasms. A critical element in melanoma progression is its propensity to metastasize, but little is known about how melanoma cell-derived exosomes modulate the microenvironment to optimize conditions for tumor progression and metastasis. Here, we provide evidence that melanoma cell-derived exosomes promote phenotype switching in primary melanocytes through paracrine/autocrine signaling. We found that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway was activated during the exosome-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-resembling process, which promotes metastasis. Let-7i, an miRNA modulator of EMT, was also involved in this process. We further defined two other miRNA modulators of EMT (miR-191 and let-7a) in serum exosomes for differentiating stage I melanoma patients from non-melanoma subjects. These results provide the first strong molecular evidence that melanoma cell-derived exosomes promote the EMT-resembling process in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, novel strategies targeting EMT and modulating the tumor microenvironment may emerge as important approaches for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:27063098

  6. Control of CD8 T-Cell Infiltration into Tumors by Vasculature and Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Peske, J David; Woods, Amber B; Engelhard, Victor H

    2015-01-01

    CD8 T-cells are a critical brake on the initial development of tumors. In established tumors, the presence of CD8 T-cells is correlated with a positive patient prognosis, although immunosuppressive mechanisms limit their effectiveness and they are rarely curative without manipulation. Cancer immunotherapies aim to shift the balance back to dominant antitumor immunity through antibody blockade of immunosuppressive signaling pathways, vaccination, and adoptive transfer of activated or engineered T-cells. These approaches have yielded striking responses in small subsets of patients with solid tumors, most notably those with melanoma. Importantly, the subset of patients who respond to vaccination or immunosuppression blockade therapies are those with CD8 T-cells present in the tumor prior to initiating therapy. While current adoptive cell therapy approaches can be dramatically effective, they require infusion of extremely large numbers of T-cells, but the number that actually infiltrates the tumor is very small. Thus, poor representation of CD8 T-cells in tumors is a fundamental hurdle to successful immunotherapy, over and above the well-established barrier of immunosuppression. In this review, we discuss the factors that determine whether immune cells are present in tumors, with a focus on the representation of cytotoxic CD8 T-cells. We emphasize the critically important role of tumor-associated vasculature as a gateway that enables the active infiltration of both effector and naïve CD8 T-cells that exert antitumor activity. We also discuss strategies to enhance the gateway function and extend the effectiveness of immunotherapies to a broader set of cancer patients. PMID:26216636

  7. Sodium-coupled sugar and amino acid transport in an acidic microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, G A; Clay, L P

    1988-01-01

    1. Nutrient transport mechanisms of lobster hepatopancreatic epithelial brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) are strongly influenced by the acidic nature of the tubular lumen. 2. Sodium-dependent glucose uptake by BBMV was electrogenic and was stimulated at low pH by reducing sugar transport Ki, without affecting JM. 3. Glutamate was largely transported in zwitterionic form at pH 4.0 by an electrically silent cotransport mechanism with both Na and Cl. 4. Increased H+ concentration tripled the apparent membrane permeability to glutamate as well as the amino acid transport JM. 5. At pH 4.0 leucine was transported as a cation by two dissimilar carrier systems: a Na-independent process shared by polar amino acids, and an electroneutral Na-2Cl-dependent mechanism shared with non-polar amino acids. 6. A model is proposed for hepatopancreatic BBMV at acidic pH which employs ionic chemical gradients and membrane potential as nutrient transport driving forces. PMID:2902970

  8. Boosting the MHC Class II-Restricted Tumor Antigen Presentation to CD4+ T Helper Cells: A Critical Issue for Triggering Protective Immunity and Re-Orienting the Tumor Microenvironment Toward an Anti-Tumor State

    PubMed Central

    Accolla, Roberto S.; Lombardo, Letizia; Abdallah, Rawan; Raval, Goutham; Forlani, Greta; Tosi, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Although the existence of an immune response against tumor cells is well documented, the fact that tumors take off in cancer patients indicates that neoplastic cells can circumvent this response. Over the years many investigators have described strategies to rescue the anti-tumor immune response with the aim of creating specific and long-lasting protection against the disease. When exported to human clinical settings, these strategies have revealed in most cases a very limited, if any, positive outcome. We believe that the failure is mostly due to the inadequate triggering of the CD4+ T helper (TH) cell arm of the adaptive immunity, as TH cells are necessary to trigger all the immune effector mechanisms required to eliminate tumor cells. In this review, we focus on novel strategies that by stimulating MHC class II-restricted activation of TH cells generate a specific and persistent adaptive immunity against the tumor. This point is of critical importance for both preventive and therapeutic anti-tumor vaccination protocols, because adaptive immunity with its capacity to produce specific, long-lasting protection and memory responses is indeed the final goal of vaccination. We will discuss data from our as well as other laboratories which strongly suggest that triggering a specific and persistent anti-tumor CD4+ TH cell response stably modify not only the tumor microenvironment but also tumor-dependent extratumor microenvironments by eliminating and/or reducing the blood-derived tumor infiltrating cells that may have a pro-tumor growth function such as regulatory CD4+/CD25+ T cells and myeloid-derived-suppressor cells. Within this frame, therefore, we believe that the establishment of a pro-tumor environment is not the cause but simply the consequence of the tumor strategy to primarily counteract components of the adaptive cellular immunity, particularly TH lymphocytes. PMID:24600588

  9. Spatiotemporal control of gene expression in bone-marrow derived cells of the tumor microenvironment induced by MRI guided focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Pierre-Yves; Lepetit-Coiffé, Matthieu; Genevois, Coralie; Debeissat, Christelle; Quesson, Bruno; Moonen, Chrit T W; Konsman, Jan Pieter; Couillaud, Franck

    2015-09-15

    The tumor microenvironment is an interesting target for anticancer therapies but modifying this compartment is challenging. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of a gene therapy strategy that combined targeting to bone marrow-derived tumor microenvironment using genetically modified bone-marrow derived cells and control of transgene expression by local hyperthermia through a thermo-inducible promoter. Chimera were obtained by engraftment of bone marrow from transgenic mice expressing reporter genes under transcriptional control of heat shock promoter and inoculated sub-cutaneously with tumors cells. Heat shocks were applied at the tumor site using a water bath or magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound device. Reporter gene expression was followed by bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging and immunohistochemistry. Bone marrow-derived cells expressing reporter genes were identified to be mainly tumor-associated macrophages. We thus provide the proof of concept for a gene therapy strategy that allows for spatiotemporal control of transgenes expression by macrophages targeted to the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26299614

  10. Spatiotemporal control of gene expression in bone-marrow derived cells of the tumor microenvironment induced by MRI guided focused ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Pierre-Yves; Lepetit-Coiffé, Matthieu; Genevois, Coralie; Debeissat, Christelle; Quesson, Bruno; Moonen, Chrit T.W.; Konsman, Jan Pieter; Couillaud, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is an interesting target for anticancer therapies but modifying this compartment is challenging. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of a gene therapy strategy that combined targeting to bone marrow-derived tumor microenvironment using genetically modified bone-marrow derived cells and control of transgene expression by local hyperthermia through a thermo-inducible promoter. Chimera were obtained by engraftment of bone marrow from transgenic mice expressing reporter genes under transcriptional control of heat shock promoter and inoculated sub-cutaneously with tumors cells. Heat shocks were applied at the tumor site using a water bath or magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound device. Reporter gene expression was followed by bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging and immunohistochemistry. Bone marrow-derived cells expressing reporter genes were identified to be mainly tumor-associated macrophages. We thus provide the proof of concept for a gene therapy strategy that allows for spatiotemporal control of transgenes expression by macrophages targeted to the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26299614

  11. Antitumor and chemosensitizing action of dichloroacetate implicates modulation of tumor microenvironment: A role of reorganized glucose metabolism, cell survival regulation and macrophage differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Ajay; Kant, Shiva; Singh, Sukh Mahendra

    2013-11-15

    Targeting of tumor metabolism is emerging as a novel therapeutic strategy against cancer. Dichloroacetate (DCA), an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), has been shown to exert a potent tumoricidal action against a variety of tumor cells. The main mode of its antineoplastic action implicates a shift of glycolysis to oxidative metabolism of glucose, leading to generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates. However, the effect of DCA on tumor microenvironment, which in turn regulates tumor cell survival; remains speculative to a large extent. It is also unclear if DCA can exert any modulatory effect on the process of hematopoiesis, which is in a compromised state in tumor-bearing hosts undergoing chemotherapy. In view of these lacunas, the present study was undertaken to investigate the so far unexplored aspects with respect to the molecular mechanisms of DCA-dependent tumor growth retardation and chemosensitization. BALB/c mice were transplanted with Dalton's lymphoma (DL) cells, a T cell lymphoma of spontaneous origin, followed by administration of DCA with or without cisplatin. DCA-dependent tumor regression and chemosensitization to cisplatin was found to be associated with altered repertoire of key cell survival regulatory molecules, modulated glucose metabolism, accompanying reconstituted tumor microenvironment with respect to pH homeostasis, cytokine balance and alternatively activated TAM. Moreover, DCA administration also led to an alteration in the MDR phenotype of tumor cells and myelopoietic differentiation of macrophages. The findings of this study shed a new light with respect to some of the novel mechanisms underlying the antitumor action of DCA and thus may have immense clinical applications. - Highlights: • DCA modulates tumor progression and chemoresistance. • DCA alters molecules regulating cell survival, glucose metabolism and MDR. • DCA reconstitutes biophysical and cellular composition of tumor microenvironment.

  12. Favorable Alteration of Tumor Microenvironment by Immunomodulatory Cytokines for Efficient T-Cell Therapy in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tähtinen, Siri; Kaikkonen, Saija; Merisalo-Soikkeli, Maiju; Grönberg-Vähä-Koskela, Susanna; Kanerva, Anna; Parviainen, Suvi; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Hemminki, Akseli

    2015-01-01

    Unfavorable ratios between the number and activation status of effector and suppressor immune cells infiltrating the tumor contribute to resistance of solid tumors to T-cell based therapies. Here, we studied the capacity of FDA and EMA approved recombinant cytokines to manipulate this balance in favor of efficient anti-tumor responses in B16.OVA melanoma bearing C57BL/6 mice. Intratumoral administration of IFN-α2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effect of ovalbumin-specific CD8+ T-cell (OT-I) therapy, whereas GM-CSF increased tumor growth in association with an increase in immunosuppressive cell populations. None of the cytokines augmented tumor trafficking of OT-I cells significantly, but injections of IFN-α2, IFN-γ and IL-2 increased intratumoral cytokine secretion and recruitment of endogenous immune cells capable of stimulating T-cells, such as natural killer and maturated CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells. Moreover, IFN-α2 and IL-2 increased the levels of activated tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells concomitant with reduction in the CD8+ T-cell expression of anergy markers CTLA-4 and PD-1. In conclusion, intratumoral administration of IFN-α2, IFN-γ and IL-2 can lead to immune sensitization of the established tumor, whereas GM-CSF may contribute to tumor-associated immunosuppression. The results described here provide rationale for including local administration of immunostimulatory cytokines into T-cell therapy regimens. One appealing embodiment of this would be vectored delivery which could be advantageous over direct injection of recombinant molecules with regard to efficacy, cost, persistence and convenience. PMID:26107883

  13. A transgenic red fluorescent protein-expressing nude mouse for color-coded imaging of the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Reynoso, Jose; Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M

    2009-02-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) is critical for tumor growth and progression. We have previously developed color-coded imaging of the TME using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic nude mouse as a host. However, most donor sources of cell types appropriate for study in the TME are from mice expressing GFP. Therefore, a nude mouse expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) would be an appropriate host for transplantation of GFP-expressing stromal cells as well as double-labeled cancer cells expressing GFP in the nucleus and RFP in the cytoplasm, thereby creating a three-color imaging model of the TME. The RFP nude mouse was obtained by crossing non-transgenic nude mice with the transgenic C57/B6 mouse in which the beta-actin promoter drives RFP (DsRed2) expression in essentially all tissues. In crosses between nu/nu RFP male mice and nu/+ RFP female mice, the embryos fluoresced red. Approximately 50% of the offspring of these mice were RFP nude mice. In the RFP nude mouse, the organs all brightly expressed RFP, including the heart, lungs, spleen, pancreas, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, the male and female reproductive systems; brain and spinal cord; and the circulatory system, including the heart, and major arteries and veins. The skinned skeleton highly expressed RFP. The bone marrow and spleen cells were also RFP positive. GFP-expressing human cancer cell lines, including HCT-116-GFP colon cancer and MDA-MB-435-GFP breast cancer were orthotopically transplanted to the transgenic RFP nude mice. These human tumors grew extensively in the transgenic RFP nude mouse. Dual-color fluorescence imaging enabled visualization of human tumor-host interaction. The RFP nude mouse model should greatly expand our knowledge of the TME. PMID:19097136

  14. Synergistic anti-tumor effects of zoledronic acid and radiotherapy against metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Morii, Kazuhiko; Aoyama, Yuhki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Okushin, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    A 72-year-old man with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensated hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis suffered from a metastatic femoral fracture. After undergoing radiotherapy, he was only treated with supportive care, except for the administration of zoledronic acid (ZA). Thereafter, the initially elevated serum α-fetoprotein and des-gamma carboxyprothrombin levels declined to within the normal ranges. Hepatic and metastatic adrenal tumors, distant from the radiation field, exhibited a surprising regression. ZA is known to inhibit the activity of osteoclasts, bone-residential macrophages, and has been reported to have a direct anti-tumor effect. ZA may adjust the immunological milieu in tumor microenvironments by inhibiting the tumor-associated macrophages. Because radiotherapy can enhance the presentation of tumor-associated antigens, ZA and radiotherapy may exert synergistic anti-tumor effects. PMID:26466697

  15. Capillary-wall collagen as a biophysical marker of nanotherapeutic permeability into the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Kenji; Kojic, Milos; Milosevic, Miljan; Tanei, Tomonori; Ferrari, Mauro; Ziemys, Arturas

    2014-01-01

    The capillary wall is the chief barrier to tissue entry of therapeutic nanoparticles, thereby dictating their efficacy. Collagen fibers are an important component of capillary walls, affecting leakiness in healthy or tumor vasculature. Using a computational model along with in vivo systems, we compared how collagen structure affects the diffusion flux of a 1 nm chemotherapeutic molecule (doxorubicin [DOX]) and an 80 nm chemotherapy-loaded pegylated liposome (DOX-PLD) in tumor vasculature. We found a direct correlation between the collagen content around a tumor vessel to the permeability of that vessel permeability to DOX-PLD, indicating that collagen content may offer a biophysical marker of extravasation potential of liposomal drug formulations. Our results also suggested that while pharmacokinetics determined the delivery of DOX and DOX-PLD to the same tumor phenotype, collagen content determined the extravasation of DOX-PLD to different tumor phenotypes. Transport physics may provide a deeper view into how nanotherapeutics cross biological barriers, possibly helping explain the balance between biological and physical aspects of drug delivery. PMID:24853545

  16. Water Dynamics in Living Cells and Tumor Cell Migration in Confined Microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Sean

    More than 70% of the total mass in living cells is water. In most biological scenarios water serves as a passive medium responsible for solvation and proper functioning of proteins. However, it has been long recognized that there are situations where dynamic transport of water in cells is important. First, cells actively transport water in order to maintain its volume, and because cell volume directly influences cell shape and internal hydrostatic pressure, it is a critical aspect of cell mechanics. Furthermore, cell volume is coupled to protein synthesis which ultimately determines the cell size. Therefore water transport and cell volume dynamics ultimately impact cell growth and division. Second, epithelial cells in organs such as the eye and kidney actively transport water across the cell membrane and the epithelial layer. Indeed, water channels such as aquaporins increase water permeability of the membrane and facilitate this transport. Recent, we have shown that in confined microenvironments, active transport of water is responsible for actin-independent cell movement in confined spaces, especially for cancer cells. These results suggest that cells actively control its water content. The active regulation of water content is a crucial aspect of cell dynamics. We will discuss a theoretical model of cell pressure/volume control. Implications of this model for active cell dynamics in multi-cellular epithelial sheets will be discussed.

  17. Hydrogels to Model 3D in vitro Microenvironment of Tumor Vascularization

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun-Ho Greco; Park, Kyung Min; Gerecht, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of failing clinical trials for cancer therapy is substantiating the need to upgrade the current practice in culturing tumor cells and modeling tumor angiogenesis in vitro. Many attempts have been made to engineer vasculature in vitro by utilizing hydrogels, but the application of these tools in simulating in vivo tumor angiogenesis is still very new. In this review, we explore current use of hydrogels and their design parameters to engineer vasculogenesis and angiogenesis and to evaluate the angiogenic capability of cancerous cells and tissues. When coupled with other technologies such as lithography and three-dimensional printing, one can even create an advanced microvessel model as microfluidic channels to more accurately capture the native angiogenesis process. PMID:24969477

  18. Effect of mid-late mouse fetus' microenvironment on the growth of tumor cells after intrauterine transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fang; Zhou, Lan; Fang, Liao-Qiong; Bai, Jin; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Zhi-Biao

    2007-06-01

    ) cells, AFP expression analyzed by RIA and RT-PCR indicated that no tumor cells were detected in the experimental groups. The F1 progenies developed normally without any signs of tumor development. Fluorescence analysis revealed that expression of PKC and PCNA was markedly reduced in the H(22) cells after injection for 24, 48, and 72 h. Our study showed that the tumor cells did not grow in the mice by intrauterine transplantation, whereas transplantation of the same number of tumor cells resulted in obvious ascites tumor in the adult and newborn mice. Furthermore, the differentiation and proliferation of H(22) cells changed dramatically after injection. Our results suggest that, while the embryonic transplantation of tumor cells does not affect fetal development, the survival and growth of implanted tumor cells may be significantly inhibited in the embryonic microenvironment. PMID:17276703

  19. Serial Low Doses of Sorafenib Enhance Therapeutic Efficacy of Adoptive T Cell Therapy in a Murine Model by Improving Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ren-Shyan; Hwang, Jeng-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Requirements of large numbers of transferred T cells and various immunosuppressive factors and cells in the tumor microenvironment limit the applications of adoptive T cells therapy (ACT) in clinic. Accumulating evidences show that chemotherapeutic drugs could act as immune supportive instead of immunosuppressive agents when proper dosage is used, and combined with immunotherapy often results in better treatment outcomes than monotherapy. Controversial immunomodulation effects of sorafenib, a multi-kinases inhibitor, at high and low doses have been reported in several types of cancer. However, what is the range of the low-dose sorafenib will influence the host immunity and responses of ACT is still ambiguous. Here we used a well-established E.G7/OT-1 murine model to understand the effects of serial low doses of sorafenib on both tumor microenvironment and transferred CD8+ T cells and the underlying mechanisms. Sorafenib lowered the expressions of immunosuppressive factors, and enhanced functions and migrations of transferred CD8+ T cells through inhibition of STAT3 and other immunosuppressive factors. CD8+ T cells were transduced with granzyme B promoter for driving imaging reporters to visualize the activation and distribution of transferred CD8+ T cells prior to adoptive transfer. Better activations of CD8+ T cells and tumor inhibitions were found in the combinational group compared with CD8+ T cells or sorafenib alone groups. Not only immunosuppressive factors but myeloid derived suppressive cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were decreased in sorafenib-treated group, indicating that augmentation of tumor inhibition and function of CD8+ T cells by serial low doses of sorafenib were via reversing the immunosuppressive microenvironment. These results revealed that the tumor inhibitions of sorafenib not only through eradicating tumor cells but modifying tumor microenvironment, which helps outcomes of ACT significantly. PMID:25333973

  20. Molecular Pathways: Immunosuppressive Roles of IRE1α-XBP1 Signaling in Dendritic Cells of the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Cubillos-Ruiz, Juan R; Bettigole, Sarah E; Glimcher, Laurie H

    2016-05-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a massive cytoplasmic membrane network that functions primarily to ensure proper folding and posttranslational modification of newly synthesized secreted and transmembrane proteins. Abnormal accumulation of unfolded proteins in this organelle causes a state of "ER stress," which is a hallmark feature of various diseases, including cancer, neurodegeneration, and metabolic dysfunction. Cancer cells exploit the IRE1α-XBP1 arm of the ER stress response to efficiently adjust their protein-folding capacity and ensure survival under hostile tumor microenvironmental conditions. However, we recently found that dendritic cells (DC) residing in the ovarian cancer microenvironment also experience sustained ER stress and demonstrate persistent activation of the IRE1α-XBP1 pathway. This previously unrecognized process disrupts metabolic homeostasis and antigen-presenting capacity in DCs, thereby crippling their natural ability to support the protective functions of infiltrating antitumor T cells. In this review, we briefly discuss some of the mechanisms that fuel ER stress in tumor-associated DCs, the biologic processes altered by aberrant IRE1α-XBP1 signaling in these innate immune cells, and the unique immunotherapeutic potential of targeting this pathway in cancer hosts. Clin Cancer Res; 22(9); 2121-6. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26979393

  1. Tumor microenvironment, a dangerous society leading to cancer metastasis. From mechanisms to therapy and prevention.

    PubMed

    Albini, Adriana

    2008-03-01

    Cancer is no longer considered by scientists just a jumble of mutated cells. To grow, invade and metastasize, a treacherous society between cancer and host cells must be formed, and this association provides novel and effective clinical targets for cancer control and prevention. This collection of reviews at the front-edge of scientific knowledge focuses on host-tumor cell interactions, the disastrous consequences they can produce and approaches the ways to break up these cellular conspiracies, to leave the tumor cells unattended and vulnerable. PMID:18043872

  2. Extracellular vesicles modulate the glioblastoma microenvironment via a tumor suppression signaling network directed by miR-1

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Michal O.; Peruzzi, Pierpaolo; Ansari, Khairul; Ogawa, Daisuke; Balaj, Leonora; De Rienzo, Gianluca; Mineo, Marco; Nakano, Ichiro; Ostrowski, Michael C.; Hochberg, Fred; Weissleder, Ralph; Lawler, Sean E.; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Godlewski, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as important mediators of intercellular communication in cancer, including by conveying tumor-promoting microRNAs between cells, but their regulation is poorly understood. In this study, we report the findings of a comparative microRNA profiling and functional analysis in human glioblastoma (GBM) that identifies miR-1 as an orchestrator of EV function and GBM growth and invasion. Ectopic expression of miR-1 in GBM cells blocked in vivo growth, neovascularization and invasiveness. These effects were associated with a role for miR-1 in intercellular communication in the microenvironment mediated by EVs released by cancer stem-like GBM cells. An EV-dependent phenotype defined by GBM invasion, neurosphere growth and endothelial tube formation was mitigated by loading miR-1 into GBM-derived EVs. Protein cargo in EVs was characterized to learn how miR-1 directed EV function. The mRNA encoding Annexin A2 (ANXA2), one of the most abundant proteins in GBM-derived EVs, was found to be a direct target of miR-1 control. In addition, EV-derived miR-1 along with other ANXA2 EV networking partners targeted multiple pro-oncogenic signals in cells within the GBM microenvironment. Together, our results showed how EV signalling promotes the malignant character of GBM and how ectopic expression of miR-1 can mitigate this character, with possible implications for how to develop a unique miRNA-based therapy for GBM management. PMID:24310399

  3. WE-E-BRE-06: High-Dose Microbeam Radiation Induces Different Responses in Tumor Microenvironment Compared to Conventional Seamless Radiation in Window Chamber Tumor Models

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S; Zhang, J; Hadsell, M; Fontanella, A; Schroeder, T; Palmer, G; Dewhirst, M; Boss, M; Berman, K

    2014-06-15

    portion of the tumor. Conclusion: Our preliminary study indicated that microbeam radiation modified tumor microenvironment in ways significantly different than of the conventional seamless radiation.

  4. Exosome-mediated transfer from the tumor microenvironment increases TGFβ signaling in squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Languino, Lucia R; Singh, Amrita; Prisco, Marco; Inman, Gareth J; Luginbuhl, Adam; Curry, Joseph M; South, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) signaling in cancer is context dependent and acts either as a tumor suppressor or a tumor promoter. Loss of function mutation in TGFβ type II receptor (TβRII) is a frequent event in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recently, heterogeneity of TGFβ response has been described at the leading edge of SCC and this heterogeneity has been shown to influence stem cell renewal and drug resistance. Because exosome transfer from stromal to breast cancer cells regulates therapy resistance pathways we investigated whether exosomes contain components of the TGFβ signaling pathway and whether exosome transfer between stromal fibroblasts and tumor cells can influence TGFβ signaling in SCC. We demonstrate that exosomes purified from stromal fibroblasts isolated from patients with oral SCC contains TβRII. We also demonstrate that transfer of fibroblast exosomes increases TGFβ signaling in SCC keratinocytes devoid of TβRII which remain non-responsive to TGFβ ligand in the absence of exosome transfer. Overall our data show that stromal communication with tumor cells can direct TGFβ signaling in SCC. PMID:27347352

  5. Exosome-mediated transfer from the tumor microenvironment increases TGFβ signaling in squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Languino, Lucia R; Singh, Amrita; Prisco, Marco; Inman, Gareth J; Luginbuhl, Adam; Curry, Joseph M; South, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) signaling in cancer is context dependent and acts either as a tumor suppressor or a tumor promoter. Loss of function mutation in TGFβ type II receptor (TβRII) is a frequent event in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recently, heterogeneity of TGFβ response has been described at the leading edge of SCC and this heterogeneity has been shown to influence stem cell renewal and drug resistance. Because exosome transfer from stromal to breast cancer cells regulates therapy resistance pathways we investigated whether exosomes contain components of the TGFβ signaling pathway and whether exosome transfer between stromal fibroblasts and tumor cells can influence TGFβ signaling in SCC. We demonstrate that exosomes purified from stromal fibroblasts isolated from patients with oral SCC contains TβRII. We also demonstrate that transfer of fibroblast exosomes increases TGFβ signaling in SCC keratinocytes devoid of TβRII which remain non-responsive to TGFβ ligand in the absence of exosome transfer. Overall our data show that stromal communication with tumor cells can direct TGFβ signaling in SCC. PMID:27347352

  6. Rescuing lymphocytes from HLA-G immunosuppressive effects mediated by the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Danli; Kuiaste, Isere; Moreau, Philippe; Carosella, Edgardo; Yotnda, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the antitumor activities of both T and natural killer (NK) effector populations are limited by the immunosuppressive strategies of tumors. In several malignant transformations, the expression of HLA-G by tumor cells rises dramatically, rendering them strongly immunosuppressive. In this study, we postulated that the absence of HLA-G receptors would prevent the immunosuppressive effects of both soluble and membrane-bound HLA-G. Thus, we investigated the therapeutic potential of effector NK cells genetically modified to downregulate the expression of ILT2 (HLA-G receptor) on their cell surfaces. We have shown that the proliferation of modified NK is still dependent on stimulation signals (no malignant transformation). ILT2− NK cells proliferate, migrate, and eliminate HLA-G negative targets cells to the same extent parental NK cells do. However, in the presence of HLA-G positive tumors, ILT2− NK cells exhibit superior proliferation, conjugate formation, degranulation, and killing activities compared to parent NK cells. We tested the effectiveness of ILT2− NK cells in vivo using a xenograft cancer model and found that silencing ILT2 rescued their anti-tumor activity. We believe that combining ILT2− NK cells with existing therapeutic strategies will strengthen the antitumor response in cancer patients. PMID:26460949

  7. Targeting Mast Cells Tryptase in Tumor Microenvironment: A Potential Antiangiogenetic Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ammendola, Michele; Leporini, Christian; Marech, Ilaria; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; Scognamillo, Giovanni; Sacco, Rosario; Sammarco, Giuseppe; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Russo, Emilio; Ranieri, Girolamo

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a complex process finely regulated by the balance between angiogenesis stimulators and inhibitors. As a result of proangiogenic factors overexpression, it plays a crucial role in cancer development. Although initially mast cells (MCs) role has been defined in hypersensitivity reactions and in immunity, it has been discovered that MCs have a crucial interplay on the regulatory function between inflammatory and tumor cells through the release of classical proangiogenic factors (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor) and nonclassical proangiogenic mediators granule-associated (mainly tryptase). In fact, in several animal and human malignancies, MCs density is highly correlated with tumor angiogenesis. In particular, tryptase, an agonist of the proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), represents one of the most powerful angiogenic mediators released by human MCs after c-Kit receptor activation. This protease, acting on PAR-2 by its proteolytic activity, has angiogenic activity stimulating both human vascular endothelial and tumor cell proliferation in paracrine manner, helping tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Based on literature data it is shown that tryptase may represent a promising target in cancer treatment due to its proangiogenic activity. Here we focused on molecular mechanisms of three tryptase inhibitors (gabexate mesylate, nafamostat mesylate, and tranilast) in order to consider their prospective role in cancer therapy. PMID:25295247

  8. The Prostate Tumor Microenvironment Exhibits differentially expressed Genes Useful for Diagnosis — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    To develop a multi-site prospective clinical validation trial of the multigene diagnostic signature for the diagnosis of prostate cancer from non tumor containing biopsy tissue. Prostate cancer now affects one in five men in the U.S. It is diagnosed by examination of a biopsy sample of the prostate gland by a pathologist and treatment decisions such as the choice of surgery are usually not made without direct visualization of the presence of cancer by a pathologist. There are about one million such biopsy procedures in the U.S. every year. However about 1-200,000 are ambiguous owing to the absence of tumor but the presence of small changes such as atypical small acinar proliferations (ASAP) or proliferations within otherwise normal glands (PIN, prostate intraepithelial neoplasia) that are highly suspicious for cancer. Studies by the UCI/NCI SPECS project on prostate cancer have led to a new way to diagnosis the presence of prostate cancer in these ambiguous changes. Researchers of the UCI/NCI SPECS project observed that the tissue around a tumor called stroma has many altered gene activities that are caused by molecules secreted by the tumor cells. Indeed these studies revealed that 114 genes exhibited altered activity in stroma near tumor compared to normal stroma. These changes can be used as a “signature” to examine new samples to determine the “presence of-tumor”. Such a test has many applications. Currently ambiguous cases are asked to return for a repeat biopsy in 3 to 12 months – an agonizing period for patients during which they receive no guidance and during which any tumor may continue to grow and spread. Thus, the new test would detect tumor 3 to 12 months prior to conventional practice. This will avoid repeated biopsy procedures. Patients who are positive by the new test may consider whether immediate medical treatment or neo adjuvant treatment is appropriate. In addition the ability to detect presence-of-tumor early will avoid the necessity

  9. The Role of Heparanase and Sulfatases in the Modification of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans within the Tumor Microenvironment and Opportunities for Novel Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Edward; Khurana, Ashwani; Shridhar, Viji; Dredge, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are an integral and dynamic part of normal tissue architecture at the cell surface and within the extracellular matrix. The modification of HSPGs in the tumor microenvironment is known to result not just in structural but also functional consequences, which significantly impact cancer progression. As substrates for the key enzymes sulfatases and heparanase, the modification of HSPGs is typically characterized by the degradation of heparan sulfate (HS) chains/sulfation patterns via the endo-6-O-sulfatases (Sulf1 and Sulf2) or by heparanase, an endo-glycosidase that cleaves the HS polymers releasing smaller fragments from HSPG complexes. Numerous studies have demonstrated how these enzymes actively influence cancer cell proliferation, signaling, invasion, and metastasis. The activity or expression of these enzymes has been reported to be modified in a variety of cancers. Such observations are consistent with the degradation of normal architecture and basement membranes, which are typically compromised in metastatic disease. Moreover, recent studies elucidating the requirements for these proteins in tumor initiation and progression exemplify their importance in the development and progression of cancer. Thus, as the influence of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression becomes more apparent, the focus on targeting enzymes that degrade HSPGs highlights one approach to maintain normal tissue architecture, inhibit tumor progression, and block metastasis. This review discusses the role of these enzymes in the context of the tumor microenvironment and their promise as therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25105093

  10. Targeting CSCs in Tumor Microenvironment: The Potential Role of ROS-Associated miRNAs in Tumor Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Bin; Azmi, Asfar S.; Li, Yiwei; Ahmad, Aamir; Ali, Shadan; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Kong, Dejuan; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been widely considered as critical cellular signaling molecules involving in various biological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. The homeostasis of ROS is critical to maintain normal biological processes. Increased production of ROS, namely oxidative stress, due to either endogenous or exogenous sources causes irreversible damage of bio-molecules such as DNA, proteins, lipids, and sugars, leading to genomic instability, genetic mutation, and altered gene expression, eventually contributing to tumorigenesis. A great amount of experimental studies in vitro and in vivo have produced solid evidence supporting that oxidative stress is strongly associated with increased tumor cell growth, treatment resistance, and metastasis, and all of which contribute to tumor aggressiveness. More recently, the data have indicated that altered production of ROS is also associated with cancer stem cells (CSCs), epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and hypoxia, the most common features or phenomena in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. However, the exact mechanism by which ROS is involved in the regulation of CSC and EMT characteristics as well as hypoxia- and, especially, HIF-mediated pathways is not well known. Emerging evidence suggests the role of miRNAs in tumorigenesis and progression of human tumors. Recently, the data have indicated that altered productions of ROS are associated with deregulated expression of miRNAs, suggesting their potential roles in the regulation of ROS production. Therefore, targeting ROS mediated through the deregulation of miRNAs by novel approaches or by naturally occurring anti-oxidant agents such as genistein could provide a new therapeutic approach for the prevention and/or treatment of human malignancies. In this article, we will discuss the potential role of miRNAs in the regulation of ROS production during tumorigenesis. Finally, we will discuss

  11. Extranodal induction of therapeutic immunity in the tumor microenvironment after intratumoral delivery of Tbet gene-modified dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Taylor, Jennifer L.; Sabins, Nina Chi; Lowe, Devin B.; Qu, Yanyan; You, Zhaoyang; Storkus, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    Murine dendritic cells (DC) transduced to express the Type-1 transactivator T-bet (i.e. mDC.Tbet) and delivered intratumorally (i.t.) as a therapy are superior to control wild-type DC in slowing the growth of established subcutaneous (s.c.) MCA205 sarcomas in vivo. Optimal anti-tumor efficacy of mDC.Tbet-based gene therapy was dependent on host NK cells and CD8+ T cells, and required mDC.Tbet expression of MHC class I molecules, but was independent of the capacity of the injected mDC.Tbet to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-12 family members or IFN-γ) or to migrate to tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLN) based on CCR7 ligand chemokine recruitment. Conditional (CD11c-DTR) or genetic (BATF3−/−) deficiency in host antigen crosspresenting DC did not diminish the therapeutic action of i.t.-delivered wild-type mDC.Tbet. Interestingly, we observed that i.t delivery of mDC.Tbet (versus control mDC.Null) promoted the acute infiltration of NK cells and naïve CD45RB+ T cells into the tumor microenvironment (TME) in association with elevated expression of NK- and T cell-recruiting chemokines by mDC.Tbet. When taken together, our data support a paradigm for extranodal (cross)priming of therapeutic Type-1 immunity in the TME after i.t. delivery of mDC.Tbet-based gene therapy. PMID:23846252

  12. Noninvasive assessment of tumor microenvironment using dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and 18F- fluoromisonidazole PET imaging in neck nodal metastases

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Jacobus F. A.; Schöder, Heiko; Lee, Nancy Y.; Wang, Ya; Pfister, David. G.; Fury, Matthew G.; Stambuk, Hilda. E.; Humm, John L.; Koutcher, Jason A.; Shukla-Dave, Amita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Pretreatment multimodality imaging can provide useful anatomical and functional data about tumors, including perfusion and possibly hypoxia status. The purpose of our study was to assess non-invasively the tumor microenvironment of neck nodal metastases in patients with head and neck (HN) cancer by investigating the relationship between tumor perfusion measured using Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and hypoxia measured by 18F-fluoromisonidazole (18F-FMISO) PET. Methods and Materials Thirteen newly diagnosed HN cancer patients with metastatic neck nodes underwent DCE-MRI and 18F-FMISO PET imaging prior to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The matched regions of interests from both modalities were analyzed. To examine the correlations between DCE-MRI parameters and standard uptake value (SUV) measurements from 18F-FMISO PET, the non-parametric Spearman correlation coefficient was calculated. Furthermore, DCE-MRI parameters were compared between nodes with 18F-FMISO uptake and nodes with no 18F-FMISO uptake using Mann-Whitney U tests. Results For the 13 patients, a total of 18 nodes were analyzed. The nodal size strongly correlated with the 18F-FMISO SUV (ρ=0.74, p<0.001). There was a strong negative correlation between the median kep (ρ=−0.58, p=0.042) and the 18F-FMISO SUV. Hypoxic nodes (moderate to severe 18F-FMISO uptake) had significantly lower median Ktrans (p=0.049) and median kep (p=0.027) values than did non-hypoxic nodes (no 18F-FMISO uptake). Conclusion This initial evaluation of the preliminary results support the hypothesis that in metastatic neck lymph nodes, hypoxic nodes are poorly perfused (i.e., have significantly lower kep and Ktrans values) compared to non-hypoxic nodes. PMID:19906496

  13. Modeling alveolar soft part sarcomagenesis in the mouse: a role for lactate in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Matthew L.; Jin, Huifeng; Straessler, Krystal; Smith-Fry, Kyllie; Zhu, Ju-Fen; Monument, Michael J.; Grossmann, Allie; Randall, R. Lor; Capecchi, Mario R.; Jones, Kevin B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS), a deadly soft tissue malignancy with a predilection for adolescents and young adults, associates consistently with t(X;17) translocations that generate the fusion gene ASPSCR1-TFE3. We proved the oncogenic capacity of this fusion gene by driving sarcomagenesis in mice from conditional ASPSCR1-TFE3 expression. The completely penetrant tumors were indistinguishable from human ASPS by histology and gene expression. They formed preferentially in the anatomic environment highest in lactate--the cranial vault--, expressed high levels of lactate importers, harbored abundant mitochondria, metabolized lactate as a metabolic substrate and responded to the administration of exogenous lactate with tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. These data demonstrate lactate’s role as a driver of alveolar soft part sarcomagenesis. PMID:25453902

  14. NCAM- and FGF-2-mediated FGFR1 signaling in the tumor microenvironment of esophageal cancer regulates the survival and migration of tumor-associated macrophages and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Takase, Nobuhisa; Koma, Yu-Ichiro; Urakawa, Naoki; Nishio, Mari; Arai, Noriaki; Akiyama, Hiroaki; Shigeoka, Manabu; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Yokozaki, Hiroshi

    2016-09-28

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have important roles in the angiogenesis and tumor immunosuppression of various cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs). To elucidate the roles of TAMs in ESCCs, we compared the gene expression profiles between human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophage-like cells (Macrophage_Ls) and Macrophage_Ls stimulated with conditioned medium of the TE series human ESCC cell line (TECM) (TAM_Ls) using cDNA microarray analysis. Among the highly expressed genes in TAM_Ls, we focused on neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). NCAM knockdown in TAM_Ls revealed a significant decrease of migration and survival via a suppression of PI3K-Akt and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) signaling. Stimulation by TECM up-regulated the level of FGFR1 in Macrophage_Ls. Recombinant human fibroblast growth factor-2 (rhFGF-2) promoted the migration and survival of TAM_Ls and TE-cells through FGFR1 signaling. Our immunohistochemical analysis of 70 surgically resected ESCC samples revealed that the up-regulated FGF-2 in stromal cells, including macrophages, was associated with more aggressive phenotypes and a high number of infiltrating M2 macrophages. These findings may indicate a novel role of NCAM- and FGF-2-mediated FGFR1 signaling in the tumor microenvironment of ESCCs. PMID:27317650

  15. Tissue Factor Regulation by miR-520g in Primitive Neuronal Brain Tumor Cells: A Possible Link between Oncomirs and the Vascular Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    D'Asti, Esterina; Huang, Annie; Kool, Marcel; Meehan, Brian; Chan, Jennifer A; Jabado, Nada; Korshunov, Andrey; Pfister, Stefan M; Rak, Janusz

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric embryonal brain tumors with multilayered rosettes demonstrate a unique oncogenic amplification of the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster, C19MC. Because oncogenic lesions often cause deregulation of vascular effectors, including procoagulant tissue factor (TF), this study explores whether there is a link between C19MC oncogenic miRNAs (oncomirs) and the coagulant properties of cancer cells, a question previously not studied. In a pediatric embryonal brain tumor tissue microarray, we observed an association between C19MC amplification and reduced fibrin content and TF expression, indicative of reduced procoagulant activity. In medulloblastoma cell lines (DAOY and UW228) engineered to express miR-520g, a biologically active constituent of the C19MC cluster, we observed reduced TF expression, procoagulant and TF signaling activities (responses to factor VIIa stimulation), and diminished TF emission as cargo of extracellular vesicles. Antimir and luciferase reporter assays revealed a specific and direct effect of miR-520g on the TF 3' untranslated region. Although the endogenous MIR520G locus is methylated in differentiated cells, exposure of DAOY cells to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine or their growth as stem cell-like spheres up-regulated endogenous miR-520g with a coincident reduction in TF expression. We propose that the properties of tumors harboring oncomirs may include unique alterations of the vascular microenvironment, including deregulation of TF, with a possible impact on the biology, therapy, and hemostatic adverse effects of both disease progression and treatment. PMID:26687818

  16. Differential expression of mitotic regulators and tumor microenvironment influences the regional growth pattern of solid sarcoma along the cranio-caudal axis.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sukalpa; Chaklader, Malay; Chatterjee, Ritam; Law, Aditya; Law, Sujata

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are relatively rare, unusual, anatomically diverse group of malignancies. According to the recent literature and medical bulletins, tumor growth and aggressiveness immensely relies on its anatomical locations. However, it is unclear whether the cranio-caudal anatomical axis of the mammalian body can influence sarcoma development and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet deciphered. Here, we investigated the growth pattern of solid sarcoma implanted into the murine cranial and caudal anatomical locations and tried to explore the location specific expression pattern of crucial mammalian mitotic regulators such as Aurora kinase A, Histone H3 and c-Myc in the cranio-caudally originated solid tumors. In addition, the influence of local tumor microenvironment on regional sarcoma growth was also taken into consideration. We found that solid sarcoma developed differentially when implanted into two different anatomical locations and most notably, enhanced tumor growth was observed in case of cranially implanted sarcoma than the caudal sarcoma. Interestingly, Aurora kinase A and c-Myc expression and histone H3 phosphorylation level were comparatively higher in the cranial tumor than the caudal. In addition, variation of tumor stroma in a location specific manner also facilitated tumor growth. Cranial sarcoma microenvironment was well vascularized than the caudal one and consequently, a significantly higher microvessel density count was observed which was parallel with low hypoxic response with sign of local tumor inflammation in this region. Taken together, our findings suggest that differential gradient of mitotic regulators together with varied angiogenic response and local tumor microenvironment largely controls solid sarcoma growth along the cranio-caudal anatomical axis. PMID:26658517

  17. PD-1 Shapes B Cells as Evildoers in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhenhua; Peng, Hua; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2016-05-01

    Protumorigenic PD-1(hi) B cells, induced in hepatocellular carcinoma, suppress tumor-specific T-cell response via IL10-dependent pathways upon PD-1/PD-L1 interaction. Anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies may function not only through blocking the PD-1 coinhibitory pathway in T cells but also via abolishing the suppressive function of regulatory B cells. Cancer Discov; 6(5); 477-8. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Xiao et al., p. 546. PMID:27138562

  18. CXCL12 is a key regulator in tumor microenvironment of cervical cancer: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Suresh Singh; Prasad, Shyam Babu; Prasad, Chandra Bhushan; Pandey, Lakshmi Kant; Pradhan, Satyajit; Singh, Sunita; Narayan, Gopeshwar

    2016-06-01

    CXCL12 is a small pro-inflammatory chemo-attractant cytokine which signals through chemokine receptor CXCR4. The importance of CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is coming to the fore in several divergent signaling pathway-initiating signals related to cell survival and/or proliferation and cancer metastasis. In the present study we have investigated whether deregulation in CXCR4 signaling (as a consequence of deregulated expression of CXCL12) modulate the metastatic potential of cervical carcinoma cells. We demonstrate that CXCL12 is frequently down regulated and its promoter is hypermethylated in cervical cancer cell lines and primary tumor biopsies. Exogenous treatment of cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, SiHa and C-33A) with recombinant CXCL12 inhibited the metastasis promoting cell migration, cell invasion and anchorage independent cell growth events. Although this study will need further in vivo validation, our observations suggest that (a) silencing of CXCL12 in cervical cancer cells may be critical in migration and invasion, the key events in cancer cell metastases; (b) cervical cancer cells having down regulated CXCL12 are more prone to being attracted to CXCL12 expressed at secondary sites of metastases; and (c) CXCL12 inhibits anchorage independent cell growth via anoikis. These findings suggest the tumor suppressor functions of CXCL12 in cervical cancer. PMID:26970955

  19. Characterization of Cell-Type-Specific Drug Transport and Resistance of Breast Cancers Using Tumor-Microenvironment-on-Chip.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyeonggon; Klosterhoff, Brett S; Han, Bumsoo

    2016-07-01

    Heterogeneous response and resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs pose a significant challenge for successful cancer treatments. In this study, an integrated experimental and theoretical analysis of cellular drug transport was developed. The experimental platform, called tumor-microenvironment-on-chip (T-MOC), is a microfluidic platform where cancer cells were cultured within a three-dimensional extracellular matrix perfused with interstitial fluid. Three types of human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and SUM-159PT) were cultured on this T-MOC platform, and their drug response and resistance to doxorubicin were characterized by time-lapse quantitative fluorescence microscopy. To study the effects of nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery, the transport and action of doxorubicin encapsulated nanoparticles were also examined. Based on the experimental data obtained, a theoretical model was developed to quantify and ultimately predict the cellular transport processes of drugs cell-type specifically. The results demonstrate that the cellular drug transport can be cell-type-specifically quantified by rate constants representing the uptake and efflux of doxorubicin across the cellular membrane. PMID:27228477

  20. Matrix metalloproteinase triggered size-shrinkable gelatin-gold fabricated nanoparticles for tumor microenvironment sensitive penetration and diagnosis of glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Shaobo; He, Qin; Gao, Huile

    2015-05-01

    To improve glioma targeting delivery efficiency and to monitor drug delivery and treatment outcome, a novel tumor microenvironment sensitive size-shrinkable theranostic system was constructed and evaluated. The G-AuNPs-DC-RRGD system was constructed by fabricating small sized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) degradable gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs), doxorubicin (DOX) and Cy5.5 were decorated onto AuNPs through a hydrazone bond to enable the system with pH triggered cargoes release, and RRGD, a tandem peptide of RGD and octarginine was surface-modified onto the system to enable it with glioma active targeting ability. In vitro, the size of G-AuNPs-DC-RRGD could effectively shrink from 188.2 nm to 55.9 nm after incubation with MMP-2, while DOX and Cy5.5 were released in a pH dependent manner. Cellular uptake demonstrated that G-AuNPs-DC-RRGD could be effectively taken up by cells with higher intensity than G-AuNPs-DC-PEG. A study of tumor spheroids further demonstrated that the particles with smaller size showed better penetration ability, while RRGD modification could further improve permeability. In vivo, G-AuNPs-DC-RRGD displayed the best glioma targeting and accumulation efficiency, with good colocalization with neovessels. Cy5.5 also was colocalized well with DOX, indicating that Cy5.5 could be used for imaging of DOX delivery.To improve glioma targeting delivery efficiency and to monitor drug delivery and treatment outcome, a novel tumor microenvironment sensitive size-shrinkable theranostic system was constructed and evaluated. The G-AuNPs-DC-RRGD system was constructed by fabricating small sized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) degradable gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs), doxorubicin (DOX) and Cy5.5 were decorated onto AuNPs through a hydrazone bond to enable the system with pH triggered cargoes release, and RRGD, a tandem peptide of RGD and octarginine was surface-modified onto the system to

  1. Biomaterials approaches to modeling macrophage-extracellular matrix interactions in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nora L; Fischbach, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Tumors are characterized by aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and chronic inflammation. While advances in biomaterials and tissue engineering strategies have led to important new insights regarding the role of ECM composition, structure, and mechanical properties in cancer in general, the functional link between these parameters and macrophage phenotype is poorly understood. Nevertheless, increasing experimental evidence suggests that macrophage behavior is similarly controlled by physicochemical properties of the ECM and consequential changes in mechanosignaling. Here, we will summarize the current knowledge of macrophage biology and ECM-mediated differences in mechanotransduction and discuss future opportunities of biomaterials and tissue engineering platforms to interrogate the functional relationship between these parameters and their relevance to cancer. PMID:26921768

  2. Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Vakoc, Benjamin J; Lanning, Ryan M; Tyrrell, James A; Padera, Timothy P; Bartlett, Lisa A; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos; Munn, Lance L; Tearney, Guillermo J; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K; Bouma, Brett E

    2009-01-01

    Intravital multiphoton microscopy has provided powerful mechanistic insights into health and disease, and has become a common instrument in the modern biological laboratory. The requisite high numerical aperture and exogenous contrast agents that enable multiphoton microscopy, however, limit ability to investigate substantial tissue volumes or to probe dynamic changes repeatedly over prolonged periods. Here, we introduce optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) as an intravital microscopy that circumvents the technical limitations of multiphoton microscopy and, as a result, provides unprecedented access to previously unexplored, critically important aspects of tissue biology. Using novel OFDI-based approaches and entirely intrinsic mechanisms of contrast, we present rapid and repeated measurements of tumor angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, tissue viability and both vascular and cellular responses to therapy, thereby demonstrating the potential of OFDI to facilitate the exploration of physiological and pathological processes and the evaluation of treatment strategies. PMID:19749772

  3. Didymin reverses phthalate ester-associated breast cancer aggravation in the breast cancer tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    HSU, YA-LING; HSIEH, CHIA-JUNG; TSAI, EING-MEI; HUNG, JEN-YU; CHANG, WEI-AN; HOU, MING-FENG; KUO, PO-LIN

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrated two novel findings. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first study to demonstrate that regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), produced by breast tumor-associated monocyte-derived dendritic cells (TADCs) following breast cancer cell exposure to phthalate esters, may contribute to the progression of cancer via enhancement of cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, the present study revealed that didymin, a dietary flavonoid glycoside present in citrus fruits, was able to reverse phthalate ester-mediated breast cancer aggravation. MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) or di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Subsequently, the conditioned medium (CM) was harvested and cultured with monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mdDCs). Cultures of MDA-MB-231 cells with the conditioned medium of BBP-, DBP- or DEHP-MDA-MB-231 tumor-associated mdDCs (BBP-, DBP- or DEHP-MDA-TADC-CM) demonstrated enhanced proliferation, migration and invasion. Exposure of the MDA-MB-231 cells to DBP induced the MDA-TADCs to produce the inflammatory cytokine RANTES, which subsequently induced MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Depleting RANTES reversed the effects of DBP-MDA-TADC-mediated MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In addition, didymin was observed to suppress phthalate-mediated breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The present study suggested that didymin was capable of preventing phthalate ester-associated cancer aggravation. PMID:26893687

  4. Transcriptional Activation by NFκB Increases Perlecan/HSPG2 Expression in the Desmoplastic Prostate Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Curtis R.; Grindel, Brian J.; Francis, Lewis; Carson, Daniel D.; Farach-Carson, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Perlecan/HSPG2, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan typically found at tissue borders including those separating epithelia and connective tissue, increases near sites of invasion of primary prostatic tumors as previously shown for other proteins involved in desmoplastic tissue reaction. Studies of prostate cancer cells and stromal cells from both prostate and bone, the major site for prostate cancer metastasis, showed that cancer cells and a subset of stromal cells increased production of perlecan in response to cytokines present in the tumor microenvironment. In silico analysis of the HSPG2 promoter revealed two conserved NFκB binding sites, in addition to the previously reported SMAD3 binding sites. By systematically transfecting cells with a variety of reporter constructs including sequences up to 2.6 kb from the start site of transcription, we identified an active cis element in the distal region of the HSPG2 promoter, and showed that it functions in regulating transcription of HSPG2. Treatment with TNF-α and/or TGFβ1 identified TNF-α as a major cytokine regulator of perlecan production. TNF-α treatment also triggered p65 nuclear translocation and binding to the HSPG2 regulatory region in stromal cells and cancer cells. In addition to stromal induction of perlecan production in the prostate, we identified a matrix-secreting bone marrow stromal cell type that may represent the source for increases in perlecan in the metastatic bone marrow environment. These studies implicate perlecan in cytokine-mediated, innate tissue responses to cancer cell invasion, a process we suggest reflects a modified wound healing tissue response co-opted by prostate cancer cells. PMID:24700612

  5. Paracrine Interactions between Adipocytes and Tumor Cells Recruit and Modify Macrophages to the Mammary Tumor Microenvironment: The Role of Obesity and Inflammation in Breast Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Santander, Ana M.; Lopez-Ocejo, Omar; Casas, Olivia; Agostini, Thais; Sanchez, Lidia; Lamas-Basulto, Eduardo; Carrio, Roberto; Cleary, Margot P.; Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben R.; Torroella-Kouri, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and breast cancer (BC) has focused on serum factors. However, the mammary gland contains adipose tissue (AT) which may enable the crosstalk between adipocytes and tumor cells contributing to tumor macrophage recruitment. We hypothesize that the breast AT (bAT) is inflamed in obese females and plays a major role in breast cancer development. The effects of this interplay on macrophage chemotaxis were examined in vitro, using co-cultures of mouse macrophages, mammary tumor cells and adipocytes. Macrophages were exposed to the adipocyte and tumor paracrine factors leptin, CCL2 and lauric acid (alone or in combinations). In cell supernatants Luminex identified additional molecules with chemotactic and other pro-tumor functions. Focus on the adipokine leptin, which has been shown to have a central role in breast cancer pathogenesis, indicated it modulates macrophage phenotypes and functions. In vivo experiments demonstrate that mammary tumors from obese mice are larger and that bAT from obese tumor-bearers contains higher numbers of macrophages/CLS and hypertrophic adipocytes than bAT from lean tumor-bearers, thus confirming it is more inflamed. Also, bAT distal from the tumor is more inflamed in obese than in lean mice. Our results reveal that bAT plays a role in breast cancer development in obesity. PMID:25599228

  6. Three-dimensional lung tumor microenvironment modulates therapeutic compound responsiveness in vitro--implication for drug development.

    PubMed

    Ekert, Jason E; Johnson, Kjell; Strake, Brandy; Pardinas, Jose; Jarantow, Stephen; Perkinson, Robert; Colter, David C

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture is gaining acceptance in response to the need for cellular models that better mimic physiologic tissues. Spheroids are one such 3D model where clusters of cells will undergo self-assembly to form viable, 3D tumor-like structures. However, to date little is known about how spheroid biology compares to that of the more traditional and widely utilized 2D monolayer cultures. Therefore, the goal of this study was to characterize the phenotypic and functional differences between lung tumor cells grown as 2D monolayer cultures, versus cells grown as 3D spheroids. Eight lung tumor cell lines, displaying varying levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cMET protein expression, were used to develop a 3D spheroid cell culture model using low attachment U-bottom plates. The 3D spheroids were compared with cells grown in monolayer for 1) EGFR and cMET receptor expression, as determined by flow cytometry, 2) EGFR and cMET phosphorylation by MSD assay, and 3) cell proliferation in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In addition, drug responsiveness to EGFR and cMET inhibitors (Erlotinib, Crizotinib, Cetuximab [Erbitux] and Onartuzumab [MetMab]) was evaluated by measuring the extent of cell proliferation and migration. Data showed that EGFR and cMET expression is reduced at day four of untreated spheroid culture compared to monolayer. Basal phosphorylation of EGFR and cMET was higher in spheroids compared to monolayer cultures. Spheroids showed reduced EGFR and cMET phosphorylation when stimulated with ligand compared to 2D cultures. Spheroids showed an altered cell proliferation response to HGF, as well as to EGFR and cMET inhibitors, compared to monolayer cultures. Finally, spheroid cultures showed exceptional utility in a cell migration assay. Overall, the 3D spheroid culture changed the cellular response to drugs and growth factors and may more accurately mimic the natural tumor

  7. Three-Dimensional Lung Tumor Microenvironment Modulates Therapeutic Compound Responsiveness In Vitro – Implication for Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Ekert, Jason E.; Johnson, Kjell; Strake, Brandy; Pardinas, Jose; Jarantow, Stephen; Perkinson, Robert; Colter, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture is gaining acceptance in response to the need for cellular models that better mimic physiologic tissues. Spheroids are one such 3D model where clusters of cells will undergo self-assembly to form viable, 3D tumor-like structures. However, to date little is known about how spheroid biology compares to that of the more traditional and widely utilized 2D monolayer cultures. Therefore, the goal of this study was to characterize the phenotypic and functional differences between lung tumor cells grown as 2D monolayer cultures, versus cells grown as 3D spheroids. Eight lung tumor cell lines, displaying varying levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cMET protein expression, were used to develop a 3D spheroid cell culture model using low attachment U-bottom plates. The 3D spheroids were compared with cells grown in monolayer for 1) EGFR and cMET receptor expression, as determined by flow cytometry, 2) EGFR and cMET phosphorylation by MSD assay, and 3) cell proliferation in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In addition, drug responsiveness to EGFR and cMET inhibitors (Erlotinib, Crizotinib, Cetuximab [Erbitux] and Onartuzumab [MetMab]) was evaluated by measuring the extent of cell proliferation and migration. Data showed that EGFR and cMET expression is reduced at day four of untreated spheroid culture compared to monolayer. Basal phosphorylation of EGFR and cMET was higher in spheroids compared to monolayer cultures. Spheroids showed reduced EGFR and cMET phosphorylation when stimulated with ligand compared to 2D cultures. Spheroids showed an altered cell proliferation response to HGF, as well as to EGFR and cMET inhibitors, compared to monolayer cultures. Finally, spheroid cultures showed exceptional utility in a cell migration assay. Overall, the 3D spheroid culture changed the cellular response to drugs and growth factors and may more accurately mimic the natural tumor

  8. The chemotherapeutic drug boanmycin induces cell senescence and senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors, thus acquiring the potential to remodel the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Guo, Hua; Chen, Jinliang; Fu, Yujie

    2016-02-01

    Boanmycin hydrochloride, a new antitumor agent, functions similarly to bleomycin, but has a shorter half-life and faster clearance in vivo. Therefore, it is used in clinical studies for lung squamous cell cancer. However, previous studies have shown that besides its antitumor effect, bleomycin also induces the generation of senescence fibroblasts, which secrete senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors that have protumorigenic potential, consequently altering the tumor microenvironment. Hence, it is critical to clarify boanmycin potential in remodeling the tumor microenvironment after the chemotherapy treatment of tumors. Bone is the favorite organ for lung cancer metastasis. Thus, in this study, lung fibroblasts and bone osteoblasts (OBs) were used to reflect the resident stromal cells in the primary lung and bone metastatic microenvironment, respectively. Lung fibroblasts (IMR90) and primary OBs were treated with 6.7 μl/ml boanmycin or bleomycin for 24 h and MTT was monitored from day 1 to day 9; senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining, which indicated the cell senescence, was performed on day 7; and well-established senescence-associated secretory phenotype factor interleukin-6 expression was detected on day 9. MTT data showed that boanmycin inhibited cell proliferation in both IMR90 and OBs. Moreover, senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining showed that in response to boanmycin, there were 90% senescence cells in IMR90 and 95% in OBs. However, in vehicle, there were only 40 or 30% senescence cells, respectively. Furthermore, quantitative PCR data also showed that the interleukin-6 expression was highly induced by boanmycin to six-fold in OBs. Boanmycin treatment for cancer chemotherapy has the remodeling ability to alter the tumor microenvironment and might contribute toward lung cancer relapse and metastasis on long-term treatment. PMID:26460847

  9. The impact of age on oncogenic potential: tumor-initiating cells and the brain microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Horner, Philip J; Rostomily, Robert C

    2013-10-01

    Paradoxically, aging leads to both decreased regenerative capacity in the brain and an increased risk of tumorigenesis, particularly the most common adult-onset brain tumor, glioma. A shared factor contributing to both phenomena is thought to be age-related alterations in neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which function normally to produce new neurons and glia, but are also considered likely cells of origin for malignant glioma. Upon oncogenic transformation, cells acquire characteristics known as the hallmarks of cancer, including unlimited replication, altered responses to growth and anti-growth factors, increased capacity for angiogenesis, potential for invasion, genetic instability, apoptotic evasion, escape from immune surveillance, and an adaptive metabolic phenotype. The precise molecular pathogenesis and temporal acquisition of these malignant characteristics is largely a mystery. Recent studies characterizing NPCs during normal aging, however, have begun to elucidate mechanisms underlying the age-associated increase in their malignant potential. Aging cells are dependent upon multiple compensatory pathways to maintain cell cycle control, normal niche interactions, genetic stability, programmed cell death, and oxidative metabolism. A few multi-functional proteins act as 'critical nodes' in the coordination of these various cellular activities, although both intracellular signaling and elements within the brain environment are critical to maintaining a balance between senescence and tumorigenesis. Here, we provide an overview of recent progress in our understanding of how mechanisms underlying cellular aging inform on glioma pathogenesis and malignancy. PMID:23711239

  10. Exosome-Mediated Transfer of microRNAs Within the Tumor Microenvironment and Neuroblastoma Resistance to Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Challagundla, Kishore B.; Wise, Petra M.; Neviani, Paolo; Chava, Haritha; Murtadha, Mariam; Xu, Tong; Kennedy, Rebekah; Ivan, Cristina; Zhang, Xinna; Vannini, Ivan; Fanini, Francesca; Amadori, Dino; Calin, George A.; Hadjidaniel, Michael; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Jong, Ambrose; Seeger, Robert C.; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Goldkorn, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background: How exosomic microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the development of drug resistance in the context of the tumor microenvironment has not been previously described in neuroblastoma (NBL). Methods: Coculture experiments were performed to assess exosomic transfer of miR-21 from NBL cells to human monocytes and miR-155 from human monocytes to NBL cells. Luciferase reporter assays were performed to assess miR-155 targeting of TERF1 in NBL cells. Tumor growth was measured in NBL xenografts treated with Cisplatin and peritumoral exosomic miR-155 (n = 6 mice per group) CD163, miR-155, and TERF1 levels were assessed in 20 NBL primary tissues by Human Exon Arrays and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Student’s t test was used to evaluate the differences between treatment groups. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: miR-21 mean fold change (f.c.) was 12.08±0.30 (P < .001) in human monocytes treated with NBL derived exosomes for 48 hours, and miR-155 mean f.c. was 4.51±0.25 (P < .001) in NBL cells cocultured with human monocytes for 48 hours. TERF1 mean luciferase activity in miR-155 transfected NBL cells normalized to scrambled was 0.36 ± 0.05 (P <.001). Mean tumor volumes in Dotap-miR-155 compared with Dotap-scrambled were 322.80±120mm3 and 76.00±39.3mm3, P = .002 at day 24, respectively. Patients with high CD163 infiltrating NBLs had statistically significantly higher intratumoral levels of miR-155 (P = .04) and lower levels of TERF1 mRNA (P = .02). Conclusions: These data indicate a unique role of exosomic miR-21 and miR-155 in the cross-talk between NBL cells and human monocytes in the resistance to chemotherapy, through a novel exosomic miR-21/TLR8-NF-кB/exosomic miR-155/TERF1 signaling pathway. PMID:25972604

  11. Novel Morphologic and Genetic Analysis of Cancer Cells in a 3D Microenvironment Identifies STAT3 as a Regulator of Tumor Permeability Barrier Function.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Chul; Jeong, Hyobin; Son, Sung Hwa; Kim, YounHa; Han, Daeyoung; Goughnour, Peter C; Kang, Taehee; Kwon, Nam Hoon; Moon, Hyo Eun; Paek, Sun Ha; Hwang, Daehee; Seol, Ho Jun; Nam, Do-Hyun; Kim, Sunghoon

    2016-03-01

    Tumor permeability is a critical determinant of drug delivery and sensitivity, but systematic methods to identify factors that perform permeability barrier functions in the tumor microenvironment are not yet available. Multicellular tumor spheroids have become tractable in vitro models to study the impact of a three-dimensional (3D) environment on cellular behavior. In this study, we characterized the spheroid-forming potential of cancer cells and correlated the resulting spheroid morphologies with genetic information to identify conserved cellular processes associated with spheroid structure. Spheroids generated from 100 different cancer cell lines were classified into four distinct groups based on morphology. In particular, round and compact spheroids exhibited highly hypoxic inner cores and permeability barriers against anticancer drugs. Through systematic and correlative analysis, we reveal JAK-STAT signaling as one of the signature pathways activated in round spheroids. Accordingly, STAT3 inhibition in spheroids generated from the established cancer cells and primary glioblastoma patient-derived cells altered the rounded morphology and increased drug sensitivity. Furthermore, combined administration of the STAT3 inhibitor and 5-fluorouracil to a mouse xenograft model markedly reduced tumor growth compared with monotherapy. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the ability to integrate 3D culture and genetic profiling to determine the factors underlying the integrity of the permeability barrier in the tumor microenvironment, and may help to identify and exploit novel mechanisms of drug resistance. PMID:26676754

  12. TGFβ Signaling Intersects with CD103 Integrin Signaling to Promote T-Lymphocyte Accumulation and Antitumor Activity in the Lung Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Boutet, Marie; Gauthier, Ludiane; Leclerc, Marine; Gros, Gwendoline; de Montpreville, Vincent; Théret, Nathalie; Donnadieu, Emmanuel; Mami-Chouaib, Fathia

    2016-04-01

    Homing of CD8(+) T lymphocytes to the tumor microenvironment is an important step for mounting a robust antitumor immune response. TGFβ is responsible for CD103 (αEβ7) integrin induction in activated intraepithelial CD8(+) T lymphocytes. However, the interplay between TGFβ and CD103 and their contribution to T-cell infiltration and antitumor activity remain unknown. Here, we used viable human lung tumor slices and autologous tumor antigen-specific T-lymphocyte clones to provide evidence that CD103 is directly involved in T-lymphocyte recruitment within epithelial tumor islets and intratumoral early T-cell signaling. Moreover, TGFβ enhanced CD103-dependent T-cell adhesion and signaling, whereas it inhibited leukocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 (αLβ2) integrin expression and LFA-1-mediated T-lymphocyte functions. Mechanistic investigations revealed that TGFβ bound to its receptors (TGFBR), which promoted the recruitment and phosphorylation of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) by TGFBR1. We further show that ILK interacted with the CD103 intracellular domain, resulting in protein kinase B (PKB)/AKT activation, thereby initiating integrin inside-out signaling. Collectively, our findings suggest that the abundance of TGFβ in the tumor microenvironment may in fact engage with integrin signaling pathways to promote T-lymphocyte antitumor functions, with potential implications for T-cell-based immunotherapies for cancer. Cancer Res; 76(7); 1757-69. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26921343

  13. Interleukin-6 Induced "Acute" Phenotypic Microenvironment Promotes Th1 Anti-Tumor Immunity in Cryo-Thermal Therapy Revealed By Shotgun and Parallel Reaction Monitoring Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ting; Liu, Ping; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Kun; Yang, Li; Moritz, Robert L; Yan, Wei; Xu, Lisa X

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-thermal therapy has been emerged as a promising novel therapeutic strategy for advanced breast cancer, triggering higher incidence of tumor regression and enhanced remission of metastasis than routine treatments. To better understand its anti-tumor mechanism, we utilized a spontaneous metastatic mouse model and quantitative proteomics to compare N-glycoproteome changes in 94 serum samples with and without treatment. We quantified 231 highly confident N-glycosylated proteins using iTRAQ shotgun proteomics. Among them, 53 showed significantly discriminated regulatory patterns over the time course, in which the acute phase response emerged as the most enhanced pathway. The anti-tumor feature of the acute response was further investigated using parallel reaction monitoring target proteomics and flow cytometry on 23 of the 53 significant proteins. We found that cryo-thermal therapy reset the tumor chronic inflammation to an "acute" phenotype, with up-regulation of acute phase proteins including IL-6 as a key regulator. The IL-6 mediated "acute" phenotype transformed IL-4 and Treg-promoting ICOSL expression to Th1-promoting IFN-γ and IL-12 production, augmented complement system activation and CD86(+)MHCII(+) dendritic cells maturation and enhanced the proliferation of Th1 memory cells. In addition, we found an increased production of tumor progression and metastatic inhibitory proteins under such "acute" environment, favoring the anti-metastatic effect. Moreover, cryo-thermal on tumors induced the strongest "acute" response compared to cryo/hyperthermia alone or cryo-thermal on healthy tissues, accompanying by the most pronounced anti-tumor immunological effect. In summary, we demonstrated that cryo-thermal therapy induced, IL-6 mediated "acute" microenvironment shifted the tumor chronic microenvironment from Th2 immunosuppressive and pro-tumorigenic to Th1 immunostimulatory and tumoricidal state. Moreover, the magnitude of "acute" and "danger" signals play a key

  14. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shoup, Timothy

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  15. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shoup, Timothy

    1998-10-06

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  16. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  17. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-10-06

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  18. T cells from the tumor microenvironment of patients with progressive myeloma can generate strong, tumor-specific cytolytic responses to autologous, tumor-loaded dendritic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Krasovsky, Joseph; Olson, Kara

    2002-10-01

    Most untreated cancer patients develop progressive tumors. We tested the capacity of T lymphocytes from patients with clinically progressive, multiple myeloma to develop killer function against fresh autologous tumor. In this malignancy, it is feasible to reproducibly evaluate freshly isolated tumor cells and T cells from the marrow tumor environment. When we did this with seven consecutive patients, with all clinical stages of disease, we did not detect reactivity to autologous cancer cells. However, both cytolytic and IFN--producing responses to autologous myeloma were generated in six of seven patients after stimulation ex vivo with dendritic cells that had processed autologous tumor cells. The antitumor effectors recognized fresh autologous tumor but not nontumor cells in the bone marrow, myeloma cell lines, dendritic cells loaded with tumor-derived Ig, or allogeneic tumor. Importantly, these CD8+ effectors developed with similar efficiency by using T cells from both the blood and the bone marrow tumor environment. Therefore, even in the setting of clinical tumor progression, the tumor bed of myeloma patients contains T cells that can be activated readily by dendritic cells to kill primary autologous tumor.

  19. Diffuse-type gastric cancer cells switch their driver pathways from FGFR2 signaling to SDF1/CXCR4 axis in hypoxic tumor microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Haruhito; Yashiro, Masakazu; Fukuoka, Tatsunari; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Morisaki, Tamami; Kasashima, Hiroaki; Masuda, Go; Noda, Satoru; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2015-12-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been considered to play an important role for tumor progression of cancer. Solid tumors contain heterogeneous distribution of oxygen in their microenvironments. This study investigated the growth signaling of gastric cancer (GC) cells in focus on the interaction with CAFs and GC cells under normoxia and hypoxia. Four diffuse-type GC cell lines, two intestinal-type GC cell lines and three CAF cell lines were used. Cells were examined for expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) and stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF1) by RT-PCR, western blot, ELISA and immunohistochemical staining of xenografted tumors. GC cell proliferation was examined under hypoxia in the presence or absence of CAFs, a FGFR2 inhibitor, a CXCR4 inhibitor and HIF1α siRNA. Proliferation of diffuse-type GC cells, but not intestinal-type GC cells, was significantly increased by CAFs. CXCR4 expression by diffuse-type GC cells was significantly increased in hypoxia, while FGFR2 expression was decreased. CXCR4 expression was correlated with hypoxic microenvironment of xenografted tumor, but FGFR2 expression was not. FGFR2 inhibition significantly decreased the growth-stimulating activity of CAFs for diffuse-type GC cells in normoxia. In contrast, CXCR4 inhibition significantly decreased the growth-stimulating activity of CAFs in hypoxia. SDF1 production by CAFs was increased in hypoxia, while cancer cells did not produce SDF1. HIF1 siRNA significantly decreased both CXCR4 expression by diffuse-type GC cells and SDF1 production by CAFs. These findings suggest that diffuse-type GC cells might switch their driver pathways from FGFR2 signaling to SDF1/CXCR4 axis through HIF1 in hypoxic tumor microenvironments. PMID:26385890

  20. Contribution of microRNAs in understanding the pancreatic tumor microenvironment involving cancer associated stellate and fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shadan; Suresh, Raagini; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Bao, Bin; Xu, Zhihong; Wilson, Jeremy; Philip, Philip A; Apte, Minoti; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of molecular events associated with tumor microenvironment in pancreatic cancer (PC) is an active area of research especially because of the rich desmoplasia seen in human PC. Desmoplasia is contributed by several cell types including cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) and stellate cells (PSCs), which are believed to play critical roles in conferring aggressiveness to PC. The aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in PSCs and CAF cells appears to play a pivotal role in the development and progression of PC. In this study, expression analysis of miR-21/miR-221 in conditioned media derived from PSCs/CAF cells, and from PSCs/CAF cells showed up-regulation of both miRNAs compared to MIAPaCa-2 PC cells. In addition, miR-21 expression in stellate cells derived from normal pancreas was substantially lower when compared to PSCs or CAF cells. COLO-357 PC cells cultured in the presence of conditioned media derived from PSC/CAF cells led to a significant increase in clonogenicity and pancreatosphere formation. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-21 with antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) transfection resulted in decreased migration/invasive capacity of PSCs. Similarly, the effect of ASO-miR-221 transfection in CAF cells reduced the expression of NF-κB and K-Ras (target of miR-221) along with inhibition of migration/invasion. Moreover, miRNA expression profiling of PSCs, MIAPaCa-2, and COLO-357 cells, and further validation by real-time PCR, showed several differentially expressed miRNAs, among which four was significantly up-regulated. Collectively, these results suggest a crosstalk between PSCs/CAF cells and PC cells, resulting in the up-regulation of miR-21/miR-221 expression which in part may confer aggressiveness to PC. We conclude that targeting these miRNAs could be useful for developing precision medicine for the prevention of tumor progression and/or for the treatment of PC. PMID:26046003

  1. Development of PD-1/PD-L1 Pathway in Tumor Immune Microenvironment and Treatment for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiabei; Hu, Ying; Hu, Mingming; Li, Baolan

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer-related death in worldwide, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers. Surgery, platinum-based chemotherapy, molecular targeted agents and radiotherapy are the main treatment of NSCLC. With the strategies of treatment constantly improving, the prognosis of NSCLC patients is not as good as before, new sort of treatments are needed to be exploited. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 play a key role in tumor immune escape and the formation of tumor microenvironment, closely related with tumor generation and development. Blockading the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway could reverse the tumor microenvironment and enhance the endogenous antitumor immune responses. Utilizing the PD-1 and/or PD-L1 inhibitors has shown benefits in clinical trials of NSCLC. In this review, we discuss the basic principle of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway and its role in the tumorigenesis and development of NSCLC. The clinical development of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway inhibitors and the main problems in the present studies and the research direction in the future will also be discussed. PMID:26279307

  2. Lead Structures for Applications in Photodynamic Therapy. 6. Temoporfin Anti-Inflammatory Conjugates to Target the Tumor Microenvironment for In Vitro PDT

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Luke; Sergeeva, Natalia N.; Paszko, Edyta; Vaz, Gisela M. F.; Senge, Mathias O.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the ongoing development of clinical photodynamic therapy (PDT), the search continues for optimized photosensitizers that can overcome some of the side effects associated with this type of treatment modality. The main protagonists being: post-treatment photosensitivity, due to only limited cellular selectivity and post-treatment tumor regrowth, due to the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory agents within the tumor microenvironment. A photosensitizer that could overcome one or both of these drawbacks would be highly attractive to those engaged in clinical PDT. Certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) when used in combination with PDT have shown to increase the cytotoxicity of the treatment modality by targeting the tumor microenvironment. Temoporfin (m-THPC), the gold standard chlorin-based photosensitizer (PS) since its discovery in the 1980’s, has successfully been conjugated to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds, in an attempt to address the issue of post-treatment tumor regrowth. Using a modified Steglich esterification reaction, a library of “iPorphyrins” was successfully synthesized and evaluated for their PDT efficacy. PMID:25992651

  3. Liquid biopsies for liquid tumors: emerging potential of circulating free nucleic acid evaluation for the management of hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Jay; Mithraprabhu, Sridurga; Kalff, Anna; Spencer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Circulating free nucleic acids; cell free DNA and circulating micro-RNA, are found in the plasma of patients with hematologic and solid malignancies at levels higher than that of healthy individuals. In patients with hematologic malignancy cell free DNA reflects the underlying tumor mutational profile, whilst micro-RNAs reflect genetic interference mechanisms within a tumor and potentially the surrounding microenvironment and immune effector cells. These circulating nucleic acids offer a potentially simple, non-invasive, repeatable analysis that can aid in diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic decisions in cancer treatment. PMID:27458529

  4. An in vitro model of the tumor-lymphatic microenvironment with simultaneous transendothelial and luminal flows reveals mechanisms of flow enhanced invasion.

    PubMed

    Pisano, M; Triacca, V; Barbee, K A; Swartz, M A

    2015-05-01

    The most common cancers, including breast and skin, disseminate initially through the lymphatic system, yet the mechanisms by which tumor cells home towards, enter and interact with the lymphatic endothelium remain poorly understood. Transmural and luminal flows are important biophysical cues of the lymphatic microenvironment that can affect adhesion molecules, growth factors and chemokine expression as well as matrix remodeling, among others. Although microfluidic models are suitable for in vitro reconstruction of highly complex biological systems, the difficult assembly and operation of these systems often only allows a limited throughput. Here we present and characterize a novel flow chamber which recapitulates the lymphatic capillary microenvironment by coupling a standard Boyden chamber setup with a micro-channel and a controlled fluidic environment. The inclusion of luminal and transmural flow renders the model more biologically relevant, combining standard 3D culture techniques with advanced control of mechanical forces that are naturally present within the lymphatic microenvironment. The system can be monitored in real-time, allowing continuous quantification of different parameters of interest, such as cell intravasation and detachment from the endothelium, under varied biomechanical conditions. Moreover, the easy setup permits a medium-high throughput, thereby enabling downstream quantitative analyses. Using this model, we examined the kinetics of tumor cell (MDA-MB-231) invasion and transmigration dynamics across lymphatic endothelium under varying flow conditions. We found that luminal flow indirectly upregulates tumor cell transmigration rate via its effect on lymphatic endothelial cells. Moreover, we showed that the addition of transmural flow further increases intravasation, suggesting that distinct flow-mediated mechanisms regulate tumor cell invasion. PMID:25896438

  5. Microenvironment-Modulated Metastatic CD133+/CXCR4+/EpCAM- Lung Cancer-Initiating Cells Sustain Tumor Dissemination and Correlate with Poor Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Giulia; D'Amico, Lucia; Moro, Massimo; Landoni, Elena; Perego, Paola; Miceli, Rosalba; Gatti, Laura; Andriani, Francesca; Wong, Donald; Caserini, Roberto; Tortoreto, Monica; Milione, Massimo; Ferracini, Riccardo; Mariani, Luigi; Pastorino, Ugo; Roato, Ilaria; Sozzi, Gabriella; Roz, Luca

    2015-09-01

    Metastasis is the main reason for lung cancer-related mortality, but little is known about specific determinants of successful dissemination from primary tumors and metastasis initiation. Here, we show that CD133(+)/CXCR4(+) cancer-initiating cells (CIC) directly isolated from patient-derived xenografts (PDX) of non-small cell lung cancer are endowed with superior ability to seed and initiate metastasis at distant organs. We additionally report that CXCR4 inhibition successfully prevents the increase of cisplatin-resistant CD133(+)/CXCR4(+) cells in residual tumors and their metastatization. Immunophenotypic analysis of lung tumor cells intravenously injected or spontaneously disseminated to murine lungs demonstrated the survival advantage and increased colonization ability of a specific subset of CD133(+)/CXCR4(+) with reduced expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM(-)), which also shows the greatest in vitro invasive potential. We next prove that recovered disseminated cells from lungs of PDX-bearing mice enriched for CD133(+)/CXCR4(+)/EpCAM(-) CICs are highly tumorigenic and metastatic. Importantly, microenvironment stimuli eliciting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, including signals from cancer-associated fibroblasts, are able to increase the dissemination potential of lung cancer cells through the generation of the CD133(+)/CXCR4(+)/EpCAM(-) subset. These findings also have correlates in patient samples where disseminating CICs are enriched in metastatic lymph nodes (20-fold, P = 0.006) and their detection in primary tumors is correlated with poor clinical outcome (disease-free survival: P = 0.03; overall survival: P = 0.05). Overall, these results highlight the importanc